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Sample records for ballico lolium perenne

  1. Flowering does not decrease vegetative competitiveness of Lolium perenne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Jan; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Hauser, Thure Pavlo

    2009-01-01

    as reduced flowering could free resources and increase productivity. But if so, less-flowering cultivars might be more competitive and invade natural swards. We tested for costs of sexual reproduction on vegetative propagation and competitiveness of the perennial grass Lolium perenne, one of the most...... important forage and turf grasses worldwide. We used the differences in vernalisation requirement between northern and southern European provenances to manipulate the degree of flowering. Over three growing seasons, we counted the number of flower stems and measured the clone diameter. The vernalisation...

  2. Effect of Polyamine Priming on Chilling Tolerance of Lolium perenne during Seed Imbibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingfen WANG; Puchang WANG; Jiahai WU; Lili ZHAO; Bentian MO; Jun LI

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to investigate the effect of potyamine priming on physiological and biochemical variations of Lolium perenne embryos and seed germination. [Method] With annual Lolium perenne (Diamond T and Grazing-8000) as experimental materials, after priming with 0.5 mmol/L putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) for 24 h and chilling imbibition at 5 ℃ for 12, 24, 36 and 48 h, the effect of Put, Spd and Spm priming on chilling tolerance and germination ability of annual Lolium perenne seeds during imbibition was investigated. [Result] Put, Spd and Spm priming improved the activities of peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and content of soluble protein content under low temperature stress, significantly in-creased the germination rate, and shortened the average germination duration. After chilling imbibition for 48 h, compared with the control, the average germination rate of annual Lolium perenne seeds was improved by 15.5% and 12.0% after Put, Spd and Spm priming, and the average germination duration was shortened by 1.21 and 1.14 d. During seed imbibition, the chilling tolerance of Grazing-8000 was stronger than that of Diamond T. Overall, Put, Spd and Spm treatment could increase the chilling tolerance of annual Lolium perenne seeds during imbibition, and improve the germination ability of seeds under low temperature stress. [Conclusion] Results of this study provided theoretical basis for the application of seed priming technology in the production of annual ryegrass.

  3. Phytoremediation of Heavy Metal Pollution in Urban Sewage River Sediment by Lolium perenne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to restore heavy metal pollution of urban sewage river sediment by using Lolium perenne.[Method] Through cultivation test,the phytoremediation of heavy metal pollution in river sediment by L.perenne was analyzed from the aspects of removal effect,optimal removal time and the changes of sucrase activity,urease activity and microbe quantity.[Result] After planting L.perenne for three months,Ni content in sediment was basically stable,while the removal effect of Cr and Mn in sediment wa...

  4. Genotype _ environment interactions for forage yield of Lolium perenne L. sward plots in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolium perenne L. (perennial ryegrass) is by far the most widely sown grass species in Ireland. Genotype by environment (G by E) interactions are a frequent occurrence in forage yield evaluations. The objectives were to determine (i) the nature and relative magnitudes of the pertinent G by E interac...

  5. Genetic differences in root mass of Lolium perenne varieties under field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deru, J.G.C.; Schilder, H.; Schoot, van der J.R.; Eekeren, van N.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Although grasses have dense rooting systems, nutrient uptake and productivity can be increased, and N-leaching reduced, if rooting is further improved. The variation in root mass of 16 varieties of Lolium perenne was studied under field conditions in two experiments on sandy soil in The Netherlands.

  6. Uptake and accumulation of phenanthrene and pyrene in spiked soils by Ryegrass( Lolium perenne L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Sheng-you; CHEN Ying-xu; LIN Qi; WU Wei-xiang; XUE Sheng-guo; SHEN Chao-feng

    2005-01-01

    Phytoremediation has long been recognized as a cost-effective method for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil. A study was conducted to investigate the uptake and accumulation of PAHs in root and shoot of Lolium perenne L. Pot experiments were conducted with series of concentrations of 3.31-378.37 mg/kg for phenanthrene and those of 4.22-365.38 mg/kg for pyrene in a greenhouse. The results showed that both ryegrass roots and shoots did take up PAHs from spiked soils, and generally increased with increasing concentrations of PAH in soil. Bioconcentration factors(BCFs) of phenanthrene by shoots and roots were 0.24-4.25 and 0.17-2.12 for the same treatment. BCFs of pyrene by shoots were 0.20-1.5, except for 4.06 in 4.32 mg/kg treatment, much lower than BCFs of pyrene by roots (0.58-2.28). BCFs of phenanthrene and pyrene tended to decrease with increasing concentrations of phenanthrene and pyrene in soil. Direct uptake and accumulation of these compounds by Lolium perenne L. was very low compared with the other loss pathways, which meant that plant-promoted microbial biodegradation might be the main contribution to plant-enhanced removal of phenanthrene and pyrene in soil. However, the presence of Lolium perenne L. significantly enhanced the removal of phenanthrene and pyrene in spiked soil. At the end of 60 d experiment, the extractable concentrations of phenanthrene and pyrene were lower in planted soil than in non-planted soil, about 83.24%-91.98% of phenanthrene and 68.53%-84.10% of pyrene were removed from soils, respectively. The results indicated that the removal of PAHs in contaminated soils was a feasible approach by using Lolium perenne L.

  7. Selectivity of some herbicides to perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), grown for seed production

    OpenAIRE

    Tsvetanka Dimitrova; Aneliya Katova

    2011-01-01

    During the period 2008-2010, on the experimental field of the Institute of Forage Crops - Pleven, on slightly leached chernozem a study was conducted with the purpose to determine the selectivity of some herbicides to perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), and their influence on the seed productivity. As a result of the study the following was found: herbicides for broadleaf weeds control - Arat (500 g/l dicamba + 250 g/l tritosulfuron) at rate of 100 ml/h...

  8. Seasonal Variation of Provitamin D2 and Vitamin D2 in Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäpelt, Rie Bak; Didion, Thomas; Smedsgaard, Jørn;

    2011-01-01

    Ergosterol (provitamin D(2)) is converted to vitamin D(2) in grass by exposure to UV light. Six varieties of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) were harvested four times during the season, and the contents of vitamin D(2) and ergosterol were analyzed by a sensitive and selective liquid...... and vitamin D(2) change more than a factor of 10 during the season. These results demonstrate that grass potentially can be a significant source of vitamin D for grazing animals and animals fed on silage and hay....

  9. Carbon balance and water use efficiency of frequently cut Lolium perenne L. swards at elevated carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schapendonk, A.H.C.M.; Dijkstra, P.; Groenwold, J.; Pot, C.S.; Geijn, van de S.C.

    1997-01-01

    The impact of doubled atmospheric [CO2] on the carbon balance of regularly cut Lolium perenne L. swards was studied for two years under semi-field conditions in the Wageningen Rhizolab. CO2 and H2O vapour exchange rates of the swards were measured continuously for two years in transparent enclosures

  10. EFFICIENCY OF INDIRECT SELECTION FOR DRY MATTER YIELD BASED ON FRESH MATTER YIELD IN LOLIUM PERENNE L. SWARD PLOTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forage dry matter yield (DMY) is a high-priority trait in breeding perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). However, determining dry matter concentration is highly labor intensive. Indirect selection based on fresh matter yield (FMY) would be easier, quicker and less expensive and, for a similar leve...

  11. Nitrogen application in amenity-types of Lolium perenne L. grown for seed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    1998-01-01

    Three amenity-type perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) cultivars Elka, Taya and Pippin were undersown in 1991-93 in spring barley at Roskilde and Rnhave, Denmark, and given 0, 30 or 60 kg N ha-1 in autumn combined with 70, 100 or 130 kg N ha-1 in spring. Seed yield did not differ among cultivars...

  12. Expressed sequence tag-derived microsatellite markers of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studer, Bruno; Asp, Torben; Frei, Ursula;

    2008-01-01

    An expressed sequence tag (EST) library of the key grassland species perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) has been exploited as a resource for microsatellite marker development. Out of 955 simple sequence repeat (SSR) containing ESTs, 744 were used for primer design. Primer amplification was te...

  13. Correlations between productivity elements in Lolium perenne L. species for new varieties resistant to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Radu POP

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Perennial ryegrass is considered the most important perennial gramineous plant due to the many possibilities of use (grass and fodder [6, 9, 15].With the increasing emphasis put on increasing the area of green space, obtaining new biological forms - varieties of the main species of gramineous plants for turf, with increased resistance to drought and land during the summer, may represent an important objective of the research companies producing such seed [6, 7].In the present study, are given researches on correlations between productivity elements, obtained in an experiment that simulates conditions of severe drought soil, to different genotypes of the species Lolium perenne L., which is an ideal partner for simple and complex mixtures of turf.Establishment of correlations between key elements of productivity show to the breeder, in the selection work, choice of valuable genotypes consistent with the objectives of its program.

  14. Molecular characterization of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Md. Shofiqul; Møller, Ian Max; Studer, Bruno;

    2011-01-01

    to increase biomass yield, improve nutritional value and tolerance towards abiotic and biotic stress. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is an efficient tool to control pollination for hybrid seed production. In order to identify the causative polymorphism of the CMS phenotype, a cytoplasmic male sterile plant...... using 454 next-generation sequencing technology, resulting in approximately 800,000 high quality single reads. Here we report on the sequencing and the assembly of the mitochondrial genome from perennial ryegrass. Moreover, the assembly and annotation of the male-sterile and fertile mitochondrial......Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is a key grassland species in temperate climates. As an out breeding crop, ryegrass is currently being bred as population and synthetic families, thereby not fully exploiting the genetically available heterosis. Thus, hybrid breeding has the potential...

  15. Phytochelatin synthesis in response to elevated CO2 under cadmium stress in Lolium perenne L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yan; Ju, Xuehai; Liao, Shangqiang; Song, Zhengguo; Li, Zhongyang

    2011-10-15

    The increasing atmospheric CO(2) and heavy metal contamination in soil are two of the major environmental problems. Knowledge of the Cd stress coping mechanisms is needed to understand the regulation of the plants' metabolism under the increasing atmospheric CO(2) levels. Lolium perenne L. was grown hydroponically under two concentrations of atmospheric CO(2) (360 and 1000μLL(-1)) and six concentrations of cadmium (0-160μmolL(-1)) to investigate Cd uptake, Cd transportation, and variations in phytochelatin (PC) concentration. Cd concentrations in roots and shoots were decreased, but transport index (Ti) was increased under elevated CO(2) compared to ambient CO(2). Regardless of CO(2) concentrations, Cd and PC concentrations, especially the concentrations of high molecular weight PCs (PC(4), PC(5), PC(6)) were higher with increasing Cd concentration in growth media and longer Cd exposure time. Under the elevated CO(2), more high molecular weight PCs (PC(4), PC(5), PC(6)) in shoots and roots were synthesized compared to ambient CO(2), with higher SH:Cd ratio in roots as well. These results indicate that under elevated CO(2), L. perenne may be better protected against Cd stress with higher biomass, lower Cd concentration and better detoxification by phytochelatins.

  16. Characterization of a family of ice-active proteins from the Ryegrass, Lolium perenne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumble, Krishnanand D; Demmer, Jerome; Fish, Steven; Hall, Claire; Corrales, Sofia; DeAth, Angela; Elton, Clare; Prestidge, Ross; Luxmanan, Selvanesan; Marshall, Craig J; Wharton, David A

    2008-12-01

    Five genes coding for ice-active proteins were identified from an expressed sequence tag database of Lolium perenne cDNA libraries. Each of the five genes were characterized by the presence of an N-terminal signal peptide, a region enriched in hydrophilic amino acids and a leucine-rich region in four of the five genes that is homologous with the receptor domain of receptor-like protein kinases of plants. The C-terminal region of all five genes contains sequence homologous with Lolium and Triticum ice-active proteins. Of the four ice-active proteins (IAP1, IAP2, IAP3 and IAP5) cloned, three could be expressed in Escherichia coli and recovered in a functional form in order to study their ice activity. All three ice-active proteins had recrystallization inhibition activity but showed no detectable antifreeze or ice nucleation activity at the concentration tested. IAP2 and IAP5 formed distinct hexagonal-shaped crystals in the nanolitre osmometer as compared to the weakly hexagonal crystals produced by IAP3. PMID:18835384

  17. Genetic and Environmental Variance Among F2 Families in a Commercial Breeding Program for Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fé, Dario; Greve-Pedersen, Morten; Jensen, Christian Sig

    In the joint project “FORAGESELECT”, we aim to implement Genome Wide Selection (GWS) in breeding of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), in order to increase genetic response in important agronomic traits such as yield, seed production, stress tolerance and disease resistance, while decreasing...... programs based on GWS. Future work will focus on developing association models based on tailored phenotype data and genotype-by-sequencing-derived allele frequencies...

  18. Selectivity of Some Herbicides to Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L., Grown for Seed Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetanka Dimitrova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the period 2008-2010, on the experimental field of the Institute of Forage Crops – Pleven, on slightly leached chernozem a study was conducted with the purpose to determine the selectivity of some herbicides to perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L., and theirinfluence on the seed productivity. As a result of the study the following was found: herbicides for broadleaf weeds control – Arat (500 g/l dicamba + 250 g/l tritosulfuron at rate of 100 ml/ha, Korida 75 VDG (750 g/kg tribenuron-methyl – 15 g/ha and Cambio SL (320 g/l bentazone + 90 g/l dicamba – 1250 ml/ha had high selectivity to perennial ryegrass, applied at 2-4 leaf stage during establishing year of the stand and until the stage of the beginning of shooting up in seed production year. Herbicide for grass weeds control: Topik 080EK (80 g/l clodinafop-prop-argyl + antidote at rate of 300 ml/ha, applied at the same stage can be applied in seed production stands of perennial ryegrass. Herbicide for grass weeds control – Grasp 25SK (250 g/l tralkoxydim + Atplus 463 at rate of 1000 + 1000 ml/ha showed phytotoxic effect on L. perenne and caused the reduction of seed and dry biomass productivity. Realization of the biological potential concerning seed and dry mass yield of perennial ryegrass demands application of selective herbicides Arat, Korida 75 VDG and Cambio SL in control of broadleaf weeds and Topik 080EK in control of grass weeds.

  19. Herbage Production, Nutritive Value and Grazing Preference of Diploid and Tetraploid Perennial Ryegrass Cultivars (Lolium perenne L. Producción de Fitomasa, Calidad Nutritiva y Preferencia de Pastoreo de Cultivares Diploides y Tetraploides de Ballica Perenne (Lolium perenne L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A Balocchi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine, under the soil and climatic conditions of Southern Chile, the effect of the ploidy of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cultivars on herbage production, nutritive value, grazing preference and utilization of pasture produced. This study was conducted in southern Chile, Valdivia Province, and was evaluated for 3 years. The tetraploid cultivars used were Quartet (4n, Gwendal (4n, Pastoral (4n and Napoleon (4n. The diploid cultivars were Anita (2n, Jumbo (2n, Aries (2n, and Yatsyn 1 (2n.When the average sward height reached 20 cm, all plots were simultaneously grazed by dairy cows for a period of 24 h. Before and after grazing, sward height, dry matter availability and nutritive value were evaluated. Grazing preference was visually assessed every 5 min for a period of 2.5 h after the afternoon milking. During the 3-year period 20 grazing events were evaluated. A randomized complete block design, with eight cultivars and three replicates, was used. Diploid cultivars showed greater herbage mass accumulation than tetraploid cultivars (P ≤ 0.05. No significant differences were obtained in the annual average crude protein content. Nevertheless, tetraploid cultivars showed a greater D value than diploid cultivars, except during the third year when the difference was not statistically significant. Dairy cows grazed more time on tetraploid cultivars. Considering, additionally, the residual herbage mass after grazing and the percentage of pasture utilization, diploid cultivars were less intensively grazed, suggesting a lower consumption by the cows.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar, bajo las condiciones edafoclimáticas del sur de Chile, el efecto de la ploidía de cultivares de ballica perenne (Lolium perenne L. sobre el rendimiento de fitomasa, calidad nutricional, preferencia de pastoreo y porcentaje de utilización del forraje producido. El ensayo se realizó en el sur de Chile, provincia de

  20. Plants modify biological processes to ensure survival following carbon depletion: a Lolium perenne model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plants, due to their immobility, have evolved mechanisms allowing them to adapt to multiple environmental and management conditions. Short-term undesirable conditions (e.g. moisture deficit, cold temperatures generally reduce photosynthetic carbon supply while increasing soluble carbohydrate accumulation. It is not known, however, what strategies plants may use in the long-term to adapt to situations resulting in net carbon depletion (i.e. reduced photosynthetic carbon supply and carbohydrate accumulation. In addition, many transcriptomic experiments have typically been undertaken under laboratory conditions; therefore, long-term acclimation strategies that plants use in natural environments are not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. was used as a model plant to define whether plants adapt to repetitive carbon depletion and to further elucidate their long-term acclimation mechanisms. Transcriptome changes in both lamina and stubble tissues of field-grown plants with depleted carbon reserves were characterised using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR. The RT-qPCR data for select key genes indicated that plants reduced fructan degradation, and increased photosynthesis and fructan synthesis capacities following carbon depletion. This acclimatory response was not sufficient to prevent a reduction (P<0.001 in net biomass accumulation, but ensured that the plant survived. CONCLUSIONS: Adaptations of plants with depleted carbon reserves resulted in reduced post-defoliation carbon mobilization and earlier replenishment of carbon reserves, thereby ensuring survival and continued growth. These findings will help pave the way to improve plant biomass production, for either grazing livestock or biofuel purposes.

  1. Responses of Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) Grown in Mudflats to Sewage Sludge Amendment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Yan-chao; GU Chuan-hui; TAO Tian-yun; ZHU Xiao-wen; XU Yi-ran; SHAN Yu-hua; FENG Ke

    2014-01-01

    Sewage sludge amendment (SSA) is an alternative waste disposal technique and a potential way to increase fertility of mudflats for crop growth. The present study aimed to assess the suitability of SSA by assessing the nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) uptakes, heavy metal accumulation, growth, biomass, and yield response of ryegrass (Lolium perenneL.) at 0, 30, 75, 150, and 300 t ha-1 SSA rates at various growth stages. The results showed that the highest biomass of ryegrass at seedling and vegetative stages were at 300 and 150 t ha-1 SSA rate, respectively. The increments of ryegrass yield at reproductive stage at 30, 75, 150, and 300 t ha-1 SSA rates were 98.0, 122.6, 88.1, and 61.2%, compared to unamended soil. N and P concentrations in ryegrass increased with increasing SSA rates at all stages except N and P in roots dropped signiifcantly at 300 t ha-1 rate at vegetative stage. The metal concentration for Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd, Cr, and Pb in shoot of ryegrass at 300 t ha-1 SSA rate increased by 0.63-, 2.34-, 15.02-, 0.97-, 10.00-, 0.01- and 1.13-fold, respectively, compared to unamended soil. However, heavy metal concentrations in shoot of ryegrass were lower than the standard for forage products in China. The study suggested that sewage sludge amendment in mudlfat soils might be feasible. However, the impacts of sludge application on edible crop plants and soil environment need further investigations.

  2. ‘‘Blind'' mapping of genic DNA sequence polymorphisms in Lolium perenne L. by high resolution melting curve analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studer, Bruno; Jensen, Louise Bach; Fiil, Alice;

    2009-01-01

    High resolution melting curve analysis (HRM) measures dissociation of double stranded DNA of a PCR product amplified in the presence of a saturating fluorescence dye. Recently, HRM proved successful to genotype DNA sequence polymorphisms such as SSRs and SNPs based on the shape of the melting...... curves. In this study, HRM was used for simultaneous screening and genotyping of genic DNA sequence polymorphisms identified in the Lolium perenne F2 mapping population VrnA. Melting profiles of PCR products amplified from previously published gene loci and from a novel gene putatively involved...

  3. Toxicity of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds to the red clover (Trifolium pratense), ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and mustard (Sinapsis alba)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverdrup, L. E.; Krogh, P. H.; Nielsen, T.;

    2003-01-01

    The effect of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) on the seed emergence and early life-stage growth of three terrestrial plants (Sinapsis alba, Trifolium pratense and Lolium perenne) were studied in a greenhouse, using a Danish agricultural soil with an organic carbon content of 1.6%. After...... three weeks of exposure, seed emergence and seedling weight (fresh weight and dry weight) were determined. Exposure concentrations were veri.ed with chemical analysis. The substances tested were four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (.uoranthene, pyrene, phenanthrene and .uorene), the N-, S-, and O...

  4. Toxicity of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds to red clover (Trifolium pratense), ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and mustard (Sinapsis alba)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverdrup, L.E.; Krogh, P.H.; Nielsen, T.;

    2003-01-01

    The effect of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) on the seed emergence and early life-stage growth of three terrestrial plants (Sinapsis alba, Trifolium pratense and Lolium perenne) were studied in a greenhouse, using a Danish agricultural soil with an organic carbon content of 1.6%. After...... three weeks of exposure, seed emergence and seedling weight (fresh weight and dry weight) were determined. Exposure concentrations were verified with chemical analysis. The substances tested were four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (fluoranthene, pyrene, phenanthrene and fluorene), the N-, S-, and O...

  5. Does gibberellin biosynthesis play a critical role in the growth of Lolium perenne? Evidence from a transcriptional analysis of gibberellin and carbohydrate metabolic genes after defoliation.

    OpenAIRE

    Qianhe eLiu; Jones, Chris S; Parsons, Anthony J.; Hong eXue; Susanne eRasmussen

    2015-01-01

    Global meat and milk production depends to a large extent on grazed pastures, with Lolium perenne being the major forage grass in temperate regions. Defoliation and subsequent regrowth of leaf blades is a major and essential event with respect to L. perenne growth and productivity. Following defoliation, carbohydrates (mainly fructans and sucrose) have to be mobilised from heterotrophic tissues to provide energy and carbon for regrowth of photosynthetic tissues. This mobilisation of reserve c...

  6. Does gibberellin biosynthesis play a critical role in the growth of Lolium perenne? Evidence from a transcriptional analysis of gibberellin and carbohydrate metabolic genes after defoliation

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qianhe; Jones, Chris S; Parsons, Anthony J.; Xue, Hong; Rasmussen, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Global meat and milk production depends to a large extent on grazed pastures, with Lolium perenne being the major forage grass in temperate regions. Defoliation and subsequent regrowth of leaf blades is a major and essential event with respect to L. perenne growth and productivity. Following defoliation, carbohydrates (mainly fructans and sucrose) have to be mobilized from heterotrophic tissues to provide energy and carbon for regrowth of photosynthetic tissues. This mobilization of reserve c...

  7. Effects of Condensed Tannins from Quebracho Extract on the Kinetic of in vitro Gas Production on Trifolium repens, Lotus corniculatus and Lolium perenne

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Sandrine C.; Borba, Alfredo Emílio Silveira de

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of condensed tannins (CT) on the kinetic of gas production in vitro, on the three main species of Azorean pasture: Trifolium repens, Lotus corniculatus and Lolium perenne, using Quebracho extract as the source of CT, and also to calculate total tannins and condensed tannins on the species studied. Lotus corniculatus, Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens were tested in vitro with the inclusion of Quebracho extract in doses of 0%, 2.5% and 5% DM. The ...

  8. STUDIES REGARDING THE CHELATE-INDUCED HYPERACCUMULATION OF CU AND FE USING LOLIUM PERENNE SPECIES IN MINING AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA-DIANA PRICOP

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The plant capacity to absorb high amounts of metal for a short period of time is the major factor that influences the efficiency of phytoextraction. The hyperaccumulating plants uptake high amounts in their tissues correlated to the metal concentrations in soil. Chelating agents have the capacity to induce the metal accumulation in biomass. They increase metal bioavailability for plants by releasing the metal in accessible forms. The present study emphasizes that in the case of EDTA use, the obtained biomass is smaller compared to the other variants, showing a lower tolerance to this chelating agent of Lolium perenne species. Cu and Fe phytoextraction by Lolium perenne species is higher in the case of EDTA use. Cu bioaccumulation has higher values in variants with compost-sterile mixture ratio of 1:4 in comparison with Fe. In the case of the best compost-sterile mixture ratio of 1:3 the highest biomass is obtained in all the variants, biosolids’ effect being stronger compared to the chelating agent.

  9. Fragments of the key flowering gene GIGANTEA are associated with helitron-type sequences in the Pooideae grass Lolium perenne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langdon Tim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helitrons are a class of transposable elements which have been identified in a number of species of plants, animals and fungi. They are unique in their proposed rolling-circle mode of replication, have a highly variable copy-number and have been implicated in the restructuring of coding sequences both by their insertion into existing genes and by their incorporation of transcriptionally competent gene fragments. Helitron discovery depends on identifying associated DNA signature sequences and comprehensive evaluation of helitron contribution to a particular genome requires detailed computational analysis of whole genome sequence. Therefore, the role which helitrons have played in modelling non-model plant genomes is largely unknown. Results Cloning of the flowering gene GIGANTEA (GI from a BAC library of the Pooideae grass Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass identified the target gene and several GI pseudogene fragments spanning the first five exons. Analysis of genomic sequence 5' and 3' of one these GI fragments revealed motifs consistent with helitron-type transposon insertion, specifically a putative 5'-A↓T-3' insertion site containing 5'-TC and CTAG-3' borders with a sub-terminal 16 bp hairpin. Screening of a BAC library of the closely related grass species Festuca pratensis (meadow fescue indicated similar helitron-associated GI fragments present in this genome, as well as non-helitron associated GI fragments derived from the same region of GI. In order to investigate the possible extent of ancestral helitron-activity in L. perenne, a methylation-filtered GeneThresher® genomic library developed from this species was screened for potential helitron 3' hairpin sequences associated with a 3'-CTRR motif. This identified 7 potential helitron hairpin-types present between at least 9 and 51 times within the L. perenne methylation-filtered library. Conclusion This represents evidence for a possible ancestral role for helitrons

  10. Isolation and characterisation of laccase cDNAs from meristematic and stem tissues of ryegrass (¤Lolium perenne¤)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavnholt, B.; Larsen, K.; Rasmussen, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    Plant laccases are believed to be involved in dehydrogenative polymerisation of lignin. We report here the first cloning of monocot laccases. Five different laccase-encoding cDNA sequences were identified from ryegrass (Lolium perenne); four from stem and one from meristematic tissue. Three c...

  11. Enhanced expression of Rubisco activase splicing variants differentially affects Rubisco activity during low temperature treatment in Lolium perenne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurczyk, Barbara; Pociecha, Ewa; Grzesiak, Maciej; Kalita, Katarzyna; Rapacz, Marcin

    2016-07-01

    Alternative splicing of the Rubisco activase gene was shown to be a point for optimization of photosynthetic carbon assimilation. It can be expected to be a stress-regulated event that depends on plant freezing tolerance. The aim of the study was to examine the relationships among Rubisco activity, the expression of two Rubisco activase splicing variants and photoacclimation to low temperature. The experiment was performed on two Lolium perenne genotypes with contrasting levels of freezing tolerance. The study investigated the effect of pre-hardening (15°C) and cold acclimation (4°C) on net photosynthesis, photosystem II photochemical activity, Rubisco activity and the expression of two splicing variants of the Rubisco activase gene. The results showed an induction of Rubisco activity at both 15°C and 4°C only in a highly freezing-tolerant genotype. The enhanced Rubisco activity after pre-hardening corresponded to increased expression of the splicing variant representing the large isoform, while the increase in Rubisco activity during cold acclimation was due to the activation of both transcript variants. These boosts in Rubisco activity also corresponded to an activation of non-photochemical mechanism of photoacclimation induced at low temperature exclusively in the highly freezing-tolerant genotype. In conclusion, enhanced expression of Rubisco activase splicing variants caused an increase in Rubisco activity during pre-hardening and cold acclimation in the more freezing-tolerant Lolium perenne genotype. The induction of the transcript variant representing the large isoform may be an important element of increasing the carbon assimilation rate supporting the photochemical mechanism of photosynthetic acclimation to cold. PMID:27152456

  12. Effect of humic acid and mycorrhiza fungi on some characteristics of “Speedy green” perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kafi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of humic acid and mycorrhiza fungi on visual quality, some characteristics of roots and chlorophyll changes of ryegrass, an experiment was carried out in Research Greenhouses of Department of Horticultural Science, University of Tehran, in spring and summer of 2009. The ryegrass was “Speedy green” perennial ryegrass, which is composed of three lolium (Lolium perenne L. cultivars. After autoclave of the soil, addition of inoculums of mycorrhiza fungi (Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices to pots and sowing of the seeds, plants were given enough time to grow. After establishment, humic acid was sprayed on leaves at concentrations of 0 (as control, 100, 400 and 1000 mg/L, and the above-mentioned characteristics were measured until the 9th week after starting the treatments. The results showed that humic acid was significantly effective on chlorophyll a, b, and total chlorophyll content, root length and fresh and dry weights of roots; but had no effect on visual quality, root volume and colonization percentage. Mycorrhiza fungi were effective on all characteristics. Among the mycorrhiza fungi, G. mosseae was better than G. intraradices on root factors, while had no positive effect on aerial parts. Colonization percentage was almost equal in both fungi. The effect of mycorrhiza fungi on the above-mentioned characteristics, with respect to the inoculums solution, was probably due to the production of hormone-like effects and enhanced hypha density in soil.

  13. Evaluation of a cost effective technique for treating aquaculture water discharge using Lolium perenne Lam as a biofilter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater stabilization ponds generate low cost by-products that are useful for agriculture.The utilization of these by-products for soil amendment and as a source of nutrients for plants requires a high level of sanitation and stabilization of the organic matter,to maintain acceptable levels of soil,water and air quality.In this study,two aquaculture wastewater treatment systems;recirculating system and a floating plant bed system were designed to improve the quality of irrigation Water in local communities with low income.In both systems the grass species Lolium perenne Lam was used as a plant biofilter while vegetable specie Amaranthus viridis was used to evaluate the performance of the system and the suitability of the phyto-treated water for irrigation.It was found that the harmful material removal rate for recirculating system was 88.9% for TAN (total ammonia nitrogen),90% for NO2--N,64.8% for NO3--N while for floating plant bed system 82.7% for TAN,82% for NO2--N and 60.5% for NO3--N.Comparative analysis of the efficiency of waste element removal between the two systems revealed that both systems performed well,however,plant growth was not robust for floating plant bed system while recirculating system is energy consuming.Although both systems did not attain sufficient levels of TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) load reduction,the treatment with L.perenne remarkably improved the irrigation water quality.A.viridis plants irrigated with the phyto-treated discharge water had lesser concentrations of heavy metals in their tissues compared to those irrigated with untreated discharge.The control plants irrigated with untreated discharge were also found to be highly lignified with few stems and small leaves.

