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Sample records for ballistic electrons probe

  1. Vibrational excitations in molecular layers probed by ballistic electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajen, Rasanayagam Sivasayan; Chandrasekhar, Natarajan [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, 3 Research Link, 117602 (Singapore); Feng Xinliang; Muellen, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Postfach 3148, D-55021 Mainz (Germany); Su Haibin, E-mail: n-chandra@imre.a-star.edu.sg, E-mail: muellen@mpip-mainz.mpg.de, E-mail: hbsu@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Materials Science, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore)

    2011-10-28

    We demonstrate the information on molecular vibrational modes via the second derivative (d{sup 2}I{sub B}/dV{sup 2}) of the ballistic electron emission spectroscopy (BEES) current. The proposed method does not create huge fields as in the case of conventional derivative spectroscopy and maintains a zero bias across the device. BEES studies carried out on three different types of large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecular layers show that the d{sup 2}I{sub B}/dV{sup 2} spectra consist of uniformly spaced peaks corresponding to vibronic excitations. The peak spacing is found to be identical for molecules within the same PAH family though the BEES onset voltage varies for different molecules. In addition, injection into a particular orbital appears to correspond to a specific vibrational mode as the manifestation of the symmetry principle.

  2. Ballistic transport and electronic structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schep, Kees M.; Kelly, Paul J.; Bauer, Gerrit E.W.

    1998-01-01

    The role of the electronic structure in determining the transport properties of ballistic point contacts is studied. The conductance in the ballistic regime is related to simple geometrical projections of the Fermi surface. The essential physics is first clarified for simple models. For real

  3. Electron Interference in Ballistic Graphene Nanoconstrictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baringhaus, Jens; Settnes, Mikkel; Aprojanz, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    We realize nanometer size constrictions in ballistic graphene nanoribbons grown on sidewalls of SiC mesa structures. The high quality of our devices allows the observation of a number of electronic quantum interference phenomena. The transmissions of Fabry-Perot-like resonances are probed...

  4. Ballistic electron transport in mesoscopic samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaconescu, D.

    2000-01-01

    In the framework of this thesis, the electron transport in the ballistic regime has been studied. Ballistic means that the lateral sample dimensions are smaller than the mean free path of the electrons, i.e. the electrons can travel through the whole device without being scattered. This leads to transport characteristics that differ significantly from the diffusive regime which is realised in most experiments. Making use of samples with high mean free path, features of ballistic transport have been observed on samples with sizes up to 100 μm. The basic device used in ballistic electron transport is the point contact, from which a collimated beam of ballistic electrons can be injected. Such point contacts were realised with focused ion beam (FIB) implantation and the collimating properties were analysed using a two opposite point contact configuration. The typical angular width at half maximum is around 50 , which is comparable with that of point contacts defined by other methods. (orig.)

  5. Narrow electron injector for ballistic electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kast, M.; Pacher, C.; Strasser, G.; Gornik, E.

    2001-01-01

    A three-terminal hot electron transistor is used to measure the normal energy distribution of ballistic electrons generated by an electron injector utilizing an improved injector design. A triple barrier resonant tunneling diode with a rectangular transmission function acts as a narrow (1 meV) energy filter. An asymmetric energy distribution with its maximum on the high-energy side with a full width at half maximum of ΔE inj =10 meV is derived. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  6. Electron optics with ballistic graphene junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaowen

    Electrons transmitted across a ballistic semiconductor junction undergo refraction, analogous to light rays across an optical boundary. A pn junction theoretically provides the equivalent of a negative index medium, enabling novel electron optics such as negative refraction and perfect (Veselago) lensing. In graphene, the linear dispersion and zero-gap bandstructure admit highly transparent pn junctions by simple electrostatic gating, which cannot be achieved in conventional semiconductors. Robust demonstration of these effects, however, has not been forthcoming. Here we employ transverse magnetic focusing to probe propagation across an electrostatically defined graphene junction. We find perfect agreement with the predicted Snell's law for electrons, including observation of both positive and negative refraction. Resonant transmission across the pn junction provides a direct measurement of the angle dependent transmission coefficient, and we demonstrate good agreement with theory. Comparing experimental data with simulation reveals the crucial role played by the effective junction width, providing guidance for future device design. Efforts toward sharper pn junction and possibility of zero field Veselago lensing will also be discussed. This work is supported by the Semiconductor Research Corporations NRI Center for Institute for Nanoelectronics Discovery and Exploration (INDEX).

  7. Interaction of a ballistic probe with gaseous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucerovsky, Zden; Greason, William D

    2008-01-01

    Free-flying metal probes are used to determine charge densities in gaseous media containing free charge or low density plasma. The trajectory of the probe is ensured either by gravity or by propelling the probe to a certain velocity at the launch site. While travelling, the probe charge changes from its launch-site magnitude to that related to the space charge density existing along the trajectory. The degree to which the probe's arrival-site charge magnitude matches the space charge density in the area of interest depends on the probe shape and on the charge exchange processes between the probe body and the medium. The paper studies a probe acting as a free-flying charge carrier in air, and discusses the problems that may lead to an imbalance between the charge collected by the probe in the area of interest and the charge measured at the arrival site. The analysis and the described experiments are of the ballistic type: a small, triboelectrically pre-charged metal probe was propelled on a horizontal path, and the charge carried by the probe was measured at several points along the trajectory by means of contact-free induction rings; the initial and final charges were determined by static Faraday cups. A charge disparity was found under certain conditions, and its degree explained by the effects of the charge carrier potential. The studied probe charges ranged from 10 to 50 nF, and the fly-times needed to cross a one-meter path ranged from 20 to 40 ms. The probe to gas charge exchange experiments and their analysis yielded conditions under which the probe lost approximately 10 % of its charge. The results of our study may be of interest to those who intend to use the free-flying probe technique for the determination of space charge density.

  8. Going ballistic: Graphene hot electron transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaziri, S.; Smith, A. D.; Östling, M.; Lupina, G.; Dabrowski, J.; Lippert, G.; Mehr, W.; Driussi, F.; Venica, S.; Di Lecce, V.; Gnudi, A.; König, M.; Ruhl, G.; Belete, M.; Lemme, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reviews the experimental and theoretical state of the art in ballistic hot electron transistors that utilize two-dimensional base contacts made from graphene, i.e. graphene base transistors (GBTs). Early performance predictions that indicated potential for THz operation still hold true today, even with improved models that take non-idealities into account. Experimental results clearly demonstrate the basic functionality, with on/off current switching over several orders of magnitude, but further developments are required to exploit the full potential of the GBT device family. In particular, interfaces between graphene and semiconductors or dielectrics are far from perfect and thus limit experimental device integrity, reliability and performance.

  9. Electron quantum optics in ballistic chiral conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocquillon, Erwann; Freulon, Vincent; Parmentier, Francois D.; Berroir, Jean-Marc; Placais, Bernard; Feve, Gwendal [Laboratoire Pierre Aigrain, Ecole Normale Superieure, CNRS (UMR 8551), Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Wahl, Claire; Rech, Jerome; Jonckheere, Thibaut; Martin, Thierry [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, CPT, UMR 7332, Marseille (France); Universite de Toulon, CNRS, CPT, UMR 7332, La Garde (France); Grenier, Charles; Ferraro, Dario; Degiovanni, Pascal [Universite de Lyon, Federation de Physique Andre Marie Ampere, CNRS - Laboratoire de Physique de l' Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, Lyon (France)

    2014-01-15

    The edge channels of the quantum Hall effect provide one dimensional chiral and ballistic wires along which electrons can be guided in an optics-like setup. Electronic propagation can then be analyzed using concepts and tools derived from optics. After a brief review of electron optics experiments performed using stationary current sources which continuously emit electrons in the conductor, this paper focuses on triggered sources, which can generate on-demand a single particle state. It first outlines the electron optics formalism and its analogies and differences with photon optics and then turns to the presentation of single electron emitters and their characterization through the measurements of the average electrical current and its correlations. This is followed by a discussion of electron quantum optics experiments in the Hanbury-Brown and Twiss geometry where two-particle interferences occur. Finally, Coulomb interactions effects and their influence on single electron states are considered. (copyright 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Electron quantum optics in ballistic chiral conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocquillon, Erwann; Freulon, Vincent; Parmentier, Francois D.; Berroir, Jean-Marc; Placais, Bernard; Feve, Gwendal; Wahl, Claire; Rech, Jerome; Jonckheere, Thibaut; Martin, Thierry; Grenier, Charles; Ferraro, Dario; Degiovanni, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The edge channels of the quantum Hall effect provide one dimensional chiral and ballistic wires along which electrons can be guided in an optics-like setup. Electronic propagation can then be analyzed using concepts and tools derived from optics. After a brief review of electron optics experiments performed using stationary current sources which continuously emit electrons in the conductor, this paper focuses on triggered sources, which can generate on-demand a single particle state. It first outlines the electron optics formalism and its analogies and differences with photon optics and then turns to the presentation of single electron emitters and their characterization through the measurements of the average electrical current and its correlations. This is followed by a discussion of electron quantum optics experiments in the Hanbury-Brown and Twiss geometry where two-particle interferences occur. Finally, Coulomb interactions effects and their influence on single electron states are considered. (copyright 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Investigation of energy levels of Er-impurity centers in Si by the method of ballistic electron emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filatov, D. O.; Zimovets, I. A.; Isakov, M. A.; Kuznetsov, V. P.; Kornaukhov, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    The method of ballistic electron emission spectroscopy is used for the first time to study the energy spectrum of Er-impurity complexes in Si. The features are observed in the ballistic electron spectra of mesa diodes based on p + -n + Si structures with a thin (∼30 nm) p + -Si:Er surface layer in the region of ballistic-electron energies eV t lower than the conduction-band-edge energy E c in this layer. They are associated with the tunnel injection of ballistic electrons from the probe of the scanning tunnel microscope to the deep donor levels of the Er-impurity complexes in the p + -Si:Er layer with subsequent thermal excitation into the conduction band and the diffusion to the p + -n + junction and the direct tunneling in it. To verify this assumption, the ballistic-electron transport was simulated in the system of the Pt probe, native-oxide layer SiO 2 -p + -Si:Er-n + , and Si substrate. By approximating the experimental ballistic-electron spectra with the modeling spectra, the ground-state energy of the Er complex in Si was determined: E d ≈ E c − 0.27 eV. The indicated value is consistent with the data published previously and obtained from the measurements of the temperature dependence of the free-carrier concentration in Si:Er layers.

  12. Diagnostics of ballistic electrons in a dc/rf hybrid capacitively coupled discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lin; Chen, Lee; Funk, Merritt; Ranjan, Alok; Hummel, Mike; Bravenec, Ron; Sundararajan, Radha; Economou, Demetre J.; Donnelly, Vincent M.

    2008-01-01

    The energy distribution of ballistic electrons in a dc/rf hybrid parallel-plate capacitively coupled plasma reactor was measured. Ballistic electrons originated as secondaries produced by ion and electron bombardment of the electrodes. The energy distribution of ballistic electrons peaked at the value of the negative bias applied to the dc electrode. As that bias became more negative, the ballistic electron current on the rf substrate electrode increased dramatically. The ion current on the dc electrode also increased

  13. Noninteracting beams of ballistic two-dimensional electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, J.; Stormer, H.L.; Baldwin, K.W.; Pfeiffer, L.N.; West, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    We demonstrate that two beams of two-dimensional ballistic electrons in a GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructure can penetrate each other with negligible mutual interaction analogous to the penetration of two optical beams. This allows electrical signal channels to intersect in the same plane with negligible crosstalk between the channels

  14. Drag of ballistic electrons by an ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurevich, V. L.; Muradov, M. I., E-mail: mag.muradov@mail.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Drag of electrons of a one-dimensional ballistic nanowire by a nearby one-dimensional beam of ions is considered. We assume that the ion beam is represented by an ensemble of heavy ions of the same velocity V. The ratio of the drag current to the primary current carried by the ion beam is calculated. The drag current turns out to be a nonmonotonic function of velocity V. It has a sharp maximum for V near v{sub nF}/2, where n is the number of the uppermost electron miniband (channel) taking part in conduction and v{sub nF} is the corresponding Fermi velocity. This means that the phenomenon of ion beam drag can be used for investigation of the electron spectra of ballistic nanostructures. We note that whereas observation of the Coulomb drag between two parallel quantum wires may in general be complicated by phenomena such as tunneling and phonon drag, the Coulomb drag of electrons of a one-dimensional ballistic nanowire by an ion beam is free of such spurious effects.

  15. Ballistic trauma from an exploding electronic cigarette: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ban, DMD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes first became available in the United States in 2007, and since that time, the number of e-cigarette users in the US has grown to over 2.5 million. During the period from 2010–2013 alone, the percentage of Americans who reported that they had ever used electronic cigarettes more than doubled from 3.3% to 8.5%. This number will continue to grow, as the use of electronic cigarettes as an alternative to smoking and in smoking cessation is being explored by the public and medical professionals alike. This article presents a case report involving a patient who was injured when the electronic cigarette he was smoking exploded in his face, causing a ballistic injury to his maxilla, as well as a series of other associated injuries. There have been several recent reports in the literature of exploding electronic cigarettes. This article presents a case of avulsive injury due to ballistic trauma with associated impaction of the vaporizing device.

  16. A ballistic transport model for electronic excitation following particle impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, S.; Heuser, C.; Weidtmann, B.; Wucher, A.

    2018-01-01

    We present a ballistic model for the transport of electronic excitation energy induced by keV particle bombardment onto a solid surface. Starting from a free electron gas model, the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) is employed to follow the evolution of the temporal and spatial distribution function f (r → , k → , t) describing the occupation probability of an electronic state k → at position r → and time t. Three different initializations of the distribution function are considered: i) a thermal distribution function with a locally and temporally elevated electron temperature, ii) a peak excitation at a specific energy above the Fermi level with a quasi-isotropic distribution in k-space and iii) an anisotropic peak excitation with k-vectors oriented in a specific transport direction. While the first initialization resembles a distribution function which may, for instance, result from electronic friction of moving atoms within an ion induced collision cascade, the peak excitation can in principle result from an autoionization process after excitation in close binary collisions. By numerically solving the BTE, we study the electronic energy exchange along a one dimensional transport direction to obtain a time and space resolved excitation energy distribution function, which is then analyzed in view of general transport characteristics of the chosen model system.

  17. Effect of ballistic electrons on ultrafast thermomechanical responses of a thin metal film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Qi-lin; Tian Xin

    2017-01-01

    The ultrafast thermomechanical coupling problem in a thin gold film irradiated by ultrashort laser pulses with different electron ballistic depths is investigated via the ultrafast thermoelasticity model. The solution of the problem is obtained by solving finite element governing equations. The comparison between the results of ultrafast thermomechanical coupling responses with different electron ballistic depths is made to show the ballistic electron effect. It is found that the ballistic electrons have a significant influence on the ultrafast thermomechanical coupling behaviors of the gold thin film and the best laser micromachining results can be achieved by choosing the specific laser technology (large or small ballistic range). In addition, the influence of simplification of the ultrashort laser pulse source on the results is studied, and it is found that the simplification has a great influence on the thermomechanical responses, which implies that care should be taken when the simplified form of the laser source term is applied as the Gaussian heat source. (paper)

  18. Ballistic electron emission spectroscopy on Ag/Si devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannani, A; Bobisch, C A; Matena, M; Moeller, R [Department of Physics, Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg (Germany)], E-mail: amin.bannani@uni-due.de

    2008-09-17

    In this work we report on ballistic electron emission spectroscopy (BEES) studies on epitaxial layers of silver grown on silicon surfaces, with either a Si(111)-(7 x 7) or Si(100)-(2 x 1) surface reconstruction. The experiments were done at low temperature and in ultra-high vacuum (UHV). In addition, BEES measurements on polycrystalline Ag films grown on hydrogen-terminated H:Si(111)-(1 x 1) and H:Si(100)-(2 x 1) surfaces were performed. The Schottky barrier heights were evaluated by BEES. The results are compared to the values for the barrier height reported for macroscopic Schottky diodes. We show that the barrier heights for the epitaxial films substantially differ from the values measured on polycrystalline Ag films, suggesting a strong effect of the interface on the barrier height.

  19. A theoretical analysis of ballistic electron emission microscopy: band structure effects and attenuation lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres, P.L. de; Reuter, K.; Garcia-Vidal, F.J.; Flores, F.; Hohenester, U.; Kocevar, P.

    1998-01-01

    Using quantum mechanical approach, we compute the ballistic electron emission microscopy current distribution in reciprocal space to compare experimental and theoretical spectroscopic I(V) curves. In the elastic limit, this formalism is a 'parameter free' representation of the problem. At low voltages, low temperatures, and for thin metallic layers, the elastic approximation is enough to explain the experiments (ballistic conditions). At low temperatures, inelastic effects can be taken into account approximately by introducing an effective electron-electron lifetime as an imaginary part in the energy. Ensemble Monte Carlo calculations were also performed to obtain ballistic electron emission microscopy currents in good agreement with the previous approach. (author)

  20. Probing of flowing electron plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himura, H.; Nakashima, C.; Saito, H.; Yoshida, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Probing of streaming electron plasmas with finite temperature is studied. For the first time, a current-voltage characteristic of an electric probe is measured in electron plasmas. Due to the fast flow of the electron plasmas, the characteristic curve spreads out significantly and exhibits a long tail. This feature can be explained calculating the currents collected to the probe. In flowing electron plasmas, the distribution function observed in the laboratory frame is non-Maxwellian even if the plasmas come to a state of thermal equilibrium. Another significant feature of the characteristic is that it determines a floating potential where the current equals zero, despite there being very few ions in the electron plasma. A high impedance probe, which is popularly used to determine the space potential of electron plasmas, outputs the potential. The method is available only for plasmas with density much smaller than the Brillouin limit

  1. Electron transport properties in InAs four-terminal ballistic junctions under weak magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, M.; Fujiwara, K.; Amano, N.; Maemoto, T.; Sasa, S.; Inoue, M.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the electron transport properties based on ballistic electrons under magnetic fields in four-terminal ballistic junctions fabricated on an InAs/AlGaSb heterostructure. The four-terminal junction structure is composed of two longitudinal stems with two narrow wires slanted with 30 degree from the perpendicular axis. The electron focusing peak was obtained with the bend resistance measurement. Then it was investigated the nonlinear electron transport property of potential difference between longitudinal stems due to ballistic electrons with applying direct current from narrow wires. Observed nonlinearity showed clear rectification effects which have negative polarity regardless of input voltage polarity. Although this nonlinearity was qualitatively changed due to the Lorentz force under magnetic fields, the degradation of ballistic effects on nonlinear properties were observed when the current increased to higher strength. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Electron transport in InAs/AlGaSb ballistic rectifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maemoto, Toshihiko; Koyama, Masatoshi; Furukawa, Masashi; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Sasa, Shigehiko; Inoue, Masataka

    2006-01-01

    Nonlinear transport properties of a ballistic rectifier fabricated from InAs/AlGaSb heterostructures are reported. The operation of the ballistic rectifier is based on the guidance of carriers by a square anti-dot structure. The structure was defined by electron beam lithography and wet chemical etching. The DC characteristics and magneto-transport properties of the ballistic rectifier have been measured at 77 K and 4.2 K. Rectification effects relying on the ballistic transport were observed. From the four-terminal resistance measured at low magnetic fields, we also observed magneto-resistance fluctuations corresponding to the electron trajectories and symmetry-breaking electron scattering, which are influenced by the magnetic field strength

  3. Analysis of quantum semiconductor heterostructures by ballistic electron emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Daniel K.

    1998-09-01

    The microelectronics industry is diligently working to achieve the goal of gigascale integration (GSI) by early in the 21st century. For the past twenty-five years, progress toward this goal has been made by continually scaling down device technology. Unfortunately, this trend cannot continue to the point of producing arbitrarily small device sizes. One possible solution to this problem that is currently under intensive study is the relatively new area of quantum devices. Quantum devices represent a new class of microelectronic devices that operate by utilizing the wave-like nature (reflection, refraction, and confinement) of electrons together with the laws of quantum mechanics to construct useful devices. One difficulty associated with these structures is the absence of measurement techniques that can fully characterize carrier transport in such devices. This thesis addresses this need by focusing on the study of carrier transport in quantum semiconductor heterostructures using a relatively new and versatile measurement technique known as ballistic electron emission spectroscopy (BEES). To achieve this goal, a systematic approach that encompasses a set of progressively more complex structures is utilized. First, the simplest BEES structure possible, the metal/semiconductor interface, is thoroughly investigated in order to provide a foundation for measurements on more the complex structures. By modifying the semiclassical model commonly used to describe the experimental BEES spectrum, a very complete and accurate description of the basic structure has been achieved. Next, a very simple semiconductor heterostructure, a Ga1-xAlxAs single-barrier structure, was measured and analyzed. Low-temperature measurements on this structure were used to investigate the band structure and electron-wave interference effects in the Ga1-xAlxAs single barrier structure. These measurements are extended to a simple quantum device by designing, measuring, and analyzing a set of

  4. The effects of drain scatterings on the electron transport properties of strained-Si diodes with ballistic and non-ballistic channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasenjan Ghupur; Mamtimin Geni; Mamatrishat Mamat; Abudukelimu Abudureheman

    2015-01-01

    The effects of multiple scattering on the electron transport properties in drain regions are numerically investigated for the cases of strained-Si diodes with or without scattering in the channel. The performance of non-ballistic (with scattering) channel Si-diodes is compared with that of ballistic (without scattering) channel Si-diodes, using the strain and scattering model. Our results show that the values of the electron velocity and the current in the strain model are higher than the respective values in the unstrained model, and the values of the velocity and the current in the ballistic channel model are higher than the respective values in the non-ballistic channel model. In the strain and scattering models, the effect of each carrier scattering mechanism on the performance of the Si-diodes is analyzed in the drain region. For the ballistic channel model, our results show that inter-valley optical phonon scattering improves device performance, whereas intra-valley acoustic phonon scattering degrades device performance. For the strain model, our results imply that the larger energy splitting of the strained Si could suppress the inter-valley phonon scattering rate. In conclusion, for the drain region, investigation of the strained-Si and scattering mechanisms are necessary, in order to improve the performance of nanoscale ballistic regime devices. (paper)

  5. Measurements of the ballistic-phonon component resulting from nuclear and electron recoils in crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.T.; Cabrera, B.; Dougherty, B.L.; Penn, M.J.; Pronko, J.G.; Tamura, S.

    1996-01-01

    We present measurements of the ballistic-phonon component resulting from nuclear and electron recoils in silicon at ∼380 mK. The detectors used for these experiments consist of a 300-μm-thick monocrystal of silicon instrumented with superconducting titanium transition-edge sensors. These sensors detect the initial wavefront of athermal phonons and give a pulse height that is sensitive to changes in surface-energy density resulting from the focusing of ballistic phonons. Nuclear recoils were generated by neutron bombardment of the detector. A Van de Graaff proton accelerator and a thick 7 Li target were used. Pulse-height spectra were compared for neutron, x-ray, and γ-ray events. A previous analysis of this data set found evidence for an increase in the ballistic-phonon component for nuclear recoils compared to electron recoils at a 95% confidence level. An improved understanding of the detector response has led to a change in the result. In the present analysis, the data are consistent with no increase at the 68% confidence level. This change stems from an increase in the uncertainty of the result rather than a significant change in the central value. The increase in ballistic phonon energy for nuclear recoils compared to electron recoils as a fraction of the total phonon energy (for equal total phonon energy events) was found to be 0.024 +0.041 -0.055 (68% confidence level). This result sets a limit of 11.6% (95% confidence level) on the ballistic phonon enhancement for nuclear recoils predicted by open-quote open-quote hot spot close-quote close-quote and electron-hole droplet models, which is the most stringent to date. To measure the ballistic-phonon component resulting from electron recoils, the pulse height as a function of event depth was compared to that of phonon simulations. (Abstract Truncated)

  6. The strong thermoelectric effect in nanocarbon generated by the ballistic phonon drag of electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidelman, E D; Vul', A Ya

    2007-01-01

    The thermoelectric power and thermoelectric figure of merit for carbon nanostructure consisting of graphite-like (sp 2 ) and diamond-like (sp 3 ) regions have been investigated. The probability of electron collisions with quasi-ballistic phonons in sp 2 regions has been analysed for the first time. We have shown that the probability is not small. We have analysed the influence of various factors on the process of the electron-ballistic phonon drag (the phonon drag effect). The thermoelectric power and thermoelectric figure of merit under conditions of ballistic transport were found to be substantially higher than those in the cases of drag by thermalized phonons and of electron diffusion. The thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) in the case of a ballistic phonon contribution to the phonon drag of electrons should be 50 times that for chaotic phonons and 500 times that in the case of the diffusion process. In that case ZT should be a record (ZT≥2-3)

  7. Nonlinear electron transport in InAs/AlGaSb three-terminal ballistic junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, M; Inoue, T; Amano, N; Maemoto, T; Sasa, S; Inoue, M

    2008-01-01

    We have fabricated and characterized an InAs/AlGaSb three-terminal ballistic junction device. The fabricated device exhibited nonlinear electron transport properties because of ballistic motion of electrons in this structure that is comparable to the electron mean free path. When the left branch is biased to a finite voltage Vand the right to a voltage of -V (push-pull fashion), negative voltages appeared at the floating central branch regardless of the polarity of the input voltages. In the case of the central branch grounded in push-pull fashion, the clear current rectification effect also observed in the current flow of the central branch at 4.2K to even at 300K

  8. Observation of strong reflection of electron waves exiting a ballistic channel at low energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaz, Canute I.; Campbell, Jason P.; Ryan, Jason T.; Gundlach, David; Cheung, Kin. P., E-mail: Kin.Cheung@NIST.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8120 (United States); Liu, Changze [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8120 (United States); Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Southwick, Richard G. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8120 (United States); IBM Research, Albany, NY 12205 (United States); Oates, Anthony S. [Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Corporation, Hsinchu 30844, Taiwan (China); Huang, Ru [Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-06-15

    Wave scattering by a potential step is a ubiquitous concept. Thus, it is surprising that theoretical treatments of ballistic transport in nanoscale devices, from quantum point contacts to ballistic transistors, assume no reflection even when the potential step is encountered upon exiting the device. Experiments so far seem to support this even if it is not clear why. Here we report clear evidence of coherent reflection when electron wave exits the channel of a nanoscale transistor and when the electron energy is low. The observed behavior is well described by a simple rectangular potential barrier model which the Schrodinger’s equation can be solved exactly. We can explain why reflection is not observed in most situations but cannot be ignored in some important situations. Our experiment also represents a direct measurement of electron injection velocity - a critical quantity in nanoscale transistors that is widely considered not measurable.

  9. Temperature dependence of ballistic mobility in a metamorphic InGaAs/InAlAs high electron mobility transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jongkyong; Gang, Suhyun; Jo, Yongcheol; Kim, Jongmin; Woo, Hyeonseok; Han, Jaeseok; Kim, Hyungsang; Im, Hyunsik

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the temperature dependence of ballistic mobility in a 100 nm-long InGaAs/InAlAs metamorphic high-electron-mobility transistor designed for millimeter-wavelength RF applications. To extract the temperature dependence of quasi-ballistic mobility, our experiment involves measurements of the effective mobility in the low-bias linear region of the transistor and of the collision-dominated Hall mobility using a gated Hall bar of the same epitaxial structure. The data measured from the experiment are consistent with that of modeled ballistic mobility based on ballistic transport theory. These results advance the understanding of ballistic transport in various transistors with a nano-scale channel length that is comparable to the carrier's mean free path in the channel.

  10. Quantum ballistic transport by interacting two-electron states in quasi-one-dimensional channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Danhong [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico 87117 (United States); Center for High Technology Materials, University of New Mexico, 1313 Goddard St SE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Gumbs, Godfrey [Center for High Technology Materials, University of New Mexico, 1313 Goddard St SE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Abranyos, Yonatan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hunter College of the City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Pepper, Michael; Kumar, Sanjeev [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); London Centre for Nanotechnology, 17-19 Gordon Street, London, WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    For quantum ballistic transport of electrons through a short conduction channel, the role of Coulomb interaction may significantly modify the energy levels of two-electron states at low temperatures as the channel becomes wide. In this regime, the Coulomb effect on the two-electron states is calculated and found to lead to four split energy levels, including two anticrossing-level and two crossing-level states. Moreover, due to the interplay of anticrossing and crossing effects, our calculations reveal that the ground two-electron state will switch from one anticrossing state (strong confinement) to a crossing state (intermediate confinement) as the channel width gradually increases and then back to the original anticrossing state (weak confinement) as the channel width becomes larger than a threshold value. This switching behavior leaves a footprint in the ballistic conductance as well as in the diffusion thermoelectric power of electrons. Such a switching is related to the triple spin degeneracy as well as to the Coulomb repulsion in the central region of the channel, which separates two electrons away and pushes them to different channel edges. The conductance reoccurrence region expands from the weak to the intermediate confinement regime with increasing electron density.

  11. Anti-collimation of ballistic electrons by a potential barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleridge, P. T.; Taylor, R. P.; Sachrajda, A. S.; Adams, J. A.

    1994-03-01

    A pair of Quantum Point Contacts separated by a continuous barrier have been fabricated using the surface gate technique. Transport measurements for each component of this system and for various combinations have shown both additive and non-additive behaviour. The results are explained by a combination of reflection by the barrier of electrons collimated by the Quantum Point Contacts and transport by diffusion across the barrier.

  12. Interactions in 2D electron and hole systems in the intermediate and ballistic regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proskuryakov, Y Y; Savchenko, A K; Safonov, S S; Li, L; Pepper, M; Simmons, M Y; Ritchie, D A; Linfield, E H; Kvon, Z D

    2003-01-01

    In different 2D semiconductor systems we study the interaction correction to the Drude conductivity in the intermediate and ballistic regimes, where the parameter k B Tτ/ h-bar changes from 0.1 to 10 (τ is momentum relaxation time). The temperature dependence of the resistance and magnetoresistance in parallel and perpendicular magnetic fields is analysed in terms of the recent theories of electron-electron interactions in systems with different degree of disorder and different character of the fluctuation potential. Generally, good agreement is found between the experiments and the theories

  13. Using ballistic electron emission microscopy to investigate the metal-vacuum interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baykul, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the possibility of using the ballistic electron microscope (BEEM) to study the metal-vacuum interface. In order to do that, we have designed and built a novel experimental setup which consists of an STM tip from which electrons tunnel into a thin (<60 nm), free-standing metal film in vacuum ambient. When the tunnel bias exceeds the work function of the metal, some small fraction of the tunneling electrons traverses through the film without any energy loss, and emits into the vacuum through the back side of the film. The rate of emission of such ballistic electrons, which is called the collector current, is measured by a channel electron multiplier. One of the major challenges for this investigation was preparing free-standing thin films by the following steps: (a) evaporating Au onto a (100) face of NaCl at room temperature, (b) dissolving the NaCl in a 50-50 mixture of ethyl alcohol and distilled water, and (c) catching the Au film that floats on the surface of the solvent onto a Cu grid. Subsequent annealing increased the grain size, and improved the bonding of the film onto the grid. We have succeeded in observing ballistic electron emission through these free-standing thin films, even though the collector current tended to decay in a time interval of a few tenths of a second. The exact cause of this decay is not known, however we have suggested some possibilities. By ramping the bias voltage from about 0.2 V to about 10.5 V, we find the threshold bias voltage at which the collector current begins. This threshold voltage is an upper limit for the work function of AU. From our data we obtained a value of 5.2 V for this upper limit. We also have plotted the collector current, that was averaged over a scan area of 375 nm x 375 nm, against the tunnel bias. This plot shows that, for this region, the lowest threshold bias voltage for ballistic electron emission is between 3.5 V and 4.5 V

  14. Probing plasmonic nanostructures by photons and electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kneipp, Katrin; Kneipp, Harald; Kneipp, Janina

    2015-01-01

    We discuss recent developments for studying plasmonic metal nanostructures. Exploiting photons and electrons opens up new capabilities to probe the complete plasmon spectrum including bright and dark modes and related local optical fields at subnanometer spatial resolution. This comprehensive cha...

  15. Titanium pigmentation. An electron probe microanalysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupre, A.; Touron, P.; Daste, J.; Lassere, J.; Bonafe, J.L.; Viraben, R.

    1985-01-01

    A patient had an unusual pigmentary disease induced by titanium dioxide. The use of a topical cream containing titanium dioxide caused a xanthomalike appearance on the patient's penis. Electron probe microanalysis was valuable in establishing the cause of this balanitis

  16. Ballistic electron transport calculation of strained germanium-tin fin field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, H.-S.; Liu, C. W.

    2014-01-01

    The dependence of ballistic electron current on Sn content, sidewall orientations, fin width, and uniaxial stress is theoretically studied for the GeSn fin field-effect transistors. Alloying Sn increases the direct Γ valley occupancy and enhances the injection velocity at virtual source node. (112 ¯ ) sidewall gives the highest current enhancement due to the rapidly increasing Γ valley occupancy. The non-parabolicity of the Γ valley affects the occupancy significantly. However, uniaxial tensile stress and the shrinkage of fin width reduce the Γ valley occupancy, and the currents are enhanced by increasing occupancy of specific indirect L valleys with high injection velocity

  17. Ballistic electron transport calculation of strained germanium-tin fin field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, H.-S. [Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering and Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liu, C. W., E-mail: chee@cc.ee.ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering and Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-05-12

    The dependence of ballistic electron current on Sn content, sidewall orientations, fin width, and uniaxial stress is theoretically studied for the GeSn fin field-effect transistors. Alloying Sn increases the direct Γ valley occupancy and enhances the injection velocity at virtual source node. (112{sup ¯}) sidewall gives the highest current enhancement due to the rapidly increasing Γ valley occupancy. The non-parabolicity of the Γ valley affects the occupancy significantly. However, uniaxial tensile stress and the shrinkage of fin width reduce the Γ valley occupancy, and the currents are enhanced by increasing occupancy of specific indirect L valleys with high injection velocity.

  18. Ballistic magnetotransport in a suspended two-dimensional electron gas with periodic antidot lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhdanov, E. Yu., E-mail: zhdanov@isp.nsc.ru; Pogosov, A. G.; Budantsev, M. V.; Pokhabov, D. A.; Bakarov, A. K. [Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The magnetoresistance of suspended semiconductor nanostructures with a two-dimensional electron gas structured by periodic square antidot lattices is studied. It is shown that the ballistic regime of electron transport is retained after detaching the sample from the substrate. Direct comparative analysis of commensurability oscillations of magnetoresistance and their temperature dependences in samples before and after suspension is performed. It is found that the temperature dependences are almost identical for non-suspended and suspended samples, whereas significant differences are observed in the nonlinear regime, caused by direct current passage. Commensurability oscillations in the suspended samples are more stable with respect to exposure to direct current, which can be presumably explained by electron–electron interaction enhancement after detaching nanostructures from the high-permittivity substrate.

  19. The quasi-ballistic model of electron mobility in liquid hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozumder, A.

    1996-01-01

    A phenomenological theory of low-mobility liquid hydrocarbons is developed which includes electron ballistic motion in the quasi-free state, in competition with diffusion and trapping. For most low-mobility liquids the theory predicts consistently the effective mobility and activation energy, in agreement with experiments, using quasi-free mobility and trap density respectively as ∼ 100 cm 2 v -1 s -1 and ∼ 10 19 cm -3 . Field dependence of mobility if theoretically of quadratic type for relatively small fields, agreeing approximately with experimental data for n-hexane. Electron scavenging with ''good'' scavengers occurs via the quasi-free state at nearly diffusion-controlled rate; however the effect of large mean free path is seen clearly. (author)

  20. Imaging buried organic islands by spatially resolved ballistic electron emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, Kuan Eng J; Bannani, A; Troadec, C

    2008-01-01

    The well-known Au/n-Si(111) Schottky interface is modified by a discontinuous pentacene film (∼1.5 nm thick) and studied using spatially resolved ballistic electron emission spectroscopy (BEES). The pentacene film introduced subtle changes to the interface which cannot be definitively detected by current-voltage measurements or a standard BEES analysis of the barrier height. In contrast, analyzing the BEES results in a dual-parameter (transmission attenuation and barrier height) space allows the effect of the pentacene film on the Au/n-Si(111) interface to be clearly demonstrated. We found that the pentacene film behaves like a tunneling barrier and increases the distribution of local barrier heights with a tendency toward lower values. Our results highlight the potential of the dual-parameter BEES analysis for understanding local interface modification by molecules.

  1. Developments in quantitative electron probe microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tixier, R.

    1977-01-01

    A study of the range of validity of the formulae for corrections used with massive specimen analysis is made. The method used is original; we have shown that it was possible to use a property of invariability of corrected intensity ratios for standards. This invariance property provides a test for the self consistency of the theory. The theoretical and experimental conditions required for quantitative electron probe microanalysis of thin transmission electron microscope specimens are examined. The correction formulae for atomic number, absorption and fluorescence effects are calculated. Several examples of experimental results are given, relative to the quantitative analysis of intermetallic precipitates and carbides in steels. Advances in applications of electron probe instruments related to the use of computer and the present development of fully automated instruments are reviewed. The necessary statistics for measurements of X ray count data are studied. Estimation procedure and tests are developed. These methods are used to perform a statistical check of electron probe microanalysis measurements and to reject rogue values. An estimator of the confidence interval of the apparent concentration is derived. Formulae were also obtained to optimize the counting time in order to obtain the best precision in a minimum amount of time [fr

  2. Electronic system for Langmuir probe measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mitov, M.; Bankova, A.; Dimitrova, M.; Ivanova, P.; Tutulkov, K.; Djermanova, N.; Dejarnac, Renaud; Stöckel, Jan; Popov, Tsv.K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 356, č. 1 (2012), s. 012008 ISSN 1742-6588. [InternationalSummerSchoolonVacuum,Electron, and IonTechnologies(VEIT2011)/17./. Sunny Beach, 19.09.2011-23.09.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Plasma * tokamak * diagnostics * electric probe Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://iopscience.iop.org/1742-6596/356/1/012008/pdf/1742-6596_356_1_012008.pdf

  3. Nonlocal nature of the resistance in classical ballistic transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhorukov, E.V.; Levinson, I.B.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation is made of the resistance of ballistic microstructures formed in the two-dimensional electron gas of a GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction representing combinations of long channels. It is shown that the nonlocal nature of the resistance (dependence on the measurement method) is unrelated to the quantum nature of the electron behavior, but is solely due to the ballistic nature of microstructures and does not disappear in the classical limit. An analog of the Landauer equation is obtained for the resistance measured by the four-probe method allowing for the geometry of the measuring probes

  4. Electron eigen-oscillations and ballistic modes of a stable plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungwirth, K.

    1976-01-01

    The relation between plasma responses to singular and regular initial perturbations is established. Time scaling is introduced to separate time intervals for which eigen-oscillations (Landau solution) are dominant from such where ballistic modes prevail. The enhanced role is demonstrated of the ballistic modes for an initially perturbed field-free plasma including the phenomenon of plasma wave echoes. (author)

  5. Electronic probe microanalyzer. Annual report 1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirianenko, Alexis; Maurice, Francoise; Seguin, Remy; Zemskoff, Anne; Adda, Yves

    1964-09-01

    This annual report presents the highlights of the fifth year of operation of the CEA Saclay's electronic probe microanalyzer. It provides a list of the analyses performed during the year with some illustrations and mentions the improvements given to the apparatus and its new analysing possibilities (crystallographic analysis using divergent X beams, 'electronic' image formation with respect to the atomic number). Highlights in the development of this analytical technique are presented as well as a new device designed by R. Castaing: the secondary ion emission microanalyser. A list of all laboratories equipped with the French microanalyser is provided

  6. Schottky barrier height measurements of Cu/Si(001), Ag/Si(001), and Au/Si(001) interfaces utilizing ballistic electron emission microscopy and ballistic hole emission microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balsano, Robert; Matsubayashi, Akitomo; LaBella, Vincent P.

    2013-01-01

    The Schottky barrier heights of both n and p doped Cu/Si(001), Ag/Si(001), and Au/Si(001) diodes were measured using ballistic electron emission microscopy and ballistic hole emission microscopy (BHEM), respectively. Measurements using both forward and reverse ballistic electron emission microscopy (BEEM) and (BHEM) injection conditions were performed. The Schottky barrier heights were found by fitting to a linearization of the power law form of the Bell-Kaiser BEEM model. The sum of the n-type and p-type barrier heights are in good agreement with the band gap of silicon and independent of the metal utilized. The Schottky barrier heights are found to be below the region of best fit for the power law form of the BK model, demonstrating its region of validity

  7. Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy/Spectroscopy on Au/Titanylphthalocyanine/GaAs Heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezcan, S; Roch, T; Strasser, G; Smoliner, J; Franke, R; Fritz, T

    2007-01-01

    In this article Au/titanylphthalocyanine/GaAs diodes incorporating ultra smooth thin films of the archetypal organic semiconductor titanylphthalocyanine (TiOPc) were investigated by Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy/Spectroscopy (BEEM/S). Analyzing the BEEM spectra, we find that the TiOPc increases the BEEM threshold voltage compared to reference Au/GaAs diodes. From BEEM images taken we conclude that our molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) grown samples show very homogeneous transmission, compare to wet chemically manufactured organic films. The barrier height measured on the Au- TiOPc-GaAs is V b ∼ 1.2eV, which is in good agreement with the data found in [T. Nishi, K. Tanai, Y. Cuchi, M. R. Willis, and K. Seki Chem. Phys. Lett., vol. 414, pp. 479-482, 2005.]. The results indicate that TiOPc functions as a p-type semiconductor, which is plausible since the measurements were carried out in air [K. Walzer, T. Toccoli, A. Pallaori, R. Verucchi, T. Fritz, K. Leo, A. Boschetti, and S. Iannotte Surf. Scie., vol. 573, pp. 346-358, 2004

  8. Scanning probe methods applied to molecular electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlicek, Niko

    2013-08-01

    Scanning probe methods on insulating films offer a rich toolbox to study electronic, structural and spin properties of individual molecules. This work discusses three issues in the field of molecular and organic electronics. An STM head to be operated in high magnetic fields has been designed and built up. The STM head is very compact and rigid relying on a robust coarse approach mechanism. This will facilitate investigations of the spin properties of individual molecules in the future. Combined STM/AFM studies revealed a reversible molecular switch based on two stable configurations of DBTH molecules on ultrathin NaCl films. AFM experiments visualize the molecular structure in both states. Our experiments allowed to unambiguously determine the pathway of the switch. Finally, tunneling into and out of the frontier molecular orbitals of pentacene molecules has been investigated on different insulating films. These experiments show that the local symmetry of initial and final electron wave function are decisive for the ratio between elastic and vibration-assisted tunneling. The results can be generalized to electron transport in organic materials.

  9. Scattering theory of ballistic-electron-emission microscopy at nonepitaxial interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D. L.; Kozhevnikov, M.; Lee, E. Y.; Narayanamurti, V.

    2000-01-01

    We present an interface scattering model to describe ballistic-electron-emission microscopy (BEEM) at nonepitaxial metal/semiconductor interfaces. The model starts with a Hamiltonian consisting of the sum of two terms: one term, H 0 , describes an ideal interface for which the interface parallel component of wave vector is a good quantum number, and the second term, δH, describes interfacial scattering centers. The eigenstates of H 0 consist of an incident and a reflected part in the metal and a transmitted part in the semiconductor. The three components of each eigenstate have the same interface parallel wave vector. Because tunneling preferentially weights forward-directed states, the interface parallel component of wave vector is small for the H 0 eigenstates that are initially populated with high probability in BEEM. δH scatters electrons between the eigenstates of H 0 . The scattering conserves energy, but not the interface parallel wave vector. In the final state of the scattering process, states with a large interface parallel wave vector can be occupied with reasonable probability. If scattering is weak, so that the parallel wave vector is nearly conserved, the calculated collector current into conduction-band valleys with zero parallel wave vector at the minimum, such as the Γ valley for GaAs(100), is much larger than the calculated collector current into conduction-band valleys with a large parallel wave vector at the minimum, such as the L valleys for GaAs(100). However, if scattering is strong, the injected electron flux distribution is redistributed and valleys with zero interface transverse wave vector at their energy minimum are not preferentially weighted. Instead, the weighting varies as the density of final states for the scattering process so that, for example, the calculated L-channel collector current is much larger than the calculated Γ-channel collector current for GaAs(100). Interfacial scattering reduces the overall magnitude of the

  10. Optical detection of ballistic electrons injected by a scanning-tunneling microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemerink, M.; Sauthoff, K.; Koenraad, P.M.; Gerritsen, J.W.; Kempen, van H.; Wolter, J.H.

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate a spectroscopic technique which is based on ballistic injection of minority carriers from the tip of a scanning-tunneling microscope into a semiconductor heterostructure. By analyzing the resulting electroluminescence spectrum as a function of tip-sample bias, both the injection

  11. Standardless quantification methods in electron probe microanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trincavelli, Jorge, E-mail: trincavelli@famaf.unc.edu.ar [Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Instituto de Física Enrique Gaviola, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina, Medina Allende s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Limandri, Silvina, E-mail: s.limandri@conicet.gov.ar [Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Instituto de Física Enrique Gaviola, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina, Medina Allende s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Bonetto, Rita, E-mail: bonetto@quimica.unlp.edu.ar [Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas Dr. Jorge Ronco, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, de la Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Calle 47 N° 257, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2014-11-01

    The elemental composition of a solid sample can be determined by electron probe microanalysis with or without the use of standards. The standardless algorithms are quite faster than the methods that require standards; they are useful when a suitable set of standards is not available or for rough samples, and also they help to solve the problem of current variation, for example, in equipments with cold field emission gun. Due to significant advances in the accuracy achieved during the last years, product of the successive efforts made to improve the description of generation, absorption and detection of X-rays, the standardless methods have increasingly become an interesting option for the user. Nevertheless, up to now, algorithms that use standards are still more precise than standardless methods. It is important to remark, that care must be taken with results provided by standardless methods that normalize the calculated concentration values to 100%, unless an estimate of the errors is reported. In this work, a comprehensive discussion of the key features of the main standardless quantification methods, as well as the level of accuracy achieved by them is presented. - Highlights: • Standardless methods are a good alternative when no suitable standards are available. • Their accuracy reaches 10% for 95% of the analyses when traces are excluded. • Some of them are suitable for the analysis of rough samples.

  12. Ballistic hole magnetic microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haq, E.; Banerjee, T.; Siekman, M.H.; Lodder, J.C.; Jansen, R.

    2005-01-01

    A technique to study nanoscale spin transport of holes is presented: ballistic hole magnetic microscopy. The tip of a scanning tunneling microscope is used to inject hot electrons into a ferromagnetic heterostructure, where inelastic decay creates a distribution of electron-hole pairs.

  13. Remote operation of a fully shielded electron probe microanalyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, J.; Sparry, R.P.

    1977-11-01

    A 'Microscan 5' Cambridge Instrument Company electron probe micro-analyser has been equipped with full shielding to enable high radioactive materials to be examined. The transfer of controls for remote operation are described. (author)

  14. Direct determination of energy level alignment and charge transport at metal-Alq3 interfaces via ballistic-electron-emission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J S; Pearson, J E; Bader, S D

    2011-04-15

    Using ballistic-electron-emission spectroscopy (BEES), we directly determined the energy barrier for electron injection at clean interfaces of Alq(3) with Al and Fe to be 2.1 and 2.2 eV, respectively. We quantitatively modeled the sub-barrier BEES spectra with an accumulated space charge layer, and found that the transport of nonballistic electrons is consistent with random hopping over the injection barrier.

  15. Quantum ballistic transistor and low noise HEMT for cryo-electronics lower than 4.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gremion, E.

    2008-01-01

    Next generations of cryo-detectors, widely used in physics of particles and physics of universe, will need in the future high-performance cryo-electronics less noisy and closer to the detector. Within this context, this work investigates properties of two dimensional electron gas GaAlAs/GaAs by studying two components, quantum point contact (QPC) and high electron mobility transistor (HEMT). Thanks to quantized conductance steps in QPC, we have realized a quantum ballistic transistor (voltage gain higher than 1), a new component useful for cryo-electronics thanks to its operating temperature and weak power consumption (about 1 nW). Moreover, the very low capacity of this component leads to promising performances for multiplexing low temperature bolometer dedicated to millimetric astronomy. The second study focused on HEMT with very high quality 2DEG. At 4.2 K, a voltage gain higher than 20 can be obtained with a very low power dissipation of less than 100 μW. Under the above experimental conditions, an equivalent input voltage noise of 1.2 nV/√(Hz) at 1 kHz and 0.12 nV/√(Hz) at 100 kHz has been reached. According to the Hooge formula, these noise performances are get by increasing gate capacity estimated to 60 pF. (author)

  16. Spatially resolved band alignments at Au-hexadecanethiol monolayer-GaAs(001) interfaces by ballistic electron emission microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junay, A.; Guézo, S., E-mail: sophie.guezo@univ-rennes1.fr; Turban, P.; Delhaye, G.; Lépine, B.; Tricot, S.; Ababou-Girard, S.; Solal, F. [Département Matériaux-Nanosciences, Institut de Physique de Rennes, UMR 6251, CNRS-Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, Bât 11E, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2015-08-28

    We study structural and electronic inhomogeneities in Metal—Organic Molecular monoLayer (OML)—semiconductor interfaces at the sub-nanometer scale by means of in situ Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy (BEEM). BEEM imaging of Au/1-hexadecanethiols/GaAs(001) heterostructures reveals the evolution of pinholes density as a function of the thickness of the metallic top-contact. Using BEEM in spectroscopic mode in non-short-circuited areas, local electronic fingerprints (barrier height values and corresponding spectral weights) reveal a low-energy tunneling regime through the insulating organic monolayer. At higher energies, BEEM evidences new conduction channels, associated with hot-electron injection in the empty molecular orbitals of the OML. Corresponding band diagrams at buried interfaces can be thus locally described. The energy position of GaAs conduction band minimum in the heterostructure is observed to evolve as a function of the thickness of the deposited metal, and coherently with size-dependent electrostatic effects under the molecular patches. Such BEEM analysis provides a quantitative diagnosis on metallic top-contact formation on organic molecular monolayer and appears as a relevant characterization for its optimization.

  17. Pygmy resonances probed with electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertulani, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    Pygmy resonances in light nuclei excited in electron scattering are discussed. These collective modes will be explored in future electron-ion colliders such as ELISe/FAIR (spokesperson: Haik Simon - GSI). Response functions for direct breakup are explored with few-body and hydrodynamical models, including the dependence upon final state interactions

  18. Electronic control system for irradiation probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluza, E.; Neumann, J.; Zahalka, F.

    1980-01-01

    The EROS-78 system for the supply and power control of six heating sections of the irradiation probe of the CHOUCA type placed in the reactor vessel is described. The system allows temperature control at the location of the heat sensor with an accuracy of +-1% of the rated value within the region of 100 to 1000 degC. The equipment is provided with its own quartz controlled clock. The temperature is picked up by a chromel-alumel jacket thermocouple. The power input of the heating elements is thyristor controlled. (J.B.)

  19. Probing Xe electronic structure by two-color HHG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faccialà, D; Ciriolo, A G; De Silvestri, S; Devetta, M; Negro, M; Stagira, S; Vozzi, C; Pabst, S; Bruner, B D; Dudovich, N; Soifer, H

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is probing the multi-electron behavior in xenon by two-color driven high harmonic generation. By changing the relative polarization of the two colors we were able to study different aspects of the multi-electron response. (paper)

  20. Collision dynamics probed by convoy electron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seliger, M.; Burgdoerfer, J.; Toekesi, K.; Reinhold, C.O.; Takabayashi, Y.; Ito, T.; Komaki, K.; Azuma, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; RIKEN, Saitama

    2002-01-01

    The description of the collision mechanisms was examined by the emission of convoy electrons as a result of the transport of an Ar 17+ ion with an energy of 390 MeV/amu through self-supporting amorphous carbon foils of thickness varying from 25 to 9190 μg/cm 2 . A classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) simulation of the random walk of the electron initially attached to the relativistic hydrogenic Argon ion was performed. Measurements were made of the final kinetic energy of the emitted convoy electrons at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). (R.P.)

  1. Probing the magnetsophere with artificial electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winckler, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis is conducted of the University of Minnesota Electron Echo experiments, which so far have included five sounding rocket experiments. The concept of the Echo experiment is to inject electron beam pulses from a rocket into the ionosphere at altitudes in the range from 100 to 300 km. The electrons move to the conjugate hemisphere following magnetic field lines and return on neighboring field lines to the neighborhood of the rocket where the pulses may be detected and analyzed. Attention is given to the detection and analysis of echoes, the structure of echoes, and the Echo V experiment. The Echo V experiment showed clearly that detection of remote echo beams by atmospheric fluorescence using low light level TV system is not a viable technique. A future experiment is to use throw-away detectors for direct remote echo detection

  2. Transient state of electron transport in semiconductors: over velocity and ballistic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laval, S.

    1984-01-01

    As the dimensions of the active regions of electronic components are reduced, transient effects must be considered when electrons encounter a high electric field gradient. The electron velocity can overshoot its stationary value over a few tenths of a micron and during about one picosecond. This has been observed experimentally and permits to forecast new ultrafast electronic devices [fr

  3. Terminal Ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2012-01-01

    This book covers the important issues of terminal ballistics in a comprehensive way combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. The first chapter reviews the experimental equipment which are used for ballistic tests and the diagnostics for material characterization under impulsive loading conditions. The second chapter covers essential features of the codes which are used for terminal ballistics such as the Euler vs. Lagrange schemes and meshing techniques, as well as the most popular material models. The third chapter, devoted to the penetration mechanics of rigid penetrators, brings the update of modeling in this field. The fourth chapter deals with plate perforation and the fifth chapter deals with the penetration mechanics of shaped charge jets and eroding long rods. The last two chapters discuss several techniques for the disruption and defeating of the main threats in armor design. Throughout the book the authors demonstrate the advantages of numerical simulations in unde...

  4. Statistics techniques applied to electron probe microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizuela, H.; Del Giorgio, M.; Budde, C.; Briozzo, C.; Riveros, J.

    1987-01-01

    A description of Montroll-West's general theory for a tridimensional random walk of a particle with internal degrees of freedom is given, connecting this problem with the master equation solution. The possibility of its application to EPMA is discussed. Numerical solutions are given for thick or collimated beams at several energies interacting with samples of different shape and size. Spatial distribution of particles within the sample -for a stationary state- is analized, as well as the electron backscattering coefficient. (Author) [es

  5. Probing electron correlation and nuclear dynamics in Momentum Space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleuze, M S; Hajgato, B; Morini, F; Knippenberg, S

    2010-01-01

    Orbital imaging experiments employing Electron Momentum Spectroscopy are subject to many complications, such as distorted wave effects, conformational mobility in the electronic ground state, ultra-fast nuclear dynamics in the final state, or a dispersion of the ionization intensity over electronically excited (shake-up) configurations of the cation. The purpose of the present contribution is to illustrate how a proper treatment of these complications enables us to probe in momentum space the consequences of electron correlation and nuclear dynamics in neutral and cationic states.

  6. Quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. An energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis (ED-EPMA) technique us- ing an energy-dispersive X-ray detector with an ultra-thin window, designated as low-Z particle. EPMA, has been developed. The low-Z particle EPMA allows the quantitative determination of concentrations of low-Z elements such ...

  7. An analytic current-voltage model for quasi-ballistic III-nitride high electron mobility transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kexin; Rakheja, Shaloo

    2018-05-01

    We present an analytic model to describe the DC current-voltage (I-V) relationship in scaled III-nitride high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) in which transport within the channel is quasi-ballistic in nature. Following Landauer's transport theory and charge calculation based on two-dimensional electrostatics that incorporates negative momenta states from the drain terminal, an analytic expression for current as a function of terminal voltages is developed. The model interprets the non-linearity of access regions in non-self-aligned HEMTs. Effects of Joule heating with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity are incorporated in the model in a self-consistent manner. With a total of 26 input parameters, the analytic model offers reduced empiricism compared to existing GaN HEMT models. To verify the model, experimental I-V data of InAlN/GaN with InGaN back-barrier HEMTs with channel lengths of 42 and 105 nm are considered. Additionally, the model is validated against numerical I-V data obtained from DC hydrodynamic simulations of an unintentionally doped AlGaN-on-GaN HEMT with 50-nm gate length. The model is also verified against pulsed I-V measurements of a 150-nm T-gate GaN HEMT. Excellent agreement between the model and experimental and numerical results for output current, transconductance, and output conductance is demonstrated over a broad range of bias and temperature conditions.

  8. Ballistic electron emissions microscopy (BEEM) of ferromagnet-semiconductor interfaces; Ballistische Elektronen Emissions Mikroskopie (BEEM) an Ferromagnet-Halbleitergrenzflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obernhuber, S.

    2007-04-15

    For current research on spin-transistors it is important to know the characteristics of ferromagnet semiconductor interfaces. The ballistic electron emission microscopy (BEEM) is a method to investigate such a buried interface with nanometer resolution. In this work several ferromagnet/GaAs(110) interfaces have been analysed concerning their homogeneity and mean local Schottky-barrier heights (SBH) have been determined. In Addition, the resulting integral SBH was calculated from the distribution of the local SBHs and compared with the SBH determined from voltage/current characteristics. The areas with a low SBH dominate the current conduction across the interface. Additional BEEM measurements on (AlGaAs/GaAs) heterostructures have been performed. This heterostructures consist of 50 nm AlGaAs/GaAs layers. The results of the BEEM measurements indicate, that the GaAs QWs are defined by AlGaAs barriers. The transition from AlGaAs to GaAs is done within 10 nm. (orig.)

  9. The features of ballistic electron transport in a suspended quantum point contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevyrin, A. A.; Budantsev, M. V.; Bakarov, A. K.; Toropov, A. I.; Pogosov, A. G.; Ishutkin, S. V.; Shesterikov, E. V.

    2014-01-01

    A suspended quantum point contact and the effects of the suspension are investigated by performing identical electrical measurements on the same experimental sample before and after the suspension. In both cases, the sample demonstrates conductance quantization. However, the suspended quantum point contact shows certain features not observed before the suspension, namely, plateaus at the conductance values being non-integer multiples of the conductance quantum, including the “0.7-anomaly.” These features can be attributed to the strengthening of electron-electron interaction because of the electric field confinement within the suspended membrane. Thus, the suspended quantum point contact represents a one-dimensional system with strong electron-electron interaction

  10. Using electron irradiation to probe iron-based superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyuil; Kończykowski, M.; Teknowijoyo, S.; Tanatar, M. A.; Prozorov, R.

    2018-06-01

    High-energy electron irradiation at low temperatures is an efficient and controlled way to create vacancy–interstitial Frenkel pairs in a crystal lattice, thereby inducing nonmagnetic point-like scattering centers. In combination with London penetration depth and resistivity measurements, the electron irradiation was used as a phase-sensitive probe to study the superconducting order parameter in iron-based superconductors (FeSCs), lending strong support to sign-changing s ± pairing. Here, we review the key results of the effect of electron irradiation in FeSCs.

  11. A versatile atomic number correction for electron-probe microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, G.; Cox, M.G.; Scott, V.D.

    1978-01-01

    A new atomic number correction is proposed for quantitative electron-probe microanalysis. Analytical expressions for the stopping power S and back-scatter R factors are derived which take into account atomic number of the target, incident electron energy and overvoltage; the latter expression is established using Monte Carlo calculations. The correct procedures for evaluating S and R for multi-element specimens are described. The new method, which overcomes some limitations inherent in earlier atomic number corrections, may readily be used where specimens are inclined to the electron beam. (author)

  12. Simulations of interference effects in gated two-dimensional ballistic electron systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Pichugin, K.N.; Sadreev, A.F.

    1999-01-01

    We present detailed simulations addressing recent electronic interference experiments,where a metallic gate is used to locally modify the Fermi wavelength of the charge carriers. Our numerical calculations are based on a solution of the one-particle Schrodinger equation for a realistic model of t...

  13. Electronic Transport in Helium Beam Modified Graphene and Ballistic Josephson Junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanda, G.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis describes the capabilities of the helium ion microscope (HIM) and that of graphene to explore fundamental physics and novel applications. While graphene offers superior electronic properties, the helium ion microscope allows us to combine imaging and modification of materials at the

  14. Effects of periodic scattering potential on Landau quantization and ballistic transport of electrons in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumbs, Godfrey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hunter College, CUNY, 695 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA and Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P de Manuel Lardizabal, 4, 20018 San Sebastian, Basque Country (Spain); Iurov, Andrii [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hunter College of the City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Huang, Danhong [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Kirtland Air Force Base, NM 87117 (United States); Fekete, Paula [West Point Military Academy, West Point, NY (United States); Zhemchuzhna, Liubov [Department of Physics, North Carolina Central University, Durham, North Carolina 27707 (United States)

    2014-03-31

    A two-dimensional periodic array of scatterers has been introduced to a single layer of graphene in the presence of an external magnetic field perpendicular to the graphene layer. The eigenvalue equation for such a system has been solved numerically to display the structure of split Landau subbands as functions of both wave number and magnetic flux. The effects of pseudo-spin coupling and Landau subbands mixing by a strong scattering potential have been demonstrated. Additionally, we investigated the square barrier tunneling problem when magnetic field is present, as well as demonstrate the crucial difference in the modulated band structure between graphene and the two-dimensional electron gas. The low-magnetic field regime is particularly interesting for Dirac fermions and has been discussed. Tunneling of Dirac electrons through a magnetic potential barrier has been investigated to complement the reported results on electrostatic potential scattering in the presence of an ambient magnetic field.