  14. Evaluation of a cost effective technique for treating aquaculture water discharge using Lolium perenne Lam as a biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduwimana, André; Yang, Xiang-Long; Wang, Li-Ren

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater stabilization ponds generate low cost by-products that are useful for agriculture. The utilization of these by-products for soil amendment and as a source of nutrients for plants requires a high level of sanitation and stabilization of the organic matter, to maintain acceptable levels of soil, water and air quality. In this study, two aquaculture wastewater treatment systems; recirculating system and a floating plant bed system were designed to improve the quality of irrigation water in local communities with low income. In both systems the grass species Lolium perenne Lam was used as a plant biofilter while vegetable specie Amaranthus viridis was used to evaluate the performance of the system and the suitability of the phyto-treated water for irrigation. It was found that the harmful material removal rate for recirculating system was 88.9% for TAN (total ammonia nitrogen), 90% for NO2(-)-N, 64.8% for NO3(-)-N while for floating plant bed system 82.7% for TAN, 82% for NO2(-)-N and 60.5% for NO3(-)-N. Comparative analysis of the efficiency of waste element removal between the two systems revealed that both systems performed well, however, plant growth was not robust for floating plant bed system while recirculating system is energy consuming. Although both systems did not attain sufficient levels of TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) load reduction, the treatment with L. perenne remarkably improved the irrigation water quality. A. viridis plants irrigated with the phyto-treated discharge water had lesser concentrations of heavy metals in their tissues compared to those irrigated with untreated discharge. The control plants irrigated with untreated discharge were also found to be highly lignified with few stems and small leaves. PMID:17966513

  15. Glyphosate effects on gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence responses of two Lolium perenne L. biotypes with differential herbicide sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanniccari, Marcos; Tambussi, Eduardo; Istilart, Carolina; Castro, Ana María

    2012-08-01

    Despite the extensive use of glyphosate, how it alters the physiology and metabolism of plants is still unclear. Photosynthesis is not regarded to be a primary inhibitory target of glyphosate, but it has been reported to be affected by this herbicide. The aim of the current research was to determine the effects of glyphosate on the light and dark reactions of photosynthesis by comparing glyphosate-susceptible and glyphosate-resistant Lolium perenne biotypes. After glyphosate treatment, accumulation of reduced carbohydrates occurred before a decrease in gas exchange. Stomatal conductance and CO(2) assimilation were reduced earlier than chlorophyll fluorescence and the amount of chlorophyll in susceptible plants. In the glyphosate-resistant biotype, stomatal conductance was the only parameter slightly affected only 5 days post-application. In susceptible plants, the initial glyphosate effects on gas exchange could be a response to a feedback regulation of photosynthesis. Since the herbicide affects actively growing tissues regardless of the inhibition of photosynthesis, the demand of assimilates decreased and consequently induced an accumulation of carbohydrates in leaves. We concluded that stomatal conductance could be a very sensitive parameter to assess both the susceptibility/resistance to glyphosate before the phytotoxic symptoms become evident.

  16. Comparative metabolite fingerprinting of the rumen system during colonisation of three forage grass (Lolium perenne L. varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison H Kingston-Smith

    Full Text Available The rumen microbiota enable ruminants to degrade complex ligno-cellulosic compounds to produce high quality protein for human consumption. However, enteric fermentation by domestic ruminants generates negative by-products: greenhouse gases (methane and environmental nitrogen pollution. The current lack of cultured isolates representative of the totality of rumen microbial species creates an information gap about the in vivo function of the rumen microbiota and limits our ability to apply predictive biology for improvement of feed for ruminants. In this work we took a whole ecosystem approach to understanding how the metabolism of the microbial population responds to introduction of its substrate. Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR spectroscopy-based metabolite fingerprinting was used to discriminate differences in the plant-microbial interactome of the rumen when using three forage grass varieties (Lolium perenne L. cv AberDart, AberMagic and Premium as substrates for microbial colonisation and fermentation. Specific examination of spectral regions associated with fatty acids, amides, sugars and alkanes indicated that although the three forages were apparently similar by traditional nutritional analysis, patterns of metabolite flux within the plant-microbial interactome were distinct and plant genotype dependent. Thus, the utilisation pattern of forage nutrients by the rumen microbiota can be influenced by subtleties determined by forage genotypes. These data suggest that our interactomic approach represents an important means to improve forages and ultimately the livestock environment.

  17. Aquaculture Solids Management Using A Combination of Sand/Gravel or Unwoven Fabric Bed With Lolium perenne Lam as A Plant Biofilter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective This work is an evaluation of the efficiency of a sand-gravel or unwoven fabric bed system and Lolium perenne Lam as plant biofiltter in the reduction of solids and nutrients removal from aquaculture discharge water. Methods The first step consisted of the collection of wastewater in the tank and the distribution at three different hydraulic loading regimes (0.5, 1, 1.5L/hour) to the different experimental systems. The second step was to evaluate the performance of the different systems. The first system consisted of a bucket filled with a substrate of sand/gravel (20 cm in depth), on the bottom of which was a 80 mesh/inch2 of nylon (S1); the second was similar, but was planted with Lolium perenne lam (S2); the third was planted with a grass plate consisting of 7 layers of unwoven fabric planted with L. perenne (S3). Results The second system showed the best performance in reducing solids as well as in nutrients (TN, TP, and COD) reduction. The removal rates for TS, TN, and TP were negatively correlated with the loading regimes, with 0.5 L/hour being the most efficient and thus taken as the reference. Conclusions Solids management using a sand/gravel substrate as bed culture and Lolium perenne L. as plant biofilter has proved to be an efficient technique for solids reduction with low operating cost. This grass plays an important role in wastewater eco-treatment by absorbing dissolved pollutants (TAN) as nutrients for its growth.

  18. Genotyping by RAD sequencing enables mapping of fatty acid composition traits in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne (L.)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, Matthew; Yadav, Rattan; Lee, Michael; Armstead, Ian; Sanderson, Ruth; Scollan, Nigel; Powell, Wayne; Skøt, Leif

    2013-06-01

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is the most important forage crop in temperate livestock agriculture. Its nutritional quality has significant impact on the quality of meat and milk for human consumption. Evidence suggests that higher energy content in forage can assist in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from ruminants. Increasing the fatty acid content (especially α-linolenic acid, an omega-3 fatty acid) may thus contribute to better forage, but little is known about the genetic basis of variation for this trait. To this end, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified associated with major fatty acid content in perennial ryegrass using a population derived from a cross between the heterozygous and outbreeding high-sugar grass variety AberMagic and an older variety, Aurora. A genetic map with 434 restriction-associated DNA (RAD) and SSR markers was generated. Significant QTLs for the content of palmitic (C16:0) on linkage groups (LGs) 2 and 7; stearic (C18:0) on LGs 3, 4 and 7; linoleic (C18:2n-6) on LGs 2 and 5; and α-linolenic acids (C18:3n-3) on LG 1 were identified. Two candidate genes (a lipase and a beta-ketoacyl CoA synthase), both associated with C16:0, and separately with C18:2n-6 and C18:0 contents, were identified. The physical positions of these genes in rice and their genetic positions in perennial ryegrass were consistent with established syntenic relationships between these two species. Validation of these associations is required, but the utility of RAD markers for rapid generation of genetic maps and QTL analysis has been demonstrated for fatty acid composition in a global forage crop. PMID:23331642

  19. Exogenous Classic Phytohormones Have Limited Regulatory Effects on Fructan and Primary Carbohydrate Metabolism in Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperl, Anna; Morvan-Bertrand, Annette; Prud'homme, Marie-Pascale; van der Graaff, Eric; Roitsch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Fructans are polymers of fructose and one of the main constituents of water-soluble carbohydrates in forage grasses and cereal crops of temperate climates. Fructans are involved in cold and drought resistance, regrowth following defoliation and early spring growth, seed filling, have beneficial effects on human health and are used for industrial processes. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) serves as model species to study fructan metabolism. Fructan metabolism is under the control of both synthesis by fructosyltransferases (FTs) and breakdown through fructan exohydrolases (FEHs). The accumulation of fructans can be triggered by high sucrose levels and abiotic stress conditions such as drought and cold stress. However, detailed studies on the mechanisms involved in the regulation of fructan metabolism are scarce. Since different phytohormones, especially abscisic acid (ABA), are known to play an important role in abiotic stress responses, the possible short term regulation of the enzymes involved in fructan metabolism by the five classical phytohormones was investigated. Therefore, the activities of enzymes involved in fructan synthesis and breakdown, the expression levels for the corresponding genes and levels for water-soluble carbohydrates were determined following pulse treatments with ABA, auxin (AUX), ethylene (ET), gibberellic acid (GA), or kinetin (KIN). The most pronounced fast effects were a transient increase of FT activities by AUX, KIN, ABA, and ET, while minor effects were evident for 1-FEH activity with an increased activity in response to KIN and a decrease by GA. Fructan and sucrose levels were not affected. This observed discrepancy demonstrates the importance of determining enzyme activities to obtain insight into the physiological traits and ultimately the plant phenotype. The comparative analyses of activities for seven key enzymes of primary carbohydrate metabolism revealed no co-regulation between enzymes of the fructan and sucrose pool

  20. Exogenous classic phytohormones have limited regulatory effects on fructan and primary carbohydrate metabolism in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eGasperl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fructans are polymers of fructose and one of the main constituents of water-soluble carbohydrates in forage grasses and cereal crops of temperate climates. Fructans are involved in cold and drought resistance, regrowth following defoliation and early spring growth, seed filling, have beneficial effects on human health and are used for industrial processes. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. serves as model species to study fructan metabolism. Fructan metabolism is under the control of both synthesis by fructosyltransferases (FTs and breakdown through fructan exohydrolases (FEHs. The accumulation of fructans can be triggered by high sucrose levels and abiotic stress conditions such as drought and cold stress. However, detailed studies on the mechanisms involved in the regulation of fructan metabolism are scarce. Since different phytohormones, especially abscisic acid (ABA, are known to play an important role in abiotic stress responses, the possible short term regulation of the enzymes involved in fructan metabolism by the five classical phytohormones was investigated. Therefore, the activities of enzymes involved in fructan synthesis and breakdown, the expression levels for the corresponding genes and levels for water-soluble carbohydrates were determined following pulse treatments with ABA, auxin (AUX, ethylene (ET, gibberellic acid (GA or kinetin (KIN. The most pronounced fast effects were a transient increase of FT activities by AUX, KIN, ABA and ET, while minor effects were evident for 1-FEH activity with an increased activity in response to KIN and a decrease by GA. Fructan and sucrose levels were not affected. This observed discrepancy demonstrates the importance of determining enzyme activities to obtain insight into the physiological traits and ultimately the plant phenotype. The comparative analyses of activities for seven key enzymes of primary carbohydrate metabolism revealed no co-regulation between enzymes of the fructan and

  1. The photosynthetic acclimation of Lolium perenne growing in a free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment (FACE) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, J.B. [Univ. of Essex, Colchester (United Kingdom)]|[Writtle Coll. (United Kingdom)

    1994-11-01

    Stands of Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv. Bastion) were grown in the field at ambient or elevated (600{mu}mol/mol) CO{sub 2} concentration, high (560Kg/ha) or low (140Kg/ha) nitrogen addition and with a frequent (every 4 weeks) or infrequent (every 8 weeks) cutting regime. Plants were in the second year of a 3 year experiment. Exposure to elevated CO{sub 2} was carried out with a Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) system which provides the most {open_quote}realistic{close_quote} system of CO{sub 2} fumigation currently available. Elevated CO{sub 2} increased diurnal CO{sub 2} assimilation by between 34 and 88% whilst reducing rates of stomatal conductance by between 1 and 42%. However, analysis of the A vs. Ci response showed considerable acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus in response to elevated CO{sub 2} - Vc{sub max} as an in vivo measure of RubisCO activity, decreased by between 29 and 35% in high CO{sub 2}, whilst J{sub max}, as a measure of the RubP regeneration capacity, showed no significant change. Two out of three additional perennial grassland species studied showed similar acclamatory behavior to Ryegrass. Diurnal assimilation rate, J{sub max} and, in most cases, Vc{sub max}, increased significantly directly after cutting of Ryegrass stands, but nitrogen treatment had little effect on any of these parameters. Neither stomatal density, stomatal index nor stomatal pore length of Ryegrass were significantly altered by growth in elevated CO{sub 2}. The results are discussed in terms of the limitation imposed on maximizing photosynthetic and growth responses of Ryegrass at elevated CO{sub 2}, by the ability of perennial species to increase long-term sink capacity under these conditions.

  2. Glyphosate effects on the growth and free sugar accumulation of two Lolium perenne biotypes with different herbicide sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    M. Yanniccari; C. Istilart; D.O. Giménez; H. Acciaresi; De Castro, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    El movimiento sistémico del glifosato está determinado por el transporte de fotoasimilados. A su vez, la capacidad de un destino de consumir los asimilados está condicionada por su actividad metabólica. Pese a su importancia, la relación entre el glifosato y la síntesis de azúcares en hojas fuente ha sido poco abordada. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar los efectos del glifosato sobre el crecimiento y la acumulación de azúcares libres en dos biotipos de Lolium perenne de baja y alt...

  3. Effects of drought stress on some biochemical indices of four groundcovers (Lolium perenne, Potentilla spp, Trifolium repens and Frankenia spp with potential usage in landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Samieiani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, stress management is considered to be very important in landscapes. The present research was conducted to investigate the effects of regulated deficit irrigation at 4 levels (25, 50, 75 and 100% of lawn irrigation requirement on some biochemical indices of four groundcover plants (Lolium perenne, Potentilla spp, Trifolium repens and Frankinia spp to be used in landscapes, with 3 replications. Results showed that Frankinia spp had the highest proline content (0.84 mg/g fresh weight and the lowest chlorophyll content (15.9 mg/g fresh weight, the 75% stress treatment had the highest proline content (0.84 mg/g fresh weight and control treatment had the highest chlorophyll content (32.6 mg/g fresh weight. For total carbohydrates, the highest and the lowest amounts (1.54 and 0.79 mg/g fresh weight belong to Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens, respectively. Also, among the species, Trifolium repens showed the highest antioxidant activity (75.05%. In general, regulated deficit irrigation affected different biochemical characteristics of the examined groundcover plants significantly. But, applying it up to the damaging point for landscape plants can be an important management strategy for reduction of water consumption in green spaces.

  4. Does gibberellin biosynthesis play a critical role in the growth of Lolium perenne? Evidence from a transcriptional analysis of gibberellin and carbohydrate metabolic genes after defoliation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianhe eLiu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Global meat and milk production depends to a large extent on grazed pastures, with Lolium perenne being the major forage grass in temperate regions. Defoliation and subsequent regrowth of leaf blades is a major and essential event with respect to L. perenne growth and productivity. Following defoliation, carbohydrates (mainly fructans and sucrose have to be mobilised from heterotrophic tissues to provide energy and carbon for regrowth of photosynthetic tissues. This mobilisation of reserve carbohydrates requires a substantial change in the expression of genes coding for enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Here we tested the hypothesis that gibberellins (GA are at the core of the processes regulating the expression of these genes. Thus, we examined the transcript profiles of genes involved in carbohydrate and GA metabolic pathways across a time course regrowth experiment. Our results show that following defoliation, the immediate reduction of carbohydrate concentrations in growing tissues is associated with a concomitant increase in the expression of genes encoding carbohydrate mobilising invertases, and was also associated with a strong decrease in the expression of fructan synthesising fructosyltransferase genes. We also show that the decrease in fructan levels is preceded by increased expression of the GA activating gene GA3-oxidase and decreased expression of the GA inactivating gene GA2-oxidase in sheaths. GA3-oxidase expression was negatively, while GA2-oxidase positively linked to sucrose concentrations. This study provides indicative evidence that gibberellins might play a role in L. perenne regrowth following defoliation and we hypothesise that there is a link between gibberellin regulation and sugar metabolism in L. perenne.

  5. Genetic and Environmental Variance Among F2 Families in a Commercial Breeding Program for Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fé, Dario; Greve-Pedersen, Morten; Jensen, Christian Sig;

    2013-01-01

    In the joint project “FORAGESELECT”, we aim to implement Genome Wide Selection (GWS) in breeding of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), in order to increase genetic response in important agronomic traits such as yield, seed production, stress tolerance and disease resistance, while decreasing...... programs based on GWS. Future work will focus on developing association models based on tailored phenotype data and genotype-by-sequencing-derived allele frequencies....... greenhouse emissions and nitrogen loss. GWS model building includes 1) development of a robust quantitative genotyping method for an outcrossing species, 2) tailoring of multi-locational, multi-annual phenotype data, 3) association analysis and development of prediction models. As part of (2) the aim...... with commercial varieties used as checks. The first analyses focused on yield (green and dry matter) and the data were analyzed using a mixed model including fixed effect of experiment, effect of check variety, and random effects within experiment effects to recover interblock information, effects of pedigree...

  6. Large-scale development of gene-associated SNP markers for linkage mapping in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studer, Bruno; Nielsen, Rasmus Ory; Panitz, Frank;

    2011-01-01

    assays. A reference set of 9,399 Lolium perenne L. genes was assembled with 802,156 high quality cDNA reads sequenced with the Roche 454FLX Titanium sequencing system and used for in silico SNP discovery. Out of more than 1,200 SNPs fulfilling highly stringent assembly and detection parameters, a total......Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) are increasingly becoming the DNA maker system of choice due to their extensive occurrence in the genome and the ability to be used in highly multiplexed genotyping assays. Although needed in high numbers for genome-wide marker profiles and genomics......-assisted breeding strategies, a surprisingly low number of validated SNPs are currently available in perennial ryegrass. The advent of next generation sequencing opened up the opportunity for efficient and high throughput in silico SNP discovery in absence of a reference genome sequence. However, the percentages...

  7. The photosynthetic acclimation response of Lolium perenne to four years growth in a free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment (FACE) facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creasey, R. [Univ. of Essex (United Kingdom)

    1996-11-01

    In this study, the photosynthetic responses of field grown Lolium perenne to ambient (354 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}) and elevated (600 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}) C{sub a} were measured. The experiment utilized the FACE facility at Eschikon, Switzerland; here the L. Perenne swards had been grown at two nitrogen treatments, with six cuts per year, for 4 years. The study revealed a significant decrease in Rubisco activity (Vcmax) in the low nitrogen FACE plots; this is consistent with the theories of source-sink imbalance resulting in feedback inhibition and down-regulation. Such negative acclimation was not wholly supported by diurnal investigations which revealed an average stimulation of 53.38% and 52.78% in the low and high nitrogen, respectively. However, light response curves and AI investigations also suggested down-regulation, especially in the low nitrogen. SI is expected to decrease in response to elevated C{sub a}, if any change is seen. This was indeed observed in the high nitrogen plots but for the low nitrogen a significant increase was found. Conclusions drawn from this project center around the implications of negative acclimation to future crop productivity. For instance, inter-specific differences in response to elevated C{sub a} may result in ecosystem changes and new management techniques may be necessary. However, real predictions cannot be made from leaf level studies alone as these may not represent the overall changes at the whole plant level.

  8. STUDY ON PHYTO-EXTRACTION BALANCE OF ZN, CD AND PB FROM MINE-WASTE POLLUTED SOILS BY USING FESTUCA ARUNDINACEA AND LOLIUM PERENNE SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. LIXANDRU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Through the cultivation of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea and of perennial ryegrass for two years on a chernozem type of soil, in the Banat's plain area we investigated the phyto-extraction potential of Zn, Cd and Pb. In the experimental plot it has been incorporated a quantity of 20 kg of mine-waste per square meter, in a mass ratio of 1:2,5. The mine-waste polluting "contribution" was of 1209 mg Zn / kg d.s., 4.70 mg Cd / kg d.s. and 188.2 mg Pb / kg d.s. The metals content in the soil was determined at the two moments of biomass harvesting, and through balance calculations we could establish the phyto-extraction efficiency of the two foragegrasses species. The obtained results indicate that Festuca arundinacea has an average phyto-extraction yield of 50% for Zn and Cd in the soil; in the case of an ionic excess of 3,5 to 4 times, the phyto-extraction efficiency is reduced, more obvious in the case of Pb (lead ions. The species Lolium perenne registers a yield of almost 92% in the process of phyto-extraction of Zn. The yield values for Cd si Pb are lower, but comparable with the control plot. Unlike Festuca arundinacea, the Lollium perenne species tolerates better the Cd and Pb ionic excess.

  9. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration: effects of increased carbon input in a Lolium perenne soil on microorganisms and decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, van J.H.; Gorissen, A.; Polci, D.

    2000-01-01

    Effects of ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (350 and 700 μl l-1) on net carbon input into soil, the production of root-derived material and the subsequent microbial transformation were investigated. Perennial ryegrass plants (L. perenne L.) were labelled in a continuously labelled

  10. The photosynthetic response of the perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) in its fifth year of free-air CO(sub 2) enrichment (FACE) at Eschikon, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J.P.; Long, S.P.; Williams, J.

    1998-12-31

    Stands of Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv.Bastion) were grown in the field at ambient or elevated (600 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1}) [CO{sub 2}], high (560 kg Ha{sup {minus}1} y{sup {minus}1}) or low (140 kg Ha{sup {minus}1} y{sup {minus}1}) nitrogen addition and were harvested five times a year during the growing season. The plants were sown during 1992, additional plots being sown during 1995. These were in their fifth year and second year of growth respectively. Exposure to elevated [CO{sub 2}] was carried out with a Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) system which provides the most realistic system of fumigation currently available. Elevated [CO{sub 2}] increased diurnal CO{sub 2} uptake by between 40 to 83% while reducing stomatal conductance by between 1 and 38% in all of the 1992 grown plants measured at high [CO{sub 2}]. Analysis of the A/c{sub i} response of 1992 grown plants showed no acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus in response to elevated [CO{sub 2}] - both V{sub c,max} (a measure of the maximum in vivo rate of carboxylation) and J{sub max} (a measure of the maximum capacity for the regeneration of RuBP) showed no significant change during any of the periods of regrowth. In contrast the leaves of 1995 grown plants, appeared to be experiencing an acclimatory change in their photosynthetic apparatus in response to elevated [CO{sub 2}]. However, this negative response seemed to be removed directly after a harvest when the source:sink balance had increased. The apparent lack of an acclimatory response after almost 5 years of growth at elevated [CO{sub 2}], suggests that L. perenne may be close to achieving the appropriate photosynthetic adjustments which would allow it to attain a significantly higher photosynthetic potential.

  11. The photosynthetic acclimation of Lolium perenne in response to three years growth in a free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment (FACE) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hymus, G.J. [Univ. of Essex (United Kingdom)]|[Univ. of Writtle College (United Kingdom)

    1996-08-01

    Pure stands of Ryegrass were in their third year of growth in the field, exposed to either ambient (355 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}), or elevated (600 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}) atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration. A Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) system was used to maintain the elevated CO{sub 2} concentration whilst limiting experimental constraints on the field conditions. The theoretically predicted increase in the net rates of CO{sub 2} uptake per unit leaf area (A {mu}mol mol{sup -1}) as a consequence, primarily, of the suppression of photorespiration by CO{sub 2} a competitive inhibitor of RubP oxygenation by Rubisco, was observed for the Lolium perenne studied. Also observed was a general decline in leaf evapotranspiration (E) consistent with observations of increased water use efficiency of crops grown in elevated CO{sub 2}. Enhancement of leaf A in the FACE grown L. perenne ranged from 26.5 1 % to 44.95% over the course of a diurnal set of measurements. Whilst reductions in leaf E reached a maximum of 16.61% over the same diurnal course of-measurements. The increase in A was reconciled with an absence of the commonly observed decline in V{sub c}{sub max} as a measure of the maximum in vivo carboxylation capacity of the primary carboxylasing enzyme Rubisco and J{sub max} a measure of the maximum rate of electron transport. The manipulation of the source sink balance of the crop, stage of canopy regrowth or height in the canopy had no effect on the observation of a lack of response. The findings of this study will be interpreted with respect to the long term implications of C{sub 3} crops being able to adapt physiologically to maximize the potential benefits conferred by growth in elevated CO{sub 2}.

  12. Characterization of Proanthocyanidins from Seeds of Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea) by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Karl; Collette, Vern; Hancock, Kerry R

    2016-09-01

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) are forage species of the grass family (Poaceae) that are key components of temperate pasture-based agricultural systems. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are oligomeric flavonoids that, when provided as part of a farm animal's diet, have been reported to improve animal production and health. Up to now, forage grasses have been deemed not to produce PAs. This paper reports for the first time the detection of polymerized PAs in aqueous methanolic extracts of seed tissue of both perennial ryegrass and tall fescue, using LC-MS/MS. We have determined the structure of the PAs to be trans-flavan-3-ol-based, consisting predominately of afzelechin and catechin and linked primarily by B-type bonds. Investigations into the leaf tissue of both species failed to detect any PAs. This discovery opens the possibility of using genetic engineering tools to achieve tannin accumulation in leaf tissue of perennial ryegrass and tall fescue. PMID:27532250

  13. Effect of in situ soil amendments on arsenic uptake in successive harvests of ryegrass (Lolium perenne cv Elka) grown in amended As-polluted soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, William [School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, L3 3AF Liverpool (United Kingdom)], E-mail: biewhart@livjm.ac.uk; Lepp, Nicholas W. [School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, L3 3AF Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Several iron-bearing additives, selected for their potential ability to adsorb anions, were evaluated for their effectiveness in attenuation of arsenic (As) in three soils with different sources of contamination. Amendments used were lime, goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH) (crystallised iron oxide) and three iron-bearing additives, iron grit, Fe{sup II} and Fe{sup III} sulphates plus lime, applied at 1% w/w. Sequential extraction schemes conducted on amended soils determined As, Cu, Zn and Ni fractionation. Plant growth trials using perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne var. Elka) assessed shoot As uptake. This was grown in the contaminated soils for 4 months, during which time grass shoots were successively harvested every 3 weeks. Goethite increased biomass yields, but clear differences were observed in As transfer rates with the various iron oxides. In conclusion, whilst Fe-oxides may be effective in situ amendments, reducing As bioavailability, their effects on plant growth require careful consideration. Soil-plant transfer of As was not completely halted by any amendment. - Arsenic attenuation is illustrated using Fe-based amendments, their efficacy providing different indicators of success.

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhiza enhanced arsenic resistance of both white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) plants in an arsenic-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Yan; Zhu Yongguan [Department of Soil Environmental Science, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Smith, F. Andrew [Soil and Land Systems, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Waite Campus, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Wang Youshan [Institute of Plant Nutrition and Resources, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry, Beijing 100089 (China); Chen Baodong [Department of Soil Environmental Science, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: bdchen@rcees.ac.cn

    2008-09-15

    In a compartmented cultivation system, white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), with their roots freely intermingled, or separated by 37 {mu}m nylon mesh or plastic board, were grown together in an arsenic (As) contaminated soil. The influence of AM inoculation on plant growth, As uptake, phosphorus (P) nutrition, and plant competitions were investigated. Results showed that both plant species highly depended on mycorrhizas for surviving the As contamination. Mycorrhizal inoculation substantially improved plant P nutrition, and in contrast markedly decreased root to shoot As translocation and shoot As concentrations. It also showed that mycorrhizas affected the competition between the two co-existing plant species, preferentially benefiting the clover plants in term of nutrient acquisition and biomass production. Based on the present study, the role of AM fungi in plant adaptation to As contamination, and their potential use for ecological restoration of As contaminated soils are discussed. - Both white clover and ryegrass highly depend on the mycorrhizal associations for surviving heavy arsenic contamination.

  15. Effect of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) roots inoculation using different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) species on sorption of iron-cyanide (Fe-CN) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sut, Magdalena; Boldt-Burisch, Katja; Raab, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Soils and groundwater on sites of the former Manufactured Gas Plants (MGPs) are contaminated with various complex iron-cyanides (Fe-CN). Phytoremediation is a promising tool in stabilization and remediation of Fe-CN affected soils, however, it can be a challenging task due to extreme adverse and toxic conditions. Phytoremediation may be enhanced via rhizosphere microbial activity, which can cooperate on the degradation, transformation and uptake of the contaminants. Recently, increasing number of scientist reports improved plants performance in the removal of toxic compounds with the support of arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi (AMF). Series of batch experiments using potassium hexacyanoferrate (II) solutions, in varying concentrations, were used to study the effect of ryegrass roots (Lolium perenne L.) inoculation with Rhizophagus irregularis and a mixture of Rhizophagus irregularis, Funneliformis mosseae, Rhizophagus aggregatus, and Claroideoglomus etunicatum on Fe-CN sorption. Results indicated significantly higher colonization of R. irregularis than for the mixture of AMF species on ryegrass roots. Sorption experiments revealed significantly higher reduction of total CN and free CN content in the mycorrhizal roots, indicating greater cyanide decrease in the treatment inoculated with R. irregularis. Our study indicates contribution of AM fungi in phytoremediation of Fe-CN contaminated soil.

  16. Phytoextraction of metals and rhizoremediation of PAHs in co-contaminated soil by co-planting of Sedum alfredii with ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or castor (Ricinus communis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Huang, Huagang; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Li, Tingqiang; He, Zhenli; Yang, Xiaoe; Alva, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the potential for phytoextraction of heavy metals and rhizoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in co-contaminated soil by co-planting a cadmium/zinc (Cd/Zn) hyperaccumulator and lead (Pb) accumulator Sedum alfredii with ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or castor (Ricinus communis). Co-planting with castor decreased the shoot biomass of S. alfredii as compared to that in monoculture. Cadmium concentration in S. alfredii shoot significantly decreased when grown with ryegrass or castor as compared to that in monoculture. However, no reduction of Zn or Pb concentration in S. alfredii shoot was detected in co-planting treatments. Total removal of either Cd, Zn, or Pb by plants was similar across S. alfredii monoculture or co-planting with ryegrass or castor, except enhanced Pb removal in S. alfredii and ryegrass co-planting treatment. Co-planting of S. alfredii with ryegrass or castor significantly enhanced the pyrene and anthracene dissipation as compared to that in the bare soil or S. alfredii monoculture. This appears to be due to the increased soil microbial population and activities in both co-planting treatments. Co-planting of S. alfredii with ryegrass or castor provides a promising strategy to mitigate both metal and PAH contaminants from co-contaminated soils.

  17. Wood pellet fly ash and bottom ash as an effective liming agent and nutrient source for rye grass (Lolium perenne L.) and oats (Avena sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nathan D; Michael Rutherford, P; Thring, Ronald W; Helle, Steve S

    2012-01-01

    Fly ash (FA) and bottom ash (BA) from a softwood pellet boiler were characterized and evaluated as soil amendments. In a greenhouse study, two plant species (rye grass, Lolium perenne L. and oats, Avena sativa) were grown in three different treatments (1% FA, 1% BA, non-amended control) of a silty loam soil. Total concentrations of plant nutrients Ca, K, Mg, P and Zn in both ashes were elevated compared to conventional wood ash. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Pb, Se and Zn were found to be elevated in the FA relative to BA and the non-amended soil. At 28 d, oat above-ground biomass was found to be significantly greater in soil amended with FA. Potassium and Mo plant tissue concentrations were significantly increased by addition of either ash, and FA significantly increased Zn tissue concentrations. Cadmium and Hg tissue concentrations were elevated in some cases. As soil amendments, either pellet ash is an effective liming agent and nutrient source, but high concentrations of Cd and Zn in FA may preclude its use as an agricultural soil amendment in some jurisdictions. Lower ash application rates than those used in this study (i.e. <1%) may still provide sufficient nutrients and effective neutralization of soil acidity.

  18. The Effect of Applied Organic Fertilizers on the Bioavailability of Heavy Metals in Lolium Perenne, Cultivated on Fly Ash Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Mâşu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to monitor the capacity of certain organic fertilizers (volcanic tuff and municipal sludge, applied as such and mixed with volcanic rocks with a high content in clinoptilolite, to determine the covering with vegetation of fly ash deposits resulted from the combustion of lignite in thermal plants. Both biosolids (20 t/ha and volcanic rock with high clinoptilolite content (5 t/ha determined the installation of a vegetative layer and diminished the soil metal bioavailability to the Lolium prerenne plant biomass. When using the organic-zeolite mixture, a synergistic effect is recorded of the two components of the treatment agent and an increase of the biomass with 448%. Moreover, the resulted biomass shows the highest reductions of metal bioaccumulations, of 38-46% for Zn and Fe, of 62% for Cu and between 82-89% for Cr, Ni and Pb.

  19. Identification of extracellular siderophores and a related peptide from the endophytic fungus Epichloë festucae in culture and endophyte-infected Lolium perenne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulman, Albert; Lee, T. Verne; Fraser, Karl; Johnson, Linda; Arcus, Vickery; Lott, J. Shaun; Rasmussen, Susanne; Lane, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    A number of genes encoding non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) have been identified in fungi of Epichloë/Neotyphodium species, endophytes of Pooid grasses, including sidN, putatively encoding a ferrichrome siderophore-synthesizing NRPS. Targeted gene replacement and complementation of sidN in Epichloë festucae has established that extracellular siderophore epichloënin A is the major product of the SidN enzyme complex (Johnson et al., 2007a). We report here high resolution mass spectrometric fragmentation experiments and NMR analysis of an isolated fraction establishing that epichloënin A is a siderophore of the ferrichrome family, comprising a cyclic sequence of four glycines, a glutamine and three Nδ-trans-anhydromevalonyl–Nδ-hydroxyornithine (AMHO) moieties. Epichloënin A is unusual among ferrichrome siderophores in comprising an octapeptide rather than hexapeptide sequence, and in incorporating a glutamine residue. During this investigation we have established that desferrichrome siderophores with pendant trans-AMHO groups can be distinguished from those with pendant cis-AMHO groups by the characteristic neutral loss of an hydroxyornithine moiety in the MS/MS spectrum. A minor component, epichloënin B, has been characterized as the triglycine variant by mass spectrometry. A peptide characterized by mass spectrometry as the putative deoxygenation product, epichloëamide has been detected together with ferriepichloënin A in guttation fluid from ryegrass (Lolium perenne) plants infected with wild-type E. festucae, but not in plants infected with the ΔsidN mutant strain, and also detected at trace levels in wild-type E. festucae fungal culture. PMID:22196939

  20. Photosynthetic pigments and photosynthetic products of endophyte-infected and endophyte-free Lolium perenne L.under drought strees conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren'Anzhi; Gao Yubao; Wang Wei; Wang Jinlong

    2006-01-01

    Endophyte-infected fED seeds of Lolium perenne L.were used to attain endophyte-free fED population by heating the seeds at 43℃ for 15 min and then 57℃ for 25 min.Relative water content(RWC),chlorophyll,soluble sugar and starch content of EI and EF populations under normal and drought stress conditions were compared to investigate the effect of endophyte infection on the host plant.Under severe stress.RWC of EI leaf was significantly higher than that Of EF leaf,i.e.EI plants took more advantages over EF plants in water-holding ability.Under mild stress,endophytc could enhance soluble sugars in host plants to improve their osmotic ability.With stress intensification,the improvement of endophyte no longer existed,and more photosynthetic products(such as starch)accumulated in EI plants to survive through the undesirable condidons.In the next spring,EI populations will recover more rapidly than EF populations.The biomass of a population is closely related to its photosynthesis.Under severe stress,EI population significantly accumulated more biomass than EF population.As far as photosynthetic pigments were concerned,contents of Chla,Chlb and Car of EI plants were close to those of EF plants,which suggested that endophyte infection didn't alleviate photosynthetic pigments from being destroyed by drought stress,and endophyte might improve photosynthesis ability of its host plant in other ways.

  1. Lambs fed fresh winter forage rape (Brassica napus L. emit less methane than those fed perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L., and possible mechanisms behind the difference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhao Sun

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to examine long-term effects of feeding forage rape (Brassica napus L. on methane yields (g methane per kg of feed dry matter intake, and to propose mechanisms that may be responsible for lower emissions from lambs fed forage rape compared to perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.. The lambs were fed fresh winter forage rape or ryegrass as their sole diet for 15 weeks. Methane yields were measured using open circuit respiration chambers, and were 22-30% smaller from forage rape than from ryegrass (averages of 13.6 g versus 19.5 g after 7 weeks, and 17.8 g versus 22.9 g after 15 weeks. The difference therefore persisted consistently for at least 3 months. The smaller methane yields from forage rape were not related to nitrate or sulfate in the feed, which might act as alternative electron acceptors, or to the levels of the potential inhibitors glucosinolates and S-methyl L-cysteine sulfoxide. Ruminal microbial communities in forage rape-fed lambs were different from those in ryegrass-fed lambs, with greater proportions of potentially propionate-forming bacteria, and were consistent with less hydrogen and hence less methane being produced during fermentation. The molar proportions of ruminal acetate were smaller and those of propionate were greater in forage rape-fed lambs, consistent with the larger propionate-forming populations and less hydrogen production. Forage rape contained more readily fermentable carbohydrates and less structural carbohydrates than ryegrass, and was more rapidly degraded in the rumen, which might favour this fermentation profile. The ruminal pH was lower in forage rape-fed lambs, which might inhibit methanogenic activity, shifting the rumen fermentation to more propionate and less hydrogen and methane. The significance of these two mechanisms remains to be investigated. The results suggest that forage rape is a potential methane mitigation tool in pastoral-based sheep production systems.

  2. Combined impact of heavy metals (Pb2+ and Cd2+ and salinity on the condition of Lolium perenne long-term assimilation apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Bessonova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of soil and atmosphere by heavy metals negatively affects physiological and biochemical processes in plants. The objective of this study is to analyze the combined impact of heavy metals Pb2+ and Cd2+ on the background of salinity on the surface of assimilation and the state of stomata device and the content of plastid pigments in leaves of Lolium perenne L. Decrease in the area of plant leaves on the background of the impact of pollutants has been determined. By the degree of increase of negative impact on this index, variants of the experience can be arranged as follows: Pb2+ + Cd2+ < NaCl < Pb2+ + Cd2+ + NaCl. The investigated factors have the strongest impact on the area of assimilation surface. The reason for its significant decrease in plants of studied variants compared to the control is that both suppression of growth and reduction of leaves area occurs, along with the inhibition of their formation. The damaging effect of sodium chloride is also traced in drying of leaf tips, the latter become lighter in color and some of them get yellow. Under the action of heavy metals and salinity decrease in the leaf index for L. perenne is observed, especially in case of combined actions of toxins, and this rate varies more significantly than the other ones. Salinization of growing substrate significantly reduces the number of stomata on the underside of the leaf epidermis. On the contrary, under the influence of heavy metals their number increases, and under the action of Pb2+ + Cd2+ on the background of chloride salinity it becomes even higher compared with the variant where heavy metals only affect the plants. The length of guard cells of the stomata in the variants with metals in NaCl remains practically unchanged compared with the control, but at joint action it is reduced. The width of stomatal pore in the variants differs insignificantly. The same is applied to the length, except for variants where the plants were exposed

  3. Efecto del glifosato sobre el crecimiento y acumulación de azúcares libres en dos biotipos de lolium perenne de distinta sensibilidad al herbicida Glyphosate effects on the growth and free sugar accumulation of two lolium perenn e biotypes with different herbicide sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yanniccari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available El movimiento sistémico del glifosato está determinado por el transporte de fotoasimilados. A su vez, la capacidad de un destino de consumir los asimilados está condicionada por su actividad metabólica. Pese a su importancia, la relación entre el glifosato y la síntesis de azúcares en hojas fuente ha sido poco abordada. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar los efectos del glifosato sobre el crecimiento y la acumulación de azúcares libres en dos biotipos de Lolium perenne de baja y alta sensibilidad al herbicida. Se trabajó con clones de ambos tipos de plantas, en macollaje, tratados con 1.440 g e.a. ha-1 de glifosato y sin tratamiento herbicida como controles. Se evaluó periódicamente el efecto del glifosato sobre el rebrote de hojas hasta las 50 horas post-aplicación y sobre los niveles de azúcares libres totales, reductores y no reductores en hojas a 1, 2, 3 y 5 días post-aplicación. A partir de las 25 horas post-aplicación, el glifosato provocó una disminución del crecimiento del 58% en el biotipo susceptible, con una acumulación de azúcares libres superior al 90% con relación al control, desde el primer día post-aplicación en adelante. La inhibición del crecimiento, inducida por el glifosato en plantas susceptibles, no depende de la limitación del traslado de fotoasimilados desde la parte aérea. Por tanto, la acumulación de azúcares libres en hojas podría explicarse por la caída en la tasa de crecimiento. En el biotipo de baja sensibilidad, en el que no se detectó inhibición del crecimiento, estos efectos fueron limitados.The systemic movement of glyphosate is determined by the transport of photoassimilates. In turn, the capacity of a destination to consume assimilates is conditioned by their metabolic activity. Despite its importance, the relationship between the glyphosate and the sugar synthesis from source leaves has been little studied. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of

  4. The genus Lolium; taxonomy and genetic resources.

    OpenAIRE

    Loos, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    Several aspects of variation within the genus Lolium, and more in detail within Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) have been highlighted. As the results are extensively discussed in each chapter, the general discussion is focused on two aspects of the research.SpeciationIt is clear that the genus Lolium is a very variable genus. The variation within the species reduces the clarity of separation of the species. Stebbins (1956) found the differences between Lolium and Festuca not sufficient to...

  5. The endophytic symbiont Epichloë festucae establishes an epiphyllous net on the surface of Lolium perenne leaves by development of an expressorium, an appressorium-like leaf exit structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Matthias; Becker, Yvonne; Green, Kimberly; Scott, Barry

    2016-07-01

    Epichloë festucae forms a mutualistic symbiotic association with Lolium perenne. This biotrophic fungus systemically colonizes the intercellular spaces of aerial tissues to form an endophytic hyphal network. E. festucae also grows as an epiphyte, but the mechanism for leaf surface colonization is not known. Here we identify an appressorium-like structure, which we call an expressorium that allows endophytic hyphae to penetrate the cuticle from the inside of the leaf to establish an epiphytic hyphal net on the surface of the leaf. We used a combination of scanning electron, transmission electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy to characterize this novel fungal structure and determine the composition of the hyphal cell wall using aniline blue and wheat germ agglutinin labelled with Alexafluor-488. Expressoria differentiate immediately below the cuticle in the leaf blade and leaf sheath intercalary cell division zones where the hyphae grow by tip growth. Differentiation of this structure requires components of both the NoxA and NoxB NADPH oxidase complexes. Major remodelling of the hyphal cell wall occurs following exit from the leaf. These results establish that the symbiotic association of E. festucae with L. perenne involves an interconnected hyphal network of both endophytic and epiphytic hyphae. PMID:26991322

  6. The genus Lolium; taxonomy and genetic resources.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    Several aspects of variation within the genus Lolium, and more in detail within Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) have been highlighted. As the results are extensively discussed in each chapter, the general discussion is focused on two aspects of the research.SpeciationIt is clear that the

  7. Exogenous Melatonin Suppresses Dark-Induced Leaf Senescence by Activating the Superoxide Dismutase-Catalase Antioxidant Pathway and Down-Regulating Chlorophyll Degradation in Excised Leaves of Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Huibin; Xu, Bin; Li, Jing; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Leaf senescence is a typical symptom in plants exposed to dark and may be regulated by plant growth regulators. The objective of this study was to determine whether exogenous application of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) suppresses dark-induced leaf senescence and the effects of melatonin on reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging system and chlorophyll degradation pathway in perennial grass species. Mature perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv. ‘Pinnacle’) leaves were excised and incubated in 3 mM 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic buffer (pH 5.8) supplemented with melatonin or water (control) and exposed to dark treatment for 8 days. Leaves treated with melatonin maintained significantly higher endogenous melatonin level, chlorophyll content, photochemical efficiency, and cell membrane stability expressed by lower electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA) content compared to the control. Exogenous melatonin treatment also reduced the transcript level of chlorophyll degradation-associated genes and senescence marker genes (LpSAG12.1, Lph36, and Lpl69) during the dark treatment. The endogenous O2- production rate and H2O2 content were significantly lower in these excised leaves treated with melatonin compared to the water control. Exogenous melatonin treatment caused increases in enzymatic activity and transcript levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase but had no significant effects on ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and monohydroascorbate reductase. The content of non-enzymatic antioxidants, such as ascorbate and dehydroascorbate, were decreased by melatonin treatment, while the content of glutathione and oxidized glutathione was not affected by melatonin. These results suggest that the suppression of dark-induced leaf senescence by exogenous melatonin may be associated with its roles in regulating ROS scavenging through activating the superoxide dismutase-catalase enzymatic antioxidant pathway and

  8. Determination and characterization of cysteine, glutathione and phytochelatins (PC₂₋₆) in Lolium perenne L. exposed to Cd stress under ambient and elevated carbon dioxide using HPLC with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Xue Hai; Tang, Shirong; Jia, Yan; Guo, Junkang; Ding, Yongzhen; Song, Zhengguo; Zhao, Yujie

    2011-06-15

    Metal-binding thiols, involved in detoxification mechanisms in plant and other organism under heavy metal stress, are receiving more and more attentions, and various methods have been developed to determine related thiols such as cysteine (Cys), glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs). In present study, an HPLC method was established for simultaneous determination of Cys GSH and PC(2-6) after treatment with disulfide reductant of tris (2-carboxyethyl) phosphine hydrochloride (TCEP) and thiolyte reagent of monobromobimane (mBBr). The separation of thiol derivatives was performed on an Agilent Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 column (4.6 mm × 30 mm, 1.8 μm) with a linear gradient elution of 0.1% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid (TFA)-acetonitrile (ACN) at 0.8 mL min(-1). The temperature of the column was maintained at 25°C. The excitation and emission wavelengths were set at 380 and 470 nm, respectively. The thiol derivatives were well separated in 19 min, and the total analysis time was 30 min. The established method was proved selective, specific and reproducible, and could be applicable to determine Cys, GSH and PC(2-6) and to evaluate their roles in detoxification mechanisms in Cd-treated Lolium perenne L. under ambient and elevated carbon dioxide (CO(2)). It was found that the total SH contents and proportions of thiols in roots and shoots were dependent on Cd concentration, whereas the total SH contents decreased and the proportions of thiols altered without significance at elevated CO(2) level.

  9. 同一生境下多年生黑麦草与节节麦的核型比较%Chromosome karotype comparative of Lolium perenn and Aegilops squarrosa in the same habitat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡华; 汪丽丽

    2010-01-01

    对同一生境下多年生黑麦草(Lolium perenn L.)和节节麦(Aegilops squarrosa L.)的根尖细胞染色体作了分析,并从细胞学角度比较了两者的同源性.结果表明:多年生黑麦草的核型公式为:2n=6x=42=24m+18sm(2SAT),属于六倍体的"2B"型,在第19号染色体上有一对随体,最长与最短染色体的比为2.13,臂比大于2的染色体占全套染色体的30%,核型不对称系数为60.48%;节节麦的核型公式为2n=2x=14=10m+4sm(2SAT),属于二倍体的"2A"型,在第4号染色体有一对随体,最长与最短染色体长度比为1.49,臂比大于2的染色体占全套染色体的14%,不对称系数为58.2%,表明同一生境下多年生黑麦草比节节麦更为进化,两者在染色体水平上没有亲缘关系.

  10. Comparative Genome Analysis of Lolium-Festuca Complex Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czaban, Adrian; Byrne, Stephen; Sharma, Sapna;

    2015-01-01

    , winter hardiness, drought tolerance and resistance to grazing. In this study we have sequenced and assembled the low copy fraction of the genomes of Lolium westerwoldicum, Lolium multiflorum, Festuca pratensis and Lolium temulentum. We have also generated de-novo transcriptome assemblies for each species......, and these have aided in the annotation of the genomic sequence. Using this data we were able to generate annotated assemblies of the gene rich regions of the four species to complement the already sequenced Lolium perenne genome. Using these gene models we have identified orthologous genes between the species...

  11. Building A NGS Genomic Resource: Towards Molecular Breeding In L. Perenne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruttink, Tom; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Asp, Torben;

    To advance the application of molecular breeding in Lolium perenne, we have generated a sequence resource to facilitate gene discovery and SNP marker development. Illumina GAII transcriptome sequencing was performed on meristem-enriched samples of 14 Lolium genotypes. De novo assemblies for indiv...

  12. 几种有机硅助剂对草甘膦在单子叶植物体内吸收、转移和分布的影响%Influence of Organosilicone Surfactants on Uptake,Translocation and Distribution of Glyphosate on Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武菊英; Dastgheib,F

    2001-01-01

    采用14C-草甘膦同位素标记法研究了4种有机硅助剂Silwet L-77、Silwet 800、Freeway 和Boost 在体积分数0.1%用量下对草甘膦在黑麦草(Lolium perenne L. cv.Grasslands Greenstone)体内吸收、转移和分布的影响。结果表明:与单用草甘膦相比,4种助剂的加入显著地降低了草甘膦在黑麦草体内的吸收和转移量,助剂之间无显著性差异。处理后24和72 h测定,草甘膦主要分布在幼嫩组织中,其次是根部,在老叶片中的转移量最少。无论转移量高低,草甘膦在植物体内的分布总是表现为地上部的比例高于地下部。有机硅助剂对草甘膦在各组织中的分布比例没有影响。%Radiolabelled glyphosate was used to investigate the effects of organosilicone surfactants Silwet L-77, Silwet 800, Freeway and Boost on the foliar uptake, translocation and distribution of the formulated glyphosate Roundup○ R in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L cv. Grasslands Greenstone) over a 72 h time-course. Results indicated that addition of organosilicone surfactants significantly decreased the amount of uptake and translocation of glyphosate into ryegrass 24 and 72 h after treatment. Four organosilicone surfactants showed similar antagonism of foliar uptake. The amount of glyphosate translocation varied according to plant parts, the highest one was in young tissues, and the least one was in leaf 1. Distribution of glyphosate with or without organosilicone surfactants to shoots was much higher than that of to roots 24 and 72 h after treatment. Addition of organosilicone surfactants had no effect on the distribution rate to shoots and roots.

  13. 冬小麦和黑麦草作为寒冷季节人工湿地栽培作物处理城市污水效果研究%Effects on the wastewater treatment with Triticum aestivum L. and Lolium perenne L. as cultivated plant in hydroponic ditch and hybrid constructed wetland in cold season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任勇翔; 杨春辉; 孙军峰; 马刚; 鲁浩; 杨永哲; 王志盈

    2012-01-01

    为提高低温时人工湿地对水中污染物的处理效率,筛选我国北方冬季人工湿地宜栽作物,在西安市某污水厂建立了中试系统.系统进水为污水厂初沉池出水,水培槽为系统预处理设施.人工湿地分为潜流和垂直流,深度分别为0.1m和0.3m,栽培作物分别为冬小麦和黑麦草.研究结果表明:冬季人工湿地中的黑麦草仍有较显著分蘖现象,冬小麦未见分蘖.冬春季黑麦草湿地系列对COD、NH+-N和TP的去除率均高于冬小麦湿地系列,非结冰期,0.1m黑麦草系列人工湿地COD、NH+-N和TP出水浓度可满足城镇污水处理厂国家污水综合排放标准中的二级标准.黑麦草适宜作为寒冷地区人工湿地栽培作物.%The winter wheat {Triticum aestivum L. ) and the lawn plant (Lolium perenne L. ) were used as cultivated plants in hydroponic ditch and hybrid constructed wetland for enhancing the removal of pollutants in the municipal wastwater in a pilot study. These ecological wastewater treatment system were located in a wastewater treatment plant in Xi an, China, and the effluent from the primary clarifier in the wastwater treatment plant was intermittently conducted to the experimental systems. The depth of the water in hydroponic ditch and substrate of the horizontal and vertical constructed wetland were 0. 1 m and 0. 3 m, respectively. The growth status of the two cultivated plants and their effects on the purification of the water quality during winter and spring were also brought into comparison. The results showed that L. perenne grew and developed much better than T. aestivum. Significant tillers of L. perenne and insignificant tillers of T. aestivum were both observed during the winter. The concentrations of COD, NH+4 -N and TP in the effluent from L. perenne systems with the depth of 0. 1 m in winter before freezing were lower than the 2nd class standard as specified in the Chinese Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard, while only the

  14. Transformation of Lolium perenne with a fructan:fructan l-fructosyltransferase gene from Agropyron cristatum and enhancement of drought tolerance in transgenic plants%转果聚糖合成关键酶基因多年生黑麦草的获得及抗旱性的提高

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小芸; 何近刚; 孙学舞; 吴金霞

    2011-01-01

    Acl-FFT (fructan: fructan 1-fructosyltransferase) cloned from Agropyron cristatum was transformed into embryogenic callus lines of Lolium perenne using an Agrobacterium mediated method. Transgenic plants were analyzed by basra spraying and PCR amplification. In total, 18 independent transgenic lines were obtained with significantly improved drought tolerance. RT-PCR analysis showed that Ac1-FFT expressed strongly in transgenic L. perenne plants but not in control plants. Water soluble carbohydrate and fructan contents of Ac1-FFT transgenic L. perenne were significantly higher than those in control plants. Relative water content and chlorophyll content were significantly higher, while electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were significantly lower in the Ac1-FFT transgenic L. perenne than in control plants for 6 days after drought treatment. Relative water content, chlorophyll content, electrolyte leakage and MDA content were restored to their original levels after rewatering in Ac1-FFT transgenic plants but not in control plants. This suggests that the damage to Ac1-FFT transgenic plants was reversible but it was not in control plants. Acl-FFT expression and fructan biosynthesis may play an important role in improving drought tolerance of Ac1-FFT transgenic L. perenne.%以多年生黑麦草(品种卡特)胚性愈伤组织为转化受体,利用农杆菌介导的遗传转化方法将冰草果聚糖:果聚糖-1-果糖基转移酶基因(Ac1-FFT)导入黑麦草中,对再生植株喷洒basta溶液和PCR法检测,共获得18个阳性株系,RT-PCR结果表明,该基因在转基因黑麦草中正常表达.转基因黑麦草株系中的可溶性总糖含量和果聚糖含量明显高于对照植株.耐旱性提高,干旱胁迫6 d时其相对含水量和叶绿素含量明显高于对照植株,且下降速度慢,但其电解质渗漏率和丙二醛含量显著低于对照植株,复水后很快复原,而对照植株无法恢复,说明转基因植株中

  15. 水杨酸浸种处理对黑麦草种子萌发及幼苗抗旱性的影响%Effects of soaking seeds with salicylic acid on seed germination and drought resistance of Lolium perenne seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰; 杨絮茹; 周蕴薇

    2011-01-01

    用0.25、0.50和0.75 mmol/L水杨酸(SA)对黑麦草‘托亚'(Lolium perenne 'Taya')进行浸种处理,研究不同浓度SA对种子萌发的影响及0.50 mmol/L SA浸种处理对黑麦草幼苗抗旱性的影响.结果表明,0.25~0.75 mmol/L SA浸种预处理有效地提高了黑麦草种子的发芽率和发芽势以及幼苗的鲜质量和干质量,以0.50mmol/L SA处理促进发芽的效果最为显著.水分胁迫下,0.50 mmol/L SA浸种抑制黑麦草幼苗质膜透性的增加和丙二醛的累积,促进脯氨酸含量的增加和超氧化物歧化酶、过氧化物酶活性的升高,过氧化氢酶活性也表现出相对的稳定性.因此,SA浸种对水分胁迫具有一定的缓解效应.

  16. A transcriptome map of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Studer Bruno

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are increasingly becoming the DNA marker system of choice due to their prevalence in the genome and their ability to be used in highly multiplexed genotyping assays. Although needed in high numbers for genome-wide marker profiles and genomics-assisted breeding, a surprisingly low number of validated SNPs are currently available for perennial ryegrass. Results A perennial ryegrass unigene set representing 9,399 genes was used as a reference for the assembly of 802,156 high quality reads generated by 454 transcriptome sequencing and for in silico SNP discovery. Out of more than 15,433 SNPs in 1,778 unigenes fulfilling highly stringent assembly and detection parameters, a total of 768 SNP markers were selected for GoldenGate genotyping in 184 individuals of the perennial ryegrass mapping population VrnA, a population being previously evaluated for important agronomic traits. A total of 592 (77% of the SNPs tested were successfully called with a cluster separation above 0.9. Of these, 509 (86% genic SNP markers segregated in the VrnA mapping population, out of which 495 were assigned to map positions. The genetic linkage map presented here comprises a total of 838 DNA markers (767 gene-derived markers and spans 750 centi Mogan (cM with an average marker interval distance of less than 0.9 cM. Moreover, it locates 732 expressed genes involved in a broad range of molecular functions of different biological processes in the perennial ryegrass genome. Conclusions Here, we present an efficient approach of using next generation sequencing (NGS data for SNP discovery, and the successful design of a 768-plex Illumina GoldenGate genotyping assay in a complex genome. The ryegrass SNPs along with the corresponding transcribed sequences represent a milestone in the establishment of genetic and genomics resources available for this species and constitute a further step towards molecular breeding strategies. Moreover, the high density genetic linkage map predominantly based on gene-associated DNA markers provides an important tool for the assignment of candidate genes to quantitative trait loci (QTL, functional genomics and the integration of genetic and physical maps in perennial ryegrass, one of the most important temperate grassland species.

  17. Effects of Vermicompost on the Seed Germination and Early Development of Lolium perenne and Agrostis stoloniferal%蚓粪对黑麦草和匍匐剪股颖种子萌发及初期生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红红; 张宝泉; 程积民; 程光庆; 赵新宇; 高阳

    2014-01-01

    探讨以不同体积比(O%,20%,40%,60%,80%,100%)混合的蚓粪与供试土壤基质对黑麦草绅士(Lolium perenne‘ Esquire’)和匍匐剪股颖帕特(Agrostis stoloni feral ‘Puter’)种子萌发及初期生长的影响,旨在为蚓粪能够更好地应用于草坪草建值提供更有力的科学依据.结果表明:黑麦草20%处理组的萌发率和发芽势最高,同时平均萌发时间最短,相比于对照提前了近1d,且差异显著(P<0.05),但初期生长的叶片数和地上生物量在不同处理组之间无显著差异.匍匐剪股颖在20%处理下的平均萌发时间最短,生长初期60%处理下的叶片数显著多于对照,达到了3.01片·株-1,且地上生物量最大,平均每株比对照高出0.42 mg.故在黑麦草种子萌发和初期生长过程中,蚓粪最适宜的添加体积比为20%,而匍匐剪股颖在种子萌发期的适宜蚓粪添加比为20%,而在初期生长中的添加比为60%.表明针对不同的草坪草及其不同生长阶段,应选择适宜的蚓粪添加量.

  18. Plant growth regulation in seed crops of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Lemaire, Charles; Abel, Simon;

    2016-01-01

    Seed yield components were recorded in plants of perennial ryegrass cv. Calibra a medium late, forage type (4n) in a two factorial block design with Nitrogen (N) and plant growth regulator (PGR) application in 2014 and 2015 at Aarhus University (AU), Flakkebjerg. For each plant, reproductive...

  19. Genomic prediction based on next generation sequencing of 1000 F2-families in Lolium perenne L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fé, Dario; Ashraf, Bilal; Greve-Pedersen, Morten;

    2014-01-01

    on salt stress tolerance. Ryegrass families where sown in rockwool blocks (in four replicates) in greenhouse, and allowed to establish over 60 days using standard fertilization and watering. Three consecutive treatments, with increasing salt (NaCl) concentrations, were applied. Ten days after initiation...... and abiotic stresses. The study is performed on 995 F2 families originated from the DLF breeding program. All families were genotyped by reduced representation sequencing. A total of 1,020,065 SNPs were detected and used for genomic prediction. First analyses, used for model testing, have been carried out...... of each treatment, the percentage of green matter was evaluated by visual scoring and by digital imaging. Preliminary analysis using GBLUP have identified a significant amount of genetic variance (individual heritabilities ranging between 0.20 and 0.40 and family heritabilities up to about 0.15). Genomic...

  20. Can herbage nitrogen fractionation in Lolium perenne be improved by herbage management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, N.J.; Struik, P.C.; Lantinga, E.A.; Amburgh, van M.E.; Schulte, R.P.O.

    2008-01-01

    The high degradability of grass protein is an important factor in the low nitrogen (N) utilization of grazing bovines in intensive European grassland systems. We tested the hypothesis that protein degradability as measured by the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) protein fractionat

  1. Chemical composition of lamina and sheath of Lolium perenne as affected by herbage management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, N.J.; Struik, P.C.; Lantinga, E.A.; Schulte, R.P.O.

    2007-01-01

    The quality of grass in terms of form and relative amounts of energy and protein affects both animal production per unit of intake and nitrogen (N) utilization. Quality can be manipulated by herbage management and choice of cultivar. The effects of N application rate (0, 90 or 390 kg N ha¿1 year¿1),

  2. A transcriptome map of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studer, Bruno; Byrne, Stephen; Nielsen, Rasmus Ory;

    2012-01-01

    . Conclusions Here, we present an efficient approach of using next generation sequencing (NGS) data for SNP discovery, and the successful design of a 768-plex Illumina GoldenGate genotyping assay in a complex genome. The ryegrass SNPs along with the corresponding transcribed sequences represent a milestone...... to QTL, functional genomics and the integration of genetic and physical maps in perennial ryegrass, one of the most important temperate grassland species....

  3. Windrow burning eliminates Italian Ryegrass (Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum) seed viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burning of crop residues that have been concentrated behind the harvest combine (windrowed) is one of several harvest weed seed control strategies that have been developed and evaluated in Australia to address the widespread evolution of multiple herbicide resistance in annual weeds. Herbicide-resis...

  4. Transfer DREB into Lolium perenne L. To improve its drought tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Xinrong; Sun Zhenyuan; Jiang Changshun; Dong Zhaoyong; Zhang Yizheng

    2006-01-01

    A method of Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation for perennial ryegrass was developed using the calli of ryegrass derived from mature embryos. The calli were inoculated with a disarmed A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring binary vector p2328. Vector p2328 contained transcription factor DREB1B and neomycin phosphotransferase (npt II) genes which were driven by promoters of rd29B and CaMV35S, respectively. The inoculated calli were selected on paromomycin- or kanamycin-containing media till the established plants being transferred to soil. Six transgenic plants with DREB1B had been obtained from perennial ryegrass strain Tove. PCR and Southern-blotting showed that npt II and DREB1B genes were integrated in perennial ryegrass genome. Stress treatment confirmed that transgenic plants with higher drought tolerance were obtained.

  5. Effects of humic acid and competing cations on metal uptake by Lolium perenne

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalis, E.J.J.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Weng, L.P.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2006-01-01

    Within the biotic ligand model, which describes relationships between chemical speciation and metal binding at an organism's surface, multicomponent (long-term) metal uptake by plants has seldom been studied. In the present work, we exposed perennial ryegrass to nutrient solutions with two levels of

  6. Genomics-Assisted Exploitation of Heterosis in Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Md. Shofiqul

    ryegrass for the development of improved varieties. During his PhD studies, Mohammad Shofiqul Islam studied the feasibility of developing novel hybrid breeding schemes based on cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) systems in perennial ryegrass. He successfully completed the assembly and annotation of a male......-fertile perennial ryegrass mitochondrial genome, and identified candidate genes responsible for the CMS phenotype by comparing male-fertile and male-sterile mitochondrial genomes. His findings constitute a good basis for continuing research to produce hybrid grass varieties to address the future needs......, breeding activities have been carried out to improve the population and develop synthetic varieties. This does not fully exploit the potential of heterosis, however. Hybrid breeding is an alternative strategy and provides opportunities to fully exploit the genetically available heterosis in perennial...