  15. Effects of periodic scattering potential on Landau quantization and ballistic transport of electrons in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumbs, Godfrey; Iurov, Andrii; Huang, Danhong; Fekete, Paula; Zhemchuzhna, Liubov

    2014-01-01

    A two-dimensional periodic array of scatterers has been introduced to a single layer of graphene in the presence of an external magnetic field perpendicular to the graphene layer. The eigenvalue equation for such a system has been solved numerically to display the structure of split Landau subbands as functions of both wave number and magnetic flux. The effects of pseudo-spin coupling and Landau subbands mixing by a strong scattering potential have been demonstrated. Additionally, we investigated the square barrier tunneling problem when magnetic field is present, as well as demonstrate the crucial difference in the modulated band structure between graphene and the two-dimensional electron gas. The low-magnetic field regime is particularly interesting for Dirac fermions and has been discussed. Tunneling of Dirac electrons through a magnetic potential barrier has been investigated to complement the reported results on electrostatic potential scattering in the presence of an ambient magnetic field

  16. Heat transport and electron cooling in ballistic normal-metal/spin-filter/superconductor junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Shiro; Vasenko, Andrey S.; Ozaeta, Asier; Bergeret, Sebastian F.; Hekking, Frank W.J.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate electron cooling based on a clean normal-metal/spin-filter/superconductor junction. Due to the suppression of the Andreev reflection by the spin-filter effect, the cooling power of the system is found to be extremely higher than that for conventional normal-metal/nonmagnetic-insulator/superconductor coolers. Therefore we can extract large amount of heat from normal metals. Our results strongly indicate the practical usefulness of the spin-filter effect for cooling detectors, sensors, and quantum bits

  17. Heat transport and electron cooling in ballistic normal-metal/spin-filter/superconductor junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, Shiro, E-mail: s-kawabata@aist.go.jp [Electronics and Photonics Research Institute (ESPRIT), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Vasenko, Andrey S. [LPMMC, Université Joseph Fourier and CNRS, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble (France); Ozaeta, Asier [Centro de Física de Materiales (CFM-MPC), Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Manuel de Lardizabal 5, E-20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Bergeret, Sebastian F. [Centro de Física de Materiales (CFM-MPC), Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Manuel de Lardizabal 5, E-20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Manuel de Lardizabal 5, E-20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Hekking, Frank W.J. [LPMMC, Université Joseph Fourier and CNRS, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble (France)

    2015-06-01

    We investigate electron cooling based on a clean normal-metal/spin-filter/superconductor junction. Due to the suppression of the Andreev reflection by the spin-filter effect, the cooling power of the system is found to be extremely higher than that for conventional normal-metal/nonmagnetic-insulator/superconductor coolers. Therefore we can extract large amount of heat from normal metals. Our results strongly indicate the practical usefulness of the spin-filter effect for cooling detectors, sensors, and quantum bits.

  18. Ballistic studies on layered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jena, P.K.; Ramanjeneyulu, K.; Siva Kumar, K.; Balakrishna Bhat, T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the ballistic behavior and penetration mechanism of metal-metal and metal-fabric layered structures against 7.62 armour piercing projectiles at a velocity of 840 ± 15 m/s at 30 o angle of impact and compares the ballistic results with that of homogeneous metallic steel armour. This study also describes the effect of keeping a gap between the target layers. Experimental results showed that among the investigated materials, the best ballistic performance was attained with metal-fabric layered structures. The improvements in ballistic performance were analyzed in terms of mode of failure and fracture mechanisms of the samples by using optical and electron microscope, X-ray radiography and hardness measurement equipments.

  19. Chloride ingress profiles measured by electron probe micro analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole mejlhede; Coats, Alison M.; Glasser, Fred P.

    1996-01-01

    Traditional techniques for measuring chloride ingress profiles do not apply well to high performance cement paste systems; the geometric resolution of the traditional measuring techniques is too low. In this paper measurements by Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) are presented. EPMA is demonst......Traditional techniques for measuring chloride ingress profiles do not apply well to high performance cement paste systems; the geometric resolution of the traditional measuring techniques is too low. In this paper measurements by Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) are presented. EPMA...... is demonstated to determine chloride ingress in cement paste on a micrometer scale. Potential chloride ingress routes such as cracks or the paste-aggregate interface may also be characterized by EPMA. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd...

  20. Dense-plasma research using ballistic compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, H.

    1986-01-01

    An introduction is given to research on dense (or nonideal) plasmas which can be generated to advantage by ballistic compressors. Some properties of ballistic compressors are discussed especially in comparison with shock tubes. A short review is given on the history of these devices for high-pressure plasma generation. The present state of the art is reported including research on the two ZIE (Central Institute for Electron Physics) ballistic compressors. (author)

  1. Atom-Probe Tomographic Investigations of a Precipitation-Strengthened HSLA-115 Steel and a Ballistic-Resistant 10 wt. % Ni Steel for Naval Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Divya

    High performance structural materials are needed for Naval applications which require an excellent combination of yield strength, low-temperature impact toughness, ductility, ballistic-resistance, and weldability. This research investigates precipitation-strengthened HSLA-115 steels and ballistic-resistant 10 wt. % Ni steels, which have emerged as promising alternatives to the widely used HSLA-100 steels for Naval applications. HSLA-115 is a Cu-bearing high-strength low-carbon martensitic steel and has been used in the flight deck of the recently built U.S. Navy CVN-78 aircraft carrier. It is typically used in conditions with overaged Cu precipitates, to obtain acceptable impact toughness and ductility at 115 ksi (793 MPa) yield strength. However, overaging of Cu precipitates limits its strength and applications. This research demonstrates that aging at 550 °C facilitates the co-precipitation of sub-nanometer sized M2C carbides and Cu precipitates in high number density (˜1023 m-3) in HSLA-115. 3-D atom-probe tomography (APT) investigation reveals that Cu precipitates form first, followed by the nucleation of M2C carbides, which are co-located with Cu precipitates and are distributed heterogeneously at lath-boundaries and dislocations, indicating heterogeneous nucleation of M2C. Carbon redistribution during quenching (following the austenitization) and subsequent aging at 550 °C is followed using APT. Segregation of C (3-6 at. % C) is observed at martensitic lath-boundaries in the as-quenched and 0.12 h aged conditions. On further aging, C redistributes, forming cementite and M 2C carbides, whose composition and morphology evolves with aging time. Precipitation kinetics of M2C carbides is intertwined with Cu precipitates; temporal evolution of Cu precipitates and M2C carbides is characterized in terms of their mean radii, number densities, and volume fractions and correlated with the bulk mechanical properties. Precipitation of M2C carbides offsets the softening

  2. Influence of oxidation treatment on ballistic electron surface-emitting display of porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Wentao; Zhang, Xiaoning; Zhang, Yujuan; Wang, Wenjiang; Duan, Xiaotao

    2012-01-01

    Two groups of porous silicon (PS) samples are treated by rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) and electrochemical oxidation (ECO), respectively. Scanning electron microscopy images show that PS samples are segmented into two layers. Oxidized film layer is formed on the top surface of PS samples treated by RTO while at the bottom of PS samples treated by ECO. Both ECO and RTO treatment can make emission current density, diode current density, and emission efficiency of PS increase with the bias voltage increasing. The emission current density and the field emission enhancement factor β of PS sample treated by RTO are larger than that treated by ECO. The Fowler–Nordheim curves of RTO and ECO samples are linear which indicates that high electric field exists on the oxidized layer and field emission occurs whether PS is treated by RTO or ECO.

  3. Sparse sampling and reconstruction for electron and scanning probe microscope imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Hyrum; Helms, Jovana; Wheeler, Jason W.; Larson, Kurt W.; Rohrer, Brandon R.

    2015-07-28

    Systems and methods for conducting electron or scanning probe microscopy are provided herein. In a general embodiment, the systems and methods for conducting electron or scanning probe microscopy with an undersampled data set include: driving an electron beam or probe to scan across a sample and visit a subset of pixel locations of the sample that are randomly or pseudo-randomly designated; determining actual pixel locations on the sample that are visited by the electron beam or probe; and processing data collected by detectors from the visits of the electron beam or probe at the actual pixel locations and recovering a reconstructed image of the sample.

  4. Quantification of multielement-multilayer-samples in electron probe analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, A.

    1995-03-01

    The following dissertation presents the theoretical basis of analytical correction models and Monte Carlo simulations in the field of electron probe microanalysis to describe the excitation conditions of x-rays in a multilayer-multielement-sample. In this connection analyzing programs have been developed to make a quantitative investigation of heterogeneous samples possible. In the work the mathematical methods and formulas, which are mainly based on empirical and semiempirical findings, are described and their validity is discussed in detail. Especially the improvements of the 'multiple reflections'-model by August are compared with the Φ(ρz)-models by Pouchou, Merlet and Bastin. The calculations of depth distribution functions for characteristics and continuous fluorescence excitation result in a consistent and completeΦ(ρz)-model. This allows to analyze layered structures in great detail. Because of the increasing importance in electron probe microanalysis and as a reference method a Monte Carlo model is described. With this model electron trajectories and excitation conditions in arbitrary two dimensional geometries can be calculated. The validity of the analytical model is proven with a comprehensive comparison of results of new calculations to published data. To show an application of the programs and models in routine use in the industrial research and development, a quantitative analysis of a Co/Si system is made. In the conclusion of this dissertation some reflections upon investigations, which are based on this work and which should be made in future are outlined. (author)

  5. Probing Nanoscale Electronic and Magnetic Interaction with Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Jakob

    tunneling microscope (STM). Especially at low temperatures the Kondo resonance is used to probe magnetic interaction with ferromagnetic islands and between two atoms. The latter showing a crossover between Kondo screened atoms and antiferromagnetically coupled atoms close to the quantum critical point....... This is related to research in correlated electron materials such as studies of phase transitions in heavy fermion compounds and magnetic interaction in spintronic research. The capping of cobalt islands on Cu(111) with silver is investigated with STM and photoemission spectroscopy. It is shown that at low...

  6. Terminal ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively discusses essential aspects of terminal ballistics, combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. Employing a unique approach to numerical simulations as a measure of sensitivity for the major physical parameters, the new edition also includes the following features: new figures to better illustrate the problems discussed; improved explanations for the equation of state of a solid and for the cavity expansion process; new data concerning the Kolsky bar test; and a discussion of analytical modeling for the hole diameter in a thin metallic plate impacted by a shaped charge jet. The section on thick concrete targets penetrated by rigid projectiles has now been expanded to include the latest findings, and two new sections have been added: one on a novel approach to the perforation of thin concrete slabs, and one on testing the failure of thin metallic plates using a hydrodynamic ram.

  7. Integral and local density of states of InAs quantum dots in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure observed by ballistic electron emission spectroscopy near one-electron ground state

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Walachová, Jarmila; Zelinka, Jiří; Leshkov, Sergey; Šroubek, Filip; Pangrác, Jiří; Vaniš, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2013), s. 61-65 ISSN 1386-9477 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP102/11/P824; GA ČR GAP102/10/1201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 ; RVO:68378271 ; RVO:67985556 Keywords : quantum dots * scanning tunneling microscopy * ballistic transport Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.856, year: 2013

  8. Optimization of Actinide Quantification by Electron Probe Microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moy, A.; Merlet, C.; Llovet, X.; Dugne, O.

    2013-06-01

    Conventional quantitative electron probe microanalysis of actinides requires the use of reference standard samples. However, for such elements, standards are generally not available. To overcome this difficulty, standard-less methods of analysis are used, in which the x-ray intensity emitted by the standard is calculated. To be reliable, such calculations require accurate knowledge of physical data such as the x-ray production cross section. However, experimental data of this quantity are not always available for actinide elements. In the present work, experimental L and M x-ray production cross sections were measured for elements uranium and lead. Measurements were performed with two electron microprobes using wavelength-dispersive spectrometers using thin self-supporting targets. Experimental results are compared with calculated cross sections obtained from different analytical formulae, and, whenever possible, with experimental data obtained from the literature. (authors)

  9. Electron probe analysis of biological fluids: Possibilities and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roinel, N.

    1984-01-01

    Physical methods of investigation have become essential to investigations at the cellular or subcellular level. Nuclear magnetic resonance is the most recent and striking example, since it is not only a tool for fundamental physicists and organic chemists, but also an extraordinary powerful imaging tool for physicians. The absorption properties of X rays were used immediately after their discovery to image the bones of skeletons. Later, X rays were also found to be extremely efficient in the measurement of the elemental content of microvolumes irradiated by electron probes. The electron probe analyzer (EPA) was immediately adopted by numerous laboratories of metallurgy, geology, and mineral sciences. In the last fifteen years, since the use of this instrument was suggested for liquid analysis, and a preparative technique was developed, the EPA has been used by an increasing number of biological laboratories for measuring the concentrations of the elements contained in subnanoliter volumes of biological fluids. The so-called microdroplet technique has become a routine laboratory method, the only one able to measure the concentrations of an unlimited number of elements in a single 0.1-nl sample. This explains its use in fields as various as renal, reproductive, digestive, and plant physiology, zoology, etc. Several review papers discuss these applications. The possibilities and limitations of the technique are discussed below

  10. Standardless quantification by parameter optimization in electron probe microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limandri, Silvina P.; Bonetto, Rita D.; Josa, Víctor Galván; Carreras, Alejo C.; Trincavelli, Jorge C.

    2012-01-01

    A method for standardless quantification by parameter optimization in electron probe microanalysis is presented. The method consists in minimizing the quadratic differences between an experimental spectrum and an analytical function proposed to describe it, by optimizing the parameters involved in the analytical prediction. This algorithm, implemented in the software POEMA (Parameter Optimization in Electron Probe Microanalysis), allows the determination of the elemental concentrations, along with their uncertainties. The method was tested in a set of 159 elemental constituents corresponding to 36 spectra of standards (mostly minerals) that include trace elements. The results were compared with those obtained with the commercial software GENESIS Spectrum® for standardless quantification. The quantifications performed with the method proposed here are better in the 74% of the cases studied. In addition, the performance of the method proposed is compared with the first principles standardless analysis procedure DTSA for a different data set, which excludes trace elements. The relative deviations with respect to the nominal concentrations are lower than 0.04, 0.08 and 0.35 for the 66% of the cases for POEMA, GENESIS and DTSA, respectively. - Highlights: ► A method for standardless quantification in EPMA is presented. ► It gives better results than the commercial software GENESIS Spectrum. ► It gives better results than the software DTSA. ► It allows the determination of the conductive coating thickness. ► It gives an estimation for the concentration uncertainties.

  11. ProbeZT: Simulation of transport coefficients of molecular electronic junctions under environmental effects using Büttiker's probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korol, Roman; Kilgour, Michael; Segal, Dvira

    2018-03-01

    We present our in-house quantum transport package, ProbeZT. This program provides linear response coefficients: electrical and electronic thermal conductances, as well as the thermopower of molecular junctions in which electrons interact with the surrounding thermal environment. Calculations are performed based on the Büttiker probe method, which introduces decoherence, energy exchange and dissipation effects phenomenologically using virtual electrode terminals called probes. The program can realize different types of probes, each introducing various environmental effects, including elastic and inelastic scattering of electrons. The molecular system is described by an arbitrary tight-binding Hamiltonian, allowing the study of different geometries beyond simple one-dimensional wires. Applications of the program to study the thermoelectric performance of molecular junctions are illustrated. The program also has a built-in functionality to simulate electron transport in double-stranded DNA molecules based on a tight-binding (ladder) description of the junction.

  12. Standardless quantification by parameter optimization in electron probe microanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limandri, Silvina P. [Instituto de Fisica Enrique Gaviola (IFEG), CONICET (Argentina); Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Medina Allende s/n, (5016) Cordoba (Argentina); Bonetto, Rita D. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas Dr. Jorge Ronco (CINDECA), CONICET, 47 Street 257, (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1 and 47 Streets (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Josa, Victor Galvan; Carreras, Alejo C. [Instituto de Fisica Enrique Gaviola (IFEG), CONICET (Argentina); Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Medina Allende s/n, (5016) Cordoba (Argentina); Trincavelli, Jorge C., E-mail: trincavelli@famaf.unc.edu.ar [Instituto de Fisica Enrique Gaviola (IFEG), CONICET (Argentina); Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Medina Allende s/n, (5016) Cordoba (Argentina)

    2012-11-15

    A method for standardless quantification by parameter optimization in electron probe microanalysis is presented. The method consists in minimizing the quadratic differences between an experimental spectrum and an analytical function proposed to describe it, by optimizing the parameters involved in the analytical prediction. This algorithm, implemented in the software POEMA (Parameter Optimization in Electron Probe Microanalysis), allows the determination of the elemental concentrations, along with their uncertainties. The method was tested in a set of 159 elemental constituents corresponding to 36 spectra of standards (mostly minerals) that include trace elements. The results were compared with those obtained with the commercial software GENESIS Spectrum Registered-Sign for standardless quantification. The quantifications performed with the method proposed here are better in the 74% of the cases studied. In addition, the performance of the method proposed is compared with the first principles standardless analysis procedure DTSA for a different data set, which excludes trace elements. The relative deviations with respect to the nominal concentrations are lower than 0.04, 0.08 and 0.35 for the 66% of the cases for POEMA, GENESIS and DTSA, respectively. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for standardless quantification in EPMA is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It gives better results than the commercial software GENESIS Spectrum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It gives better results than the software DTSA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It allows the determination of the conductive coating thickness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It gives an estimation for the concentration uncertainties.

  13. Sample Preparation for Electron Probe Microanalysis—Pushing the Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Joseph D.; Engle, Paul D.

    2002-01-01

    There are two fundamental considerations in preparing samples for electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The first one may seem obvious, but we often find it is overlooked. That is, the sample analyzed should be representative of the population from which it comes. The second is a direct result of the assumptions in the calculations used to convert x-ray intensity ratios, between the sample and standard, to concentrations. Samples originate from a wide range of sources. During their journey to being excited under the electron beam for the production of x rays there are many possibilities for sample alteration. Handling can contaminate samples by adding extraneous matter. In preparation, the various abrasives used in sizing the sample by sawing, grinding and polishing can embed themselves. The most accurate composition of a contaminated sample is, at best, not representative of the original sample; it is misleading. Our laboratory performs EPMA analysis on customer submitted samples and prepares over 250 different calibration standards including pure elements, compounds, alloys, glasses and minerals. This large variety of samples does not lend itself to mass production techniques, including automatic polishing. Our manual preparation techniques are designed individually for each sample. The use of automated preparation equipment does not lend itself to this environment, and is not included in this manuscript. The final step in quantitative electron probe microanalysis is the conversion of x-ray intensities ratios, known as the “k-ratios,” to composition (in mass fraction or atomic percent) and/or film thickness. Of the many assumptions made in the ZAF (where these letters stand for atomic number, absorption and fluorescence) corrections the localized geometry between the sample and electron beam, or takeoff angle, must be accurately known. Small angular errors can lead to significant errors in the final results. The sample preparation technique then becomes very

  14. Sample Preparation for Electron Probe Microanalysis-Pushing the Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Joseph D; Engle, Paul D

    2002-01-01

    There are two fundamental considerations in preparing samples for electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The first one may seem obvious, but we often find it is overlooked. That is, the sample analyzed should be representative of the population from which it comes. The second is a direct result of the assumptions in the calculations used to convert x-ray intensity ratios, between the sample and standard, to concentrations. Samples originate from a wide range of sources. During their journey to being excited under the electron beam for the production of x rays there are many possibilities for sample alteration. Handling can contaminate samples by adding extraneous matter. In preparation, the various abrasives used in sizing the sample by sawing, grinding and polishing can embed themselves. The most accurate composition of a contaminated sample is, at best, not representative of the original sample; it is misleading. Our laboratory performs EPMA analysis on customer submitted samples and prepares over 250 different calibration standards including pure elements, compounds, alloys, glasses and minerals. This large variety of samples does not lend itself to mass production techniques, including automatic polishing. Our manual preparation techniques are designed individually for each sample. The use of automated preparation equipment does not lend itself to this environment, and is not included in this manuscript. The final step in quantitative electron probe microanalysis is the conversion of x-ray intensities ratios, known as the "k-ratios," to composition (in mass fraction or atomic percent) and/or film thickness. Of the many assumptions made in the ZAF (where these letters stand for atomic number, absorption and fluorescence) corrections the localized geometry between the sample and electron beam, or takeoff angle, must be accurately known. Small angular errors can lead to significant errors in the final results. The sample preparation technique then becomes very

  15. Ballistic-electron-emission spectroscopy of AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs heterostructures: Conduction-band offsets, transport mechanisms, and band-structure effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OShea, J.J.; Brazel, E.G.; Rubin, M.E.; Bhargava, S.; Chin, M.A.; Narayanamurti, V.

    1997-01-01

    We report an extensive investigation of semiconductor band-structure effects in single-barrier Al x Ga 1-x As/GaAs heterostructures using ballistic-electron-emission spectroscopy (BEES). The transport mechanisms in these single-barrier structures were studied systematically as a function of temperature and Al composition over the full compositional range (0≤x≤1). The initial (Γ) BEES thresholds for Al x Ga 1-x As single barriers with 0≤x≤0.42 were extracted using a model which includes the complete transmission probability of the metal-semiconductor interface and the semiconductor heterostructure. Band offsets measured by BEES are in good agreement with previous measurements by other techniques which demonstrates the accuracy of this technique. BEES measurements at 77 K give the same band-offset values as at room temperature. When a reverse bias is applied to the heterostructures, the BEES thresholds shift to lower voltages in good agreement with the expected bias-induced band-bending. In the indirect band-gap regime (x>0.45), spectra show a weak ballistic-electron-emission microscopy current contribution due to intervalley scattering through Al x Ga 1-x As X valley states. Low-temperature spectra show a marked reduction in this intervalley current component, indicating that intervalley phonon scattering at the GaAs/Al x Ga 1-x As interface produces a significant fraction of thisX valley current. A comparison of the BEES thresholds with the expected composition dependence of the Al x Ga 1-x As Γ, L, and X points yields good agreement over the entire composition range. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  16. Reproducibility of the cutoff probe for the measurement of electron density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. W.; Oh, W. Y. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); You, S. J., E-mail: sjyou@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, J. H.; You, K. H.; Seo, B. H.; Kim, J. H., E-mail: jhkim86@kriss.re.kr [Center for Vacuum Technology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-306 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, J.-S. [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, Gunsan 573-540 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Since a plasma processing control based on plasma diagnostics attracted considerable attention in industry, the reproducibility of the diagnostics using in this application has become a great interest. Because the cutoff probe is one of the potential candidates for this application, knowing the reproducibility of the cutoff probe measurement becomes quit important in the cutoff probe application research. To test the reproducibility of the cutoff probe measurement, in this paper, a comparative study among the different cutoff probe measurements was performed. The comparative study revealed remarkable result: the cutoff probe has a great reproducibility for the electron density measurement, i.e., there are little differences among measurements by different probes made by different experimenters. The discussion including the reason for the result was addressed via this paper by using a basic measurement principle of cutoff probe and a comparative experiment with Langmuir probe.

  17. Reproducibility of the cutoff probe for the measurement of electron density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D. W.; Oh, W. Y.; You, S. J.; Kwon, J. H.; You, K. H.; Seo, B. H.; Kim, J. H.; Yoon, J.-S.

    2016-01-01

    Since a plasma processing control based on plasma diagnostics attracted considerable attention in industry, the reproducibility of the diagnostics using in this application has become a great interest. Because the cutoff probe is one of the potential candidates for this application, knowing the reproducibility of the cutoff probe measurement becomes quit important in the cutoff probe application research. To test the reproducibility of the cutoff probe measurement, in this paper, a comparative study among the different cutoff probe measurements was performed. The comparative study revealed remarkable result: the cutoff probe has a great reproducibility for the electron density measurement, i.e., there are little differences among measurements by different probes made by different experimenters. The discussion including the reason for the result was addressed via this paper by using a basic measurement principle of cutoff probe and a comparative experiment with Langmuir probe.

  18. Quantitative electron probe microanalysis of boron in binary borides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastin, G.F.; Heijligers, H.J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Quantitative electron probe microanalysis has been performed in 27 binary borides in the range of 4-30 keV, both for the metals as well as for Boron. The procedures along which accurate intensity measurements for B-K α must be carried out are discussed in detail. A total of 196 k-ratios with respect to elemental standards for the metal X-ray lines and 180 k-ratios for B-K α relative to elemental Boron have been obtained. These data have been used to arrive at an improved parameterization for the φ(ρz) approach in matrix correction. The resulting new program (BAS861) was compared to 5 other current correction programs. At the same occasion the available set of mass absorption coefficients for Boron was tested on its consistency and better values suggested where necessary. Finally it is shown that the modified version of the Gaussian φ(ρz) approach (BAS861 program) is highly successful in the matrix correction for B-K α : a relative root-mean-square value of 6.30% was obtained. (Auth.)

  19. Electron-beam-induced-current and active secondary-electron voltage-contrast with aberration-corrected electron probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Myung-Geun, E-mail: mghan@bnl.gov [Condensed Matter Physics & Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Garlow, Joseph A. [Condensed Matter Physics & Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Department, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Marshall, Matthew S.J.; Tiano, Amanda L. [Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11974 (United States); Wong, Stanislaus S. [Condensed Matter Physics & Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11974 (United States); Cheong, Sang-Wook [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers Center for Emergent Materials, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Walker, Frederick J.; Ahn, Charles H. [Department of Applied Physics and Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Zhu, Yimei [Condensed Matter Physics & Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Electron-beam-induced-current (EBIC) and active secondary-electron voltage-contrast (SE-VC) are demonstrated in STEM mode combined with in situ electrical biasing in a TEM. • Electrostatic potential maps in ferroelectric thin films, multiferroic nanowires, and single crystals obtained by off-axis electron holography were compared with EBIC and SE-VC data. • Simultaneous EBIC and active SE-VC performed with atomic resolution STEM are demonstrated. - Abstract: The ability to map out electrostatic potentials in materials is critical for the development and the design of nanoscale electronic and spintronic devices in modern industry. Electron holography has been an important tool for revealing electric and magnetic field distributions in microelectronics and magnetic-based memory devices, however, its utility is hindered by several practical constraints, such as charging artifacts and limitations in sensitivity and in field of view. In this article, we report electron-beam-induced-current (EBIC) and secondary-electron voltage-contrast (SE-VC) with an aberration-corrected electron probe in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), as complementary techniques to electron holography, to measure electric fields and surface potentials, respectively. These two techniques were applied to ferroelectric thin films, multiferroic nanowires, and single crystals. Electrostatic potential maps obtained by off-axis electron holography were compared with EBIC and SE-VC to show that these techniques can be used as a complementary approach to validate quantitative results obtained from electron holography analysis.

  20. Secondary mineralization in carious lesions of human dentin. Electron-probe, electron microscope, and electron diffraction studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogiwara, H [Tokyo Dental Coll. (Japan)

    1975-02-01

    Dentinal carious lesions having a remineralized surface layer were studied by means electron-probe microanalysis, electron microscopy, electron diffraction. As the results of electron-probe study, F, Mg, and Na were found to be distributed mainly in the remineralized surface layer and S in the decalcified region where decreases in Ca, P, and Mg concentration were usually observed. The decrease in Mg concentration always started earlier than that of Ca and P concentration. Electron microscope and electron diffraction studies revealed that apatic crystals in the remineralized surface layer were much larger than those in the intact dentin. Although they were less conspicuous, crystals in the decalcified region also were larger than those in the intact region. Dentinal tubules, occluded by many crystals, were frequently seen during the observations. Crystals in the tubules varied in morphology, showing granular, needle, rhomboid, and tabular shapes. By means of electron diffraction, the granular- or needle-shaped crystals were identified as apatite and the rhomboid-shaped crystals as whitlockite. Some of the tabular-shaped crystals appeared to be cotacalcium phosphate.

  1. Quantum Mechanical Modeling of Ballistic MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svizhenko, Alexei; Anantram, M. P.; Govindan, T. R.; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop theory, approximations, and computer code to model quasi 1D structures such as nanotubes, DNA, and MOSFETs: (1) Nanotubes: Influence of defects on ballistic transport, electro-mechanical properties, and metal-nanotube coupling; (2) DNA: Model electron transfer (biochemistry) and transport experiments, and sequence dependence of conductance; and (3) MOSFETs: 2D doping profiles, polysilicon depletion, source to drain and gate tunneling, understand ballistic limit.

  2. Plasma potential measurements in the edge region of the ISTTOK plasma, using electron emissive probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionita, C.; Balan, P.; Schrittwieser, R.; Cabral, J.A.; Fernandes, H.; Figueiredo, H. F.C.; Varandas, C.

    2001-01-01

    We have recently started to use electron-emissive probes for direct measurements of the plasma potential and its fluctuations in the edge region of the plasma ring in the tokamak ISTTOK in Lisbon, Portugal. This method is based on the fact that the electron emission current of such a probe is able to compensate electron temperature variations and electron drifts, which can occur in the edge plasma region of magnetized fusion devices, and which are making measurements with cold probes prone to errors. In this contribution we present some of the first results of our investigations in ISTTOK.(author)

  3. Sensing lymphoma cells based on a cell-penetrating/apoptosis-inducing/electron-transfer peptide probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Kazuharu; Shinohara, Hiroki; Kadoya, Toshihiko; Kuramitz, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    To electrochemically sense lymphoma cells (U937), we fabricated a multifunctional peptide probe that consists of cell-penetrating/apoptosis-inducing/electron-transfer peptides. Electron-transfer peptides derive from cysteine residue combined with the C-terminals of four tyrosine residues (Y_4). A peptide whereby Y_4C is bound to the C-terminals of protegrin 1 (RGGRLCYCRRRFCVCVGR-NH_2) is known to be an apoptosis-inducing agent against U937 cells, and is referred to as a peptide-1 probe. An oxidation response of the peptide-1 probe has been observed due to a phenolic hydroxyl group, and this response is decreased by the uptake of the peptide probe into the cells. To improve the cell membrane permeability against U937 cells, the RGGR at the N-terminals of the peptide-1 probe was replaced by RRRR (peptide-2 probe). In contrast, RNRCKGTDVQAWY_4C (peptide-3 probe), which recognizes ovalbumin, was constructed as a control. Compared with the other probes, the change in the peak current of the peptide-2 probe was the greatest at low concentrations and occurred in a short amount of time. Therefore, the cell membrane permeability of the peptide-2 probe was increased based on the arginine residues and the apoptosis-inducing peptides. The peak current was linear and ranged from 100 to 1000 cells/ml. The relative standard deviation of 600 cells/ml was 5.0% (n = 5). Furthermore, the membrane permeability of the peptide probes was confirmed using fluorescent dye. - Highlights: • We constructed a multifunctional peptide probe for the electrochemical sensing of lymphoma cells. • The peptide probe consists of cell-penetrating/apoptosis-inducing/electron-transfer peptides. • The electrode response of the peptide probe changes due to selective uptake into the cells.

  4. Sensing lymphoma cells based on a cell-penetrating/apoptosis-inducing/electron-transfer peptide probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, Kazuharu, E-mail: kzsuga@maebashi-it.ac.jp [Maebashi Institute of Technology, Gunma 371-0816 (Japan); Shinohara, Hiroki; Kadoya, Toshihiko [Maebashi Institute of Technology, Gunma 371-0816 (Japan); Kuramitz, Hideki [Department of Environmental Biology and Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering for Research, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)

    2016-06-14

    To electrochemically sense lymphoma cells (U937), we fabricated a multifunctional peptide probe that consists of cell-penetrating/apoptosis-inducing/electron-transfer peptides. Electron-transfer peptides derive from cysteine residue combined with the C-terminals of four tyrosine residues (Y{sub 4}). A peptide whereby Y{sub 4}C is bound to the C-terminals of protegrin 1 (RGGRLCYCRRRFCVCVGR-NH{sub 2}) is known to be an apoptosis-inducing agent against U937 cells, and is referred to as a peptide-1 probe. An oxidation response of the peptide-1 probe has been observed due to a phenolic hydroxyl group, and this response is decreased by the uptake of the peptide probe into the cells. To improve the cell membrane permeability against U937 cells, the RGGR at the N-terminals of the peptide-1 probe was replaced by RRRR (peptide-2 probe). In contrast, RNRCKGTDVQAWY{sub 4}C (peptide-3 probe), which recognizes ovalbumin, was constructed as a control. Compared with the other probes, the change in the peak current of the peptide-2 probe was the greatest at low concentrations and occurred in a short amount of time. Therefore, the cell membrane permeability of the peptide-2 probe was increased based on the arginine residues and the apoptosis-inducing peptides. The peak current was linear and ranged from 100 to 1000 cells/ml. The relative standard deviation of 600 cells/ml was 5.0% (n = 5). Furthermore, the membrane permeability of the peptide probes was confirmed using fluorescent dye. - Highlights: • We constructed a multifunctional peptide probe for the electrochemical sensing of lymphoma cells. • The peptide probe consists of cell-penetrating/apoptosis-inducing/electron-transfer peptides. • The electrode response of the peptide probe changes due to selective uptake into the cells.

  5. Electronic properites of electron-doped cuprate superconductors probed by high-field magnetotransport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, Toni

    2013-01-01

    In the present work the normal-state properties of the electron-doped cuprate superconductor Nd 2-x Ce x CuO 4 (NCCO) are investigated for a broad doping range, covering almost the whole phase diagram of this material. Magnetotransport measurements in the world's highest non-destructive magnetic fields were used as a spectroscopic tool for probing the electronic structure of single-crystalline NCCO as a function of the carrier concentration x. Quantum and semiclassical oscillations in the magnetoresistance provided new insights into various properties of the Fermi surface and the nature of the ground state in the system. The detailed investigations of the field- and temperature-dependent transport and its dependence on the field orientation have revealed a close correlation between symmetry-breaking ordering instabilities and the superconducting state.

  6. Electronic properites of electron-doped cuprate superconductors probed by high-field magnetotransport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, Toni

    2013-09-18

    In the present work the normal-state properties of the electron-doped cuprate superconductor Nd{sub 2-x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4} (NCCO) are investigated for a broad doping range, covering almost the whole phase diagram of this material. Magnetotransport measurements in the world's highest non-destructive magnetic fields were used as a spectroscopic tool for probing the electronic structure of single-crystalline NCCO as a function of the carrier concentration x. Quantum and semiclassical oscillations in the magnetoresistance provided new insights into various properties of the Fermi surface and the nature of the ground state in the system. The detailed investigations of the field- and temperature-dependent transport and its dependence on the field orientation have revealed a close correlation between symmetry-breaking ordering instabilities and the superconducting state.

  7. Electronic properites of electron-doped cuprate superconductors probed by high-field magnetotransport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, Toni

    2013-09-18

    In the present work the normal-state properties of the electron-doped cuprate superconductor Nd{sub 2-x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4} (NCCO) are investigated for a broad doping range, covering almost the whole phase diagram of this material. Magnetotransport measurements in the world's highest non-destructive magnetic fields were used as a spectroscopic tool for probing the electronic structure of single-crystalline NCCO as a function of the carrier concentration x. Quantum and semiclassical oscillations in the magnetoresistance provided new insights into various properties of the Fermi surface and the nature of the ground state in the system. The detailed investigations of the field- and temperature-dependent transport and its dependence on the field orientation have revealed a close correlation between symmetry-breaking ordering instabilities and the superconducting state.

  8. Measurement of plasma potential and electron temperature by ball-pen probes in RFX-MOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brotankova, J.; Adamek, J.; Stockel, J.; Martines, E.; Spolaore, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Serianni, G.; Vianello, N.; Zuin, M.

    2009-01-01

    The ball-pen probe (BPP) is an innovative electric probe for direct measurements of the plasma potential. This probe was developed in IPP Prague and it is based on the Katsumata probe concept. Combined measurements of the plasma potential by a BPP and floating potential by a Langmuir probe provide also the value of the electron temperature. First test of the BPP on the RFX-mod reversed field pinch in Padova has been performed in November 2006. The BPP head, made of boron nitride, is equipped with four graphite collectors, which are positioned at four different radial positions h inside four shafts hollow into the probe head. The radial profile of the plasma potential and also the electron temperature were measured

  9. Blinded Comparison between an In-Air Reverberation Method and an Electronic Probe Tester in the Detection of Ultrasound Probe Faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Nicholas J; Woolley, Darren J

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a blinded trial, comparing the results of a visual inspection of the in-air reverberation pattern with the results of an electronic probe tester in detecting ultrasound probe faults. Sixty-two probes were tested. A total of 28 faults were found, 3 only by in-air reverberation assessment and 2 only by the electronic probe tester. The electronic probe tester provided additional information regarding the location of the fault in 74% of the cases in which both methods detected a fault. It is possible to detect the majority of probe faults by visual inspection and in-air reverberation assessment. The latter provides an excellent first-line test, easily performed on a daily basis by equipment users. An electronic probe tester is required if detailed evaluation of faults is necessary. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. All rights reserved.

  10. Electronic transport at semiconductor surfaces - from point-contact transistor to micro-four-point probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasegawa, S.; Grey, Francois

    2002-01-01

    show that this type of conduction is measurable using new types of experimental probes, such as the multi-tip scanning tunnelling microscope and the micro-four-point probe. The resulting electronic transport properties are intriguing, and suggest that semiconductor surfaces should be considered...

  11. Methods for measurement of electron emission yield under low energy electron-irradiation by collector method and Kelvin probe method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tondu, Thomas; Belhaj, Mohamed; Inguimbert, Virginie [Onera, DESP, 2 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Onera, DESP, 2 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France and Fondation STAE, 4 allee Emile Monso, BP 84234-31432, Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Onera, DESP, 2 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France)

    2010-09-15

    Secondary electron emission yield of gold under electron impact at normal incidence below 50 eV was investigated by the classical collector method and by the Kelvin probe method. The authors show that biasing a collector to ensure secondary electron collection while keeping the target grounded can lead to primary electron beam perturbations. Thus reliable secondary electron emission yield at low primary electron energy cannot be obtained with a biased collector. The authors present two collector-free methods based on current measurement and on electron pulse surface potential buildup (Kelvin probe method). These methods are consistent, but at very low energy, measurements become sensitive to the earth magnetic field (below 10 eV). For gold, the authors can extrapolate total emission yield at 0 eV to 0.5, while a total electron emission yield of 1 is obtained at 40{+-}1 eV.

  12. Methods for measurement of electron emission yield under low energy electron-irradiation by collector method and Kelvin probe method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondu, Thomas; Belhaj, Mohamed; Inguimbert, Virginie

    2010-01-01

    Secondary electron emission yield of gold under electron impact at normal incidence below 50 eV was investigated by the classical collector method and by the Kelvin probe method. The authors show that biasing a collector to ensure secondary electron collection while keeping the target grounded can lead to primary electron beam perturbations. Thus reliable secondary electron emission yield at low primary electron energy cannot be obtained with a biased collector. The authors present two collector-free methods based on current measurement and on electron pulse surface potential buildup (Kelvin probe method). These methods are consistent, but at very low energy, measurements become sensitive to the earth magnetic field (below 10 eV). For gold, the authors can extrapolate total emission yield at 0 eV to 0.5, while a total electron emission yield of 1 is obtained at 40±1 eV.

  13. Active Probing of Space Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    ft. shuttle wake mlay also a kect the optration (if mi’:nc di.tg. Ibk Prwwattr of ,frttirw 844 I. %rvaom ’itbi h" $od iy radlet 6�va of IkeA dtm t...probe had a specially designed inner shaft caused by the existence of some ballistic electrons after made with .pring sleel tubing. By externally...potential to the electron thermal energy i(s distances downstream of the body (see Fig. 1). This (e OIT,) was on the order of 10 in steady state. design

  14. NMR Probe for Electrons in Semiconductor Mesoscopic Structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-11-14

    Nov 14, 2009 ... Strongly correlated electron systems: Overview ... Mutual interaction of electrons dominates their kinetic energies giving rise to ... transport properties. .... Low energy spin-flip excitations of a spin chain with lattice constant 1/n ...

  15. Characterizing nanoscale scanning probes using electron microscopy: A novel fixture and a practical guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Tevis D. B., E-mail: tjacobs@pitt.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, 3700 O’Hara St., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15208 (United States); Wabiszewski, Graham E.; Goodman, Alexander J.; Carpick, Robert W., E-mail: carpick@seas.upenn.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, University of Pennsylvania, 220 S. 33rd St., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    The nanoscale geometry of probe tips used for atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements determines the lateral resolution, contributes to the strength of the tip-surface interaction, and can be a significant source of uncertainty in the quantitative analysis of results. While inverse imaging of the probe tip has been used successfully to determine probe tip geometry, direct observation of the tip profile using electron microscopy (EM) confers several advantages: it provides direct (rather than indirect) imaging, requires fewer algorithmic parameters, and does not require bringing the tip into contact with a sample. In the past, EM-based observation of the probe tip has been achieved using ad hoc mounting methods that are constrained by low throughput, the risk of contamination, and repeatability issues. We report on a probe fixture designed for use in a commercial transmission electron microscope that enables repeatable mounting of multiple AFM probes as well as a reference grid for beam alignment. This communication describes the design, fabrication, and advantages of this probe fixture, including full technical drawings for machining. Further, best practices are discussed for repeatable, non-destructive probe imaging. Finally, examples of the fixture’s use are described, including characterization of common commercial AFM probes in their out-of-the-box condition.

  16. The Truth About Ballistic Coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy

    2007-01-01

    The ballistic coefficient of a bullet describes how it slows in flight due to air resistance. This article presents experimental determinations of ballistic coefficients showing that the majority of bullets tested have their previously published ballistic coefficients exaggerated from 5-25% by the bullet manufacturers. These exaggerated ballistic coefficients lead to inaccurate predictions of long range bullet drop, retained energy and wind drift.

  17. Electron ring diagnostics with magnetic probes during roll-out and acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, U.; Ulrich, M.

    1976-03-01

    Different methods using magnetic field probes to determine the properties of electron rings during their compression, roll-out and acceleration are presented. The results of the measurements of the electron number and the axial velocity and acceleration of the rings, as obtained with the various diagnostic devices, are discussed and compared. (orig.) [de

  18. Reconstruction of the electron energy distribution function from probe characteristics at intermediate and high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslanbekov, R.R.; Kolokolov, N.B.; Kudryavtsev, A.A.; Khromov, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    Gorbunov et al. have developed a kinetic theory of the electron current drawn by a probe, which substantially extends the region of applicability of the probe method for determining the electron energy distribution function, enabling probes to be used for intermediate and high pressures (up to p ≤ 0.5 atm for monatomic gases). They showed that for λ var-epsilon >> a + d (where a is the probe radius, d is the sheath thickness, and λ var-epsilon is the electron energy relaxation length) the current density j e (V) drawn by the probe is related to the unperturbed distribution function by an integral equation involving the distribution function. The kernal of the integral equation can be written as a function of the diffusion parameter. In the present paper the method of quadrature sums is employed in order to obtain the electron energy distribution function from probe characteristics at intermediate and high pressures. This technique enables them to recover the distribution function from the integral equation when the diffusion parameter has an arbitrary energy dependence ψ 0 (var-epsilon) in any given energy range. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by application to both model problems and experimental data

  19. Simulation of Probe Position-Dependent Electron Energy-Loss Fine Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxley, M. P.; Kapetanakis, M. D.; Prange, Micah P.; Varela, M.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2014-03-31

    We present a theoretical framework for calculating probe-position-dependent electron energy-loss near-edge structure for the scanning transmission electron microscope by combining density functional theory with dynamical scattering theory. We show how simpler approaches to calculating near-edge structure fail to include the fundamental physics needed to understand the evolution of near-edge structure as a function of probe position and investigate the dependence of near-edge structure on probe size. It is within this framework that density functional theory should be presented, in order to ensure that variations of near-edge structure are truly due to local electronic structure and how much from the diffraction and focusing of the electron beam.

  20. Ballistic Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ballistic Test Facility is comprised of two outdoor and one indoor test ranges, which are all instrumented for data acquisition and analysis. Full-size aircraft...

  1. Is there ballistic transport in metallic nano-objects? Ballistic versus diffusive contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, N; Bai Ming; Lu Yonghua; Munoz, M; Cheng Hao; Levanyuk, A P

    2007-01-01

    When discussing the resistance of an atomic-or nanometre-size contact we should consider both its ballistic and its diffusive contributions. But there is a contribution of the leads to the resistance of the contact as well. In this context, the geometry and the roughness of the surfaces limiting the system will contribute to the resistance, and these contributions should be added to the ideal ballistic resistance of the nanocontact. We have calculated, for metallic materials, the serial resistance of the leads arising from the roughness, and our calculations show that the ohmic resistance is as important as the ballistic resistance of the constriction. The classical resistance is a lower limit to the quantum resistance of the leads. Many examples of earlier experiments show that the mean free path of the transport electrons is of the order of the size of the contacts or the leads. This is not compatible with the idea of ballistic transport. This result may put in serious difficulties the current, existing interpretation of experimental data in metals where only small serial resistances compared with the ballistic component of the total resistance have been taken into account. The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is also discussed and the serial corrections appear to be smaller than for metals. Experiments with these last systems are proposed that may reveal new interesting aspects in the physics of ballistic and diffusive transport

  2. Electron-probe microanalysis: x-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The main principles on X-ray, energy and wave length dispersive spectroscopy are reviewed. In order to allow the choice of the best operating conditions, the importance of the regulation and control systems is underlined. Emission theory, X-rays nature and its interaction with matter and electrons in the matter is shown. The structure, operating procedures and necessary electronics (single channel - analysis chain) automatic-control system for the threshold-energies discrimination and the energy distribution visualization) associated to the wavelength dispersive spectroscopy are described. The focusing control, resolution, influence of chemical bonds and multilayer-structure monochromators relaled to wavelength dispersive spectroscopy are studied. Concerning the energy-dispersive spectroscopy, the detector, preamplifier, amplifier, analog-digital converter, as well as the utilization and control of the spectrometer are described. Problems and instrumental progress on energy-dispersive spectroscopy related to the electronic-noise control, charge collection and light-elements detection are discussed [fr

  3. The coupling of condensed matter excitations to electron probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    Aspects of coupling of a classical electron with bulk and surface excitations in condensed matter have been sketched. Some considerations of a self-energy approach to the complete quantal treatment of this coupling have been given. 19 refs., 3 figs

  4. Analysis of quantum ballistic electron transport in ultrasmall silicon devices including space-charge and geometric effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, S. E.; Kumar, A.; Fischetti, M. V.

    2004-05-01

    A two-dimensional device simulation program which self consistently solves the Schrödinger and Poisson equations with current flow is described in detail. Significant approximations adopted in this work are the absence of scattering and a simple six-valley, parabolic band structure for silicon. A modified version of the quantum transmitting boundary method is used to describe open boundary conditions permitting current flow in device solutions far from equilibrium. The continuous energy spectrum of the system is discretized by temporarily imposing two different forms of closed boundary conditions, resulting in energies which sample the density-of-states and establish the wave function normalization conditions. These standing wave solutions ("normal modes") are decomposed into their traveling wave constituents, each of which represents injection from only one of the open boundary contacts ("traveling eigencomponents"). These current-carrying states are occupied by a drifted Fermi distribution associated with their injecting contact and summed to form the electron density in the device. Holes are neglected in this calculation. The Poisson equation is solved on the same finite element computational mesh as the Schrödinger equation; devices of arbitrary geometry can be modeled. Computational performance of the program including characterization of a "Broyden+Newton" algorithm employed in the iteration for self consistency is described. Device results are presented for a narrow silicon resonant tunneling diode (RTD) and many variants of idealized silicon double-gate field effect transistors (DGFETs). The RTD results show two resonant conduction peaks, each of which demonstrates hysteresis. Three 7.5 nm channel length DGFET structures with identical intrinsic device configurations but differing access geometries (straight, taper and "dog bone") are studied and found to have differing current flows owing to quantum-mechanical reflection in their access regions

  5. Minimum detection limit and spatial resolution of thin-sample field-emission electron probe microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Yugo; Hamada, Kotaro; Urano, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The minimum detection limit and spatial resolution for a thinned semiconductor sample were determined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) using a Schottky field emission (FE) electron gun and wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Comparison of the FE-EPMA results with those obtained using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry in conjunction with scanning transmission electron microscopy, confirmed that FE-EPMA is largely superior in terms of detection sensitivity. Thin-sample FE-EPMA is demonstrated as a very effective method for high resolution, high sensitivity analysis in a laboratory environment because a high probe current and high signal-to-noise ratio can be achieved. - Highlights: • Minimum detection limit and spatial resolution determined for FE-EPMA. • Detection sensitivity of FE-EPMA greatly superior to that of STEM-EDX. • Minimum detection limit and spatial resolution controllable by probe current

  6. Low Energy Electrons as Probing Tool for Astrochemical Reaction Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrik Bredehöft, Jan; Swiderek, Petra; Hamann, Thorben

    The complexity of molecules found in space varies widely. On one end of the scale of molecular complexity is the hydrogen molecule H2 . Its formation from H atoms is if not understood than at least thoroughly investigated[1]. On the other side of said spectrum the precursors to biopolymers can be found, such as amino acids[2,3], sugars[4], lipids, cofactors[5], etc, and the kerogen-like organic polymer material in carbonaceous meteorites called "black stuff" [6]. These have also received broad attention in the last decades. Sitting in the middle between these two extremes are simple molecules that are observed by radio astronomy throughout the Universe. These are molecules like methane (CH4 ), methanol (CH3 OH), formaldehyde (CH2 O), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and many many others. So far more than 40 such species have been identified.[7] They are often used in laboratory experiments to create larger complex molecules on the surface of simulated interstellar dust grains.[2,8] The mechanisms of formation of these observed starting materials for prebiotic chemistry is however not always clear. Also the exact mechanisms of formation of larger molecules in photochemical experiments are largely unclear. This is mostly due to the very complex chemistry going on which involves many different radicals and ions. The creation of radicals and ions can be studied in detail in laboratory simulations. They can be created in a setup mimicking interstellar grain chemistry using slow electrons. There is no free electron radiation in space. What can be found though is a lot of radiation of different sorts. There is electromagnetic radiation (UV light, X-Rays, rays, etc.) and there is particulate radiation as well in the form of high energy ions. This radiation can provide energy that drives chemical reactions in the ice mantles of interstellar dust grains. And while the multitude of different kinds of radiation might be a little confusing, they all have one thing in common: Upon

  7. Ballistic transport in semiconductor nanostructures: From quasi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By suitable design it is possible to achieve quasi-ballistic transport in semiconductor nanostructures over times up to the ps-range. Monte-Carlo simulations reveal that under these conditions phase-coherent real-space oscillations of an electron ensemble, generated by fs-pulses become possible in wide potential wells.

  8. Novel probe for determining the size and position of a relativistic electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orzechowski, T.J.; Koehler, H.; Edwards, W.; Nelson, M.; Marshall, B.

    1984-01-01

    In order to determine the size and position of a relativistic electron beam inside the wiggler magnetic field of a Free Electron Laser (FEL), we have developed a new probe which intercepts the electron beam on a high Z target and monitors the resulting bremsstrahlung radiation. The probe is designed to move along the entire three meters of the wiggler. This FEL is designed to operate in the microwave region (2 to 8 mm) and the interaction region is an oversized waveguide with a cross section 3 cm x 9.8 cm. The axial probe moves inside this waveguide. The probe stops the electron beam on a Tantalum target and the resulting x-rays are scattered in the forward direction. A scintillator behind the beam stop reacts to the x-rays and emits visible light in the region where the x-rays strike. An array of fiber optics behind the scintillator transmits the visible light to a Reticon camera system which images the visible pattern from the scintillator. Processing the optical image is done by digitizing and storing the image and/or recording the image on video tape. Resolution and performance of this probe will be discussed

  9. Two distinct ballistic processes in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewkowicz, M; Rosenstein, B; Nghiem, D

    2012-01-01

    A dynamical approach to ballistic transport in mesoscopic graphene samples of finite length Land contact potential difference with leads U is developed. It is shown that at ballistic times shorter than both relevant time scales, t L = L/v g (v g - Fermi velocity) and t u = ħ/(eU), the major effect of electric field is to creates the electron - hole pairs, namely causes interband transitions. At ballistic times lager than the two scales the mechanism is very different. The conductivity has its “nonrelativistic” or intraband value equal to the one obtained within the Landauer-Butticker approach for the barrier Uresulting from evanescent waves tunneling through the barrier.

  10. A new Langmuir probe concept for rapid sampling of space plasma electron density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, K S; Pedersen, A; Moen, J I; Bekkeng, T A

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new Langmuir probe concept that was invented for the in situ investigation of HF radar backscatter irregularities, with the capability to measure absolute electron density at a resolution sufficient to resolve the finest conceivable structure in an ionospheric plasma. The instrument consists of two or more fixed-bias cylindrical Langmuir probes whose radius is small compared to the Debye length. With this configuration, it is possible to acquire absolute electron density measurements independent of electron temperature and rocket/satellite potential. The system was flown on the ICI-2 sounding rocket to investigate the plasma irregularities which cause HF backscatter. It had a sampling rate of more than 5 kHz and successfully measured structures down to the scale of one electron gyro radius. The system can easily be adapted for any ionospheric rocket or satellite, and provides high-quality measurements of electron density at any desired resolution

  11. Miniaturized Ultrasound Imaging Probes Enabled by CMUT Arrays with Integrated Frontend Electronic Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuri-Yakub, B. (Pierre) T.; Oralkan, Ömer; Nikoozadeh, Amin; Wygant, Ira O.; Zhuang, Steve; Gencel, Mustafa; Choe, Jung Woo; Stephens, Douglas N.; de la Rama, Alan; Chen, Peter; Lin, Feng; Dentinger, Aaron; Wildes, Douglas; Thomenius, Kai; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Mahajan, Aman; Seo, Chi Hyung; O’Donnell, Matthew; Truong, Uyen; Sahn, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) arrays are conveniently integrated with frontend integrated circuits either monolithically or in a hybrid multichip form. This integration helps with reducing the number of active data processing channels for 2D arrays. This approach also preserves the signal integrity for arrays with small elements. Therefore CMUT arrays integrated with electronic circuits are most suitable to implement miniaturized probes required for many intravascular, intracardiac, and endoscopic applications. This paper presents examples of miniaturized CMUT probes utilizing 1D, 2D, and ring arrays with integrated electronics. PMID:21097106

  12. Single electron probes of fractional quantum hall states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, Vivek

    When electrons are confined to a two dimensional layer with a perpendicular applied magnetic field, such that the ratio of electrons to flux quanta (nu) is a small integer or simple rational value, these electrons condense into remarkable new phases of matter that are strikingly different from the metallic electron gas that exists in the absence of a magnetic field. These phases, called integer or fractional quantum Hall (IQH or FQH) states, appear to be conventional insulators in their bulk, but behave as a dissipationless metal along their edge. Furthermore, electrical measurements of such a system are largely insensitive to the detailed geometry of how the system is contacted or even how large the system is... only the order in which contacts are made appears to matter. This insensitivity to local geometry has since appeared in a number of other two and three dimensional systems, earning them the classification of "topological insulators" and prompting an enormous experimental and theoretical effort to understand their properties and perhaps manipulate these properties to create robust quantum information processors. The focus of this thesis will be two experiments designed to elucidate remarkable properties of the metallic edge and insulating bulk of certain FQH systems. To study such systems, we can use mesoscopic devices known as single electron transistors (SETs). These devices operate by watching single electrons hop into and out of a confining box and into a nearby wire (for measurement). If it is initially unfavorable for an electron to leave the box, it can be made favorable by bringing another charge nearby, modifying the energy of the confined electron and pushing it out of the box and into the nearby wire. In this way, the SET can measure nearby charges. Alternatively, we can heat up the nearby wire to make it easier for electrons to enter and leave the box. In this way, the SET is a sensitive thermometer. First, by operating the SET as an

  13. Ballistic characteristics improving and maintenance of protective ballistic vests

    OpenAIRE

    RADONJIC VOJKAN M.; JOVANOVIC DANKO M.; ZIVANOVIC GORAN Z.; RESIMIC BRANKO V.

    2014-01-01

    The work presents research of the materials necessary for the maintenance of protective ballistic vests. In this paper is proposed a new construction design with modern materials for ballistic inserts producing. This paper also presents the results of laboratory tests of ballistic cartridges with new materials. Based on the test results, it can be concluded, the proposed technical solution for making ballistic inserts adequately meets current standards.

  14. Probing supersymmetry with parity-violating electron scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Kurylov, A.; Ramsey-Musolf, M. J.; Su, Shufang

    2003-01-01

    We compute the one-loop supersymmetric (SUSY) contributions to the weak charges of the electron ($Q_W^e$), proton ($Q_W^p$), and cesium nucleus ($Q_W^{\\rm Cs}$) in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). Such contributions can generate several percent corrections to the corresponding Standard Model values. The magnitudes of the SUSY loop corrections to $Q_W^e$ and $Q_W^p$ are correlated over nearly all of the MSSM parameter space and result in an increase in the magnitudes of these ...

  15. Probing Plasmonic Nanostructures with Electron Energy - Loss Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren

    for nonlocal response. The experimental work comprises the use of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) to excite and study both localized and propagating surface plasmons in metal structures. Following a short introduction, we present the theoretical foundation to describe nonlocal response in Maxwell......, dimer with nanometer-sized gaps, core-shell nanowire with ultrathin metal shell, and a thin metal film. In all cases we compare the nonlocal models with the local-response approximation. Below the plasma frequency, we find that the distance between the induced positive and negative surface charges...

  16. Probing quantum coherence in single-atom electron spin resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willke, Philip; Paul, William; Natterer, Fabian D.; Yang, Kai; Bae, Yujeong; Choi, Taeyoung; Fernández-Rossier, Joaquin; Heinrich, Andreas J.; Lutz, Christoper P.

    2018-01-01

    Spin resonance of individual spin centers allows applications ranging from quantum information technology to atomic-scale magnetometry. To protect the quantum properties of a spin, control over its local environment, including energy relaxation and decoherence processes, is crucial. However, in most existing architectures, the environment remains fixed by the crystal structure and electrical contacts. Recently, spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), in combination with electron spin resonance (ESR), allowed the study of single adatoms and inter-atomic coupling with an unprecedented combination of spatial and energy resolution. We elucidate and control the interplay of an Fe single spin with its atomic-scale environment by precisely tuning the phase coherence time T2 using the STM tip as a variable electrode. We find that the decoherence rate is the sum of two main contributions. The first scales linearly with tunnel current and shows that, on average, every tunneling electron causes one dephasing event. The second, effective even without current, arises from thermally activated spin-flip processes of tip spins. Understanding these interactions allows us to maximize T2 and improve the energy resolution. It also allows us to maximize the amplitude of the ESR signal, which supports measurements even at elevated temperatures as high as 4 K. Thus, ESR-STM allows control of quantum coherence in individual, electrically accessible spins. PMID:29464211

  17. Probing low-energy hyperbolic polaritons in van der Waals crystals with an electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govyadinov, Alexander A; Konečná, Andrea; Chuvilin, Andrey; Vélez, Saül; Dolado, Irene; Nikitin, Alexey Y; Lopatin, Sergei; Casanova, Fèlix; Hueso, Luis E; Aizpurua, Javier; Hillenbrand, Rainer

    2017-07-21

    Van der Waals materials exhibit intriguing structural, electronic, and photonic properties. Electron energy loss spectroscopy within scanning transmission electron microscopy allows for nanoscale mapping of such properties. However, its detection is typically limited to energy losses in the eV range-too large for probing low-energy excitations such as phonons or mid-infrared plasmons. Here, we adapt a conventional instrument to probe energy loss down to 100 meV, and map phononic states in hexagonal boron nitride, a representative van der Waals material. The boron nitride spectra depend on the flake thickness and on the distance of the electron beam to the flake edges. To explain these observations, we developed a classical response theory that describes the interaction of fast electrons with (anisotropic) van der Waals slabs, revealing that the electron energy loss is dominated by excitation of hyperbolic phonon polaritons, and not of bulk phonons as often reported. Thus, our work is of fundamental importance for interpreting future low-energy loss spectra of van der Waals materials.Here the authors adapt a STEM-EELS system to probe energy loss down to 100 meV, and apply it to map phononic states in hexagonal boron nitride, revealing that the electron loss is dominated by hyperbolic phonon polaritons.

  18. Probing low-energy hyperbolic polaritons in van der Waals crystals with an electron microscope

    KAUST Repository

    Govyadinov, Alexander A.

    2017-07-14

    Van der Waals materials exhibit intriguing structural, electronic, and photonic properties. Electron energy loss spectroscopy within scanning transmission electron microscopy allows for nanoscale mapping of such properties. However, its detection is typically limited to energy losses in the eV range-too large for probing low-energy excitations such as phonons or mid-infrared plasmons. Here, we adapt a conventional instrument to probe energy loss down to 100 meV, and map phononic states in hexagonal boron nitride, a representative van der Waals material. The boron nitride spectra depend on the flake thickness and on the distance of the electron beam to the flake edges. To explain these observations, we developed a classical response theory that describes the interaction of fast electrons with (anisotropic) van der Waals slabs, revealing that the electron energy loss is dominated by excitation of hyperbolic phonon polaritons, and not of bulk phonons as often reported. Thus, our work is of fundamental importance for interpreting future low-energy loss spectra of van der Waals materials.Here the authors adapt a STEM-EELS system to probe energy loss down to 100 meV, and apply it to map phononic states in hexagonal boron nitride, revealing that the electron loss is dominated by hyperbolic phonon polaritons.