  7. Modeling Lolium perenne L. roots in the presence of empirical black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant root models are designed for understanding structural or functional aspects of root systems. When a process is not thoroughly understood, a black box object is used. However, when a process exists but empirical data do not indicate its existence, you have a black hole. The object of this re...

  8. Application of molecular markers for variety protection of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Bach; Deneken, Gerhard; Roulund, N;

    2008-01-01

    Before seed of most major agricultural and vegetable varieties can be sold in the EU, the variety must be included on a National List (NL) of a member state or on the Common Catalogue (a compilation of the NLs of the member states). In many countries, particularly in the EU, the controlling......). At the moment, the DUS criteria are assessed in the EU member states mainly using a series of replicated field tests and trials. DUS testing takes a minimum of two years and requires considerable resources. Thus, there is much interest in reducing the time, resources, land use and hence cost, of variety...

  9. Effects of elevated CO2 levels on root morphological traits and Cd uptakes of two Lolium species under Cd stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan JIA; Shi-rong TANG; Xue-hai JU; Li-na SHU; Shu-xing TU; Ren-wei FENG; Lorenzino GIUSTI

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the combined effects of elevated CO2 levels and cadmium (Cd) on the root morphological traits and Cd accumulation in Lolium multifiorum Lam. and Lolium perenne L. exposed to two CO2 levels (360 and 1 000 μl/L) and three Cd levels (0, 4, and 16 mg/L) under hydroponic conditions. The results show that elevated levels of CO2 increased shoot biomass more, compared to root biomass, but decreased Cd concentrations in all plant tissues. Cd exposure caused toxicity to both Lolium species, as shown by the restrictions of the root morphological parameters including root length, surface area, volume, and tip numbers. These parameters were significantly higher under elevated levels of CO2 than under ambient CO2, especially for the number of fine roots. The increases in magnitudes of those parameters triggered by elevated levels of CO2 under Cd stress were more than those under non-Cd stress, suggesting an ameliorated Cd stress under elevated levels of CO2. The total Cd uptake per pot, calculated on the basis of biomass, was significantly greater under elevated levels of CO2 than under ambient CO2.Ameliorated Cd toxicity, decreased Cd concentration, and altered root morphological traits in both Lolium species under elevated levels of CO2 may have implications in food safety and phytoremediation.

  10. EPSPS Gene Amplification in Glyphosate-Resistant Italian Ryegrass (Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum) Populations from Arkansas (United States).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Reiofeli A; Scott, Robert C; Dayan, Franck E; Burgos, Nilda R

    2015-07-01

    Glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass was detected in Arkansas (United States) in 2007. In 2014, 45 populations were confirmed resistant in eight counties across the state. The level of resistance and resistance mechanisms in six populations were studied to assess the severity of the problem and identify alternative management approaches. Dose-response bioassays, glyphosate absorption and translocation experiments, herbicide target (EPSPS) gene sequence analysis, and gene amplification assays were conducted. The dose causing 50% growth reduction (GR50) was 7-19 times higher for the resistant population than for the susceptible standard. Uptake and translocation of (14)C-glyphosate were similar in resistant and susceptible plants, and no mutation in the EPSPS gene known to be associated with resistance to glyphosate was detected. Resistant plants contained from 11- to >100-fold more copies of the EPSPS gene than the susceptible plants, whereas the susceptible plants had only one copy of EPSPS. Plants surviving the recommended dose of glyphosate contained at least 10 copies. The EPSPS copy number was positively related to glyphosate resistance level (r = 80). Therefore, resistance to glyphosate in these populations is due to multiplication of the target site. Resistance mechanisms could be location-specific. Suppressing the mechanism for gene amplification may overcome resistance.

  11. Effects of post-harvest treatments on concentrations and profile of fatty acids in fresh perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witkowska, I.M.; Wever, A.C.; Elgersma, A.

    2009-01-01

    Plant lipids are complex, polar and highly unsaturated constituents of membranes. During collection and/or handling of a plant sample, the membrane integrity gets lost due to plant injury and losses of fatty acids (FA) can occur as a result of oxidative or enzymatic processes. Quantitative and quali

  12. Nuclear changes induced by the nematodes Xiphinema diversicaudatum and Longidorus elongatus in root-tips of perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, B S; Robertson, W M; Trudgill, D L

    1982-09-01

    The DNA content and size of individual nuclei from galls of perennial ryegrass root-tips induced by X. diversicaudatum and L. elongatus were measured. Feeding by X. diversicaudatum increased the DNA content of the nuclei by varying amounts. No regular doubling pattern of the DNA content was discernible. The DNA values varied up to between 32-64C. Generally the size of the nuclei was not increased, although some were larger than control nuclei. The modified nuclei probably have an altered metabolic function, which increases the food value of the gall to the nematode. Some bi-nucleate cells were also observed, which probably result from mitosis without cytokinesis. A preliminary examination of nuclei from galls induced by L. elongatus revealed similar nuclear changes, but no bi-nucleate cells were found.

  13. EPSPS gene amplification in glyphosate-resistant in Italian ryegrass (Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum) populations from Arkansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass was detected in Arkansas, USA in 2007. In 2014, 45 populations were confirmed resistant in eight counties across the state. The level of resistance and resistance mechanisms in six populations was studied to assess the severity of the problem and identify altern...

  14. Nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium of nine genes with putative effects on flowering time in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiil, Alice; Lenk, Ingo; Petersen, Klaus;

    2011-01-01

    in floral organ identity were found to be highly conserved and showed extended LD. For LpMADS4, LpMADS5, LpCO, LpSFT and LpTFL1, LD extended over the entire region analyzed. The results are compared to previously published results on resistance genes within the same collection of genotypes and the prospects...... to LpMADS1) and five additional MADS-box genes, were analyzed for nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD). For each gene, about 1 kb genomic fragments were isolated from 10 to 20 genotypes of perennial ryegrass of diverse origin. Four to twelve haplotypes per gene were observed. On average......, one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was present per 127 bp between two randomly sampled sequences for the nine genes (π = 0.00790). Two MADS-box genes, LpMADS1 and LpMADS10, involved in timing of flowering showed high nucleotide diversity and rapid LD decay, whereas MADS-box genes involved...

  15. A synteny-based draft genome sequence of the forage grass Lolium perenne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrne, Stephen; Nagy, Istvan; Pfeifer, Matthias;

    2015-01-01

    the pistil of a plant to reject self-pollen and therefore promote out-crossing. We have used the sequence assembly to characterize transcriptional changes in the stigma during pollination with both compatible and incompatible pollen. Characterization of the pollen transcriptome identified homologs to pollen...

  16. Genetic characterisation of seed yield and fertility traits in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studer, Bruno; Jensen, Louise Bach; Hentrup, Stephan;

    2008-01-01

    replications over 2 years. The traits heading date, plant height, length of panicles, number of panicles per plant, seed yield per panicle, flag leaf length, flag leaf width and seed yield per plant revealed repeatabilities ranging from 41 to 76% and a considerable amount of genetic variation in the Vrn...

  17. Chromosome duplication in Lolium multiflorum Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselaine Cristina Pereira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Artificial chromosome duplication of diploid genotypes of Lolium multiflorum (2n=2x=14 is worthy to breeding, and aims to increase the expression of traits with agronomic interest. The purpose of this study was to obtain polyploid plants of L. multiflorum from local diploid populations in order to exploit adaptation and future verification of the effects of polyploidy in agronomic traits. Seedlings were immersed in different colchicine solutions for an exposure time of 3h and 24h. Ploidy determination was made by the DNA content and certified by chromosomes counts. The plants confirmed as tetraploids were placed in a greenhouse, and, at flowering, pollen viability was evaluated, and seeds were harvested to assess the stability of the progenies. The percentage of polyploids obtained was 20%. Pollen viability of the tetraploids generated ranged from 58% to 69%. The tetraploid plants obtained in the experiment generated 164 progenies, of which 109 presented DNA content compatible with the tetraploid level, showing stability of chromosome duplication in the filial generation.

  18. Identification of glyphosate resistance in Lolium rigidum Gaudin

    OpenAIRE

    Danijela Pavlović; Charlie Reinhardt; Igor Elezović; Sava Vrbničanin

    2011-01-01

    Glyphosate resistance was found in Lolium rigidum Gaudin (Rigid ryegrass, LOLRI) in South Africa. Suspected glyphosate-resistant L. rigidum populations were collected and grown under greenhouse conditions. The plants were sprayed with a range of doses of glyphosate 35 days after planting and shoot dry biomass was determined 17 days after herbicide treatment. Based on the dose-response experiment conducted in the greenhouse, one population of L. rigidum susp...

  19. Grazing behaviour, intake, rumen function and milk production of dairy cows offered Lolium perenne containing different levels of water-soluble carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taweel, H.Z.; Tas, B.M.; Smit, H.J.; Elgersma, A.; Dijkstra, J.; Tamminga, S.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess grazing behaviour, intake, rumen function, milk production and composition of dairy cows grazing perennial ryegrass varieties that were morphologically and chemically similar, but differed in their water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) concentration. Eight multiparous

  20. Bioaccumulation of metals in ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) following the application of lime stabilised, thermally dried and anaerobically digested sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, M G; Ryan, P C; Fenton, O; Peyton, D P; Wall, D P; Morrison, L

    2016-08-01

    The uptake and accumulation of metals in plants is a potential pathway for the transfer of environmental contaminants in the food chain, and poses potential health and environmental risks. In light of increased population growth and urbanisation, the safe disposal of sewage sludge, which can contain significant levels of toxic contaminants, remains an environmental challenge globally. The aims of this experiment were to apply municipal sludge, having undergone treatment by thermal drying, anaerobic digestion, and lime stabilisation, to permanent grassland in order to assess the bioaccumulation of metals (B, Al, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Nb, Mo, Sb, Ba, W, Pb, Fe, Cd) by perennial ryegrass over a period of up to 18 weeks after application. The legislation currently prohibits use of grassland for fodder or grazing for at least three weeks after application of treated sewage sludge (biosolids). Five treatments were used: thermally dried (TD), anaerobically digested (AD) and lime stabilised (LS) sludge all from one wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), AD sludge from another WWTP, and a study control (grassland only, without application of biosolids). In general, there was no significant difference in metal content of the ryegrass between micro-plots that received treated municipal sludge and the control over the study duration. The metal content of the ryegrass was below the levels at which phytotoxicity occurs and below the maximum levels specified for animal feeds. PMID:27174047

  1. Comparative sequence analysis of VRN1 alleles of Lolium perenne with the co-linear regions in barley, wheat, and rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asp, Torben; Byrne, Stephen; Gundlach, Heidrun;

    2011-01-01

    requirement. The region surrounding the VRN1 locus in perennial ryegrass showed microcolinearity to the corresponding region on chromosome 3 in Oryza sativa with conserved gene order and orientation, while the micro-colinearity to the corresponding region in Triticum monococcum was less conserved. Our study...

  2. Preliminary report on slime mold disease of Lolium perenne caused by Physarum cinereurn%多年生黑麦草粘菌病研究初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵桂华; 王开冻; 席刚俊

    2010-01-01

    多年生黑麦草是长江三角洲地区的园林绿化植物,在每年7月上中旬至8月中旬会发生严重的粘菌病,造成黑麦草生长不良.该病由灰绒泡菌(Physarum cinereum)粘菌引起.经过2年多的野外调查,该粘菌主要危害多年生黑麦草,狗牙根、白三叶.

  3. Detection of favorable alleles for plant height and crown rust tolerance in three connected populations of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Laurence; Flajoulot, Sandrine; Garon, Jérôme; Julier, Bernadette; Béguier, Vincent; Barre, Philippe

    2012-04-01

    Plant height, which is an estimator of vegetative yield, and crown rust tolerance are major criteria for perennial ryegrass breeding. Genetic improvement has been achieved through phenotypic selection but it should be speeded up using marker-assisted selection, especially in this heterozygous species suffering from inbreeding depression. Using connected multiparental populations should increase the diversity studied and could substantially increase the power of quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection. The objective of this study was to detect the best alleles for plant height and rust tolerance among three connected populations derived from elite material by comparing an analysis per parent and a multipopulation connected analysis. For the studied traits, 17 QTL were detected with the analysis per parent while the additive and dominance models of the multipopulation connected analysis made it possible to detect 33 and 21 QTL, respectively. Favorable alleles have been detected in all parents. Only a few dominance effects were detected and they generally had lower values than the additive effects. The additive model of the multipopulation connected analysis was the most powerful as it made it possible to detect most of the QTL identified in the other analyses and 11 additional QTL. Using this model, plant growth QTL and rust tolerance QTL explained up to 19 and 38.6% of phenotypic variance, respectively. This example involving three connected populations is promising for an application on polycross progenies, traditionally used in breeding programs. Indeed, polycross progenies actually are a set of several connected populations.

  4. Carbon allocation to roots, rhizodeposits and soil after pulse labelling: a comparison of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorissen, A.; Neergaard, de A.

    2004-01-01

    Organically managed farm areas in Denmark are expanding and typically contain clover-grass leys that are known to stimulate accumulation of organic matter in arable soils. We compared the C allocation to roots and soil from clover and grass, and determined for how long assimilated C remained mobile

  5. A Simulation Model of Mesophytic Perennial Grasslands Un Modelo de Simulación de Pradera Perenne Mesofítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Castellaro G

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Grasslands are complex ecosystems and their processes are affected by soil, meteorological, and management variables. In this context, dynamic simulation models are useful to understand these processes and to design grassland use strategies. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simulation model of perennial pasture growth based on soil and climate variables. A first approach considered that soil fertility levels were adequate; therefore, soil water availability and phytomass level were the main variables affecting pasture growth. The subroutines considered were water balance, pasture growth, and root biomass dynamics. The hypotheses regarding the functioning of the system were formulated as a group of equations which were solved numerically with a program written in Visual Basic®. Model validation was performed by statistical comparison between simulated DM and DM obtained from experiments conducted in Valdivia (39°47' S., 73°15' W; 9 m a.s.l.. In these experiments we measured DM accumulation on naturalized grassland and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.-white clover (Trifolium repens L. pastures under frequent defoliation. Soil data, temperature, solar radiation, and rainfall were obtained from a meteorological station located in Valdivia. The coefficient of determination between simulated values and those measured in the experiments were higher in the DM accumulation (R² = 98% simulations. When pasture was subjected to frequent defoliation, the degree of fit of the model was lower (R² = 60%; however, the model was able to predict the trend in the data.Los pastizales son ecosistemas complejos y sus procesos se ven afectados por variables edáficas, meteorológicas y de manejo. En este contexto, los modelos dinámicos de simulación son utiles para la comprensión de estos procesos y disenar estrategias de utilización de las praderas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue elaborar y validar un modelo de simulación de crecimiento de

  6. Identification of Glyphosate Resistance in Lolium rigidum Gaudin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Pavlović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate resistance was found in Lolium rigidum Gaudin (Rigid ryegrass, LOLRI inSouth Africa. Suspected glyphosate-resistant L. rigidum populations were collected andgrown under greenhouse conditions. The plants were sprayed with a range of doses of glyphosate35 days after planting and shoot dry biomass was determined 17 days after herbicidetreatment. Based on the dose-response experiment conducted in the greenhouse,one population of L. rigidum suspected to be resistant to glyphosate was approximately 5.3fold more resistant than susceptible population. The other population was 2.8 fold moreresistant than susceptible population. Difference between the two suspected resistant populationswas 1.9 fold. All plants were treated with glyphosate (1000 g a.i. ha-1 and shikimicacid was extracted 2, 4 and 6 days after treatment. The plants of susceptible populationsaccumulated more shikimic acid than other two populations.

  7. Identification of Genes Induced in Lolium multiflorum by Bacterial Wilt Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wichmann, Fabienne; Asp, Torben; Widmer, Franco;

    2010-01-01

    was hybridized to a cDNA microarray containing 10,000 unique genes from L. perenne. Comparisons and statistical analyses of the gene expression profiles revealed 0, 20, 52 and 124 differentially regulated genes 8, 48, 192 and 288 h after infection compared to non-infected controls and considering a p...

  8. Cross-resistance to herbicides in annual ryegrass (lolium rigidum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher, J.T.; Powles, S.B.; Liljegren, D.R.; Holtum, J.A.M. (Univ. of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia))

    1991-04-01

    Lolium rigidum Gaud. biotype SLR31 is resistant to the herbicide diclofop-methyl and cross-resistant to several sulfonylurea herbicides. Wheat and the cross-resistant ryegrass exhibit similar patterns of resistance to sulfonylurea herbicides, suggesting that the mechanism of resistance may be similar. Cross-resistant ryegrass is also resistant to the wheat-selective imidazolinone herbicide imazamethabenz. The cross-resistant biotype SLR31 metabolized (phenyl-U-{sup 14}C)chlorsulfuron at a faster rate than a biotype which is susceptible to both diclofop-methyl and chlorsulfuron. A third biotype which is resistant to diclofop-methyl but not to chlorsulfuron metabolized chlorsulfuron at the same rate as the susceptible biotype. The increased metabolism of chlorsulfuron observed in the cross-resistant biotype is, therefore, correlated with the patterns of resistance observed in these L. rigidum biotypes. During high performance liquid chromatography analysis the major metabolite of chlorsulfuron in both susceptible and cross-resistant ryegrass coeluted with the major metabolite produced in wheat. The major product is clearly different from the major product in the tolerant dicot species, flax (Linium usitatissimum). The elution pattern of metabolites of chlorsulfuron was the same for both the susceptible and cross-resistant ryegrass but the cross-resistant ryegrass metabolized chlorsulfuron more rapidly. The investigation of the dose response to sulfonylurea herbicides at the whole plant level and the study of the metabolism of chlorsulfuron provide two independent sets of data which both suggest that the resistance to chlorsulfuron in cross-resistant ryegrass biotype SLR31 involves a wheat-like detoxification system.

  9. Morphology and pollen viability of Lolium multiflorum Lam. Morfologia e viabilidade polínica de Lolium multiflorum Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Castro Nunes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Study and characterization of pollen grains are essential for different areas, especially taxonomy, genetic improvement, phylogeny, and paleobotany. As yet, there are no reports on pollen morphology of genotypes of naturalized Lolium multiflorum Lam., introduced cultivars or breeding populations, diploid or polyploid. Ten genotypes of annual ryegrass (L. multiflorum were evaluated for the viability of pollen grains using propionic carmine and Alexander's stains, while morphology was assessed by the acetolysis technique. Measures of polar axis (P, equatorial diameter (E, exine thickness, and analysis of pollen grains were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. All genotypes showed high rate of pollen viability (> 89% for both stains. There were differences between genotypes in the following quantitative traits: polar axis, equatorial diameter, exine, endexine, ektexine, and P/E ratio. Pollen grains were characterized as small, monoporates, with circular and non-prominent apertures. In addition to helping distinction of pollen grains, morphometric differences can be used later to compare ploidy levels, thus assisting in breeding programs of the species.O estudo e a caracterização do grão de pólen são fundamentais para diferentes áreas, em especial, para a taxonomia, o melhoramento genético, a filogenia e a paleobotânica. Para genótipos de Lolium multiflorum Lam., naturalizados no Brasil, cultivares introduzidas ou populações de melhoramento, diploides e poliploides, não existem relatos sobre a caracterização morfopolínica. Nesse trabalho foram analisados dez gentótipos de azevém anual (L. multiflorum. A viabilidade dos grãos de pólen foi verificada por coloração com os corantes carmim propiônico e Alexander e a morfologia por meio da técnica de acetólise, sendo obtidas medidas do eixo polar (P, do diâmetro equatorial (E, e da espessura da exina, e análise dos grãos de pólen por microscopia eletrônica de

  10. Transcriptome response of Lolium arundinaceum to the fungal endophyte Epichloe coenophiala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is one of the principal cool-season species used as a forage and turf within the USA. A number of benefits associated with the persistence of tall fescue have been attributed to the presence of its seed-transmissible symbiont, the fungal endophyte Epichloë coenophi...

  11. Identification of Anguina funesta from annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) seed lots in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010, seed galls containing Anguina sp. were isolated from 14 annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) seed lots submitted for phytosanitary testing. To identify the species present, the ITS1 region of the ribosomal DNA of the nematodes from the seed lots was analyzed using a PCR-RFLP method (11). ...

  12. Cytogenetic studies of Lolium multiflorum Lam., Festuca arundinacea Schreb., their hybrids and amphidiploids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijer, G.

    1982-01-01

    Plant breeders intercross Lolium multiflorum and Festuca arundinacea with the purpose of obtaining hybrids which combine agronomically interesting characters of the parent species. The end result can be an amphidiploid, or the transfer of a limited number of genes from one species to the other. Espe

  13. Effects of accelerated aging on italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) is a productive, high quality cool-season forage that is overseeded in warm-season pastures for winter and early spring grazing. However, in some pastures and croplands it can be a serious weed. Italian ryegrass does not form an extensive seed bank and the see...

  14. (+)-Pinoresinol/(-)-lariciresinol reductase from Linum perenne Himmelszelt involved in the biosynthesis of justicidin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Shiva; Schmidt, Thomas J; Fuss, Elisabeth

    2007-02-20

    A cDNA encoding a pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase PLR (PLR-Lp1) was isolated from a cell culture of Linum perenne Himmelszelt accumulating the arylnaphthalene lignan justicidin B. The recombinant PLR-Lp1 prefers (+)-pinoresinol in the first reaction step, but (-)-lariciresinol in the second step. Therefore, it is the first PLR described with opposite enantiospecificity within the two reaction steps catalysed by PLRs. Hairy root lines transformed with an ihpRNAi construct to suppress plr gene expression show less mRNA accumulation for the plr-Lp1 gene and PLR enzyme activity. Justicidin B accumulation was reduced down to 24% in comparison to control lines showing the involvement of PLR-Lp1 in the biosynthesis of justicidin B.

  15. Translocação do glyphosate em biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum) Glyphosate translocation in Italian ryegrass biotypes (Lolium multiflorum)

    OpenAIRE

    E.A. Ferreira; J.B. Santos; Silva, A. A.; de Oliveira, J. A.; Vargas, L.

    2006-01-01

    Foram avaliadas neste trabalho a absorção foliar e a translocação do glyphosate por biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum) sensíveis e resistentes a esse herbicida. Para isso, aplicou-se 14C-glyphosate utilizando-se uma microsseringa de precisão, adicionando-se 10 µL da calda sobre a face adaxial da primeira folha com lígula totalmente visível, quando as plantas de azevém se apresentavam com três perfilhos. A quantidade de glyphosate absorvido e translocado foi avaliada em intervalos de temp...

  16. Resistência de azevém (Lolium multiflorum ao herbicida glyphosate Resistance of italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum to glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Roman

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O azevém é uma gramínea de ciclo anual, constituindo-se com freqüência em planta infestante em lavouras de trigo do Rio Grande do Sul. Em experimentos realizados em casa de vegetação e no campo, foi avaliada a suscetibilidade de dois biótipos de azevém ao herbicida glyphosate, bem como a eficiência de herbicidas de ação total na dessecação de Lolium multiflorum para a semeadura direta de trigo. O delineamento experimental foi completamente casualizado em casa de vegetação e de blocos ao acaso em campo, com três e quatro repetições, respectivamente. Foram avaliados herbicidas com mecanismos de ação distintos em diferentes doses: glyphosate, glufosinate, clethodim, haloxyfop-r e diclofop, paraquat e paraquat + diuron. Os resultados, em casa de vegetação, evidenciam que o biótipo sensível é totalmente controlado com glyphosate na dose de 360 g e.a. ha-1 e que doses de até 1.440 g e.a. ha-1 não afetam significativamente o acúmulo de matéria seca do biótipo resistente e produzem toxicidade inferior a 15% sobre este. Já as doses entre 1.440 e 5.760 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate reduzem significativamente a produção de matéria seca e resultam em toxicidade inferior a 45%. Em campo, os melhores controles de azevém foram propiciados pelos tratamentos clethodim (79,2 g ha-1 e diuron + paraquat (300 + 600 g ha-1, que não diferiram entre si. Assim, evidencia-se que a população de Lolium multiflorum avaliada neste trabalho é constituída predominantemente de um biótipo resistente aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima EPSPs.Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum is cultivated as forage and/or cover crop in no-till system. However, it is also a serious weed in wheat and other winter cereals in Southern Brazil. Experiments were conducted at greenhouse and field conditions to evaluate the susceptibility of two ryegrass biotype to glyphosate as well as the efficacy of other herbicides on the post-emergence control of the species

  17. Partitioning SNPs Identified By GBS into Genome Annotation Classes and Calculating SNP-Explained Variances for Heading Date and Disease Resistance from the Resulting Genomic Relationship Matrices - Lolium perenne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrne, Stephen; Cericola, Fabio; Janss, Luc;

    2015-01-01

    , and an average protein Annotation Edit Distance (AED) of 0.14. Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS) data was generated after genome complexity reduction with ApeKI for 995 breeding families. Data was aligned against the annotated sequence assembly, and we identified variants at over 1.8 million positions, which were......,273 SNPs), genes with NB-ARC domains (9,056 SNPs), intron (168,023 SNPs), and inter-genic (1,420,866 SNPs). Genomic relationship matrices were created for each annotation class and SNP-explained variances for heading date and disease resistance were calculated...

  18. Effects of Glomus intraradices on Growth and Cd Enrichment of Ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.)%Glomus intraradices对黑麦草生长和富集镉的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘茵

    2011-01-01

    采用盆栽方法模拟不同镉污染状况,研究接种丛枝菌根真菌(AM)Glomus intraradices对黑麦草生长和富集、运转镉的影响.结果表明,土壤镉水平增加明显提高了黑麦草菌根侵染率,而显著降低了黑麦草的生长量,但对磷浓度无显著影响,表明Glomus intraradices对镉胁迫具有一定的耐性,并对黑麦草的磷营养和生长未表现出促进作用.Glomus intraradices的存在明显促进了黑麦草对镉的富集,菌根形成强化镉在根系的固持作用,减少镉向地上部运转,进而降低黑麦草地上部的镉浓度,减轻了镉对地上部的毒害,表现在根富集系数均大于1,运转系数远远小于1.这一结果对镉污染农田修复以及草坪草和牧草品质的改善都有重要意义.%To investigate the possible role of arbuscular mycorrhizal(AM) on the bioremediation of Cd contaminated soils, pot experiments were conducted to adopt simulating contaminations on sandyloam soil. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal(Clomus in-traradices) on plant growth and Cd enrichment and translocation were determined at three Cd application levels (0,15,45 mg/kg). Cd in soil significantly increased the infection rate of ryegrass by G. Intraradices while decreased dry weight of rye-grass. P concentration of ryegrass plant was not significantly affected by inoculation of AM fungi. These results implied that G. Intraradices had some endurance to Cd contamination in soil, while no promotion on P uptake and the growth of ryegrass. Cd enrichment in ryegrass was stimulated by inoculation with G. Intraradices. AM fungi strengthened the bio-fixing of Cd in root and reduced Cd translocation from root to shoot, thus decreased Cd concentration in shoot, which were explained by the fact that the enrichment coefficient of Cd in root was above 1 while the translocation coefficient was below 1. AM fungus could adjust the distribution proportion of Cd in host plant and protect host plants against heavy metal contamination. These functional characters of AM fungi could play a great role in remediation of Cd contaminated farmland and improving the quality of turf and forage grasses.

  19. Effects of a compost made from the solid by-product ("alperujo") of the two-phase centrifugation system for olive oil extraction and cotton gin waste on growth and nutrient content of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alburquerque, J A; Gonzálvez, J; García, D; Cegarra, J

    2007-03-01

    A pot experiment was conducted on a low-fertility calcareous soil in order to evaluate the effect on ryegrass growth and nutrient uptake of an organic fertiliser obtained by composting "alperujo" and cotton gin waste. Compost, alone and combined with nitrogen fertilisation, was added to the soil at three rates and three harvests were obtained. The compost application enhanced plant growth in the first and third harvest. However, the additional nitrogen fertilisation clearly improved soil productivity due to the scarce availability of this nutrient in the compost. Also, a general increase in the plant contents of phosphorus and potassium in the first two harvests was recorded, whereas treatments with the maximum compost rate showed the highest plant content of copper in the last two harvests. Decreases in calcium in the last two harvests, in magnesium in all of them and in iron and manganese in the last harvest were also observed. PMID:16762544

  20. Optimizing the number of consecutive seed harvests in red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) for yield, yield components and economic return

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Kristensen, Kristian; Gislum, René;

    2013-01-01

    . The diploid amenity cv. Allegro and forage type cv. Borvi of perennial ryegrass can be harvested in five consecutive years without a significant yield reduction. The tetraploid type cv. Tivoli had the highest thousand seed weight and a significant yield decrease from the first to the second year of seed...

  1. Effect of fungal endophytes against rust disease of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) on growth and physiological indices%内生真菌对感染锈病黑麦草生长和生理的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马敏芝; 南志标

    2011-01-01

    The biological, photosynthetic and physiological characteristics of Neotyphodium endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) perennial ryegrass (fairway cultivar) with Puccinia spp. Infections were studied in a field experiment. The height and biomass of E+ plants were significantly higher than those of E -plants, and the loss of diseased leaves of E+ plants was significantly lower than that of E- plants irrespective of whether they were slightly or severely infected. The same response also occurred in the dwarf diseased leaves. For slight and severely affected plants, the contents of leaf relative water, soluble sugar, chlorophyll, pro-line, and net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance as well as the activities of super-oxide dismutase and peroxidase of E+ plants were significantly greater than those of E- plants. However, the malondialdehyde content of E+ plants was significantly lower than that of E- plants. In conclusion, endo-phyte infection improved rust disease resistance of perennial ryegrass under field conditions.%在田间条件下对带内生真菌和不带内生真菌球道黑麦草品种被锈菌不同程度感染后的生长、光合特性和生理指标进行测定.结果表明,带内生真菌的植株无论感病轻重,其病叶损失率和植株矮化程度均显著低于不带内生真菌的植株(P<0.05).并且在轻度和重度病株中,内生真菌可提高黑麦草叶片相对含水量、可溶性糖含量、叶绿素含量,净光合速率、蒸腾速率、气孔导度,叶内游离脯氨酸含量、超氧化物歧化酶与过氧化物酶的活性;同时有效地降低了丙二醛的含量,说明内生真菌的存在可提高寄主黑麦草在田间条件下的抗锈病能力.