  19. Probing low-energy hyperbolic polaritons in van der Waals crystals with an electron microscope

    KAUST Repository

    Govyadinov, Alexander A.; Konečná , Andrea; Chuvilin, Andrey; Vé lez, Saü l; Dolado, Irene; Nikitin, Alexey Y.; Lopatin, Sergei; Casanova, Fè lix; Hueso, Luis E.; Aizpurua, Javier; Hillenbrand, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    Van der Waals materials exhibit intriguing structural, electronic, and photonic properties. Electron energy loss spectroscopy within scanning transmission electron microscopy allows for nanoscale mapping of such properties. However, its detection is typically limited to energy losses in the eV range-too large for probing low-energy excitations such as phonons or mid-infrared plasmons. Here, we adapt a conventional instrument to probe energy loss down to 100 meV, and map phononic states in hexagonal boron nitride, a representative van der Waals material. The boron nitride spectra depend on the flake thickness and on the distance of the electron beam to the flake edges. To explain these observations, we developed a classical response theory that describes the interaction of fast electrons with (anisotropic) van der Waals slabs, revealing that the electron energy loss is dominated by excitation of hyperbolic phonon polaritons, and not of bulk phonons as often reported. Thus, our work is of fundamental importance for interpreting future low-energy loss spectra of van der Waals materials.Here the authors adapt a STEM-EELS system to probe energy loss down to 100 meV, and apply it to map phononic states in hexagonal boron nitride, revealing that the electron loss is dominated by hyperbolic phonon polaritons.

  20. Self-Consistent Theory of Shot Noise Suppression in Ballistic Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulashenko, O. M.; Rubí, J. M.; Kochelap, V. A.

    Shot-noise measurements become a fundamental tool to probe carrier interactions in mesoscopic systems [1]. A matter of particular interest is the significance of Coulomb interaction which may keep nearby electrons more regularly spaced rather than strictly at random and lead to the noise reduction. That effect occurs in different physical situations. Among them are charge-limited ballistic transport, resonant tunneling, single-electron tunneling, etc. In this communication we address the problem of Coulomb correlations in ballistic conductors under the space-charge-limited transport conditions, and present for the first time a semiclassical self-consistent theory of shot noise in these conductors by solving analytically the kinetic equation coupled self-consistently with a Poisson equation. Basing upon this theory, exact results for current noise in a two-terminal ballistic conductor under the action of long-range Coulomb correlations has been derived. The noise reduction factor (in respect to the uncorrelated value) is obtained in a closed analytical form for a full range of biases ranging from thermal to shot-noise limits which describe perfectly the results of the Monte Carlo simulations for a nondegenerate electron gas [2]. The magnitude of the noise reduction exceeds 0.01, which is of interest from the point of view of possible applications. Using these analytical results one may estimate a relative contribution to the noise from different groups of carriers (in energy space and/or real space) and to investigate in great detail the correlations between different groups of carriers. This leads us to suggest an electron energy spectroscopy experiment to probe the Coulomb correlations in ballistic conductors. Indeed, while the injected carriers are uncorrelated, those in the volume of the conductor are strongly correlated, as follows from the derived formulas for the fluctuation of the distribution function. Those correlations may be observed experimentally by

  1. Mechanism of ballistic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindoni, J.M.; Sharma, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Ballistic collisions is a term used to describe atom-diatom collisions during which a substantial fraction of the initial relative translational energy is converted into the internal energy of the diatom. An exact formulation of the impulse approach to atom-diatom collisions is shown to be in excellent agreement with the experimental results for the CsF-Ar system at 1.1 eV relative translational energy for laboratory scattering angles of 30 degree and 60 degree. The differential cross section for scattering of CsF peaks at two distinct recoil velocities. The peak centered at the recoil velocity corresponding to elastic scattering has been called the elastic peak. This peak is shown to consist of several hundred inelastic transitions, most involving a small change in internal energy. The peak near the center-of-mass (c.m.) velocity is called the ballistic peak and is shown to consist of highly inelastic (ballistic) transitions. It is shown that transitions comprising the ballistic (elastic) peak occur when an Ar atom strikes the F (Cs) end of CsF. When one is looking along the direction of the c.m. velocity, the signal from a single transition, which converts about 99.99% of the relative translational energy into internal energy, may be larger than the signal from any other ballistic transition by as much as an order of magnitude. This property may be used to prepare state-selected and velocity-selected beams for further studies. It is also pointed out that the ballistic peak may be observed for any atom-molecule system under appropriate circumstances

  2. Ballistic missile defense effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, George N.

    2017-11-01

    The potential effectiveness of ballistic missile defenses today remains a subject of debate. After a brief discussion of terminal and boost phase defenses, this chapter will focus on long-range midcourse defenses. The problems posed by potential countermeasures to such midcourse defenses are discussed as are the sensor capabilities a defense might have available to attempt to discriminate the actual missile warhead in a countermeasures environment. The role of flight testing in assessing ballistic missile defense effectiveness is discussed. Arguments made about effectiveness by missile defense supporters and critics are summarized.

  3. Electron transfer reactions to probe the electrode/solution interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capitanio, F.; Guerrini, E.; Colombo, A.; Trasatti, S. [Milan Univ., Milan (Italy). Dept. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry

    2008-07-01

    The reactions that occur at the interface between an electrode and an electrolyte were examined with particular reference to the interaction of different electrode surfaces with redox couples. A semi-integration or convolution technique was used to study the kinetics of electron transfer on different electrode materials with different hydrophilic behaviour, such as Boron-Doped-Diamond (BDD), Au and Pt. Standard reversible redox couples were also investigated, including (Fe3+/2+, Fe(CN)63-/4-, Ru(NH3)63+/2+, Co(NH3)63+/2+, Ir4+/3+, V4+/5+ and V3+/2+). The proposed method proved to be simple, straightforward and reliable since the obtained kinetic information was in good agreement with data in the literature. It was concluded that the kinetics of the electrode transfer reactions depend on the chemical nature of the redox couple and electrode material. The method should be further extended to irreversible couples and other electrode materials such as mixed oxide electrodes. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Experimental Route to Scanning Probe Hot Electron Nanoscopy (HENs) Applied to 2D Material

    KAUST Repository

    Giugni, Andrea; Torre, Bruno; Allione, Marco; Das, Gobind; Wang, Zhenwei; He, Xin; Alshareef, Husam N.; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2017-01-01

    for applications in electronics: 2D MoS2 single crystal and a p-type SnO layer. Results are supported by complementary scanning Kelvin probe microscopy, traditional conductive AFM, and Raman measurements. New features highlighted by HEN technique reveal details

  5. Diagnosis of early human myocardial ischemic damage with electron probe microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.; Abraham, J.L.; Raasch, F.; Wolf, P.; Bloor, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    We determined the Na/K x-ray intensity ratio in frozen sections of myocardial tissues obtained at autopsy from patients who died from various causes, using electron probe analysis. We have been able to distinguish between the ischemically injured and normal cells. The method is simple, fast, and dependable even when the duration of ischemia is only 30 minutes

  6. Mach probe interpretation in the presence of supra-thermal electrons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fuchs, Vladimír; Gunn, J. P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2007), 032501-1 ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/04/0360 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Mach probes * supra -thermal electrons * quasi-neutral PIC codes Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.325, year: 2007

  7. Probing Individual Ice Nucleation Events with Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bingbing; China, Swarup; Knopf, Daniel; Gilles, Mary; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation is one of the processes of critical relevance to a range of topics in the fundamental and the applied science and technologies. Heterogeneous ice nucleation initiated by particles proceeds where microscopic properties of particle surfaces essentially control nucleation mechanisms. Ice nucleation in the atmosphere on particles governs the formation of ice and mixed phase clouds, which in turn influence the Earth's radiative budget and climate. Heterogeneous ice nucleation is still insufficiently understood and poses significant challenges in predictive understanding of climate change. We present a novel microscopy platform allowing observation of individual ice nucleation events at temperature range of 193-273 K and relative humidity relevant for ice formation in the atmospheric clouds. The approach utilizes a home built novel ice nucleation cell interfaced with Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (IN-ESEM system). The IN-ESEM system is applied for direct observation of individual ice formation events, determining ice nucleation mechanisms, freezing temperatures, and relative humidity onsets. Reported microanalysis of the ice nucleating particles (INP) include elemental composition detected by the energy dispersed analysis of X-rays (EDX), and advanced speciation of the organic content in particles using scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). The performance of the IN-ESEM system is validated through a set of experiments with kaolinite particles with known ice nucleation propensity. We demonstrate an application of the IN-ESEM system to identify and characterize individual INP within a complex mixture of ambient particles.

  8. Electron temperature and heat load measurements in the COMPASS divertor using the new system of probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamek, J.; Seidl, J.; Horacek, J.; Komm, M.; Eich, T.; Panek, R.; Cavalier, J.; Devitre, A.; Peterka, M.; Vondracek, P.; Stöckel, J.; Sestak, D.; Grover, O.; Bilkova, P.; Böhm, P.; Varju, J.; Havranek, A.; Weinzettl, V.; Lovell, J.; Dimitrova, M.; Mitosinkova, K.; Dejarnac, R.; Hron, M.; The COMPASS Team; The EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-11-01

    A new system of probes was recently installed in the divertor of tokamak COMPASS in order to investigate the ELM energy density with high spatial and temporal resolution. The new system consists of two arrays of rooftop-shaped Langmuir probes (LPs) used to measure the floating potential or the ion saturation current density and one array of Ball-pen probes (BPPs) used to measure the plasma potential with a spatial resolution of ~3.5 mm. The combination of floating BPPs and LPs yields the electron temperature with microsecond temporal resolution. We report on the design of the new divertor probe arrays and first results of electron temperature profile measurements in ELMy H-mode and L-mode. We also present comparative measurements of the parallel heat flux using the new probe arrays and fast infrared termography (IR) data during L-mode with excellent agreement between both techniques using a heat power transmission coefficient γ  =  7. The ELM energy density {{\\varepsilon }\\parallel } was measured during a set of NBI assisted ELMy H-mode discharges. The peak values of {{\\varepsilon }\\parallel } were compared with those predicted by model and with experimental data from JET, AUG and MAST with a good agreement.

  9. Micro-four-point probes in a UHV scanning electron microscope for in-situ surface-conductivity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiraki, I.; Nagao, T.; Hasegawa, S.

    2000-01-01

    For in-situ measurements of surface conductivity in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV), we have installed micro-four-point probes (probe spacings down to 4 mum) in a UHV scanning electron microscope (SEM) combined with scanning reflection-high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). With the aid of piezoactuators...

  10. Ballistic superconductivity in semiconductor nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Gül, Önder; Conesa-Boj, Sonia; Nowak, Michał P.; Wimmer, Michael; Zuo, Kun; Mourik, Vincent; de Vries, Folkert K.; van Veen, Jasper; de Moor, Michiel W. A.; Bommer, Jouri D. S.; van Woerkom, David J.; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastien R; Bakkers, Erik P.A.M.; Quintero-Pérez, Marina; Cassidy, Maja C.; Koelling, Sebastian; Goswami, Srijit; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires have opened new research avenues in quantum transport owing to their confined geometry and electrostatic tunability. They have offered an exceptional testbed for superconductivity, leading to the realization of hybrid systems combining the macroscopic quantum properties of superconductors with the possibility to control charges down to a single electron. These advances brought semiconductor nanowires to the forefront of efforts to realize topological superconductivity and Majorana modes. A prime challenge to benefit from the topological properties of Majoranas is to reduce the disorder in hybrid nanowire devices. Here we show ballistic superconductivity in InSb semiconductor nanowires. Our structural and chemical analyses demonstrate a high-quality interface between the nanowire and a NbTiN superconductor that enables ballistic transport. This is manifested by a quantized conductance for normal carriers, a strongly enhanced conductance for Andreev-reflecting carriers, and an induced hard gap with a significantly reduced density of states. These results pave the way for disorder-free Majorana devices. PMID:28681843

  11. Sensitivity of self-powered detector probes to electron and gamma-ray fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lone, M A; Wong, P Y [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    A self-powered detector (SPD) is a simple, passive device that consists of a coaxial probe with a metallic outer sleeve, a mineral oxide insulating layer, and a metallic inner core. SPD`s are used in nuclear reactors to monitor neutron and gamma fields. Responses of SPD`s to electrons and {gamma}-rays of various energies were investigated with Monte Carlo simulations. Transmission filters were studied for the design of threshold SPD probes used for online monitoring of the energy spectrum of high-power industrial electron accelerator beams. Filters were also investigated for the enhancement of {gamma}-ray sensitivity of an SPD placed in a mixed electron and {gamma}-ray field. (author). 30 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  12. Sensitivity of self-powered detector probes to electron and gamma-ray fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lone, M.A.; Wong, P.Y.

    1995-01-01

    A self-powered detector (SPD) is a simple, passive device that consists of a coaxial probe with a metallic outer sleeve, a mineral oxide insulating layer, and a metallic inner core. SPD's are used in nuclear reactors to monitor neutron and gamma fields. Responses of SPD's to electrons and γ-rays of various energies were investigated with Monte Carlo simulations. Transmission filters were studied for the design of threshold SPD probes used for online monitoring of the energy spectrum of high-power industrial electron accelerator beams. Filters were also investigated for the enhancement of γ-ray sensitivity of an SPD placed in a mixed electron and γ-ray field. (author). 30 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

  13. Probing plasmons in three dimensions by combining complementary spectroscopies in a scanning transmission electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachtel, J A; Haglund, R F; Pantelides, S T; Marvinney, C; Mayo, D; Mouti, A; Lupini, A R; Chisholm, M F; Mu, R; Pennycook, S J

    2016-01-01

    The nanoscale optical response of surface plasmons in three-dimensional metallic nanostructures plays an important role in many nanotechnology applications, where precise spatial and spectral characteristics of plasmonic elements control device performance. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and cathodoluminescence (CL) within a scanning transmission electron microscope have proven to be valuable tools for studying plasmonics at the nanoscale. Each technique has been used separately, producing three-dimensional reconstructions through tomography, often aided by simulations for complete characterization. Here we demonstrate that the complementary nature of the two techniques, namely that EELS probes beam-induced electronic excitations while CL probes radiative decay, allows us to directly obtain a spatially- and spectrally-resolved picture of the plasmonic characteristics of nanostructures in three dimensions. The approach enables nanoparticle-by-nanoparticle plasmonic analysis in three dimensions to aid in the design of diverse nanoplasmonic applications. (paper)

  14. Electron dropout echoes induced by interplanetary shock: Van Allen Probes observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Y. X.; Zong, Q.-G.; Zhou, X.-Z.; Fu, S. Y.; Rankin, R.

    2016-01-01

    On 23 November 2012, a sudden dropout of the relativistic electron flux was observed after an interplanetary shock arrival. The dropout peaks at ~1 MeV and more than 80% of the electrons disappeared from the drift shell. Van Allen twin Probes observed a sharp electron flux dropout with clear energy dispersion signals. The repeating flux dropout and recovery signatures, or “dropout echoes”, constitute a new phenomenon referred to as a “drifting electron dropout” with a limited initial spatial range. The azimuthal range of the dropout is estimated to be on the duskside, from ~1300 to 0100 LT. We then conclude that the shock-induced electron dropout is not caused by the magnetopause shadowing. Furthermore, the dropout and consequent echoes suggest that the radial migration of relativistic electrons is induced by the strong dusk-dawn asymmetric interplanetary shock compression on the magnetosphere.

  15. IMPURITY SEGREGATION OF STAINLESS STEEL STUDIED BY ATOM-PROBE AND AUGER ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY

    OpenAIRE

    Koguchi , Y.; Takahashi , K.; Ishikawa , Y.

    1987-01-01

    The surface compositions of type 304 stainless steel heated in vacuum at 600-900°C were determined by an atom-probe and Auger electron spectroscopic analysis. In addition to enrichment and depletion of alloying elements in the surface of the stainless steel, segregation of impurity elements such as carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur is known to occur. In this paper the atom-probe was used to measure the impurity segregation in the grains as well as in the grain boundary while the AES was...

  16. Probing Protein Structure and Folding in the Gas Phase by Electron Capture Dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schennach, Moritz; Breuker, Kathrin

    2015-07-01

    The established methods for the study of atom-detailed protein structure in the condensed phases, X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, have recently been complemented by new techniques by which nearly or fully desolvated protein structures are probed in gas-phase experiments. Electron capture dissociation (ECD) is unique among these as it provides residue-specific, although indirect, structural information. In this Critical Insight article, we discuss the development of ECD for the structural probing of gaseous protein ions, its potential, and limitations.

  17. A new standardless quantitative electron probe microanalysis technique applied to III-V compound semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zangalis, K.P.; Christou, A.

    1982-01-01

    The present paper introduces a new standardless quantitative scheme for off-line electron microprobe analysis applications. The analysis is based on standard equations of the type Isub(i)=Csub(i)fsub(ZAF)βsub(i) and is specifically suitable for compound semiconductors. The roots to the resultant nth-degree polynomial are the unknown concentrations. Methods for computing Csub(i) when coefficients βsub(i) are unknown are also outlined. Applications of standardless analysis to GaAs and InP specimens are compared with results obtained by Auger electron spectroscopy and quantitative electron probe analysis with standards. (Auth.)

  18. Dynamics of valence-shell electrons and nuclei probed by strong-field holography and rescattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walt, Samuel G.; Bhargava Ram, Niraghatam; Atala, Marcos; Shvetsov-Shilovski, Nikolay I; von Conta, Aaron; Baykusheva, Denitsa; Lein, Manfred; Wörner, Hans Jakob

    2017-01-01

    Strong-field photoelectron holography and laser-induced electron diffraction (LIED) are two powerful emerging methods for probing the ultrafast dynamics of molecules. However, both of them have remained restricted to static systems and to nuclear dynamics induced by strong-field ionization. Here we extend these promising methods to image purely electronic valence-shell dynamics in molecules using photoelectron holography. In the same experiment, we use LIED and photoelectron holography simultaneously, to observe coupled electronic-rotational dynamics taking place on similar timescales. These results offer perspectives for imaging ultrafast dynamics of molecules on femtosecond to attosecond timescales. PMID:28643771

  19. Ballistic transport in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calado, V. E.; Goswami, S.; Xu, Q.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.; Zhu, Shou-En; Janssen, G. C. A. M.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.

    2014-01-01

    In this letter, we report the observation of ballistic transport on micron length scales in graphene synthesised by chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Transport measurements were done on Hall bar geometries in a liquid He cryostat. Using non-local measurements, we show that electrons can be ballistically directed by a magnetic field (transverse magnetic focussing) over length scales of ∼1 μm. Comparison with atomic force microscope measurements suggests a correlation between the absence of wrinkles and the presence of ballistic transport in CVD graphene

  20. Ballistic transport in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calado, V. E.; Goswami, S.; Xu, Q.; Vandersypen, L. M. K., E-mail: l.m.k.vandersypen@tudelft.nl [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Zhu, Shou-En; Janssen, G. C. A. M. [Micro and Nano Engineering Laboratory, Precision and Microsystems Engineering, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T. [Advanced Materials Laboratory, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan)

    2014-01-13

    In this letter, we report the observation of ballistic transport on micron length scales in graphene synthesised by chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Transport measurements were done on Hall bar geometries in a liquid He cryostat. Using non-local measurements, we show that electrons can be ballistically directed by a magnetic field (transverse magnetic focussing) over length scales of ∼1 μm. Comparison with atomic force microscope measurements suggests a correlation between the absence of wrinkles and the presence of ballistic transport in CVD graphene.

  1. Investigation of Electron Transport Across Vertically Grown CNTs Using Combination of Proximity Field Emission Microscopy and Scanning Probe Image Processing Techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Kolekar, Sadhu

    2018-02-26

    Field emission from nanostructured films is known to be dominated by only small number of localized spots which varies with the voltage, electric field and heat treatment. It is important to develop processing methods which will produce stable and uniform emitting sites. In this paper we report a novel approach which involves analysis of Proximity Field Emission Microscopic (PFEM) images using Scanning Probe Image Processing technique. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube emitters have been deposited on tungsten foil by water assisted chemical vapor deposition. Prior to the field electron emission studies, these films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). AFM images of the samples show bristle like structure, the size of bristle varying from 80 to 300 nm. The topography images were found to exhibit strong correlation with current images. Current–Voltage (I–V) measurements both from Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Conducting-AFM mode suggest that electron transport mechanism in imaging vertically grown CNTs is ballistic rather than usual tunneling or field emission with a junction resistance of ~10 kΩ. It was found that I–V curves for field emission mode in PFEM geometry vary initially with number of I–V cycles until reproducible I–V curves are obtained. Even for reasonably stable I–V behavior the number of spots was found to increase with the voltage leading to a modified Fowler–Nordheim (F–N) behavior. A plot of ln(I/V3) versus 1/V was found to be linear. Current versus time data exhibit large fluctuation with the power spectral density obeying 1/f2 law. It is suggested that an analogue of F–N equation of the form ln(I/Vα) versus 1/V may be used for the analysis of field emission data, where α may depend on nanostructure configuration and can be determined from the dependence of emitting spots on the voltage.Graphical Abstract

  2. Investigation of Electron Transport Across Vertically Grown CNTs Using Combination of Proximity Field Emission Microscopy and Scanning Probe Image Processing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolekar, Sadhu; Patole, Shashikant P.; Yoo, Ji-Beom; Dharmadhikari, Chandrakant V.

    2018-03-01

    Field emission from nanostructured films is known to be dominated by only small number of localized spots which varies with the voltage, electric field and heat treatment. It is important to develop processing methods which will produce stable and uniform emitting sites. In this paper we report a novel approach which involves analysis of Proximity Field Emission Microscopic (PFEM) images using Scanning Probe Image Processing technique. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube emitters have been deposited on tungsten foil by water assisted chemical vapor deposition. Prior to the field electron emission studies, these films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). AFM images of the samples show bristle like structure, the size of bristle varying from 80 to 300 nm. The topography images were found to exhibit strong correlation with current images. Current-Voltage (I-V) measurements both from Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Conducting-AFM mode suggest that electron transport mechanism in imaging vertically grown CNTs is ballistic rather than usual tunneling or field emission with a junction resistance of 10 kΩ. It was found that I-V curves for field emission mode in PFEM geometry vary initially with number of I-V cycles until reproducible I-V curves are obtained. Even for reasonably stable I-V behavior the number of spots was found to increase with the voltage leading to a modified Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) behavior. A plot of ln(I/V3) versus 1/V was found to be linear. Current versus time data exhibit large fluctuation with the power spectral density obeying 1/f2 law. It is suggested that an analogue of F-N equation of the form ln(I/Vα) versus 1/V may be used for the analysis of field emission data, where α may depend on nanostructure configuration and can be determined from the dependence of emitting spots on the voltage.

  3. Plasma diagnostics by electron guns and electric field probes on ISEE-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, A.

    1982-01-01

    The use of electron guns to control the potential of a satellite with conductive surfaces is discussed with reference to the results of the ISEE-1 satellite experiment. The two electron guns carried by the satellite can emit electrons with energies up to 48 eV, and the emitted electron current has a maximum value of 0.5-1.0 mA. The satellite potential, with or without gun operation, can be measured with reference to one or two spherical electric field probes positioned on booms at a distance of 36 m from the satellite. The probes are biased with a negative current from a high-impedance source to be slightly positive (0.5-1.0 V) relative to the plasma, and the spacecraft is normally several volts more positive and can be further positively charged by operating the electron gun. Plasma diagnostics can be carried out by appropriate sweeps of gun currents and energy of emitted electrons to obtain information about density and characteristic energy of ambient electrons. 9 references

  4. Electron magnetic chiral dichroism in CrO2 thin films using monochromatic probe illumination in a transmission electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loukya, B.; Zhang, X.; Gupta, A.; Datta, R.

    2012-01-01

    Electron magnetic chiral dichroism (EMCD) has been studied in CrO 2 thin films (with (100) and (110) growth orientations on TiO 2 substrates) using a gun monochromator in an aberration corrected transmission electron microscope operating at 300 kV. Excellent signal-to-noise ratio is obtained at spatial resolution ∼10 nm using a monochromatic probe as compared to conventional parallel illumination, large area convergent beam electron diffraction and scanning transmission electron microscopy techniques of EMCD. Relatively rapid exposure using mono probe illumination enables collection of EMCD spectra in total of 8–9 min in energy filtered imaging mode for a given Cr L 2,3 energy scan (energy range ∼35 eV). We compared the EMCD signal obtained by extracting the Cr L 2,3 spectra under three beam diffraction geometry of two different reciprocal vectors (namely g=110 and 200) and found that the g=200 vector enables acquisition of excellent EMCD signal from relatively thicker specimen area due to the associated larger extinction distance. Orbital to spin moment ratio has been calculated using EMCD sum rules for 3d elements and dichroic spectral features associated with CrO 2 are compared and discussed with XMCD theoretical spectra. - Highlights: ► Electron magnetic circular dichroism (EMCD) of CrO 2 thin film with two different orientations. ► Improved EMCD signal with Gun monochromator illumination. ► Improved EMCD signal with higher g vector.

  5. Probing the electronic structure of redox species and direct determination of intrinsic reorganization energies of electron transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xue-Bin; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2000-01-01

    An experimental technique capable of directly determining the intrinsic reorganization energies of bimolecular electron transfer reactions is described. Appropriate solution phase redox species are prepared in the gas phase using electrospray ionization and probed using photodetachment spectroscopy. Five metal complex anions involved in the Fe 2+ -Fe 3+ redox couple are investigated and the intramolecular reorganization energies are measured directly from spectral features due to removing the most loosely bound 3d electron from the Fe(II)-complexes. The photodetachment spectra also yield electronic structure information about the Fe 2+ -Fe 3+ redox couple and provide a common electronic structure origin for the reducing capability of the Fe(II)-complexes, the most common redox reagents. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  6. Ballistic current transport studies of ferromagnetic multilayer films and tunnel junctions (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippard, W. H.; Perrella, A. C.; Buhrman, R. A.

    2001-01-01

    Three applications of ballistic electron microscopy are used to study, with nanometer-scale resolution, the magnetic and electronic properties of magnetic multilayer thin films and tunnel junctions. First, the capabilities of ballistic electron magnetic microscopy are demonstrated through an investigation of the switching behavior of continuous Ni 80 Fe 20 /Cu/Co trilayer films in the presence of an applied magnetic field. Next, the ballistic, hot-electron transport properties of Co films and multilayers formed by thermal evaporation and magnetron sputtering are compared, a comparison which reveals significant differences in the ballistic transmissivity of thin film multilayers formed by the two techniques. Finally, the electronic properties of thin aluminum oxide tunnel junctions formed by thermal evaporation and sputter deposition are investigated. Here the ballistic electron microscopy studies yield a direct measurement of the barrier height of the aluminum oxide barriers, a result that is invariant over a wide range of oxidation conditions. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  7. Electron Tunneling in Lithium Ammonia Solutions Probed by Frequency-Dependent Electron-Spin Relaxation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kiminori; Lodge, Matthew T.J.; Harmer, Jeffrey; Freed, Jack H.; Edwards, Peter P.

    2012-01-01

    Electron transfer or quantum tunneling dynamics for excess or solvated electrons in dilute lithium-ammonia solutions have been studied by pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at both X- (9.7 GHz) and W-band (94 GHz) frequencies. The electron spin-lattice (T1) and spin-spin (T2) relaxation data indicate an extremely fast transfer or quantum tunneling rate of the solvated electron in these solutions which serves to modulate the hyperfine (Fermi-contact) interaction with nitrogen nuclei in the solvation shells of ammonia molecules surrounding the localized, solvated electron. The donor and acceptor states of the solvated electron in these solutions are the initial and final electron solvation sites found before, and after, the transfer or tunneling process. To interpret and model our electron spin relaxation data from the two observation EPR frequencies requires a consideration of a multi-exponential correlation function. The electron transfer or tunneling process that we monitor through the correlation time of the nitrogen Fermi-contact interaction has a time scale of (1–10)×10−12 s over a temperature range 230–290K in our most dilute solution of lithium in ammonia. Two types of electron-solvent interaction mechanisms are proposed to account for our experimental findings. The dominant electron spin relaxation mechanism results from an electron tunneling process characterized by a variable donor-acceptor distance or range (consistent with such a rapidly fluctuating liquid structure) in which the solvent shell that ultimately accepts the transferring electron is formed from random, thermal fluctuations of the liquid structure in, and around, a natural hole or Bjerrum-like defect vacancy in the liquid. Following transfer and capture of the tunneling electron, further solvent-cage relaxation with a timescale of ca. 10−13 s results in a minor contribution to the electron spin relaxation times. This investigation illustrates the great potential

  8. Electron tunneling in lithium-ammonia solutions probed by frequency-dependent electron spin relaxation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kiminori; Lodge, Matthew T J; Harmer, Jeffrey; Freed, Jack H; Edwards, Peter P

    2012-06-06

    Electron transfer or quantum tunneling dynamics for excess or solvated electrons in dilute lithium-ammonia solutions have been studied by pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at both X- (9.7 GHz) and W-band (94 GHz) frequencies. The electron spin-lattice (T(1)) and spin-spin (T(2)) relaxation data indicate an extremely fast transfer or quantum tunneling rate of the solvated electron in these solutions which serves to modulate the hyperfine (Fermi-contact) interaction with nitrogen nuclei in the solvation shells of ammonia molecules surrounding the localized, solvated electron. The donor and acceptor states of the solvated electron in these solutions are the initial and final electron solvation sites found before, and after, the transfer or tunneling process. To interpret and model our electron spin relaxation data from the two observation EPR frequencies requires a consideration of a multiexponential correlation function. The electron transfer or tunneling process that we monitor through the correlation time of the nitrogen Fermi-contact interaction has a time scale of (1-10) × 10(-12) s over a temperature range 230-290 K in our most dilute solution of lithium in ammonia. Two types of electron-solvent interaction mechanisms are proposed to account for our experimental findings. The dominant electron spin relaxation mechanism results from an electron tunneling process characterized by a variable donor-acceptor distance or range (consistent with such a rapidly fluctuating liquid structure) in which the solvent shell that ultimately accepts the transferring electron is formed from random, thermal fluctuations of the liquid structure in, and around, a natural hole or Bjerrum-like defect vacancy in the liquid. Following transfer and capture of the tunneling electron, further solvent-cage relaxation with a time scale of ∼10(-13) s results in a minor contribution to the electron spin relaxation times. This investigation illustrates the great

  9. Probing electron acceleration and x-ray emission in laser-plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaury, C.; Ta Phuoc, K.; Corde, S.; Brijesh, P.; Lambert, G.; Malka, V.; Mangles, S. P. D.; Bloom, M. S.; Kneip, S.

    2013-01-01

    While laser-plasma accelerators have demonstrated a strong potential in the acceleration of electrons up to giga-electronvolt energies, few experimental tools for studying the acceleration physics have been developed. In this paper, we demonstrate a method for probing the acceleration process. A second laser beam, propagating perpendicular to the main beam, is focused on the gas jet few nanosecond before the main beam creates the accelerating plasma wave. This second beam is intense enough to ionize the gas and form a density depletion, which will locally inhibit the acceleration. The position of the density depletion is scanned along the interaction length to probe the electron injection and acceleration, and the betatron X-ray emission. To illustrate the potential of the method, the variation of the injection position with the plasma density is studied

  10. Quantitative analysis of biological fluids by electron probe and X ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girod, Chantal

    1986-01-01

    In order to know the kidney normal operation and to have an insight on cellular transport mechanisms and hormonal regulations at the nephron level, a technique based on the use of an electron probe has been developed for the elemental analysis of micro-volumes of biological fluids. This academic document reports applications of this technique on animals on which such fluids have been sampled at different levels of the nephron. As these samples are available in too small volumes to be dosed by conventional methods, they have been quantitatively analysed by using an electronic probe based analyser in order to determine concentrations of all elements with an atomic number greater than that of carbon. After a presentation of the implemented method and hardware, the author thus describes how an analysis is performed, and reports and discusses an example (analysis conditions, data acquisition, data processing, minimum detectable concentration, reasons for measurement scattering)

  11. Room-temperature ballistic transport in III-nitride heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matioli, Elison; Palacios, Tomás

    2015-02-11

    Room-temperature (RT) ballistic transport of electrons is experimentally observed and theoretically investigated in III-nitrides. This has been largely investigated at low temperatures in low band gap III-V materials due to their high electron mobilities. However, their application to RT ballistic devices is limited by their low optical phonon energies, close to KT at 300 K. In addition, the short electron mean-free-path at RT requires nanoscale devices for which surface effects are a limitation in these materials. We explore the unique properties of wide band-gap III-nitride semiconductors to demonstrate RT ballistic devices. A theoretical model is proposed to corroborate experimentally their optical phonon energy of 92 meV, which is ∼4× larger than in other III-V semiconductors. This allows RT ballistic devices operating at larger voltages and currents. An additional model is described to determine experimentally a characteristic dimension for ballistic transport of 188 nm. Another remarkable property is their short carrier depletion at device sidewalls, down to 13 nm, which allows top-down nanofabrication of very narrow ballistic devices. These results open a wealth of new systems and basic transport studies possible at RT.

  12. New measurements in plutonium L X ray emission spectrum using an electron probe micro-analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobin, J.L.; Despres, J.

    1966-01-01

    Further studies by means of an electron-probe micro-analyser, allowed report CEA-R--1798 authors to set up a larger plutonium X ray spectrum table. Measurements of plutonium L II and L III levels excitation potentials have also been achieved. Some remarks about apparatus performance data (such as spectrograph sensibility, resolving power and accuracy) will be found in the appendix. (authors) [fr

  13. Nonlocal Response of Metallic Nanospheres Probed by Light, Electrons, and Atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas; Yan, Wei; Raza, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by recent measurements on individual metallic nanospheres that cannot be explained with traditional classical electrodynamics, we theoretically investigate the effects of nonlocal response by metallic nanospheres in three distinct settings: atomic spontaneous emission, electron energy loss...... blueshifted surface plasmon but also an infinite series of bulk plasmons that have no counterpart in a local-response approximation. We show that these increasingly blueshifted multipole plasmons become spectrally more prominent at shorter probe-to-surface separations and for decreasing nanosphere radii...

  14. Ballistic Missile Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    At the 2010 NATO summit in Lisbon, the alliance decided to move forward on the development of a territorial ballistic missile defense (BMD) system and explore avenues for cooperation with Russia in this endeavor. Substantial progress on BMD has been made over the past decade, but some questions remain regarding the ultimate strategic utility of such a system and whether its benefi ts outweigh the possible opportunity costs. Missile defense has been a point of contention between the US and its...

  15. Whither Ballistic Missile Defense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-30

    important that technology today is placing enormous power in the many camps-not only information that enables timely decision-making, but also the...WHITHER BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE? BY AMBASSADOR HENRY F. COOPER NOVEMBER 30,1992 TECHNICAL MARKETING SOCIETY OF AMERICA WASHINGTON, DC...Conference on Technical Marketing 2000: Opportunities and Strategies for a Changing World) I intend to discuss the prospects for SDI in a changing

  16. Firearms and Ballistics

    OpenAIRE

    BOLTON-KING, Rachel; Schulze, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Chapter 7 of the book entitled 'Practical Veterinary Forensics' aims to introduce forensic veterinarians to the scientific concepts underpinning the field of firearms and ballistics. This introduction will enable practitioners to understand wound formation depending on the firearm and ammunition used. \\ud \\ud Various types of firearms, modern firing mechanisms and ammunition will be explained, together with an introduction to the physical concepts underpinning the four main constituents of th...

  17. Probing flexible conformations in molecular junctions by inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Mingsen [Department of Physics, Guizhou University, Guiyang, 550025 (China); Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory of Computational Nano-Material Science, Institute of Applied Physics, Guizhou Normal College, Guiyang, 550018 (China); Ye, Gui; Jiang, Jun, E-mail: jiangj1@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Chemical Physics, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Cai, Shaohong, E-mail: caish@mail.gufe.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Guizhou University, Guiyang, 550025 (China); Guizhou Key Laboratory of Economic System Simulation, Guizhou University of Finance and Economics, Guiyang, 550004 (China); Sun, Guangyu [Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory of Computational Nano-Material Science, Institute of Applied Physics, Guizhou Normal College, Guiyang, 550018 (China)

    2015-01-15

    The probe of flexible molecular conformation is crucial for the electric application of molecular systems. We have developed a theoretical procedure to analyze the couplings of molecular local vibrations with the electron transportation process, which enables us to evaluate the structural fingerprints of some vibrational modes in the inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS). Based on a model molecule of Bis-(4-mercaptophenyl)-ether with a flexible center angle, we have revealed and validated a simple mathematical relationship between IETS signals and molecular angles. Our results might open a route to quantitatively measure key geometrical parameters of molecular junctions, which helps to achieve precise control of molecular devices.

  18. Probing plasma wakefields using electron bunches generated from a laser wakefield accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C. J.; Wan, Y.; Guo, B.; Hua, J. F.; Pai, C.-H.; Li, F.; Zhang, J.; Ma, Y.; Wu, Y. P.; Xu, X. L.; Mori, W. B.; Chu, H.-H.; Wang, J.; Lu, W.; Joshi, C.

    2018-04-01

    We show experimental results of probing the electric field structure of plasma wakes by using femtosecond relativistic electron bunches generated from a laser wakefield accelerator. Snapshots of laser-driven linear wakes in plasmas with different densities and density gradients are captured. The spatiotemporal evolution of the wake in a plasma density up-ramp is recorded. Two parallel wakes driven by a laser with a main spot and sidelobes are identified in the experiment and reproduced in simulations. The capability of this new method for capturing the electron- and positron-driven wakes is also shown via 3D particle-in-cell simulations.

  19. Supra-ballistic phonons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, F.M.

    1989-05-01

    Energetic particles moving with a solid, either from nuclear reactions or externally injected, deposit energy by inelastic scattering processes which eventually appears as thermal energy. If the transfer of energy occurs in a crystalline solid then it is possible to couple some of the energy directly to the nuclei forming the lattice by generating phonons. In this paper the transfer of energy from a compound excited nucleus to the lattice is examined by introducing a virtual particle Π. It is shown that by including a Π in the nuclear reaction a substantial amount of energy can be coupled directly to the lattice. In the lattice this particle behaves as a spatially localized phonon of high energy, the so-called supra-ballistic phonon. By multiple inelastic scattering the supra-ballistic phonon eventually thermalizes. Because both the virtual particle Π and the equivalent supra-ballistic phonon have no charge or spin and can only exist within a lattice it is difficult to detect other than by its decay into thermal phonons. The possibility of a Π removing excess energy from a compound nucleus formed by the cold fusion of deuterium is examined. (Author)

  20. Ballistic deficit correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchene, G.; Moszynski, M.; Curien, D.

    1991-01-01

    The EUROGAM data-acquisition has to handle a large number of events/s. Typical in-beam experiments using heavy-ion fusion reactions assume the production of about 50 000 compound nuclei per second deexciting via particle and γ-ray emissions. The very powerful γ-ray detection of EUROGAM is expected to produce high-fold event rates as large as 10 4 events/s. Such high count rates introduce, in a common dead time mode, large dead times for the whole system associated with the processing of the pulse, its digitization and its readout (from the preamplifier pulse up to the readout of the information). In order to minimize the dead time the shaping time constant τ, usually about 3 μs for large volume Ge detectors has to be reduced. Smaller shaping times, however, will adversely affect the energy resolution due to ballistic deficit. One possible solution is to operate the linear amplifier, with a somewhat smaller shaping time constant (in the present case we choose τ = 1.5 μs), in combination with a ballistic deficit compensator. The ballistic deficit can be corrected in different ways using a Gated Integrator, a hardware correction or even a software correction. In this paper we present a comparative study of the software and hardware corrections as well as gated integration

  1. Ballistic negatron battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M.S.R. [Koneru Lakshmiah Univ.. Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Green fields, Vaddeswaram (India)

    2012-07-01

    If we consider the Statistics there is drastic increase in dependence of batteries from year to year, due to necessity of power storage equipment at homes, power generating off grid and on grid Wind, PV systems, etc.. Where wind power is leading in renewable sector, there is a need to look at its development. Considering the scenario in India, most of the wind resource areas are far away from grid and the remaining areas which are near to grid are of low wind currents which is of no use connecting these equipment directly to grid. So, there is a need for a power storage utility to be integrated, such as the BNB (Ballistic Negatron Battery). In this situation a country like India need a battery which should be reliable, cheap and which can be industrialized. So this paper presents the concept of working, design, operation, adaptability of a Ballistic Negatron Battery. Unlike present batteries with low energy density, huge size, more weight, more charging time and low resistant to wear level, this Ballistic Negatron Battery comes with, 1) High energy storage capability (many multiples more than the present most advanced battery). 2) Very compact in size. 3) Almost negligible in weight compared to present batteries. 4) Charges with in very less time. 5) Never exhibits a wear level greater than zero. Seems like inconceivable but adoptable with simple physics. This paper will explains in detail the principle, model, design, construction and practical considerations considered in making this battery. (Author)

  2. Communication: The electronic structure of matter probed with a single femtosecond hard x-ray pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szlachetko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical, biological, and chemical transformations are initiated by changes in the electronic configuration of the species involved. These electronic changes occur on the timescales of attoseconds (10−18 s to femtoseconds (10−15 s and drive all subsequent electronic reorganization as the system moves to a new equilibrium or quasi-equilibrium state. The ability to detect the dynamics of these electronic changes is crucial for understanding the potential energy surfaces upon which chemical and biological reactions take place. Here, we report on the determination of the electronic structure of matter using a single self-seeded femtosecond x-ray pulse from the Linac Coherent Light Source hard x-ray free electron laser. By measuring the high energy resolution off-resonant spectrum (HEROS, we were able to obtain information about the electronic density of states with a single femtosecond x-ray pulse. We show that the unoccupied electronic states of the scattering atom may be determined on a shot-to-shot basis and that the measured spectral shape is independent of the large intensity fluctuations of the incoming x-ray beam. Moreover, we demonstrate the chemical sensitivity and single-shot capability and limitations of HEROS, which enables the technique to track the electronic structural dynamics in matter on femtosecond time scales, making it an ideal probe technique for time-resolved X-ray experiments.

  3. Plasma potential and electron temperature evaluated by ball-pen and Langmuir probes in the COMPASS tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, M.; Popov, Tsv K.; Adamek, J.; Kovačič, J.; Ivanova, P.; Hasan, E.; López-Bruna, D.; Seidl, J.; Vondráček, P.; Dejarnac, R.; Stöckel, J.; Imríšek, M.; Panek, R.; the COMPASS Team

    2017-12-01

    The radial distributions of the main plasma parameters in the scrape-off-layer of the COMPASS tokamak are measured during L-mode and H-mode regimes by using both Langmuir and ball-pen probes mounted on a horizontal reciprocating manipulator. The radial profile of the plasma potential derived previously from Langmuir probes data by using the first derivative probe technique is compared with data derived using ball-pen probes. A good agreement can be seen between the data acquired by the two techniques during the L-mode discharge and during the H-mode regime within the inter-ELM periods. In contrast with the first derivative probe technique, the ball-pen probe technique does not require a swept voltage and, therefore, the temporal resolution is only limited by the data acquisition system. In the electron temperature evaluation, in the far scrape-off layer and in the limiter shadow, where the electron energy distribution is Maxwellian, the results from both techniques match well. In the vicinity of the last closed flux surface, where the electron energy distribution function is bi-Maxwellian, the ball-pen probe technique results are in agreement with the high-temperature components of the electron distribution only. We also discuss the application of relatively large Langmuir probes placed in parallel and perpendicularly to the magnetic field lines to studying the main plasma parameters. The results obtained by the two types of the large probes agree well. They are compared with Thomson scattering data for electron temperatures and densities. The results for the electron densities are compared also with the results from ASTRA code calculation of the electron source due to the ionization of the neutrals by fast electrons and the origin of the bi-Maxwellian electron energy distribution function is briefly discussed.

  4. Detection of an electron beam in a high density plasma via an electrostatic probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeski, Stephen; Yoo, Jongsoo; Zweben, Stewart; Yamada, Masaaki; Ji, Hantao

    2017-10-01

    The perturbation in floating potential by an electron beam is detected by a 1D floating potential probe array to evaluate the use of an electron beam for magnetic field line mapping in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) plasma. The MRX plasma is relatively high density (1013 cm-3) and low temperature (5 eV). Beam electrons are emitted from a tungsten filament and are accelerated by a 200 V potential across the sheath. They stream along the magnetic field lines towards the probe array. The spatial electron beam density profile is assumed to be a Gaussian along the radial axis of MRX and the effective beam width is determined from the radial profile of the floating potential. The magnitude of the perturbation is in agreement with theoretical predictions and the location of the perturbation is also in agreement with field line mapping. In addition, no significant broadening of the electron beam is observed after propagation for tens of centimeters through the high density plasma. These results demonstrate that this method of field line mapping is, in principle, feasible in high density plasmas. This work is supported by the DOE Contract No. DE-AC0209CH11466.

  5. Probing the Milky Way electron density using multi-messenger astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Katelyn; Larson, Shane

    2015-04-01

    Multi-messenger observations of ultra-compact binaries in both gravitational waves and electromagnetic radiation supply highly complementary information, providing new ways of characterizing the internal dynamics of these systems, as well as new probes of the galaxy itself. Electron density models, used in pulsar distance measurements via the electron dispersion measure, are currently not well constrained. Simultaneous radio and gravitational wave observations of pulsars in binaries provide a method of measuring the average electron density along the line of sight to the pulsar, thus giving a new method for constraining current electron density models. We present this method and assess its viability with simulations of the compact binary component of the Milky Way using the public domain binary evolution code, BSE. This work is supported by NASA Award NNX13AM10G.

  6. Measurement of Wake fields in Plasma by a Probing Electron Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, V.A.; Linnik, A.F.; Onishchenko, I.N.; Uskov, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    The device for measuring intensity of wakefield, excited in plasma by a sequence of bunches of relativistic electrons is presented. Field amplitude is determined by measuring deflection of a probing electron beam (10 keV, 50 μA, of 1 mm diameter), which is injected perpendicularly to a direction of bunches movement. Results of measurement of focusing radial wakefield excited in plasma of density 5 x 10 11 cm - 3 by a sequence of needle electron bunches (each bunch of length 10 mm, diameter 1.5 mm, energy 14 MeV, 2 x 10 9 electrons in bunch, number of bunches 1500) are given. The measured radial wakefield strength was 2.5 kV/cm

  7. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Measurements of Reactive Oxygen Species by Cyclic Hydroxylamine Spin Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikalov, Sergey I; Polienko, Yuliya F; Kirilyuk, Igor

    2018-05-20

    Oxidative stress contributes to numerous pathophysiological conditions such as development of cancer, neurodegenerative, and cardiovascular diseases. A variety of measurements of oxidative stress markers in biological systems have been developed; however, many of these methods are not specific, can produce artifacts, and do not directly detect the free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause oxidative stress. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is a unique tool that allows direct measurements of free radical species. Cyclic hydroxylamines are useful and convenient molecular probes that readily react with ROS to produce stable nitroxide radicals, which can be quantitatively measured by EPR. In this work, we critically review recent applications of various cyclic hydroxylamine spin probes in biology to study oxidative stress, their advantages, and the shortcomings. Recent Advances: In the past decade, a number of new cyclic hydroxylamine spin probes have been developed and their successful application for ROS measurement using EPR has been published. These new state-of-the-art methods provide improved selectivity and sensitivity for in vitro and in vivo studies. Although cyclic hydroxylamine spin probes EPR application has been previously described, there has been lack of translation of these new methods into biomedical research, limiting their widespread use. This work summarizes "best practice" in applications of cyclic hydroxylamine spin probes to assist with EPR studies of oxidative stress. Additional studies to advance hydroxylamine spin probes from the "basic science" to biomedical applications are needed and could lead to better understanding of pathological conditions associated with oxidative stress. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 1433-1443.

  8. Pressure dependence of electron temperature using rf-floated electrostatic probes in rf plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantin, A.; Gagne, R.R.J.

    1977-01-01

    A new technique, which eliminates ac between probe and plasma by means of a ''follower'', permits electrostatic probes to be used in rf plasmas with a degree of confidence and accuracy which is equal, if not better, to that for a dc discharge. Measurements in argon, using this technique, have shown that electron temperature (T/sub e/) in an rf discharge is not higher than in dc discharge. Moreover the values of T/sub e/ do not agree with von Engel's law, but are in close agreement with a theory based on free diffusion and extrapolated up to values of pR=20 Torr cm (pressure times tube radius). These results are in contradiction with published electrostatic probe results for a positive column, but agree with published results as determined by microwave radiometry and optical spectroscopy. The hypothesis is made that the supporting evidence in favor of von Engel's law, afforded by published electrostatic probe results, could be due to an artifact

  9. Key electronic states in lithium battery materials probed by soft X-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Wanli; Liu, Xiaosong; Qiao, Ruimin; Olalde-Velasco, Paul; Spear, Jonathan D.; Roseguo, Louis; Pepper, John X.; Chuang, Yi-de; Denlinger, Jonathan D.; Hussain, Zahid

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Key electronic states in battery materials revealed by soft X-ray spectroscopy. •Soft X-ray absorption consistently probes Mn oxidation states in different systems. •Soft X-ray absorption and emission fingerprint battery operations in LiFePO 4 . •Spectroscopic guidelines for selecting/optimizing polymer materials for batteries. •Distinct SEI formation on same electrode material with different crystal orientations. -- Abstract: The formidable challenges for developing a safe, low-cost, high-capacity, and high-power battery necessitate employing advanced tools that are capable of directly probing the key electronic states relevant to battery performance. Synchrotron based soft X-ray spectroscopy directly measures both the occupied and unoccupied states in the vicinity of the Fermi level, including transition-metal-3d and anion-p states. This article presents the basic concepts on how fundamental physics in electronic structure could provide valuable information for lithium-ion battery applications. We then discuss some of our recent studies on transition-metal oxide based cathodes, silicon based anode, and solid-electrolyte-interphase through soft X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy. We argue that spectroscopic results reveal the evolution of electronic states for fingerprinting, understanding, and optimizing lithium-ion battery operations

  10. Probing Ultrafast Electron Dynamics at Surfaces Using Soft X-Ray Transient Reflectivity Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, L. Robert; Husek, Jakub; Biswas, Somnath; Cirri, Anthony

    The ability to probe electron dynamics with surface sensitivity on the ultrafast time scale is critical for understanding processes such as charge separation, injection, and surface trapping that mediate efficiency in catalytic and energy conversion materials. Toward this goal, we have developed a high harmonic generation (HHG) light source for femtosecond soft x-ray reflectivity. Using this light source we investigated the ultrafast carrier dynamics at the surface of single crystalline α-Fe2O3, polycrystalline α-Fe2O3, and the mixed metal oxide, CuFeO2. We have recently demonstrated that CuFeO2 in particular is a selective catalyst for photo-electrochemical CO2 reduction to acetate; however, the role of electronic structure and charge carrier dynamics in mediating catalytic selectivity has not been well understood. Soft x-ray reflectivity measurements probe the M2,3, edges of the 3d transition metals, which provide oxidation and spin state resolution with element specificity. In addition to chemical state specificity, these measurements are also surface sensitive, and by independently simulating the contributions of the real and imaginary components of the complex refractive index, we can differentiate between surface and sub-surface contributions to the excited state spectrum. Accordingly, this work demonstrates the ability to probe ultrafast carrier dynamics in catalytic materials with element and chemical state specificity and with surface sensitivity.

  11. The Utilization of Spin Polarized Photoelectron Spectroscopy as a Probe of Electron Correlation with an Ultimate Goal of Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, James; Yu, Sung; Chung, Brandon; Morton, Simon; Komesu, Takashi; Waddill, George

    2008-01-01

    We are developing the technique of spin-polarized photoelectron spectroscopy as a probe of electron correlation with the ultimate goal of resolving the Pu electronic structure controversy. Over the last several years, we have demonstrated the utility of spin polarized photoelectron spectroscopy for determining the fine details of the electronic structure in complex systems such as those shown in the paper.

  12. In vivo imaging of a stable paramagnetic probe by pulsed-radiofrequency electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murugesan; Cook; Devasahayam

    1997-01-01

    , Recent advances in radiofrequency (RF) electronics have enabled the generation of pulses of the order of 10-50 ns. Such short pulses provide adequate spectral coverage for EPR studies at 300 MHz resonant frequency. Acquisition of free induction decays (FID) of paramagnetic species possessing...... inhomogeneously broadened narrow lines after pulsed excitation is feasible with an appropriate digitizer/averager. This report describes the use of time-domain RF EPR spectrometry and imaging for in vivo applications. FID responses were collected from a water-soluble, narrow line width spin probe within phantom...... samples in solution and also when infused intravenously in an anesthetized mouse. Using static magnetic field gradients and back-projection methods of image reconstruction, two-dimensional images of the spin-probe distribution were obtained in phantom samples as well as in a mouse. The resolution...

  13. Surface electronic transport measurements: A micro multi-point probe approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreto, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    This work is mostly focused on the study of electronic transport properties of two-dimensional materials, in particular graphene and topological insulators. To study these, we have improved a unique micro multi-point probe instrument used to perform transport measurements. Not only the experimental...... quantities are extracted, such as conductivity, carrier density and carrier mobility. • A method to insulate electrically epitaxial graphene grown on metals, based on a stepwise intercalation methodology, is developed and transport measurements are performed in order to test the insulation. • We show...... a direct measurement of the surface electronic transport on a bulk topological insulator. The surface state conductivity and mobility are obtained. Apart from transport properties, we also investigate the atomic structure of the Bi2Se3(111) surface via surface x-ray diraction and low-energy electron...

  14. Fiber optic probe of free electron evanescent fields in the optical frequency range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Jin-Kyu, E-mail: js1m10@orc.soton.ac.uk; MacDonald, Kevin F. [Optoelectronics Research Centre and Centre for Photonic Metamaterials, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Zheludev, Nikolay I. [Optoelectronics Research Centre and Centre for Photonic Metamaterials, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)

    2014-05-19

    We introduce an optical fiber platform which can be used to interrogate proximity interactions between free-electron evanescent fields and photonic nanostructures at optical frequencies in a manner similar to that in which optical evanescent fields are sampled using nanoscale aperture probes in scanning near-field microscopy. Conically profiled optical fiber tips functionalized with nano-gratings are employed to couple electron evanescent fields to light via the Smith-Purcell effect. We demonstrate the interrogation of medium energy (30–50 keV) electron fields with a lateral resolution of a few micrometers via the generation and detection of visible/UV radiation in the 700–300 nm (free-space) wavelength range.

  15. Defects in electron irradiated vitreous SiO2 probed by positron annihiliation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uedono, Akira; Tanigawa, Shoichiro; Kawano, Takao; Itoh, Hisayoshi

    1994-01-01

    Defects in 3 MeV electron irradiated vitreous SiO 2 (v-SiO 2 ) were probed by the positron annihilation technique. For unirradiated v-SiO 2 specimens, almost all positrons were found to annihilate from positronium (Ps) states. This high formation probability of Ps was attributed to the trapping of positrons by open-space defects. The formation probability of Ps was decreased by the electron irradiation. The observed inhibition of the Ps formation was attributed to the trapping of positrons by point defects introduced and/or activated by the irradiation. From measurements of the lifetime distribution of Ps, it was found that, by the electron irradiation, the mean size of open-space defects was decreased and the size distribution of such defects was broadened. (Author)

  16. Defects in electron irradiated vitreous SiO[sub 2] probed by positron annihiliation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uedono, Akira; Tanigawa, Shoichiro (Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Materials Science); Kawano, Takao (Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Radioisotope Centre); Itoh, Hisayoshi (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment)

    1994-10-10

    Defects in 3 MeV electron irradiated vitreous SiO[sub 2] (v-SiO[sub 2]) were probed by the positron annihilation technique. For unirradiated v-SiO[sub 2] specimens, almost all positrons were found to annihilate from positronium (Ps) states. This high formation probability of Ps was attributed to the trapping of positrons by open-space defects. The formation probability of Ps was decreased by the electron irradiation. The observed inhibition of the Ps formation was attributed to the trapping of positrons by point defects introduced and/or activated by the irradiation. From measurements of the lifetime distribution of Ps, it was found that, by the electron irradiation, the mean size of open-space defects was decreased and the size distribution of such defects was broadened. (Author).

  17. Probing a molecular electronic transition by two-colour sum-frequency generation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humbert, C.; Dreesen, L.; Nihonyanagi, S.; Masuda, T.; Kondo, T.; Mani, A.A.; Uosaki, K.; Thiry, P.A.; Peremans, A.

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate that a new emerging technique, two-colour sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy, can be used to probe the molecular electronic properties of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). In the CH spectral range (2800-3200 cm -1 ), we show that the sum-frequency generation signal of a porphyrin alkanethiol derivative adsorbed on Pt(1 1 1) reaches a maximum intensity at ∼435 nm SFG wavelength. This wavelength corresponds to the porphyrin moiety specific π-π* molecular electronic transition which is called the Soret or B band. This resonant behaviour is not observed for 1-dodecanethiol SAMs, which are devoid of molecular electronic transition in the investigated visible spectral range

  18. Quantum ballistic transistor and low noise HEMT for cryo-electronics lower than 4.2 K; Transistor balistique quantique et HEMT bas-bruit pour la cryoelectronique inferieure a 4.2 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gremion, E

    2008-01-15

    Next generations of cryo-detectors, widely used in physics of particles and physics of universe, will need in the future high-performance cryo-electronics less noisy and closer to the detector. Within this context, this work investigates properties of two dimensional electron gas GaAlAs/GaAs by studying two components, quantum point contact (QPC) and high electron mobility transistor (HEMT). Thanks to quantized conductance steps in QPC, we have realized a quantum ballistic transistor (voltage gain higher than 1), a new component useful for cryo-electronics thanks to its operating temperature and weak power consumption (about 1 nW). Moreover, the very low capacity of this component leads to promising performances for multiplexing low temperature bolometer dedicated to millimetric astronomy. The second study focused on HEMT with very high quality 2DEG. At 4.2 K, a voltage gain higher than 20 can be obtained with a very low power dissipation of less than 100 {mu}W. Under the above experimental conditions, an equivalent input voltage noise of 1.2 nV/{radical}(Hz) at 1 kHz and 0.12 nV/{radical}(Hz) at 100 kHz has been reached. According to the Hooge formula, these noise performances are get by increasing gate capacity estimated to 60 pF. (author)

  19. Transport of electrons in the tunnel of an ion sensitive probe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komm, Michael; Adámek, Jiří; Dejarnac, Renaud; Gunn, J. P.; Pekárek, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2011), 015005-015005 ISSN 0741-3335 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100430901; GA MŠk 7G09042; GA MŠk LA08048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Tokamak * plasma * katsumata probe * ExB drift * ion temperature * tunnel * electron Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.425, year: 2011 http://iopscience.iop.org/0741-3335/53/1/015005/pdf/0741-3335_53_1_015005.pdf

  20. A novel probe of intrinsic electronic structure: hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takata, Y.; Tamasaku, K.; Nishino, Y.; Miwa, D.; Yabashi, M.; Ikenaga, E.; Horiba, K.; Arita, M.; Shimada, K.; Namatame, H.; Nohira, H.; Hattori, T.; Soedergren, S.; Wannberg, B.; Taniguchi, M.; Shin, S.; Ishikawa, T.; Kobayashi, K.

    2005-01-01

    We have realized hard X-ray (HX) photoemission spectroscopy (PES) with high throughput and high-energy resolution for core level and valence band studies using high-energy and high-brilliance synchrotron radiation at SPring-8. This is a brand new method because large escape depth of high-energy photoelectrons enables us to probe intrinsic bulk states free from surface condition. By use of a newly developed electron energy analyzer and well-focused X-rays, high-energy resolution of 75 meV (E/ΔE 79,000) was realized for 5.95 keV photoelectrons

  1. Electron temperature and heat load measurements in the COMPASS divertor using the new system of probes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adámek, Jiří; Seidl, Jakub; Horáček, Jan; Komm, Michael; Eich, T.; Pánek, Radomír; Cavalier, J.; Devitre, A.; Peterka, Matěj; Vondráček, Petr; Stöckel, Jan; Šesták, David; Grover, Ondřej; Bílková, Petra; Böhm, Petr; Varju, Jozef; Havránek, Aleš; Weinzettl, Vladimír; Lovell, J.; Dimitrova, Miglena; Mitošinková, Klára; Dejarnac, Renaud; Hron, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 11 (2017), č. článku 116017. ISSN 0029-5515 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-10723S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-14228S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015045 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : COMPASS * divertor * heat load * ELM * electron temperature * Ball-pen probe Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 3.307, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1741-4326/aa7e09

  2. 2D electron density profile measurement in tokamak by laser-accelerated ion-beam probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y H; Yang, X Y; Lin, C; Wang, L; Xu, M; Wang, X G; Xiao, C J

    2014-11-01

    A new concept of Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) diagnostic has been proposed, of which the key is to replace the electrostatic accelerator of traditional HIBP by a laser-driven ion accelerator. Due to the large energy spread of ions, the laser-accelerated HIBP can measure the two-dimensional (2D) electron density profile of tokamak plasma. In a preliminary simulation, a 2D density profile was reconstructed with a spatial resolution of about 2 cm, and with the error below 15% in the core region. Diagnostics of 2D density fluctuation is also discussed.

  3. Chemical analysis of minerals in granitic rocks by electron probe micro analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Yoshihiro

    1994-01-01

    The chemical compositions of minerals in a few granitic rocks were determined by electron probe micro analyser (EPMA). The accurate analytical data for standard feldspar groups were obtained by correcting the low analytical values of sodium and potassium that were arised from the damage in EPMA analysis. Using this method, feldspar groups and biotites in three granitic rocks gathered from Hiei, Hira and Kurama areas respectively, were analyzed. As the results, the local characteristics were observed in the kinds of feldspar groups and the chemical compositions of biotites that were contained in granitic rocks. (author)

  4. Detection of beryllium in oxides and silicates by electron-probe microanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Khiller

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The author developed the technique of electron-probe microanalysis for quantitative determination of beryllium content, providing the example of studying natural minerals (aluminosilicates and oxides. This technique allowed to obtain a quantitative content of beryllium (in combination with other elements in the emeralds of the Mariinsky beryllium deposit and in zonal mariinskite-chrysoberyl from the chromitites of the Bazhenov ophiolite complex. All analyzes of minerals were performed on a CAMECA SX 100 electron probe microanalyzer with five wave spectrometers (IGG UB RAS. The pressure in the sample chamber was 2 × 10–4 Pa, in the electron gun region – 4 × 10–6 Pa, in wave spectrometers – 7 Pa. Accelerating voltage was 10 kV, the current of absorbed electrons on the Faraday cylinder (beam current was 100–150 nA. Diameter of the electron beam focused on the sample was 2 μm, the angle of x-ray extraction was 40°. The spectra were obtained on wave spectrometers with TAP crystal analyzers (2d = 25.745 Å, LPET (2d = 8.75 Å, LiF (2d = 4.0226 Å, and PC3 (2d = 211.4 Å, a specialized crystal for determining the content of beryllium and boron; the author carried out all the elements measurements along the Kα-lines. To determine position of the analytical peak and the background from two sides with the minimum possible spectral overlap, the author preliminarily recorded spectra on wave spectrometers. The obtained microprobe analyzes of minerals with quantitative determination of beryllium converge well with the available theoretical compositions of beryl and chrysoberyl, which indicates the high efficiency of the developed technique. By using this technique, we can relatively quickly and reliably determine the quantitative content of beryllium in natural silicates and oxides, which is an acute need for geological researchers studying the mineralogy of beryllium deposits.

  5. Ballistic quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassol, E.; Bonnet, J.; Porcheron, D.; Mazeron, J.J.; Peiffert, D.; Alapetite, C.

    2012-01-01

    This review describes the ballistic quality assurance for stereotactic intracranial irradiation treatments delivered with Gamma Knife R either dedicated or adapted medical linear accelerators. Specific and periodic controls should be performed in order to check the mechanical stability for both irradiation and collimation systems. If this step remains under the responsibility of the medical physicist, it should be done in agreement with the manufacturer's technical support. At this time, there are no recent published guidelines. With technological developments, both frequency and accuracy should be assessed in each institution according to the treatment mode: single versus hypo-fractionated dose, circular collimator versus micro-multi-leaf collimators. In addition, 'end-to-end' techniques are mandatory to find the origin of potential discrepancies and to estimate the global ballistic accuracy of the delivered treatment. Indeed, they include frames, non-invasive immobilization devices, localizers, multimodal imaging for delineation and in-room positioning imaging systems. The final precision that could be reasonably achieved is more or less 1 mm. (authors)

  6. Monte Carlo Simulation of Quantitative Electron Probe Microanalysis of the PWR Spent Fuel with a Pt Coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hyoung Mun; Lee, Hyung Kwon; Son, Young Zoon; Chun, Yong Bum

    2012-01-01

    The PWR spent fuel sample should be coated with conducting material in order to provide a path for electrons and to prevent charging. Generally, the ZAF method has been used for quantitative electron probe microanalysis of conducting samples. However, the coated samples are not applicable for the ZAF method. Probe current, primary electron energy and x-ray produced by the primary beam are attenuated within the coating films. The electron and X-ray depth distributions for a quantitative electron probe micro analysis were simulated by the CASINO Monte Carlo program [2] to evaluate the x-ray attenuation within the Pt coating films. The target samples are the PWR spent fuels with 50 GWd/tU of burnup , 6 years of cooling time and a Pt coating film (3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 nm thickness)

  7. Monte Carlo Simulation of Quantitative Electron Probe Microanalysis of the PWR Spent Fuel with a Pt Coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyoung Mun; Lee, Hyung Kwon; Son, Young Zoon; Chun, Yong Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The PWR spent fuel sample should be coated with conducting material in order to provide a path for electrons and to prevent charging. Generally, the ZAF method has been used for quantitative electron probe microanalysis of conducting samples. However, the coated samples are not applicable for the ZAF method. Probe current, primary electron energy and x-ray produced by the primary beam are attenuated within the coating films. The electron and X-ray depth distributions for a quantitative electron probe micro analysis were simulated by the CASINO Monte Carlo program [2] to evaluate the x-ray attenuation within the Pt coating films. The target samples are the PWR spent fuels with 50 GWd/tU of burnup , 6 years of cooling time and a Pt coating film (3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 nm thickness)

  8. Ultrafast optical pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of strongly correlated electron materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averitt, R.D.; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Thorsmolle, V.K.; Jia, Quanxi; Lobad, A.I.; Trugman, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    We have used optical-pump far-infrared probe spectroscopy to probe the low energy electron dynamics of high temperature superconductors and colossal magnetoresistance manganites. For the superconductor YBa2Cu3O7, picosecond conductivity measurements probe the interplay between Cooper-pairs and quasiparticles. In optimally doped films, the recovery time for long-range phase-coherent pairing increases from ∼1.5 ps at 4K to ∼3.5 ps near Tc, consistent with the closing of the superconducting gap. For underdoped films, the measured recovery time is temperature independent (3.5 ps) in accordance with the presence of a pseudogap. Ultrafast picosecond measurements of optically induced changes in the absolute conductivity of La0:7M0:3MnO3 thin films (M = Ca, Sr) from 10K to ∼0.9Tc reveal a two-component relaxation. A fast, ∼2 ps, conductivity decrease arises from optically induced modification of the effective phonon temperature. The slower component, related to spin-lattice relaxation, has a lifetime that increases upon approaching Tc from below in accordance with an increasing spin specific heat. Our results indicate that for T<< Tc, the conductivity is determined by incoherent phonons while spin fluctuations dominate near Tc.

  9. Probing Intermolecular Electron Delocalization in Dimer Radical Anions by Vibrational Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mani, Tomoyasu; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Grills, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Delocalization of charges is one of the factors controlling charge transport in conjugated molecules. It is considered to play an important role in the performance of a wide range of molecular technologies, including organic solar cells and organic electronics. Dimerization reactions are well-suited as a model to investigate intermolecular spatial delocalization of charges. And while dimerization reactions of radical cations are well investigated, studies on radical anions are still scarce. Upon dimerization of radical anions with neutral counterparts, an electron is considered to delocalize over the two molecules. By using time-resolved infrared (TRIR) detection coupled with pulse radiolysis, we show that radical anions of 4-n-hexyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (6CB) undergo such dimerization reactions, with an electron equally delocalized over the two molecules. We have recently demonstrated that nitrile ν(C≡N) vibrations respond to the degree of electron localization of nitrile-substituted anions: we can quantify the changes in the electronic charges from the neutral to the anion states in the nitriles by monitoring the ν(C≡N) IR shifts. In the first part of this article, we show that the sensitivity of the ν(C≡N) IR shifts does not depend on solvent polarity. In the second part, we describe how probing the shifts of the nitrile IR vibrational band unambiguously confirms the formation of dimer radical anions, with K dim = 3 × 10 4 M –1 . IR findings are corroborated by electronic absorption spectroscopy and electronic structure calculations. We find that the presence of a hexyl chain and the formation of π–π interactions are both crucial for dimerization of radical anions of 6CB with neutral 6CB. Our study provides clear evidence of spatial delocalization of electrons over two molecular fragments.

  10. Nonlinear Ballistic Transport in an Atomically Thin Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Mathias J; Sundararajan, Abhishek; Farrokhi, M Javad; Strachan, Douglas R

    2016-01-26

    Ultrashort devices that incorporate atomically thin components have the potential to be the smallest electronics. Such extremely scaled atomically thin devices are expected to show ballistic nonlinear behavior that could make them tremendously useful for ultrafast applications. While nonlinear diffusive electron transport has been widely reported, clear evidence for intrinsic nonlinear ballistic transport in the growing array of atomically thin conductors has so far been elusive. Here we report nonlinear electron transport of an ultrashort single-layer graphene channel that shows quantitative agreement with intrinsic ballistic transport. This behavior is shown to be distinctly different than that observed in similarly prepared ultrashort devices consisting, instead, of bilayer graphene channels. These results suggest that the addition of only one extra layer of an atomically thin material can make a significant impact on the nonlinear ballistic behavior of ultrashort devices, which is possibly due to the very different chiral tunneling of their charge carriers. The fact that we observe the nonlinear ballistic response at room temperature, with zero applied magnetic field, in non-ultrahigh vacuum conditions and directly on a readily accessible oxide substrate makes the nanogap technology we utilize of great potential for achieving extremely scaled high-speed atomically thin devices.

  11. Soft x-ray spectroscopy for probing electronic and chemical states of battery materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wanli; Qiao Ruimin

    2016-01-01

    The formidable challenge of developing high-performance battery system stems from the complication of battery operations, both mechanically and electronically. In the electrodes and at the electrode–electrolyte interfaces, chemical reactions take place with evolving electron states. In addition to the extensive studies of material synthesis, electrochemical, structural, and mechanical properties, soft x-ray spectroscopy provides unique opportunities for revealing the critical electron states in batteries. This review discusses some of the recent soft x-ray spectroscopic results on battery binder, transition-metal based positive electrodes, and the solid-electrolyte-interphase. By virtue of soft x-ray’s sensitivity to electron states, the electronic property, the redox during electrochemical operations, and the chemical species of the interphases could be fingerprinted by soft x-ray spectroscopy. Understanding and innovating battery technologies need a multimodal approach, and soft x-ray spectroscopy is one of the incisive tools to probe the chemical and physical evolutions in batteries. (topical review)

  12. Compensation of aberrations of deflected electron probe by means of dynamical focusing with stigmator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Norio; Ebe, Toyoe; Ikehata, Koichi; Ito, Yasuhiro; Terada, Hiroshi

    1979-01-01

    Electron beam passing through a deflecting field is in general, subjected to aberrations such as distortion, astigmatism and coma in accordance with the deflecting angle. Accordingly the aberration defect of deflected beam is the most serious limiting factor in the performances of micromachining, microminiaturization and high resolution scanning electron microscopes. From many investigators' results, it is obvious that three important compensation methods to aberrations exist in principle, i.e., double deflection system, dynamical focusing, and the dynamical correction using a stigmator. In this paper, based on the aberration formula derived from the eikonal or the path method, the practical data of the aberration constants of deflected electron beam for the sequential deflection system with parallel plates are calculated, and using its result, the distorted spot patterns of an electron probe deflected in two-dimensional directions for various defocusings are graphically displayed by the aid of a computer. Further, by means of the dynamical focusing with a stigmator, the conditions to completely compensate the second order astigmatic aberration are derived, and spot patterns and the electron density distributions within the spots in the case when the compensating conditions are satisfied are also graphically displayed. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  13. Low magnification differential phase contrast imaging of electric fields in crystals with fine electron probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taplin, D.J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Shibata, N. [Institute of Engineering Innovation, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Weyland, M. [Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Findlay, S.D., E-mail: scott.findlay@monash.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2016-10-15

    To correlate atomistic structure with longer range electric field distribution within materials, it is necessary to use atomically fine electron probes and specimens in on-axis orientation. However, electric field mapping via low magnification differential phase contrast imaging under these conditions raises challenges: electron scattering tends to reduce the beam deflection due to the electric field strength from what simple models predict, and other effects, most notably crystal mistilt, can lead to asymmetric intensity redistribution in the diffraction pattern which is difficult to distinguish from that produced by long range electric fields. Using electron scattering simulations, we explore the effects of such factors on the reliable interpretation and measurement of electric field distributions. In addition to these limitations of principle, some limitations of practice when seeking to perform such measurements using segmented detector systems are also discussed. - Highlights: • Measuring electric fields by on-axis electron diffraction is explored by simulation. • Electron channelling reduces deflection predicted by the phase object approximation. • First moment measurements cannot distinguish electric fields from specimen mistilt. • Segmented detector estimates are fairly insensitive to camera length and orientation.

  14. Electron-muon correlation as a new probe of strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akamatsu, Yukinao; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Hirano, Tetsufumi

    2009-01-01

    As a new and clean probe to the strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma (sQGP), we propose an azimuthal correlation of an electron and a muon that originate from the semileptonic decay of charm and bottom quarks. By solving the Langevin equation for the heavy quarks under the hydrodynamic evolution of the hot plasma, we show that substantial quenching of the away-side peak in the electron-muon correlation can be seen if the sQGP drag force acting on heavy quarks is large enough as suggested from the gauge/gravity correspondence. The effect could be detected in high-energy heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the Large Hadron Collider.

  15. Note: Microelectrode-shielding tip for scanning probe electron energy spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Li, Zhean; Xu, Chunkai; Liu, Jian; Xu, Chunye; Chen, Xiangjun

    2018-04-01

    We report a novel microelectrode-shielding tip (ME tip) for scanning probe electron energy spectroscopy (SPEES). The shielding effect of this tip is studied through comparing the detection efficiency with the normal tip by both experiment and simulation. The results show that the backscattering count rate detected by the SPEES instrument using the normal tip begins to decrease as the tip approaches to the sample surface within 21 μm, while that using the ME tip only starts to drop off within 1 μm. This indicates that the electron energy spectra can be measured with the ME tip at a much closer tip-sample distance. Furthermore, it is also demonstrated that the ME tip can be used to obtain topography of the sample surface in situ simultaneously.

  16. Experimental Route to Scanning Probe Hot Electron Nanoscopy (HENs) Applied to 2D Material

    KAUST Repository

    Giugni, Andrea

    2017-06-09

    This paper presents details on a new experimental apparatus implementing the hot electron nanoscopy (HENs) technique introduced for advanced spectroscopies on structure and chemistry in few molecules and interface problems. A detailed description of the architecture used for the laser excitation of surface plasmons at an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip is provided. The photogenerated current from the tip to the sample is detected during the AFM scan. The technique is applied to innovative semiconductors for applications in electronics: 2D MoS2 single crystal and a p-type SnO layer. Results are supported by complementary scanning Kelvin probe microscopy, traditional conductive AFM, and Raman measurements. New features highlighted by HEN technique reveal details of local complexity in MoS2 and polycrystalline structure of SnO at nanometric scale otherwise undetected. The technique set in this paper is promising for future studies in nanojunctions and innovative multilayered materials, with new insight on interfaces.

  17. Correlated microradiography, X-ray microbeam diffraction and electron probe microanalysis of calcifications in an odontoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoba, T.; Yoshioka, C.; Yagi, T.

    1980-01-01

    Using microradiography, X-ray microbeam diffraction and electron probe microanalysis, a correlated morphologic and crystallographic study was performed on dysplastic enamel in a compound odontoma. The tumor was found in the lateral incisor-canine region of the left mandible of a 36-year-old woman. A conspicuous feature was the presence of hypomineralized areas, which were situated in the proximity of enamel surface and distinctly demarcated from the adjacent enamel. X-ray microbeam diffraction and electron microanalysis showed that these lesions have a lower crystallinity and a higher concentration of magnesium as compared with the adjacent enamel. In addition, the present study revealed the presence of two other types of calcifications: 1) calcified structures within the fissure or on the enamel surface, which include lacunae of varying size and which resemble a form of coronal cementum, and 2) spherical calcifications which may be an epithelial product. (author)

  18. Measurement of total calcium in neurons by electron probe X-ray microanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovarova, Natalia B; Andrews, S Brian

    2013-11-20

    In this article the tools, techniques, and instruments appropriate for quantitative measurements of intracellular elemental content using the technique known as electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) are described. Intramitochondrial calcium is a particular focus because of the critical role that mitochondrial calcium overload plays in neurodegenerative diseases. The method is based on the analysis of X-rays generated in an electron microscope (EM) by interaction of an electron beam with the specimen. In order to maintain the native distribution of diffusible elements in electron microscopy specimens, EPMA requires "cryofixation" of tissue followed by the preparation of ultrathin cryosections. Rapid freezing of cultured cells or organotypic slice cultures is carried out by plunge freezing in liquid ethane or by slam freezing against a cold metal block, respectively. Cryosections nominally 80 nm thick are cut dry with a diamond knife at ca. -160 °C, mounted on carbon/pioloform-coated copper grids, and cryotransferred into a cryo-EM using a specialized cryospecimen holder. After visual survey and location mapping at ≤-160 °C and low electron dose, frozen-hydrated cryosections are freeze-dried at -100 °C for ~30 min. Organelle-level images of dried cryosections are recorded, also at low dose, by means of a slow-scan CCD camera and subcellular regions of interest selected for analysis. X-rays emitted from ROIs by a stationary, focused, high-intensity electron probe are collected by an energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometer, processed by associated electronics, and presented as an X-ray spectrum, that is, a plot of X-ray intensity vs. energy. Additional software facilitates: 1) identification of elemental components by their "characteristic" peak energies and fingerprint; and 2) quantitative analysis by extraction of peak areas/background. This paper concludes with two examples that illustrate typical EPMA applications, one in which mitochondrial calcium analysis

  19. Monte Carlo simulation of the electron and X-ray depth distribution for quantitative electron probe microanalysis of PWR spent fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyoung Mun; Lee, Hyung Kwon; Son, Young Zoon; Chun, Yong Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Electron probe microanalysis requires several corrections to quantify an element of a specimen. The X-rays produced by the primary beam are created at some depth in the specimen. This distribution is usually represented as the function {Phi}(pz), and it is possible to calculate the correction factors for atomic number and absorption effects. The electron and X-ray depth distributions for a quantitative electron probe micro analysis were simulated by the CASINO Monte Carlo program to quantify some elements of the PWR spent fuel with 50 GWd/tU of burnup and 2 years of cooling time

  20. Monte Carlo simulation of the electron and X-ray depth distribution for quantitative electron probe microanalysis of PWR spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hyoung Mun; Lee, Hyung Kwon; Son, Young Zoon; Chun, Yong Bum

    2011-01-01

    Electron probe microanalysis requires several corrections to quantify an element of a specimen. The X-rays produced by the primary beam are created at some depth in the specimen. This distribution is usually represented as the function Φ(pz), and it is possible to calculate the correction factors for atomic number and absorption effects. The electron and X-ray depth distributions for a quantitative electron probe micro analysis were simulated by the CASINO Monte Carlo program to quantify some elements of the PWR spent fuel with 50 GWd/tU of burnup and 2 years of cooling time

  1. Kelvin probe microscopy and electronic transport measurements in reduced graphene oxide chemical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehayias, Christopher E; MacNaughton, Samuel; Sonkusale, Sameer; Staii, Cristian

    2013-06-21

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) is an electronically hybrid material that displays remarkable chemical sensing properties. Here, we present a quantitative analysis of the chemical gating effects in RGO-based chemical sensors. The gas sensing devices are patterned in a field-effect transistor geometry, by dielectrophoretic assembly of RGO platelets between gold electrodes deposited on SiO2/Si substrates. We show that these sensors display highly selective and reversible responses to the measured analytes, as well as fast response and recovery times (tens of seconds). We use combined electronic transport/Kelvin probe microscopy measurements to quantify the amount of charge transferred to RGO due to chemical doping when the device is exposed to electron-acceptor (acetone) and electron-donor (ammonia) analytes. We demonstrate that this method allows us to obtain high-resolution maps of the surface potential and local charge distribution both before and after chemical doping, to identify local gate-susceptible areas on the RGO surface, and to directly extract the contact resistance between the RGO and the metallic electrodes. The method presented is general, suggesting that these results have important implications for building graphene and other nanomaterial-based chemical sensors.

  2. Kelvin probe microscopy and electronic transport measurements in reduced graphene oxide chemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehayias, Christopher E.; MacNaughton, Samuel; Sonkusale, Sameer; Staii, Cristian

    2013-06-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) is an electronically hybrid material that displays remarkable chemical sensing properties. Here, we present a quantitative analysis of the chemical gating effects in RGO-based chemical sensors. The gas sensing devices are patterned in a field-effect transistor geometry, by dielectrophoretic assembly of RGO platelets between gold electrodes deposited on SiO2/Si substrates. We show that these sensors display highly selective and reversible responses to the measured analytes, as well as fast response and recovery times (tens of seconds). We use combined electronic transport/Kelvin probe microscopy measurements to quantify the amount of charge transferred to RGO due to chemical doping when the device is exposed to electron-acceptor (acetone) and electron-donor (ammonia) analytes. We demonstrate that this method allows us to obtain high-resolution maps of the surface potential and local charge distribution both before and after chemical doping, to identify local gate-susceptible areas on the RGO surface, and to directly extract the contact resistance between the RGO and the metallic electrodes. The method presented is general, suggesting that these results have important implications for building graphene and other nanomaterial-based chemical sensors.

  3. Electron probe microanalysis for clinical investigations: Microdrop and soft tissue analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingram, M.J.; Ingram, F.D.

    1984-01-01

    The most important advantage offered by electron probe microanalysis (EPA) for clinical investigations is the ability to analyze smaller volumes of tissue than is possible with conventional techniques. The sample can be a biological soft tissue specimen, which involves subcellular localization, or a picoliter fluid droplet. In either case, the analysis can be nondestructive and permit multiple analyses for a number of elements in a given sample. The most highly developed electron microprobe analytical technique is fluid drop analysis, popularly referred to as microdrop analysis. This method provides the investigator with an analytic capability that has an accuracy of measurement often 1% or better on 20 to 30 picoliter fluid droplets. Electron microprobe techniques have been used for studies of animal hard tissue and for studies that involve insoluble inclusions. However, the development of techniques for studies of labile constituents in animal soft tissue has been much slower. It has been necessary not only to develop appropriate methods of tissue preparation, but also to establish sound techniques for tissue collection. Although there are adequate methods for collection of most types of tissue from laboratory animals, many of these methods are not suitable for human subjects. In order to provide the reader with a better understanding of the capabilities and potential for the application of electron microprobe methodology to problems in clinical medicine, the authors discuss some of their experiences with liquid droplet analysis and quantitative electrolyte distribution measurements in animal soft tissue

  4. THE ELECTRON ION COLLIDER. A HIGH LUMINOSITY PROBE OF THE PARTONIC SUBSTRUCTURE OF NUCLEONS AND NUCLEI.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EDITED BY M.S. DAVIS

    2002-02-01

    By the end of this decade, the advancement of current and planned research into the fundamental structure of matter will require a new facility, the Electron Ion Collider (EIC). The EIC will collide high-energy beams of polarized electrons from polarized protons and neutrons, and unpolarized beams of electrons off atomic nuclei with unprecedented intensity. Research at the EIC will lead to a detailed understanding of the structure of the proton, neutron, and atomic nuclei as described by Quantum Chromo-Dynamics (QCD), the accepted theory of the strong interaction. The EIC will establish quantitative answers to important questions by delivering dramatically increased precision over existing and planned experiments and by providing completely new experimental capabilities. Indeed, the EIC will probe QCD in a manner not possible previously. This document presents the scientific case for the design, construction and operation of the EIC. While realization of the EIC requires a significant advance in the development of efficient means of producing powerful beams of energetic electrons, an important consideration for choosing the site of the EIC is the planned upgrade to the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The upgrade planned for RHIC will fully meet the requirements for the ion beam for the EIC, providing a distinct advantage in terms of cost, schedule and the final operation.

  5. Nanoscale probing of bandgap states on oxide particles using electron energy-loss spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qianlang; March, Katia; Crozier, Peter A

    2017-07-01

    Surface and near-surface electronic states were probed with nanometer spatial resolution in MgO and TiO 2 anatase nanoparticles using ultra-high energy resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) coupled to a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). This combination allows the surface electronic structure determined with spectroscopy to be correlated with nanoparticle size, morphology, facet etc. By acquiring the spectra in aloof beam mode, radiation damage to the surface can be significantly reduced while maintaining the nanometer spatial resolution. MgO and TiO 2 showed very different bandgap features associated with the surface/sub-surface layer of the nanoparticles. Spectral simulations based on dielectric theory and density of states models showed that a plateau feature found in the pre-bandgap region in the spectra from (100) surfaces of 60nm MgO nanocubes is consistent with a thin hydroxide surface layer. The spectroscopy shows that this hydroxide species gives rise to a broad filled surface state at 1.1eV above the MgO valence band. At the surfaces of TiO 2 nanoparticles, pronounced peaks were observed in the bandgap region, which could not be well fitted to defect states. In this case, the high refractive index and large particle size may make Cherenkov or guided light modes the likely causes of the peaks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ballistic Transport Exceeding 28 μm in CVD Grown Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banszerus, Luca; Schmitz, Michael; Engels, Stephan; Goldsche, Matthias; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Beschoten, Bernd; Stampfer, Christoph

    2016-02-10

    We report on ballistic transport over more than 28 μm in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) that is fully encapsulated in hexagonal boron nitride. The structures are fabricated by an advanced dry van-der-Waals transfer method and exhibit carrier mobilities of up to three million cm(2)/(Vs). The ballistic nature of charge transport is probed by measuring the bend resistance in cross- and square-shaped devices. Temperature-dependent measurements furthermore prove that ballistic transport is maintained exceeding 1 μm up to 200 K.

  7. Japan and Ballistic Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swaine, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Spurred by a perceived growing ballistic missile threat from within the Asia-Pacific region and requests from the United States to support research and development on components of a missile defense...

  8. Ballistic Missile Defense in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Sarihan, Ali; Bush, Amy; Summers, Lawrence; Thompson, Brent; Tomasszewski, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This paper will build on ballistic missile defense in Europe. In the first part, a brief historical overview will place the current public management issue into light. This is followed by a discussion of the main actors in the international debate, the problems that arise and the available options and recommendations to address missile defense. In the second part, differences between George W. Bush and Barack H. Obama will analyze under the title “Ballistic Missile Defense in Europe: Evolving...

  9. Electronically tuned sulfonamide-based probes with ultra-sensitivity for Ga"3"+ or Al"3"+ detection in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Chae, Pil Seok

    2017-01-01

    Three electronically tuned fluorescent probes (1–3) were synthesized by conjugating a fluorescent unit to N,N-bis-(hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine. Probe 1 bearing an electron-deficient naphthalenedimide unit did not give a fluorescence response to the presence of various metal ions including monovalent metal ions (Na"+, K"+, and Ag"+), divalent metal ions (Ca"2"+, Cd"2"+, Co"2"+, Ni"2"+, Cu"2"+, Hg"2"+, Pb"2"+, and Zn"2"+) and trivalent metal ions (Al"3"+, Ga"3"+, Fe"3"+, and Cr"3"+) in an aqueous solution. By contrast, probes 2 and 3 possessing 1,8-naphthalimide and pyrene fluorophores, respectively, exhibited selective fluorescent “OFF-ON” behaviors as a result of Ga"3"+/Al"3"+ binding among the diverse metal ions, suggesting the importance of fluorophore electronic character with regard to metal ion sensing. The ethylenediamine analog of probe 3, corresponding to probe 4, was unable to yield a significant change in fluorescence intensity in the presence of any metal ions tested here, revealing the essential role of two hydroxyl groups for metal ion binding. A high association constant of K_a = 2.99 × 10"5 M"−"1 was obtained for probe 3 with Ga"3"+, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 10 nM. This LOD is the lowest value known for Ga"3"+ detection using chemical sensors. Along with an increase in aggregate sizes, PET suppression of probes upon metal ion binding was the primary contributor to the enhancement in fluorescence emission necessary for the sensitive detection of the target ions. The probe-metal ion complexes were fully characterized via TEM, FE-SEM, "1H NMR, fluorescence spectroscopy techniques and DFT calculations. - Highlights: • Three electronically tuned sulfonamide-based probes (probes 1, 2, and 3) were developed for metal ion-sensing. • Probes 2 and 3 exhibited AIE behavior with increasing water-content. • Probes 2 and 3 displayed a selective fluorescence “OFF-ON“ behavior for Ga"3"+ detection with the LOD of 10 nM. • PET

  10. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy for immunoassay using iron oxide nanoparticles as probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jia; Tian, Sizhu; Wang, Kun; Wang, Yang; Zang, Shuang; Yu, Aimin; Zhang, Ziwei

    2018-02-01

    With the help of iron oxide nanoparticles, electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) was applied to immunoassay. Iron oxide nanoparticles were used as the ESR probe in order to achieve an amplification of the signal resulting from the large amount of Fe 3+ ion enclosed in each nanoparticle. Rabbit IgG was used as antigen to test this method. Polyclonal antibody of rabbit IgG was used as antibody to detect the antigen. Iron oxide nanoparticle with a diameter of either 10 or 30 nm was labeled to the antibody, and Fe 3+ in the nanoparticle was probed for ESR signal. The sepharose beads were used as solid phase to which rabbit IgG was conjugated. The nanoparticle-labeled antibody was first added in the sample containing antigen, and the antigen-conjugated sepharose beads were then added into the sample. The nanoparticle-labeled antibody bound to the antigen on sepharose beads was separated from the sample by centrifugation and measured. We found that the detection ranges of the antigen obtained with nanoparticles of different sizes were different because the amount of antibody on nanoparticles of 10 nm was about one order of magnitude higher than that on nanoparticles of 30 nm. When 10 nm nanoparticle was used as probe, the upper limit of detection was 40.00 μg mL -1 , and the analytical sensitivity was 1.81 μg mL -1 . When 30 nm nanoparticle was used, the upper limit of detection was 3.00 μg mL -1 , and the sensitivity was 0.014 and 0.13 μg mL -1 depending on the ratio of nanoparticle to antibody. Graphical abstract Schematic diagram of procedure and ESR spectra.

  11. Scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalyses of the crystalline components of human and animal dental calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeGeros, R.Z.; Orly, I.; LeGeros, J.P.; Gomez, C.; Kazimiroff, J.; Tarpley, T.; Kerebel, B.

    1988-01-01

    A review of the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe microanalyses in the study of dental calculus showed that such studies provided confirmatory and supplementary data on the morphological features of human dental calculi but gave only limited information on the identity of the crystalline or inorganic components. This study aimed to explore the potential of combined SEM and microanalyses in the identification of the crystalline components of the human and animal dental calculi. Human and animal calculi were analyzed. Identification of the crystalline components were made based on the combined information of the morphology (SEM) and Ca/P molar ratios of the crystals with the morphology and Ca/P molar ratio of synthetic calcium phosphates (brushite or DCPD; octacalcium phosphate, OCP; Mg-substituted whitlockite, beta-TCMP; CO 3 -substituted apatite, (CHA); and calcite. SEM showed similarities in morphological features of human and animal dental calculi but differences in the forms of crystals present. Microanalyses and crystal morphology data suggested the presence of CaCO 3 (calcite) and CHA in the animal (cat, dog, tiger) and of OCP, beta-TCMP and CHA in human dental calculi. X-ray diffraction and infrared (IR) absorption analyses confirmed these results. This exploratory study demonstrated that by taking into consideration what is known about the crystalline components of human and animal dental calculi, combined SEM and microanalyses can provide qualitative identification

  12. Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy (BEEM) of Au/Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si structures; Ballistische Elektronen Emissions Mikroskopie (BEEM) an Au/Si und Au/Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si-Strukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauch, I.

    2007-05-15

    This thesis describes Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy (BEEM) measurements of Au/Si(111) and Au/Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si(111) structures. This technique is based on Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy (STM). It measures the ballistic transport of hot electrons through parts of the sample and across an interface, which provides a potential barrier. One part of this work was to modify the BEEM apparatus and to implement a lock in method, which modulates the tunnel current with a small frequency. In this way it is possible to study samples with very low resistance (as low as 30 k{omega}), which widely enlarges the number of samples which are appropriate for BEEM measurement at room temperature. Both types of samples studied in this thesis had low resistance and were therefore studied using the lock in method. For the classical BEEM system Au/Si(111), we observed a pronounced dependence of the sample resistance of Au/Si(111)-7 x 7 on the preparation temperature. We developed a model for the resistance of thermal prepared Au/Si(111)-7 x 7 samples. The model identifies that the low resistance is due to the surface conductivity of the reconstructed silicon surface. If the surface is prepared at a lower temperature (but still high enough that the surface is cleaned and the silicon dioxide desorbed) rough areas remain on the surface, which reduce the surface conductivity. For BEEM measurements flat areas of the sample surface are selected. The low temperature prepared samples we were able to obtain BEEM spectra as well as images at room temperature using the lock in method. The sesquioxide of praseodymium (Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is currently discussed as a possible candidate for a gate oxide in semiconductor devices, since it has some of the required material properties such as a high dielectric constant, low leakage current and epitaxial growth on Si(100). We have for the first time performed BEEM measurement of praseodymium oxide. Despite a low resistance of the structures we

  13. Nanoscale probing of bandgap states on oxide particles using electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qianlang [School for the Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, 85287 AZ (United States); March, Katia [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Bâtiment 510, Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Crozier, Peter A., E-mail: CROZIER@asu.edu [School for the Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, 85287 AZ (United States)

    2017-07-15

    Surface and near-surface electronic states were probed with nanometer spatial resolution in MgO and TiO{sub 2} anatase nanoparticles using ultra-high energy resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) coupled to a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). This combination allows the surface electronic structure determined with spectroscopy to be correlated with nanoparticle size, morphology, facet etc. By acquiring the spectra in aloof beam mode, radiation damage to the surface can be significantly reduced while maintaining the nanometer spatial resolution. MgO and TiO{sub 2} showed very different bandgap features associated with the surface/sub-surface layer of the nanoparticles. Spectral simulations based on dielectric theory and density of states models showed that a plateau feature found in the pre-bandgap region in the spectra from (100) surfaces of 60 nm MgO nanocubes is consistent with a thin hydroxide surface layer. The spectroscopy shows that this hydroxide species gives rise to a broad filled surface state at 1.1 eV above the MgO valence band. At the surfaces of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, pronounced peaks were observed in the bandgap region, which could not be well fitted to defect states. In this case, the high refractive index and large particle size may make Cherenkov or guided light modes the likely causes of the peaks. - Highlights: • Bandgap states detected with aloof beam monochromated EELS on oxide nanoparticle surfaces. • Dielectric theory applied to simulate the spectra and interpret surface structure. • Density of states models also be employed to understand the surface electronic structure. • In MgO, one states associate with water species was found close to the valence band edge. • In anatase, two mid-gap states associated with point defects were found.

  14. Ultrafast carrier thermalization in lead iodide perovskite probed with two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Johannes M; Branchi, Federico; Valduga de Almeida Camargo, Franco; Zhao, Baodan; Friend, Richard H; Cerullo, Giulio; Deschler, Felix

    2017-08-29

    In band-like semiconductors, charge carriers form a thermal energy distribution rapidly after optical excitation. In hybrid perovskites, the cooling of such thermal carrier distributions occurs on timescales of about 300 fs via carrier-phonon scattering. However, the initial build-up of the thermal distribution proved difficult to resolve with pump-probe techniques due to the requirement of high resolution, both in time and pump energy. Here, we use two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with sub-10 fs resolution to directly observe the carrier interactions that lead to a thermal carrier distribution. We find that thermalization occurs dominantly via carrier-carrier scattering under the investigated fluences and report the dependence of carrier scattering rates on excess energy and carrier density. We extract characteristic carrier thermalization times from below 10 to 85 fs. These values allow for mobilities of 500 cm 2  V -1  s -1 at carrier densities lower than 2 × 10 19  cm -3 and limit the time for carrier extraction in hot carrier solar cells.Carrier-carrier scattering rates determine the fundamental limits of carrier transport and electronic coherence. Using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with sub-10 fs resolution, Richter and Branchi et al. extract carrier thermalization times of 10 to 85 fs in hybrid perovskites.

  15. Electron spin resonance probed competing states in NiMnInSi Heusler alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.S. [Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lin, J.G., E-mail: jglin@ntu.edu.tw [Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Titov, I.S.; Granovsky, A.B. [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Vorob' evy Gory, 11999l Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-01

    Shape memory Heusler alloy Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 12}Si{sub 3} is investigated with electron spin resonance (ESR) technique in a temperature range of 200–300 K. ESR is a dynamic probe allowing us to separate the responses from various magnetic phases, thus to study the complex phase transitions. The sample shows three transition temperatures: T{sub c}{sup A} (271 K), T{sub M} (247 K) and T{sub c}{sup M} (212 K), where T{sub c}{sup A} is the Curie temperature of austenitic phase, T{sub M} and T{sub c}{sup M} are the temperatures of magnetostructural martensitic transition and the Curie temperature of martensitic phase, respectively. Furthermore, ESR data reveals the coexistence of two magnetic modes in whole temperature range of 200–300 K. Particularly in martensitic phase, two magnetic modes are attributed to two different kinds of lattice deformation, the slip and twinning deformations. - Highlights: • Electron spin resonance study on magnetocaloric Heusler alloy within 200–300 K. • Magnetic phase separation below and above the structural transition temperature. • Phase competing is in association with different types of lattice distortions. • Electron spin resonance results are complementary to the magnetization data.

  16. Direct probing of electron and hole trapping into nano-floating-gate in organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Ze-Qun; Wang, Shun; Chen, Jian-Mei; Gao, Xu; Dong, Bin, E-mail: wangsd@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: chilf@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: bdong@suda.edu.cn; Chi, Li-Feng, E-mail: wangsd@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: chilf@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: bdong@suda.edu.cn; Wang, Sui-Dong, E-mail: wangsd@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: chilf@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: bdong@suda.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2015-03-23

    Electron and hole trapping into the nano-floating-gate of a pentacene-based organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memory is directly probed by Kelvin probe force microscopy. The probing is straightforward and non-destructive. The measured surface potential change can quantitatively profile the charge trapping, and the surface characterization results are in good accord with the corresponding device behavior. Both electrons and holes can be trapped into the nano-floating-gate, with a preference of electron trapping than hole trapping. The trapped charge quantity has an approximately linear relation with the programming/erasing gate bias, indicating that the charge trapping in the device is a field-controlled process.

  17. Direct probing of electron and hole trapping into nano-floating-gate in organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Ze-Qun; Wang, Shun; Chen, Jian-Mei; Gao, Xu; Dong, Bin; Chi, Li-Feng; Wang, Sui-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Electron and hole trapping into the nano-floating-gate of a pentacene-based organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memory is directly probed by Kelvin probe force microscopy. The probing is straightforward and non-destructive. The measured surface potential change can quantitatively profile the charge trapping, and the surface characterization results are in good accord with the corresponding device behavior. Both electrons and holes can be trapped into the nano-floating-gate, with a preference of electron trapping than hole trapping. The trapped charge quantity has an approximately linear relation with the programming/erasing gate bias, indicating that the charge trapping in the device is a field-controlled process

  18. Local probe studies on lattice distortions and electronic correlations in manganites

    CERN Document Server

    lopes, Armandina; Correia, João Guilherme

    This thesis presents an experimental study on lattice distortions and electronic correlations in colossal magnetoresistive magnetic oxides. The Perturbed Angular Correlation local probe technique is used to study selected manganite systems in order to obtain relevant insight into microscopic phenomena responsible for their macroscopic pr operties. Complementary structural, magnetic and electric characterization was performed. The work is focused on the following aspects: \\\\Lattice distortions and polaron clusters in LaMnO$_{3+ \\Delta}$ system. A study of the electric field gradi ent and magnetic hyperfine field was performed in representative samples of the LaMnO$_{3+ \\Delta}$ system, and correlated with macroscopic information obtained in the same samples. Particular attention was given to the LaMnO$_{3.12}$ sample since this compound is a prototype of a ferromagnetic-insulat or manganite, presenting a rhombohedric- orthorhombic structural phase transition near room temperature. We found that random distribu...

  19. A study of back-trap mottle in coated papers using electron probe microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eby, T.; Whalen-Shaw, M.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper methodology is been developed for analyzing both the surface and cross-sectional distributions for coating components using electron probe microanalysis and image analysis technology. Actual light and dark areas of print mottle are physically separated and analyzed to provide an unequivocal relationship between the distribution of coating components and the physical structure of the coating in areas of print mottle. Areas of low ink density were found to have higher surface latex concentration, greater mean coating thickness, and greater mean rawstock roughness. Furthermore, the difference in surface concentration of CaCO 3 within areas of, low and high ink density was established as a new and additional probable cause of back-trap mottle

  20. Accurate prediction of the ammonia probes of a variable proton-to-electron mass ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, A.; Yurchenko, S. N.; Thiel, W.; Špirko, V.

    2015-07-01

    A comprehensive study of the mass sensitivity of the vibration-rotation-inversion transitions of 14NH3, 15NH3, 14ND3 and 15ND3 is carried out variationally using the TROVE approach. Variational calculations are robust and accurate, offering a new way to compute sensitivity coefficients. Particular attention is paid to the Δk = ±3 transitions between the accidentally coinciding rotation-inversion energy levels of the ν2 = 0+, 0-, 1+ and 1- states, and the inversion transitions in the ν4 = 1 state affected by the `giant' l-type doubling effect. These transitions exhibit highly anomalous sensitivities, thus appearing as promising probes of a possible cosmological variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio μ. Moreover, a simultaneous comparison of the calculated sensitivities reveals a sizeable isotopic dependence which could aid an exclusive ammonia detection.

  1. On the over-collection of electrons by high voltage probes in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, D.L.; Katz, I.; Jongeward, G.; Mandell, M.

    1988-01-01

    It has been two decades since Parker and Murphy proposed a theory to place a rigorous upper bound on the current to an electron collecting probe in space, due to the influence of the geomagnetic field. Any greater current is then thought to involve some form of anomalous cross field transport to explain over-collection. Over-collection is commonly observed and is usually explained by invoking turbulence as a source of collisions. Although the turbulence hypothesis has some theoretical basis, no compelling kinetic theory or model has been put forth. Another possible explanation for over-collection is the ionization of the neutral gas within the charge sheath. Recently, in support of the SPEAR I rocket experiment, the three dimensional code POLAR has been used to model electron collection in a low earth orbit plasma. SPEAR I was a sounding rocket experiment that exposed to the space plasma, a pair of 10cm spherical probes biased to 44kV positive. The POLAR runs included single sphere, two sphere, and two sphere plus rocket modes. The single sphere model did not predict collection in excess of the Parker-Murphy limit. Models of two sphere collection, and of the entire experiment do however show that increased collection is possible as a result of asymetries introduced by geometry and a negative rocket body potential. These models were in close agreement with the experiment. In addition to the symmetry factor, sheath ionization is reviewed. A discussion of the role and kinetic nature of collisionless turbulence is presented

  2. Electric field measurements on Cluster: comparing the double-probe and electron drift techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Eriksson

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The four Cluster satellites each carry two instruments designed for measuring the electric field: a double-probe instrument (EFW and an electron drift instrument (EDI. We compare data from the two instruments in a representative sample of plasma regions. The complementary merits and weaknesses of the two techniques are illustrated. EDI operations are confined to regions of magnetic fields above 30 nT and where wave activity and keV electron fluxes are not too high, while EFW can provide data everywhere, and can go far higher in sampling frequency than EDI. On the other hand, the EDI technique is immune to variations in the low energy plasma, while EFW sometimes detects significant nongeophysical electric fields, particularly in regions with drifting plasma, with ion energy (in eV below the spacecraft potential (in volts. We show that the polar cap is a particularly intricate region for the double-probe technique, where large nongeophysical fields regularly contaminate EFW measurments of the DC electric field. We present a model explaining this in terms of enhanced cold plasma wake effects appearing when the ion flow energy is higher than the thermal energy but below the spacecraft potential multiplied by the ion charge. We suggest that these conditions, which are typical of the polar wind and occur sporadically in other regions containing a significant low energy ion population, cause a large cold plasma wake behind the spacecraft, resulting in spurious electric fields in EFW data. This interpretation is supported by an analysis of the direction of the spurious electric field, and by showing that use of active potential control alleviates the situation.

  3. Ballistic energy transport via perfluoroalkane linkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubtsova, Natalia I. [Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States); Rubtsov, Igor V., E-mail: irubtsov@tulane.edu [Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States)

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: ► Energy transport in perfluoroalkanes oligomers of various chain lengths was studied. ► Cross-peaks among C=O stretch and CH bending modes were recorded using RA 2DIR. ► Efficient constant-speed energy transport with the speed of 1150 m/s is found. ► Ballistic energy transport mechanism is suggested. - Abstract: Intramolecular energy transport in a series of perfluoroalkane oligomers with various chain lengths of 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 carbon atoms terminated by a carboxylic acid moiety on one end and –CF{sub 2}H group on another end is studied by relaxation-assisted two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy. Perfluoroalkane oligomers adopt an extended structure with antiperiplanar orientation of the neighboring carbon atoms. The energy transport initiated by exciting the C=O stretching mode of the acid was recorded by measuring a cross-peak amplitude between the C=O stretch and the C–H bending mode as a function of the waiting time between the excitation and probing. A linear dependence of energy transport time vs. chain length is found, which suggests a ballistic energy transport mechanism. The energy transport speed, measured from the chain-length dependence of the half-rise time, T{sub ½}, was found to be ca. 1150 m/s, which is close to the longitudinal speed of sound in Teflon polymers.

  4. Nuclear resonance scattering of synchrotron radiation as a unique electronic, structural and thermodynamic probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alp, E. Ercan; Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Toellner, Thomas S.; Zhao, Jiyong; Leu, Bogdan M.

    2012-01-01

    Discovery of Moessbauer effect in a nuclear transition was a remarkable development. It revealed how long-lived nuclear states with relatively low energies in the kiloelectron volt (keV) region can be excited without recoil. This new effect had a unique feature involving a coupling between nuclear physics and solid-state physics, both in terms of physics and sociology. Physics coupling originates from the fact that recoilless emission and absorption or resonance is only possible if the requirement that nuclei have to be bound in a lattice with quantized vibrational states is fulfilled, and that the finite electron density on the nucleus couples to nuclear degrees of freedom leading to hyperfine interactions. thus, Moessbauer spectroscopy allows peering into solid-state effects using unique nuclear transitions. Sociological aspects of this coupling had been equally startling and fruitful. The interaction between diverse scientific communities, who learned to use Moessbauer spectroscopy proved to be very valuable. For example, biologists, geologists, chemists, physics, materials scientists, and archeologists, all sharing a common spectroscopic technique, also learned to appreciate the beauty and intricacies of each other's fields. As a laboratory-based technique, Moessbauer spectroscopy matured by the end of the 1970s. Further exciting developments took place when accelerator-based techniques were employed, like synchrotron radiation or 'in-beam'Moessbauer experiments with implanted radioactive ions. More recently, two Moessbauer spectrometers on the surface of the Mars kept the technique vibrant and viable up until present time. In this chapter, the authors look into some of the unique aspects of nuclear resonance excited with synchrotron radiation as a probe of condensed matter, including magnetism, valence, vibrations, and lattice dynamics, and review the development of nuclear resonance inelastic x-ray scattering (NRIXS) and synchrotron Moessbauer spectroscopy

  5. Self-powered detector probes for electron and gamma-ray beam monitoring in high-power industrial accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lone, M.A.

    1992-08-01

    A self-powered detector (SPD) is a simple passive device that consists of a coaxial probe with a metallic outer sleeve, a mineral oxide insulating layer, and a metallic inner core. SPDs are used in nuclear reactors for monitoring neutron and gamma ray fields. Responses of various SPDs to electron and gamma ray beams from industrial accelerators were investigated with Monte Carlo simulations. By judicious choice of transmission filters, threshold SPD probes were investigated for on-line monitoring of the beam energy spectrum of the high-power IMPELA industrial electron accelerator. (Author) (14 figs, 16 refs.)

  6. Skipping Orbits, Traversing Trajectories, and Quantum Ballistic Transport in Microstructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenakker, C.W.J.; Houten, H. van; Wees, B.J. van

    1989-01-01

    Three topics of current interest in the study of quantum ballistic transport in a two-dimensional electron gas are discussed, with an emphasis on correspondences between classical trajectories and quantum states in the various experimental geometries. We consider the quantized conductance of point

  7. Ballistic transport in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calado, V.E.; Zhu, S.E.; Goswami, S.; Xu, Q.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Janssen, G.C.A.M.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.

    2014-01-01

    In this letter, we report the observation of ballistic transport on micron length scales in graphene synthesised by chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Transport measurements were done on Hall bar geometries in a liquid He cryostat. Using non-local measurements, we show that electrons can be

  8. Geometrical optimization of a local ballistic magnetic sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanda, Yuhsuke; Hara, Masahiro [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Nomura, Tatsuya [Advanced Electronics Research Division, INAMORI Frontier Research Center, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Kimura, Takashi [Advanced Electronics Research Division, INAMORI Frontier Research Center, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Department of Physics, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2014-04-07

    We have developed a highly sensitive local magnetic sensor by using a ballistic transport property in a two-dimensional conductor. A semiclassical simulation reveals that the sensitivity increases when the geometry of the sensor and the spatial distribution of the local field are optimized. We have also experimentally demonstrated a clear observation of a magnetization process in a permalloy dot whose size is much smaller than the size of an optimized ballistic magnetic sensor fabricated from a GaAs/AlGaAs two-dimensional electron gas.

  9. Ballistic-neutralized chamber transport of intense heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Oliver, B.V.; Clark, R.E.; Sharp, W.M.; Friedman, A.

    2001-01-01

    Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of intense heavy ion beams propagating in an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor chamber are presented. The ballistic-neutralized transport scheme studied uses 4 GeV Pb +1 ion beams injected into a low-density, gas-filled reactor chamber and the beam is ballistically focused onto an ICF target before entering the chamber. Charge and current neutralization of the beam is provided by the low-density background gas. The ballistic-neutralized simulations include stripping of the beam ions as the beam traverses the chamber as well as ionization of the background plasma. In addition, a series of simulations are presented that explore the charge and current neutralization of the ion beam in an evacuated chamber. For this vacuum transport mode, neutralizing electrons are only drawn from sources near the chamber entrance

  10. Ballistic spin filtering across the ferromagnetic-semiconductor interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.H. Li

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The ballistic spin-filter effect from a ferromagnetic metal into a semiconductor has theoretically been studied with an intention of detecting the spin polarizability of density of states in FM layer at a higher energy level. The physical model for the ballistic spin filtering across the interface between ferromagnetic metals and semiconductor superlattice is developed by exciting the spin polarized electrons into n-type AlAs/GaAs superlattice layer at a much higher energy level and then ballistically tunneling through the barrier into the ferromagnetic film. Since both the helicity-modulated and static photocurrent responses are experimentally measurable quantities, the physical quantity of interest, the relative asymmetry of spin-polarized tunneling conductance, could be extracted experimentally in a more straightforward way, as compared with previous models. The present physical model serves guidance for studying spin detection with advanced performance in the future.

  11. High-spatial-resolution electron density measurement by Langmuir probe for multi-point observations using tiny spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, H.; Røed, K.; Bekkeng, T. A.; Trondsen, E.; Clausen, L. B. N.; Miloch, W. J.; Moen, J. I.

    2017-11-01

    A method for evaluating electron density using a single fixed-bias Langmuir probe is presented. The technique allows for high-spatio-temporal resolution electron density measurements, which can be effectively carried out by tiny spacecraft for multi-point observations in the ionosphere. The results are compared with the multi-needle Langmuir probe system, which is a scientific instrument developed at the University of Oslo comprising four fixed-bias cylindrical probes that allow small-scale plasma density structures to be characterized in the ionosphere. The technique proposed in this paper can comply with the requirements of future small-sized spacecraft, where the cost-effectiveness, limited space available on the craft, low power consumption and capacity for data-links need to be addressed. The first experimental results in both the plasma laboratory and space confirm the efficiency of the new approach. Moreover, detailed analyses on two challenging issues when deploying the DC Langmuir probe on a tiny spacecraft, which are the limited conductive area of the spacecraft and probe surface contamination, are presented in the paper. It is demonstrated that the limited conductive area, depending on applications, can either be of no concern for the experiment or can be resolved by mitigation methods. Surface contamination has a small impact on the performance of the developed probe.

  12. Focussed ion beam thin sample microanalysis using a field emission gun electron probe microanalyser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Y.

    2018-01-01

    Field emission gun electron probe microanalysis (FEG-EPMA) in conjunction with wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometry using a low acceleration voltage (V acc) allows elemental analysis with sub-micrometre lateral spatial resolution (SR). However, this degree of SR does not necessarily meet the requirements associated with increasingly miniaturised devices. Another challenge related to performing FEG-EPMA with a low V acc is that the accuracy of quantitative analyses is adversely affected, primarily because low energy X-ray lines such as the L- and M-lines must be employed and due to the potential of line interference. One promising means of obtaining high SR with FEG-EPMA is to use thin samples together with high V acc values. This mini-review covers the basic principles of thin-sample FEG-EPMA and describes an application of this technique to the analysis of optical fibres. Outstanding issues related to this technique that must be addressed are also discussed, which include the potential for electron beam damage during analysis of insulating materials and the development of methods to use thin samples for quantitative analysis.

  13. Characterisation of corrosion processes of using electron micro-probe, scanning probe microscopy and synchrotron-generated x-ray fluorescence imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neufeld, A.K.; Cole, I.S.; Furman, S.A.; Isaacs, H.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: With recent advances in computerized technology, the study of chemical reactions can now be visualized as they occur in real time and has resulted in analytical techniques with orders of magnitude greater sensitivity and resolution. This ability offers the corrosion scientist a unique opportunity to study the processes relevant to degradation science which could only be theoretically considered. Neufeld el al (1,2) have attempted to explain in great detail the mechanism of corrosion initiation of zinc by using X-ray micro-probe, Scanning Kelvin probe, and more recently by using synchrotron-generated X-rays and X-ray fluorescence imaging. New results are presented from the synchrotron studies where the transport of ions in-situ has been investigated. The synthesis of information from the techniques will also be discussed in its relevance to atmospheric corrosion processes. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  14. Room-temperature ballistic energy transport in molecules with repeating units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubtsova, Natalia I.; Nyby, Clara M.; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Boyu; Zhou, Xiao; Jayawickramarajah, Janarthanan; Burin, Alexander L.; Rubtsov, Igor V.

    2015-01-01

    In materials, energy can propagate by means of two limiting regimes: diffusive and ballistic. Ballistic energy transport can be fast and efficient and often occurs with a constant speed. Using two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy methods, we discovered ballistic energy transport via individual polyethylene chains with a remarkably high speed of 1440 m/s and the mean free path length of 14.6 Å in solution at room temperature. Whereas the transport via the chains occurs ballistically, the mechanism switches to diffusive with the effective transport speed of 130 m/s at the end-groups attached to the chains. A unifying model of the transport in molecules is presented with clear time separation and additivity among the transport along oligomeric fragments, which occurs ballistically, and the transport within the disordered fragments, occurring diffusively. The results open new avenues for making novel elements for molecular electronics, including ultrafast energy transporters, controlled chemical reactors, and sub-wavelength quantum nanoseparators

  15. Room-temperature ballistic energy transport in molecules with repeating units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubtsova, Natalia I.; Nyby, Clara M.; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Boyu; Zhou, Xiao; Jayawickramarajah, Janarthanan; Burin, Alexander L.; Rubtsov, Igor V., E-mail: irubtsov@tulane.edu [Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 (United States)

    2015-06-07

    In materials, energy can propagate by means of two limiting regimes: diffusive and ballistic. Ballistic energy transport can be fast and efficient and often occurs with a constant speed. Using two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy methods, we discovered ballistic energy transport via individual polyethylene chains with a remarkably high speed of 1440 m/s and the mean free path length of 14.6 Å in solution at room temperature. Whereas the transport via the chains occurs ballistically, the mechanism switches to diffusive with the effective transport speed of 130 m/s at the end-groups attached to the chains. A unifying model of the transport in molecules is presented with clear time separation and additivity among the transport along oligomeric fragments, which occurs ballistically, and the transport within the disordered fragments, occurring diffusively. The results open new avenues for making novel elements for molecular electronics, including ultrafast energy transporters, controlled chemical reactors, and sub-wavelength quantum nanoseparators.

  16. Management of civilian ballistic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, V S; Masquelet, A C

    2013-12-01

    The management of ballistic fractures, which are open fractures, has often been studied in wartime and has benefited from the principles of military surgery with debridement and lavage, and the use of external fixation for bone stabilization. In civilian practice, bone stabilization of these fractures is different and is not performed by external fixation. Fifteen civilian ballistic fractures, Gustilo II or IIIa, two associated with nerve damage and none with vascular damage, were reviewed. After debridement and lavage, ten internal fixations and five conservative treatments were used. No superficial or deep surgical site infection was noted. Fourteen of the 15 fractures (93%) healed without reoperation. Eleven of the 15 patients (73%) regained normal function. Ballistic fractures have a bad reputation due to their many complications, including infections. In civilian practice, the use of internal fixation is not responsible for excessive morbidity, provided debridement and lavage are performed. Civilian ballistic fractures, when they are caused by low-velocity firearms, differ from military ballistic fractures. Although the principle of surgical debridement and lavage remains the same, bone stabilization is different and is similar to conventional open fractures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Vibrational Surface Electron-Energy-Loss Spectroscopy Probes Confined Surface-Phonon Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Lourenço-Martins

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, two reports [Krivanek et al. Nature (London 514, 209 (2014NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature13870, Lagos et al. Nature (London 543, 529 (2017NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature21699] have demonstrated the amazing possibility to probe vibrational excitations from nanoparticles with a spatial resolution much smaller than the corresponding free-space phonon wavelength using electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS. While Lagos et al. evidenced a strong spatial and spectral modulation of the EELS signal over a nanoparticle, Krivanek et al. did not. Here, we show that discrepancies among different EELS experiments as well as their relation to optical near- and far-field optical experiments [Dai et al. Science 343, 1125 (2014SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1246833] can be understood by introducing the concept of confined bright and dark surface phonon modes, whose density of states is probed by EELS. Such a concise formalism is the vibrational counterpart of the broadly used formalism for localized surface plasmons [Ouyang and Isaacson Philos. Mag. B 60, 481 (1989PMABDJ1364-281210.1080/13642818908205921, García de Abajo and Aizpurua Phys. Rev. B 56, 15873 (1997PRBMDO0163-182910.1103/PhysRevB.56.15873, García de Abajo and Kociak Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 106804 (2008PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.100.106804, Boudarham and Kociak Phys. Rev. B 85, 245447 (2012PRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.85.245447]; it makes it straightforward to predict or interpret phenomena already known for localized surface plasmons such as environment-related energy shifts or the possibility of 3D mapping of the related surface charge densities [Collins et al. ACS Photonics 2, 1628 (2015APCHD52330-402210.1021/acsphotonics.5b00421].

  18. Magneto-ballistic transport in GaN nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoruvo, Giovanni; Allain, Adrien; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry; Matioli, Elison

    2016-01-01

    The ballistic filtering property of nanoscale crosses was used to investigate the effect of perpendicular magnetic fields on the ballistic transport of electrons on wide band-gap GaN heterostructures. The straight scattering-less trajectory of electrons was modified by a perpendicular magnetic field which produced a strong non-linear behavior in the measured output voltage of the ballistic filters and allowed the observation of semi-classical and quantum effects, such as quenching of the Hall resistance and manifestation of the last plateau, in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. A large measured phase coherence length of 190 nm allowed the observation of universal quantum fluctuations and weak localization of electrons due to quantum interference up to ∼25 K. This work also reveals the prospect of wide band-gap GaN semiconductors as a platform for basic transport and quantum studies, whose properties allow the investigation of ballistic transport and quantum phenomena at much larger voltages and temperatures than in other semiconductors.

  19. Magneto-ballistic transport in GaN nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoruvo, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.santoruvo@epfl.ch; Allain, Adrien; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry; Matioli, Elison, E-mail: elison.matioli@epfl.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-09-05

    The ballistic filtering property of nanoscale crosses was used to investigate the effect of perpendicular magnetic fields on the ballistic transport of electrons on wide band-gap GaN heterostructures. The straight scattering-less trajectory of electrons was modified by a perpendicular magnetic field which produced a strong non-linear behavior in the measured output voltage of the ballistic filters and allowed the observation of semi-classical and quantum effects, such as quenching of the Hall resistance and manifestation of the last plateau, in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. A large measured phase coherence length of 190 nm allowed the observation of universal quantum fluctuations and weak localization of electrons due to quantum interference up to ∼25 K. This work also reveals the prospect of wide band-gap GaN semiconductors as a platform for basic transport and quantum studies, whose properties allow the investigation of ballistic transport and quantum phenomena at much larger voltages and temperatures than in other semiconductors.

  20. Local secondary-electron emission spectra of graphite and gold surfaces obtained using the Scanning Probe Energy Loss Spectrometer (SPELS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, J J; Pulisciano, A; Palmer, R E

    2009-01-01

    Secondary-electron emission (SEE) spectra have been obtained with the Scanning Probe Energy Loss Spectrometer at a tip-sample distance of only 50 nm. Such short working distances are required for the best theoretical spatial resolution (<10 nm). The SEE spectra of graphite, obtained as a function of tip bias voltage, are shown to correspond to unoccupied states in the electronic band structure. The SEE spectra of thin gold films demonstrate the capability of identifying (carbonaceous) surface contamination with this technique.

  1. Local secondary-electron emission spectra of graphite and gold surfaces obtained using the Scanning Probe Energy Loss Spectrometer (SPELS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, J J; Pulisciano, A; Palmer, R E, E-mail: R.E.Palmer@bham.ac.u [Nanoscale Physics Research Laboratory, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-25

    Secondary-electron emission (SEE) spectra have been obtained with the Scanning Probe Energy Loss Spectrometer at a tip-sample distance of only 50 nm. Such short working distances are required for the best theoretical spatial resolution (<10 nm). The SEE spectra of graphite, obtained as a function of tip bias voltage, are shown to correspond to unoccupied states in the electronic band structure. The SEE spectra of thin gold films demonstrate the capability of identifying (carbonaceous) surface contamination with this technique.

  2. Probing individal subcells of fully printed and coated polymer tandem solar cells using multichromatic opto-electronic characterization methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod; Andersen, Thomas Rieks; Dam, Henrik Friis

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a method to opto-electronically probe the individual junctions and carrier transport across interfaces in fully printed and coated tandem polymer solar cells is described, enabling the identification of efficiency limiting printing/coating defects. The methods used are light beam...