  2. Relating physical and chemical properties of four different biochars and their application rate to biomass production of Lolium perenne on a Calcic Cambisol during a pot experiment of 79 days

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, José M. de la, E-mail: jmrosa@irnase.csic.es [Instituto de Recursos Naturales Agrobiología de Sevilla (IRNAS-CSIC), Av. Reina Mercedes, 10, 41012 Seville (Spain); Paneque, Marina [Instituto de Recursos Naturales Agrobiología de Sevilla (IRNAS-CSIC), Av. Reina Mercedes, 10, 41012 Seville (Spain); Miller, Ana Z. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales Agrobiología de Sevilla (IRNAS-CSIC), Av. Reina Mercedes, 10, 41012 Seville (Spain); CEPGIST/CERENA, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa. Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Knicker, Heike [Instituto de Recursos Naturales Agrobiología de Sevilla (IRNAS-CSIC), Av. Reina Mercedes, 10, 41012 Seville (Spain)

    2014-11-15

    Three pyrolysis biochars (B1: wood, B2: paper-sludge, B3: sewage-sludge) and one kiln-biochar (B4: grapevine wood) were characterized by determining different chemical and physical properties which were related to the germination rates and to the plant biomass production during a pot experiment of 79 days in which a Calcic Cambisol from SW Spain was amended with 10, 20 and 40 t ha{sup −1} of the four biochars. Biochar 1, B2 and B4 revealed comparable elemental composition, pH, water holding capacity and ash content. The H/C and O/C atomic ratios suggested high aromaticity of all biochars, which was confirmed by {sup 13}C solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The FT-IR spectra confirmed the aromaticity of all the biochars as well as several specific differences in their composition. The FESEM-EDS distinguished compositional and structural differences of the studied biochars such as macropores on the surface of B1, collapsed structures in B2, high amount of mineral deposits (rich in Al, Si, Ca and Fe) and organic phases in B3 and vessel structures for B4. Biochar amendment improved germination rates and soil fertility (excepting for B4), and had no negative pH impact on the already alkaline soil. Application of B3, the richest in minerals and nitrogen, resulted in the highest soil fertility. In this case, increase of the dose went along with an enhancement of plant production. Considering costs due to production and transport of biochar, for all used chars with the exception of B3, the application of 10 t ha{sup −1} turned out as the most efficient for the crop and soil used in the present incubation experiment. - Highlights: • Turning organic waste into biochar to improve soil fertility of calcic Cambisols. • Kiln wood biochar resulted in low water retention capacity and specific surface area. • Feedstock drives the differences in the composition and functionalities of biochars. • 10 t biochar ha{sup –1} was the most efficient dose for improving soil fertility.

  3. Development and mapping of DArT markers within the Festuca - Lolium complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopecký, David; Bartos, Jan; Lukaszewski, Adam J;

    2009-01-01

    Background Grasses are among the most important and widely cultivated plants on Earth. They provide high quality fodder for livestock, are used for turf and amenity purposes, and play a fundamental role in environment protection. Among cultivated grasses, species within the Festuca-Lolium complex...

  4. Chemical Composition, In vivo Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Values of Caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. caramba) Fresh, Silage and Hay

    OpenAIRE

    Özelçam, H.; Kırkpınar, F.; TAN, K

    2015-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine nutritive values of caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. caramba) fresh, silage and hay by in vivo and in vitro methods. There was a statistically significant difference (p0.05). However, the highest MECN (ME was estimated using crude nutrients) and MEADF values were found in fresh caramba (p

  5. 黑麦草属DNA条形码鉴定技术研究%Establishment of DNA barcode of common species of Lolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李阳; 吴申懋; 陈沁

    2014-01-01

    以毒麦、田毒麦、多花黑麦草、多年生黑麦草、硬直黑麦草、高羊茅与狗牙根等禾本科的7种植物为材料,拟采用 DNA 测序、特异性位点比对、种间遗传距离测定、建立系统树等分析候选 DNA 条形码 psbA-trnH 鉴别黑麦草属常见植物的能力。实验结果表明,以 psbA-trnH 为 DNA 条形码时,建立的系统发育树能较好区分毒麦和田毒麦与其他几种植物。psbA-trnH 序列可以作为黑麦草属植物的潜在条形码。%7 kinds of plants such as Lolium temulentum、Lolium temulentum L.var. arvense Bab.、Lolium multiflorum、Lolium perenne、Lolium rigidum、Festuca、Cynodon are used as materials, which belong to Poaceae, to analyze psbA-trnH candidate DNA barcode’s ability of identifying the common species of Lolium by DNA sequencing, specific loci comparisons and interspecific genetic distance measurement, establishing the system tree and other technical means. The results show that Lolium temulentum and Lolium temulentum L.var. arvense Bab. can be divided well by the established system tree when we use psbA-trnH sequence as a DNA barcode. psbA-trnH could be used as a potential DNA barcode to correctly identify the plants in Lolium.

  6. Multiple Herbicide Resistance in Lolium multiflorum and Identification of Conserved Regulatory Elements of Herbicide Resistance Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Khalid; Mathiassen, Solvejg K.; Kristensen, Michael; Kudsk, Per

    2016-01-01

    Herbicide resistance is a ubiquitous challenge to herbicide sustainability and a looming threat to control weeds in crops. Recently four genes were found constituently over-expressed in herbicide resistant individuals of Lolium rigidum, a close relative of Lolium multiflorum. These include two cytochrome P450s, one nitronate monooxygenase and one glycosyl-transferase. Higher expressions of these four herbicide metabolism related (HMR) genes were also observed after herbicides exposure in the gene expression databases, indicating them as reliable markers. In order to get an overview of herbicidal resistance status of L. multiflorum L, 19 field populations were collected. Among these populations, four populations were found to be resistant to acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors while three exhibited resistance to acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitors in our initial screening and dose response study. The genotyping showed the presence of mutations Trp-574-Leu and Ile-2041-Asn in ALS and ACCase, respectively, and qPCR experiments revealed the enhanced expression of HMR genes in individuals of certain resistant populations. Moreover, co-expression networks and promoter analyses of HMR genes in O. sativa and A. thaliana resulted in the identification of a cis-regulatory motif and zinc finger transcription factors. The identified transcription factors were highly expressed similar to HMR genes in response to xenobiotics whereas the identified motif is known to play a vital role in coping with environmental stresses and maintaining genome stability. Overall, our findings provide an important step forward toward a better understanding of metabolism-based herbicide resistance that can be utilized to devise novel strategies of weed management. PMID:27547209

  7. Multiple herbicide resistance in Lolium multiflorum and identification of conserved regulatory elements of herbicide resistance genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Mahmood

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Herbicide resistance is a ubiquitous challenge to herbicide sustainability and a looming threat to control weeds in crops. Recently four genes were found constituently over-expressed in herbicide resistant individuals of Lolium rigidum, a close relative of L. multiflorum. These include two cytochrome P450s, one nitronate monooxygenase and one glycosyl-transferase. Higher expressions of these four herbicide metabolism related (HMR genes were also observed after herbicides exposure in the gene expression databases, indicating them a reliable marker. In order to get an overview of herbicidal resistance status of Lolium multiflorum L, 19 field populations were collected. Among these populations, four populations were found to be resistant to acetolactate synthase (ALS inhibitors while three exhibited resistance to acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase inhibitors in our initial screening and dose response study. The genotyping showed the presence of mutations Trp-574-Leu and Ile-2041-Asn in ALS and ACCase, respectively and qPCR experiments revealed the enhanced expression of HMR genes in individuals of certain resistant populations. Moreover, co-expression networks and promoter analyses of HMR genes in O.sativa and A.thaliana resulted in the identification of a cis-regulatory motif and zinc finger transcription factors. The identified transcription factors were highly expressed similar to HMR genes in response to xenobiotics whereas the identified motif known to play a vital role in coping with environmental stresses and maintaining genome stability. Overall, our findings provide an important step forward towards a better understanding of metabolism-based herbicide resistance that can be utilized to devise novel strategies of weed management.

  8. Anatomia foliar de Lolium multiflorum sensível e resistente ao glyphosate Leaf anatomy of Lolium multiflorum sensitive and resistant to glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Galvani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o intuito de contribuir para o conhecimento anatômico da espécie Lolium multiflorum e, a partir disso, observar possíveis alterações que possam elucidar o mecanismo que confere resistência ao herbicida glyphosate. Para isso, realizou-se um experimento com quatro biótipos dessa espécie com distinta sensibilidade ao herbicida glyphosate, sendo um sensível (B1S e três resistentes (B2R, B3R e B4R. As análises ocorreram a partir de secções transversais e longitudinais dos órgãos vegetativos de plantas no estádio de afilhamento. Anatomicamente, o azevém caracteriza-se por apresentar grande quantidade de estômatos e de células buliformes, bem como mesofilo homogêneo constituído apenas de células paliçádicas compactamente distribuídas. Comparativamente, não ocorrem diferenças morfológicas evidentes que possam ser usadas para diferir biótipos sensíveis de resistentes, no entanto, nota-se que biótipos resistentes, especialmente B3R e B4R, apresentaram maior densidade estomática em relação aos demais. Ainda, os biótipos resistentes apresentaram maior quantidade de espaços intercelulares no mesofilo e feixes vasculares com menor quantidade de floema em relação ao xilema, o que, por suas funções na planta, pode colaborar para a menor sensibilidade ao herbicida.This work aimed to contribute to the anatomical knowledge of the species Lolium multiflorum and to observe possible changes that may elucidate the mechanism that confers its resistance to the herbicide glyphosate. Thus, an experiment was conducted using four biotypes of this species with distinct sensitivities to the herbicide glyphosate: one susceptible (B1S and three resistant biotypes (B2R, B3R and B4R. Analyses were conducted on the transverse and longitudinal sections of the vegetative organs of the plants at the tillering stage. Anatomically, ryegrass is characterized as having a large number of stomata and buliform cells

  9. Transcriptional Profiles of Drought-Related Genes in Modulating Metabolic Processes and Antioxidant Defenses in Lolium multiflorum

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Ling; Zhang, Xinquan; Wang, Jianping; Ma, Xiao; Zhou, Meiliang; Huang, Linkai; Nie, Gang; Wang, Pengxi; Yang, Zhongfu; Li, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Drought is a major environmental stress that limits growth and development of cool-season annual grasses. Drought transcriptional profiles of resistant and susceptible lines were studied to understand the molecular mechanisms of drought tolerance in annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.). A total of 4718 genes exhibited significantly differential expression in two L. multiflorum lines. Additionally, up-regulated genes associated with drought response in the resistant lines were compared with...

  10. Herbicide resistance in German and Swiss Lolium spp. populations – resistance factors and cross-resistance spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petersen, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In monitoring trials investigating the occurrence and spread of herbicide resistance in German and Swiss Lolium populations 26 samples could be included since 2008. Biotypes which showed resistance to postemergence herbicides were included into a detailed greenhouse trial in 2014. Based on dose-response experiments, resistance factors and cross resistance patterns for cycloxydim, flufenacet, glyphosate, iodosulfuron, meso- and iodosulfuron, pinoxaden and pyroxsulam could be determined. Resistance to ALS as well as ACCase inhibitors was found. In a few cases also resistance to flufenacet could be detected. In contrast, no resistance to glyphosate was discovered. Resistant populations were found in four German federal states (Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Sachsen and Schleswig-Holstein. Two populations were resistant to all cereal selective post-emergence herbicides and to flufenacet. Some populations from Switzerland indicated presence of ACCase inhibitor resistance. In the future, more problems with herbicide resistant Lolium species as weeds in cereals may arise due to limited amount of available selective herbicides and climatic change with more favourable conditions for Lolium spp. as weeds.

  11. Phytoremediation potential of the novel atrazine tolerant Lolium multiflorum and studies on the mechanisms involved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atrazine impact on human health and the environment have been extensively studied. Phytoremediation emerged as a low cost, environmental friendly biotechnological solution for atrazine pollution in soil and water. In vitro atrazine tolerance assays were performed and Lolium multiflorum was found as a novel tolerant species, able to germinate and grow in the presence of 1 mg kg-1 of the herbicide. L. multiflorum presented 20% higher atrazine removal capacity than the natural attenuation, with high initial degradation rate in microcosms. The mechanisms involved in atrazine tolerance such as mutation in psbA gene, enzymatic detoxification via P450 or chemical hydrolysis through benzoxazinones were evaluated. It was demonstrated that atrazine tolerance is conferred by enhanced enzymatic detoxification via P450. Due to its atrazine degradation capacity in soil and its agronomical properties, L. multiflorum is a candidate for designing phytoremediation strategies for atrazine contaminated agricultural soils, especially those involving run-off avoiding. - Finding of a novel atrazine-tolerant species, as a potential candidate for phytoremediating herbicide-contaminated agriculture soils and elucidation of the mechanisms involved in tolerance.

  12. Phytoremediation potential of the novel atrazine tolerant Lolium multiflorum and studies on the mechanisms involved

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merini, Luciano J. [Catedra de Microbiologia Industrial y Biotecnologia, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bobillo, Cecilia [Servicio de Huellas Digitales Geneticas, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Microbiologia Industrial y Biotecnologia, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junin 956, BS As (Argentina); Cuadrado, Virginia [Catedra de Microbiologia Industrial y Biotecnologia, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Corach, Daniel [Servicio de Huellas Digitales Geneticas, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Microbiologia Industrial y Biotecnologia, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junin 956, BS As (Argentina); Giulietti, Ana M., E-mail: agiule@ffyb.uba.a [Catedra de Microbiologia Industrial y Biotecnologia, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-11-15

    Atrazine impact on human health and the environment have been extensively studied. Phytoremediation emerged as a low cost, environmental friendly biotechnological solution for atrazine pollution in soil and water. In vitro atrazine tolerance assays were performed and Lolium multiflorum was found as a novel tolerant species, able to germinate and grow in the presence of 1 mg kg{sup -1} of the herbicide. L. multiflorum presented 20% higher atrazine removal capacity than the natural attenuation, with high initial degradation rate in microcosms. The mechanisms involved in atrazine tolerance such as mutation in psbA gene, enzymatic detoxification via P{sub 450} or chemical hydrolysis through benzoxazinones were evaluated. It was demonstrated that atrazine tolerance is conferred by enhanced enzymatic detoxification via P{sub 450}. Due to its atrazine degradation capacity in soil and its agronomical properties, L. multiflorum is a candidate for designing phytoremediation strategies for atrazine contaminated agricultural soils, especially those involving run-off avoiding. - Finding of a novel atrazine-tolerant species, as a potential candidate for phytoremediating herbicide-contaminated agriculture soils and elucidation of the mechanisms involved in tolerance.

  13. Understanding Lolium rigidum Seeds: The Key to Managing a Problem Weed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn J. Steadman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The 40 million hectare southern Australian winter cropping region suffers from widespread infestation by Lolium rigidum (commonly known as annual or rigid ryegrass, a Mediterranean species initially introduced as a pasture plant. Along with its high competitiveness within crops, rapid adaptability and widespread resistance to herbicides, the dormancy of its seeds means that L. rigidum is the primary weed in southern Australian agriculture. With the individuals within a L. rigidum population exhibiting varying levels of seed dormancy, germination can be staggered across the crop-growing season, making complete weed removal virtually impossible, and ensuring that the weed seed bank is constantly replenished. By understanding the processes involved in induction and release of dormancy in L. rigidum seeds, it may be possible to develop strategies to more effectively manage this pest without further stretching herbicide resources. This review examines L. rigidum seed dormancy and germination from a weed-management perspective and explains how the seed bank can be depleted by control strategies encompassing all stages in the lifecycle of a seed, from development to germination.

  14. Effect of D2O on growth properties and chemical structure of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Barbara R [ORNL; Bali, Garima [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Reeves, David T [ORNL; O' Neill, Hugh Michael [ORNL; Sun, Qining [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Shah, Riddhi S [ORNL; Ragauskas, Arthur [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

    2014-01-01

    In present paper, we report the production and detailed structural analysis of deuterium-enriched rye grass (Lolium multiflorum) for neutron scattering experiments. An efficient method to produce deuterated biomass was developed by designing hydroponic perfusion chambers. In preliminary studies, the partial deuterated rye samples were grown in increasing levels of D2O to study the seed germination and the level of deuterium incorporation as a function of D2O concentration. Solution NMR method indicated 36.9 % deuterium incorporation in 50 % D2O grown annual rye samples and further significant increase in the deuterium incorporation level was observed by germinating the rye seedlings in H2O and growing in 50 % D2O inside the perfusion chambers. Moreover, in an effort to compare the substrate characteristics related to enzymatic hydrolysis on deuterated and protiated version of biomass, annual rye grown in 50 % D2O was selected for detailed biomass characterization studies. The compositional analyses, degree of polymerization and cellulose crystallinity were compared with its protiated control. The cellulose molecular weight indicated slight variation with deuteration; however, hemicellulose molecular weights and cellulose crystallinity remain unaffected with the deuteration. Besides the minor differences in biomass components, the development of deuterated biomass for neutron scattering application is essential to understand the complex biomass conversion processes.

  15. Pollen-Mediated Movement of Herbicide Resistance Genes in Lolium rigidum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñigo Loureiro

    Full Text Available The transfer of herbicide resistance genes by pollen is a major concern in cross-pollinated species such as annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum. A two-year study was conducted in the greenhouse, under favorable conditions for pollination, to generate information on potential maximum cross-pollination. This maximum cross-pollination rate was 56.1%. A three-year field trial was also conducted to study the cross-pollination rates in terms of distance and orientation to an herbicide-resistant pollen source. Under field conditions, cross-pollination rates varied from 5.5% to 11.6% in plants adjacent to the pollen source and decreased with increasing distances (1.5 to 8.9% at 15 m distance and up to 4.1% at 25 m in the downwind direction. Environmental conditions influenced the cross-pollination both under greenhouse and field conditions. Data were fit to an exponential decay model to predict gene flow at increasing distances. This model predicted an average gene flow of 7.1% when the pollen donor and recipient plants were at 0 m distance from each other. Pollen-mediated gene flow declined by 50% at 16.7 m from the pollen source, yet under downwind conditions gene flow of 5.2% was predicted at 25 m, the farthest distance studied. Knowledge of cross-pollination rates will be useful for assessing the spread of herbicide resistance genes in L. rigidum and in developing appropriate strategies for its mitigation.

  16. Effect of soil medium amendment on chemical composition and digestibility of Lolium multiflorum Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Sosnowski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of used soil medium amendment on the background of mineral fertilizers and on the chemical composition, and digestibility of dry matter of Lolium multiflorum Lam. (‘Gaza’ variety. Experiment with the cultivation of this species was carried out in the rings of polyurethane, in four replications. For each of the pots, eight ryegrass seeds were sown. After seeds germination when seedlings reached the two-three leaf stage, negative selection was made by removing the four weakest plants and then experimental factors were introduced in the form of the following combinations: NPK – mineral fertilization in annual doses of 0.6 g N, 0.25 g P2O5 and 0.9 g of K2O per ring, B-NPK – without fertilization, UG – soil medium amendment in the form of 0.25% solution and a dose of 3.7 cm3 per ring, B-UG – without soil medium amendment. Nitrogen fertilization (34% ammonium nitrate and potassium (60% potassium salt were used in three doses, and phosphorus (46% TSP in a single dose in spring. The soil medium amendment solution was used for watering plants in a phase of shooting. The full period of this experiment was in 2009-2010. During this time, the analysis of chemical composition of dry matter yield was performed for all cuts at the Institute of Technology and Life Sciences in Falenty. The using of soil fertilizer in cultivation of ryegrass led to increase the crude ash content, expand the sugar-protein ratio and slight improvement of dry matter digestibility of the tested plant material.

  17. Chemical Composition, In vivo Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Values of Caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. caramba) Fresh, Silage and Hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özelçam, H; Kırkpınar, F; Tan, K

    2015-10-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine nutritive values of caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. caramba) fresh, silage and hay by in vivo and in vitro methods. There was a statistically significant difference (p0.05). However, the highest MECN (ME was estimated using crude nutrients) and MEADF values were found in fresh caramba (p<0.01). As a result, it could be said that, there were no differences between the three forms of caramba in nutrient composition, digestibility and ME value, besides drying and ensiling did not affect digestibility of hay. Consequently, caramba either as fresh, silage or hay is a good alternative source of forage for ruminants. PMID:26323399

  18. Chemical Composition, In vivo Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Values of Caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. caramba) Fresh, Silage and Hay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özelçam, H.; Kırkpınar, F.; Tan, K.

    2015-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine nutritive values of caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. caramba) fresh, silage and hay by in vivo and in vitro methods. There was a statistically significant difference (p0.05). However, the highest MECN (ME was estimated using crude nutrients) and MEADF values were found in fresh caramba (p<0.01). As a result, it could be said that, there were no differences between the three forms of caramba in nutrient composition, digestibility and ME value, besides drying and ensiling did not affect digestibility of hay. Consequently, caramba either as fresh, silage or hay is a good alternative source of forage for ruminants. PMID:26323399

  19. EL ANÁLISIS BAYESIANO Y LA PRECISIÓN DE LOS VALORES DE LA HEREDABILIDAD EN ESPECIES PERENNES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Mora

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron evaluar la precisión del valor estimado de la heredabilidad determinada por medio de la desviación estándar, considerando un enfoque Bayesiano, y comparar tal estimativa con el procedimiento clásico. Se utilizaron datos de un ensayo de progenie con 39 familias de Eucalyptus cladocalyx. La variable dependiente usada fue el diámetro basal del fuste medido a los seis años de edad. El método Bayesiano fue implementado por medio del algoritmo de Cadenas Independientes, con informaciones a priori informativas, el cual entregó bajos valores de desviaciones estándar de la heredabilidad, si comparado con la estimación clásica de Robertson y distribución a priori de Jeffreys (la cual es una clase de distribución a priori no informativa y a menudo impropia. El método de análisis Bayesiano es una herramienta de inferencia valiosa para la evaluación genética de especies perennes, ya que considera la variabilidad de los parámetros por medio de las distribuciones a posteriori.

  20. Perennial ryegrass for dairy cows: effects of cultivar on herbage intake during grazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:Perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne , sward morphology, sward cutting, n-alkanes, herbage intake, selection, preference.Perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) is the most important species for feeding dairy cows. The majority of the farmers in the Netherlands graze their d

  1. EST-derived SSR markers used as anchor loci for the construction of a consensus linkage map in ryegrass (Lolium spp.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studer, Bruno; Kölliker, Roland; Muylle, Hilde;

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic markers and linkage mapping are basic prerequisites for marker-assisted selection and map-based cloning. In the case of the key grassland species Lolium spp., numerous mapping populations have been developed and characterised for various traits. Although some genetic linkage ma...

  2. Self-Reseeding Potential and Herbage Production of Italian Ryegrass (Lolium Multiflorum Lam.) Affected by Date and Intensity of Initial Harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annually-sown cool-season small grain cereals can provide a valuable source of cool-season feeding for livestock in the southern Great Plains of the USA, but for many farmers limited access to field equipment for cultivation and planting is an obstacle to their use. Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflo...

  3. Análisis de la sensibilidad de biotipos de Lolium multiflorum a herbicidas inhibidores de la enzima ALS, ACCasa y Glifosato Sensitivity analysis of Lolium multiflorum biotypes to Glyphosate, ACCase and ALS-inhibiting herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Diez De Ulzurrun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de los avances logrados en el control de las malezas con el uso de herbicidas, el manejo de las mismas no se simplificó, sino que, al contrario, surgieron nuevos desafíos, como la aparición de resistencia a herbicidas. En 2007, se reportó en Lolium multiflorum el segundo caso de resistencia a glifosato detectado en Argentina. En el sudeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires se registraron fallas de control a campo en poblaciones de Lolium multiflorum debido a su resistencia a distintos herbicidas de las familias de los inhibidores de ALS y de ACCasa y al herbicida glifosato. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar el nivel de resistencia a ciertos herbicidas inhibidores de la ALS y de la ACCasa y al glifosato en una población de L. multiflorum de Lobería (Bs As, Argentina supuestamente resistente (LmR. Se realizaron bioensayos en cajas de Petri y se determinó la GR50 mediante la variación en la longitud de coleoptile. Las curvas de dosis-respuesta se obtuvieron por medio de la ecuación log-logística. El biotipo LmR presentó resistencia múltiple a herbicidas con tres modos de acción diferentes: glifosato, inhibidores de ALS y de ACCasa. Dicho ensayo demostró la aparición de un biotipo de L. multiflorum con resistencia a múltiples principios activos.Despite progress in weed control using herbicides, management has not been simplified, but new challenges such as herbicides resistance have arisen. In 2007, a Lolium multiflorum population resistant to glyphosate was reported, as the second case of glyphosate resistant weeds in Argentina. In the southeast of Buenos Aires province, control failures in populations of L. multiflorum to different families of herbicide such as ALS and ACCase inhibitors and to glyphosate at field level have been registered. The aim of this study was to characterize the level of resistance to certain herbicides inhibitors of ALS, ACCase and glyphosate in a putatively resistant (LmR population of L

  4. Genetic diversity and relationships in cultivars of Lolium multiflorum Lam. using sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L K; Jiang, X Y; Huang, Q T; Xiao, Y F; Chen, Z H; Zhang, X Q; Miao, J M; Yan, H D

    2014-12-04

    Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers were used to analyze and estimate the genetic variability, level of diversity, and relationships among 20 cultivars and strains of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). Eighteen SRAP primer combinations generated 334 amplification bands, of which 298 were polymorphic. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.4715 (me10 + em1) to 0.5000 (me5 + em7), with an average of 0.4921. The genetic similarity coefficient ranged from 0.4304 to 0.8529, and coefficients between 0.65 and 0.90 accounted for 90.00%. The cluster analysis separated the accessions into five groups partly according to their germplasm resource origins.

  5. Selective Deactivation of Gibberellins below the Shoot Apex is Critical to Flowering but Not to Stem Elongation of Lolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rod W.King; Lewis N.Mander; Torben Asp; Colleen P. MacMillan; Cheryl A.Blundell; Lloyd T.Evans

    2008-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) cause dramatic increases in plant height and a genetic block in the synthesis of GA1 explains the dwarfing of Mendel's pea.For flowering,it is GAs which is important in the long-day (LD) responsive grass,Lolium.As we show here,GA1 and GA4 are restricted in their effectiveness for flowering because they are deactivated by C-2 hydroxylation below the shoot apex.In contrast,GAs is effective because of its structural protection at C-2.Excised vegetative shoot tips rapidly degrade [14C]GA1,[14C]GA4,and [14C]GA20 (>80% in 6 h),but not [14C]GA5.Coincidentally,genes encoding two 2β-oxidases and a putative 16-17-epoxidase were most expressed just below the shoot apex (4 mm),expression of these GA deactivation genes is reduced,so allowing GA1 and GA4 to promote sub-apical stem elongation.Subsequently,GA degradation declines in florally induced shoot tips and these GAs can become active for floral development.Structural changes which stabilize GA4 confirm the link between florigenicity and restricted GA 2β-hydroxylation (e.g.2α-hydroxylation and C-2 di-methylation).Additionally,a 2-oxidase inhibitor (Trinexapac Ethyl) enhanced the activity of applied GA4,as did limiting C-16,17 epoxidation in 16,17-dihydro GAs or after C-13 hydroxylation.Overall,deactivation of GA1 and GA4 just below the shoot apex effectively restricts their florigenicity in Lolium and,conversely,with GAs,C-2 and C-13 protection against deactivation allows its high florigenicity.Speculatively,such differences in GA access to the shoot apex of grasses may be important for separating floral induction from inflorescence emergence and thus could influence their survival under conditions of herbivore predation.

  6. Vacuolar glyphosate-sequestration correlates with glyphosate resistance in ryegrass (Lolium spp.) from Australia, South America, and Europe: a 31P NMR investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xia; d'Avignon, D André; Ackerman, Joseph J H; Collavo, Alberto; Sattin, Maurizio; Ostrander, Elizabeth L; Hall, Erin L; Sammons, R Douglas; Preston, Christopher

    2012-02-01

    Lolium spp., ryegrass, variants from Australia, Brazil, Chile, and Italy showing differing levels of glyphosate resistance were examined by (31)P NMR. Extents of glyphosate (i) resistance (LD(50)), (ii) inhibition of 5-enopyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity (IC(50)), and (iii) translocation were quantified for glyphosate-resistant (GR) and glyphosate-sensitive (GS) Lolium multiflorum Lam. variants from Chile and Brazil. For comparison, LD(50) and IC(50) data for Lolium rigidum Gaudin variants from Italy were also analyzed. All variants showed similar cellular uptake of glyphosate by (31)P NMR. All GR variants showed glyphosate sequestration within the cell vacuole, whereas there was minimal or no vacuole sequestration in the GS variants. The extent of vacuole sequestration correlated qualitatively with the level of resistance. Previous (31)P NMR studies of horseweed ( Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist) revealed that glyphosate sequestration imparted glyphosate resistance. Data presented herein suggest that glyphosate vacuolar sequestration is strongly contributing, if not the major contributing, resistance mechanism in ryegrass as well.

  7. Target site mutation and reduced translocation are present in a glyphosate-resistant Lolium multiflorum Lam. biotype from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Torralva, Fidel; Gil-Humanes, Javier; Barro, Francisco; Brants, Ivo; De Prado, Rafael

    2012-09-01

    The resistance mechanism of a glyphosate-resistant Lolium multiflorum Lam. biotype collected in Córdoba (Southern Spain) was examined. Resistance Factor values at three different growth stages ranged between 4.77 and 4.91. At 96 hours after treatment (HAT) the S biotype had accumulated seven times more shikimic acid than the R biotype. There were significant differences in translocation of (14)C-glyphosate between biotypes, i.e. at 96 HAT, the R biotype accumulated in the treated leaf more than 70% of the absorbed herbicide, in comparison with 59.21% of the S biotype; the R biotype translocated only 14.79% of the absorbed (14)C-glyphosate to roots, while in the S population this value was 24.79%. Visualization of (14)C-glyphosate by phosphor imaging showed a reduced distribution in the R biotype compared with the S. Glyphosate metabolism was not involved in the resistance mechanism due to both biotypes showing similar values of glyphosate at 96 HAT. Comparison of the EPSPS gene sequences between biotypes indicated that the R biotype has a proline 182 to serine amino acid substitution. In short, the resistance mechanism of the L. multiflorum Lam. biotype is due to an impaired translocation of the herbicide and an altered target site.

  8. Enhancement of nitrogen and phosphorus removal from eutrophic water by economic plant annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) with ion implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Sheng, Guo-ping; Wu, Yue-jin; Yu, Zeng-liang; Bañuelos, Gary S; Yu, Han-qing

    2014-01-01

    Severe eutrophication of surface water has been a major problem of increasing environmental concern worldwide. In the present study, economic plant annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) was grown in floating mats as an economic plant-based treatment system to evaluate its potential after ion implantation for removing nutrients in simulated eutrophic water. The specific weight growth rate of L. multiflorum with ion implantation was significantly greater than that of the control, and the peroxidase, nitrate reductase, and acid phosphatase activities of the irradiated L. multiflorum were found to be greater than those plants without ion implantation. Higher total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiencies were obtained for the L. multiflorum irradiated with 25 keV 5.2 × 10(16) N(+) ions/cm(2) and 30 keV 4.16 × 10(16) N(+) ions/cm(2), respectively (p phosphorus contents in the plant biomass with ion implantation were also greater than those in the control and were positively correlated with TN and TP supplied. L. multiflorum itself was directly responsible for 39-49 and 47-58 % of the overall N and P removal in the experiment, respectively. The research results suggested that ion implantation could become a promising approach for increasing phytoremediation efficiency of nutrients from eutrophic water by L. multiflorum.

  9. Influence of tea saponin on enhancing accessibility of pyrene and cadmium phytoremediated with Lolium multiflorum in co-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xinying; Hou, Yunyun; Hu, Xiaoxin; Liang, Xia; Chen, Xueping

    2016-03-01

    Tea saponin (TS), a kind of biodegradable surfactant, was chosen to improve the accessible solubilization of pyrene and cadmium (Cd) in co-contaminated soils cultivated Lolium multiflorum. TS obviously improved the accessibility of pyrene and Cd for L. multiflorum to accelerate the process of accumulation and elimination of the pollutants. The chemical forms of Cd was transformed from Fe-Mn oxides and associated to carbonates fractions into exchangeable fractions by adding TS in single Cd and pyrene-Cd contaminated soils. Moreover, the chemical forms of pyrene were transformed from associated fraction into bioaccessible fraction by adding TS in pyrene and pyrene-Cd contaminated soils. In pyrene-Cd contaminated soil, the exchangeable fraction of Cd was hindered in the existence of pyrene, and bioaccessible fraction of pyrene was promoted by the cadmium. Besides, in the process of the pyrene degradation and Cd accumulation, the effect could be improved by the elongation of roots with adding TS, and the microorganism activity was stimulated by TS to accelerate the removal of pollutions. Therefore, Planting L. multiflorum combined with adding TS would be an effective method on the phytoremediation of organics and heavy metals co-contaminated soils.

  10. Litter Decomposition of Acacia caven (Molina Molina and Lolium multiflorum Lam. in Mediterranean Climate Ecosystems Descomposición de Hojarascas de Acacia caven (Molina Molina y Lolium multiflorum Lam. en Ecosistemas de Clima Mediterráneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Martínez G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystems of the Mediterranean interior dryland of Chile, dominated by an espinal agroecosystem of Acacia caven (Molina Molina, show low productivity as a result of soil degradation. The objective of this study was to evaluate litter decomposition of A. caven and Lolium multiflorum Lam. in espinal ecosystems: well preserved (Wp 50 to 80%, typical (Pd 25 to 50%, and degraded (De with 10 to 25% cover. During 420 d and starting in April 2004 until August 2005, weight loss in litter bags and chemical composition (hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, non-structural components, ash, N, C, C/N ratio, and P were determined by using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS and the Van Soest protocol. Weight loss ranged from 31 to 52% in L. multiflorum and 26 to 40% in A. caven after 420 d. During the chemical decomposition process of L. multiflorum, cellulose degradation was relevant in the labile phase while lignin was important in the recalcitrant phase. On the other hand, non-structural components and cellulose were degraded in the labile phase and lignin in the recalcitrant stage for A. caven. Moreover, both litters improved N concentration during the decomposition process. Espinal ecosystems with higher canopy cover (Pd and Wp had a positive influence, and showed early effects during the decomposition process, especially in the De espinal ecosystem, probably because of the microenvironmental conditions it generated. A better knowledge of the dynamics of litter decomposition in ecosystems was achieved by using both techniques: litter bags and NIRS.Los ecosistemas del secano interior mediterráneo de Chile presentan una baja productividad debido a la degradación de los suelos, dominados por un agroecosistema espinal de Acacia caven (Molina Molina. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la descomposición de hojarascas de A. caven y Lolium multiflorum Lam., en ecosistemas espinales: densos (Wp con cobertura de 50-80%, poco densos (Pd 25-50% y

  11. Exogenous Application of Citric Acid Ameliorates the Adverse Effect of Heat Stress in Tall Fescue (Lolium arundinaceum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Longxing; Zhang, Zhifei; Xiang, Zuoxiang; Yang, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Citric acid may be involved in plant response to high temperature. The objective of this study was to investigate whether exogenous citric acid could improve heat tolerance in a cool-season turfgrass species, tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum), and to determine the physiological mechanisms of citric acid effects on heat stress tolerance. The grasses were subjected to four citric acid levels (0, 0.2, 2, and 20 mM) and two temperature levels (25/20 and 35/30 ± 0.5°C, day/night) treatments in growth chambers. Heat stress increased an electrolyte leakage (EL) and malonaldehyde (MDA) content, while reduced plant growth, chlorophyll (Chl) content, photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), root activity and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POD). External citric acid alleviated the detrimental effects of heat stress on tall fescue, which was evidenced by decreased EL and MDA content, and improved plant growth under stress conditions. Additionally, the reduction in Chl content, Fv/Fm, SOD, POD, CAT and root activity were ameliorated in citric acid treated plants under heat stressed conditions. High temperature induced the expression of heat shock protein (HSP) genes, which exhibited greater expression levels after citric acid treatment under heat stress. These results suggest that exogenous citric acid application may alleviate growth and physiological damage caused by high temperature. In addition, the exogenously applied citric acid might be responsible for maintaining membrane stability, root activity, and activation of antioxidant response and HSP genes which could contribute to the protective roles of citric acid in tall fescue responses to heat stress.

  12. Factors Influencing beta-Glucan Synthesis by Particulate Enzymes from Suspension-Cultured Lolium multiflorum Endosperm Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, R J; Stone, B A

    1982-03-01

    Particulate enzymes from suspension-cultured ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) endosperm cells incorporated glucosyl residues from UDP-glucose and GDP-glucose into beta-glucans. Three types of beta-glucans were produced from UDP-glucose: 1,3-beta-glucan; 1,4-beta-glucan; and mixed-linkage 1,3;1,4-beta-glucan. As in other systems, relatively more 1,4-beta-glucan was produced from a low (10 micromolar) UDP-glucose concentration, and relatively more 1,3-beta-glucan was produced from a high (1 millimolar) UDP-glucose concentration. However, in ryegrass, 1,3;1,4-beta-glucan represented a major proportion of the products at both low and high UDP-glucose concentrations. The arrangement of linkages in the 1,3;1,4-beta-glucan was different at the two concentrations; at the low UDP-glucose concentration, more sequences of three consecutive 1,4-linkages were produced.The effects of pH, temperature, and metal ion concentrations on incorporation were dependent on the UDP-glucose concentration. At the low UDP-glucose concentration, incorporation into all three types of beta-glucan increased with increasing pH. At the high UDP-glucose concentration, 1,3-beta-glucan was the major product at pH 7 and below; 1,4-beta-glucan synthesis was optimal at pH 8; and synthesis of 1,3;1,4-beta-glucan was greatest above pH 8.With 10 micromolar GDP-glucose as substrate, 1,4-beta-glucan, but no 1,3;1,4-beta-glucan, was produced. Incorporation from either UDP-glucose or GDP-glucose was not influenced by the presence of the other. PMID:16662263

  13. The influence of Seeding technique for Production Performance of Lolium multiflorum and Feeding effects of Lolium multiflorum%播种技术对多花黑麦草生产性能的影响及多花黑麦草的饲用效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠楠; 郝二英; 檀晓萌; 贾淑庚; 陈辉

    2014-01-01

    This paper systematically reviewed the influence of seeding technique on production performance of the Lolium multiflorum and the application on animal husbandry. Respectively elabo-rated the influence of different sowing time, sowing rate and different sowing methods on Lolium multiflorum production performance as well as the effect of feeding cattle, sheep, rabbits, geese, pigs in production. Aims to improve performance, reduce feed costs, improve breeding efficiency by increasing seeding technique of Lolium multiflorum in practical production.%本文系统综述了播种技术对多花黑麦草生产性能的影响以及在畜牧业的上的应用,分别从不同播种期、播种量及不同播种方式对多花黑麦草生产性能的影响以及生产中饲喂牛、羊、兔、鹅、猪等家畜的效果作以简要综述,旨在实际生产中通过提高播种技术提高多花黑麦草生产性能,降低饲养成本,提高养殖效益。

  14. Effects of applying sewage sludge on soil physico-chemical characters and content of heavy metal elements in Lolium perenne lawn%施用污泥对黑麦草草坪绿地土壤理化性质和重金属元素含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅华; 王玉梅; 周志宇; 张洪荣; 左秀娟

    2003-01-01

    将兰州市七里河污水处理厂生活污泥施用于黑麦草草坪绿地,探讨其对土壤环境的影响.结果表明,施用0.5~8.0kg/m2污泥,改善了土壤理化性质,随着污泥施用量的增加土壤中全氮、速效氮、全磷、速效磷和有机质含量增加,土壤容重下降.施用4.0~8.0 kg/m2污泥增加了0~20 cm土层中Fe、Cu、Zn的含量,Ni、Pb、Cr、As和Hg与对照无显著差异,各重金属元素未向土壤下层迁移,没有对土壤造成污染.

  15. Identificação de biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate em pomares de maçã Identification of glyphosate-resistant ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum biotypes in apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vargas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O glyphosate é um herbicida de amplo espectro utilizado há mais de 15 anos em pomares de maçã na região de Vacaria-RS, para manejo da vegetação nas linhas da cultura. São realizadas, em geral, três a quatro aplicações por ciclo e a dose normalmente utilizada é de 720 a 1.080 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate (2 a 3 L ha-1 do produto comercial. O azevém (Lolium multiflorum é uma planta daninha comum em pomares e, tradicionalmente, sensível ao glyphosate. Entretanto, nos últimos anos a ocorrência de plantas de azevém que, após receberem o tratamento com glyphosate, não manifestam sintomas significativos de toxicidade sugere que elas adquiriram resistência ao produto. Assim, com o objetivo de avaliar a resposta de uma população de plantas de azevém ao glyphosate, foram realizados três experimentos: um em campo e dois em casa de vegetação. No experimento em campo os tratamentos avaliados constaram de doses crescentes de glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880, 5.760 e 11.520 g e.a. ha-1, e os herbicidas paraquat, glufosinate, haloxyfop e diclofop foram empregados como produtos-padrão, aplicados em dois estádios vegetativos do azevém. No experimento em casa de vegetação, os tratamentos constaram de doses crescentes de glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880 e 5.760 g e.a. ha-1 mais os herbicidas testemunhas, aplicados sobre plantas do biótipo considerado resistente e de um sensível. No segundo experimento realizado em casa de vegetação foram avaliados tratamentos contendo glyphosate (720, 1.440, 2.880, 720 + 720 e 720 + 1.440 g e.a. ha-1, em aplicações únicas e seqüenciais, mais os herbicidas paraquat, glufosinate, haloxyfop, clethodim, sethoxydim, diclofop, fenoxaprop, fluazifop, paraquat + diuron, atrazine + simazine, trifluralin e metolachlor. A toxicidade dos tratamentos herbicidas foi avaliada aos 15, 30 e 45 DAT (dias após tratamento. Os resultados obtidos nos experimentos em campo e em casa de vegetação, de forma

  16. Transpiration flow controls Zn transport in Brassica napus and Lolium multiflorum under toxic levels as evidenced from isotopic fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couder, Eléonore; Mattielli, Nadine; Drouet, Thomas; Smolders, Erik; Delvaux, Bruno; Iserentant, Anne; Meeus, Coralie; Maerschalk, Claude; Opfergelt, Sophie; Houben, David

    2015-11-01

    Stable zinc (Zn) isotope fractionation between soil and plant has been used to suggest the mechanisms affecting Zn uptake under toxic conditions. Here, changes in Zn isotope composition in soil, soil solution, root and shoot were studied for ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) and rape (Brassica napus L.) grown on three distinct metal-contaminated soils collected near Zn smelters (total Zn 0.7-7.5%, pH 4.8-7.3). The Zn concentrations in plants reflected a toxic Zn supply. The Zn isotopic fingerprint of total soil Zn varied from -0.05‰ to +0.26 ± 0.02‰ (δ66Zn values relative to the JMC 3-0749L standard) among soils, but the soil solution Zn was depleted in 66Zn, with a constant Zn isotope fractionation of about -0.1‰ δ66Zn unit compared to the bulk soil. Roots were enriched with 66Zn relative to soil solution (δ66Znroot - δ66Znsoil solution = Δ66Znroot-soil solution = +0.05 to +0.2 ‰) and shoots were strongly depleted in 66Zn relative to roots (Δ66Znshoot-root = -0.40 to -0.04 ‰). The overall δ66Zn values in shoots reflected that of the bulk soil, but were lowered by 0.1-0.3 ‰ units as compared to the latter. The isotope fractionation between root and shoot exhibited a markedly strong negative correlation (R2 = 0.83) with transpiration per unit of plant weight. Thus, the enrichment with light Zn isotopes in shoot progressed with increasing water flux per unit plant biomass dry weight, showing a passive mode of Zn transport by transpiration. Besides, the light isotope enrichment in shoots compared to roots was larger for rape than for rye grass, which may be related to the higher Zn retention in rape roots. This in turn may be related to the higher cation exchange capacity of rape roots. Our finding can be of use to trace the biogeochemical cycles of Zn and evidence the tolerance strategies developed by plants in Zn-excess conditions.

  17. Interaktionen zwischen Rohprotein und wasserlöslichen Kohlenhydraten bei Weidelgräsern aus dem Mischanbau mit Leguminosen und Reinsaaten

    OpenAIRE

    Möller, Sabine

    2009-01-01

    In Freilandversuchen sollte untersucht werden, ob der genetisch bedingte höhere Gehalt an wasserlöslichen Kohlenhydraten in der Hochzuckergrassorte Aberavon der Art Lolium perenne auch in einem Mischanbau mit Leguminosen weiterhin vorhanden ist. Als Referenzsorte der Grasart Lolium perenne wurde die Sorte Gladio gewählt und die Leguminosen waren Trifolium pratense mit der Sorte Lucrum, Medicago sativa mit der Sorte Planet und Lotus corniculatus mit der Sorte Oberhaunstädter. Angelegt wurde d...

  18. Evaluation of Perennial Forage Legumes and Herbs in Six Mediterranean Environments Evaluación de Leguminosas y Hierbas Forrajeras Perennes en Seis Medioambientes Mediterráneos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Real

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is an absence of drought tolerant herbaceous perennial forage legume and herb options other than lucerne (Medicago sativa L. for environments with Mediterranean-like climates common in extensive areas of Southern Australia, the Mediterranean basin, and Chile. Therefore, a collection of 174 forage perennial legume and herb entries from 103 species and 32 genera was evaluated for adaptation in a diverse range of Mediterranean climatic environments in Southern Australia. The seasonal rainfall distribution varied from moderately to highly winter dominant with long term average annual rainfall ranging from 318 to 655 mm. The entries were rated for productivity and persistence over 3 yr. The 12 entries identified as the most promising for winter, summer, or all-year round production included Bituminaria bituminosa (L. C.H. Stirt. var. albomarginata; Cichorium intybus L.; Cullen australasicum (Schltdl. J.W. Grimes; Dorycnium hirsutum (L. Ser.; Kennedia prostrata R. Br.; Lotononis bainesii Baker, Lotus pedunculatus Cav.; L. corniculatus L.; L. cytisoides L.; Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.; Medicago sativa subsp. caerulea (Less. ex Ledeb. Schmalh., and M. sativa subsp. falcata (L. Arcang. These entries maintained production and persisted for the period of the evaluation, with the exception of C. intybus and L. corniculatus that declined in persistence over time. The potential role of these species in extensive grazing systems in Mediterranean climatic zones, their attributes and limitations, and current progress in developing them as useful forage plants was discussed.Existe una escasez de leguminosas y hierbas perennes herbáceas además de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. tolerantes a sequía para ambientes con clima mediterráneo como los que se encuentran en el Sur de Australia, el Mediterráneo y Chile. Por lo tanto, una colección de 174 leguminosas perennes y hierbas correspondientes a 103 especies y 32 géneros fue evaluada por su adaptaci

  19. EST-derived SSR markers used as anchor loci for the construction of a consensus linkage map in ryegrass (Lolium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Studer Bruno

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic markers and linkage mapping are basic prerequisites for marker-assisted selection and map-based cloning. In the case of the key grassland species Lolium spp., numerous mapping populations have been developed and characterised for various traits. Although some genetic linkage maps of these populations have been aligned with each other using publicly available DNA markers, the number of common markers among genetic maps is still low, limiting the ability to compare candidate gene and QTL locations across germplasm. Results A set of 204 expressed sequence tag (EST-derived simple sequence repeat (SSR markers has been assigned to map positions using eight different ryegrass mapping populations. Marker properties of a subset of 64 EST-SSRs were assessed in six to eight individuals of each mapping population and revealed 83% of the markers to be polymorphic in at least one population and an average number of alleles of 4.88. EST-SSR markers polymorphic in multiple populations served as anchor markers and allowed the construction of the first comprehensive consensus map for ryegrass. The integrated map was complemented with 97 SSRs from previously published linkage maps and finally contained 284 EST-derived and genomic SSR markers. The total map length was 742 centiMorgan (cM, ranging for individual chromosomes from 70 cM of linkage group (LG 6 to 171 cM of LG 2. Conclusions The consensus linkage map for ryegrass based on eight mapping populations and constructed using a large set of publicly available Lolium EST-SSRs mapped for the first time together with previously mapped SSR markers will allow for consolidating existing mapping and QTL information in ryegrass. Map and markers presented here will prove to be an asset in the development for both molecular breeding of ryegrass as well as comparative genetics and genomics within grass species.

  20. A novel grass hybrid to reduce flood generation in temperate regions

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher (Kit) J. A. Macleod; Humphreys, Mike W.; Whalley, W. Richard; Turner, Lesley; Binley, Andrew; Watts, Chris W.; Skøt, Leif; Joynes, Adrian; Hawkins, Sarah; King, Ian P.; O'Donovan, Sally; Haygarth, Phil M.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the evaluation of a novel grass hybrid that provides efficient forage production and could help mitigate flooding. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) is the grass species of choice for most farmers, but lacks resilience against extremes of climate. We hybridised L. perenne onto a closely related and more stress-resistant grass species, meadow fescue Festuca pratensis. We demonstrate that the L. perenne × F. pratensis cultivar can reduce runoff during the events by 51% compared t...

  1. Doppler ultrasonography for evaluating vascular responses to ergopeptine alkaloids in livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids are produced by non-spore producing fungal endophytes that infect certain species of grasses, most notably tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), and the spore producing Claviceps spp. that infect seed heads of certain grasses...

  2. Nitrogen accumulation and residual effects of nitrogen catch crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    The nitrogen accumulation in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) and tansy phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia L.), under- or aftersown as nitrogen catch crops to spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and field pea (Pisum s...

  3. Effects of the invasive annual grass Lolium multiflorum Lam. on the growth and physiology of a Southern African Mediterranean-climate geophyte Tritonia crocata (L.) Ker. Gawl. under different resource conditions / J.L. Arnolds

    OpenAIRE

    Arnolds, Judith Lize

    2007-01-01

    Little is known of the physiological and biochemical mechanisms underlying competitive interactions between alien invasive grasses and native taxa, and how these are affected by resource supply. Consequently, this study compared photosystem II (PS II) function, photosynthetic gas and water exchange, enzyme and pigment concentrations, flowering and biomass accumulation in an indigenous geophyte, Tritonia crocata (L.) Ker. Gawl., grown in monoculture and admixed with the alien grass, Lolium mul...

  4. A novel P106L mutation in EPSPS and an unknown mechanism(s) act additively to confer resistance to glyphosate in a South African Lolium rigidum population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaundun, Shiv S; Dale, Richard P; Zelaya, Ian A; Dinelli, Giovanni; Marotti, Ilaria; McIndoe, Eddie; Cairns, Andrew

    2011-04-13

    Glyphosate resistance evolution in weeds is a growing problem in world agriculture. Here, we have investigated the mechanism(s) of glyphosate resistance in a Lolium rigidum population (DAG1) from South Africa. Nucleotide sequencing revealed the existence of at least three EPSPS homologues in the L. rigidum genome and identified a novel proline 106 to leucine substitution (P106L) in 52% DAG1 individuals. This mutation conferred a 1.7-fold resistance increase to glyphosate at the whole plant level. Additionally, a 3.1-fold resistance increase, not linked to metabolism or translocation, was estimated between wild-type P106-DAG1 and P106-STDS sensitive plants. Point accepted mutation analysis suggested that other amino acid substitutions at EPSPS position 106 are likely to be found in nature besides the P106/S/A/T/L point mutations reported to date. This study highlights the importance of minor mechanisms acting additively to confer significant levels of resistance to commercial field rates of glyphosate in weed populations subjected to high selection pressure.

  5. Sub-tropical urban environment affecting content and composition of non-structural carbohydrates of Lolium multiflorum ssp. italicum cv. Lema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandrin, Carla Zuliani; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cassia Leone; Carvalho, Maria Angela Machado de [Instituto de Botanica, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Carvalho Delitti, Welington Braz [Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Ecologia, Caixa Postal 11461, 05422-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Domingos, Marisa [Instituto de Botanica, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: mmingos@superig.com.br

    2008-12-15

    This study analyzed the relationship between environmental factors, especially air pollution and climatic conditions, and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in plants of Lolium multiflorum exposed during 10 consecutive periods of 28 days at a polluted site (Congonhas) and at a reference site in Sao Paulo city (Brazil). After exposure, NSC composition and leaf concentrations of Al, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were measured. The seasonal pattern of NSC accumulation was quite similar in both sites, but plants at Congonhas showed higher concentrations of these compounds, especially fructans of low and medium degree of polymerization. Regression analysis showed that NSC in plants growing at the polluted site were explained by variations on temperature and leaf concentration of Fe (positive effect), as well as relative humidity and particulate material (negative effect). NSC in the standardized grass culture, in addition to heavy metal accumulation, may indicate stressing conditions in a sub-tropical polluted environment. - Particulate matter and air temperature increased non-structural carbohydrates in the standardized biomonitor grass in Sao Paulo.

  6. In-vitro assessment of the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus plantarum KCC-24 isolated from Italian rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum) forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Mayakrishnan; Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Kim, Da Hye; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Priya, Kannappan; Choi, Ki Choon

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the probiotic potential of the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum KCC-24 (L. plantarum KCC-24), that was isolated and characterized from Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) forage. The following experiments were performed to assess the probiotic characteristics such as antifungal activity, antibiotic susceptibility, resistance to low pH, stimulated gastric juice and bile salts, proteolytic activity, auto-aggregation, cell surface hydrophobicity, and in vitro antioxidant property. The isolated L. plantarum KCC-24 exhibited significant antifungal activity against the various fungal strains of Aspergillus fumigatus (73.43%), Penicillium chrysogenum (59.04%), Penicillium roqueforti (56.67%), Botrytis elliptica (40.23%), Fusarium oxysporum (52.47%) and it was susceptible to numerous antibiotics, survived in low pH, was resistant to stimulated gastric juices and bile salts (0.3% w/v). Moreover, L. plantarum KCC-24 exhibited good proteolytic activity. In addition L. plantarum KCC-24 showed potent antioxidant and hydrogen peroxide resistant property. In conclusion, the isolated L. plantarum KCC-24 exhibited several characteristics to prove it's excellent as a potential probiotic candidate for developing quality food for ruminant animals and human.

  7. In vitro and in vivo enhancement of adipogenesis by Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum in 3T3-L1 cells and mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariadhas Valan Arasu

    Full Text Available Adipogenesis is very much important in improving the quality of meat in animals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo adipogenesis regulation properties of Lolium multiflorum on 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and mice. Chemical composition of petroleum ether extract of L. multiflorum (PET-LM confirmed the presence of fatty acids, such as α-linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, oleic acid, docosatetraenoic acid, and caprylic acid, as the major compounds. PET-LM treatment increased viability, lipid accumulation, lipolysis, cell cycle progression, and DNA synthesis in the cells. PET-LM treatment also augmented peroxysome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR-γ2, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α, adiponectin, adipocyte binding protein, glucose transporter-4, fatty acid synthase, and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 expression at mRNA and protein levels in differentiated adipocytes. In addition, mice administered with 200 mg/kg body weight PET-LM for 8 weeks showed greater body weight than control mice. These findings suggest that PET-LM facilitates adipogenesis by stimulating PPARγ-mediated signaling cascades in adipocytes which could be useful for quality meat development in animals.

  8. Controle de azevém (Lolium multiflorum L., e gorga (Spergula arvensis L. e seletividade de herbicidas as culturas de trigo, cevada e centeio Control of rye grass (Lolium multiforum L. and corn spurry (Spergula arvensis L., and selectivity of herbicides to wheat, barley, and rye crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. R. O. Velloso

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados três experimentos a campo em 1980, no Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Trigo/EMBRAPA, Passo Fundo, RS, visando conhecer o comportamento dos herbicidas diclofop, dicamba, a associação 2,4 D com dicamba e a mistura diclofop + (2,4 D + dicamba, no controle de azevém (Lolium multiflorum L. e gorga (Spergula arvensis L.. Ao mesmo tempo foi avaliada a seletividade que estes herbicidas apresentam às culturas de trigo (Triticum aestivum L., cevada (Hordeum vulgare L. e centeio (Secale cereale L.. Os resultados da avaliação visual de fitotoxicidade mostra ram que o dicamba causou o maior grau de injúria para as três culturas. Cevada mostrou ser a cultura mais sensível ao dicamba na fase inicial. Trigo, cevada e centeio foram tolerantes ao diclofop. A mistura diclofop + (2,4 D + dicamba não controlou o azevém nas três culturas. Esta mistura apresentou ainda redução no controle de gorga, nas culturas de cevada e centeio. Dicamba ocasionou redução no rendimento de grãos das culturas, mostrando ser pouco seletivo na dose testada. Centeio sofreu uma redução no rendimento de grãos causada por diclofop, enquanto que a mistura diclofop + (2,4 D + dicamba foi seletiva para todas as culturas.Three field experiments were carried out, in 1980, at the National Wheat Research Center/ EMBRAPA, Passo Fundo, RS. They aimed at testnig the responses of herbicides diclofop, dicamba, the association 2,4 D with dicamba, and the mixture diclofop + (2,4 D + dicamba in the control of rye grass (Lolium multiflorum L. and corn spurry (Spergula arvensis L.. Simultaneously, the selectivity of these herbicides to wheat (Triticum aestivum L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L., and rye (Secale cereale L. was evaluated. The results of visual evaluation of phytotoxicity showed that dicamba caused the greatest degree of injury to the three crops studied. Barley was the most sensitive crop to dicamba in the initial growth stage. Wheat, barley, and rye were

  9. Effect of sewage sludge and sawdust in association with hybrid ryegrass (Lolium x hybrydum Hausskin. on soil macroaggregates and water content Efectos de lodos urbanos y aserrín en asociación con ballica (Lolium x hybrydum Hausskn. sobre los microagregados y contenido de agua del suelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Sandoval E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chilean soils degradation is a serious problem affecting directly the productivity of most of the crops. Some evidence indicates sewage sludge can improve soil physical properties, especially when combined with sawdust. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different mixtures of sewage sludge (LU and sawdust (RA on water-stable aggregates and available water content of a degraded Alfisol cropped with hybrid ryegrass (Lolium x hybridum Hausskn., under greenhouse conditions. The experimental design was a completely randomized with a factorial arrangement of 2 x 9 (ryegrass x rates of sludge and sawdust. Treatments were 25 and 50 Mg LU ha-1 mixed with 10, 25, and 50 Mg RA ha-1. Ratio mixtures of LU/RA were set in pots with hybrid ryegrass. Soil available water content (AW, percentage of macroaggregates (MA and water-stable aggregates (AWD were evaluated. Ryegrass aboveground biomass was also measured. Mixtures of LU/RA amended to the soil increased MA and AWD, an effect that was most evident at 50 Mg ha-1. The AW value was greater when LU was amended to 50 Mg ha-1 mixed with RA at doses of 10, 25, and 50 Mg ha-1. There was greater aboveground biomass of hybrid ryegrass, directly related to increasing doses of LU and RA in the mixtures. The addition to soil of both organic residues combined, LU and RA, improved the physical parameters studied, especially in the presence of hybrid ryegrass.La degradation de los suelos chilenos es un serio problema que afecta directamente la productividad de la mayoría de los cultivos. Los lodos urbanos pueden mejorar las propiedades físicas del suelo, sobre todo si van acompanadas con aserrín. El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de distintas mezclas de lodo urbano (LU y aserrín (RA sobre los agregados estables al agua y el contenido de agua disponible en un Alfisol degradado y cultivado con ballica híbrida (Lolium x hybridum Hausskn., bajo invernadero. El diseno experimental fue completamente al

  10. Perennial grasses traits as functional markers of grazing intensity in basaltic grasslands of Uruguay Rasgos de gramíneas perennes como marcadores funcionales de la intensidad de pastoreo en pastizales de basalto en Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Jaurena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural grasslands in the basaltic region of Uruguay are threatened by an increase in stocking rates and changes in land use. To assess the effect of grazing intensification, plant functional types are proposed as simple tools to aid the monitoring and management of vegetation. In the present study we evaluated the effect of stocking rate increase at community level taking into account plant traits of 23 dominant perennial grass species. In order to identify plant functional types, we determined the grazing response in an experiment with two wethers stocking rates (0.78 and 1.56 livestock units ha-1 quantifying species cover and traits values. Leaf dry matter content (LDMC and specific leaf area (SLA were the traits that best described the perennial grasses response to the stocking rate increase and therefore are suggested to be used as functional markers. Three functional types were identified. Low stocking rates were related to functional type A (tall, warm season species with low SLA and high LDMC and functional type B (tall, cool-season species, with intermediate levels of leaf traits. On the other hand, high stocking rate encouraged functional type C (prostrate, warm season species, with high SLA and low LDMC. The classification of a highly diverse community into three functional types and the selection of traits as functional markers candidates is an innovative approach to develop simple and general methods to diagnosis the state of basaltic grasslands in Uruguay and to advise on its management.Las praderas naturales de la region bas áltica de Uruguay están amenazadas por el incremento de la carga animal y cambios en el uso del suelo. Para evaluar el efecto del pastoreo se han propuesto los grupos funcionales como una herramienta simple para el monitoreo y manejo de la vegetación. El presente estudio evaluó el efecto del incremento de la carga animal considerando rasgos de 23 especies de gramineas perennes dominantes. Para identificar

  11. Ganho de peso e características da carcaça de cordeiros terminados em pastagem natural suplementada, pastagem cultivada de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. e confinamento Weight gain and carcass characteristics of lambs finished in a natural supplemented pasture, ryegrass pasture (Lolium multiflorum Lam. and feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber José Tonetto

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o desempenho e as características da carcaça de cordeiros, em três sistemas de alimentação. Foram utilizados 16 cordeiros, distribuídos aleatoriamente com suas mães, 24 horas após o nascimento, em três tratamentos: PNS: pastagem natural suplementada; PC: pastagem cultivada de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam.; e CON: confinamento. O ganho médio diário de 0,404 kg dos cordeiros da PC foi superior aos demais tratamentos, enquanto o ganho de 0,325 kg/dia dos animais da PNS foi superior aos ganhos de 0,213 kg/dia dos animais do CON. O abate ocorreu quando os cordeiros atingiram em torno de 31 kg. O peso da carcaça quente dos animais da PNS (15,7 kg foi semelhante ao dos animais da PC (16,8 kg e superior ao confinamento (14,3 kg. Os animais da PNS, PC e CON apresentaram resultados semelhantes para o índice de quebra ao resfriamento com valores de 2,3, 2,1 e 2,5%, respectivamente. Os rendimentos da carcaça quente dos animais de PNS (50,2% e PC (53,7% foram semelhantes e superiores aos rendimentos dos animais do CON (45,9%. A compacidade das carcaças não mostrou diferença entre PNS e PC, com valores de 0,287 e 0,307, respectivamente, os quais, porém, foram superiores aos animais do CON (0,253. As carcaças dos animais da PNS e CON não diferiram quanto à espessura de gordura com valores de 1,6 e 1,0 mm, respectivamente. Estes valores foram inferiores aos obtidos na PC (3,3 mm. Ganhos médios diários acima de 0,400 kg/dia e rendimento de carcaça quente acima de 52% podem ser obtidos com cordeiros alimentados com suas mães em pastagem cultivada de azevém, com peso de abate em torno dos 31 kg.The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and carcass characteristics of lambs under three feeding systems. Sixteen lambs, 24 hours after birth, and their mothers were randomly assigned to three treatments: NSP: natural supplemented pasture; RP: ryegrass pasture (Lolium multiflorum lam

  12. Effects of Simulated Acid Rain on Seed Germination and Seedling Physiological Characteristics of Annual Ryegrass Lolium Multifolorum%模拟酸雨对黑麦草种子萌发及生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婷; 邵辉; 吴坤胜; 柯健; 高素权; 李刚; 吴胜

    2011-01-01

    以一年生黑麦草(Annual Ryegrass Lolium multifolorum)种子为材料,研究不同pH值的模拟硫酸型酸雨作用下,种子的萌发及幼苗生理特性发生的变化.实验分别测定了种子发芽率、发芽势、发芽指数及幼苗鲜重、叶片导电率等指标.结果表明,一年生黑麦草种子的发芽势、发芽率、发芽指数整体变化趋势比较一致,随着模拟酸雨pH值的增大而减小.幼苗叶片的生长量变化差异比较大,单株幼苗的平均鲜重随模拟酸雨酸性的减弱而增大,所测幼苗叶片的相对电导率值随模拟酸雨pH值的升高而减小,与对照相比差异显著,表明幼苗叶片受到了酸雨的破坏.试验表明,一年生黑麦草种子在pH≥3.09的弱酸条件下能够正常萌发和生长,具有一定的耐酸性,但是在pH≤2.03的强酸条件下,种子的萌发和幼苗的生长受到了显著的抑制.%Using Annual Ryegrass Lolium multifolorum seed as material to study the effect of different pH simulated acid rain on the seed germination and seedling physiological characteristics. The experiment tested the gemination power, germination rate, germination index,seedling fresh weight and permeability of plasma membrane etc indexes. The results indicated that the germination power, gemination rate and germination indexes all decreased with the simulated acid rain density increasing. There were great changes among the indexes of seedling growth increment: seedling fresh weight increased with simulated acid rain pH rising. And permeability of plasma membrane decreased with the acid rain pH increasing, which showed that seedling leaves were destroyed by the acid rain. The study indicated that the seed of nnual Ryegrass Lolium multifolorum could sprout and grow normally under the condition of weak acid ( pH ≥3.09), and had certain acidtolerance. But seed germination and seedling growth were seriously restrained under the condition of strong acid (pH ≤2.03 ).