  3. Absence of ballistic charge transport in the half-filled 1D Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmelo, J. M. P.; Nemati, S.; Prosen, T.

    2018-05-01

    Whether in the thermodynamic limit of lattice length L → ∞, hole concentration mηz = - 2 Sηz/L = 1 -ne → 0, nonzero temperature T > 0, and U / t > 0 the charge stiffness of the 1D Hubbard model with first neighbor transfer integral t and on-site repulsion U is finite or vanishes and thus whether there is or there is no ballistic charge transport, respectively, remains an unsolved and controversial issue, as different approaches yield contradictory results. (Here Sηz = - (L -Ne) / 2 is the η-spin projection and ne =Ne / L the electronic density.) In this paper we provide an upper bound on the charge stiffness and show that (similarly as at zero temperature), for T > 0 and U / t > 0 it vanishes for mηz → 0 within the canonical ensemble in the thermodynamic limit L → ∞. Moreover, we show that at high temperature T → ∞ the charge stiffness vanishes as well within the grand-canonical ensemble for L → ∞ and chemical potential μ →μu where (μ -μu) ≥ 0 and 2μu is the Mott-Hubbard gap. The lack of charge ballistic transport indicates that charge transport at finite temperatures is dominated by a diffusive contribution. Our scheme uses a suitable exact representation of the electrons in terms of rotated electrons for which the numbers of singly occupied and doubly occupied lattice sites are good quantum numbers for U / t > 0. In contrast to often less controllable numerical studies, the use of such a representation reveals the carriers that couple to the charge probes and provides useful physical information on the microscopic processes behind the exotic charge transport properties of the 1D electronic correlated system under study.

  4. Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, GOES, and Cluster Observations of EMIC Waves, ULF Pulsations, and an Electron Flux Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigsbee, K.; Kletzing, C. A.; Smith, C. W.; Macdowall, R.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Blake, J. B.; Baker, D. N.; Green, J. C.; Singer, H. J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We examined an electron flux dropout during the 12-14 November 2012 geomagnetic storm using observations from seven spacecraft: the two Van Allen Probes, Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS)-A (P5), Cluster 2, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) 13, 14, and 15. The electron fluxes for energies greater than 2.0 MeV observed by GOES 13, 14, and 15 at geosynchronous orbit and by the Van Allen Probes remained at or near instrumental background levels for more than 24 h from 12 to 14 November. For energies of 0.8 MeV, the GOES satellites observed two shorter intervals of reduced electron fluxes. The first interval of reduced 0.8 MeV electron fluxes on 12-13 November was associated with an interplanetary shock and a sudden impulse. Cluster, THEMIS, and GOES observed intense He+ electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves from just inside geosynchronous orbit out to the magnetopause across the dayside to the dusk flank. The second interval of reduced 0.8 MeV electron fluxes on 13-14 November was associated with a solar sector boundary crossing and development of a geomagnetic storm with Dstwaves observed by the Van Allen Probes near dawn. A combination of adiabatic effects, losses to the magnetopause, scattering by EMIC waves, and acceleration by ULF waves can explain the observed electron behavior.

  5. Ballistic materials in MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.S.; Hurst, G.C.; Duerk, J.L.; Diaz, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the most common ballistic materials available in the urban setting studied for deflection force, rotation, heating, and imaging artifact at 1.5 T to determine potential efficacy and safety for imaging patients with ballistic injuries. Twenty-eight missiles were tested, covering the range of bullet types and materials suggested by the Cleveland Police Department. Deflection force was measured by the New method. Rotation was studied by evaluating bullets in a 10% (W/W) ballistic gelating after 30 minutes with the long axis of the bullet placed parallel and perpendicular to the z axis. Heating was measured with alcohol thermometers imaged for 1 hour alternately with FESUM and spin-echo sequences (RF absorption w/Kg and 0.033 w/Kg). Image artifact evaluation of routine sequences was performed

  6. Ultra-Broadband Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy and Pump-Probe Microscopy of Molecular Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokoyny, Boris M.

    Ultrafast spectroscopy offers an unprecedented view on the dynamic nature of chemical reactions. From charge transfer in semiconductors to folding and isomerization of proteins, these all important processes can now be monitored and in some instances even controlled on real, physical timescales. One of the biggest challenges of ultrafast science is the incredible energetic complexity of most systems. It is not uncommon to encounter macromolecules or materials with absorption spectra spanning significant portions of the visible spectrum. Monitoring a multitude of electronic and vibrational transitions, all dynamically interacting with each other on femtosecond timescales poses a truly daunting experimental task. The first part of this thesis deals with the development of a novel Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy (2DES) and its associated, advanced detection methodologies. Owing to its ultra-broadband implementation, this technique enables us to monitor femtosecond chemical dynamics that span the energetic landscape of the entire visible spectrum. In order to demonstrate the utility of our method, we apply it to two laser dye molecules, IR-144 and Cresyl Violet. Variation of photophysical properties on a microscopic scale in either man-made or naturally occurring systems can have profound implications on how we understand their macroscopic properties. Recently, inorganic hybrid perovskites have been tapped as the next generation solar energy harvesting materials. Their remarkable properties include low exciton binding energy, low exciton recombination rates and long carrier diffusion lengths. Nevertheless, considerable variability in device properties made with nearly identical preparation methods has puzzled the community. In the second part of this thesis we use non-linear pump probe microscopy to study the heterogeneous nature of femtosecond carrier dynamics in thin film perovskites. We show that the local morphology of the perovskite thin films has a

  7. Ultrafast Phase Transition in Vanadium Dioxide Driven by Hot-Electron Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasankumar R. P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel all-optical method of triggering the phase transition in vanadium dioxide by means of ballistic electrons injected across the interface between a mesh of Au nanoparticles coveringd VO2 nanoislands. By performing non-degenerate pump-probe transmission spectroscopy on this hybrid plasmonic/phase-changing nanostructure, structural and electronic dynamics can be retrieved and compared.

  8. Development of remote controlled electron probe micro analyzer with crystal orientation analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Junichi; Matsui, Hiroki; Harada, Akio; Obata, Hiroki; Tomita, Takeshi

    2012-07-01

    The advanced utilization of Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel is progressed in Japan to save the power generating cost and the volume of nuclear wastes. The electric power companies have continued the approach to the burnup extension and to rise up the thermal power increase of the commercial fuel. The government should be accumulating the detailed information on the newest technologies to make the regulations and guidelines for the safety of the advanced nuclear fuels. The remote controlled Electron Probe Micro Analyzer (EPMA) attached with crystal orientation analyzer has been developed in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to study the fuel behavior of the high burnup fuels under the accident condition. The effects of the cladding microstructure on the fuel behavior will be evaluated more conveniently and quantitatively by this EPMA. The commercial model of EPMA has been modified to have the performance of airtight and earthquake resistant in compliance with the safety regulation by the government for handling the high radioactive elements. This paper describes the specifications of EPMA which were specialised for post irradiation examination and the test results of the cold mock-up to confirm their performances and reliabilities. (author)

  9. Nanoparticle Plasma Jet as Fast Probe for Runaway Electrons in Tokamak Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogatu, I. N.; Galkin, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    Successful probing of runaway electrons (REs) requires fast (1 - 2 ms) high-speed injection of enough mass able to penetrate through tokamak toroidal B-field (2 - 5 T) over 1 - 2 m distance with large assimilation fraction in core plasma. A nanoparticle plasma jet (NPPJ) from a plasma gun is a unique combination of millisecond trigger-to-delivery response and mass-velocity of 100 mg at several km/s for deep direct injection into current channel of rapidly ( 1 ms) cooling post-TQ core plasma. After C60 NPPJ test bed demonstration we started to work on ITER-compatible boron nitride (BN) NPPJ. Once injected into plasma, BN NP undergoes ablative sublimation, thermally decomposes into B and N, and releases abundant B and N high-charge ions along plasma-traversing path and into the core. We present basic characteristics of our BN NPPJ concept and first results from B and N ions on Zeff > 1 effect on REs dynamics by using a self-consistent model for RE current density. Simulation results of BNQ+ NPPJ penetration through tokamak B-field to RE beam location performed with Hybrid Electro-Magnetic code (HEM-2D) are also presented. Work supported by U.S. DOE SBIR Grant.

  10. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis of boar and inobuta testes after the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashiro, Hideaki; Abe, Yasuyuki; Hayashi, Gohei; Urushihara, Yusuke; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Jin; Kino, Yasuyuki; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Tong, Bin; Takino, Sachio; Sugano, Yukou; Sugimura, Satoshi; Yamada, Takahisa; Isogai, Emiko; Fukumoto, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of chronic radiation exposure associated with the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident on the testes of boar and inobuta (a hybrid of Sus scrofa and Sus scrofa domestica). This study examined the contamination levels of radioactive caesium (Cs), especially 134 Cs and 137 Cs, in the testis of both boar and inobuta during 2012, after the Fukushima accident. Morphological analysis and electron-probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) were also undertaken on the testes. The 134 Cs and 137 Cs levels were 6430 ± 23 and 6820 ± 32 Bq/kg in the boar testes, and 755 ± 13 and 747 ± 17 Bq/kg in the inobuta testes, respectively. The internal and external exposure of total 134 Cs and 137 Cs in the boar testes were 47.1 mGy and 176.2 mGy, respectively, whereas in the inobuta testes, these levels were 6.09 mGy and 59.8 mGy, respectively. Defective spermatogenesis was not detected by the histochemical analysis of radiation-exposed testes for either animal. In neither animal were Cs molecules detected, using EPMA. In conclusion, we showed that adverse radiation-induced effects were not detected in the examined boar and inobuta testes following the chronic radiation exposure associated with the FNPP accident

  11. Picosecond electron probe for direct investigation of lattice temperature and structural phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourou, G.; Williamson, S.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have directly observed the laser-induced melt metamorphosis of thin aluminum films. The time required for the melt to evolve is dependent on the degree to which the Al specimen is superheated. The temperature of this superheated state can also be monitored on the picosecond time scale. The picosecond electron probe not only reveals information about the structure of a material but also about the lattice temperature. The change in lattice parameter that is observed as a shift in diffracted ring diameter is directly related to the thermal expansion coefficient. Also, based on the Debye-Waller effect, a reduction in the intensity of the diffraction rings can be observed due to increased lattice vibration. Presently, a 1-kHz-1-mJ/pulse Nd:YAG laser is being used to measure the temperature overshoot of laser-induced Al films. The high repetition rate permits signal averaging to be employed thereby increasing the sensitivity of the thermometric technique

  12. Using Supra-Arcade Downflows as Probes of Electron Acceleration During Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Sabrina L.

    2011-01-01

    Extracting information from coronal features above flares has become more reliable with the availability of increasingly higher spatial and temporal-resolution data in recent decades. We are now able to sufficiently probe the region high above long-duration flaring active regions where reconnection is expected to be continually occurring. Flows in the supra-arcade region, first observed with Yohkoh/SXT, have been theorized to be associated with newly-reconnected outflowing loops. High resolution data appears to confirm these assertions. Assuming that these flows are indeed reconnection outflows, then the detection of those directed toward the solar surface (i.e. downflowing) should be associated with particle acceleration between the current sheet and the loop footpoints rooted in the chromosphere. RHESSI observations of highly energetic particles with respect to downflow detections could potentially constrain electron acceleration models. I will discuss measurements of these supra-arcade downflows (SADs) in relation to reconnection model parameters and present preliminary findings comparing the downflow timings with high-energy RHESSI lightcurves.

  13. Modeling the Proton Radiation Belt With Van Allen Probes Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selesnick, R. S.; Baker, D. N.; Kanekal, S. G.; Hoxie, V. C.; Li, X.

    2018-01-01

    An empirical model of the proton radiation belt is constructed from data taken during 2013-2017 by the Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescopes on the Van Allen Probes satellites. The model intensity is a function of time, kinetic energy in the range 18-600 MeV, equatorial pitch angle, and L shell of proton guiding centers. Data are selected, on the basis of energy deposits in each of the nine silicon detectors, to reduce background caused by hard proton energy spectra at low L. Instrument response functions are computed by Monte Carlo integration, using simulated proton paths through a simplified structural model, to account for energy loss in shielding material for protons outside the nominal field of view. Overlap of energy channels, their wide angular response, and changing satellite orientation require the model dependencies on all three independent variables be determined simultaneously. This is done by least squares minimization with a customized steepest descent algorithm. Model uncertainty accounts for statistical data error and systematic error in the simulated instrument response. A proton energy spectrum is also computed from data taken during the 8 January 2014 solar event, to illustrate methods for the simpler case of an isotropic and homogeneous model distribution. Radiation belt and solar proton results are compared to intensities computed with a simplified, on-axis response that can provide a good approximation under limited circumstances.

  14. Electron probe micro-analysis of irradiated Triso-coated UO2 particles, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Toru; Minato, Kazuo; Fukuda, Kosaku; Ikawa, Katsuichi

    1983-11-01

    The Triso-coated low-enriched UO 2 particles were subjected to the post-irradiation electron probe micro-analysis. Observations and analyses on the amoeba effect, inclusions and solutes in the UO 2 matrix were made. In the cooler side of the particle which suffered extensive kernel migration, two significant features were observed: (1) the wake of minute particles, presumably UO 2 , left by the moving kernel in the carbon phase and (2) carbon precipitation in the pores and along the grain boundaries of the UO 2 kernel. Both features could be hardly explained by the gas-phase mechanism of carbon transport and rather suggest the solid state mechanism. Two-types of 4d-transition metal inclusions were observed: the one which was predominantly Mo with a fraction of Tc and another which was enriched with Ru and containing significant amount of Si. The Mo and Si were also found in the UO 2 matrix; the observation led to the discussion of the oxygen potential in the irradiated Triso-coated UO 2 particle. (author)

  15. Probing Nitrosyl Ligation of Surface-Confined Metalloporphyrins by Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Complexes obtained by the ligation of nitric oxide (NO) to metalloporphyrins represent important model systems with biological relevance. Herein we report a molecular-level investigation of surface-confined cobalt tetraphenyl porphyrin (Co-TPP) species and their interaction with NO under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. It is demonstrated that individual NO adducts can be desorbed using the atomically sharp tip of a scanning tunneling microscope, whereby a writing process is implemented for fully saturated regular metalloporphyrin arrays. The low-energy vibrational characteristics of individual Co-TPP-nitrosyl complexes probed by inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) reveal a prominent signature at an energy of ≃31 meV. Using density functional theory-based IETS simulations—the first to be performed on such an extensive interfacial nanosystem—we succeed to reproduce the low-frequency spectrum for the NO-ligated complex and explain the absence of IETS activity for bare Co-TPP. Moreover, we can conclusively assign the IETS peak of NO-Co-TPP to a unique vibration mode involving the NO complexation site, namely, the in-plane Co–N–O rocking mode. In addition, we verify that the propensity rules previously designed on small aromatic systems and molecular fragments hold true for a metal–organic entity. This work notably permits one to envisage IETS spectroscopy as a sensitive tool to chemically characterize hybrid interfaces formed by complex metal–organic units and gaseous adducts. PMID:23718257

  16. Spectroscopic and probe measurements of the electron temperature in the plasma of a pulse-periodic microwave discharge in argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, V. V., E-mail: vvandreev@mail.ru; Vasileska, I., E-mail: ivonavasileska@yahoo.com; Korneeva, M. A., E-mail: korneevama@mail.ru [Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    A pulse-periodic 2.45-GHz electron-cyclotron resonance plasma source on the basis of a permanent- magnet mirror trap has been constructed and tested. Variations in the discharge parameters and the electron temperature of argon plasma have been investigated in the argon pressure range of 1 × 10{sup –4} to 4 × 10{sup –3} Torr at a net pulsed input microwave power of up to 600 W. The plasma electron temperature in the above ranges of gas pressures and input powers has been measured by a Langmuir probe and determined using optical emission spectroscopy (OES) from the intensity ratios of spectral lines. The OES results agree qualitatively and quantitatively with the data obtained using the double probe.

  17. Characteristics of short distance field of a source radiating at electronic frequencies in a ionospheric plasma. Applications to density and electron temperature measurement by mutual impedance probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debrie, R.

    1983-06-01

    Realization of a new type of radio-frequency probe, the mutual-impedance probe (or the quadrupole probe) is developed. Theoretical results obtained with a cold plasma description of the ionized medium with static magnetic field. Transfer impedance between two dipoles in an homogeneous hot and isotope plasma is then calculated. In equatorial ionosphere, measurements made by the H.F. quadrupole probe, in the Veronique rocket, during the Cisaspe experiment, have been interpreted with this hot plasma theory. The influence of a plasma drift with respect to the emitter dipole is analyzed. The influence of a static magnetic field in hot and homogeneous plasma, on the frequency response curve of the mutual impedance is studied. For, in ionospheric plasmas of auroral and polar zones, the earth magnetic field is no more negligible and gives to the plasma dielectric, strongly anisotropic, properties well described by the microscopic theory in hot magnetoplasma. The space time fast evolution of characteristics of plasma encountered in space experiments has been shown up with a new method of measurement the self-oscillating quadrupole probe. The work synthesis is put in a concrete form on the polar satellite Aureol-3 the first results of which are presented. This satellite allows a precise study of ionosphere auroral zones. At last, it is shown that methods developed for electron density and temperature measurements can be transposed in low frequency. In this case, measurements with quadrupole probe allow to get the ion average mass by lower hybrid frequency excitation [fr

  18. Plasma potential and electron temperature evaluated by ball-pen and Langmuir probes in the COMPASS tokamak.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dimitrova, Miglena; Popov, Tsv.K.; Adámek, Jiří; Kovačič, J.; Ivanova, P.; Hasan, E.; López-Bruna, D.; Seidl, Jakub; Vondráček, Petr; Dejarnac, Renaud; Stöckel, Jan; Imríšek, Martin; Pánek, Radomír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 12 (2017), č. článku 125001. ISSN 0741-3335 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-10723S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015045 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Plasma potential * electron temperature * bi-Maxwellian EEDF * ball-pen probe * Langmuir probe * COMPASS tokamak * last closed flux surface Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.392, year: 2016

  19. Characterization of InAs/AlSb tunneling double barrier heterostructure by ballistic electron emission microscope with InAs as based electrode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaniš, Jan; Chow, D. H.; Pangrác, Jiří; Šroubek, Filip; McGill, T. C.; Walachová, Jarmila

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 0, č. 3 (2003), s. 986-991 ISSN 1610-1634. [EXMATEC 2002 - International Workshop on Expert Evaluation & Control of Compounds Semiconductor Materials & Technologies /6./. Budapest, 26.05.2002-29.05.2002] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1010104 Projekt 04/01:4045 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : field emission electron microscopy * semiconductor quantum wells * spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  20. Microfour-point probe for studying electronic transport through surface states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian Leth; Grey, Francois; Shiraki, I.

    2000-01-01

    Microfour-point probes integrated on silicon chips have been fabricated with probe spacings in the range 4-60 mum. They provide a simple robust device for electrical transport measurements at surfaces, bridging the gap between conventional macroscopic four-point probes and scanning tunneling...... transport through surface states, which is not observed on the macroscopic scale, presumably due to scattering at atomic steps. (C) 2000 American Institute of Physics....

  1. Ballistic Phosphorene Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-19

    IEEE Electron Devices Letters 35 (7): 795-797, 2014. 2. Yexin Deng, Zhe Luo, Nathan J. Conrad, Han Liu, Yongji Gong, Sina Najmaei, Pulickel M...IEEE Electron Devices Letters 35 (7): 795-797, 2014. 2. Yexin Deng, Zhe Luo, Nathan J. Conrad, Han Liu, Yongji Gong, Sina Najmaei, Pulickel M

  2. Deceleration of probe beam by stage bias potential improves resolution of serial block-face scanning electron microscopic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwer, James C; Deerinck, Thomas J; Bushong, Eric; Astakhov, Vadim; Ramachandra, Ranjan; Peltier, Steven T; Ellisman, Mark H

    2017-01-01

    Serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBEM) is quickly becoming an important imaging tool to explore three-dimensional biological structure across spatial scales. At probe-beam-electron energies of 2.0 keV or lower, the axial resolution should improve, because there is less primary electron penetration into the block face. More specifically, at these lower energies, the interaction volume is much smaller, and therefore, surface detail is more highly resolved. However, the backscattered electron yield for metal contrast agents and the backscattered electron detector sensitivity are both sub-optimal at these lower energies, thus negating the gain in axial resolution. We found that the application of a negative voltage (reversal potential) applied to a modified SBEM stage creates a tunable electric field at the sample. This field can be used to decrease the probe-beam-landing energy and, at the same time, alter the trajectory of the signal to increase the signal collected by the detector. With decelerated low landing-energy electrons, we observed that the probe-beam-electron-penetration depth was reduced to less than 30 nm in epoxy-embedded biological specimens. Concurrently, a large increase in recorded signal occurred due to the re-acceleration of BSEs in the bias field towards the objective pole piece where the detector is located. By tuning the bias field, we were able to manipulate the trajectories of the  primary and secondary electrons, enabling the spatial discrimination of these signals using an advanced ring-type BSE detector configuration or a standard monolithic BSE detector coupled with a blocking aperture.

  3. Optimization theory for ballistic conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo; Versluis, Michel; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand of renewable energy stimulates the exploration of new materials and methods for clean energy. We recently demonstrated a high efficiency and power density energy conversion mechanism by using jetted charged microdroplets, termed as ballistic energy conversion. Hereby, we model and

  4. BALLISTIC RESISTANT ARTICLES COMPRISING TAPES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VAN DER EEM, JORIS; HARINGS, JULES; JANSE, GERARDUS; TJADEN, HENDRIK

    2015-01-01

    The invention pertains to a ballistic-resistant moulded article comprising a compressed stack of sheets comprising reinforcing tapes having a tensile strength of at least 1.0 GPa, a tensile modulus of at least 40 GPa, and a tensile energy-to-break of at least 15 J/g, the direction of the tapes

  5. Imaging ballistic carrier trajectories in graphene using scanning gate microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morikawa, Sei; Masubuchi, Satoru [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Dou, Ziwei; Wang, Shu-Wei; Smith, Charles G.; Connolly, Malcolm R., E-mail: mrc61@cam.ac.uk [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Machida, Tomoki, E-mail: tmachida@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Institute for Nano Quantum Information Electronics, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

    2015-12-14

    We use scanning gate microscopy to map out the trajectories of ballistic carriers in high-mobility graphene encapsulated by hexagonal boron nitride and subject to a weak magnetic field. We employ a magnetic focusing geometry to image carriers that emerge ballistically from an injector, follow a cyclotron path due to the Lorentz force from an applied magnetic field, and land on an adjacent collector probe. The local electric field generated by the scanning tip in the vicinity of the carriers deflects their trajectories, modifying the proportion of carriers focused into the collector. By measuring the voltage at the collector while scanning the tip, we are able to obtain images with arcs that are consistent with the expected cyclotron motion. We also demonstrate that the tip can be used to redirect misaligned carriers back to the collector.

  6. Electronic states in systems of reduced dimensionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulloa, S.E.

    1992-01-01

    This report briefly discusses the following research: magnetically modulated systems, inelastic magnetotunneling, ballistic transport review, screening in reduced dimensions, raman and electron energy loss spectroscopy; and ballistic quantum interference effects. (LSP)

  7. Spectral probes of the holographic Fermi ground state: Dialing between the electron star and AdS Dirac hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubrovic, Mihailo; Liu Yan; Schalm, Koenraad; Sun Yawen; Zaanen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    We argue that the electron star and the anti-de Sitter (AdS) Dirac hair solution are two limits of the free charged Fermi gas in AdS. Spectral functions of holographic duals to probe fermions in the background of electron stars have a free parameter that quantifies the number of constituent fermions that make up the charge and energy density characterizing the electron star solution. The strict electron star limit takes this number to be infinite. The Dirac hair solution is the limit where this number is unity. This is evident in the behavior of the distribution of holographically dual Fermi surfaces. As we decrease the number of constituents in a fixed electron star background the number of Fermi surfaces also decreases. An improved holographic Fermi ground state should be a configuration that shares the qualitative properties of both limits.

  8. Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, GOES, and Cluster Observations of EMIC Waves, ULF Pulsations, and an Electron Flux Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigsbee, K.; Kletzing, C. A.; Smith, C. W.; Macdowall, R.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Blake, J. B.; Baker, D. N.; Green, J. C.; Singer, H. J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We examined an electron flux dropout during the 12-14 November 2012 geomagnetic storm using observations from seven spacecraft: the two Van Allen Probes, Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS)-A (P5), Cluster 2, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) 13, 14, and 15. The electron fluxes for energies greater than 2.0 MeV observed by GOES 13, 14, and 15 at geosynchronous orbit and by the Van Allen Probes remained at or near instrumental background levels for more than 24 h from 12 to 14 November. For energies of 0.8 MeV, the GOES satellites observed two shorter intervals of reduced electron fluxes. The first interval of reduced 0.8 MeV electron fluxes on 12-13 November was associated with an interplanetary shock and a sudden impulse. Cluster, THEMIS, and GOES observed intense He+ electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves from just inside geosynchronous orbit out to the magnetopause across the dayside to the dusk flank. The second interval of reduced 0.8 MeV electron fluxes on 13-14 November was associated with a solar sector boundary crossing and development of a geomagnetic storm with Dst<100 nT. At the start of the recovery phase, both the 0.8 and 2.0 MeV electron fluxes finally returned to near prestorm values, possibly in response to strong ultralow frequency (ULF) waves observed by the Van Allen Probes near dawn. A combination of adiabatic effects, losses to the magnetopause, scattering by EMIC waves, and acceleration by ULF waves can explain the observed electron behavior.

  9. In vitro study on dental erosion provoked by various beverages using electron probe microanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willershausen, B; Schulz-Dobrick, B

    2004-09-29

    Tooth erosion is often based on chemical processes, among others the use of soft drinks or diverse beverages. The aim of this in vitro study was to analyse the erosive potential of different acidic beverages. Over a time span of 6 hours, dental slices (n=6 slices per tooth) from fully retained wisdom teeth were incubated with different beverages (coca cola, ice tea with lemon, apple juice and white wine). The controls were incubated with a 0.9% sodium chloride solution under the same conditions (37 degrees C, humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 and 95% air). The quantitative elementary analysis for calcium, phosphorus, oxygen and other trace elements in the dental slices in various depths ranging from 5 to 50 microm was carried out using an electron probe micro-analyser (Jeol JXA 8900RL). A beverage-induced loss of minerals, particularly of the 2 main components calcium and phosphorus, especially in the uppermost layers of the enamel down to a depth of 30 microm could be observed. In the depth of 10 microm, the following total mineral loss could be determined: white wine (16%), coca cola (14.5%), apple juice (6.5%) and ice tea with lemon (6.5%). A direct correlation between the loss of minerals and the pH value of the beverages was not observed, because of the buffering effect of the drinks. The conversion of the weight percentages from the chemical analysis of Ca and P to their atomic percentages showed that during erosion the 2 main components were not dissolved in significantly different percentages. In this study the erosive potential of the tested soft drinks and other beverages could be demonstrated. However, it must be considered that numerous modifying factors influence the enamel surface, so an extrapolation from the in vitro study to an in vivo situation can only be applied with caution.

  10. Elemental analysis of occupational and environmental lung diseases by electron probe microanalyzer with wavelength dispersive spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Toshinori; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Eiichi

    2014-01-01

    Occupational and environmental lung diseases are a group of pulmonary disorders caused by inhalation of harmful particles, mists, vapors or gases. Mineralogical analysis is not generally required in the diagnosis of most cases of these diseases. Apart from minerals that are encountered rarely or only in specific occupations, small quantities of mineral dusts are present in the healthy lung. As such when mineralogical analysis is required, quantitative or semi-quantitative methods must be employed. An electron probe microanalyzer with wavelength dispersive spectrometer (EPMA-WDS) enables analysis of human lung tissue for deposits of elements by both qualitative and semi-quantitative methods. Since 1993, we have analyzed 162 cases of suspected occupational and environmental lung diseases using an EPMA-WDS. Our institute has been accepting online requests for elemental analysis of lung tissue samples by EPMA-WDS since January 2011. Hard metal lung disease is an occupational interstitial lung disease that primarily affects workers exposed to the dust of tungsten carbide. The characteristic pathological findings of the disease are giant cell interstitial pneumonia (GIP) with centrilobular fibrosis, surrounded by mild alveolitis with giant cells within the alveolar space. EPMA-WDS analysis of biopsied lung tissue from patients with GIP has demonstrated that tungsten and/or cobalt is distributed in the giant cells and centrilobular fibrosing lesion in GIP. Pneumoconiosis, caused by amorphous silica, and acute interstitial pneumonia, associated with the giant tsunami, were also elementally analyzed by EPMA-WDS. The results suggest that commonly found elements, such as silicon, aluminum, and iron, may cause occupational and environmental lung diseases. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Emission Spectroscopy as a Probe into Photoinduced Intramolecular Electron Transfer in Polyazine Bridged Ru(II,Rh(III Supramolecular Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J. Brewer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Steady-state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy are valuable tools to probe photochemical processes of metal-ligand, coordination complexes. Ru(II polyazine light absorbers are efficient light harvesters absorbing in the UV and visible with emissive 3MLCT excited states known to undergo excited state energy and electron transfer. Changes in emission intensity, energy or band-shape, as well as excited state lifetime, provide insight into excited state dynamics. Photophysical processes such as intramolecular electron transfer between electron donor and electron acceptor sub-units may be investigated using these methods. This review investigates the use of steady-state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy to measure excited state intramolecular electron transfer in polyazine bridged Ru(II,Rh(III supramolecular complexes. Intramolecular electron transfer in these systems provides for conversion of the emissive 3MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge transfer excited state to a non-emissive, but potentially photoreactive, 3MMCT (metal-to-metal charge transfer excited state. The details of the photophysics of Ru(II,Rh(III and Ru(II,Rh(III,Ru(II systems as probed by steady-state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy will be highlighted.

  12. Probing Novel Properties of Nucleons and Nuclei via Parity Violating Electron Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado, Luis [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This thesis reports on two experiments conducted by the HAPPEx (Hall A Proton Parity Experiment) collaboration at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. For both, the weak neutral current interaction (WNC, mediated by the Z0 boson) is used to probe novel properties of hadronic targets. The WNC interaction amplitude is extracted by measuring the parity-violating asymmetry in the elastic scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons o unpolarized target hadrons. HAPPEx-III, conducted in the Fall of 2009, used a liquid hydrogen target at a momentum transfer of Q2 = 0.62 GeV2. The measured asymmetry was used to set new constraints on the contribution of strange quark form factors (GsE,M ) to the nucleon electromagnetic form factors. A value of APV = -23.803±} 0.778 (stat)± 0.359 (syst) ppm resulted in GsE + 0.517GsM = 0.003± 0.010 (stat)± 0.004 (syst)± 0.009 (FF). PREx, conducted in the Spring of 2010, used a polarized electron beam on a 208Pb target at a momentum transfer of Q2 = 0.009 GeV2. This parity-violating asymmetry can be used to obtain a clean measurement of the root-mean-square radius of the neutrons in the 208Pb nucleus. The Z0 boson couples mainly to neutrons; the neutron weak charge is much larger than that of the proton. The value of this asymmetry is at the sub-ppm level and has a projected experimental fractional precision of 3%. We will describe the accelerator setup used to set controls on helicity-correlated beam asymmetries and the analysis methods for finding the raw asymmetry for HAPPEx-III. We will also discuss in some detail the preparations to meet the experimental challenges associated with measuring such a small asymmetry with the degree of precision required for PREx.

  13. Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, GOES, and Cluster observations of EMIC waves, ULF pulsations, and an electron flux dropout

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sigsbee, K.; Kletzing, C. A.; Smith, C. W.; MacDowall, R.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Blake, J. B.; Baker, D. N.; Green, J. C.; Singer, H. J.; Carr, C.; Santolík, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 3 (2016), s. 1990-2008 ISSN 2169-9380 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1401 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : EMIC waves * ULF pulsations * electron flux dropouts * Dst effect * magnetopause shadowing * Van Allen Probes Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.733, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014JA020877/full

  14. Ballistic study of Tensylon®–based panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L-C. Alil

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ballistic protection is a matter of interest requested by civilian as well as military needs. The last decade has witnessed an increase in the use of light weight and efficient armour systems. These panels may be used for body protection as well as light vehicle protection against small calibres or to enhance the protection level of heavier vehicles with decreasing or maintaining their weight penalty. Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene is a material of interest for light weight armour applications. The authors designed panels made of hot–pressed Tensylon® in different configurations with thin steel sheets as a backing and shield protection. Comparison of their ballistic performance to the theory predictions reveals the improved ballistic response of the panels. In addition, a non–pressed Tensylon® panel has been tested in order to facilitate the observations of the failure mechanisms inside the panels. Even if not suitable for practical use, such non–pressed panels clearly reveal the dynamic processes at micro–scale that occur during the impact. The failure mechanisms of the material under bullet penetration are discussed based on photography, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The supposed effects of the panel pressing are discussed based on the observed difference between pressed and non–pressed structures ballistic response.

  15. Counting probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Haruya; Kaya, Nobuyuki; Yuasa, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Tomoaki

    1976-01-01

    Electron counting method has been devised and experimented for the purpose of measuring electron temperature and density, the most fundamental quantities to represent plasma conditions. Electron counting is a method to count the electrons in plasma directly by equipping a probe with the secondary electron multiplier. It has three advantages of adjustable sensitivity, high sensitivity of the secondary electron multiplier, and directional property. Sensitivity adjustment is performed by changing the size of collecting hole (pin hole) on the incident front of the multiplier. The probe is usable as a direct reading thermometer of electron temperature because it requires to collect very small amount of electrons, thus it doesn't disturb the surrounding plasma, and the narrow sweep width of the probe voltage is enough. Therefore it can measure anisotropy more sensitively than a Langmuir probe, and it can be used for very low density plasma. Though many problems remain on anisotropy, computer simulation has been carried out. Also it is planned to provide a Helmholtz coil in the vacuum chamber to eliminate the effect of earth magnetic field. In practical experiments, the measurement with a Langmuir probe and an emission probe mounted to the movable structure, the comparison with the results obtained in reverse magnetic field by using a Helmholtz coil, and the measurement of ionic sound wave are scheduled. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  16. Use of Langmuir probe for analysis of charged particles in metal vapour generated by electron beam heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dikshit, B; Bhatia, M S

    2008-01-01

    During electron beam evaporation of metal, a certain fraction of the vapor is ionized due to various processes such as Saha ionization and electron impact. These charge particles constitute a plasma which expands along with the vapour. To know about parameters of this plasma viz. electron temperature, electron density, plasma potential, we have used a disc type Langmuir probe inside the plasma. The measured electron temperature was found to be about ∼0.15eV (1740K) and measured plasma potential was ∼1V. The low value of electron temperature as compared to the source temperature, established that plasma cools significantly while traversing the distance between the source and the point of measurement. Again as the electron temperature was approximately same as the ion temperature of the vapor (expected to be same as kinetic temperature of vapor for collisional flow), we concluded that a kind of equilibrium had been established in the plasma. Finally, various processes responsible for ionization of the vapor are discussed and it was found that both Saha ionization and electron impact processes play important role in ionization of the uranium vapor generated by electron beam heating

  17. Langmuir probe measurements in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized non-equilibrium cutting arc: Analysis of the electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Kelly, H.

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the application of Langmuir probe diagnostics to the measurement of the electron temperature in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized, non-equilibrium cutting arc. The electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe was analysed, assuming that the standard exponential expression describing the electron current to the probe in collision-free plasmas can be applied under the investigated conditions. A procedure is described which allows the determination of the errors introduced in time-averaged probe data due to small-amplitude plasma fluctuations. It was found that the experimental points can be gathered into two well defined groups allowing defining two quite different averaged electron temperature values. In the low-current region the averaged characteristic was not significantly disturbed by the fluctuations and can reliably be used to obtain the actual value of the averaged electron temperature. In particular, an averaged electron temperature of 0.98 ± 0.07 eV (= 11400 ± 800 K) was found for the central core of the arc (30 A) at 3.5 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. This average included not only a time-average over the time fluctuations but also a spatial-average along the probe collecting length. The fitting of the high-current region of the characteristic using such electron temperature value together with the corrections given by the fluctuation analysis showed a relevant departure of local thermal equilibrium in the arc core

  18. Langmuir probe measurements in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized non-equilibrium cutting arc: Analysis of the electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B. [Grupo de Descargas Eléctricas, Departamento Ing. Electromecánica, Facultad Regional Venado Tuerto (UTN), Laprida 651, Venado Tuerto (2600) Santa Fe (Argentina); Kelly, H. [Grupo de Descargas Eléctricas, Departamento Ing. Electromecánica, Facultad Regional Venado Tuerto (UTN), Laprida 651, Venado Tuerto (2600) Santa Fe (Argentina); Instituto de Física del Plasma (CONICET), Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales (UBA) Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-12-15

    This work describes the application of Langmuir probe diagnostics to the measurement of the electron temperature in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized, non-equilibrium cutting arc. The electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe was analysed, assuming that the standard exponential expression describing the electron current to the probe in collision-free plasmas can be applied under the investigated conditions. A procedure is described which allows the determination of the errors introduced in time-averaged probe data due to small-amplitude plasma fluctuations. It was found that the experimental points can be gathered into two well defined groups allowing defining two quite different averaged electron temperature values. In the low-current region the averaged characteristic was not significantly disturbed by the fluctuations and can reliably be used to obtain the actual value of the averaged electron temperature. In particular, an averaged electron temperature of 0.98 ± 0.07 eV (= 11400 ± 800 K) was found for the central core of the arc (30 A) at 3.5 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. This average included not only a time-average over the time fluctuations but also a spatial-average along the probe collecting length. The fitting of the high-current region of the characteristic using such electron temperature value together with the corrections given by the fluctuation analysis showed a relevant departure of local thermal equilibrium in the arc core.

  19. Langmuir probe measurements in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized non-equilibrium cutting arc: analysis of the electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevosto, L; Kelly, H; Mancinelli, B

    2013-12-01

    This work describes the application of Langmuir probe diagnostics to the measurement of the electron temperature in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized, non-equilibrium cutting arc. The electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe was analysed, assuming that the standard exponential expression describing the electron current to the probe in collision-free plasmas can be applied under the investigated conditions. A procedure is described which allows the determination of the errors introduced in time-averaged probe data due to small-amplitude plasma fluctuations. It was found that the experimental points can be gathered into two well defined groups allowing defining two quite different averaged electron temperature values. In the low-current region the averaged characteristic was not significantly disturbed by the fluctuations and can reliably be used to obtain the actual value of the averaged electron temperature. In particular, an averaged electron temperature of 0.98 ± 0.07 eV (= 11400 ± 800 K) was found for the central core of the arc (30 A) at 3.5 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. This average included not only a time-average over the time fluctuations but also a spatial-average along the probe collecting length. The fitting of the high-current region of the characteristic using such electron temperature value together with the corrections given by the fluctuation analysis showed a relevant departure of local thermal equilibrium in the arc core.

  20. Gate tuneable beamsplitter in ballistic graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickhaus, Peter; Makk, Péter, E-mail: Peter.Makk@unibas.ch; Schönenberger, Christian [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Liu, Ming-Hao; Richter, Klaus [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2015-12-21

    We present a beam splitter in a suspended, ballistic, multiterminal, bilayer graphene device. By using local bottomgates, a p-n interface tilted with respect to the current direction can be formed. We show that the p-n interface acts as a semi-transparent mirror in the bipolar regime and that the reflectance and transmittance of the p-n interface can be tuned by the gate voltages. Moreover, by studying the conductance features appearing in magnetic field, we demonstrate that the position of the p-n interface can be moved by 1 μm. The herein presented beamsplitter device can form the basis of electron-optic interferometers in graphene.

  1. Ballistic thermoelectric transport in a Luttinger liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Y V

    2010-01-01

    The Seebeck and Peltier coefficients of a homogeneous Luttinger liquid are calculated in the ballistic regime. Nonlinearity of the electron spectrum is taken into account. It is shown that, in the framework of the defined approximations, the thermoelectric power of a Luttinger liquid is equal to zero, in agreement with the exponentially small thermopower of a one-dimensional degenerate Fermi gas. The Peltier coefficient is controlled by a nonequilibrium state of the system. It is finite and renormalized by the interaction in the case of a convective flow of a Luttinger liquid. The zero modes of bosonic excitations and the dispersion-induced contribution to the electric current operator are taken into account in calculations.

  2. Charged ion source with a polarizable probe and with a cyclotron electronic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briand, P.

    1992-01-01

    This invention is about ion sources with a polarizable probe able to produce, from neutral atoms, highly charged ions. This source is composed of an hyperfrequency cavity, production means of an axial magnetic field in the cavity, production means of a multipolar radial magnetic field in this cavity, a high frequency inlet, gas input in the cavity, ion extraction means and a polarizable probe in tension to improve gas ionization

  3. Contribution to the physical modeling of the actinide characterization by electron probe microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moy, Aurelien

    2014-01-01

    Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) is used to quantify with a high accuracy the amount of different elements present on a sample of unknown composition. EPMA is largely used to quantify the amount of actinides present in fresh and irradiated fuels, to manage waste disposal and to date rocks. However, quantitative EPMA is not always possible to achieve for these materials due to the lack of suitable reference standards for the radionuclides. To overcome this difficulty, standard-less methods of analysis are employed with mean of virtual calculated standards. These calculated standards are generally obtained from empirical formulae based on experimental extrapolations or from theoretical calculations that require physical parameters which are poorly known as it is the case for the X-ray production cross section. The accurate knowledge of these cross sections is required in many applications such as in particle transport code and in Monte Carlo simulations. The computer simulations are widely used in the medical field and particularly in medical imaging and in electron beam therapy. In the field of astronomy, these data are used to perform simulations that predict the compositions of stars and galactic clouds, and the formation of planetary systems. In the present work, L- and M-shell absolute x-ray production cross sections were determined experimentally for elements lead, thorium and uranium by electron impact using ultrathin self-supporting targets with thickness varying from 0.2 to 8 nm. The measured cross sections have been compared, with the distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) calculated by Bote et al. and with the predictions of analytical formulae widely used in practical applications. For the conversion of inner-shell ionization cross sections into x-ray production cross sections, atomic relaxation parameters were extracted from the literature. The predictions of the DWBA calculations are in excellent agreement with our measured x-ray production cross

  4. Electron charge and spin delocalization revealed in the optically probed longitudinal and transverse spin dynamics in n -GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belykh, V. V.; Kavokin, K. V.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Bayer, M.

    2017-12-01

    The evolution of the electron spin dynamics as consequence of carrier delocalization in n -type GaAs is investigated by the recently developed extended pump-probe Kerr/Faraday rotation spectroscopy. We find that isolated electrons localized on donors demonstrate a prominent difference between the longitudinal and transverse spin relaxation rates in a magnetic field, which is almost absent in the metallic phase. The inhomogeneous transverse dephasing time T2* of the spin ensemble strongly increases upon electron delocalization as a result of motional narrowing that can be induced by increasing either the donor concentration or the temperature. An unexpected relation between T2* and the longitudinal spin relaxation time T1 is found, namely, that their product is about constant, as explained by the magnetic field effect on the spin diffusion. We observe a two-stage longitudinal spin relaxation, which suggests the establishment of spin temperature in the system of exchange-coupled donor-bound electrons.

  5. Toward Better Personal Ballistic Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-04

    Toward Better Personal Ballistic Protection Manon Bolduc1, Jason Lo2, Ruby Zhang2, Dan Walsh2, Shuqiong Lin3, Benoit Simard3, Ken Bosnick4, Mike...presenc particulate gr atly increase ceramic mad er, knowing e ceramic ma the alumina y on the mat a layered with s on the coat stantial prope C) magnif...mic fiber ma site ceramics such, thod. this fore, on of t has 8. CONCLUSION In an attempt to improve the failure resistance of ceramic

  6. Ballistic food transport in toucans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baussart, Sabine; Korsoun, Leonid; Libourel, Paul-Antoine; Bels, Vincent

    2009-08-01

    The basic mechanism of food transport in tetrapods is lingual-based. Neognathous birds use this mechanism for exploiting a large diversity of food resources, whereas paleognathous birds use cranioinertial mechanism with or without tongue involvement. Food transport in two neognathous species of toucans (Ramphastos toco and R. vitellinus) is defined as ballistic transport mechanism. Only one transport cycle is used for moving the food from the tip of the beak to the pharynx. The food is projected between jaws with similar initial velocity in both species. At the time of release, the angle between trajectory of food position and horizontal is higher in R. vitellinus with a shorter beak than in R. toco. The tongue never makes contact with the food nor is it used to expand the buccal cavity. Tongue movement is associated with throat expansion, permitting the food to reach the entrance of the esophagus at the end of the ballistic trajectory. Selection of large food items in the diet may explain the evolutionary trend of using ballistic transport in the feeding behavior of toucans, which plays a key role in ecology of tropical forest. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Source Apportionment of Atmospheric Particles by Electron Probe X-Ray Microanalysis and Receptor Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Borm, Werner August

    Electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPXMA) in combination with an automation system and an energy-dispersive X-ray detection system was used to analyse thousands of microscopical particles, originating from the ambient atmosphere. The huge amount of data was processed by a newly developed X-ray correction method and a number of data reduction procedures. A standardless ZAF procedure for EPXMA was developed for quick semi-quantitative analysis of particles starting from simple corrections, valid for bulk samples and modified taking into account the particle finit diameter, assuming a spherical shape. Tested on a limited database of bulk and particulate samples, the compromise between calculation speed and accuracy yielded for elements with Z > 14 accuracies on concentrations less than 10% while absolute deviations remained below 4 weight%, thus being only important for low concentrations. Next, the possibilities for the use of supervised and unsupervised multivariate particle classification were investigated for source apportionment of individual particles. In a detailed study of the unsupervised cluster analysis technique several aspects were considered, that have a severe influence on the final cluster analysis results, i.e. data acquisition, X-ray peak identification, data normalization, scaling, variable selection, similarity measure, cluster strategy, cluster significance and error propagation. A supervised approach was developed using an expert system-like approach in which identification rules are builded to describe the particle classes in a unique manner. Applications are presented for particles sampled (1) near a zinc smelter (Vieille-Montagne, Balen, Belgium), analyzed for heavy metals, (2) in an urban aerosol (Antwerp, Belgium), analyzed for over 20 elements and (3) in a rural aerosol originating from a swiss mountain area (Bern). Thus is was possible to pinpoint a number of known and unknown sources and characterize their emissions in terms of particles

  8. Conformable Self-Healing Ballistic Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    public release, distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Patent No: US 7,966,923 B2 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...B2 5 Each unit of shell 10 of the ballistic annor of the subject invention further comprises fastening means 20 to attach each such shell IOta the...selectively affixing the conformable ballistic annor to the vehicle is a secure manner, both on a temporal)’ orpennanent basis. The ballistic

  9. Ship Anti Ballistic Missile Response (SABR)

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Allen P.; Breeden, Bryan; Duff, Willard Earl; Fishcer, Paul F.; Hornback, Nathan; Leiker, David C.; Carlisle, Parker; Diersing, Michael; Devlin, Ryan; Glenn, Christopher; Hoffmeister, Chris; Chong, Tay Boon; Sing, Phang Nyit; Meng, Low Wee; Meng, Fann Chee

    2006-01-01

    Includes supplementary material. Based on public law and Presidential mandate, ballistic missile defense development is a front-burner issue for homeland defense and the defense of U.S. and coalition forces abroad. Spearheaded by the Missile Defense Agency, an integrated ballistic missile defense system was initiated to create a layered defense composed of land-, air-, sea-, and space-based assets. The Ship Anti-Ballistic Response (SABR) Project is a systems engineering approach t...

  10. REPLY: Reply to 'Comment on "Electron-phonon scattering in Sn-doped In2O3 FET nanowires probed by temperature-dependent measurements"'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berengue, Olivia M.; Chiquito, Adenilson J.; Pozzi, Livia P.; Lanfredi, Alexandre J. C.; Leite, Edson R.

    2009-11-01

    In this reply we discuss the use of two and four-probe methods in the resistivity measurements of ITO nanowires. We pointed out that the results obtained by using two or four probe methods are indistinguishable in our case. Additionally we present the correct values for resistivity and consequently for the density of electrons.

  11. Performance of Plain Woven Jute Fabric-Reinforced Polyester Matrix Composite in Multilayered Ballistic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Neves Monteiro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The ballistic performance of plain woven jute fabric-reinforced polyester matrix composites was investigated as the second layer in a multilayered armor system (MAS. Volume fractions of jute fabric, up to 30 vol %, were mixed with orthophthalic polyester to fabricate laminate composites. Ballistic tests were conducted using high velocity 7.62 mm ammunition. The depth of penetration caused by the bullet in a block of clay witness, simulating a human body, was used to evaluate the MAS ballistic performance according to the international standard. The fractured materials after tests were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results indicated that jute fabric composites present a performance similar to that of the much stronger Kevlar™, which is an aramid fabric laminate, as MAS second layer with the same thickness. The mechanism of this similar ballistic behavior as well as the comparative advantages of the jute fabric composites over the Kevlar™ are discussed.

  12. Natural Mallow Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Composite for Ballistic Armor Against Class III-A Ammunition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Lucio Fabio Cassiano; Holanda, Luane Isquerdo Ferreira; Louro, Luis Henrique Leme; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Gomes, Alaelson Vieira; Lima, Édio Pereira

    2017-10-01

    Epoxy matrix composites reinforced with up to 30 vol pct of continuous and aligned natural mallow fibers were for the first time ballistic tested as personal armor against class III-A 9 mm FMJ ammunition. The ballistic efficiency of these composites was assessed by measuring the dissipated energy and residual velocity after the bullet perforation. The results were compared to those in similar tests of aramid fabric (Kevlar™) commonly used in vests for personal protections. Visual inspection and scanning electron microscopy analysis of impact-fractured samples revealed failure mechanisms associated with fiber pullout and rupture as well as epoxy cracking. As compared to Kevlar™, the mallow fiber composite displayed practically the same ballistic efficiency. However, there is a reduction in both weight and cost, which makes the mallow fiber composites a promising material for personal ballistic protection.

  13. Assessment of plasma impedance probe for measuring electron density and collision frequency in a plasma with spatial and temporal gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, Mark A.; King, Lyon B.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical simulations and experimental measurements were combined to determine the ability of a plasma impedance probe (PIP) to measure plasma density and electron collision frequency in a plasma containing spatial gradients as well as time-varying oscillations in the plasma density. A PIP is sensitive to collision frequency through the width of the parallel resonance in the Re[Z]-vs.-frequency characteristic, while also being sensitive to electron density through the zero-crossing of the Im[Z]-vs.-frequency characteristic at parallel resonance. Simulations of the probe characteristic in a linear plasma gradient indicated that the broadening of Re[Z] due to the spatial gradient obscured the broadening due to electron collision frequency, preventing a quantitative measurement of the absolute collision frequency for gradients considered in this study. Simulation results also showed that the PIP is sensitive to relative changes in electron collision frequency in a spatial density gradient, but a second broadening effect due to time-varying oscillations made collision frequency measurements impossible. The time-varying oscillations had the effect of causing multiple zero-crossings in Im[Z] at parallel resonance. Results of experiments and simulations indicated that the lowest-frequency zero-crossing represented the lowest plasma density in the oscillations and the highest-frequency zero-crossing represented the highest plasma density in the oscillations, thus the PIP probe was found to be an effective tool to measure both the average plasma density as well as the maximum and minimum densities due to temporal oscillations

  14. Decay characteristics of electronic charged states of Si quantum dots as evaluated by an AFM/Kelvin probe technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishitani, Junichiro; Makihara, Katsunori; Ikeda, Mitsuhisa; Murakami, Hideki; Higashi, Seiichiro; Miyazaki, Seiichi

    2006-01-01

    Si quantum dots (Si-QDs) with an areal dot density of 8 x 10 11 cm -2 on SiO 2 have been prepared by the thermal decomposition of monosilane to characterize charged states of Si-QDs using AFM/Kelvin probe force microscopy (KFM). The temporal changes in the surface potential induced by electron charging and discharging at Si-QDs covered with a ∼ 2-nm-thick oxide layer have been measured. In electron charging and discharging at Si-QDs, a Rh-coated AFM tip was electrically biased in the range of - 5 to 5 V and scanned on the sample surface in a tapping mode. The surface potential changes on Si-QDs by electron injection and extraction were observable, while no potential change was detected elsewhere. The surface potential of charged Si-QDs decays with time at rates depending on charge injection conditions. The observed decay characteristics can be interpreted in terms of discharging of stored electrons in Si-QDs due to electron tunneling through the bottom oxide to the substrate and neutralization of stored holes due to recombination with electrons tunneling from the substrates. The defect generation in oxide is likely to be responsible for a fairly slow decay as observed in the case of electron extraction by the tip bias as high as + 4.8 V with respect to p-Si(100)

  15. Two-color pump-probe laser spectroscopy instrument with picosecond time-resolved electronic delay and extended scan range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Anchi; Ye, Xiong; Ionascu, Dan; Cao, Wenxiang; Champion, Paul M.

    2005-11-01

    An electronically delayed two-color pump-probe instrument was developed using two synchronized laser systems. The instrument has picosecond time resolution and can perform scans over hundreds of nanoseconds without the beam divergence and walk-off effects that occur using standard spatial delay systems. A unique picosecond Ti :sapphire regenerative amplifier was also constructed without the need for pulse stretching and compressing optics. The picosecond regenerative amplifier has a broad wavelength tuning range, which suggests that it will make a significant contribution to two-color pump-probe experiments. To test this instrument we studied the rotational correlation relaxation of myoglobin (τr=8.2±0.5ns) in water as well as the geminate rebinding kinetics of oxygen to myoglobin (kg1=1.7×1011s-1, kg2=3.4×107s-1). The results are consistent with, and improve upon, previous studies.

  16. Electronic Detection of DNA Hybridization by Coupling Organic Field-Effect Transistor-Based Sensors and Hairpin-Shaped Probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Napoli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the electronic transduction of DNA hybridization is presented by coupling organic charge-modulated field-effect transistors (OCMFETs and hairpin-shaped probes. These probes have shown interesting properties in terms of sensitivity and selectivity in other kinds of assays, in the form of molecular beacons (MBs. Their integration with organic-transistor based sensors, never explored before, paves the way to a new class of low-cost, easy-to-use, and portable genetic sensors with enhanced performances. Thanks to the peculiar characteristics of the employed sensor, measurements can be performed at relatively high ionic strengths, thus optimizing the probes’ functionality without affecting the detection ability of the device. A complete electrical characterization of the sensor is reported, including calibration with different target concentrations in the measurement environment and selectivity evaluation. In particular, DNA hybridization detection for target concentration as low as 100 pM is demonstrated.

  17. Probing ultrafast dynamics in electronic structure of epitaxial Gd(0 0 0 1) on W(1 1 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaulieu, Nathan [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Malinowski, Gregory [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Université Paris Sud, Orsay (France); Bendounan, Azzedine; Silly, Mathieu G.; Chauvet, Christian [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Krizmancic, Damjan [Instituto Officina dei Materiali (IOM)-CNR Laboratorio TASC, in Area Science Park S.S.14, Km 163.5, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Sirotti, Fausto [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: •Study of the magnetism of epitaxial Gd(0 0 0 1)/W(1 1 0). •Study of Gd(0 0 0 1) band structure as a function of the temperature. •Study of the Gd magnetism dynamics probing the M5 edge. -- Abstract: The electronic and magnetic properties of Gd have been studied using time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy employing laser pump and synchrotron radiation probe pulses. The static temperature evolution of the valence band and more precisely, the 5d6s exchange splitting is reported. Ultrafast demagnetization is measured using dichroic resonant Auger spectroscopy. Remarkably, a complete demagnetization is observed followed up by a non-monotonic recovery that could be associated to magnetization oscillations.

  18. Jitter-correction for IR/UV-XUV pump-probe experiments at the FLASH free-electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savelyev, Evgeny; Boll, Rebecca; Bomme, Cedric; Schirmel, Nora; Redlin, Harald

    2017-01-01

    In pump-probe experiments employing a free-electron laser (FEL) in combination with a synchronized optical femtosecond laser, the arrival-time jitter between the FEL pulse and the optical laser pulse often severely limits the temporal resolution that can be achieved. Here, we present a pump-probe experiment on the UV-induced dissociation of 2,6-difluoroiodobenzene C 6 H 3 F 2 I) molecules performed at the FLASH FEL that takes advantage of recent upgrades of the FLASH timing and synchronization system to obtain high-quality data that are not limited by the FEL arrival-time jitter. Here, we discuss in detail the necessary data analysis steps and describe the origin of the time-dependent effects in the yields and kinetic energies of the fragment ions that we observe in the experiment.

  19. Time-resolved electron thermal conduction by probing of plasma formation in transparent solids with high power subpicosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu, Brian -Tinh Van [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1994-02-01

    This dissertation work includes a series of experimental measurements in a search for better understanding of high temperature (104-106K) and high density plasmas (1022-1024cm-3) produced by irradiating a transparent solid target with high intensity (1013 - 1015W/cm2) and subpicosecond (10-12-10-13s) laser pulses. Experimentally, pump and probe schemes with both frontside (vacuum-plasma side) and backside (plasma-bulk material side) probes are used to excite and interrogate or probe the plasma evolution, thereby providing useful insights into the plasma formation mechanisms. A series of different experiments has been carried out so as to characterize plasma parameters and the importance of various nonlinear processes. Experimental evidence shows that electron thermal conduction is supersonic in a time scale of the first picosecond after laser irradiation, so fast that it was often left unresolved in the past. The experimental results from frontside probing demonstrate that upon irradiation with a strong (pump) laser pulse, a thin high temperature (~40eV) super-critical density (~1023/cm3) plasma layer is quickly formed at the target surface which in turn becomes strongly reflective and prevents further transmission of the remainder of the laser pulse. In the bulk region behind the surface, it is also found that a large sub-critical (~1018/cm3) plasma is produced by inverse Bremsstrahlung absorption and collisional ionization. The bulk underdense plasma is evidenced by large absorption of the backside probe light. A simple and analytical model, modified from the avalanche model, for plasma evolution in transparent materials is proposed to explain the experimental results. Elimination of the bulk plasma is then experimentally illustrated by using targets overcoated with highly absorptive films.

  20. Time-resolved electron thermal conduction by probing of plasma formation in transparent solids with high power subpicosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu, B.T.V.

    1994-02-01

    This dissertation work includes a series of experimental measurements in a search for better understanding of high temperature (10 4 -10 6 K) and high density plasmas (10 22 -10 24 cm -3 ) produced by irradiating a transparent solid target with high intensity (10 13 - 10 15 W/cm 2 ) and subpicosecond (10 -12 -10 -13 s) laser pulses. Experimentally, pump and probe schemes with both frontside (vacuum-plasma side) and backside (plasma-bulk material side) probes are used to excite and interrogate or probe the plasma evolution, thereby providing useful insights into the plasma formation mechanisms. A series of different experiments has been carried out so as to characterize plasma parameters and the importance of various nonlinear processes. Experimental evidence shows that electron thermal conduction is supersonic in a time scale of the first picosecond after laser irradiation, so fast that it was often left unresolved in the past. The experimental results from frontside probing demonstrate that upon irradiation with a strong (pump) laser pulse, a thin high temperature (∼40eV) super-critical density (∼10 23 /cm 3 ) plasma layer is quickly formed at the target surface which in turn becomes strongly reflective and prevents further transmission of the remainder of the laser pulse. In the bulk region behind the surface, it is also found that a large sub-critical (∼10 18 /cm 3 ) plasma is produced by inverse Bremsstrahlung absorption and collisional ionization. The bulk underdense plasma is evidenced by large absorption of the backside probe light. A simple and analytical model, modified from the avalanche model, for plasma evolution in transparent materials is proposed to explain the experimental results. Elimination of the bulk plasma is then experimentally illustrated by using targets overcoated with highly absorptive films

  1. Low-Power Receive-Electronics for a Miniature 3D Ultrasound Probe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Z.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes the design of a front-end application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), which will be put into the tip of a miniature ultrasound probe for 3D Trans-Esophageal Echocardiography (TEE). To enable 3D TEE, a matrix piezoelectric ultrasound transducer with more than 2000 elements

  2. A hand-held row-column addressed CMUT probe with integrated electronics for volumetric imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Mathias; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Beers, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    A 3 MHz, λ / 2-pitch 62+62 channel row-column addressed 2-D CMUT array designed to be mounted in a probe handle and connected to a commercial BK Medical scanner for real-time volumetric imaging is presented. It is mounted and wire-bonded on a flexible PCB, which is connected to two rigid PCBs...

  3. An electro-optical timing diagnostic for pump-probe experiments at the free-electron laser in Hamburg FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azima, Armin

    2009-07-15

    Femtosecond pump-probe experiments have extensively been used to follow atomic and molecular motion in time. The very intense extreme ultraviolet XUV light of the Free electron LASer in Hamburg FLASH facility allows to investigate fundamental processes such as direct one or few photon inner shell ionizations. A supplementary Ti:Sapphire near infrared femtosecond laser system allows to perform two-color pump-probe experiments with FLASH involving intense laser fields of hugely different photon energies. Within this work a bunch arrival measurement system has been built, which assists these two-color pump-probe experiments to reduce the temporal jitter of FLASH and to increase the temporal resolution. The diagnostic is based upon an electro-optical detection scheme and measures the relative arrival time between the Ti:Sapphire femtosecond pulse and the electron bunch, which generates the self-amplified by stimulated emission SASE XUV pulse in the undulator section of FLASH. Key feature of the diagnostic is a 150 m long glass fiber pulse transport line, which inflicts non-linear dispersion. A dispersion control system to compensate for this higher order dispersion has been developed including the control and programming of a spatial light phase modulator. It was possible to transport a 90 fs FWHM short near infrared femtosecond laser pulse Fourier limited by the dispersion compensated glass fiber. The electro-optical signal induced by the FLASH electron bunch was generated, characterized and optimized. The signal features beside the designated bunch arrival timing capability the additional possibility to measure the longitudinal electron bunch density distribution of an arbitrary bunch of FLASH in a single shot with a temporal resolution of below 100 fs RMS. Timing and bunch analysis capabilities of the developed diagnostic have been cross-checked with other comparable diagnostics at FLASH like the transversal deflecting cavity structure named LOLA. Finally, the

  4. An electro-optical timing diagnostic for pump-probe experiments at the free-electron laser in Hamburg FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azima, Armin

    2009-07-01

    Femtosecond pump-probe experiments have extensively been used to follow atomic and molecular motion in time. The very intense extreme ultraviolet XUV light of the Free electron LASer in Hamburg FLASH facility allows to investigate fundamental processes such as direct one or few photon inner shell ionizations. A supplementary Ti:Sapphire near infrared femtosecond laser system allows to perform two-color pump-probe experiments with FLASH involving intense laser fields of hugely different photon energies. Within this work a bunch arrival measurement system has been built, which assists these two-color pump-probe experiments to reduce the temporal jitter of FLASH and to increase the temporal resolution. The diagnostic is based upon an electro-optical detection scheme and measures the relative arrival time between the Ti:Sapphire femtosecond pulse and the electron bunch, which generates the self-amplified by stimulated emission SASE XUV pulse in the undulator section of FLASH. Key feature of the diagnostic is a 150 m long glass fiber pulse transport line, which inflicts non-linear dispersion. A dispersion control system to compensate for this higher order dispersion has been developed including the control and programming of a spatial light phase modulator. It was possible to transport a 90 fs FWHM short near infrared femtosecond laser pulse Fourier limited by the dispersion compensated glass fiber. The electro-optical signal induced by the FLASH electron bunch was generated, characterized and optimized. The signal features beside the designated bunch arrival timing capability the additional possibility to measure the longitudinal electron bunch density distribution of an arbitrary bunch of FLASH in a single shot with a temporal resolution of below 100 fs RMS. Timing and bunch analysis capabilities of the developed diagnostic have been cross-checked with other comparable diagnostics at FLASH like the transversal deflecting cavity structure named LOLA. Finally, the

  5. Ballistic Phonon Penetration Depth in Amorphous Silicon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Zhang, Qian; Cui, Zhiguang; Gerboth, Matthew; Zhao, Yang; Xu, Terry T; Walker, D Greg; Li, Deyu

    2017-12-13

    Thermal transport in amorphous silicon dioxide (a-SiO 2 ) is traditionally treated as random walks of vibrations owing to its greatly disordered structure, which results in a mean free path (MFP) approximately the same as the interatomic distance. However, this picture has been debated constantly and in view of the ubiquitous existence of thin a-SiO 2 layers in nanoelectronic devices, it is imperative to better understand this issue for precise thermal management of electronic devices. Different from the commonly used cross-plane measurement approaches, here we report on a study that explores the in-plane thermal conductivity of double silicon nanoribbons with a layer of a-SiO 2 sandwiched in-between. Through comparing the thermal conductivity of the double ribbon samples with that of corresponding single ribbons, we show that thermal phonons can ballistically penetrate through a-SiO 2 of up to 5 nm thick even at room temperature. Comprehensive examination of double ribbon samples with various oxide layer thicknesses and van der Waals bonding strengths allows for extraction of the average ballistic phonon penetration depth in a-SiO 2 . With solid experimental data demonstrating ballistic phonon transport through a-SiO 2 , this work should provide important insight into thermal management of electronic devices.

  6. Electron Energy Loss and One- and Two-Photon Excited SERS Probing of “Hot” Plasmonic Silver Nanoaggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadkhodazadeh, Shima; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Joseph, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    in an optical experiment and electron energy loss intensity at energies corresponding to excitation wavelengths used for optical probing. This inverse relation exists independent on specific nanoaggregate geometries and is mainly controlled by the gap size between the particles forming the aggregate. The ratio...... between two- and one-photon excited SERS measured at different excitation wavelengths provides information about local fields in the hottest spots and their dependence on the photon energy. Our data verify experimentally the predicted increase of local optical fields in the hot spots with increasing wave...

  7. The Cooperative Ballistic Missile Defence Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing proliferation of ballistic missiles and weapons of mass destruction poses new risks worldwide. For a threatened nation and given the characteristics of this threat a layered ballistic missile defence system strategy appears to be the preferred solution. However, such a strategy

  8. Ballistic transport of graphene pnp junctions with embedded local gates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Seung-Geol; Ki, Dong-Keun; Kim, Youngwook; Kim, Jun Sung; Lee, Hu-Jong; Park, Jong Wan

    2011-01-01

    We fabricated graphene pnp devices, by embedding pre-defined local gates in an oxidized surface layer of a silicon substrate. With neither deposition of dielectric material on the graphene nor electron-beam irradiation, we obtained high-quality graphene pnp devices without degradation of the carrier mobility even in the local-gate region. The corresponding increased mean free path leads to the observation of ballistic and phase-coherent transport across a local gate 130 nm wide, which is about an order of magnitude wider than reported previously. Furthermore, in our scheme, we demonstrated independent control of the carrier density in the local-gate region, with a conductance map very much distinct from those of top-gated devices. This was caused by the electric field arising from the global back gate being strongly screened by the embedded local gate. Our scheme allows the realization of ideal multipolar graphene junctions with ballistic carrier transport.

  9. Artifacts that mimic ballistic magnetoresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egelhoff, W.F. . E-mail : egelhoff@nist.gov; Gan, L.; Ettedgui, H.; Kadmon, Y.; Powell, C.J.; Chen, P.J.; Shapiro, A.J.; McMichael, R.D.; Mallett, J.J.; Moffat, T.P.; Stiles, M.D.; Svedberg, E.B.

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the circumstances underlying recent reports of very large values of ballistic magnetoresistance (BMR) in nanocontacts between magnetic wires. We find that the geometries used are subject to artifacts due to motion of the wires that distort the nanocontact thereby changing its electrical resistance. Since these nanocontacts are often of atomic scale, reliable experiments would require stability on the atomic scale. No method for achieving such stability in macroscopic wires is apparent. We conclude that macroscopic magnetic wires cannot be used to establish the validity of the BMR effect

  10. Mass determination based on electron scattering in electron probe X-ray microanalysis of thin biological specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linders, P.W.J.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a method for mass determination of thin biological objects by quantitative electron microscopy. The practical realization of the mass determination consists of photographical recording with subsequent densitometry. (Auth.)

  11. Secondary electrons as probe of preequilibrium stopping power of ions penetrating solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroneberger, K.; Rothard, H.; Koschar, P.; Lorenzen, P.; Groeneveld, K.O.; Clouvas, A.; Veje, E.; Kemmler, J.

    1990-01-01

    The passage of ions through solid media is accompanied by the emission of low energy secondary electrons. At high ion velocities v p (i.e. v p > 10 7 cm/s) the kinetic emission of electrons as a result of direct Coulomb interaction between the ion and the target electron is the dominant initial production mechanism. The energy lost by the ion and, thus, transferred to the electrons is known as electronic stopping power in the solid. Elastic and inelastic interactions of primary, liberated electrons on their way through the bulk and the surface of the solid modify strongly their original energy and angular distribution and, in particular, leads to the transfer of their energy to further, i.e. secondary electrons (SE), such that the main part of the deposited energy of the ion is eventually over transferred to SE. It is, therefore, suggestive to assume a proportionality between the electronic stopping power S sm-bullet of the ion and the total SE yield g, i.e. the number of electrons ejected per ion. Following Sternglass the authors consider schematically for kinetic SE emission contributions from two extreme cases: (a) SEs produced mostly isotropically with large impact parameter, associated with an escape depth L SE from the solid; (b) SEs produced mostly unisotropically in forward direction with small impact parameter (δ-electrons), associated with a transport length L δ

  12. Photoelectron spectra as a probe of double-core resonsance in two-electron atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grobe, R.; Haan, S.L.; Eberly, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    The authors calculate photoelectron spectra for a two-electron atom under the influence of two external driving fields, using an essential states formalism. They focus on the regime of so-called coherence transfer, in which electron-electron correlation transfers field-induced photo-coherence from one electron to the other. In the case studied here, two laser fields are resonant with coupled atomic transitions, in the manner familiar from three-level dark-state spectroscopy. Dynamical two electron effects are monitored via the photoelectron energy spectrum. The authors show that the distribution of the photoelectron energies can be singly, doubly or triply peaked depending on the relative laser intensities. The electron spectra are independent of the turn-on sequence of the fields

  13. Probing collective oscillation of d-orbital electrons at the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhall, Rohan; Vigil-Fowler, Derek; Houston Dycus, J.; Kirste, Ronny; Mita, Seiji; Sitar, Zlatko; Collazo, Ramon; LeBeau, James M.

    2018-02-01

    Here, we demonstrate that high energy electrons can be used to explore the collective oscillation of s, p, and d orbital electrons at the nanometer length scale. Using epitaxial AlGaN/AlN quantum wells as a test system, we observe the emergence of additional features in the loss spectrum with the increasing Ga content. A comparison of the observed spectra with ab-initio theory reveals that the origin of these spectral features lies in excitations of 3d-electrons contributed by Ga. We find that these modes differ in energy from the valence electron plasmons in Al1-xGaxN due to the different polarizabilities of the d electrons. Finally, we study the dependence of observed spectral features on the Ga content, lending insights into the origin of these spectral features, and their coupling with electron-hole excitations.

  14. Probing collective oscillation of d -orbital electrons at the nanoscale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhall, Rohan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695, USA; Vigil-Fowler, Derek [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401, USA; Houston Dycus, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695, USA; Kirste, Ronny [Adroit Materials, Inc., Cary, North Carolina 27518, USA; Mita, Seiji [Adroit Materials, Inc., Cary, North Carolina 27518, USA; Sitar, Zlatko [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695, USA; Collazo, Ramon [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695, USA; LeBeau, James M. [Adroit Materials, Inc., Cary, North Carolina 27518, USA

    2018-02-05

    Here, we demonstrate that high energy electrons can be used to explore the collective oscillation of s, p, and d orbital electrons at the nanometer length scale. Using epitaxial AlGaN/AlN quantum wells as a test system, we observe the emergence of additional features in the loss spectrum with the increasing Ga content. A comparison of the observed spectra with ab-initio theory reveals that the origin of these spectral features lies in excitations of 3d-electrons contributed by Ga. We find that these modes differ in energy from the valence electron plasmons in Al1-xGaxN due to the different polarizabilities of the d electrons. Finally, we study the dependence of observed spectral features on the Ga content, lending insights into the origin of these spectral features, and their coupling with electron-hole excitations.

  15. Athermal electron distribution probed by femtosecond multiphoton photoemission from image potential states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrini, Gabriele; Giannetti, Claudio; Pagliara, Stefania; Banfi, Francesco; Galimberti, Gianluca; Parmigiani, Fulvio

    2005-01-01

    Image potential states are populated through indirect, scattering-mediated multiphoton absorption induced by femtosecond laser pulses and revealed by single-photon photoemission. The measured effective mass is significantly different from that obtained with direct, resonant population. These features reveal a strong coupling of the electrons residing in the image potential state, outside the solid, with the underlying hot electron population created by the laser pulse. The coupling is mediated by a many-body scattering interaction between the image potential state electrons and bulk electrons in highly excited states

  16. Coulomb drag: a probe of electron interactions in coupled quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1996-01-01

    As semiconductor devices shrink in size and in dimensionality, interactions between charge carriers become more and more important. There is a simple physical reason behind this behavior: fewer carriers lead to less effective screening, and hence stronger effective interactions. A point in case...... are one-dimensional systems (quantum wires): there electron-electron interactions may lead to a behavior, which is qualitatively different from the standard Fermi liquid picture (Luttinger liquids). Electron-electron interactions also play a central role in the fractional quantum Hall effect, which...... be the study of quantum wires: there the interactions may lead to even more dramatic effects...

  17. Ballistic magnetotransport and spin-orbit interaction in indium antimonide and indium arsenide quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, John Archibald

    While charge transport in a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) is fairly well understood, many open experimental and theoretical questions related to the spin of electrons remain. The standard 2DES embedded in Alx Ga1-xAs/GaAs heterostructures is most likely not the optimal candidate for such investigations, since spin effects as well as spin-orbit interactions are small perturbations compared to other effects. This has brought InSb- and InAs-based material systems into focus due to the possibility of large spin-orbit interactions. By utilizing elastic scattering off a lithographic barrier, we investigate the consequence of spin on different electron trajectories observed in InSb and InAs quantum wells. We focus on the physical properties of spin-dependent reflection in a 2DES and we present experimental results demonstrating a method to create spin-polarized beams of ballistic electrons in the presence of a lateral potential barrier. Spatial separation of electron spins using cyclotron motion in a weak magnetic is also achieved via transverse magnetic focusing. We also explore electrostatic gating effects in InSb/InAlSb heterostructures and demonstrate the effective use of polymethylglutarimide (PMGI) as a gate dielectric for InSb. The dependence on temperature and on front gate voltage of mobility and density are also examined, revealing a strong dependence of mobility on density. As regards front gate action, there is saturation in the density once it reaches a limiting value. Further, we investigate antidot lattices patterned on InSb/InAlSb and InAs/AlGaSb heterostructures. At higher magnetic fields, ballistic commensurability features are displayed while at smaller magnetic fields localization and quantized oscillatory phenomena appear, with marked differences between InSb and InAs. Interesting localization behavior is exhibited in InSb, with the strength of the localization peak decreasing exponentially with temperature between 0.4 K and 50 K. InAs on the

  18. Time delay occultation data of the Helios spacecraft for probing the electron density distribution in the solar corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenhofer, P.; Lueneburg, E.; Esposito, P. B.; Martin, W. L.; Zygielbaum, A. I.; Hansen, R. T.; Hansen, S. F.

    1978-01-01

    S-band time delay measurements were collected from the spacecraft Helios A and B during three solar occultations in 1975/76 within heliocentric distances of about 3 and 215 earth radius in terms of range, Doppler frequency shift, and electron content. Characteristic features of measurement and data processing are described. Typical data sets are discussed to probe the electron density distribution near the sun (west and east limb as well) including the outer and extended corona. Steady-state and dynamical aspects of the solar corona are presented and compared with earth-bound-K-coronagraph measurements. Using a weighted least squares estimation, parameters of an average coronal electron density profile are derived in a preliminary analysis to yield electron densities at r = 3, 65, 215 earth radius. Transient phenomena are discussed and a velocity of propagation v is nearly equal to 900 km/s is determined for plasma ejecta from a solar flare observed during an extraordinary set of Helios B electron content measurements.

  19. Ballistic transport and quantum interference in InSb nanowire devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Sen; Huang Guang-Yao; Guo Jing-Kun; Kang Ning; Xu Hong-Qi; Caroff, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    An experimental realization of a ballistic superconductor proximitized semiconductor nanowire device is a necessary step towards engineering topological quantum electronics. Here, we report on ballistic transport in InSb nanowires grown by molecular-beam epitaxy contacted by superconductor electrodes. At an elevated temperature, clear conductance plateaus are observed at zero magnetic field and in agreement with calculations based on the Landauer formula. At lower temperature, we have observed characteristic Fabry–Pérot patterns which confirm the ballistic nature of charge transport. Furthermore, the magnetoconductance measurements in the ballistic regime reveal a periodic variation related to the Fabry–Pérot oscillations. The result can be reasonably explained by taking into account the impact of magnetic field on the phase of ballistic electron’s wave function, which is further verified by our simulation. Our results pave the way for better understanding of the quantum interference effects on the transport properties of InSb nanowires in the ballistic regime as well as developing of novel device for topological quantum computations. (paper)

  20. Evolution of group 14 rhodamines as platforms for near-infrared fluorescence probes utilizing photoinduced electron transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, Yuichiro; Urano, Yasuteru; Hanaoka, Kenjiro; Terai, Takuya; Nagano, Tetsuo

    2011-06-17

    The absorption and emission wavelengths of group 14 pyronines and rhodamines, which contain silicon, germanium, or tin at the 10 position of the xanthene chromophore, showed large bathochromic shifts compared to the original rhodamines, owing to stabilization of the LUMO energy levels by σ*-π* conjugation between group 14 atom-C (methyl) σ* orbitals and a π* orbital of the fluorophore. These group 14 pyronines and rhodamines retain the advantages of the original rhodamines, including high quantum efficiency in aqueous media (Φ(fl) = 0.3-0.45), tolerance to photobleaching, and high water solubility. Group 14 rhodamines have higher values of reduction potential than other NIR light-emitting original rhodamines, and therefore, we speculated their NIR fluorescence could be controlled through the photoinduced electron transfer (PeT) mechanism. Indeed, we found that the fluorescence quantum yield (Φ(fl)) of Si-rhodamine (SiR) and Ge-rhodamine (GeR) could be made nearly equal to zero, and the threshold level for fluorescence on/off switching lies at around 1.3-1.5 V for the SiRs. This is about 0.1 V lower than in the case of TokyoGreens, in which the fluorophore is well established to be effective for PeT-based probes. That is to say, the fluorescence of SiR and GeR can be drastically activated by more than 100-fold through a PeT strategy. To confirm the validity of this strategy for developing NIR fluorescence probes, we employed this approach to design two kinds of novel fluorescence probes emitting in the far-red to NIR region, i.e., a series of pH-sensors for use in acidic environments and a Zn(2+) sensor. We synthesized these probes and confirmed that they work well.

  1. In situ electrical probing and bias-mediated manipulation of dielectric nanotubes in a high-resolution transmission electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golberg, D.; Mitome, M.; Kurashima, K.; Zhi, C.Y.; Tang, C.C.; Bando, Y.; Lourie, O.

    2006-01-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes filled with magnesium oxides [MgO, MgO 2 ] and/or hydroxide [Mg(OH) 2 ] are electrically probed and delicately manipulated inside a 300 kV JEOL-3000F high-resolution transmission analytical electron microscope equipped with a side-entry 'Nanofactory Instruments' piezoholder. At a low bias the nanotubes demonstrate truly insulating behavior. At a high bias of ±30 V they show reversible breakdown current of several dozens of nA. Under 300 kV electron beam irradiation the nanotubes are positively charged that allows us to perform on-demand manipulation with them through tuning of polarity and/or value of a bias voltage on a gold counterelectrode from -140 to +140 V, owing to the prominent electrostatic nanotube-electrode interactions

  2. Ballistic representation for kinematic access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    This work uses simple two-body orbital dynamics to initially determine the kinematic access for a ballistic vehicle. Primarily this analysis was developed to assess when a rocket body might conjunct with an orbiting satellite platform. A family of access opportunities can be represented as a volume for a specific rocket relative to its launch platform. Alternately, the opportunities can be represented as a geographical footprint relative to aircraft or satellite position that encompasses all possible launcher locations for a specific rocket. A thrusting rocket is treated as a ballistic vehicle that receives all its energy at launch and follows a coasting trajectory. To do so, the rocket's burnout energy is used to find its equivalent initial velocity for a given launcher's altitude. Three kinematic access solutions are then found that account for spherical Earth rotation. One solution finds the maximum range for an ascent-only trajectory while another solution accommodates a descending trajectory. In addition, the ascent engagement for the descending trajectory is used to depict a rapid access scenario. These preliminary solutions are formulated to address ground-, sea-, or air-launched vehicles.

  3. Electronic properties of dioctylterthiophene-based organic thin-film transistors: A Kelvin probe force microscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afsharimani, N.; Nysten, B.

    2013-01-01

    It appeared in the past decades that semi-conducting organic liquid crystals could be used as the active layer in organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). They can be processed by simple methods such as inkjet printing, which paves the way to applications for cheap plastic electronics such as electronic tags, biosensors, and flexible screens. However, the measured field-effect mobility in these OTFTs is relatively low compared to inorganic devices. Generally, such low field-effect mobility values result from extrinsic effects such as grain boundaries or imperfect interfaces with source and drain electrodes. It has been shown that reducing the number of grain boundaries between the source and drain electrodes improves the field effect mobility. Therefore, it is important to understand the transport mechanisms by studying the local structure and electronic properties of organic thin films within the channel and at the interfaces with source and drain electrodes in order to improve the field-effect mobility in OTFTs. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) is an ideal tool for that purpose since it allows to simultaneously investigate the local structure and the electrical potential distribution in electronic devices. In this work, the structure and the electrical properties of OTFTs based on dioctylterthiophene (DOTT) were studied. The transistors were fabricated by spin-coating DOTT on the transistor structures with untreated and treated (silanized) channel silicon oxide. The potential profiles across the channel and at the metal-electrode interfaces were measured by KPFM. The effect of surface treatment on the electrical properties, charge trapping phenomenon and hysteresis effects is demonstrated and analyzed. - Highlights: • Kelvin probe force microscopy study of organic thin film transistors. • Cost and time savings by using solution processable molecules as active layers. • Smaller crystals and less charge trapping effects in silanized devices. • Decrement

  4. Wave Optical Calculation of Probe Size in Low Energy Scanning Electron Microscope

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Radlička, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, S4 (2015), s. 212-217 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : scanning electron microscope * optical calculation Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2015

  5. Fundamental insights into the radium uptake into barite by atom probe tomography and electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Juliane

    2017-10-01

    -of-the-art high-resolution microscopy techniques was used to answer the questions regarding (1) the internal microstructure of the initial barite (2) the role of this internal microstructure during the Ra uptake and (3) t he changes in the Ra distribution within the barite. This study comprises the first characterization of barite by atom probe tomography (APT). By combining APT and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods, pores covering the size range from a few nanometers to a few micrometers were identified in the SL barite. The pores were organized in layers parallel to the outer crystal faces. High resolution chemical analysis indicated that the pores contain a solution of water and sodium chloride. By focused ion beam (FIB) tomography, it was revealed that open macropores of several micrometers size are present as well within the SL barite. These partially connected macropores are distributed within the complete barite particles. Therefore, the macropores provide a direct pathway for Ra-containing aqueous fluid to enter the SL barite particles by diffusion within the aqueous solution. In addition, pores were also identified in the AL barite by TEM characterization. The entrapment of solution during mineral precipitation is known for several minerals at high supersaturation. As barite only precipitates at high supersaturation, nanoscale fluid inclusions as well as macropores probably were entrapped during the particle growth by precipitation. A microstructure similar to the one of the barite type used in this study was previously reported for other barites. In Ra-free reference experiment, no microstructural changes were noted over recrystallization times of up to 898 days. In prior studies, three different stages of Ra uptake were described based on macroscopic results. Ra-containing barite samples from all three stages were characterized to understand the role of the internal barite microstructure. At the beginning, the nano-scale fluid inclusions disappeared

  6. Fundamental insights into the radium uptake into barite by atom probe tomography and electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Juliane

    2017-01-01

    used to answer the questions regarding (1) the internal microstructure of the initial barite (2) the role of this internal microstructure during the Ra uptake and (3) t he changes in the Ra distribution within the barite. This study comprises the first characterization of barite by atom probe tomography (APT). By combining APT and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods, pores covering the size range from a few nanometers to a few micrometers were identified in the SL barite. The pores were organized in layers parallel to the outer crystal faces. High resolution chemical analysis indicated that the pores contain a solution of water and sodium chloride. By focused ion beam (FIB) tomography, it was revealed that open macropores of several micrometers size are present as well within the SL barite. These partially connected macropores are distributed within the complete barite particles. Therefore, the macropores provide a direct pathway for Ra-containing aqueous fluid to enter the SL barite particles by diffusion within the aqueous solution. In addition, pores were also identified in the AL barite by TEM characterization. The entrapment of solution during mineral precipitation is known for several minerals at high supersaturation. As barite only precipitates at high supersaturation, nanoscale fluid inclusions as well as macropores probably were entrapped during the particle growth by precipitation. A microstructure similar to the one of the barite type used in this study was previously reported for other barites. In Ra-free reference experiment, no microstructural changes were noted over recrystallization times of up to 898 days. In prior studies, three different stages of Ra uptake were described based on macroscopic results. Ra-containing barite samples from all three stages were characterized to understand the role of the internal barite microstructure. At the beginning, the nano-scale fluid inclusions disappeared, probably due to coalescing to new macropores

  7. Understanding the ballistic event : Methodology and observations relevant to ceramic armour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Adam

    The only widely-accepted method of gauging the ballistic performance of a material is to carry out ballistic testing; due to the large volume of material required for a statistically robust test, this process is very expensive. Therefore a new test, or suite of tests, that employ widely-available and economically viable characterisation methods to screen candidate armour materials is highly desirable; in order to design such a test, more information on the armour/projectile interaction is required. This work presents the design process and results of using an adapted specimen configuration to increase the amount of information obtained from a ballistic test. By using a block of ballistic gel attached to the ceramic, the fragmentation generated during the ballistic event was captured and analysed. In parallel, quasi-static tests were carried out using ring-on-ring biaxial disc testing to investigate relationships between quasi-static and ballistic fragment fracture surfaces. Three contemporary ceramic armour materials were used to design the test and to act as a baseline; Sintox FA alumina, Hexoloy SA silicon carbide and 3M boron carbide. Attempts to analyse the post-test ballistic sample non-destructively using X-ray computed tomography (XCT) were unsuccessful due to the difference in the density of the materials and the compaction of fragments. However, the results of qualitative and quantitative fracture surface analysis using scanning electron microscopy showed similarities between the fracture surfaces of ballistic fragments at the edges of the tile and biaxial fragments; this suggests a relationship between quasi-static and ballistic fragments created away from the centre of impact, although additional research will be required to determine the reason for this. Ballistic event-induced porosity was observed and quantified on the fracture surfaces of silicon carbide samples, which decreased as distance from centre of impact increased; upon further analysis this

  8. Remote sensing of electron density and ion composition using nonducted whistler observations on OGO 1 and Van Allen Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwalkar, V. S.; Butler, J.; Reddy, A.

    2017-12-01

    We present a new method to remotely measure magnetospheric electron density and ion composition using lightning generated nonducted whistlers observed on a satellite. Electron and ion densities play important roles in magnetospheric processes such as wave-particle interactions in the equatorial region and ion-neutral dynamics in the ionosphere, and are important for calculating space weather effects such as particle precipitation, GPS scintillations, and satellite drag. The nonducted whistler resulting from a single lightning appears on a spectrogram as a series of magnetospherically reflected traces with characteristic dispersion (time delay versus frequency) and upper and lower cut off frequencies. Ray tracing simulations show that these observed characteristics depend on the magnetospheric electron density and ion composition. The cut off frequencies depend on both electron density and ion composition. The dispersion depends strongly on electron density, but weakly on ion composition. Using an iterative process to fit the measured dispersion and cutoff frequencies to those obtained from ray tracing simulations, it is possible to construct the electron and ion density profiles of the magnetosphere. We demonstrate our method by applying it to nonducted whistlers observed on OGO 1 and Van Allen probe satellites. In one instance (08 Nov 1965), whistler traces observed on OGO 1 (L = 2.4, λm = -6°) displayed a few seconds of dispersion and cutoff frequencies in the 1-10 kHz range. Ray tracing analysis showed that a diffusive equilibrium density model with the following parameters can reproduce the observed characteristics of the whistler traces: 1900 el/cc at L=2.4 and the equator, 358,000 el/cc at F2 peak (hmF2 = 220 km), the relative ion concentrations αH+ = 0.2, αHe+ = 0.2, and αO+ = 0.6 at 1000 km, and temperature 1600 K. The method developed here can be applied to whistlers observed on the past, current, and future magnetospheric satellite missions carrying

  9. Momentum mapping spectrometer for probing the fragmentation dynamics of molecules induced by keV electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Raj; Bhatt, Pragya; Yadav, Namita; Shanker, R

    2011-01-01

    We describe a new experimental setup for studying the fragmentation dynamics of molecules induced by the impact of keV electrons using the well-known technique of recoil ion momentum spectroscopy. The apparatus consists of mainly a time- and position-sensitive multi-hit particle detector for ion analysis and a channel electron multiplier detector for detecting the ejected electrons. Different components of the setup and the relevant electronics for data acquisition are described in detail with their working principles. In order to verify the reliable performance of the setup, we have recorded the collision-induced ionic spectra of the CO 2 molecule by the impact of keV electrons. Information about the ion pairs of CO + :O + , C + :O + and O + :O + resulting from dissociative ionizing collisions of 20 and 26 keV electrons with a dilute gaseous target of CO 2 molecules has been obtained. Under conditions of the present experiment, the momentum resolutions of the spectrometer for the combined momenta of CO + and O + ions in the direction of the time-of-flight axis and perpendicular to the direction of an electron beam are found to be 10.0 ± 0.2 and 15.0 ± 0.3 au, respectively

  10. Nonadiabatic Dynamics May Be Probed through Electronic Coherence in Time-Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kochise; Kowalewski, Markus; Mukamel, Shaul

    2016-02-09

    We present a hierarchy of Fermi golden rules (FGRs) that incorporate strongly coupled electronic/nuclear dynamics in time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (TRPES) signals at different levels of theory. Expansion in the joint electronic and nuclear eigenbasis yields the numerically most challenging exact FGR (eFGR). The quasistatic Fermi Golden Rule (qsFGR) neglects nuclear motion during the photoionization process but takes into account electronic coherences as well as populations initially present in the pumped matter as well as those generated internally by coupling between electronic surfaces. The standard semiclassical Fermi Golden Rule (scFGR) neglects the electronic coherences and the nuclear kinetic energy during the ionizing pulse altogether, yielding the classical Condon approximation. The coherence contributions depend on the phase-profile of the ionizing field, allowing coherent control of TRPES signals. The photoelectron spectrum from model systems is simulated using these three levels of theory. The eFGR and the qsFGR show temporal oscillations originating from the electronic or vibrational coherences generated as the nuclear wave packet traverses a conical intersection. These oscillations, which are missed by the scFGR, directly reveal the time-evolving splitting between electronic states of the neutral molecule in the curve-crossing regime.

  11. Polarization dependence in ELNES: Influence of probe convergence, collector aperture and electron beam incidence angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bosse, J.C.; Epicier, T.; Jouffrey, B.

    2006-01-01

    The differential scattering cross section in electron energy loss near edge spectroscopy (ELNES) generally depends on the orientation of the Q wave vector transferred from the incident electron to an atomic core electron. In the case where the excited atom belongs to a threefold, fourfold or sixfold main rotation axis, the dipole cross section depends on the angle of Q with respect to this axis. In this paper, we restrict to this situation called dichroism. Furthermore, if we take into account the relativistic effects due to the high incident electron velocity, this dipole cross section also depends on the angle of Q with respect to the electron beam axis. It is due to these dependences that the shape of measured electron energy loss spectra varies with the electron beam incidence, the collector aperture, the incident beam convergence and the incident electron energy. The existence of a particular beam incidence angle for which the scattering cross section becomes independent of collection and beam convergence semi-angles is clearly underscored. Conversely, it is shown that EELS spectra do not depend on the beam incidence angle for a set of particular values of collection and convergence semi-angles. Particularly, in the case of a parallel incident beam, there is a collection semi-angle (often called magic angle) for which the cross section becomes independent of the beam orientation. This magic angle depends on the incident beam kinetic energy. If the incident electron velocity V is small compared with the light velocity c, this magic angle is about 3.975θ E (θ E is the scattering angle). It decreases to 0 when V approaches c. These results are illustrated in the case of the K boron edge in the boron nitride

  12. Dispersive electron transport in tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) probed by impedance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berleb, Stefan; Brütting, Wolfgang

    2002-12-31

    Electron transport in tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) is investigated by impedance spectroscopy under conditions of space-charge limited conduction (SCLC). Existing SCLC models are extended to include the field dependence of the charge carrier mobility and energetically distributed trap states. The dispersive nature of electron transport is revealed by a frequency-dependent mobility with a dispersion parameter alpha in the range 0.4-0.5, independent of temperature. This indicates that positional rather than energetic disorder is the dominant mechanism for the dispersive transport of electrons in Alq3.

  13. Probing the 4p electron-spin polarization in NiO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubeck, W.; Vettier, C.; Bergevin, F. de; Yakhou, F.; Mannix, D.; Bengone, O.; Alouani, M.; Barbier, A.

    2001-01-01

    K-edge resonant x-ray magnetic scattering experiments have been performed on antiferromagnetic NiO. The observation of two resonances at the K edge allows the construction of models to compare the electronic properties of NiO and the observed resonant magnetic x-ray scattering. From the polarization analysis of the scattered beam, a quadrupolar transition (1s-3d) and a dipolar transition (1s-4p) are identified. While the quadrupolar transition can be modeled using an atomic picture for the 3d electrons, the dipolar transition is associated to a broadband structure of p electrons and its energy profile is compared to electronic band-structure calculations

  14. Characterization of electronic charged states of P-doped Si quantum dots using AFM/Kelvin probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makihara, Katsunori; Xu, Jun; Ikeda, Mitsuhisa; Murakami, Hideki; Higashi, Seiichiro; Miyazaki, Seiichi

    2006-01-01

    Phosphorous doping to Si quantum dots was performed by a pulse injection of 1% PH 3 diluted with He during the dot formation on thermally grown SiO 2 from thermal decomposition of pure SiH 4 , and electron charging to and discharging from P-doped Si dots were studied to characterize their electronic charged states using a Kelvin probe technique in atomic force microscopy (AFM). The potential change corresponding to the extraction of one electron from each of the P-doped Si dots was observed after applying a tip bias as low as + 0.2 V while for undoped Si dots, with almost the same size as P-doped Si dots, almost the same amount of the potential change was detectable only when the tip bias was increased to ∼ 1 V. It is likely that, for P-doped Si dots, the electron extraction from the conduction band occurs and results in a positively charged state with ionized P donor

  15. Wound ballistic evaluation of the Taser® XREP ammunition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Sebastian N; Adamec, Jiri; Zinka, Bettina; Münzel, Daniela; Noël, Peter B; Eichner, Simon; Manthei, Axel; Grove, Nico; Graw, M; Peschel, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The Taser® eXtended Range Electronic Projectile (XREP®) is a wireless conducted electrical weapon (CEW) designed to incapacitate a person from a larger distance. The aim of this study was to analyze the ballistic injury potential of the XREP. Twenty rounds were fired from the Taser®X12 TM shotgun into ballistic soap covered with artificial skin and clothing at different shooting distances (1-25 m). One shot was fired at pig skin at a shooting distance of 10 m. The average projectile velocity was 67.0 m/s. The kinetic energy levels on impact varied from 28-52 J. Depending on the intermediate target, the projectiles penetrated up to 4.2 cm into the ballistic soap. On impact the nose assembly did not separate from the chassis, and no electrical activation was registered. Upon impact, a skin penetration of the XREP cannot be excluded. However, it is very unlikely at shooting distances of 10 m or more. Clothing and a high elasticity limit of the target body area can significantly reduce the penetration risk on impact.

  16. Separate observation of ballistic and scattered photons in the propagation of short laser pulses through a strongly scattering medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tereshchenko, Sergei A; Podgaetskii, Vitalii M; Vorob'ev, Nikolai S; Smirnov, A V

    1998-01-01

    The conditions are identified for simultaneous observation of the peaks of scattered and unscattered (ballistic) photons in a narrow pulsed laser beam crossing a strongly scattering medium. The experimental results are explained on the basis of a nonstationary two-flux model of radiation transport. An analytic expression is given for the contribution of ballistic photons to the transmitted radiation, as a function of the characteristics of the scattering medium. It is shown that the ballistic photon contribution can be increased by the use of high-contrast substances which alter selectively the absorption and scattering coefficients of the medium. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  17. Ballistic resistance capacity of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mylvaganam, Kausala; Zhang, L C

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have high strength, light weight and excellent energy absorption capacity and therefore have great potential applications in making antiballistic materials. By examining the ballistic impact and bouncing-back processes on carbon nanotubes, this investigation shows that nanotubes with large radii withstand higher bullet speeds and the ballistic resistance is the highest when the bullet hits the centre of the CNT; the ballistic resistance of CNTs will remain the same on subsequent bullet strikes if the impact is after a small time interval

  18. Preservation and storage of prepared ballistic gelatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattijssen, E J A T; Alberink, I; Jacobs, B; van den Boogaard, Y

    2016-02-01

    The use of ballistic gelatine, generally accepted as a human muscle tissue simulant in wound ballistic studies, might be improved by adding a preservative (Methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate) which inhibits microbial growth. This study shows that replacing a part of the gelatine powder by the preservative does not significantly alter the penetration depth of projectiles. Storing prepared blocks of ballistic gelatine over time decreased the penetration depth of projectiles. Storage of prepared gelatine for 4 week already showed a significant effect on the penetration depth of projectiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of Ballistic Performance for Transparent Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basim M. Fadhil

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A finite element method was used to investigate the ballistic behavior of Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA under impact loading by spherical steel projectile with different ranges of velocities. Three different target thicknesses were used in the experimental and the numerical works. A mathematical model has been used for the ballistic limit based on the experimental results. It has been found that projectile velocity and target thickness play an important role in the ballistic behavior of PMMA. A good agreement was found between the numerical, experimental, and the analytical result.

  20. Super-quenched Molecular Probe Based on Aggregation-Induced Emission and Photoinduced Electron Transfer Mechanisms for Formaldehyde Detection in Human Serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haitao; Wang, Fujia; Zheng, Jilin; Lin, Hao; Liu, Bin; Tang, Yi-Da; Zhang, Chong-Jing

    2018-06-04

    Energy transfer between fluorescent dyes and quenchers is widely used in the design of light-up probes. Although dual quenchers are more effective in offering lower background signals and higher turn-on ratios than one quencher, such probes are less explored in practice as they require both quenchers to be within the proximity of the fluorescent core. In this contribution, we utilized intramolecular motion and photoinduced electron transfer (PET) as quenching mechanisms to build super-quenched light-up probes based on fluorogens with aggregation-induced emission. The optimized light-up probe possesses negligible background and is able to detect not only free formaldehyde (FA) but also polymeric FA, with an unprecedented turn-on ratio of >4900. We envision that this novel dual quenching strategy will help to develop various light-up probes for analyte sensing. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Probing the Highly Efficient Electron Transfer Dynamics between Zinc Protoporphyrin IX and Sodium Titanate Nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sudipta; Mukherjee, Debdyuti; De, Swati; Kathiravan, Arunkumar

    2016-09-15

    Sodium titanate nanosheets (NaTiO2 NS) have been prepared by a new method and completely characterized by TEM, SEM, XRD, EDX, and XPS techniques. The sensitization of nanosheets is carried out with Zn protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX). The emission intensity of ZnPPIX is quenched by NaTiO2 NS, and the dominant process for this quenching has been attributed to the process of photoinduced electron injection from excited ZnPPIX to the nanosheets. Time resolved fluorescence measurement was used to elucidate the process of electron injection from the singlet state of ZnPPIX to the conduction band of NaTiO2 NS. Electron injection from the dye to the semiconductor is very fast (ket ≈ 10(11) s(-1)), much faster than previously reported rates. The large two-dimensional surface offered by the NaTiO2 NS for interaction with the dye and the favorable driving force for electron injection from ZnPPIX to NaTiO2 NS (ΔGinj = -0.66 V) are the two important factors responsible for such efficient electron injection. Thus, NaTiO2 NS can serve as an effective alternative to the use of TiO2 nanoparticles in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs).

  2. Time-resolved probing of electron thermal conduction in femtosecond-laser-pulse-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vue, B.T.V.

    1993-06-01

    We present time-resolved measurements of reflectivity, transmissivity and frequency shifts of probe light interacting with the rear of a disk-like plasma produced by irradiation of a transparent solid target with 0.1ps FWHM laser pulses at peak intensity 5 x 10 l4 W/CM 2 . Experimental results show a large increase in reflection, revealing rapid formation of a steep gradient and overdense surface plasma layer during the first picosecond after irradiation. Frequency shifts due to a moving ionization created by thermal conduction into the solid target are recorded. Calculations using a nonlinear thermal heat wave model show good agreement with the measured frequency shifts, further confining the strong thermal transport effect

  3. The use of electron beams as probes of the distant magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winckler, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter reports on experiments in which electron beams have been injected into the magnetosphere in order to diagnose plasma processes at a great distance by measurements made in the ionosphere. Topics considered include the beam injecting rocket system in the ionosphere; beam detection and analysis; echo detection by particle counters; echo analysis; the structure of echoes; the atmosphere as a detector; radio and radar methods; perturbation of the distant magnetosphere by beam injection; changes in the injected beam in the near-rocket region; some observations of the distant magnetosphere by beams; the comparison of distant and local electric fields; electron diffusion; the distant magnetic field; and future possibilities. Conjugate locations, field line lengths, electric and magnetic drifts, field fluctuations, and electron scattering and diffusion are analyzed. Echo detection by particle counters on some of the ECHO rocket series is discussed in detail

  4. Electronically tuned sulfonamide-based probes with ultra-sensitivity for Ga{sup 3+} or Al{sup 3+} detection in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ashwani, E-mail: ashwanirubal@gmail.com; Chae, Pil Seok, E-mail: pchae@hanyang.ac.kr

    2017-03-15

    Three electronically tuned fluorescent probes (1–3) were synthesized by conjugating a fluorescent unit to N,N-bis-(hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine. Probe 1 bearing an electron-deficient naphthalenedimide unit did not give a fluorescence response to the presence of various metal ions including monovalent metal ions (Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and Ag{sup +}), divalent metal ions (Ca{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Hg{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, and Zn{sup 2+}) and trivalent metal ions (Al{sup 3+}, Ga{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+}, and Cr{sup 3+}) in an aqueous solution. By contrast, probes 2 and 3 possessing 1,8-naphthalimide and pyrene fluorophores, respectively, exhibited selective fluorescent “OFF-ON” behaviors as a result of Ga{sup 3+}/Al{sup 3+} binding among the diverse metal ions, suggesting the importance of fluorophore electronic character with regard to metal ion sensing. The ethylenediamine analog of probe 3, corresponding to probe 4, was unable to yield a significant change in fluorescence intensity in the presence of any metal ions tested here, revealing the essential role of two hydroxyl groups for metal ion binding. A high association constant of K{sub a} = 2.99 × 10{sup 5} M{sup −1} was obtained for probe 3 with Ga{sup 3+}, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 10 nM. This LOD is the lowest value known for Ga{sup 3+} detection using chemical sensors. Along with an increase in aggregate sizes, PET suppression of probes upon metal ion binding was the primary contributor to the enhancement in fluorescence emission necessary for the sensitive detection of the target ions. The probe-metal ion complexes were fully characterized via TEM, FE-SEM, {sup 1}H NMR, fluorescence spectroscopy techniques and DFT calculations. - Highlights: • Three electronically tuned sulfonamide-based probes (probes 1, 2, and 3) were developed for metal ion-sensing. • Probes 2 and 3 exhibited AIE behavior with increasing water-content. • Probes 2 and 3 displayed a

  5. Probing sea quarks and gluons: the electron-ion collider project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, T.

    2014-01-01

    A future Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) would be the world's first polarized electron-proton collider, and the world's first e-A collider, and would seek the QCD foundation of nucleons and nuclei in terms of the sea quarks and gluons, matching to these valence quark studies. The EIC will provide a versatile range of kinematics and beam polarization, as well as beam species, to allow for mapping the spin and spatial structure of the quark sea and gluons, to discover the collective effects of gluons in atomic nuclei, and to understand the emergence of hadronic matter from color charge. (authors)

  6. Probing Electron-Induced Bond Cleavage at the Single-Molecule Level Using DNA Origami Templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Adrian Clemens; Bald, Ilko; Rotaru, Alexandru

    2012-01-01

    Low-energy electrons (LEEs) play an important role in nanolithography, atmospheric chemistry, and DNA radiation damage. Previously, the cleavage of specific chemical bonds triggered by LEEs has been demonstrated in a variety of small organic molecules such as halogenated benzenes and DNA nucleoba...

  7. Probing the local, electronic and magnetic structure of matter under extreme conditions of temperature and pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torchio, R.; Boccato, S.; Cerantola, V.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present recent achievements in the field of investigation of the local, electronic and magnetic structure of the matter under extreme conditions of pressure and temperature. These results were obtained thanks to the coupling of a compact laser heating system to the energy-dispersive...

  8. Probing electronic coupling between adenine bases in RNA strands from synchrotron radiation circular dichroism experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lisbeth Munksgård; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted

    2012-01-01

    Circular dichroism spectra (176–330 nm) of RNA adenine oligomers, (rA)n (n = 1–10, 12, 15, and 20), reveal electronic coupling between two bases in short strands. The number of interacting bases in long strands is more and larger than that reported previously for the corresponding DNA strands....

  9. Probing the local environment of a single OPE3 molecule using inelastic tunneling electron spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frisenda, R.; Perrin, M.L.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.

    2015-01-01

    We study single-molecule oligo(phenylene ethynylene)dithiol junctions by means of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS). The molecule is contacted with gold nano-electrodes formed with the mechanically controllable break junction technique. We record the IETS spectrum of the molecule from

  10. Carbon-fiber tips for scanning probe microscopes and molecular electronics experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubio-Bollinger, G.; Castellanos-Gomez, A.; Bilan, S.; Zotti, L.A.; Arroyo, C.R.; Agraït, N.; Cuevas, J.

    2012-01-01

    We fabricate and characterize carbon-fiber tips for their use in combined scanning tunneling and force microscopy based on piezoelectric quartz tuning fork force sensors. An electrochemical fabrication procedure to etch the tips is used to yield reproducible sub-100-nm apex. We also study electron

  11. Probing the longitudinal momentum spread of the electron wave packet at the tunnel exit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Pfeiffer, Adrian; Cirelli, Claudio; S. Landsman, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    We present an ellipticity resolved study of momentum distributions arising from strong-field ionization of Helium at constant intensity. The influence of the ion potential on the departing electron is considered within a semi-classical model consisting of an initial tunneling step and subsequent...

  12. Spatial characterization of relativistic electron enhancements in the Earth's outer radiation belt during the Van Allen Probes era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, V. A.; Bortnik, J.; Moya, P. S.; Lyons, L. R.; Sibeck, D. G.; Kanekal, S. G.

    2017-12-01

    Using Van Allen Probes Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope (REPT) instrument we have identified 73 relativistic electron enhancement events in the outer radiation belt that occurred at different L values between L = 2.5 and L = 6.0. To determine an enhancement, we have used three different identification methods. We then determine the radial location, MLT location, timing and strength of those enhancements. We discuss the differences of each of the methods and test them to pinpoint the origin and spatial propagation of each enhancement. We have classified the events based on the radial propagation, speed of enhancement and intensity of fluxes and response for energy channels ranging from 1.8 MeV to 6.3 MeV. In addition, we have used OMNI data to study the statistical properties of the solar wind during each event and have classified similarities and differences that might be relevant for each group of enhancements and help us determine the physical process responsible for different types of enhancements. Additionally, we have used >2 MeV electron fluxes at geostationary orbit as measured by the GOES 13 and 15 Energetic Particle Sensor (EPS) instrument to compare our results with the geostationary orbit. Our results suggest that under certain conditions GOES data can be used to predict fluxes at the core of the radiation belt and vice-versa.

  13. On the interactions between energetic electrons and lightning whistler waves observed at high L-shells on Van Allen Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, H.; Holzworth, R. H., II; Brundell, J. B.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Jacobson, A. R.; Fennell, J. F.; Li, J.

    2017-12-01

    Lightning produces strong broadband radio waves, called "sferics", which propagate in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide and are detected thousands of kilometers away from their source. Global real-time detection of lightning strokes including their time, location and energy, is conducted with the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN). In the ionosphere, these sferics couple into very low frequency (VLF) whistler waves which propagate obliquely to the Earth's magnetic field. A good match has previously been shown between WWLLN sferics and Van Allen Probes lightning whistler waves. It is well known that lightning whistler waves can modify the distribution of energetic electrons in the Van Allen belts by pitch angle scattering into the loss cone, especially at low L-Shells (referred to as LEP - Lightning-induced Electron Precipitation). It is an open question whether lightning whistler waves play an important role at high L-shells. The possible interactions between energetic electrons and lightning whistler waves at high L-shells are considered to be weak in the past. However, lightning is copious, and weak pitch angle scattering into the drift or bounce loss cone would have a significant influence on the radiation belt populations. In this work, we will analyze the continuous burst mode EMFISIS data from September 2012 to 2016, to find out lightning whistler waves above L = 3. Based on that, MAGEIS data are used to study the related possible wave-particle interactions. In this talk, both case study and statistical analysis results will be presented.

  14. NMR Chemical Shift of a Helium Atom as a Probe for Electronic Structure of FH, F-, (FHF)-, and FH2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupikina, E Yu; Efimova, A A; Denisov, G S; Tolstoy, P M

    2017-12-21

    In this work, we present the first results of outer electronic shell visualization by using a 3 He atom as a probe particle. As model objects we have chosen F - , FH, and FH 2 + species, as well as the hydrogen-bonded complex FH···F - at various H···F - distances (3.0, 2.5, 2.0, and 1.5 Å and equilibrium at ca. 1.14 Å). The interaction energy of investigated objects with helium atom (CCSD/aug-cc-pVTZ) and helium atom chemical shift (B3LYP/pcS-2) surfaces were calculated, and their topological analysis was performed. For comparison, the results of standard quantum mechanical approaches to electronic shell visualization were presented (ESP, ELF, ED, ∇ 2 ED). We show that the Laplacian of helium chemical shift, ∇ 2 δ He , is sensitive to fluorine atom lone pair localization regions, and it can be used for the visualization of the outer electronic shell, which could be used to evaluate the proton accepting ability. The sensitivity of ∇ 2 δ He to lone pairs is preserved at distances as large as 2.0-2.5 Å from the fluorine nucleus (in comparison with the distance to ESP minima, located at 1.0-1.5 Å or maxima of ELF, which are as close as 0.6 Å to the fluorine nucleus).

  15. Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility accommodates a 155mm Howitzer, fired horizontally into a 104-foot long water trough to slow the projectile and recover...

  16. Ballistic Missile Defense and ABM Treaty Limitations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robinson, Brian

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. must critically evaluate our current ballistic missile defense (BMD) strategy. In today's geostrategic context, is it sound strategy to continue to impose 1972 ABM Treaty restrictions on BMD systems development...

  17. Assessment of homogeneity of candidate reference material at the nanogram level and investigation on representativeness of single particle analysis using electron probe X ray microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Chul-Un; Hoornaerta, S.; Griekena, R. van

    2002-01-01

    Particulate samples of a candidate reference material are evaluated on their homogeneity from bottle to bottle using electron probe X ray microanalysis technique. The evaluation on the homogeneity is done by the utilization of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics to the processing of the quantitative electron probe X ray microanalysis data. Due to a limitation, existing even in computer controlled electron probe X ray microanalysis, in terms of analysis time and expenses, the number of particles analyzed is much smaller compared to that in the sample. Therefore, it is investigated whether this technique provides representative analysis results for the characteristics of the sample, even though a very small portion of the sample is really analyzed. Furthermore, the required number of particles for the analysis, to insure a certain level of reproducibility, e.g. 5% relative standard deviation, is determined by the application of the Ingamells sampling theory. (author)

  18. Heat Coulomb blockade of one ballistic channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivre, E.; Anthore, A.; Parmentier, F. D.; Cavanna, A.; Gennser, U.; Ouerghi, A.; Jin, Y.; Pierre, F.

    2018-02-01

    Quantum mechanics and Coulomb interaction dictate the behaviour of small circuits. The thermal implications cover fundamental topics from quantum control of heat to quantum thermodynamics, with prospects of novel thermal machines and an ineluctably growing influence on nanocircuit engineering. Experimentally, the rare observations thus far include the universal thermal conductance quantum and heat interferometry. However, evidence for many-body thermal effects paving the way to markedly different heat and electrical behaviours in quantum circuits remains wanting. Here we report on the observation of the Coulomb blockade of electronic heat flow from a small metallic circuit node, beyond the widespread Wiedemann-Franz law paradigm. We demonstrate this thermal many-body phenomenon for perfect (ballistic) conduction channels to the node, where it amounts to the universal suppression of precisely one quantum of conductance for the transport of heat, but none for electricity. The inter-channel correlations that give rise to such selective heat current reduction emerge from local charge conservation, in the floating node over the full thermal frequency range (laws for thermal transport in nanocircuits.

  19. Incipient crystallization of transition-metal tungstates under microwaves probed by Raman scattering and transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, Kisla P. F.; Dias, Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Microwave synthesis was used to produce nanosized transition-metal tungstates in environmentally friendly conditions not yet reported by the literature: 110 and 150 °C, for times of 10 and 20 min. X-ray diffraction evidenced incipient crystallized materials, while transmission electron microscopy indicates nanostructured regions of about 2–5 nm inside an amorphous matrix. Raman spectroscopy was used to probe short-range ordering in the achieved samples and also to obtain a reliable set of spectra containing all the Raman-active bands predicted by group-theory calculations. The vibrational spectra showed no extra feature, indicating that the microwave processing was able to produce short-range ordered materials without tetrahedral distortions. These distortions are frequently reported when commercially modified kitchen microwave units are employed. In this work, the syntheses were conducted in a commercial apparatus especially designed for fully controlled temperature–time–pressure conditions.

  20. Mobility-electron density relation probed via controlled oxygen vacancy doping in epitaxial BaSnO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koustav Ganguly

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The recently discovered high room temperature mobility in wide band gap semiconducting BaSnO3 is of exceptional interest for perovskite oxide heterostructures. Critical open issues with epitaxial films include determination of the optimal dopant and understanding the mobility-electron density (μ-n relation. These are addressed here through a transport study of BaSnO3(001 films with oxygen vacancy doping controlled via variable temperature vacuum annealing. Room temperature n can be tuned from 5 × 1019 cm−3 to as low as 2 × 1017 cm−3, which is shown to drive a weak- to strong-localization transition, a 104-fold increase in resistivity, and a factor of 28 change in μ. The data reveal μ ∝ n0.65 scaling over the entire n range probed, important information for understanding mobility-limiting scattering mechanisms.

  1. Structure and orbital ordering of ultrathin LaVO{sub 3} probed by atomic resolution electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindfors-Vrejoiu, Ionela; Engelmayer, Johannes; Loosdrecht, Paul H.M. van [II. Physikalisches Institut, Koeln Univ. (Germany); Jin, Lei; Jia, Chun-Lin [Peter Gruenberg Institut (PGI-5) and Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons (ER-C), Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Himcinschi, Cameliu [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany); Hensling, Felix; Waser, Rainer; Dittmann, Regina [Peter Gruenberg Institut (PGI-7), Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    Orbital ordering has been less investigated in epitaxial thin films, due to the difficulty to evidence directly the occurrence of this phenomenon in thin film samples. Atomic resolution electron microscopy enabled us to observe the structural details of the ultrathin LaVO{sub 3} films. The transition to orbital ordering of epitaxial layers as thin as ∼4 nm was probed by temperature-dependent Raman scattering spectroscopy of multilayer samples. From the occurrence and temperature dependence of the 700 cm{sup -1} Raman active mode it can be inferred that the structural phase transition associated with orbital ordering takes place in ultrathin LaVO{sub 3} films at about 130 K. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. An electronic probe micro-analyser. A linear scan device; Microanalyseur a sonde electronique. Dispositif de balayage lineaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirianenko, A; Maurice, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The Castaing electronic probe micro-analyser makes possible static analysis at successive points. For two years this apparatus has been equipped by its constructor with an automatic device for surface scanning. In order to increase the micro-analyser's efficiency a 'linear' scan device has been incorporated making it possible to obtain semi-quantitative analyses very rapidly. (authors) [French] Le microanalyseur a sonde electronique de Castaing permet l'analyse statique en des points successifs. Depuis deux ans, cet appareil a ete equipe par son constructeur d'un dispositif de balayage automatique 'surface'. Afin d'augmenter l'efficacite du microanalyaeur, on a adapte un dispositif de balayage 'lineaire' qui permet d'obtenir tres rapidement des analyses semi-quantitative. (auteurs)

  3. Positron probing of electron momentum density in GaAs-AlAs superlattices and related materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arutyunov, N.Y.; Sekkal, N.

    2008-08-01

    The band structure calculations based on the method proposed by Jaros et al. (Phys. Rev. B 31, 1205 (1985)) have been performed for the defect-free GaAs-AlAs superlattice and related AlAs and GaAs single crystals; the electron-positron momentum density distributions have been computed and analyzed. The results of calculations are in good agreement with the experimental data obtained ad hoc for GaAs and AlAs bulk materials by measuring the angular correlation of the annihilation radiation (ACAR). Small (but marked) features of the electron-positron momentum density of the valence band have been revealed both for constituent materials and GaAs-AlAs superlattice. The delocalization of positron in 'perfect' defect-'free' AlAs and GaAs single crystals to be observed experimentally is borne out by the results of pseudo-potential band calculations performed on the basis of method proposed by Sekkal et al. (Superlattices and Microstructures, 33, 63 (2003)). The prediction of the possibility of a certain confinement of positron in the interstitial area of GaAs- AlAs superlattice is confirmed by the agreement between the results of calculations and relevant experimental data obtained for GaAs and AlAs single crystals. No considerable effect of the enhancement of the annihilation rate (due to electron-positron interaction) upon the electron-positron momentum density distribution both in the superlattice and its constituent bulk materials has been found. The results of ACAR measurements and calculations performed suggest that a tangible improvement of the sensitivity of existing positron annihilation techniques is necessary for studying details of the electron-positron momentum density distributions in defect-'free' superlattices to be created on the basis of the diamond-like semiconductors possessing close values of the electron momentum densities. On the contrary, the positron-sensitive vacancy-type defects of various types in the superlattice may become a source of the

  4. Optical afterburner for an x-ray free electron laser as a tool for pump-probe experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Saldin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new scheme for two-color operation of an x-ray self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser (SASE FEL. The scheme is based on an intrinsic feature of such a device: chaotic modulations of electron beam energy and energy spread on the scale of FEL coherence length are converted into large density modulations on the same scale with the help of a dispersion section, installed behind the x-ray undulator. Powerful radiation is then generated with the help of a dedicated radiator (like an undulator that selects a narrow spectral line, or one can simply use, for instance, broadband edge radiation. A typical radiation wavelength can be as short as a FEL coherence length, and can be redshifted by increasing the dispersion section strength. In practice it means the wavelength ranges from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared. The long-wavelength radiation pulse is naturally synchronized with the x-ray pulse and can be either directly used in pump-probe experiments or cross correlated with a high-power pulse from a conventional laser system. In this way experimenters overcome jitter problems and can perform pump-probe experiments with femtosecond resolution. Additional possibilities like on-line monitoring of x-ray pulse duration (making “optical replica” of an x-ray pulse are also discussed in the paper. The proposed scheme is very simple, cheap, and robust, and therefore can be easily realized in facilities like FLASH, European XFEL, LCLS, and SCSS.

  5. The NMR probe of high-Tc materials and correlated electron systems. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walstedt, Russell E.

    2018-01-01

    This new edition updates readers in three areas of NMR studies, namely, recent developments in high-T c materials, heavy fermion systems and actinide oxides are presented. The NMR probe has yielded a vast array of data for solid state materials, corresponding to different compounds, ionic sites, and nuclear species, as well as to a wide variety of experimental conditions. The last two parts of the book are completely new in this edition, while the first part has seen major updates. This edition features the latest developments for high-T c materials, especially the advances in the area of pseudogap studies are reviewed. An in depth overview of heavy fermion systems is presented in the second part, notably Kondo lattices, quantum critical points and unconventional superconductivity are areas of intense research recently and are covered extensively. Finally, valuable information from NMR studies with actinide oxides will be provided. Ongoing analysis and discussion of NMR data have resulted in a wealth of important insights into the physics of these exotic systems. The aims of this monograph are manifold. First, it reviews NMR methodology as it has been applied to the different studies. This is addressed to NMR practitioners and to physics laypersons alike. Next, it presents a review of NMR measurements and the wide variety of phenomena which they represent. The third phase is to recount the theoretical model calculations and other proposals which have been put forward to account for these data.

  6. The NMR probe of high-Tc materials and correlated electron systems

    CERN Document Server

    Walstedt, Russell E

    2018-01-01

    This new edition updates readers in three areas of NMR studies, namely, recent developments in high-Tc materials, heavy fermion systems and actinide oxides are presented.  The NMR probe has yielded a vast array of data for solid state materials, corresponding to different compounds, ionic sites, and nuclear species, as well as to a wide variety of experimental conditions. The last two parts of the book are completely new in this edition, while the first part has seen major updates. This edition features the latest developments for high-Tc materials, especially the advances in the area of pseudogap studies are reviewed.  An in depth overview of heavy fermion systems is presented in the second part,  notably Kondo lattices, quantum critical points and unconventional superconductivity are areas of intense research recently and are covered extensively. Finally, valuable information from NMR studies with actinide oxides will be provided. Ongoing analysis and discussion of NMR data have resulted in a wealth o...