  13. Plant litter decomposition and carbon sequestration for arable soils. Final report of works. April 2005; Biodegradation des litieres et sequestration du carbone dans les ecosystemes cultives et perennes. Rapport final des travaux Avril 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recous, S.; Barrois, F.; Coppens, F.; Garnier, P.; Grehan, E. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA), Unite d' Agronomie Laon-Reims-Mons (France); Balesdent, J. [CNRS-CEA-Univ.de la Mediterranee, UMR 6191, Lab. d' Ecologie Microbienne de la Rhizosphere, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Dambrine, E.; Zeller, B. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA), Unite Biogeochimie des Ecosystemes Forestiers, 54 - Nancy (France); Loiseau, P.; Personeni, E. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA), Unite d' Agronomie, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France)

    2002-07-01

    The general objective of this project was to contribute to the evaluation of land use and management impacts on C sequestration and nitrogen dynamics in soils. The land used through the presence/absence of crops and their species, and the land management through tillage, localisation of crop residues, fertilizer applications,... are important factors that affect the dynamics of organic matters in soils, particularly the mineralization of C and N, the losses to the atmosphere and hydrosphere, the retention of carbon into the soil. This project was conducted by four research groups, three of them having expertise in nutrient cycling of three major agro-ecosystems (arable crops, grasslands, forests) and the fourth one having expertise in modelling long term effects of land use on C storage into the soils. Within this common project one major objective was to better understand the fate of plant litter entering the soil either as above litter or as root litter. The focus was put on two factors that particularly affect decomposition: the initial biochemical quality of plant litter, and the location of the decomposing litter. One innovative aspect of the project was the use of stable isotope as {sup 13}C for carbon, based on the use of enriched or depleted {sup 13}C material, the only option to assess the dynamics of 'new' C entering the soil on the short term, in order to reveal the effects of decomposition factors. Another aspect was the simultaneous study of C and N. The project consisted in experiments relevant for each agro-ecosystem, in forest, grassland and arable soils for which interactions between residue quality and nitrogen availability on the one hand, residue quality and location on the other hand, was investigated. A common experiment was set up to investigate the potential degradability of the various residue used (beech leaf rape straw, young rye, Lolium and dactylic roots) in a their original soils and in a single soil was assessed. Based on

  14. LA LIBERTAD, EL SUEÑO PERENNE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Díaz

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, an interpretation of the concept of freedom is intended, based on the Herbert Marcuse principles. The Marcusian theories do not conceive the possibility of freedom existence in a capitalist system. It is necessary to transform the society to be pacified, and its production process to be automated in a way to liberate man physical force from the alienating work. Free time is the necessary conclusion of freedom. “Androgenization” of human activity will determine the conclusion of the relationship between man and woman. Woman will bring her kindness, solidarity, tenderness, among others; so to produce feminization of human society.

  15. Prolonged elevated atmospheric CO(2)does not affect decomposition of plant material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de M.A.; Six, J.; Blum, H.; Kessel, van C.

    2006-01-01

    Prolonged elevated atmospheric CO2 might alter decomposition. In a 90-day incubation study, we determined the long-term (9 years) impact of elevated CO2 on N mineralization of Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens plant material grown at ambient and elevated CO2 and low- and high-N-15 fertilizer addit

  16. Improved fructan accumulation in perennial ryegrass transformed with the onion fructosyltransferase genes 1-SST and 6G-FFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadegaard, Gitte; Didion, Thomas; Foiling, Marianne;

    2008-01-01

    value of ryegrass (Lolium perenne) by increasing the fructan content through expression of heterologous fructan biosynthetic genes. We developed perennial ryegrass Lines expressing sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase and fructan:fructan 6G-fructosyltransferase genes from onion (Allium cepa) which...

  17. Intake characteristics of grass species from semi-natural pastures in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four grass species (Lolium perenne L., Holcus lanatus L. cv Glen, Agrostis stolonifera L. cv Kromi, and Poa trivialis L.) commonly found in mesotropic lowland semi-natural grassland communities in the UK were sown in boxes (85 x 44 x 14 cm) to create micro-swards. Once established, the micro-sward...

  18. Advanced analysis of dry-weight-rank data to discriminate direct and indirect interactions between white clover and grasses in a multi-species pasture under a range of management strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulte, R.P.O.; Neuteboom, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Infestations of pastures by species, such as creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera), may compromise the white clover (Trifolium repens) content in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) mixtures. However, the interactions between white clover and species other than perennial ryegrass are not well un

  19. Photoperiodic regulation of flowering in perennial ryegrass involving a CONSTANS-like homolog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, J.; Storgaard, M.; Andersen, C.H.;

    2004-01-01

    Photoperiod and vernalization are the two key environmental factors of the. oral induction of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Transition from vegetative to reproductive growth will only occur after an extended vernalization period, followed by an increase in day length and temperature. Here...

  20. SNS ønsker DMUs deltagelse i et møde samt vores foreløbige kommentarer til mulighederne for dyrkning af GM-græsser. Forespørgsel fra DLF-Trifolium vedr mulighederne for godkendelse af genmodificerede græsser til dyrkning. Modtaget 26-01-2006, deadline 02-02-2006, svar 02-02-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Strandberg, Morten Tune; Damgaard, Christian

    2006-01-01

    "Nogle faktorer der vil indgå i den økologiske risikovurdering af genmodificerede græsser samt mulige konsekvenser for sameksistens: Specifikt eksempel: alm. rajgræs (Lolium perenne) med øget fructan-indhold Processer og effekter Analyse af miljømæssige risici og konsekvenser Konsekvenser for sam...

  1. Morphological traits associated with weed-suppressive ability of winter wheat against Italian ryegrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed-suppressive wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars have been suggested as a complement to chemical and cultural methods of weed control. The objectives of this study were to assess the range of weed-suppressive ability against Italian ryegrass [Lolium perenne L. ssp. multiflorum (Lam.) Husnot] ...

  2. Cultivar by environment effects of perennial ryegrass cultivars selected for high water soluble carbohydrates managed under differing precipitation levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historic results of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) breeding include improved disease resistance, biomass, and nutritional quality. Yet, lack of tolerance to water stress limits its wise use. Recent efforts to increase water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content in perennial ryegrass may incre...

  3. Antagonismo das associações de clodinafop-propargyl com metsulfuron-methyl e 2,4-D no controle de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Antagonistic action of clodinafop-propargyl associated with Metsulfuron-methyl and 2,4-D in the control of italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Trezzi

    2007-12-01

    determine the existence of antagonistic effects of clodinafop-propargyl associated with metsulfuron methyl or 2,4-D to control Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum. In the greenhouse experiment, 21 treatments were tested, composed by clodynafop(0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 g ha-1 alone or tank-mixed with metsulfuron (2 and 4 g ha-1 or 2,4-D (470 g ha-1. In the field experiment, twelve treatments were set up in a factorial 6 x 2, composed by clodinafop (0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 g ha-1 alone or tank-mixed with metsulfuron (2 g ha-1. In the greenhouse experiment, the control (visual evaluation, I50 from the mixtures with metsulfuron (2 and 4 g ha-1 or 2,4-D (470 g ha-1 were 33, 84 and 151% higher than clodinafop applied alone. The I50 from the rye live matter from the mixtures cited above were, respectively, 119, 244 and 72% higher than clodinafop applied alone. In the field experiment, rye live matter reduction was observed with increase of the levels of clodinafop applied alone, but rye live matter did not decrease, changing the levels of clodinafop tank-mixed with metsulfuron. The results reveal the antagonistic effect of tank-mixtures of clodinafop and metsulfuron or 2,4-D. We did make some considerations on the advantages of applying herbicides in more than one control operation, in comparison to graminicide and latifolicide mixtures.

  4. Optimisation of slow-pyrolysis process conditions to maximise char yield and heavy metal adsorption of biochar produced from different feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, E; Lewys-James, A; Rao Ravella, S; Thomas-Jones, S; Perkins, W; Gallagher, J

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this work was to identify biomass feedstocks and optimum pyrolysis process conditions to produce a biochar capable of adsorbing metals from polluted groundwater. Taguchi experimental design was used to determine the effects of slow-pyrolysis process conditions on char yield and zinc adsorption. Treatments were repeated using six candidate feedstocks (Lolium perenne, Lolium perenne fibre, Miscanthus x giganteus, Salix viminalis, Fraxinus excelsior and Picea sitchensis) and the resultant chars were tested for metal adsorption performance. Chars produced from L. perenne and its extracted fibre displayed the greatest zinc adsorption performance and removed 83.27-92.96% respectively. Optimum process conditions in terms of both char yield and zinc adsorption performance were achieved from slow-pyrolysis at 300°C for 2h using a feedstock with a particle size of less than 1mm. PMID:27179953

  5. INFLUENŢA ADMINISTRĂRII UNOR AMENDAMENTE ŞI ÎNGRĂŞĂMINTE CHIMICE ASUPRA CONŢINUTULUI DE APĂ LA LOLIUM MULTIFLORUM LAM. CULTIVATĂ PE CÂMPUL EXPERIMENTAL HIDROAMELIORAT DE LA SOCODOR (JUD. ARAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Faur

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The variations of the total water content and of the free and bound fractions in Lolium multiflorum Lam. were studied in a structural solonetz having moderate depth columns and sodium sulfate salinization. The plants were cultivated in conditions of an experimental field at the Experimental Center for the saline and alkalinous soil melioration from Socodor (Arad district. Before the experiment in the field was installed an underground drainage system consisting in ceramics tubes. After this installations followed a salts washing with a rate of 2500 m³ water/hectare. Three years after these hydromeliorated complex measures was set up an experiment of application of some different types and doses of chemical fertilizers in amendmented and unamendmented conditions three times administered in the next variants: V1 - N0P0K0; V2 - N120; V3 - K50; V4 - P80; V5 - N120K50; V6 - N120P80K50. The application of the amendments as 50 tons phosphogypsum/hectare determined water content increase in the leaf cells. The same effect had the chemical fertilizer applications but this effect was different according with the type of the fertilization. The highest action of the growth of the total water content and of bound water fraction had the nitrogen fertilization especially when this fertilization was made by the balance with phosphorous and potassium. It is notice a lower effect of potassium fertilization on the water keeping in the cells due probably of high content of sodium in the halomorphous soils suggesting an unspecific involving in the maintain of the cell turgor. The phosphogypsum application diminish the supplementary fertilization efficiency with phosphorous in the plants cultivated on halomorphous soils.

  6. A novel grass hybrid to reduce flood generation in temperate regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Christopher (Kit) J. A.; Humphreys, Mike W.; Whalley, W. Richard; Turner, Lesley; Binley, Andrew; Watts, Chris W.; Skøt, Leif; Joynes, Adrian; Hawkins, Sarah; King, Ian P.; O'Donovan, Sally; Haygarth, Phil M.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the evaluation of a novel grass hybrid that provides efficient forage production and could help mitigate flooding. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) is the grass species of choice for most farmers, but lacks resilience against extremes of climate. We hybridised L. perenne onto a closely related and more stress-resistant grass species, meadow fescue Festuca pratensis. We demonstrate that the L. perenne × F. pratensis cultivar can reduce runoff during the events by 51% compared to a leading UK nationally recommended L. perenne cultivar and by 43% compared to F. pratensis over a two year field experiment. We present evidence that the reduced runoff from this Festulolium cultivar was due to intense initial root growth followed by rapid senescence, especially at depth. Hybrid grasses of this type show potential for reducing the likelihood of flooding, whilst providing food production under conditions of changing climate. PMID:23619058

  7. Intoxicação espontânea e experimental por nitrato/nitrito em bovinos alimentados com Avena sativa (aveia e/ou Lolium spp. (azevém

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Jönck

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se os dados epidemiológicos, sinais clínicos e lesões da intoxicação espontânea e experimental por nitrato e nitrito em bovinos alimentados com pastagens de Avena sativa (aveia e/ou Lolium spp (azevém. A enfermidade ocorre em diferentes regiões do Estado de Santa Catarina, quando as pastagens tem crescimento exuberante, após receberem quantidades excessivas de adubo químico e/ou orgânico, principalmente quando ocorrem condições climáticas de seca e posteriormente chuva. Os animais em contato com essas pastagens desenvolvem rapidamente mucosas de coloração marrom, taquipnéia, andar cambaleante, micção frequente, timpanismo, decúbito lateral e morte em poucos minutos, ou recuperação algumas horas após. Na necropsia de quatro animais que adoeceram espontaneamente, as principais alterações encontradas foram a coloração marrom das mucosas, a cor escura do sangue (cor de chocolate e a coloração vermelho intensa da musculatura esquelética e do miocárdio esquerdo. A reprodução experimental da doença foi realizada em sete bovinos, com pastagens de quatro propriedades onde ocorreu adoença. Aveia e/ou azevém verdes e sob a forma de feno foram administradas aos bovinos. Destes bovinos quatro morreram, dois adoeceram e se recuperam, um naturalmente e outro com a aplicação de azul de metileno a 1%, na dose de 2mg/kg/peso vivo, e um bovino não apresentou alterações. Os sinais clínicos observados e as lesões nos animais que adoeceram e morreram foram idênticos aos casos naturais. Alterações microscópicas não foram observadas nos casos naturais e experimentais. O teste da difenilamina nas amostras de pastagens onde ocorreram os surtos resultou positivo em todas as propriedades. A análise bromatológica realizada em amostras coletadas de várias propriedades em que ocorreram surtos revelou de 0,30 a 3,36% de nitrato na matéria seca. A enfermidade caracterizou-se principalmente por respiração ofegante

  8. Effect of soil conditioner on the growth of Lolium multiflorum%自制环保型土壤改良剂对一年生黑麦草生长的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁耀; 郭建斌; 尹诗萌; 牟夏

    2015-01-01

    为探索自制环保型土壤改良剂应用于黄土高原半干旱区后对土壤的改良效果,选用一年生黑麦草进行盆栽试验,统计分析一年生黑麦草生长生理指标,比较3种自制土壤改良剂(A,B,C)和1种市场土壤改良剂(D)的作用效果,以筛选出适宜的土壤改良剂。研究结果表明,土壤改良剂能改善土壤的通透性,对一年生黑麦草出苗率影响不大;添加土壤改良剂能显著提高一年生黑麦草的株高、分蘖数、生物量、含水率、P 肥和 N 肥表观利用率;与市场改良剂和对照 CK 相比,添加自制环保型土壤改良剂 C 的处理,其植株株高分别提高了16.6%和33.7%,分蘖数提高了18.5%和33.8%,生物量提高了40%和185%,土壤改良剂 C 作用下 P 肥表观利用率达到10.28%,说明自制环保型土壤改良剂 C 的促进作用最佳。研究结果将为黄土半干旱区土壤改良剂的研发以及植被恢复提供理论指导作用。%To explore the effect of soil conditioners which are applied to semiarid regions of the Loess Plateau, this study compared pots planted with Lolium multiflorum seed with and without the soil conditioners.Three self-made soil conditioners (A,B,C)and a standard soil conditioner (D)were compared.The results showed that soil conditioner application can significantly improve soil perviousness,but there was no difference in seed-ling emergence rates between untreated and soil conditioner treated pots.Soil conditioner C produced signifi-cantly better height growth in L.multiflorum plants,16.6% and 33.7% higher than that of the standard soil conditioner and the untreated soil respectively.Tiller numbers in pots treated with soil conditioner C were 18.5% and 33.8% higher than that of standard soil conditioner and the untreated soil respectively while the bi-omass was 40% and 185% higher,respectively.The appearance utilization rate of phosphorus was 10

  9. A new member of the LIR family from perennial ryegrass is cold-responsive, and promotes vegetative growth in ¤Arabidopsis¤

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciannamea, S.; Jensen, Christian Sig; Agerskov, Henrik;

    2007-01-01

    A cold-regulated gene Lolium perenne LIR1 (LpLIR1) was isolated from perennial ryegrass using a subtractive approach. The gene has strong homology to the Light Induced Rice1 (LIR1) gene and is regulated at the transcriptional level by cold, and by a diurnal rhythm. Expression of LpLIR1 in perenni...... a minor but significant delay of flowering in the transgenic lines compared to wildtype plants. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved....

  10. Fate and Uptake of Pharmaceuticals in Soil–Plant Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Laura J.; Harris, Eleanor; Williams, Mike; Ryan, Jim J; Kookana, Rai S.; Boxall, Alistair B.A.

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals have been detected in the soil environment where there is the potential for uptake into crops. This study explored the fate and uptake of pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, diclofenac, fluoxetine, propranolol, sulfamethazine) and a personal care product (triclosan) in soil–plant systems using radish (Raphanus sativus) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Five of the six chemicals were detected in plant tissue. Carbamazepine was taken up to the greatest extent in both the radish (52 μg/...

  11. Climate Extreme Effects on the Chemical Composition of Temperate Grassland Species under Ambient and Elevated CO2: A Comparison of Fructan and Non-Fructan Accumulators

    OpenAIRE

    Hamada AbdElgawad; Darin Peshev; Gaurav Zinta; Wim Van den Ende; Janssens, Ivan A; Han Asard

    2014-01-01

    Elevated CO2 concentrations and extreme climate events, are two increasing components of the ongoing global climatic change factors, may alter plant chemical composition and thereby their economic and ecological characteristics, e.g. nutritional quality and decomposition rates. To investigate the impact of climate extremes on tissue quality, four temperate grassland species: the fructan accumulating grasses Lolium perenne, Poa pratensis, and the nitrogen (N) fixing legumes Medicago lupulina a...

  12. Forage as a Primary Source of Mycotoxins in Animal Diets

    OpenAIRE

    Jiří Skládanka; Jan Nedělník; Vojtěch Adam; Petr Doležal; Hana Moravcová; Vlastimil Dohnal

    2010-01-01

    The issue of moulds and, thus, contamination with mycotoxins is very topical, particularly in connexion with forages from grass stands used at the end of the growing season. Deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisins (FUM) and aflatoxins (AFL) are among the most common mycotoxins. The aim of the paper was to determine concentrations of mycotoxins in selected grasses (Lolium perenne, Festulolium pabulare, Festulolium braunii) and their mixtures with Festuca rubra an/or Poa pratensis d...

  13. Study of Potential and Real Seed Producing Capacity in Some Romanian Varieties of Legumes and Perennial Gramineae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neculai Dragomir

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the potential and real seed producing capacity in some Romanian varieties of legumes and perennial gramineae: Trifolium repens, Lotus corniculatus, Lolium perenne, Festuca pratensis, Festuca arundinacea and Dactylis glomerata. To calculate the potential production, we performed determinations and analyses on each variety, regarding floral apparatus’ morphological and anatomic structure (number of inflorescences, number of flowers, number of ovules/ovary, and the real production was determined „in situ”.

  14. SOIL CONSERVATION EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT MODELS CONVERTING FROM STEEP FARMING SLOPE PLOTS IN YA'AN, SICHUAN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulin DENG; Yan PENG; Yukuan WANG; Zongting YANG

    2003-01-01

    Converting farming slope land into artificial forestland or grassland is a major measure of soil/water conservation. Five conversion practices, namely, 1) a control plot still tilled with a crop (maize), 2) a folder grass-growing plot seeded with Lolium perenne, 3) a young alder tree-growing plot, 4) a pear orchard plot and 5)a bamboo plot intercropped with folder grass, were monitored to compare the soil conservation efficiency of those changes in Ya'an, Sichuan for 3 years between September 1998 and August 2001. Results showed that the 5 designed converting models functioned differently in erosion control. The most effective model was bamboo groves intercropped with folder grass (Lolium perenne). The folder grass (Lolium perenne) growing model was more effective than the pure pear orchard model. The least effective model was the young alder tree-growing slope, which was even less effective than the control (a slope without converted cultivation). Meanwhile, changes in the soil's physical properties reflected the same results.Therefore, the optimum model for controlling watershed and slope erosion was by converting farming land into forestland or grassland.

  15. Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals from Soil Polluted with Waste Mining by Using Forage Plants in Successive Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Pricop

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available During two years, was studied the phytoextraction potential of some perennial species (Medicago sativa and Trifolium pretense, Festuca arundinacea and Lolium perenne, for Zn, Cd, and Pb from soils polluted with waste mining. The experiment was done on kernozem soil with adding of 20 kg waste mining/m2 and 8 kg biosolid/m2. The results showed that in all experiments, rye-grass is a good extractor for Zn and Cd, and leguminous species for Pb. Both leguminous species, especially M. sativa, presented a high tolerance for lead toxicity, even with 3-4 times greater values than maximum allowable level from actual legislation. In all cases, regardless of the experimental variant, raygrass (Lolium perenne is a good accumulator of Zn and Cd, and red clover (Trifolium pratense of Pb. The values of metal bioaccumulation increase gradually with their concentration in soil. Quality of very good extractor of Pb displayed by Trifolium pratense species are kept even in case of excessive pollution with Pb, when it exceed 3.4 times the maximum permissible norms. This proves, as Medicago sativa species, a good tolerance and resistance to toxicity of this metal. In case of addition of natural zeolite-volcanic tuff there was no increase in the rate of Zn bioaccumulation. Only in case of Cd at Lolium perenne and Pb at Trifolium pratense appear the favourable effect of metallic ions bioavailability in soil for plants.

  16. Plant tolerance to diesel minimizes its impact on soil microbial characteristics during rhizoremediation of diesel-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil contamination due to petroleum-derived products is an important environmental problem. We assessed the impacts of diesel oil on plants (Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne) and soil microbial community characteristics within the context of the rhizoremediation of contaminated soils. For this purpose, a diesel fuel spill on a grassland soil was simulated under pot conditions at a dose of 12,000 mg diesel kg-1 DW soil. Thirty days after diesel addition, T. repens (white clover) and L. perenne (perennial ryegrass) were sown in the pots and grown under greenhouse conditions (temperature 25/18 oC day/night, relative humidity 60/80% day/night and a photosynthetic photon flux density of 400 μmol photon m-2 s-1) for 5 months. A parallel set of unplanted pots was also included. Concentrations of n-alkanes in soil were determined as an indicator of diesel degradation. Seedling germination, plant growth, maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), pigment composition and lipophylic antioxidant content were determined to assess the impacts of diesel on the studied plants. Soil microbial community characteristics, such as enzyme and community-level physiological profiles, were also determined and used to calculate the soil quality index (SQI). The presence of plants had a stimulatory effect on soil microbial activity. L. perenne was far more tolerant to diesel contamination than T. repens. Diesel contamination affected soil microbial characteristics, although its impact was less pronounced in the rhizosphere of L. perenne. Rhizoremediation with T. repens and L. perenne resulted in a similar reduction of total n-alkanes concentration. However, values of the soil microbial parameters and the SQI showed that the more tolerant species (L. perenne) was able to better maintain its rhizosphere characteristics when growing in diesel-contaminated soil, suggesting a better soil health. We concluded that plant tolerance is of crucial importance for the recovery of

  17. Plant tolerance to diesel minimizes its impact on soil microbial characteristics during rhizoremediation of diesel-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrutia, O., E-mail: oihana.barrutia@ehu.es [Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, University of the Basque Country/EHU, P.O. Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Garbisu, C.; Epelde, L. [NEIKER-Tecnalia, Soil Microbial Ecology Group, c/Berreaga 1, E-48160 Derio (Spain); Sampedro, M.C.; Goicolea, M.A. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of the Basque Country/EHU, E-01006 Vitoria (Spain); Becerril, J.M. [Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, University of the Basque Country/EHU, P.O. Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2011-09-01

    Soil contamination due to petroleum-derived products is an important environmental problem. We assessed the impacts of diesel oil on plants (Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne) and soil microbial community characteristics within the context of the rhizoremediation of contaminated soils. For this purpose, a diesel fuel spill on a grassland soil was simulated under pot conditions at a dose of 12,000 mg diesel kg{sup -1} DW soil. Thirty days after diesel addition, T. repens (white clover) and L. perenne (perennial ryegrass) were sown in the pots and grown under greenhouse conditions (temperature 25/18 {sup o}C day/night, relative humidity 60/80% day/night and a photosynthetic photon flux density of 400 {mu}mol photon m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) for 5 months. A parallel set of unplanted pots was also included. Concentrations of n-alkanes in soil were determined as an indicator of diesel degradation. Seedling germination, plant growth, maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (F{sub v}/F{sub m}), pigment composition and lipophylic antioxidant content were determined to assess the impacts of diesel on the studied plants. Soil microbial community characteristics, such as enzyme and community-level physiological profiles, were also determined and used to calculate the soil quality index (SQI). The presence of plants had a stimulatory effect on soil microbial activity. L. perenne was far more tolerant to diesel contamination than T. repens. Diesel contamination affected soil microbial characteristics, although its impact was less pronounced in the rhizosphere of L. perenne. Rhizoremediation with T. repens and L. perenne resulted in a similar reduction of total n-alkanes concentration. However, values of the soil microbial parameters and the SQI showed that the more tolerant species (L. perenne) was able to better maintain its rhizosphere characteristics when growing in diesel-contaminated soil, suggesting a better soil health. We concluded that plant tolerance is of

  18. Rasgos perennes de la crisis alimentaria en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Torres Torres

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La crisis alimentaria registrada en México durante el año 2008, la cual se manifiesta con el alza de los precios internacionales en productos básicos, no es nueva. En todo caso corresponde a la agudización de un problema estructural que parte una insuficiente oferta agrícola interna, que presenta asime-trías en la accesibilidad y repercute severamente en los problemas nutricionales de la población. Se trata, eso sí, de la primera gran crisis de la fase de libre mercado que se recrudece con la recesión económica mundial, a lo cual se suma el deterioro acumulado del poder adquisitivo de cerca de la mitad de la población mexicana que impacta en su capacidad de compra y afecta las condiciones nutricionales.

  19. Componentes morfológicos e produção de forragem de pastagem de aveia e azevém manejada em diferentes alturas Morphological components and forage production of oat (Avena strigosa, Schreb and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, Lam pasture managed at different heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Antonio Queirolo Aguinaga

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a dinâmica de produção de forragem em pastagem de aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam manejada em diversas alturas de manejo com o objetivo de evidenciar as potencialidades dessa mistura em sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro alturas de manejo da pastagem (10; 20; 30 e 40 cm, medidas com bastão graduado e avaliadas em blocos casualizados com três repetições. O método de pastejo foi contínuo, com taxa de lotação variável. Utilizaram-se bezerros de corte mestiços com 10 meses de idade e peso médio inicial de 210 kg, respectivamente. As características da pastagem estudadas foram: massa de forragem (MF; taxa de acúmulo de forragem (TAC; produção total de forragem (PTMS; e quantificação dos componentes morfológicos da pastagem (colmo, lâmina e material morto. A massa de forragem aumentou de forma linear de acordo com a altura do pasto, uma vez que, para cada cm de aumento na altura superior a 10 cm, a matéria seca aumentou aproximadamente 90 kg/ha. Não houve efeito das alturas da pastagem sobre a TAC ou sobre a PTMS, cujos valores médios foram de 66,8 kg/ha/dia de MS e 10.721 kg/ha de MS, respectivamente. A porcentagem de folhas de azevém foi maior que a de folhas de aveia nos três períodos de avaliação e, na altura de 10 cm, foi superior à obtida nas demais alturas na última avaliação (em torno de 20% da participação total da massa de forragem. A aveia apresenta rápido desenvolvimento inicial e diminuição na produção nos períodos posteriores de desenvolvimento.Forage growth dynamic in an Oat (Avena strigosa, Schreb + Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, Lam pasture managed at different grazing heights was evaluated in order to access the mixed-sward potential in a crop-livestock integrated system. Treatments were four sward grazing heights (10, 20, 30, and 40 cm, measured with a sward-stick. The experimental design was a

  20. 甲酸与纤维素酶和木聚糖酶对多花黑麦草与白三叶混合青贮料发酵品质的影响%Effects of formic acid, cellulase and xylanase on fermentation quality of Lolium multiflorum and Trifolium repens mixture silage during ensiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄苏; 丁立人; 周建国; 王恬

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of formic acid, cellulase and xylanase on fermentation quality of mixture silage during ensiling, 2 000 g chopped Lolium multijlorum(80% ) and Trifolium repens(20% ) mixtures were ensiled in laboratory plastic bag either untreated (control) or treated with formic acid, cellulase, formic acid plus cellulase, xylanase, formic acid plus xylanase, cellulase plus xylanase and formic acid plus cellulase plus xylanase, respectively. Triplicate bags were opened at 0 d,2d,4d,6d,8d and 30 d of ensiling for chemical analyses. The pH value in all treated silages was lower (P<0. 05) than control at the end of ensiling. The formic acid, enzyme or formic acid plus enzyme treatments enhanced (P<0. 05) water soluble carbohydrate content significantly compared with control at all ensiling periods. The lactic acid content and acetic acid content were higher (P<0. 05) in the enzyme treatment than those in the formic acid-contained treatments and control, respectively. However, the acetic acid content was lower ( P<0. 05 ) in formic acid-contained treatments than that in enzymes treated silages. Relative to control, all treatments had lower (P< 0. 05 ) ammonia-N concentrations during ensiling. The enzyme treatments effectively (P<0. 05) decreased neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber contents in the silages. The results suggested that the addition of formic acid and enzymes improved the Lolium multiflorum and Trifolium repens mixture silage quality, and the enzyme treatments were better than formic acid treatments during ensiling.%为评价甲酸与纤维素酶和木聚糖酶处理后多花黑麦草与白三叶混合青贮料发酵品质的变化,试验将混合青贮料分为对照组(未处理)、甲酸添加组、纤维素酶添加组、甲酸+纤维素酶添加组、木聚糖酶添加组、甲酸+木聚糖酶添加组、纤维素酶+木聚糖酶添加组、甲酸+纤维素酶+木聚糖酶添加组共8组,每组3个重复.青贮原料按80

  1. Plant absorption of trace elements in sludge amended soils and correlation with soil chemical speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torri, Silvana, E-mail: torri@agro.uba.ar [Catedra de Fertilidad y Fertilizantes, Facultad de Agronomia, UBA, Avda San Martin 4453, Buenos Aires (C1417 DSE) (Argentina); Lavado, Raul [Catedra de Fertilidad y Fertilizantes, Facultad de Agronomia, UBA, Avda San Martin 4453, Buenos Aires (C1417 DSE) (Argentina)

    2009-07-30

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between Lolium perenne L. uptake of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in sludge amended soils and soil availability of these elements assessed by soil sequential extraction. A greenhouse experiment was set with three representative soils of the Pampas Region, Argentina, amended with sewage sludge and sewage sludge enriched with its own incinerated ash. After the stabilization period of 60 days, half of the pots were sampled for soil analysis; the rest of the pots were sown with L. perenne and harvested 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks after sowing, by cutting just above the soil surface. Cadmium and Pb concentrations in aerial tissues of L. perenne were below detection limits, in good agreement with the soil fractionation study. Copper and Zn concentration in the first harvest were significantly higher in the coarse textured soil compared to the fine textured soil, in contrast with soil chemical speciation. In the third harvest, there was a positive correlation between Cu and Zn concentration in aerial biomass and soil fractions usually considered of low availability. We conclude that the most available fractions obtained by soil sequential extraction did not provide the best indicator of Cu and Zn availability to L. perenne.