  7. The NMR probe of high-T{sub c} materials and correlated electron systems. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walstedt, Russell E. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2018-03-01

    This new edition updates readers in three areas of NMR studies, namely, recent developments in high-T{sub c} materials, heavy fermion systems and actinide oxides are presented. The NMR probe has yielded a vast array of data for solid state materials, corresponding to different compounds, ionic sites, and nuclear species, as well as to a wide variety of experimental conditions. The last two parts of the book are completely new in this edition, while the first part has seen major updates. This edition features the latest developments for high-T{sub c} materials, especially the advances in the area of pseudogap studies are reviewed. An in depth overview of heavy fermion systems is presented in the second part, notably Kondo lattices, quantum critical points and unconventional superconductivity are areas of intense research recently and are covered extensively. Finally, valuable information from NMR studies with actinide oxides will be provided. Ongoing analysis and discussion of NMR data have resulted in a wealth of important insights into the physics of these exotic systems. The aims of this monograph are manifold. First, it reviews NMR methodology as it has been applied to the different studies. This is addressed to NMR practitioners and to physics laypersons alike. Next, it presents a review of NMR measurements and the wide variety of phenomena which they represent. The third phase is to recount the theoretical model calculations and other proposals which have been put forward to account for these data.

  8. Electron probe micro-analysis of gas bubbles in solids: a novel approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verwerft, M.; Vos, B.

    1999-01-01

    The local analysis of retained noble gas in nuclear fuel is inherently difficult since the physical form under which it is stored varies from atomically dispersed to bubbles with a diameter of several hundreds of nanometers. One of the techniques that has been applied since pore than twenty years is EPMA. Although many important results have been obtained with this technique, its application to the analysis of highly inhomogeneous materials is limited. The EPMA technique is indeed difficult to apply to samples that are not homogeneous on the scale of the electron-solid interaction volume. The paper discusses the development of a method to analyse a system of as bubbles distributed in a solid matrix. This method has been based on a multiple voltage EPMA measurement combined with a scanning Electron Microscopic analysis of the bubble size distribution

  9. Hybridized electronic states in potassium-doped picene probed by soft x-ray spectroscopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Yamane

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The electronic structure of the unoccupied and occupied states of potassium (K-doped and undoped picene crystalline films has been investigated by using the element-selective and bulk-sensitive photon-detection methods of X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies. We observed the formation of the doping-induced unoccupied and occupied electronic states in K-doped picene. By applying the inner-shell resonant-excitation experiments, we observed the evidence for the orbital hybridization between K and picene near the Fermi energy. Furthermore, the resonant X-ray emission experiment suggests the presence of the Raman-active vibronic interaction in K-doped picene. These experimental evidences play a crucial role in the superconductivity of K-doped picene.

  10. Probing the electronic structure of liquid water with many-body perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tuan Anh; Zhang, Cui; Schwegler, Eric; Galli, Giulia

    2014-03-01

    We present a first-principles investigation of the electronic structure of liquid water based on many-body perturbation theory (MBPT), within the G0W0 approximation. The liquid quasiparticle band gap and the position of its valence band maximum and conduction band minimum with respect to vacuum were computed and it is shown that the use of MBPT is crucial to obtain results that are in good agreement with experiment. We found that the level of theory chosen to generate molecular dynamics trajectories may substantially affect the electronic structure of the liquid, in particular, the relative position of its band edges and redox potentials. Our results represent an essential step in establishing a predictive framework for computing the relative position of water redox potentials and the band edges of semiconductors and insulators. Work supported by DOE/BES (Grant No. DE-SC0008938). Work at LLNL was performed under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  11. Lattice Location of Radioactive Probes in Semiconductors and Metals by Electron and Positron Channelling

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The channelling effect of decay-electrons and positrons is used for the localization of radioactive impurities implanted into single crystals. Because of the low implantation doses and the variety of different isotopes available at ISOLDE, this technique is especially suited for applications in semiconducting materials. \\\\ \\\\ Channelling measurements in Si, GaAs and GaP implanted with In-, Cd- and Xe-isotopes have demonstrated that impurity lattice sites can be studied directly after implantation without any annealing. The electron-channelling technique can be ideally combined with hyperfine interaction techniques like Moessbauer s This was shown for the formation of In-vacancy complexes in ion-implanted Ni. \\\\ \\\\ We intend to continue the lattice location measurements in semiconductors implanted with various radioactive impurities of Cd, In, Sn, Sb and Te.

  12. Detection of defects in electron-irradiated synthetic silica quartz probed by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watauchi, Satoshi; Uedono, Akira; Ujihira, Yusuke; Yoda, Osamu.

    1994-01-01

    Defects in amorphous SiO 2 films, formed on MOS(metal/oxide/semiconductor) devices as gates, perturb its operation. The positron annihilation techniques, were applied to the study of the annealing behavior of the defects, introduced in the high purity synthetic quartz glass by the irradiation of 3-MeV electrons up to the 1x10 18 e - /cm 2 dosage. It was proved that the positron annihilation techniques were sufficiently sensitive to detect the defects in the electron-irradiated silica glasses. Three types of open-space defects were detected by the positron lifetime measurements. These can be attributed to monovacancy or divacancy type defects, vacancy clusters, and open-volume defects. A high formation probability (∼90%) of positroniums(Ps) was found in unirradiated specimens. These Ps were considered to be formed in open-volume defects. The formation probability of Ps was drastically decreased by the electron irradiation. But the size of open-volume defects was kept unchanged by the irradiation. These facts suggest that vacancy-type defects were introduced by the electron irradiation and that positrons were trapped in these defects. By the isochronal annealing in nitrogen atmosphere, the lifetime component (τ 2 ) and its relative intensity (I 2 ), attributed to positrons trapped in monovacancy or divacancy type defects and annihilated there, changed remarkably. τ 2 was constant in the temperature range up to 300degC, getting slightly shorter between 300degC and 700degC, and constant above 700degC. I 2 decreased gradually up to 300degC, constant between 300degC and 550degC, decreased above 550degC, and constant above 700degC. This revealed that the behavior of the defects, in which positrons were trapped, change by the elevation of the annealing temperature. (author)

  13. Tunnel probes for measurements of the electron and ion temperature in fusion plasmas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gunn, J. P.; Schrittwieser, R.; Balan, P.; Ionita, C.; Stöckel, Jan; Adámek, Jiří; Ďuran, Ivan; Hron, Martin; Pánek, Radomír; Bařina, O.; Hrach, R.; Vicher, M.; Van Oost, G.; Van Rompuy, T.; Martines, E.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 10 (2004), s. 4328-4330 ISSN 0034-6748. [Topical Conference on High-Temperature Plasma Diagnostics/15th./. San Diego, 19.04.2004-22.04.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/03/0786 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : Tokamak * electron temperature * ion temperature * plasma diagnostics Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.226, year: 2004

  14. Note: A scanning electron microscope sample holder for bidirectional characterization of atomic force microscope probe tips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenstein, Alon; Goh, M. Cynthia [Department of Chemistry and Institute for Optical Sciences, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto M5S 3H6 (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    A novel sample holder that enables atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips to be mounted inside a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for the purpose of characterizing the AFM tips is described. The holder provides quick and easy handling of tips by using a spring clip to hold them in place. The holder can accommodate two tips simultaneously in two perpendicular orientations, allowing both top and side view imaging of the tips by the SEM.

  15. Directed evolution of the periodic table: probing the electronic structure of late actinides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, M L; Albrecht-Schmitt, T E

    2017-07-25

    Recent investigations of the coordination chemistry and physical properties of berkelium (Z = 97) and californium (Z = 98) have revealed fundamental differences between post-curium elements and lighter members of the actinide series. This review highlights these developments and chronicles key findings and concepts from the last half-century that have helped usher in a new understanding of the evolution of electronic structure in the periodic table.

  16. Probing mesoscopic crystals with electrons: One-step simultaneous inelastic and elastic scattering theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarov, Vladimir U.; Silkin, Vyacheslav M.; Krasovskii, Eugene E.

    2017-12-01

    Inelastic scattering of the medium-energy (˜10 -100 eV) electrons underlies the method of the high-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (HREELS), which has been successfully used for decades to characterize pure and adsorbate-covered surfaces of solids. With the emergence of graphene and other quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) crystals, HREELS could be expected to become the major experimental tool to study this class of materials. We, however, identify a critical flaw in the theoretical picture of the HREELS of Q2D crystals in the context of the inelastic scattering only ("energy-loss functions" formalism), in contrast to its justifiable use for bulk solids and surfaces. The shortcoming is the neglect of the elastic scattering, which we show is inseparable from the inelastic one, and which, affecting the spectra dramatically, must be taken into account for the meaningful interpretation of the experiment. With this motivation, using the time-dependent density functional theory for excitations, we build a theory of the simultaneous inelastic and elastic electron scattering at Q2D crystals. We apply this theory to HREELS of graphene, revealing an effect of the strongly coupled excitation of the π +σ plasmon and elastic diffraction resonances. Our results open a path to the theoretically interpretable study of the excitation processes in crystalline mesoscopic materials by means of HREELS, with its supreme resolution on the meV energy scale, which is far beyond the capacity of the now overwhelmingly used EELS in transmission electron microscopy.

  17. Reaction (γ,2e) and (e,3e) as probe of electron correlation in atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Cross sections of the (γ,2e) and (e,3e) reactions contain information about the two vacancy-energy spectrum and electron-pair correlations in initial and final states of the target atom. Physical pictures of these processes are presented for two- and many-electron atoms. The simplest mechanisms are discussed, demonstrating some features which await experimental confirmation. Attention is given to high photon energy and the relativistic energy region of these reactions. The energy distribution of outgoing relativistic electrons is qualitatively different from the nonrelativistic case. The origin and types of corrections to the simplest mechanisms, and possible means of their detection, are discussed. In addition, the role of different resonances: shape, giant, autoionizational, and Feshbach-type are considered. Results of calculations are compared with experimental data, mainly on double photoionization cross sections. Different possible objects as targets for the reactions are considered, including negative ions, excited atoms, molecules, and clusters. The modification of these reactions due to photon emission is discussed. The future of the domain is outlined

  18. Reactions (γ,2e) and (e,3e) as probes of electronic correlations in atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.

    1993-01-01

    Cross sections of the (γ,2e) and (e,3e) reactions carry information on two vacancy energy spectrum and on electron pair correlations in initial and final states of the target atom. Physical pictures of these processes are presented for two- and many-electron atoms. Simplest mechanisms of them are discussed, demonstrating some features which are waiting for experimental confirmation. Attention is given to high photon energy and even to relativistic energy region of these reactions. The energy distribution of outgoing relativistic electrons is qualitatively different from what it is for the nonrelativistic case. Origin and types of corrections to the simplest mechanisms and possible means of their detection are discussed. Role of different resonances: shape, giant, autoionizational, and Feschbach-type are considered. Results of calculations are compared with experimental data, mainly on double photoionization cross sections. Different possible objects as targets for the reactions are mentioned, including negative ions, excited atoms, molecules and clusters. Modification of the type of these reactions due to rather probable emission of the photon is discussed. Future of the domain is outlined. (orig.)

  19. Characteristics of electron-ion whistlers and their application to ionospheric probing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.N.; Tiwari, S.; Tolpadi, S.K.

    1976-01-01

    In this communication the effect of ion temperature on the propagation of electron-ion whistlers in the ionosphere is investigated. A general expression including the effect of ion temperature is derived for the group travel time for the electron-ion whistler as it travels from the base of the ionosphere to the satellite. A study of the dependence of the group travel time for the proton whislters. Further, from the expression for the group travel time including the effect of the ion temperature in conjunction with the generalized dispersion relation a relation for the cyclotron damping rate (both temporal and spatial) has been obtained. A detailed study if the cyclotron damping rate with travel time and ion temperature leads to the conclusion that the observed amplitude cutoff characteristics for the proton whistler can be explained on the basis of the mechanism of cyclotron damping. It is also shown that the knowledge of the group travel time of an electron-ion whistler can be used to estimate the ion temperature at the satellite

  20. Magnetic electron focusing and tuning of the electron current with a pn-junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milovanović, S. P., E-mail: slavisa.milovanovic@uantwerpen.be; Ramezani Masir, M., E-mail: mrmphys@gmail.com; Peeters, F. M., E-mail: francois.peeters@uantwerpen.be [Departement Fysica, Universiteit Antwerpen, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2014-01-28

    Transverse magnetic focusing properties of graphene using a ballistic four terminal structure are investigated. The electric response is obtained using the semiclassical billiard model. The transmission exhibits pronounced peaks as a consequence of skipping orbits at the edge of the structure. When we add a pn-junction between the two probes, snake states along the pn-interface appear. Injected electrons are guided by the pn-interface to one of the leads depending on the value of the applied magnetic field. Oscillations in the resistance are found depending on the amount of particles that end up in each lead.

  1. Electron transfer driven decomposition of adenine and selected analogs as probed by experimental and theoretical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, T.; Mendes, M.; Ferreira da Silva, F.; Eden, S.; García, G.; Bacchus-Montabonel, M.-C.; Limão-Vieira, P.

    2018-04-01

    We report on a combined experimental and theoretical study of electron-transfer-induced decomposition of adenine (Ad) and a selection of analog molecules in collisions with potassium (K) atoms. Time-of-flight negative ion mass spectra have been obtained in a wide collision energy range (6-68 eV in the centre-of-mass frame), providing a comprehensive investigation of the fragmentation patterns of purine (Pu), adenine (Ad), 9-methyl adenine (9-mAd), 6-dimethyl adenine (6-dimAd), and 2-D adenine (2-DAd). Following our recent communication about selective hydrogen loss from the transient negative ions (TNIs) produced in these collisions [T. Cunha et al., J. Chem. Phys. 148, 021101 (2018)], this work focuses on the production of smaller fragment anions. In the low-energy part of the present range, several dissociation channels that are accessible in free electron attachment experiments are absent from the present mass spectra, notably NH2 loss from adenine and 9-methyl adenine. This can be understood in terms of a relatively long transit time of the K+ cation in the vicinity of the TNI tending to enhance the likelihood of intramolecular electron transfer. In this case, the excess energy can be redistributed through the available degrees of freedom inhibiting fragmentation pathways. Ab initio theoretical calculations were performed for 9-methyl adenine (9-mAd) and adenine (Ad) in the presence of a potassium atom and provided a strong basis for the assignment of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals accessed in the collision process.

  2. Probing new physics in the neutrinoless double beta decay using electron angular correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Borisov, A.V.; Zhuridov, D.V. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Faculty of Physics

    2007-06-15

    The angular correlation of the electrons emitted in the neutrinoless double beta decay (0{nu}2{beta}) is presented using a general Lorentz invariant effective Lagrangian for the leptonic and hadronic charged weak currents. We show that the coefficient K in the angular correlation d{gamma}/dcos {theta} {proportional_to}(1-K cos {theta}) is essentially independent of the nuclear matrix element models and present its numerical values for the five nuclei of interest ({sup 76}Ge, {sup 82}Se, {sup 100}Mo, {sup 130}Te, and {sup 136}Xe), assuming that the 0{nu}2{beta}-decays in these nuclei are induced solely by a light Majorana neutrino, {nu}{sub M}. This coefficient varies between K=0.82 (for the {sup 76}Ge nucleus) and K=0.88 (for the {sup 82}Se and {sup 100}Mo nuclei), calculated taking into account the effects from the nucleon recoil, the S and P-waves for the outgoing electrons and the electron mass. Deviation of K from its values derived here would indicate the presence of New Physics (NP) in addition to a light Majorana neutrino, and we work out the angular coefficients in several {nu}{sub M}+NP scenarios for the {sup 76}Ge nucleus. As an illustration of the correlations among the 0{nu}2{beta} observables (half-life T{sub 1/2}, the coefficient K, and the effective Majorana neutrino mass vertical stroke left angle m right angle vertical stroke) and the parameters of the underlying NP model, we analyze the left-right symmetric models, taking into account current phenomenological bounds on the right-handed W{sub R}-boson mass and the left-right mixing parameter {zeta}. (orig.)

  3. Proton probe measurement of fast advection of magnetic fields by hot electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willingale, L; Thomas, A G R; Nilson, P M; Kaluza, M C; Dangor, A E; Evans, R G; Fernandes, P; Haines, M G; Kamperidis, C; Kingham, R J; Ridgers, C P; Sherlock, M; Wei, M S; Najmudin, Z; Krushelnick, K; Bandyopadhyay, S; Notley, M; Minardi, S; Rozmus, W; Tatarakis, M

    2011-01-01

    A laser generated proton beam was used to measure the megagauss strength self-generated magnetic fields from a nanosecond laser interaction with an aluminum target. At intensities of 10 15 W cm −2 , the significant hot electron production and strong heat fluxes result in non-local transport becoming important to describe the magnetic field dynamics. Two-dimensional implicit Vlasov–Fokker–Planck modeling shows that fast advection of the magnetic field from the focal region occurs via the Nernst effect at significantly higher velocities than the sound speed, v N /c s ≈ 10.

  4. EPR probes with well-defined, long distances between two or three unpaired electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godt; Franzen; Veit; Enkelmann; Pannier; Jeschke

    2000-11-03

    The synthesis of rod- and star-shaped compounds carrying two or three spin labels as end groups is described. The unpaired electrons are 2.8-5.1 nm apart from each other. The shape-persistent scaffolds were obtained through Pd-Cu-catalyzed alkynyl-aryl coupling and Pd-Cu-catalyzed alkyne dimerization in the presence of oxygen using p-phenyleneethynylene as the basic shape-persistent building block. The spin label 1-oxyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrroline-3-carboxylic acid (4) was attached through esterification of the terminal phenolic OH groups of the scaffold.

  5. Observations Directly Linking Relativistic Electron Microbursts to Whistler Mode Chorus: Van Allen Probes and FIREBIRD II

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Breneman, A. W.; Crew, A.; Sample, J.; Klumpar, D.; Johnson, A.; Agapitov, O.; Shumko, M.; Turner, D. L.; Santolík, Ondřej; Wygant, J. R.; Cattell, C. A.; Thaller, S. A.; Blake, B.; Spence, H.; Kletzing, C. A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 22 (2017), s. 11265-11272 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-07027S Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1401 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : VLF-CHORUS * RADIATION BELT * ZONE ELECTRONS * SOURCE REGION * AURORAL-ZONE * GEM STORMS * PRECIPITATION * ASSOCIATION * RESOLUTION * EMISSIONS Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 4.253, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017GL075001/epdf

  6. Hierarchy of Electronic Properties of Chemically Derived and Pristine Graphene Probed by Microwave Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Kundhikanjana, Worasom

    2009-11-11

    Local electrical imaging using microwave impedance microscope is performed on graphene in different modalities, yielding a rich hierarchy of the local conductivity. The low-conductivity graphite oxide and its derivatives show significant electronic inhomogeneity. For the conductive chemical graphene, the residual defects lead to a systematic reduction of the microwave signals. In contrast, the signals on pristine graphene agree well with a lumped-element circuit model. The local impedance information can also be used to verify the electrical contact between overlapped graphene pieces. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  7. Nuclear moments as a probe of electronic structure in material, exotic nuclear structure and fundamental symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuta, K., E-mail: matsuta@vg.phys.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp; Minamisono, T.; Mihara, M.; Fukuda, M. [Osaka Univ., Dept. of Physics (Japan); Zhu, Shengyun [CIAE (China); Masuda, Y. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) (Japan); Hatanaka, K. [Osaka Univ., RCNP (Japan); Yuan Daqing; Zheng Yongnan; Zuo Yi; Fang Ping; Zhou Dongmei [CIAE (China); Ohtsubo, T. [Niigata Univ., Dept. of Physics (Japan); Izumikawa, T. [Niigata Univ., RI Center (Japan); Momota, S. [Kochi Univ. of Technology (Japan); Nishimura, D. [Tokyo Univ. of Science (Japan); Matsumiya, R. [Osaka Univ., RCNP (Japan); Kitagawa, A.; Sato, S.; Kanazawa, M. [Nat. Inst. Radiological Sciences (Japan); Collaboration: Osaka-CIAE-NIRS-Niigata-Kochi-LBL Collaboration; and others

    2013-05-15

    We report our studies in various fields of Physics through nuclear moments utilizing the {beta}-NMR technique, including material sciences, nuclear structures and fundamental symmetries. Especially, we focus on the recent progress in the studies on the electronic structure in Pt through Knight shifts of various impurities, lattice locations of impurities, electric field gradients, the analysis of nuclear spin in terms of its components, anomaly in the spin expectation value for {sup 9}C-{sup 9}Li mirror pair, the G-parity conservation law, and the Ramsey resonance on UCN for future neutron EDM measurements.

  8. Probing Nuclear Spin Effects on Electronic Spin Coherence via EPR Measurements of Vanadium(IV) Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Michael J; Krzyaniak, Matthew D; Wasielewski, Michael R; Freedman, Danna E

    2017-07-17

    Quantum information processing (QIP) has the potential to transform numerous fields from cryptography, to finance, to the simulation of quantum systems. A promising implementation of QIP employs unpaired electronic spins as qubits, the fundamental units of information. Though molecular electronic spins offer many advantages, including chemical tunability and facile addressability, the development of design principles for the synthesis of complexes that exhibit long qubit superposition lifetimes (also known as coherence times, or T 2 ) remains a challenge. As nuclear spins in the local qubit environment are a primary cause of shortened superposition lifetimes, we recently conducted a study which employed a modular spin-free ligand scaffold to place a spin-laden propyl moiety at a series of fixed distances from an S = 1 / 2 vanadium(IV) ion in a series of vanadyl complexes. We found that, within a radius of 4.0(4)-6.6(6) Å from the metal center, nuclei did not contribute to decoherence. To assess the generality of this important design principle and test its efficacy in a different coordination geometry, we synthesized and investigated three vanadium tris(dithiolene) complexes with the same ligand set employed in our previous study: K 2 [V(C 5 H 6 S 4 ) 3 ] (1), K 2 [V(C 7 H 6 S 6 ) 3 ] (2), and K 2 [V(C 9 H 6 S 8 ) 3 ] (3). We specifically interrogated solutions of these complexes in DMF-d 7 /toluene-d 8 with pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and electron nuclear double resonance spectroscopy and found that the distance dependence present in the previously synthesized vanadyl complexes holds true in this series. We further examined the coherence properties of the series in a different solvent, MeCN-d 3 /toluene-d 8 , and found that an additional property, the charge density of the complex, also affects decoherence across the series. These results highlight a previously unknown design principle for augmenting T 2 and open new pathways for the

  9. Probing hot-electron effects in wide area plasmonic surfaces using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayas, Sencer; Cupallari, Andi; Dana, Aykutlu, E-mail: aykutlu@unam.bilkent.edu.tr [UNAM Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-12-01

    Plasmon enhanced hot carrier formation in metallic nanostructures increasingly attracts attention due to potential applications in photodetection, photocatalysis, and solar energy conversion. Here, hot-electron effects in nanoscale metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures are investigated using a non-contact X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy based technique using continuous wave X-ray and laser excitations. The effects are observed through shifts of the binding energy of the top metal layer upon excitation with lasers of 445, 532, and 650 nm wavelength. The shifts are polarization dependent for plasmonic MIM grating structures fabricated by electron beam lithography. Wide area plasmonic MIM surfaces fabricated using a lithography free route by the dewetting of evaporated Ag on HfO{sub 2} exhibit polarization independent optical absorption and surface photovoltage. Using a simple model and making several assumptions about the magnitude of the photoemission current, the responsivity and external quantum efficiency of wide area plasmonic MIM surfaces are estimated as 500 nA/W and 11 × 10{sup −6} for 445 nm illumination.

  10. Electron phonon couplings in 2D perovskite probed by ultrafast photoinduced absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Uyen; Ni, Limeng; Rao, Akshay

    We use the time-resolved photoinduced absorption (PIA) spectroscopy with 20fs time resolution to investigate the electron phonon coupling in the self-assembled hybrid organic layered perovskite, the hexyl ammonium lead iodide compound (C6H13NH3)2 (PbI4) . The coupling results in the broadening and asymmetry of its temperature-dependence photoluminescence spectra. The exact time scale of this coupling, however, wasn't reported experimentally. Here we show that using an ultrashort excitation pulse allows us to resolve from PIA kinetics the oscillation of coherent longitudinal optical phonons that relaxes and self-traps electrons to lower energy states within 200 fs. The 200fs relaxation time is equivalent to a coupling strength of 40meV. Two coupled phonon modes are also identified as about 100 cm-1 and 300 cm-1 from the FFT spectrum of the PIA kinetics. The lower energy mode is consistent with previous reports and Raman spectrum but the higher energy one hasn't been observed before.

  11. How to probe transverse magnetic anisotropy of a single-molecule magnet by electronic transport?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiorny, M.; Burzuri, E.; Gaudenzi, R.; Park, K.; Leijnse, M.; Wegewijs, M.; Paaske, J.; Cornia, A.; van der Zant, H.

    We propose an approach for in-situ determination of the transverse magnetic anisotropy (TMA) of an individual molecule by electronic transport measurements, see Phys. Rev. B 91, 035442 (2015). We study a Fe4 single-molecule magnet (SMM) captured in a gateable junction, a unique tool for addressing the spin in different redox states of a molecule. We show that, due to mixing of the spin eigenstates of the SMM, the TMA significantly manifests itself in transport. We predict and experimentally observe the pronounced intensity modulation of the Coulomb peak amplitude with the magnetic field in the linear-response transport regime, from which the TMA parameter E can be estimated. Importantly, the method proposed here does not rely on the small induced tunnelling effects and, hence, works well at temperatures and electron tunnel broadenings by far exceeding the tunnel splittings and even E itself. We deduce that the TMA for a single Fe4 molecule captured in a junction is substantially larger than the bulk value. Work supported by the Polish Ministry of Science and Education as `Iuventus Plus' project (IP2014 030973) in years 2015-2016.

  12. Ultra-fast pump-probe determination of electron-phonon coupling in cuprate superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailovic, Dragan

    2010-03-01

    Fresh femtosecond spectroscopy experiments show the electron-phonon interaction strength λ to be 0.7 and 1.4 for YBCO and LSCO respectively and not around 0.2 as previously reported [1]. The revised estimates arise primarily from improved time-resolution, and also partly from improved modeling. Comparison with classical superconductors and pnictides shows non-monotonic correlation of λ with Tc. Systematic new measurements of the condensate vaporization energy (Uv) in cuprates [2] and pnictides reveals a power-law dependence on Tc with exponent 2. However, Uc is 16-18 times greater than the BCS condensation energy Uc, implying that a significant heat capacity of the ``bosonic glue.'' In contrast, charge-density wave systems with electronically driven ordering transitions have Uv˜Uc. The data suggest BCS and Eliashberg-based models to be inappropriate for describing the physics of high-temperature superconductors, and point towards polaron models which consider strong or intermediate λ.[4pt] [1] C.Gadermeier et al., arXiv:0902.1636[0pt] [2] P.Kusar et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 227001 (2008)

  13. Probe specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laget, J.M.

    1986-11-01

    Specificity and complementarity of hadron and electron probes must be systematically developed to answer three questions currently asked in intermediate energy nuclear physics: what is nucleus structure at short distances, what is nature of short range correlations, what is three body force nature [fr

  14. Vibrational Properties of h-BN and h-BN-Graphene Heterostructures Probed by Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Suyong; Park, Minkyu; Park, Jaesung; Jeong, Tae-Young; Kim, Ho-Jong; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Ha, Dong Han; Hwang, Chanyong; Kim, Yong-Sung

    2015-11-13

    Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy is a powerful technique for investigating lattice dynamics of nanoscale systems including graphene and small molecules, but establishing a stable tunnel junction is considered as a major hurdle in expanding the scope of tunneling experiments. Hexagonal boron nitride is a pivotal component in two-dimensional Van der Waals heterostructures as a high-quality insulating material due to its large energy gap and chemical-mechanical stability. Here we present planar graphene/h-BN-heterostructure tunneling devices utilizing thin h-BN as a tunneling insulator. With much improved h-BN-tunneling-junction stability, we are able to probe all possible phonon modes of h-BN and graphite/graphene at Γ and K high symmetry points by inelastic tunneling spectroscopy. Additionally, we observe that low-frequency out-of-plane vibrations of h-BN and graphene lattices are significantly modified at heterostructure interfaces. Equipped with an external back gate, we can also detect high-order coupling phenomena between phonons and plasmons, demonstrating that h-BN-based tunneling device is a wonderful playground for investigating electron-phonon couplings in low-dimensional systems.

  15. Electromagnetic probes of molecular motors in the electron transport chains of mitochondria and chloroplasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. H., Jr.; Nawarathna, D.; Vajrala, V.; Gardner, J.; Widger, W. R.

    2005-12-01

    We report on measurements of harmonics generated by whole cells, mitochondria, and chloroplasts in response to applied sinusoidal electric fields. The frequency- and amplitude-dependence of the induced harmonics exhibit features that correlate with physiological processes. Budding yeast (S. cerevisiae) cells produce numerous harmonics, the amplitudes of which depend strongly on frequency. When the second or third harmonic amplitude is plotted vs. applied frequency, we observe two peaks, around 3 kHz and 12 kHz, which are suppressed by respiratory inhibitors. We observe similar peaks when measuring the harmonic response of B. indicas, a relative of the mitochondrial ancestor. In uncoupled mitochondria, in which most of the electron transport chain is active but the ATP-synthase molecular turbine is inactive, only one (lower frequency) of the two peaks is present. Finally, we find that harmonics generated by chloroplasts depend dramatically on incident light, and vanish in the absence of light.

  16. Decontamination in the Electron Probe Microanalysis with a Peltier-Cooled Cold Finger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buse, Ben; Kearns, Stuart; Clapham, Charles; Hawley, Donovan

    2016-10-01

    A prototype Peltier thermoelectric cooling unit has been constructed to cool a cold finger on an electron microprobe. The Peltier unit was tested at 15 and 96 W, achieving cold finger temperatures of -10 and -27°C, respectively. The Peltier unit did not adversely affect the analytical stability of the instrument. Heat conduction between the Peltier unit mounted outside the vacuum and the cold finger was found to be very efficient. Under Peltier cooling, the vacuum improvement associated with water vapor deposition was not achieved; this has the advantage of avoiding severe degradation of the vacuum observed when warming up a cold finger from liquid nitrogen (LN2) temperatures. Carbon contamination rates were reduced as cooling commenced; by -27°C contamination rates were found to be comparable with LN2-cooled devices. Peltier cooling, therefore, provides a viable alternative to LN2-cooled cold fingers, with few of their associated disadvantages.

  17. Probing the local environment of a single OPE3 molecule using inelastic tunneling electron spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisenda, Riccardo; Perrin, Mickael L; van der Zant, Herre S J

    2015-01-01

    We study single-molecule oligo(phenylene ethynylene)dithiol junctions by means of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS). The molecule is contacted with gold nano-electrodes formed with the mechanically controllable break junction technique. We record the IETS spectrum of the molecule from direct current measurements, both as a function of time and electrode separation. We find that for fixed electrode separation the molecule switches between various configurations, which are characterized by different IETS spectra. Similar variations in the IETS signal are observed during atomic rearrangements upon stretching of the molecular junction. Using quantum chemistry calculations, we identity some of the vibrational modes which constitute a chemical fingerprint of the molecule. In addition, changes can be attributed to rearrangements of the local molecular environment, in particular at the molecule-electrode interface. This study shows the importance of taking into account the interaction with the electrodes when describing inelastic contributions to transport through single-molecule junctions.

  18. $^{80m}$Br/$^{80}$Br a new electron-$\\gamma$ - PAC Probe

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, J G; Araújo, J P; Marques, J G; Soares, J C; Melo, A A

    2001-01-01

    Conversion electron-$\\gamma$ PAC measurements of the 49 keV - 37 keV cascade in $^{80}$Br through the intermediate 2$^{-}$ state with T$_{1/2}$=7.4 ns were performed with a system of two magnetic lens spectrometers and two BaF$_{2}$ scintillation detectors. The parent $^{80m}$Br activity with half-life of 4.4 hrs was implanted into Ni, Zn and graphite at the ISOLDE separator at CERN. The observed interaction frequency in the nickel matrix is in good agreement with the known value of the hyperfine field for Br in Ni and the magnetic moment of the 2$^{-}$ state. From the measured quadrupole interaction in Zn and graphite the electric field gradients at Br were obtained.

  19. $^{80}$Br $^{80}$Br-a new electron-gamma PAC probe

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, J G; Araújo, J P; Marques, J G; Soares, J C; Melo, A A

    2001-01-01

    Conversion electron-gamma PAC measurements of the 49-37 keV cascade in /sup 80/Br through the intermediate 2/sup -/ state with T/sub 1/2 /=7.4 ns were performed with a system of two magnetic lens spectrometers and two BaF/sub 2/ scintillation detectors. The parent /sup 80m/Br activity with a halflife of 4.4 hrs was implanted into Ni, Zn and graphite at the ISOLDE separator at CERN. The observed interaction frequency in the nickel matrix is in good agreement with the known value of the hyperfine field for Br in Ni and the magnetic moment of the 2/sup -/ state. From the measured quadrupole interaction in Zn and graphite the electric field gradients at Br were obtained. (7 refs).

  20. Excitation transfer and trapping kinetics in plant photosystem I probed by two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Parveen; Zhang, Cheng; Liu, Zhengtang; Tan, Howe-Siang; Lambrev, Petar H

    2018-03-01

    Photosystem I is a robust and highly efficient biological solar engine. Its capacity to utilize virtually every absorbed photon's energy in a photochemical reaction generates great interest in the kinetics and mechanisms of excitation energy transfer and charge separation. In this work, we have employed room-temperature coherent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy to follow exciton equilibration and excitation trapping in intact Photosystem I complexes as well as core complexes isolated from Pisum sativum. We performed two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy measurements with low excitation pulse energies to record excited-state kinetics free from singlet-singlet annihilation. Global lifetime analysis resolved energy transfer and trapping lifetimes closely matches the time-correlated single-photon counting data. Exciton energy equilibration in the core antenna occurred on a timescale of 0.5 ps. We further observed spectral equilibration component in the core complex with a 3-4 ps lifetime between the bulk Chl states and a state absorbing at 700 nm. Trapping in the core complex occurred with a 20 ps lifetime, which in the supercomplex split into two lifetimes, 16 ps and 67-75 ps. The experimental data could be modelled with two alternative models resulting in equally good fits-a transfer-to-trap-limited model and a trap-limited model. However, the former model is only possible if the 3-4 ps component is ascribed to equilibration with a "red" core antenna pool absorbing at 700 nm. Conversely, if these low-energy states are identified with the P 700 reaction centre, the transfer-to-trap-model is ruled out in favour of a trap-limited model.

  1. Ballistic calculation of nonequilibrium Green's function in nanoscale devices using finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurniawan, O; Bai, P; Li, E

    2009-01-01

    A ballistic calculation of a full quantum mechanical system is presented to study 2D nanoscale devices. The simulation uses the nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) approach to calculate the transport properties of the devices. While most available software uses the finite difference discretization technique, our work opts to formulate the NEGF calculation using the finite element method (FEM). In calculating a ballistic device, the FEM gives some advantages. In the FEM, the floating boundary condition for ballistic devices is satisfied naturally. This paper gives a detailed finite element formulation of the NEGF calculation applied to a double-gate MOSFET device with a channel length of 10 nm and a body thickness of 3 nm. The potential, electron density, Fermi functions integrated over the transverse energy, local density of states and the transmission coefficient of the device have been studied. We found that the transmission coefficient is significantly affected by the top of the barrier between the source and the channel, which in turn depends on the gate control. This supports the claim that ballistic devices can be modelled by the transport properties at the top of the barrier. Hence, the full quantum mechanical calculation presented here confirms the theory of ballistic transport in nanoscale devices.

  2. A simple Boltzmann transport equation for ballistic to diffusive transient heat transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maassen, Jesse; Lundstrom, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Developing simplified, but accurate, theoretical approaches to treat heat transport on all length and time scales is needed to further enable scientific insight and technology innovation. Using a simplified form of the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE), originally developed for electron transport, we demonstrate how ballistic phonon effects and finite-velocity propagation are easily and naturally captured. We show how this approach compares well to the phonon BTE, and readily handles a full phonon dispersion and energy-dependent mean-free-path. This study of transient heat transport shows (i) how fundamental temperature jumps at the contacts depend simply on the ballistic thermal resistance, (ii) that phonon transport at early times approach the ballistic limit in samples of any length, and (iii) perceived reductions in heat conduction, when ballistic effects are present, originate from reductions in temperature gradient. Importantly, this framework can be recast exactly as the Cattaneo and hyperbolic heat equations, and we discuss how the key to capturing ballistic heat effects is to use the correct physical boundary conditions

  3. Effect of an ultrafast laser induced plasma on a relativistic electron beam to determine temporal overlap in pump–probe experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scoby, Cheyne M., E-mail: scoby@physics.ucla.edu [UCLA Department of Physics, 475 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Li, R.K.; Musumeci, P. [UCLA Department of Physics, 475 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    In this paper we report on a simple and robust method to measure the absolute temporal overlap of the laser and the electron beam at the sample based on the effect of a laser induced plasma on the electron beam transverse distribution, successfully extending a similar method from keV to MeV electron beams. By pumping a standard copper TEM grid to form the plasma, we gain timing information independent of the sample under study. In experiments discussed here the optical delay to achieve temporal overlap between the pump electron beam and probe laser can be determined with ∼1ps precision.

  4. Effect of an ultrafast laser induced plasma on a relativistic electron beam to determine temporal overlap in pump–probe experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoby, Cheyne M.; Li, R.K.; Musumeci, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we report on a simple and robust method to measure the absolute temporal overlap of the laser and the electron beam at the sample based on the effect of a laser induced plasma on the electron beam transverse distribution, successfully extending a similar method from keV to MeV electron beams. By pumping a standard copper TEM grid to form the plasma, we gain timing information independent of the sample under study. In experiments discussed here the optical delay to achieve temporal overlap between the pump electron beam and probe laser can be determined with ∼1ps precision

  5. Projectile penetration into ballistic gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, M V; Kieser, D C; Shah, S; Kieser, J A

    2014-01-01

    Ballistic gelatin is frequently used as a model for soft biological tissues that experience projectile impact. In this paper we investigate the response of a number of gelatin materials to the penetration of spherical steel projectiles (7 to 11mm diameter) with a range of lower impacting velocities (projectile velocity are found to be linear for all systems above a certain threshold velocity required for initiating penetration. The data for a specific material impacted with different diameter spheres were able to be condensed to a single curve when the penetration depth was normalised by the projectile diameter. When the results are compared with a number of predictive relationships available in the literature, it is found that over the range of projectiles and compositions used, the results fit a simple relationship that takes into account the projectile diameter, the threshold velocity for penetration into the gelatin and a value of the shear modulus of the gelatin estimated from the threshold velocity for penetration. The normalised depth is found to fit the elastic Froude number when this is modified to allow for a threshold impact velocity. The normalised penetration data are found to best fit this modified elastic Froude number with a slope of 1/2 instead of 1/3 as suggested by Akers and Belmonte (2006). Possible explanations for this difference are discussed. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Laser-pump/X-ray-probe experiments with electrons ejected from a Cu(111) target: space-charge acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiwietz, G; Kühn, D; Föhlisch, A; Holldack, K; Kachel, T; Pontius, N

    2016-09-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the emission characteristics for electrons induced by X-rays of a few hundred eV at grazing-incidence angles on an atomically clean Cu(111) sample during laser excitation is presented. Electron energy spectra due to intense infrared laser irradiation are investigated at the BESSY II slicing facility. Furthermore, the influence of the corresponding high degree of target excitation (high peak current of photoemission) on the properties of Auger and photoelectrons liberated by a probe X-ray beam is investigated in time-resolved pump and probe measurements. Strong electron energy shifts have been found and assigned to space-charge acceleration. The variation of the shift with laser power and electron energy is investigated and discussed on the basis of experimental as well as new theoretical results.

  7. Probing the spin-orbit Mott state in Sr3Ir2O7 by electron doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Thomas C.

    Iridium-based members of the Ruddlesden-Popper family of oxide compounds are characterized by a unique combination of energetically comparable effects: crystal-field splitting, spin-orbit coupling, and electron-electron interactions are all present, and the combine to produce a Jeff = 1/2 ground state. In the bilayer member of this series, Sr3Ir2O7, this state manifests as electrically insulating, with unpaired Ir4+ spins aligned along the long axis of the unit cell to produce a G-type antiferromagnet with an ordered moment of 0.36 uB. In this work, this Mott state is destabilized by electron doping via La3+ substitution on the Sr-site to produce (Sr1-x Lax)3Ir2O7. The introduction of carriers initially causes nano-scale phase-separated regions to develop before driving a global insulator-to-metal transition at x=0.04. Coinciding with this transition is the disappearance of evidence of magnetic order in the system in either bulk magnetization or magnetic scattering experiments. The doping also enhances a structural order parameter observed in the parent compound at forbidden reciprocal lattice vectors. A more complete structural solution is proposed to account for this previously unresolved distortion, and also offers an explanation as to the anomalous net ferromagnetism seen prior in bulk measurements. Finally, spin dynamics are probed via a resonant x-ray technique to reveal evidence of spin-dimer-like behavior dominated by inter-plane interactions. This result supports a bond-operator treatment of the interaction Hamiltonian, and also explains the doping dependence of high temperature magnetic susceptibility.

  8. Th-U-Pb{sub T} dating by electron probe microanalysis, Part I. Monazite: analytical procedures and data treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlach, Silvio Roberto Farias [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Mineralogia e Geotectonica], e-mail: srfvlach@usp.br

    2010-03-15

    Dating methodology by the electron probe microanalyser (EPMA) of (Th, U)-bearing minerals, highlighting monazite, acquired greater than ever importance in literature, particularly due to its superior spatial resolution, as well as versatility, which allow correlating petrological processes at times registered only in micro-scales in minerals and rocks with absolute ages. Although the accuracy is inferior to the one achieved with conventional isotopic methods in up to an order of magnitude, EPMA is the instrument that allows the best spatial resolution, reaching a few {mu}m{sup 3} in some conditions. Quantification of minor and trace elements with suitable precision and accuracy involves the own instrumental and analytical set-ups and data treatment strategies, significantly more rigorous when compared with those applied in conventional analyses. Th-U-Pb{sub T} dating is an example of these cases. Each EPMA is a unique machine as for its instrumental characteristics and respective automation system. In such a way, analytical procedures ought to be adjusted for laboratory specific cities. The analytical strategies and data treatment adopted in the Electronic Microprobe Laboratory from Instituto de Geociencias of Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil, with a JEOL JXA8600S EPMA, and a ThermoNoran-Voyager 4.3 automation system, are presented and compared with the ones used in other laboratories. The influence of instrumental factors and spectral overlaps on Th, U, and Pb quantification is discussed. Applied procedures to interference correction, error propagation, data treatment, and final chemical age presentation as well as to sampling and analyses are emphasized. Some typical applications are discussed, drawing attention to the most relevant aspects of electron microprobe dating. (author)

  9. Th-U-PbT dating by Electron Probe Microanalysis, Part I. Monazite: analytical procedures and data treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlach, Silvio Roberto Farias

    2010-01-01

    Dating methodology by the electron probe microanalyser (EPMA) of (Th, U)-bearing minerals, highlighting monazite, acquired greater than ever importance in literature, particularly due to its superior spatial resolution, as well as versatility, which allow correlating petrological processes at times registered only in micro-scales in minerals and rocks with absolute ages. Although the accuracy is inferior to the one achieved with conventional isotopic methods in up to an order of magnitude, EPMA is the instrument that allows the best spatial resolution, reaching a few μm 3 in some conditions. Quantification of minor and trace elements with suitable precision and accuracy involves the own instrumental and analytical set-ups and data treatment strategies, significantly more rigorous when compared with those applied in conventional analyses. Th-U-Pb T dating is an example of these cases. Each EPMA is a unique machine as for its instrumental characteristics and respective automation system. In such a way, analytical procedures ought to be adjusted for laboratory specificities. The analytical strategies and data treatment adopted in the Electronic Microprobe Laboratory from Instituto de Geociencias of Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil, with a JEOL JXA8600S EPMA, and a ThermoNoran-Voyager 4.3 automation system, are presented and compared with the ones used in other laboratories. The influence of instrumental factors and spectral overlaps on Th, U, and Pb quantification is discussed. Applied procedures to interference correction, error propagation, data treatment, and fi nal chemical age presentation as well as to sampling and analyses are emphasized. Some typical applications are discussed, drawing attention to the most relevant aspects of electron microprobe dating. (author)

  10. PROBING THE STANDARD MODEL AND NUCLEON STRUCTURE VIA PARITY VIOLATING ELECTRON SCATTERING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humensky, T

    2003-10-28

    Parity-violating electron scattering has developed over the last 25 years into a tool to study both the structure of electroweak interactions and the structure of nucleons. Work on two parity-violation experiments is reported in this thesis. They are the Hall A Proton Parity EXperiment (HAPPEX), which ran at Jefferson Laboratory in 1998-1999, and SLAC E-158, which had its first physics running in 2002. HAPPEX measured the parity-violating asymmetry in elastic e-p scattering at a momentum transfer squared of Q{sup 2} = 0.477 GeV{sup 2} and a scattering angle of 12{sup o}. This asymmetry is sensitive to the presence of strange sea quarks in the proton. In particular, it is sensitive to the proton's strange elastic form factors. An asymmetry of A{sub LR}{sup ep} = -15.05 {+-} 0.98 {+-} 0.56 ppm was measured, where the first error is statistical and the second error is systematic. Combining this asymmetry measurement with existing measurements of the electromagnetic form factors of the proton and neutron allowed HAPPEX to set new constraints on the strange elastic form factors of the proton G{sub E}{sup s} + 0.392G{sub M}{sup s} = 0.025 {+-} 0.020 {+-} 0.014, where G{sub E}{sup s} and G{sub M}{sup s} are the strange electric and magnetic form factors of the proton, respectively. The first error is the quadrature sum of the experimental errors and the second error is due to uncertainty in the electromagnetic form factors. This result is consistent with the absence of a contribution from strange quarks. This thesis reports an analysis of the 1999 data set, with a particular focus on the determination of the raw asymmetry and the corrections to the raw asymmetry to account for helicity-correlated asymmetries in properties of the electron beam.

  11. Spectral mapping of thermal conductivity through nanoscale ballistic transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yongjie; Zeng, Lingping; Minnich, Austin J.; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Chen, Gang

    2015-08-01

    Controlling thermal properties is central to many applications, such as thermoelectric energy conversion and the thermal management of integrated circuits. Progress has been made over the past decade by structuring materials at different length scales, but a clear relationship between structure size and thermal properties remains to be established. The main challenge comes from the unknown intrinsic spectral distribution of energy among heat carriers. Here, we experimentally measure this spectral distribution by probing quasi-ballistic transport near nanostructured heaters down to 30 nm using ultrafast optical spectroscopy. Our approach allows us to quantify up to 95% of the total spectral contribution to thermal conductivity from all phonon modes. The measurement agrees well with multiscale and first-principles-based simulations. We further demonstrate the direct construction of mean free path distributions. Our results provide a new fundamental understanding of thermal transport and will enable materials design in a rational way to achieve high performance.

  12. Spin separation driven by quantum interference in ballistic rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellucci, S; Onorato, P

    2008-01-01

    We propose an all-electrical nanoscopic structure where a pure spin current is induced in the transverse probes attached to a quantum-coherent ballistic quasi-one-dimensional ring when conventional unpolarized charge current is injected through its longitudinal leads. The study is essentially based on the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) arising from the laterally confining electric field (β-SOC). This sets the basic difference with other works employing mesoscopic rings with the conventional Rashba SO term (α-SOC). The β-SOC ring generates oscillations of the predicted spin Hall current due to spin-sensitive quantum-interference effects caused by the difference in phase acquired by opposite spins states traveling clockwise and counterclockwise. We focus on single-channel transport and solve analytically the spin polarization of the current. We relate the presence of a polarized spin current with the peaks in the longitudinal conductance.

  13. Quantum-classical transition in the electron dynamics of thin metal films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasiak, R; Manfredi, G; Hervieux, P-A [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux, CNRS and Universite de Strasbourg, BP 43, F-67034 Strasbourg (France); Haefele, M [INRIA Nancy Grand-Est and Institut de Recherche en Mathematiques Avancees, 7 rue Rene Descartes, F-67084 Strasbourg (France)], E-mail: Giovanni.Manfredi@ipcms.u-strasbg.fr

    2009-06-15

    The quantum electrons dynamics in a thin metal film is studied numerically using the self-consistent Wigner-Poisson equations. The initial equilibrium is computed from the Kohn-Sham equations at finite temperature, and then mapped into the phase-space Wigner function. The time-dependent results are compared systematically with those obtained previously with a classical approach (Vlasov-Poisson equations). It is found that, for large excitations, the quantum and classical dynamics display the same low-frequency oscillations due to ballistic electrons bouncing back and forth on the film surfaces. However, below a certain excitation energy (roughly corresponding to one quantum of plasmon energy {Dirac_h}{omega}{sub p}), the quantum and classical results diverge, and the ballistic oscillations are no longer observed. These results provide an example of a quantum-classical transition that may be observed with current pump-probe experiments on thin metal films.

  14. Quantum-classical transition in the electron dynamics of thin metal films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasiak, R; Manfredi, G; Hervieux, P-A; Haefele, M

    2009-01-01

    The quantum electrons dynamics in a thin metal film is studied numerically using the self-consistent Wigner-Poisson equations. The initial equilibrium is computed from the Kohn-Sham equations at finite temperature, and then mapped into the phase-space Wigner function. The time-dependent results are compared systematically with those obtained previously with a classical approach (Vlasov-Poisson equations). It is found that, for large excitations, the quantum and classical dynamics display the same low-frequency oscillations due to ballistic electrons bouncing back and forth on the film surfaces. However, below a certain excitation energy (roughly corresponding to one quantum of plasmon energy ℎω p ), the quantum and classical results diverge, and the ballistic oscillations are no longer observed. These results provide an example of a quantum-classical transition that may be observed with current pump-probe experiments on thin metal films.

  15. Probing the Electronic Environment of Methylindoles using Internal Rotation and (14)N Nuclear Quadrupole Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusinghe, Ranil M; Tubergen, Michael J

    2016-05-26

    High-resolution rotational spectra were recorded in the 10.5-21.0 GHz frequency range for seven singly methylated indoles. (14)N nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structure and spectral splittings arising from tunneling along the internal rotation of the methyl group were resolved for all indole species. The nuclear quadrupole coupling constants were used to characterize the electronic environment of the nitrogen atom, and the program XIAM was used to fit the barrier to internal rotation to the measured transition frequencies. The best fit barriers were found to be 277.1(2), 374.32(4), 414.(5), 331.6(2), 126.8675(15), 121.413(4), and 426(3) cm(-1) for 1-methylindole through 7-methylindole, respectively. The fitted barriers were found to be in good agreement with barriers calculated at the ωB97XD/6-311++G(d,p) level. The complete set of experimental barriers is compared to theoretical investigations of the origins of methyl torsional barriers and confirms that the magnitude of these barriers is an overall effect of individual hyperconjugative and structural interactions of many bonding/antibonding orbitals.

  16. Field-free molecular alignment probed by the free electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsson, P; Rouzee, A; Siu, W; Huismans, Y; Vrakking, M J J [FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics (AMOLF), Science Park 113, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lepine, F [Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, LASIM, UMR 5579, 43 bvd. du 11 novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Marchenko, T [Laboratoire d' Optique Applique, ENSTA/Ecole Polytechnique, Chemin de la Huniere, 91761 Palaiseau (France); Duesterer, S; Tavella, F; Stojanovic, N; Azima, A; Treusch, R [Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor (HASYLAB) at Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Kling, M F [Max-Planck Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: per.johnsson@fysik.lth.se

    2009-07-14

    High flux extreme ultraviolet (XUV) sources like the free electron laser (FEL) in Hamburg (FLASH) offer the possibility of diffractive imaging of small objects. Irrespective of whether the diffraction is based on the detection of photons or photoelectrons, it is required that the measurement is done in the reference frame of the molecule meaning that, for a sample of several molecules, it is necessary to pre-align the molecules in the sample. As a step towards performing molecular frame diffraction experiments, we report experiments on field-free molecular alignment performed at FLASH. The impulsive alignment induced by a 100 fs near-infrared laser pulse in a rotationally cold CO{sub 2} sample is characterized by ionizing and dissociating the molecules with a time-delayed XUV-FEL pulse. The time-dependent angular distributions of ionic fragments measured by a velocity map imaging spectrometer exhibit rapid changes associated with the induced rotational dynamics. The experimental results show hints of a dissociation process that depends nonlinearly on the XUV intensity.

  17. Probing the molecular and electronic structure of the lichen metabolite usnic acid: A DFT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galasso, V.

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: DFT calculations of structural preferences, acidic properties, carbonyl vibrations, 13 C NMR chemical shifts, and absorption spectrum account for the unique structural backbone, chemical behaviour, and spectroscopic properties of usnic acid, the cortical pigment and potent reactive of lichens. - Abstract: The molecular structure of usnic acid was investigated by the density functional theory (DFT). Two keto-enol tautomers are nearly isoenergetic and more stable than other tautomers. Noteworthy is the energy difference among the three intramolecular O-H...O hydrogen bonds. The DFT/PCM calculated dissociation constants account for the acidic sequence of the three OH-groups. The electronic structure was also studied by calculating IR/Raman, NMR, and absorption features. A reliable assignment of the 'fingerprint' carbonyl stretching modes was supported by calculations on related molecules. The calculated NMR chemical shifts fit expectation in terms of a fast interconversion between the two most preferred tautomers. A variety of π → π* and n → π* excitations, localized on a single ring or involving a charge-transfer between the two lateral rings of the molecule, gives rise to the broad UV-absorption bands. This property accounts for the efficient protection against damaging solar radiation provided by usnic acid for lichens.

  18. Quantification of nanoscale density fluctuations by electron microscopy: probing cellular alterations in early carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, Prabhakar; Damania, Dhwanil; Turzhitsky, Vladimir; Subramanian, Hariharan; Backman, Vadim; Joshi, Hrushikesh M; Dravid, Vinayak P; Roy, Hemant K; Taflove, Allen

    2011-01-01

    Most cancers are curable if they are diagnosed and treated at an early stage. Recent studies suggest that nanoarchitectural changes occur within cells during early carcinogenesis and that such changes precede microscopically evident tissue alterations. It follows that the ability to comprehensively interrogate cell nanoarchitecture (e.g., macromolecular complexes, DNA, RNA, proteins and lipid membranes) could be critical to the diagnosis of early carcinogenesis. We present a study of the nanoscale mass-density fluctuations of biological tissues by quantifying their degree of disorder at the nanoscale. Transmission electron microscopy images of human tissues are used to construct corresponding effective disordered optical lattices. The properties of nanoscale disorder are then studied by statistical analysis of the inverse participation ratio (IPR) of the spatially localized eigenfunctions of these optical lattices at the nanoscale. Our results show an increase in the disorder of human colonic epithelial cells in subjects harboring early stages of colon neoplasia. Furthermore, our findings strongly suggest that increased nanoscale disorder correlates with the degree of tumorigenicity. Therefore, the IPR technique provides a practicable tool for the detection of nanoarchitectural alterations in the earliest stages of carcinogenesis. Potential applications of the technique for early cancer screening and detection are also discussed

  19. Probing the molecular and electronic structure of the lichen metabolite usnic acid: A DFT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galasso, V., E-mail: galasso@univ.trieste.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2010-08-23

    Graphical abstract: DFT calculations of structural preferences, acidic properties, carbonyl vibrations, {sup 13}C NMR chemical shifts, and absorption spectrum account for the unique structural backbone, chemical behaviour, and spectroscopic properties of usnic acid, the cortical pigment and potent reactive of lichens. - Abstract: The molecular structure of usnic acid was investigated by the density functional theory (DFT). Two keto-enol tautomers are nearly isoenergetic and more stable than other tautomers. Noteworthy is the energy difference among the three intramolecular O-H...O hydrogen bonds. The DFT/PCM calculated dissociation constants account for the acidic sequence of the three OH-groups. The electronic structure was also studied by calculating IR/Raman, NMR, and absorption features. A reliable assignment of the 'fingerprint' carbonyl stretching modes was supported by calculations on related molecules. The calculated NMR chemical shifts fit expectation in terms of a fast interconversion between the two most preferred tautomers. A variety of {pi} {yields} {pi}* and n {yields} {pi}* excitations, localized on a single ring or involving a charge-transfer between the two lateral rings of the molecule, gives rise to the broad UV-absorption bands. This property accounts for the efficient protection against damaging solar radiation provided by usnic acid for lichens.

  20. Topographic and electronic contrast of the graphene moir´e on Ir(111) probed by scanning tunneling microscopy and noncontact atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Z.; Hämäläinen, K.; Sainio, K.; Lahtinen, J.; Vanmaekelbergh, D.A.M.; Liljeroth, P.

    2011-01-01

    Epitaxial graphene grown on transition-metal surfaces typically exhibits a moir´e pattern due to the lattice mismatch between graphene and the underlying metal surface. We use both scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to probe the electronic and topographic contrast

  1. Final Report: Novel Nanowires as Probes of Electron Coherence and Correlations in Restricted Geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natelson, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    This is a final summary report of the research conducted under DE-FG03-01ER45946, which was a research program using metal nanostructures to examine quantum coherence of electrons in normal and ferromagnetic metals. This program was the PI's first federal research grant, and by augmenting with other funds (Packard Foundation), this grant supported two graduate students during its duration. In normal metal nanostructures, quantum coherence was assessed by two independent techniques: weak localization magnetoresistance, and time-dependent universal conductance fluctuations (TDUCF noise). This work found that, in AuPd nanowires, the coherence information inferred from these two techniques were quantitatively consistent, even in the presence of magnetic impurity and phonon scattering. This confirmed theoretical expectations. However, in Ag and Au wires, the two techniques disagree, with noise measurements indicating a lower coherence length at low temperatures than weak localization. We have a candidate explanation for this, and are finishing these experiments. This work shows that subtleties remain in our understanding of coherence processes even in normal metals, particularly those involving the tunneling two-level systems that produce low frequency noise; this has relevance for quantum information processing implementations using metal devices. We have also studied time-dependent universal conductance fluctuations in ferromagnetic metals for the first time. The TDUCF in ferromagnetic nanowires show that the Cooperon channel of coherent processes is suppressed in these correlated materials. Furthermore, the surprisingly steep temperature dependence of the noise suggests that decoherence in these systems is through a different process than in normal metals. We are finishing measurements of ''magnetofingerprint'' conductance fluctuations in ferromagnetic metals to examine this unusual temperature dependence with an independent technique. This program has produced three

  2. Probing the chemistry, electronic structure and redox energetics in pentavalent organometallic actinide complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, Christopher R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vaughn, Anthony E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, David E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kiplinger, Jaqueline L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Complexes of the early actinides (Th-Pu) have gained considerable prominence in organometallic chemistry as they have been shown to undergo chemistries not observed with their transition- or lanthanide metal counterparts. Further, while bonding in f-element complexes has historically been considered to be ionic, the issue of covalence remains a subject of debate in the area of actinide science, and studies aimed at elucidating key bonding interactions with 5f-orbitals continue to garner attention. Towards this end, our interests have focused on the role that metal oxidation state plays in the structure, reactivity and spectral properties of organouranium complexes. We report our progress in the synthesis of substituted U{sup V}-imido complexes using various routes: (1) Direct oxidation of U{sup IV}-imido complexes with copper(I) salts; (2) Salt metathesis with U{sup V}-imido halides; (3) Protonolysis and insertion of an U{sup V}-imido alkyl or aryl complex with H-N{double_bond}CPh{sub 2} or N{triple_bond}C-Ph, respectively, to form a U{sup V}-imido ketimide complex. Further, we report and compare the crystallographic, electrochemical, spectroscopic and magnetic characterization of the pentavalent uranium (C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}){sub 2}U({double_bond}N-Ar)(Y) series (Y = OTf, SPh, C{triple_bond}C-Ph, NPh{sub 2}, OPh, N{double_bond}CPh{sub 2}) to further interrogate the molecular, electronic, and magnetic structures of this new class of uranium complexes.

  3. Ballistic phonon transport in holey silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaeho; Lim, Jongwoo; Yang, Peidong

    2015-05-13

    When the size of semiconductors is smaller than the phonon mean free path, phonons can carry heat with no internal scattering. Ballistic phonon transport has received attention for both theoretical and practical aspects because Fourier's law of heat conduction breaks down and the heat dissipation in nanoscale transistors becomes unpredictable in the ballistic regime. While recent experiments demonstrate room-temperature evidence of ballistic phonon transport in various nanomaterials, the thermal conductivity data for silicon in the length scale of 10-100 nm is still not available due to experimental challenges. Here we show ballistic phonon transport prevails in the cross-plane direction of holey silicon from 35 to 200 nm. The thermal conductivity scales linearly with the length (thickness) even though the lateral dimension (neck) is as narrow as 20 nm. We assess the impact of long-wavelength phonons and predict a transition from ballistic to diffusive regime using scaling models. Our results support strong persistence of long-wavelength phonons in nanostructures and are useful for controlling phonon transport for thermoelectrics and potential phononic applications.

  4. Ballistic self-annealing during ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prins, Johan F.

    2001-01-01

    Ion implantation conditions are considered during which the energy, dissipated in the collision cascades, is low enough to ensure that the defects, which are generated during these collisions, consist primarily of vacancies and interstitial atoms. It is proposed that ballistic self-annealing is possible when the point defect density becomes high enough, provided that none, or very few, of the interstitial atoms escape from the layer being implanted. Under these conditions, the fraction of ballistic atoms, generated within the collision cascades from substitutional sites, decreases with increasing ion dose. Furthermore, the fraction of ballistic atoms, which finally end up within vacancies, increases with increasing vacancy density. Provided the crystal structure does not collapse, a damage threshold should be approached where just as many atoms are knocked out of substitutional sites as the number of ballistic atoms that fall back into vacancies. Under these conditions, the average point defect density should approach saturation. This model is applied to recently published Raman data that have been measured on a 3 MeV He + -ion implanted diamond (Orwa et al 2000 Phys. Rev. B 62 5461). The conclusion is reached that this ballistic self-annealing model describes the latter data better than a model in which it is assumed that the saturation in radiation damage is caused by amorphization of the implanted layer. (author)

  5. Molecular frame photoemission: a probe of electronic/nuclear photo-dynamics and polarization state of the ionizing light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veyrinas, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This is thesis is dedicated to the study and the use of the remarkable properties of the molecular frame photoelectron angular distribution (MFPAD). This observable is a very sensitive probe of both the photoionization (PI) processes in small molecules, through the determination of the magnitudes and relative phases of the dipole matrix elements, and the polarization state of the ionizing light, which is entirely encoded in the MFPAD in terms of the Stokes parameters (s1, s2, s3). MFPAD measurements take advantage of dissociative photoionization (DPI) processes by combining an electron-ion 3D momentum spectroscopy technique with the use of different radiation facilities: SOLEIL synchrotron (DESIRS and PLEIADES beamlines) and the XUV PLFA beamline (SLIC, LIDyL Attophysics group, CEA Saclay) based on the interaction of a strong laser field with a gaseous target called high harmonic generation (HHG). The first part of the thesis is devoted to the complete characterization of the polarization state of an incoming radiation. In this context, an original 'molecular polarimetry' method is introduced and demonstrated by comparison with a VUV optical polarimeter available on the DESIRS beamline. Using this method to determine the full polarization ellipse of HHG radiation generated in different conditions on the XUV PLFA facility leads to original results that include the challenging disentanglement of the circular and unpolarized components of the studied radiation. The second part deals with the study of DPI of the H 2 , D 2 and HD molecules induced by circularly polarized light at resonance with the doubly excited states Q1 and Q2. In this energy region (30-35 eV) where direct ionization, autoionization and dissociation compete on a femtosecond timescale, the photonic excitation gives rise to complex ultrafast electronic and nuclear coupled dynamics. The remarkable asymmetries observed in the circular dichroism in the molecular frame, compared to quantum

  6. Modeling terminal ballistics using blending-type spline surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Aleksander; Bratlie, Jostein; Dalmo, Rune

    2014-12-01

    We explore using GERBS, a blending-type spline construction, to represent deform able thin-plates and model terminal ballistics. Strategies to construct geometry for different scenarios of terminal ballistics are proposed.

  7. Local probe investigations of the electronic phase diagrams of iron pnictides and chalcogenides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Materne, Philipp

    2015-09-24

    In this work, the electronic phase diagrams of Ca{sub 1-x}Na{sub x}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} and Fe{sub 1+y}Te were investigated using muon spin relaxation and Moessbauer spectroscopy. Single crystals of Ca{sub 1-x}Na{sub x}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} with x = 0.00, 0.35, 0.50, and 0.67 were examined. The undoped 122 parent compound CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} is a semi metal and shows antiferromagnetic commensurate spin density wave order below 167 K. By hole doping via Na substitution, the magnetic order is suppressed and superconductivity emerges including a Na-substitution level region, where both phases coexist. Upon Na substitution, a tilting of the magnetic moments out of the ab-plane is found. The interaction of the magnetic and superconducting order parameter in this coexistence region was studied and a nanoscopic coexistence of both order parameters is found. This is proven by a reduction of the magnetic order parameter of 7 % in x = 0.50 below the superconducting transition temperature. This reduction was analysed using Landau theory and a systematic correlation between the reduction of the magnetic order parameter and the ratio of the transition temperatures, T{sub c}/T{sub N}, for the 122 family of the iron pnictides is presented. The magnetic phase transition is accompanied by a tetragonal-to-orthorhombic phase transition. The lattice dynamics at temperatures above and below this magneto-structural phase transition were studied and no change in the lattice dynamics were found. However, the lattice for finite x is softer than for the undoped compound. For x = 0.67, diluted magnetic order is found. Therefore, the magnetism in Ca{sub 1-x}Na{sub x}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} is persistent even at optimal doping. The superconducting state is investigated by measuring the temperature dependence of the magnetic penetration depth, where two superconducting gaps with a weighting of nearly 50:50 are obtained. A temperature independent anisotropy of the magnetic penetration depth γ{sub

  8. Local probe investigations of the electronic phase diagrams of iron pnictides and chalcogenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materne, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the electronic phase diagrams of Ca 1-x Na x Fe 2 As 2 and Fe 1+y Te were investigated using muon spin relaxation and Moessbauer spectroscopy. Single crystals of Ca 1-x Na x Fe 2 As 2 with x = 0.00, 0.35, 0.50, and 0.67 were examined. The undoped 122 parent compound CaFe 2 As 2 is a semi metal and shows antiferromagnetic commensurate spin density wave order below 167 K. By hole doping via Na substitution, the magnetic order is suppressed and superconductivity emerges including a Na-substitution level region, where both phases coexist. Upon Na substitution, a tilting of the magnetic moments out of the ab-plane is found. The interaction of the magnetic and superconducting order parameter in this coexistence region was studied and a nanoscopic coexistence of both order parameters is found. This is proven by a reduction of the magnetic order parameter of 7 % in x = 0.50 below the superconducting transition temperature. This reduction was analysed using Landau theory and a systematic correlation between the reduction of the magnetic order parameter and the ratio of the transition temperatures, T c /T N , for the 122 family of the iron pnictides is presented. The magnetic phase transition is accompanied by a tetragonal-to-orthorhombic phase transition. The lattice dynamics at temperatures above and below this magneto-structural phase transition were studied and no change in the lattice dynamics were found. However, the lattice for finite x is softer than for the undoped compound. For x = 0.67, diluted magnetic order is found. Therefore, the magnetism in Ca 1-x Na x Fe 2 As 2 is persistent even at optimal doping. The superconducting state is investigated by measuring the temperature dependence of the magnetic penetration depth, where two superconducting gaps with a weighting of nearly 50:50 are obtained. A temperature independent anisotropy of the magnetic penetration depth γ λ = 1.5(4) is obtained, which is much smaller compared to other 122 compounds

  9. Electrons as probes of dynamics in molecules and clusters: A contribution from Time Dependent Density Functional Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wopperer, P.; Dinh, P.M.; Reinhard, P.-G.; Suraud, E.

    2015-01-01

    total ionization signals to the more elaborate PES and PAD, possibly combining them and/or resolving them in time. This experimental discussion will be complemented in a third part by a presentation of available theoretical tools focusing on TDDFT and detailing the methods used to address ionization observables. We shall also discuss the shortcomings of standard versions of TDDFT, especially what concerns the SIC problem, and show how to improve formally and practically the theory on that aspect. A long fourth part will be devoted to representative results. We shall illustrate the use of total ionization in pump and probe scenarios with fs lasers for tracking ionic dynamics in clusters. More challenging from the experimental point of view is pump and probe setups using attosecond pulses. The effort there is more on the capability to define proper signals to be measured/computed at such a short time scale. TDDFT analysis provides here a valuable tool in the search for the most efficient observables. PES and PAD will allow one to address more directly electronic dynamics itself by means of fs or ns laser pulses. We shall in particular discuss the impact of the dynamical regime in PES and PAD. We shall end this fourth part by addressing the role of temperature in PES and PAD. When possible, the results will be directly compared to experiments. The fifth part of the paper will be devoted to future directions of investigations. From the rich choice of developments, we shall in particular address two aspects. We shall start to discuss the information content of energy/angular spectra of emitted electrons in case of excitation by swift and highly charged ions rather than lasers. The second issue concerns the account of dissipative effects in TDDFT to be able to consider longer laser pulses where the competition between direct electron emission and thermalization is known to play a role as, e.g., in experiments with C 60 . Although such questions have been superficially

  10. Clearance and Biodistribution of Liposomally Encapsulated Nitroxides: A Model for Targeted Delivery of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging Probes to Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Scott R.; Legenzov, Eric A.; Rosen, Gerald M.

    2011-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging using nitroxides as molecular probes is potentially a powerful tool for the detection and physiological characterization of micrometastatic lesions. Encapsulating nitroxides in anti-HER2 immunoliposomes at high concentrations to take advantage of the “self-quenching” phenomenon of nitroxides allows generation of robust EPR signals in HER2-overexpressing breast tumor cells with minimal background from indifferent tissues or circulating liposomes. We investigated the in vivo pharmacological properties of nitroxides encapsulated in sterically stabilized liposomes designed for long circulation times. We show that circulation times of nitroxides can be extended from hours to days; this increases the proportion of liposomes in circulation to enhance tumor targeting. Furthermore, nitroxides encapsulated in sterically stabilized anti-HER2 immunoliposomes can be delivered to HER2-overexpressing tumors at micromolar concentrations, which should be imageable by EPR. Lastly, after in vivo administration, liposomally encapsulated nitroxide signal also appears in the liver, spleen, and kidneys. Although these organs are spatially distinct and would not hinder tumor imaging in our model, understanding nitroxide signal retention in these organs is essential for further improvements in EPR imaging contrast between tumors and other tissues. These results lay the foundation to use liposomally delivered nitroxides and EPR imaging to visualize tumor cells in vivo. PMID:21737567

  11. Probing cytotoxicity of nanoparticles and organic compounds using scanning proton microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong Yongpeng [Institute of Nuclear Techniques, Shenzhen University, Nanhai Avenue 3688, Shenzhen 518060 (China)], E-mail: yongpengt@yahoo.com.cn; Li Changming [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637457 (Singapore); Liang Feng [Institute Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200025 (China); Chen Jianmin [Shenzhen Municipal Hospital for Chronic Disease Control and Prevention, Guangdong 518020 (China); Zhang Hong; Liu Guoqing; Sun Huibin [Institute of Nuclear Techniques, Shenzhen University, Nanhai Avenue 3688, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Luong, John H.T. [Biotechnology Research Institute, National Research Council Canada, Montreal, Quebec, H4P 2R2 (Canada)

    2008-12-15

    Scanning proton microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence microscopy have been used to probe the cytotoxicity effect of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), ethidium bromide (EB) and nanoparticles (ZnO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2}) on a T lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cell line. The increased calcium ion (from CaCl{sub 2}) in the culture medium stimulated the accumulation of BaP and EB inside the cell, leading to cell death. ZnO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, however, showed a protective effect against these two organic compounds. Such inorganic nanoparticles complexed with BaP or EB which became less toxic to the cell. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles as an insoluble particle model scavenged by macrophage were investigated in rats. They were scavenged out of the lung tissue about 48 h after infection. This result suggest that some insoluble inorganic nanoparticles of PM (particulate matters) showed protective effects on organic toxins induced acute toxic effects as they can be scavenged by macrophage cells. Whereas, some inorganic ions such as calcium ion in PM may help environmental organic toxins to penetrate cell membrane and induce higher toxic effect.

  12. Anomalous phosphine sensitivity coefficients as probes for a possible variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, A.; Yurchenko, S. N.; Špirko, V.

    2018-02-01

    A robust variational approach is used to investigate the sensitivity of the rotation-vibration spectrum of phosphine (PH3) to a possible cosmological variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio, μ. Whilst the majority of computed sensitivity coefficients, T, involving the low-lying vibrational states acquire the expected values of T ≈ -1 and T ≈ -1/2 for rotational and ro-vibrational transitions, respectively, anomalous sensitivities are uncovered for the A1 - A2 splittings in the ν2/ν4, ν1/ν3 and 2ν _4^{ℓ=0}/2ν _4^{ℓ=2} manifolds of PH3. A pronounced Coriolis interaction between these states in conjunction with accidentally degenerate A1 and A2 energy levels produces a series of enhanced sensitivity coefficients. Phosphine is expected to occur in a number of different astrophysical environments and has potential for investigating a drifting constant. Furthermore, the displayed behaviour hints at a wider trend in molecules of C_{3v}(M) symmetry, thus demonstrating that the splittings induced by higher-order ro-vibrational interactions are well suited for probing μ in other symmetric top molecules in space, since these low-frequency transitions can be straightforwardly detected by radio telescopes.

  13. Characterization of Precipitation in Al-Li Alloy AA2195 by means of Atom Probe Tomography and Transmission Electron Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Khushaim, Muna

    2015-05-19

    The microstructure of the commercial alloy AA2195 was investigated on the nanoscale after conducting T8 tempering. This particular thermomechanical treatment of the specimen resulted in the formation of platelet-shaped T 1 Al 2 CuLi / θ ′ Al 2 Cu precipitates within the Al matrix. The electrochemically prepared samples were analyzed by scanning transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography for chemical mapping. The θ ′ platelets, which are less than 2 nm thick, have the stoichiometric composition consistent with the expected Al 2 Cu equilibrium composition. Additionally, the Li distribution inside the θ ′ platelets was found to equal the same value as in the matrix. The equally thin T 1 platelet deviates from the formula (Al 2 CuLi) in its stoichiometry and shows Mg enrichment inside the platelet without any indication of a higher segregation level at the precipitate/matrix interface. The deviation from the (Al 2 CuLi) stoichiometry cannot be simply interpreted as a consequence of artifacts when measuring the Cu and Li concentrations inside the T 1 platelet. The results show rather a strong hint for a true lower Li and Cu contents, hence supporting reasonably the hypothesis that the real chemical composition for the thin T 1 platelet in the T8 tempering condition differs from the equilibrium composition of the thermodynamic stable bulk phase.

  14. Characterization of Precipitation in Al-Li Alloy AA2195 by means of Atom Probe Tomography and Transmission Electron Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Khushaim, Muna; Boll, Torben; Seibert, Judith; Haider, Ferdinand; Al-Kassab, Talaat

    2015-01-01

    The microstructure of the commercial alloy AA2195 was investigated on the nanoscale after conducting T8 tempering. This particular thermomechanical treatment of the specimen resulted in the formation of platelet-shaped T 1 Al 2 CuLi / θ ′ Al 2 Cu precipitates within the Al matrix. The electrochemically prepared samples were analyzed by scanning transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography for chemical mapping. The θ ′ platelets, which are less than 2 nm thick, have the stoichiometric composition consistent with the expected Al 2 Cu equilibrium composition. Additionally, the Li distribution inside the θ ′ platelets was found to equal the same value as in the matrix. The equally thin T 1 platelet deviates from the formula (Al 2 CuLi) in its stoichiometry and shows Mg enrichment inside the platelet without any indication of a higher segregation level at the precipitate/matrix interface. The deviation from the (Al 2 CuLi) stoichiometry cannot be simply interpreted as a consequence of artifacts when measuring the Cu and Li concentrations inside the T 1 platelet. The results show rather a strong hint for a true lower Li and Cu contents, hence supporting reasonably the hypothesis that the real chemical composition for the thin T 1 platelet in the T8 tempering condition differs from the equilibrium composition of the thermodynamic stable bulk phase.

  15. A flexible and accurate quantification algorithm for electron probe X-ray microanalysis based on thin-film element yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalm, O.; Janssens, K.

    2003-04-01

    Quantitative analysis by means of electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPXMA) of low Z materials such as silicate glasses can be hampered by the fact that ice or other contaminants build up on the Si(Li) detector beryllium window or (in the case of a windowless detector) on the Si(Li) crystal itself. These layers act as an additional absorber in front of the detector crystal, decreasing the detection efficiency at low energies (philosophy often employed in quantitative analysis of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) data. This approach is based on the (experimental) determination of thin-film element yields, rather than starting from infinitely thick and single element calibration standards. These thin-film sensitivity coefficients can also be interpolated to allow quantification of elements for which no suitable standards are available. The change in detector efficiency can be monitored by collecting an X-ray spectrum of one multi-element glass standard. This information is used to adapt the previously determined thin-film sensitivity coefficients to the actual detector efficiency conditions valid on the day that the experiments were carried out. The main advantage of this method is that spectra collected from the standards and from the unknown samples should not be acquired within a short period of time. This new approach is evaluated for glass and metal matrices and is compared with a standard ZAF method.

  16. Optical beam transport to a remote location for low jitter pump-probe experiments with a free electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cinquegrana

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a scheme that allows a strong reduction of the timing jitter between the pulses of a free electron laser (FEL and external laser pulses delivered simultaneously at the FEL experimental stations for pump-probe–type experiments. The technique, applicable to all seeding-based FEL schemes, relies on the free-space optical transport of a portion of the seed laser pulse from its optical table to the experimental stations. The results presented here demonstrate that a carefully designed laser beam transport, incorporating also a transverse beam position stabilization, allows one to keep the timing fluctuations, added by as much as 150 m of free space propagation and a number of beam folding mirrors, to less than 4 femtoseconds rms. By its nature our scheme removes the major common timing jitter sources, so the overall jitter in pump-probe measurements done in this way will be below 10 fs (with a margin to be lowered to below 5 fs, much better than the best results reported previously in the literature amounting to 33 fs rms.

  17. Characterization of Precipitation in Al-Li Alloy AA2195 by means of Atom Probe Tomography and Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Khushaim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure of the commercial alloy AA2195 was investigated on the nanoscale after conducting T8 tempering. This particular thermomechanical treatment of the specimen resulted in the formation of platelet-shaped T1Al2CuLi/θ′Al2Cu precipitates within the Al matrix. The electrochemically prepared samples were analyzed by scanning transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography for chemical mapping. The θ′ platelets, which are less than 2 nm thick, have the stoichiometric composition consistent with the expected Al2Cu equilibrium composition. Additionally, the Li distribution inside the θ′ platelets was found to equal the same value as in the matrix. The equally thin T1 platelet deviates from the formula (Al2CuLi in its stoichiometry and shows Mg enrichment inside the platelet without any indication of a higher segregation level at the precipitate/matrix interface. The deviation from the (Al2CuLi stoichiometry cannot be simply interpreted as a consequence of artifacts when measuring the Cu and Li concentrations inside the T1 platelet. The results show rather a strong hint for a true lower Li and Cu contents, hence supporting reasonably the hypothesis that the real chemical composition for the thin T1 platelet in the T8 tempering condition differs from the equilibrium composition of the thermodynamic stable bulk phase.

  18. Ballistic properties of bidirectional fiber/resin composites

    OpenAIRE

    Dimeski, Dimko; Spaseska, Dijana

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the research was to make evaulation of the ballistic strenth of four different composites intended to be used in manufacturing of ballistic items for personal protection. Research has been performed on glass, ntlon, HPPE and aramide fibers...... Key words. aramid, ballistic, V50

  19. 2015 Assessment of the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Director, Operational Test and Evaluation 2015 Assessment of the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS...Evaluation (DOT&E) as they pertain to the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS). Congress specified these requirements in the fiscal year 2002 (FY02...systems are the Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD), Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (Aegis BMD), Terminal High-Altitude Area Defense (THAAD), and

  20. Examination of biogenic selenium-containing nanosystems based on polyelectrolyte complexes by atomic force, Kelvin probe force and electron microscopy methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanova, T. E., E-mail: tat-sukhanova@mail.ru; Vylegzhanina, M. E.; Valueva, S. V.; Volkov, A. Ya.; Kutin, A. A. [Institute of Macromolecular Compounds RAS, 199004 Bolshoy Pr., 31, St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Temiryazeva, M. P.; Temiryazev, A. G. [Kotel’nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Fryazino Branch) Russian Academy of Sciences, Fryazino, Moscow region, 141190 (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-17

    The morphology and electrical properties of biogenic selenium-containing nanosystems based on polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) were examined using AFM, Kelvin Probe Force and electron microscopy methods. It has been found, that prepared nanostructures significantly differed in their morphological types and parameters. In particular, multilayers capsules can be produced via varying synthesis conditions, especially, the selenium–PEC mass ratio ν. At the “special point” (ν = 0.1), filled and hollow nano- and microcapsules are formed in the system. The multilayer character of the capsules walls is visible in the phase images. Kelvin Probe Force images showed the inhomogeneity of potential distribution in capsules and outside them.

  1. Towards Fast Measurement of the Electron Temperature in the SOL of ASDEX Upgrade Using Swept Langmuir Probes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müller, H. W.; Adámek, Jiří; Horáček, Jan; Ionita, C.; Mehlmann, F.; Rohde, V.; Schrittwieser, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 9 (2010), s. 847-853 ISSN 0863-1042. [International Workshop on Electric Probes in Magnetized Plasmas/8th./. Innsbruck, 21.09.2009-24.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100430901; GA ČR GA202/09/1467 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Tokamak * Langmuir probe * swept probe * ball-pen probe * fast temperature measurement * ELM Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.006, year: 2010 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ctpp.201010144/pdf

  2. Contribution of the surface contamination of uranium-materials on the quantitative analysis results by electron probe microbeam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonino, O.; Fournier, C.; Fucili, C.; Dugne, O.; Merlet, C.

    2000-01-01

    The analytical testing of uranium materials is necessary for quality research and development in nuclear industry applications (enrichment, safety studies, fuel, etc). Electron Probe Microbeam Analysis Wavelength Dispersive Spectrometry (EPMA-WDS) is a dependable non-destructive analytical technology. The characteristic X-ray signal is measured to identify and quantify the sample components, and the analyzed volume is about one micron cube. The surface contamination of uranium materials modifies and contributes to the quantitative analysis results of EPMA-WDS. This contribution is not representative of the bulk. A thin oxidized layer appears in the first instants after preparation (burnishing, cleaning) as well as a carbon contamination layer, due to metallographic preparation and carbon cracking under the impact of the electron probe. Several analytical difficulties subsequently arise, including an overlapping line between the carbon Ka ray and the Uranium U NIVOVI ray. Sensitivity and accuracy of the quantification of light elements like carbon and oxygen are also reduced by the presence of uranium. The aim of this study was to improve the accuracy of quantitative analysis on uranium materials by EPMA-WDS by taking account of the contribution of surface contamination. The first part of this paper is devoted to the study of the contaminated surface of the uranium materials U, UFe 2 and U 6 Fe a few hours after preparation. These oxidation conditions are selected so as to reproduce the same contamination surfaces occurring in microprobe analytical conditions. Surface characterization techniques were SIMS and Auger spectroscopy. The contaminated surfaces are shown. They consist of successive layers: a carbon layer, an oxidized iron layer, followed by an iron depletion layer (only in UFe 2 and U 6 Fe), and a ternary oxide layer (U-Fe-O for UFe 2 et U 6 Fe and UO 2+x for uranium). The second part of the paper addresses the estimation of the errors in quantitative

  3. Coherent Control of Nanoscale Ballistic Currents in Transition Metal Dichalcogenide ReS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Qiannan; Zhao, Hui

    2015-04-28

    Transition metal dichalcogenides are predicted to outperform traditional semiconductors in ballistic devices with nanoscale channel lengths. So far, experimental studies on charge transport in transition metal dichalcogenides are limited to the diffusive regime. Here we show, using ReS2 as an example, all-optical injection, detection, and coherent control of ballistic currents. By utilizing quantum interference between one-photon and two-photon interband transition pathways, ballistic currents are injected in ReS2 thin film samples by a pair of femtosecond laser pulses. We find that the current decays on an ultrafast time scale, resulting in an electron transport of only a fraction of one nanometer. Following the relaxation of the initially injected momentum, backward motion of the electrons for about 1 ps is observed, driven by the Coulomb force from the oppositely moved holes. We also show that the injected current can be controlled by the phase of the laser pulses. These results demonstrate a new platform to study ballistic transport of nonequilibrium carriers in transition metal dichalcogenides.

  4. Relativistic Electron Response to the Combined Magnetospheric Impact of a Coronal Mass Ejection Overlapping with a High-Speed Stream: Van Allen Probes Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekal, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Henderson, M. G.; Li, W.; Fennell, J. F.; Zheng, Y.; Richardson, I. G.; Jones, A.; Ali, A. F.; Elkington, S. R.; hide

    2015-01-01

    During early November 2013, the magnetosphere experienced concurrent driving by a coronal mass ejection (CME) during an ongoing high-speed stream (HSS) event. The relativistic electron response to these two kinds of drivers, i.e., HSS and CME, is typically different, with the former often leading to a slower buildup of electrons at larger radial distances, while the latter energizing electrons rapidly with flux enhancements occurring closer to the Earth. We present a detailed analysis of the relativistic electron response including radial profiles of phase space density as observed by both Magnetic Electron and Ion Sensor (MagEIS) and Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope instruments on the Van Allen Probes mission. Data from the MagEIS instrument establish the behavior of lower energy (electrons which span both intermediary and seed populations during electron energization. Measurements characterizing the plasma waves and magnetospheric electric and magnetic fields during this period are obtained by the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science instrument on board Van Allen Probes, Search Coil Magnetometer and Flux Gate Magnetometer instruments on board Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms, and the low-altitude Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites. These observations suggest that during this time period, both radial transport and local in situ processes are involved in the energization of electrons. The energization attributable to radial diffusion is most clearly evident for the lower energy (electrons, while the effects of in situ energization by interaction of chorus waves are prominent in the higher-energy electrons.

  5. Profile measurements of the electron temperature on the ASDEX Upgrade, COMPASS, and ISTTOK tokamak using Thomson scattering, triple, and ball-pen probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamek, J.; Müller, H. W.; Silva, C.; Schrittwieser, R.; Ionita, C.; Mehlmann, F.; Costea, S.; Horacek, J.; Kurzan, B.; Bilkova, P.; Böhm, P.; Aftanas, M.; Vondracek, P.; Stöckel, J.; Panek, R.; Fernandes, H.; Figueiredo, H.

    2016-04-01

    The ball-pen probe (BPP) technique is used successfully to make profile measurements of the electron temperature on the ASDEX Upgrade (Axially Symmetric Divertor Experiment), COMPASS (COMPact ASSembly), and ISTTOK (Instituto Superior Tecnico TOKamak) tokamak. The electron temperature is provided by a combination of the BPP potential (ΦBPP) and the floating potential (Vfl) of the Langmuir probe (LP), which is compared with the Thomson scattering diagnostic on ASDEX Upgrade and COMPASS. Excellent agreement between the two diagnostics is obtained for circular and diverted plasmas and different heating mechanisms (Ohmic, NBI, ECRH) in deuterium discharges with the same formula Te = (ΦBPP - Vfl)/2.2. The comparative measurements of the electron temperature using BPP/LP and triple probe (TP) techniques on the ISTTOK tokamak show good agreement of averaged values only inside the separatrix. It was also found that the TP provides the electron temperature with significantly higher standard deviation than BPP/LP. However, the resulting values of both techniques are well in the phase with the maximum of cross-correlation function being 0.8.

  6. Profile measurements of the electron temperature on the ASDEX Upgrade, COMPASS, and ISTTOK tokamak using Thomson scattering, triple, and ball-pen probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamek, J., E-mail: adamek@ipp.cas.cz; Horacek, J.; Bilkova, P.; Böhm, P.; Aftanas, M.; Vondracek, P.; Stöckel, J.; Panek, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Müller, H. W. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching near Munich (Germany); Institute of Materials Chemistry & Research, University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Silva, C.; Fernandes, H.; Figueiredo, H. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Schrittwieser, R.; Ionita, C.; Mehlmann, F.; Costea, S. [Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck (Austria); Kurzan, B. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching near Munich (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    The ball-pen probe (BPP) technique is used successfully to make profile measurements of the electron temperature on the ASDEX Upgrade (Axially Symmetric Divertor Experiment), COMPASS (COMPact ASSembly), and ISTTOK (Instituto Superior Tecnico TOKamak) tokamak. The electron temperature is provided by a combination of the BPP potential (Φ{sub BPP}) and the floating potential (V{sub fl}) of the Langmuir probe (LP), which is compared with the Thomson scattering diagnostic on ASDEX Upgrade and COMPASS. Excellent agreement between the two diagnostics is obtained for circular and diverted plasmas and different heating mechanisms (Ohmic, NBI, ECRH) in deuterium discharges with the same formula T{sub e} = (Φ{sub BPP} − V{sub fl})/2.2. The comparative measurements of the electron temperature using BPP/LP and triple probe (TP) techniques on the ISTTOK tokamak show good agreement of averaged values only inside the separatrix. It was also found that the TP provides the electron temperature with significantly higher standard deviation than BPP/LP. However, the resulting values of both techniques are well in the phase with the maximum of cross-correlation function being 0.8.

  7. Profile measurements of the electron temperature on the ASDEX Upgrade, COMPASS, and ISTTOK tokamak using Thomson scattering, triple, and ball-pen probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamek, J.; Horacek, J.; Bilkova, P.; Böhm, P.; Aftanas, M.; Vondracek, P.; Stöckel, J.; Panek, R.; Müller, H. W.; Silva, C.; Fernandes, H.; Figueiredo, H.; Schrittwieser, R.; Ionita, C.; Mehlmann, F.; Costea, S.; Kurzan, B.

    2016-01-01

    The ball-pen probe (BPP) technique is used successfully to make profile measurements of the electron temperature on the ASDEX Upgrade (Axially Symmetric Divertor Experiment), COMPASS (COMPact ASSembly), and ISTTOK (Instituto Superior Tecnico TOKamak) tokamak. The electron temperature is provided by a combination of the BPP potential (Φ_B_P_P) and the floating potential (V_f_l) of the Langmuir probe (LP), which is compared with the Thomson scattering diagnostic on ASDEX Upgrade and COMPASS. Excellent agreement between the two diagnostics is obtained for circular and diverted plasmas and different heating mechanisms (Ohmic, NBI, ECRH) in deuterium discharges with the same formula T_e = (Φ_B_P_P − V_f_l)/2.2. The comparative measurements of the electron temperature using BPP/LP and triple probe (TP) techniques on the ISTTOK tokamak show good agreement of averaged values only inside the separatrix. It was also found that the TP provides the electron temperature with significantly higher standard deviation than BPP/LP. However, the resulting values of both techniques are well in the phase with the maximum of cross-correlation function being 0.8.

  8. Optimization theory for ballistic energy conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo; Versluis, Michel; Van Den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand of renewable energy stimulates the exploration of new materials and methods for clean energy. We recently demonstrated a high efficiency and power density energy conversion mechanism by using jetted charged microdroplets, termed as ballistic energy conversion. Hereby, we model and

  9. Ballistic impact response of lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Meng, Zhaoxu; Qin, Xin; Keten, Sinan

    2018-03-08

    Therapeutic agent loaded micro and nanoscale particles as high-velocity projectiles can penetrate cells and tissues, thereby serving as gene and drug delivery vehicles for direct and rapid internalization. Despite recent progress in developing micro/nanoscale ballistic tools, the underlying biophysics of how fast projectiles deform and penetrate cell membranes is still poorly understood. To understand the rate and size-dependent penetration processes, we present coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of the ballistic impact of spherical projectiles on lipid membranes. Our simulations reveal that upon impact, the projectile can pursue one of three distinct pathways. At low velocities below the critical penetration velocity, projectiles rebound off the surface. At intermediate velocities, penetration occurs after the projectile deforms the membrane into a tubular thread. At very high velocities, rapid penetration occurs through localized membrane deformation without tubulation. Membrane tension, projectile velocity and size govern which phenomenon occurs, owing to their positive correlation with the reaction force generated between the projectile and the membrane during impact. Two critical membrane tension values dictate the boundaries among the three pathways for a given system, due to the rate dependence of the stress generated in the membrane. Our findings provide broad physical insights into the ballistic impact response of soft viscous membranes and guide design strategies for drug delivery through lipid membranes using micro/nanoscale ballistic tools.

  10. Ballistic tongue projection in a miniaturized salamander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deban, Stephen M; Bloom, Segall V

    2018-05-20

    Miniaturization of body size is often accompanied by peculiarities in morphology that can have functional consequences. We examined the feeding behavior and morphology of the miniaturized plethodontid salamander Thorius, one of the smallest vertebrates, to determine if its performance and biomechanics differ from those of its larger relatives. High-speed imaging and dynamics analysis of feeding at a range of temperatures show that tongue projection in Thorius macdougalli is ballistic and achieves accelerations of up to 600 G with low thermal sensitivity, indicating that tongue projection is powered by an elastic-recoil mechanism. Preceding ballistic projection is an unusual preparatory phase of tongue protrusion, which, like tongue retraction, shows lower performance and higher thermal sensitivity that are indicative of movement being powered directly by muscle shortening. The variability of tongue-projection kinematics and dynamics is comparable to larger ballistic-tongued plethodontids and reveals that Thorius is capable of modulating its tongue movements in response to prey distance. Morphological examination revealed that T. macdougalli possesses a reduced number of myofibers in the tongue muscles, a large projector muscle mass relative to tongue mass, and an unusual folding of the tongue skeleton, compared with larger relatives. Nonetheless, T. macdougalli retains the elaborated collagen aponeuroses in the projector muscle that store elastic energy and a tongue skeleton that is free of direct myofiber insertion, two features that appear to be essential for ballistic tongue projection in salamanders. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Characterization of dynamic properties of ballistic clay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Roebroeks, G.H.J.J.; Broos, J.P.F.; Halls, V.; Zheng, J.

    2014-01-01

    In order use material models in (numerical) calculations, the mechanical properties of all materials involved should be known. At TNO an indirect method to determine the dynamic flow stress of materials has been generated by a combination of ballistic penetration tests with an energy-based

  12. The Internal Ballistics of an Air Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The internal ballistics of a firearm or artillery piece considers the pellet, bullet, or shell motion while it is still inside the barrel. In general, deriving the muzzle speed of a gunpowder firearm from first principles is difficult because powder combustion is fast and it very rapidly raises the temperature of gas (generated by gunpowder…

  13. Graphene ballistic nano-rectifier with very high responsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auton, Gregory; Zhang, Jiawei; Kumar, Roshan Krishna; Wang, Hanbin; Zhang, Xijian; Wang, Qingpu; Hill, Ernie; Song, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Although graphene has the longest mean free path of carriers of any known electronic material, very few novel devices have been reported to harness this extraordinary property. Here we demonstrate a ballistic nano-rectifier fabricated by creating an asymmetric cross-junction in single-layer graphene sandwiched between boron nitride flakes. A mobility ∼200,000 cm2 V−1 s−1 is achieved at room temperature, well beyond that required for ballistic transport. This enables a voltage responsivity as high as 23,000 mV mW−1 with a low-frequency input signal. Taking advantage of the output channels being orthogonal to the input terminals, the noise is found to be not strongly influenced by the input. Hence, the corresponding noise-equivalent power is as low as 0.64 pW Hz−1/2. Such performance is even comparable to superconducting bolometers, which however need to operate at cryogenic temperatures. Furthermore, output oscillations are observed at low temperatures, the period of which agrees with the lateral size quantization. PMID:27241162

  14. The Effects of Ballistic and Non-Ballistic Bench Press on Mechanical Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moir, Gavin L; Munford, Shawn N; Moroski, Lindsey L; Davis, Shala E

    2017-02-21

    To investigate the effects of ballistic and non-ballistic bench press performed with loads equivalent to 30 and 90% 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) on mechanical variables. Eleven resistance-trained men (age: 23.0 ± 1.4 years; mass: 98.4 ± 14.4 kg) attended four testing sessions where they performed one of the following sessions: 1) three sets of five non-ballistic repetitions performed with a load equivalent to 30% 1-RM (30N-B), 2) three sets of five ballistic repetitions performed with a load equivalent to 30% 1-RM (30B), 3) three sets of four non-ballistic repetitions with a load equivalent to 90% 1-RM (90N-B), 4) three sets of four ballistic repetitions with a load equivalent to 90% 1-RM (90B). Force plates and a 3-D motion analysis system were used to determine the velocity, force, power output (PO) and work during each repetition. The heavier loads resulted in significantly greater forces applied to the barbell (mean differences: 472-783 N, pvelocities (mean differences: 0.85-1.20 m/s, pvelocity (mean difference: 0.33 m/s, pbench press may be an effective exercise for developing power output and multiple sets may elicit post-activation potentiation that enhances force production. However, these benefits may be negated at heavier loads.

  15. A flexible and accurate quantification algorithm for electron probe X-ray microanalysis based on thin-film element yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalm, O.; Janssens, K.

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative analysis by means of electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPXMA) of low Z materials such as silicate glasses can be hampered by the fact that ice or other contaminants build up on the Si(Li) detector beryllium window or (in the case of a windowless detector) on the Si(Li) crystal itself. These layers act as an additional absorber in front of the detector crystal, decreasing the detection efficiency at low energies (<5 keV). Since the layer thickness gradually changes with time, also the detector efficiency in the low energy region is not constant. Using the normal ZAF approach to quantification of EPXMA data is cumbersome in these conditions, because spectra from reference materials and from unknown samples must be acquired within a fairly short period of time in order to avoid the effect of the change in efficiency. To avoid this problem, an alternative approach to quantification of EPXMA data is proposed, following a philosophy often employed in quantitative analysis of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) data. This approach is based on the (experimental) determination of thin-film element yields, rather than starting from infinitely thick and single element calibration standards. These thin-film sensitivity coefficients can also be interpolated to allow quantification of elements for which no suitable standards are available. The change in detector efficiency can be monitored by collecting an X-ray spectrum of one multi-element glass standard. This information is used to adapt the previously determined thin-film sensitivity coefficients to the actual detector efficiency conditions valid on the day that the experiments were carried out. The main advantage of this method is that spectra collected from the standards and from the unknown samples should not be acquired within a short period of time. This new approach is evaluated for glass and metal matrices and is compared with a standard ZAF method

  16. Trismus in Face Transplantation Following Ballistic Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krezdorn, Nicco; Alhefzi, Muayyad; Perry, Bridget; Aycart, Mario A; Tasigiorgos, Sotirios; Bueno, Ericka M; Green, Jordan R; Pribaz, Julian J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Caterson, Edward J

    2018-06-01

    Trismus can be a challenging consequence of ballistic trauma to the face, and has rarely been described in the setting of face transplantation. Almost half of all current face transplant recipients in the world received transplantation to restore form and function after a ballistic injury. Here we report our experience and challenges with long standing trismus after face transplantation. We reviewed the medical records of our face transplant recipients whose indication was ballistic injury. We focused our review on trismus and assessed the pre-, peri- and postoperative planning, surgery and functional outcomes. Two patients received partial face transplantation, including the midface for ballistic trauma. Both patients suffered from impaired mouth opening, speech intelligibility, and oral competence. Severe scarring of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) required intraoperative release in both patients, and additional total condylectomy on the left side 6 months posttransplant for 1 patient. Posttransplant, both patients achieved an improvement in mouth opening; however, there was persistent trismus. One year after transplantation, range of motion of the jaw had improved for both patients. Independent oral food intake was possible 1 year after surgery, although spillage of liquids and mixed consistency solids persisted. Speech intelligibility testing showed impairments in the immediate postoperative period, with improvement to over 85% for both patients at 1 year posttransplant. Ballistic trauma to the face and subsequent reconstructive measures can cause significant scarring and covert injuries to structures such as the TMJ, resulting in long standing trismus. Meticulous individual planning prior to interventions such as face transplantation must take these into account. We encourage intraoperative evaluation of these structures as well as peri- and postoperative treatment when necessary. Due to the nature of the primary injury, functional outcomes after face

  17. Probing the electronic structure of M-graphene oxide (M = Ni, Co, NiCo) catalysts for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Binhua; Liu, Jinyin; Zhou, Litao [Soochow University-Western University Centre for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Material (FUNSOM) and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science & Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Long, Dan, E-mail: legend_long@aliyun.com [Department of Radiology, Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou 310022 (China); Feng, Kun; Sun, Xuhui [Soochow University-Western University Centre for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Material (FUNSOM) and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science & Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zhong, Jun, E-mail: jzhong@suda.edu.cn [Soochow University-Western University Centre for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Material (FUNSOM) and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science & Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2016-01-30

    Graphical abstract: An interaction between metal and graphene oxide was probed to enhance the hydrolysis efficiency of ammonia borane. - Highlights: • Various metal elements (M = Ni, Co, NiCo) were dispersed on graphene oxide (GO) for the hydrolysis of ammonia borane (AB). • The electronic structure of the hybrids has been probed by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). • An interfacial interaction between metal and GO was observed which could be related to the hydrolysis performance. • The results provide new insight into the enhanced performance of the M-GO hybrids. - Abstract: Various metal elements (M = Ni, Co, NiCo) were dispersed on graphene oxide (GO) to form the M-GO hybrids by a facile way. The hybrids showed good catalytic activities in the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane (AB, NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3}), which were significantly enhanced when compared to the metal nanoparticles or GO alone. The electronic structure of the hybrids has been probed by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). The distribution of metal elements was clearly imaged with identical electronic structure. Moreover, an interfacial interaction between metal and GO was observed with the peak intensity proportional to the catalytic performance in the hydrolysis of AB. The results provide new insight into the enhanced performance of the M-GO hybrids and may help for the design of advanced catalysts.

  18. Manganese oxalate nanorods as ballistic modifier for composite solid propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Supriya [Department of Chemistry, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273009, U.P. (India); Chawla, Mohit [School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Mandi 175005, H.P. (India); Siril, Prem Felix, E-mail: prem@iitmandi.ac.in [School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Mandi 175005, H.P. (India); Singh, Gurdip [Department of Chemistry, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273009, U.P. (India)

    2014-12-10

    Highlights: • Manganese oxalate nanorods were prepared using mild thermal precipitation and aging. • The nanorods were found to be efficient ballistic modifier for solid propellants. • The nanorods sensitized the thermolysis of ammonium perchlorate. • Controlled thermal decomposition of nanorods yielded manganese oxide nanoparticles. • MnO nanoparticles formed insitu in the condensed phase enhance the burning rates. - Abstract: Rod-shaped nanostructures of manganese oxalate (MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4}) were synthesized via mild thermal precipitation and aging process. Chemical composition of the MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods was confirmed using Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) studies revealed the crystal structure. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) imaging and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) were employed to study the structural features of the nanorods. The MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods were found to be efficient ballistic modifier for the burning rate enhancement of composite solid propellants (CSPs). Thermal analysis using TGA-DSC showed that MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods sensitized the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and the CSPs. Controlled thermal decomposition of the MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods resulted in the formation of managanese oxide nanoparticles with mesoporosity. A plausible mechanism for the burning rate enhancement using MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods was proposed.

  19. Effect of an ultrafast laser induced plasma on a relativistic electron beam to determine temporal overlap in pump-probe experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoby, Cheyne M; Li, R K; Musumeci, P

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we report on a simple and robust method to measure the absolute temporal overlap of the laser and the electron beam at the sample based on the effect of a laser induced plasma on the electron beam transverse distribution, successfully extending a similar method from keV to MeV electron beams. By pumping a standard copper TEM grid to form the plasma, we gain timing information independent of the sample under study. In experiments discussed here the optical delay to achieve temporal overlap between the pump electron beam and probe laser can be determined with ~1 ps precision. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Monte Carlo simulation of ballistic transport in high-mobility channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabatini, G; Marinchio, H; Palermo, C; Varani, L; Daoud, T; Teissier, R [Institut d' Electronique du Sud (CNRS UMR 5214) - Universite Montpellier II (France); Rodilla, H; Gonzalez, T; Mateos, J, E-mail: sabatini@ies.univ-montp2.f [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada - Universidad de Salamanca (Spain)

    2009-11-15

    By means of Monte Carlo simulations coupled with a two-dimensional Poisson solver, we evaluate directly the possibility to use high mobility materials in ultra fast devices exploiting ballistic transport. To this purpose, we have calculated specific physical quantities such as the transit time, the transit velocity, the free flight time and the mean free path as functions of applied voltage in InAs channels with different lengths, from 2000 nm down to 50 nm. In this way the transition from diffusive to ballistic transport is carefully described. We remark a high value of the mean transit velocity with a maximum of 14x10{sup 5} m/s for a 50 nm-long channel and a transit time shorter than 0.1 ps, corresponding to a cutoff frequency in the terahertz domain. The percentage of ballistic electrons and the number of scatterings as functions of distance are also reported, showing the strong influence of quasi-ballistic transport in the shorter channels.

  1. Monte Carlo simulation of ballistic transport in high-mobility channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabatini, G; Marinchio, H; Palermo, C; Varani, L; Daoud, T; Teissier, R; Rodilla, H; Gonzalez, T; Mateos, J

    2009-01-01

    By means of Monte Carlo simulations coupled with a two-dimensional Poisson solver, we evaluate directly the possibility to use high mobility materials in ultra fast devices exploiting ballistic transport. To this purpose, we have calculated specific physical quantities such as the transit time, the transit velocity, the free flight time and the mean free path as functions of applied voltage in InAs channels with different lengths, from 2000 nm down to 50 nm. In this way the transition from diffusive to ballistic transport is carefully described. We remark a high value of the mean transit velocity with a maximum of 14x10 5 m/s for a 50 nm-long channel and a transit time shorter than 0.1 ps, corresponding to a cutoff frequency in the terahertz domain. The percentage of ballistic electrons and the number of scatterings as functions of distance are also reported, showing the strong influence of quasi-ballistic transport in the shorter channels.

  2. Buildings vs. ballistics: Quantifying the vulnerability of buildings to volcanic ballistic impacts using field studies and pneumatic cannon experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G. T.; Kennedy, B. M.; Wilson, T. M.; Fitzgerald, R. H.; Tsunematsu, K.; Teissier, A.

    2017-09-01

    Recent casualties in volcanic eruptions due to trauma from blocks and bombs necessitate more rigorous, ballistic specific risk assessment. Quantitative assessments are limited by a lack of experimental and field data on the vulnerability of buildings to ballistic hazards. An improved, quantitative understanding of building vulnerability to ballistic impacts is required for informing appropriate life safety actions and other risk reduction strategies. We assessed ballistic impacts to buildings from eruptions at Usu Volcano and Mt. Ontake in Japan and compiled available impact data from eruptions elsewhere to identify common damage patterns from ballistic impacts to buildings. We additionally completed a series of cannon experiments which simulate ballistic block impacts to building claddings to investigate their performance over a range of ballistic projectile velocities, masses and energies. Our experiments provide new insights by quantifying (1) the hazard associated with post-impact shrapnel from building and rock fragments; (2) the effect of impact obliquity on damage; and (3) the additional impact resistance buildings possess when claddings are struck in areas directly supported by framing components. This was not well identified in previous work which may have underestimated building vulnerability to ballistic hazards. To improve assessment of building vulnerability to ballistics, we use our experimental and field data to develop quantitative vulnerability models known as fragility functions. Our fragility functions and field studies show that although unreinforced buildings are highly vulnerable to large ballistics (> 20 cm diameter), they can still provide shelter, preventing death during eruptions.

  3. [Wound Ballistics – a Brief Overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolliger, Stephan A; Eggert, Sebastian; Thali, Michael J

    2016-02-03

    Wound ballistics examines the specific effect, namely the wound profile, of bullets on the body by firing at synthetic models made of ordnance gelatine, glycerin soap and synthetic bones, validated with real cases from (battlefield) surgery and forensic pathology. Wound profile refers to the penetration depth, the bullet deformation/ fragmentation, the diameter of the permanent and the temporary wound cavity. Knowing these features and the used ammunition a surgeon can rapidly assess the amount damage within a patient. The forensic pathologist can draw conclusions as to the used ammunition based on the wound profile. By measuring of the destructive capability of different ammunition types, wound ballistics lays the foundation for guidelines concerning the maximum effect of military ammunition.

  4. Ballistic model to estimate microsprinkler droplet distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Marco Antônio Fonseca

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental determination of microsprinkler droplets is difficult and time-consuming. This determination, however, could be achieved using ballistic models. The present study aimed to compare simulated and measured values of microsprinkler droplet diameters. Experimental measurements were made using the flour method, and simulations using a ballistic model adopted by the SIRIAS computational software. Drop diameters quantified in the experiment varied between 0.30 mm and 1.30 mm, while the simulated between 0.28 mm and 1.06 mm. The greatest differences between simulated and measured values were registered at the highest radial distance from the emitter. The model presented a performance classified as excellent for simulating microsprinkler drop distribution.

  5. One-Dimensional Modelling of Internal Ballistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monreal-González, G.; Otón-Martínez, R. A.; Velasco, F. J. S.; García-Cascáles, J. R.; Ramírez-Fernández, F. J.

    2017-10-01

    A one-dimensional model is introduced in this paper for problems of internal ballistics involving solid propellant combustion. First, the work presents the physical approach and equations adopted. Closure relationships accounting for the physical phenomena taking place during combustion (interfacial friction, interfacial heat transfer, combustion) are deeply discussed. Secondly, the numerical method proposed is presented. Finally, numerical results provided by this code (UXGun) are compared with results of experimental tests and with the outcome from a well-known zero-dimensional code. The model provides successful results in firing tests of artillery guns, predicting with good accuracy the maximum pressure in the chamber and muzzle velocity what highlights its capabilities as prediction/design tool for internal ballistics.

  6. The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platt, A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in late May 1972 former President Richard M. Nixon went to Moscow and signed, among other documents, a Treaty to Limit Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Systems. Under this agreement, both the United States and the Soviet Union made a commitment not to build nationwide ABM defenses against the other's intercontinental and submarine-launched ballistic missiles. They agreed to limit ABM deployments to a maximum of two sites, with no more than 100 launchers per site. Thirteen of the treaty's sixteen articles are intended to prevent any deviation from this. In addition, a joint Standing Consultative Commission to monitor compliance was created. National technical means --- sophisticated monitoring devices on land, sea, and in space --- were to be the primary instruments used to monitor compliance with the treaty. The ABM Treaty was signed in conjunction with an Interim Agreement to Limit Strategic Offensive Arms

  7. Comparative microstructures and cytotoxicity assays for ballistic aerosols composed of micrometals and nanometals: respiratory health implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Brenda I; Suro, Raquel M; Garza, Kristine M; Murr, Lawrence E

    2011-01-01

    Aerosol particulates collected on filters from ballistic penetration and erosion events for W–Ni–Co and W–Ni–Fe kinetic energy rod projectiles penetrating steel target plates were observed to be highly cytotoxic to human epithelial A549 lung cells in culture after 48 hours of exposure. The aerosol consisted of micron-sized Fe particulates and nanoparticulate aggregates consisting of W, Ni or W, Co, and some Fe, characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and using energy-dispersive (X-ray) spectrometry for elemental analysis and mapping. Cytotoxic assays of manufactured micron-sized and nanosized metal particulates of W, Ni, Fe, and Co demonstrated that, consistent with many studies in the literature, only the nanoparticulate elements demonstrated measurable cytotoxicity. These results suggest the potential for very severe, short-term, human toxicity, in particular to the respiratory system on inhaling ballistic aerosols. PMID:21499416

  8. Cost Effective Regional Ballistic Missile Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    deploying advanced air defense systems18, such as the Russian S-300 and S-500, and concealing them in hardened, camouflaged sites, such as extensive... Russian objections to the European Phased Adaptive Approach (EPAA) and fund homeland defense priorities.39 Furthermore, the PTSS system was also... Theatre Ballistic Missile Defence Capability Becomes Operational,” Jane’s Missiles & Rockets, 1 February 2011. 55 Joseph W. Kirschbaum, REGIONAL MISSILE

  9. Orbital magnetism in ensembles of ballistic billiards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullmo, D.; Richter, K.; Jalabert, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    The magnetic response of ensembles of small two-dimensional structures at finite temperatures is calculated. Using semiclassical methods and numerical calculation it is demonstrated that only short classical trajectories are relevant. The magnetic susceptibility is enhanced in regular systems, where these trajectories appear in families. For ensembles of squares large paramagnetic susceptibility is obtained, in good agreement with recent measurements in the ballistic regime. (authors). 20 refs., 2 figs

  10. Strategic nuclear policy and ballistic missile defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The article explains the problems of the antirockets (ABM) as they were part of the presentation Salt I 1972. It is a translation from the English of a publication of the Foreign Affairs Research Institute in London. A topical analysis of the strategic nuclear policy of the two superpowers and their attitudes in the question of ballistic missile defense are given by means of two monographies. (orig./HSCH) [de

  11. Modeling internal ballistics of gas combustion guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorge, Volker; Grossjohann, Rico; Schönekess, Holger C; Herbst, Jörg; Bockholdt, Britta; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Frank, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    Potato guns are popular homemade guns which work on the principle of gas combustion. They are usually constructed for recreational rather than criminal purposes. Yet some serious injuries and fatalities due to these guns are reported. As information on the internal ballistics of homemade gas combustion-powered guns is scarce, it is the aim of this work to provide an experimental model of the internal ballistics of these devices and to investigate their basic physical parameters. A gas combustion gun was constructed with a steel tube as the main component. Gas/air mixtures of acetylene, hydrogen, and ethylene were used as propellants for discharging a 46-mm caliber test projectile. Gas pressure in the combustion chamber was captured with a piezoelectric pressure sensor. Projectile velocity was measured with a ballistic speed measurement system. The maximum gas pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise, the time parameters of the pressure curve, and the velocity and path of the projectile through the barrel as a function of time were determined according to the pressure-time curve. The maximum gas pressure was measured to be between 1.4 bar (ethylene) and 4.5 bar (acetylene). The highest maximum rate of pressure rise was determined for hydrogen at (dp/dt)max = 607 bar/s. The muzzle energy was calculated to be between 67 J (ethylene) and 204 J (acetylene). To conclude, this work provides basic information on the internal ballistics of homemade gas combustion guns. The risk of injury to the operator or bystanders is high, because accidental explosions of the gun due to the high-pressure rise during combustion of the gas/air mixture may occur.

  12. Targeting Low-Energy Ballistic Lunar Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous low-energy ballistic transfers exist between the Earth and Moon that require less fuel than conventional transfers, but require three or more months of transfer time. An entirely ballistic lunar transfer departs the Earth from a particular declination at some time in order to arrive at the Moon at a given time along a desirable approach. Maneuvers may be added to the trajectory in order to adjust the Earth departure to meet mission requirements. In this paper, we characterize the (Delta)V cost required to adjust a low-energy ballistic lunar transfer such that a spacecraft may depart the Earth at a desirable declination, e.g., 28.5(white bullet), on a designated date. This study identifies the optimal locations to place one or two maneuvers along a transfer to minimize the (Delta)V cost of the transfer. One practical application of this study is to characterize the launch period for a mission that aims to launch from a particular launch site, such as Cape Canaveral, Florida, and arrive at a particular orbit at the Moon on a given date using a three-month low-energy transfer.

  13. Space-based ballistic-missile defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethe, H.A.; Garwin, R.L.; Gottfried, K.; Kendall, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    This article, based on a forthcoming book by the Union for Concerned Scientists, focuses on the technical aspects of the issue of space-based ballistic-missile defense. After analysis, the authors conclude that the questionable performance of the proposed defense, the ease with which it could be overwhelmed or circumvented, and its potential as an antisatellite system would cause grievous damage to the security of the US if the Strategic Defense Initiative were to be pursued. The path toward greater security lies in quite another direction, they feel. Although research on ballistic-missile defense should continue at the traditional level of expenditure and within the constraints of the ABM Treaty, every effort should be made to negotiate a bilateral ban on the testing and use of space weapons. The authors think it is essential that such an agreement cover all altitudes, because a ban on high-altitude antisatellite weapons alone would not viable if directed energy weapons were developed for ballistic-missile defense. Further, the Star Wars program, unlikely ever to protect the entire nation against a nuclear attack, would nonetheless trigger a major expansion of the arms race

  14. Electron-accepting surface properties of ceria-(praseodymia)-zirconia solids modified by Y 3+ or La 3+ studied by paramagnetic probe method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikryannikova, Larisa N.; Markaryan, Goar L.; Kharlanov, Andrey N.; Lunina, Elena V.

    2003-02-01

    EPR paramagnetic probe method with 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin- N-oxyl (TEMPO) as a probe has been applied to study of electron-accepting properties of the surface of (Y, La 0.1)Ce xZr 1- xO 2- y ( x=0.1-0.7), Y 0.1Pr 0.3Zr 0.6O 2- y and Y 0.1Pr 0.15Ce 0.15Zr 0.7O 2- y mixed oxides. Two types of acceptor sites—coordinatively unsaturated (cus) cations Zr 4+ and Ce 4+—have been revealed on the CeO 2-ZrO 2 surface after thermovacuum treatment (820 K). The relative amounts and "strength" of these centers were evaluated on the basis of EPR spectra analysis. An introduction of trivalent Y 3+ or La 3+ cations reduces the amount of electron-acceptor sites belonging to cerium cations, stabilizing ones as Ce 3+. A formation of very strong electron-accepting sites (Pr 4+ cus cations) able to form charge transfer complexes with adsorbed TEMPO on the surface of praseodymia-containing samples after thermovacuum treatment was found out. At the same time electron-accepting ability of Zr 4+ cationic sites on Y 0.1Pr 0.3Zr 0.6O 2- y and Y 0.1Pr 0.15Ce 0.15Zr 0.7O 2- y surfaces decreases in comparison with ceria-zirconia one. The generally used IR spectroscopy technique with CO as a probe molecule appeared to be considerably less informative for such systems characterization, due to their high catalytic activity to carbon monoxide. A formation of paramagnetic Zr 3+ ions in ceria-zirconia mixed oxides has been investigated by EPR spectroscopy technique. The different states of this paramagnetic ion are realized in the complex oxides depending on Ce/Zr ratio.

  15. Mobile Probing and Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvaa, Uffe; Ørngreen, Rikke; Weinkouff Mathiasen, Anne-Gitte

    2013-01-01

    Mobile probing is a method, developed for learning about digital work situations, as an approach to discover new grounds. The method can be used when there is a need to know more about users and their work with certain tasks, but where users at the same time are distributed (in time and space......). Mobile probing was inspired by the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. The method has been used in two subsequent projects, involving school children (young adults at 15-17 years old) and employees (adults) in a consultancy company. Findings point...... to mobile probing being a flexible method for uncovering the unknowns, as a way of getting rich data to the analysis and design phases. On the other hand it is difficult to engage users to give in depth explanations, which seem easier in synchronous dialogs (whether online or face2face). The development...

  16. Mobile Probing and Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvaa, Uffe; Ørngreen, Rikke; Weinkouff, Anne-Gitte

    2012-01-01

    Mobile probing is a method, which has been developed for learning about digital work situations, as an approach to discover new grounds. The method can be used when there is a need to know more about users and their work with certain tasks, but where users at the same time are distributed (in time...... and space). Mobile probing was inspired by the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. The method has been used in two subsequent projects, involving school children (young adults at 15-17 years old) and employees (adults) in a consultancy company. Findings...... point to mobile probing being a flexible method for uncovering the unknowns, as a way of getting rich data to the analysis and design phases. On the other hand it is difficult to engage users to give in depth explanations, which seem easier in synchronous dialogs (whether online or face2face...

  17. Injuries of the head from backface deformation of ballistic protective helmets under ballistic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafaels, Karin A; Cutcliffe, Hattie C; Salzar, Robert S; Davis, Martin; Boggess, Brian; Bush, Bryan; Harris, Robert; Rountree, Mark Steve; Sanderson, Ellory; Campman, Steven; Koch, Spencer; Dale Bass, Cameron R

    2015-01-01

    Modern ballistic helmets defeat penetrating bullets by energy transfer from the projectile to the helmet, producing helmet deformation. This deformation may cause severe injuries without completely perforating the helmet, termed "behind armor blunt trauma" (BABT). As helmets become lighter, the likelihood of larger helmet backface deformation under ballistic impact increases. To characterize the potential for BABT, seven postmortem human head/neck specimens wearing a ballistic protective helmet were exposed to nonperforating impact, using a 9 mm, full metal jacket, 124 grain bullet with velocities of 400-460 m/s. An increasing trend of injury severity was observed, ranging from simple linear fractures to combinations of linear and depressed fractures. Overall, the ability to identify skull fractures resulting from BABT can be used in forensic investigations. Our results demonstrate a high risk of skull fracture due to BABT and necessitate the prevention of BABT as a design factor in future generations of protective gear. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Polarization-dependent pump-probe studies in atomic fine-structure levels: towards the production of spin-polarized electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokell, E.; Zamith, S.; Bouchene, M.A.; Girard, B.

    2000-01-01

    The precession of orbital and spin angular momentum vectors has been observed in a pump-probe study of the 4P fine-structure states of atomic potassium. A femtosecond pump pulse prepared a coherent superposition of the two fine-structure components. A time-delayed probe pulse then ionized the system after it had been allowed to evolve freely. Oscillations recorded in the ion signal reflect the evolution of the orientation of the orbital and spin angular momentum due to spin-orbit coupling. This interpretation gives physical insight into the cause of the half-period phase shift observed when the relative polarizations of the laser pulses were changed from parallel to perpendicular. Finally, it is shown that these changes in the orientation of the spin momentum vector of the system can be utilized to produce highly spin-polarized free electrons on the femtosecond scale. (author)

  19. Electronic structure of Pt-Co cathode catalysts in membrane electrolyte assembly observed by X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy with different probing depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, M.; Hidai, S.; Niwa, H.; Harada, Y.; Oshima, M.; Ofuchi, H.; Nakamori, Y.; Aoki, T.

    2010-01-01

    Electronic structures of Pt-Co cathode and Pt-Ru anode catalysts in membrane electrolyte assemblies (MEAs) for polymer electrolyte fuel cell have been investigated using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, and the changes of electronic structures accompanied with degradation have been observed by comparison between spectra obtained by fluorescence-yield (FY) and conversion-electron-yield (CEY) methods, probing depths of which are several hundreds μm and ∼100 nm, respectively. The Co K XANES spectra of the as-fabricated MEA show that the Co atoms in the cathode are metallic and oxidized Co ions exist at the interface between the cathode and electrolyte. The spectra of the long-time operated MEA suggest that the oxidation of Co makes progress with degradation of the cathode catalysts. In contrast to the Co K XANES spectra, the line shape of the Ru K XANES spectra is unchanged even after the long-time operation.

  20. On the pathway of photoexcited electrons: probing photon-to-electron and photon-to-phonon conversions in silicon by ATR-IR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karabudak, Engin; Yüce, Emre; Schlautmann, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Photoexcitation and charge carrier thermalization inside semiconductor photocatalysts are two important steps in solar fuel production. Here, photoexcitation and charge carrier thermalization in a silicon wafer are for the first time probed by a novel, yet simple and user-friendly Attenuated Tota...