  2. Investigation into the Effect of Molds in Grasses on Their Content of Low Molecular Mass Thiols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Nawrath

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of molds on levels of low molecular mass thiols in grasses. For this purpose, the three grass species Lolium perenne, Festulolium pabulare and Festulolium braunii were cultivated and sampled during four months, from June to September. The same species were also grown under controlled conditions. High-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection was used for quantification of cysteine, reduced (GSH and oxidized (GSSG glutathione, and phytochelatins (PC2, PC3, PC4 and PC5. Data were statistically processed and analyzed. Thiols were present in all examined grass species. The effect of fungicide treatments applied under field conditions on the content of the evaluated thiols was shown to be insignificant. Species influenced (p < 0.05 PC3 and GSSG content. F. pabulare, an intergeneric hybrid of drought- and fungi-resistant Festuca arundinacea, was comparable in PC3 content with L. perenne and F. braunii under field conditions. Under controlled conditions, however, F. pabulare had higher (p < 0.05 PC3 content than did L. perenne and F. braunii. Under field conditions, differences between the evaluated species were recorded only in GSSG content, but only sampling in June was significant. F. pabulare had higher (p < 0.05 GSSG content in June than did L. perenne and F. braunii.

  3. Evaluation of phytotoxicity of seaport sediments aged artificially by rotary leaching in the framework of a quarry deposit scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedell, J-P; Ferro, Y; Bazin, C; Perrodin, Y

    2014-09-15

    In the framework of an ecological risk assessment of seaport sediments for terrestrial ecosystems when deposited in quarries, we simulated the "ageing" of sediments exposed to rain. This experiment highlighted an inflection point at the solid/liquid ratio 1/25, after which the extraction of pollutants increases moderately. The raw sediments studied inhibited the germination of Lolium perenne and Armeria maritima (a halophytic species) seeds. Furthermore, they affected the early development of L.perenne. The same sediments, leached at a ratio of 1/25, presented a reduction of acute (germination) and chronic (growth) phytotoxicity. The bioconcentration factors of the metals studied decreased with the leached sediment, except for Cu which was still clearly identified in root parts. Thus rotary leaching tests and phytotoxicity bioassays can be used to provide an initial assessment of the ability of plants, particularly halophytes, to colonize deposits of dredged seaport sediments.

  4. Effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae on growth and metal uptake by four plant species in copper mine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, B.D. [Department of Soil Environmental Science, Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China)]. E-mail: bdchen@rcees.ac.cn; Zhu, Y.-G. [Department of Soil Environmental Science, Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China); Duan, J. [Department of Soil Environmental Science, Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China); Xiao, X.Y. [Department of Soil Environmental Science, Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China); Smith, S.E. [Centre for Soil-Plant Interactions, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Waite Campus, University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia)

    2007-05-15

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in encouraging revegetation of copper (Cu) mine tailings. Two native plant species, Coreopsis drummondii and Pteris vittata, together with a turf grass, Lolium perenne and a leguminous plant Trifolium repens associated with and without AMF Glomus mosseae were grown in Cu mine tailings to assess mycorrhizal effects on plant growth, mineral nutrition and metal uptake. Results indicated that symbiotic associations were successfully established between G. mosseae and all plants tested, and mycorrhizal colonization markedly increased plant dry matter yield except for L. perenne. The beneficial impacts of mycorrhizal colonization on plant growth could be largely explained by both improved P nutrition and decreased shoot Cu, As and Cd concentrations. The experiment provided evidence for the potential use of local plant species in combination with AMF for ecological restoration of metalliferous mine tailings. - This study demonstrated that AM associations can encourage plant survival in Cu mine tailings.

  5. Molecular Characterization Of The Vernalization Locus VRN1 In Perennial Ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asp, Torben; Byrne, Stephen; Andersen, Jeppe R;

    Vernalization, the requirement of a period of low temperature to induce transition from vegetative to reproductive state, is an important trait in grasses. The objective of this study was to identify the causative polymorphism(s) for the variation in vernalization requirement at the VRN1 locus in...... perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Two allelic BAC clones of the VRN1 locus from the two genotypes Veyo and Falster with contrasting vernalization requirements were identified, sequenced, and characterized. The region surrounding the VRN1 locus in perennial ryegrass showed micro-colinearity to the...

  6. An investigation into the overland flow and yield factors of an organic phosphate fertilizer on grassland under an intensive and a sustainable nitrogen fertilizer programme

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Michael

    2007-01-01

    A comparison was made of the overland flow of P between an organic granule fertilizer Duofos (Guano; 22% P2O5) and Triple Superphosphate (38% P2O5) on a seven year-old pasture (Lolium perenne L.) with a gentle slope (1:20) using two ‘drip-type’ rainfall simulators during July 2004 and March 2005. Despite very dry weather conditions during the first half of July 2004 and a major soil moisture deficit, there was significantly lower overland flow in the case of Duofos compared with TSP. An addit...

  7. Lucerne varieties for continuous grazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søegaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    severe grazing with heifers in two cutting/grazing managements. Two new varieties, Verbena and Camporegio, and an older variety Luzelle were established in 2009 in pure stands and in two different mixtures with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Camporegio had the lowest yield, the lowest competitive...... strength, the lowest plant density in spring, and the density was most reduced during grazing. The results could not confirm significant differences between the new and the older varieties. The results for Luzelle were generally between Verbena and Camporegio. The varieties did not differ in herbage...

  8. Genomic prediction in a breeding program of perennial ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fé, Dario; Ashraf, Bilal; Greve-Pedersen, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    We present a genomic selection study performed on 1918 rye grass families (Lolium perenne L.), which were derived from a commercial breeding program at DLF-Trifolium, Denmark. Phenotypes were recorded on standard plots, across 13 years and in 6 different countries. Variants were identified by......) and between 0.46 and 0.91 for scheme (ii), depending on the trait. Incorporation of information on parent populations (PPs), performed by using a genomic relationship matrix based on PPs estimated frequencies, led to an increase in accuracy up to 0.07 when leaving out a parent combination at the time...... in utilizing genomic selection in rye grass....

  9. Evaluation of physical structure value in spring-harvested grass/clover silage and hay fed to heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Anne-Katrine Skovsted; Nørgaard, Peder; Byskov, M. V.;

    2015-01-01

    (Lolium perenne), red clover (Trifolium pratense) and white clover (Trifolium repens) was harvested in 2009 on May 9 (early) and 25 (late), and both cuts were conserved as silage and hay. The early silage, early hay, late silage and late hay contained dry matter (DM) of 454, 842, 250 and 828 g/kg, and NDF...... was greater in hay than in silage from the same harvest probably due to field loss and therefore confounded effects of conservation method. This study of high digestibility grass/clover silage and hay showed that NDF content and NDFI per kg BW affect fecal particle size and rumination time per kg NDF...

  10. Effect of Root Density on Erosion and Erodibility of a Loamy Soil Under Simulated Rain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katuwal, Sheela; Vermang, Jan; Cornelis, Wim M.;

    2013-01-01

    (Lolium perenne L. Hugo) was grown in soil pans and laboratory rainfall simulation experiments were conducted after 4, 8, 12 weeks of their growth with seeding density of 50 kg ha-1, after 4 weeks for seeding density of 100 kg ha-1 and on a control. The experiments with ryegrass were done (1) in presence...... of complete plants and (2) after clipping off the shoots. Roots of ryegrass grew rapidly, attaining densities of 0.614 kg m−2 and 2.280 kg m−2 in 4 and 12 weeks respectively. There was no significant influence of root density alone in runoff whereas presence of shoots decreased runoff over control...

  11. Exploring an Annotated Sequence Assembly of the Perennial Ryegrass Genome for Genomic Regions Enriched for Trait Associated Variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrne, Stephen; Cericola, Fabio; Janss, Luc;

    2015-01-01

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is an outbreeding diploid species and one of the most important forage crops used in temperate agriculture. We have developed a draft sequence assembly of the perennial ryegrass genome and annotated it with the aid of RNA-seq data from various genotypes, plant...... components, and treatments. We predicted 39,795 high quality proteins originating from 28,182 genetic loci. We wanted to use the annotated assembly to study if SNPs falling within various annotation classes explain differing proportions of the variance for traits such as heading date and rust resistance...

  12. Prospects for Hybrid Breeding in Bioenergy Grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno; Frei, Ursula;

    2012-01-01

    of different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods......, we address crucial topics to implement hybrid breeding, such as the availability and development of heterotic groups, as well as biological mechanisms for hybridization control such as self-incompatibility (SI) and male sterility (MS). Finally, we present potential hybrid breeding schemes based on SI...

  13. A ¤Terminal Flower-1¤-like gene from perennial ryegrass involved in floral transition and axillary meristem identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C.S.; Salchert, K.; Nielsen, K.K.

    2001-01-01

    . To investigate the regulation of meristem identity and the control of floral transition in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) we isolated a ryegrass TERMINAL FLOWER1-like gene, LpTFL1, and characterized it for its function in ryegrass flower development. Perennial ryegrass requires a cold treatment of at least...... spikelets. Arabidopsis plants overexpressing LpTFL1 were significantly delayed in flowering and exhibited dramatic changes in architecture such as extensive lateral branching, increased growth of all vegetative organs, and a highly increased trichome production. Furthermore, overexpression of LpTFL1...... and a controller of axillary meristem identity in ryegrass....

  14. Plantetilgjengelighet av kadmium i jord gjødslet med aske fra mikrobølgepyrolysert forurenset halm

    OpenAIRE

    Rød, Karoline Ottestad

    2010-01-01

    Målet med denne mastergradsoppgaven var å undersøke opptak av kadmium (Cd) i raigras (Lolium perenne Pl.) tilført kadmiumholdig aske fra mikrobølgepyrolysert halm. Dette ble gjort for å undersøke om asken kunne bli benyttet som gjødsel. Ved å tilbakeføre den karbonholdige askeresten, vil karbonkretsløpet ivaretas og viktige næringsstoffer blir tilbakeført til naturen. Det ble høstet halm fra Vollebekk, Ås, den ble tilsatt kadmium og mikrobølgepyrolysert (MBP). Askeresten ble brukt i et ve...

  15. Allelopathic effects of Medicago sativa L. and Vicia cracca L. leaf and root extracts on weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koloren, Onur

    2007-05-15

    In this study, the allelopathic potential of different concentration (5, 25 and 50%) of M. sativa and V. cracca leaf and root extracts were evaluated on germination and radicle length of four weed species (Amaranthus retroflexus L., Lolium perenne L., Ipomoea hederacea L. and Portulaca oleracea L.) in laboratory condition. As a result, germination and radicle length of all species were reduced by the extract from M. sativa and V. cracca leaf and root at different percentage. Increasing the water extract concentrations from 5 to 50% of test plants parts significantly increased the inhibition of all weed species germination and radicle length. PMID:19086510

  16. Interrelations between Herbage Yield, α-Tocopherol, β-Carotene, Lutein, Protein, and Fiber in Non-Leguminous Forbs, Forage Legumes, and a Grass−Clover Mixture as Affected by Harvest Date

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgersma, Anjo; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2015-01-01

    , protein and fiber contents and analyze the effect of harvest date. We hypothesized that interrelations would be similar across investigated forage species. Four nonleguminous forbs: salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor), caraway (Carum carvi), chicory (Cichorium intybus), and ribwort plantain (Plantago...... lanceolata), three legumes: yellow sweet clover (Melilotus of f icinalis), lucerne (Medicago sativa), and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) and a perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne)−white clover (Trifolium repens) mixture were sown in a field trial with two replicated and randomized blocks. Forage in 1...

  17. Genotype variation of perennial ryegrass grown for seed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abel, Simon; Boelt, Birte

    2016-01-01

    There is a large source of untapped variation within perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) populations that may increase seed yields. Understanding this variation starts with the development of potentials seed yield and how the length of this period may change with cultivar. Utilising 53 UPOV...... for the range of cultivars modelled. We show that in later secondary inducing cultivars, there is a reduced period for the development of seed yield potential. The results have wider implications for seed production management systems, with research trials needing to comprehend if the varying inputs...... alter the development of seed yield potential, or the utilisation of seed yield potentials....

  18. Research on the biology of Colchicum autumnale L., germination, flowering and colchicin content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Sorin MUNTEAN

    1981-08-01

    Full Text Available Common Autumn Crocus planted in spring of 1979, under the protection of Lolium perenne, has sprouted in 1980. during the first vegetative year the following plant parts had developed: the mezocotyl, root, hypocotyl, a small bulbotuber below the surface of the ground and the leaf, above it. The blooming spreads over a rather long period of time, reaching its peak in autumn, that is in the first half of October. Self fertilization is to be revealed with the plant - this is mostly allogamous. The plant displays a large variability, inas much as the colchicine content is concerned. The chromosome number in the somatic cells is 2n=38.

  19. The Perennial Ryegrass GenomeZipper – Targeted Use of Genome Resources for Comparative Grass Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeiffer, Matthias; Martis, Mihaela; Asp, Torben;

    2013-01-01

    (Lolium perenne) genome on the basis of conserved synteny to barley (Hordeum vulgare) and the model grass genome Brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon) as well as rice (Oryza sativa) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). A transcriptome-based genetic linkage map of perennial ryegrass served as a scaffold to...... assignment of 3,315 out of 8,876 previously unmapped genes to the respective chromosomes. In total, the GenomeZipper incorporates 4,035 conserved grass gene loci, which were used for the first genome-wide sequence divergence analysis between perennial ryegrass, barley, Brachypodium, rice, and sorghum. The...

  20. Establishment techniques in under-sown perennial ryegrass for seed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise C; Boelt, Birte

    2009-01-01

    Establishment methods have proven to be of major importance for grass-seed production. The objective of this research was to test the effect of different sowing techniques on plant establishment and the subsequent seed yield. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is used as the model grass due to...... ryegrass when placing the grass 2, 6, or 12 cm from the cover-crop row. Placement of the ryegrass seed crop 6 cm from the cereal row showed that a significant yield increase of 34-71 kg ha-1 can be obtained compared with sowing in the cereal row....

  1. Genetic markers for flowering in perennial ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paina, Cristiana; Byrne, Stephen; Andersen, Jeppe Reitan;

    2011-01-01

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is the principal forage grass utilized in Danish agriculture and underpins the beef and dairy sectors. It is characterized as having high digestibility, high nutritional value, and high productivity during vegetative growth. However, at the reproductive growth...... genes will be converted to molecular markers and mapped in an existing mapping population previously characterized for flowering time and vernalization response. References: Amasino, R.M., Michaels S.D. (2010). The Timing of Flowering. Plant Physiology 154: 516–520 Greenup, A., W. Peacock, W.J., Dennis...

  2. Transcriptional responses of Italian ryegrass during interaction with Xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis reveal novel candidate genes for bacterial wilt resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wichmann, Fabienne; Asp, Torben; Widmer, Franko;

    2011-01-01

    Xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis (Xtg) causes bacterial wilt, a severe disease of forage grasses such as Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). In order to gain a more detailed understanding of the genetic control of resistance mechanisms and to provide prerequisites for marker assisted...... selection, the partial transcriptomes of two Italian ryegrass genotypes, one resistant and one susceptible to bacterial wilt were compared at four time points after Xtg infection. A cDNA microarray developed from a perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) expressed sequence tag set consisting of 9,990 unique...... genes was used for transcriptome analysis in Italian ryegrass. An average of 4,487 (45%) of the perennial ryegrass sequences spotted on the cDNA microarray were detected by cross-hybridisation to Italian ryegrass. Transcriptome analyses of the resistant versus the susceptible genotype revealed...

  3. Cover crops for managing weeds, soil chemical fertility and nutritional status of organically grown orange orchard in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Paolo Mauro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cover crops can offer significant advantages in the agronomic management of citrus orchards in Mediterranean environments. Therefore, a three-year research was conducted in eastern Sicily aimed at studying the effects of four cover crop sequences (Sinapis arvensis-Trigonella foenum-graecum-T. foenum-graecum; Medicago scutellata-Avena sativa-Lolium perenne; Vicia faba minor-A. sativa-A. sativa; A. sativa-V. faba. minor-L. perenne on weeds, major soil chemical properties and nutritional status of an organically grown orange orchard. The results highlighted that, among the studied cover crop sequences, Vicia faba-Avena-Avena was the most beneficial for weeds control within the orchard (92%, of cover crop cover, and 586 and 89 g DW m–2 of cover crop aboveground biomass and weeds aboveground biomass, respectively. Overall, the chemical fertility of the soil was positively influenced. In particular, it was observed an increase of the content of total nitrogen and available phosphorus in the soil by both Sinapis-Trigonella-Trigonella (0.75 g kg–1 and 59.0 mg kg–1, respectively and Vicia faba-Avena-Avena (0.70 g kg–1 and 56.0 mg kg–1, respectively cover crop sequences. Medicago-Avena-Lolium sequence seemed to be the most useful to ensure a better nutritional status of the orange orchard.

  4. Using Different Tolerant Plant for Phytoremediation of Contaminated Soils with Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Masu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The extraction activity, transportation and processing of crude oil caused soil contamination with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH. The develop phytoremediation process of contaminated soils with 2.8 % TPH, were studied in pots, with a tolerant grass species, Lolium perenne. Four treatments, each consisting of three replicates, were realized in randomized block design. The experimental variants are: control, uncontaminated soil, untreated and treated contaminated soil with anaerobic stabilized sewage sludge (50 t/ha in absence/presence volcanic indigenous tuff amendment (5 t/ha. Removal efficiencies of TPH from the contaminated soils variants treated with organic fertilizer without volcanic indigenous tuff and mixed with tuff after eight months was 73.4 % and 78.9 % respectively. The results are supported by healthy plants with roots system well developed. The green biomass harvested from the variant fertilized with sludge mixed with volcanic tuff was similar to the harvested from control variant, 15.1-17.9 g / pot of vegetation The obtained results show that, the tolerant grass species, Lolium perenne must be applied safely to phytoremediation, on TPH contaminated soil.

  5. An optimized chloroplast DNA extraction protocol for grasses (Poaceae proves suitable for whole plastid genome sequencing and SNP detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Diekmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obtaining chloroplast genome sequences is important to increase the knowledge about the fundamental biology of plastids, to understand evolutionary and ecological processes in the evolution of plants, to develop biotechnological applications (e.g. plastid engineering and to improve the efficiency of breeding schemes. Extraction of pure chloroplast DNA is required for efficient sequencing of chloroplast genomes. Unfortunately, most protocols for extracting chloroplast DNA were developed for eudicots and do not produce sufficiently pure yields for a shotgun sequencing approach of whole plastid genomes from the monocot grasses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed a simple and inexpensive method to obtain chloroplast DNA from grass species by modifying and extending protocols optimized for the use in eudicots. Many protocols for extracting chloroplast DNA require an ultracentrifugation step to efficiently separate chloroplast DNA from nuclear DNA. The developed method uses two more centrifugation steps than previously reported protocols and does not require an ultracentrifuge. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The described method delivered chloroplast DNA of very high quality from two grass species belonging to highly different taxonomic subfamilies within the grass family (Lolium perenne, Pooideae; Miscanthus x giganteus, Panicoideae. The DNA from Lolium perenne was used for whole chloroplast genome sequencing and detection of SNPs. The sequence is publicly available on EMBL/GenBank.

  6. [Allelopathic effects of invasive weed Solidago canadensis on native plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lingxiao; Chen, Xin; Tang, Jianjun

    2005-12-01

    With growth chamber method, this paper studied the allelopathic potential of invasive weed Solidago canadensis on native plant species. Different concentration S. canadensis root and rhizome extracts were examined, and the test plants were Trifolium repens, Trifolium pretense, Medicago lupulina, Lolium perenne, Suaeda glauca, Plantago virginica, Kummerowia stipulacea, Festuca arundinacea, Ageratum conyzoides, Portulaca oleracea, and Amaranthus spinosus. The results showed that the allelopathic inhibitory effect of the extracts from both S. canadensis root and rhizome was enhanced with increasing concentration, and rhizome extracts had a higher effect than root extracts. At the lowest concentration (1:60), root extract had little effect on the seed germination and seedling growth of T. repens, but rhizome extract could inhibit the germination of all test plants though the inhibitory effect varied with different species. The inhibition was the greatest for grass, followed by forb and legume. 1:60 (m:m) rhizome extract had similar effects on seed germination and radicel growth, but for outgrowth, the extract could inhibit Kummerowia stipulacea, Amaranthus spinosus and Festuca arundinacea, had no significant impact on Lolium perenne, Plantago virginica, Ageratum conyzoides, Portulaca oleracea and Amaranthus spinosus, and stimulated Trifolium repens, Trifolium pretense and Medicago lupulina. PMID:16515192

  7. The use of legume and herb forage species to create high performance pastures for sheep and cattle grazing systems Uso de leguminosas e forrageiras herbáceas para criar pastos de alto desempenho para sistema de pastejo de ovinos e bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter David Kemp

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Sheep and cattle farmers need pastoral systems that are more productive and environmentally sustainable. The role that high feeding value herb and legume forage species can play in the farms of the future is highlighted. It is shown that species such as chicory (Cichorium intybus, plantain (Plantago lanceolata, red clover (Trifolium pratense and white clover (T.repens can provide live weight gains in lambs that are 70% greater than those from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne based pastures. A case for replicated experiments that examine the value of whole technology packages based on herb and legume species, rather than component research, is made.Produtores de ovinos e bovinos necessitam de sistemas pastoris mais produtivos e ambientalmente sustentáveis. As espécies forrageiras herbáceas e leguminosas de alto valor nutricional podem ter um papel destacado no futuro desses produtores. Foi demonstrado que espécies tais como a chicória (Cichorium intybus, plantago (Plantago lanceolata, trevo vermelho (Trifolium pratense e trevo-branco (T. repens podem fornecer um ganho de peso 70% maior em carneiros quando comparado com pastagens de azevém (Lolium perenne. Mais que um componente de pesquisa, este é um caso para repetidos experimentos que examinem o valor de todos os pacotes tecnológicos baseados em espécies herbáceas e leguminosas.

  8. Population structure, genetic variation and linkage disequilibrium in perennial ryegrass populations divergently selected for freezing tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjuna Rao eKovi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature is one of the abiotic stresses seriously affecting the growth of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. Understanding the genetic control of freezing tolerance would aid in the development of cultivars of perennial ryegrass with improved adaptation to frost. A total number of 80 individuals (24 of High frost [HF]; 29 of Low frost [LF] and 27 of Unselected [US] from the second generation of the two divergently selected populations and an unselected control population were genotyped using 278 genome-wide SNPs derived from Lolium perenne L. transcriptome sequence. Our studies showed that the HF and LF populations are very divergent after selection for freezing tolerance, whereas the HF and US populations are more similar. Linkage disequilibrium (LD decay varied across the seven chromosomes and the conspicuous pattern of LD between the HF and LF population confirmed their divergence in freezing tolerance. Furthermore, two Fst outlier methods; finite island model (fdist by LOSITAN and hierarchical structure model using ARLEQUIN detected six loci under directional selection. These outlier loci are most probably linked to genes involved in freezing tolerance, cold adaptation and abiotic stress and might be the potential marker resources for breeding perennial ryegrass cultivars with improved freezing tolerance.

  9. Comparison of phytoremediation potential of three grass species in soil contaminated with cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gołda Sylwia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the toleration of Poa pratensis, Lolium perenne and Festuca rubra to cadmium contamination as well as the phytoremediation potential of these three species of grass. The pot experiment was conducted in four replications in pots containing 2.0 kg of soil. The soil was contaminated with three doses of Cd – 30, 60 and 120 mg·kg−1. After two months, the aerial parts of plants were harvested. The roots were dug up, brushed off from the remaining soil and washed with water. The biomass was defined and the cadmium concentration was determined in aerial parts and roots. The phytoremediation potential of grasses was evaluated using biomass of grasses, bioaccumulation factor (BF and translocation factor (TF. All three tested species of grasses had TF 1. It indicates their suitability for phytostabilisation and makes them unsuitable for phytoextraction of Cd from the soil. Comparing the usefulness of the tested grasses for phytoremediation has shown that the phytostabilisation potential of P. pratensis was lower than that of L. perenne and F. rubra. P. pratensis was distinguished by higher TF, smaller root biomass and lower tolerance for Cd excess in the soil in comparison with the two other test grasses. At the same time, L. perenne was characterised by the smallest decrease in biomass and the largest Cd accumulation in roots at the lowest dose of Cd. It indicates good usefulness for phytostabilisation of soils characterised by a relatively small pollution by cadmium.

  10. Comparison of herbage yield, nutritive value and ensilability traits of three ryegrass species evaluated for the Irish Recommended List

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burns G. A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined 169 of the newest varieties of three ryegrass species, perennial (Lolium perenne L., Italian (Lolium multiflorum Lam. and hybrid (Lolium boucheanum Kunth, from Recommended List trials in Ireland. The traits examined were yield, dry matter concentration, three nutritive value traits (in vitro dry matter digestibility, water-soluble carbohydrate on a dry matter basis and crude protein concentration and two ensilability traits (buffering capacity and water soluble carbohydrate concentration on an aqueous phase basis. Varietal monocultures of each species underwent a six cut combined simulated grazing and silage management in each of two years following sowing. Perennial ryegrass yielded less than both other species in one-year-old swards, but less than only Italian ryegrass in two-year-old swards, but generally had the higher in vitro dry matter digestibility and crude protein values. Italian ryegrass displayed the most favourable ensilability characteristics of the three species with perennial ryegrass less favourable and hybrid ryegrass intermediate. Overall, despite the high yields and favourable nutritive value and ensilability traits recorded, the general differences between the three ryegrass species studied were in line with industry expectations. These findings justify assessing the nutritive value and ensilability of ryegrass species, in addition to yield, to allow farmers select species that match farming enterprise requirements.

  11. Relectura desde una crítica feminista de Isidora Aguirre: dramaturga chilena perenne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara deI Carmen Rojo de la Rosa

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute as características apresentadas na escrita de Isidora Aguirre, a dramaturga mais constante e perene do teatro chileno. Partindo de sua enunciação analisam-se os códigos semióticos de seus textos, as metodologias escolhidas e o sujeito genérico de sua fala. Estuda-se sua dramaturgia observando as causas da sua sobrevida aos contextos e regimes diferentes, produzida no interior de um sistema literário patriarcal que sistemáticamente estabeleceu o cânon através da apropriação masculina da palavra.

  12. Efectividad de la mezcla picloram y fluroxipir en el control de malezas perennes de pastizales tropicales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valent\\u00EDn A. Esqueda Esquivel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinóla cinética de la degradación ruminal de la materia seca, laproteína cruda y el extracto etéreo en las harinas de pescado,carne y hueso y tortave. Con base en los resultados de degradación a 48 horas de incubación ruminal, se determinó enforma biológica los contenidos digeribles reales de la proteí-na y grasa digerida, haciendo más precisa la medición del total de nutrientes digeribles y los valores de energía digestibley neta de los alimentos que por el método químico. Los valores de energía neta para producción fueron de 2,02, 1,66 y2,60 Mcals/kg en la harina de pescado, harina de carne y hue-so y la tortave, respectivamente. La fracción de proteína soluble (A fue alta en la harina de pescado (75,29%, media enla harina de carne y hueso (46,83% y más baja en la harinade tortave (25,75%, con una fracción degradable (B de10,62, 27,66 y 42,06%; así como una fracción insoluble (Cde 14,09, 25,51, y 32,19%, respectivamente. La proteína de-gradada en el rumen fue de 83,23, 66,25 y 51,98%, en el mismo orden de presentación anterior. Los contenidos de proteína cruda efectivamente retenida por el animal durante elproceso de digestión total, fueron de 53,29, 51,86 y 42,05%para la harina de pescado, harina de carne y hueso y la harina de tortave.

  13. Potencial competitivo de biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Competitive potential of ryegras (Lolium multiflorum biotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Ferreira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a capacidade competitiva entre biótipos de azevém resistente e suscetível ao glyphosate, bem como a interferência deles, em diferentes densidades, sobre o crescimento de plantas de trigo. No momento da colheita, aos 50 dias após a emergência do azevém, avaliaram-se o número de perfilhos, a altura de plantas e a área foliar. Nessa mesma ocasião, coletou-se a parte aérea e as raízes das plantas de trigo e de azevém resistente e suscetível, determinando-se a seguir a massa seca desse material em partes separadas (raiz, caule e folhas. Com base nos dados avaliados, as seguintes variáveis para o trigo e para os biótipos de azevém foram calculadas: taxa de crescimento da cultura (TCC = MS A/Ndias, em que MS A é a massa seca da parte aérea e Ndias é o período em dias entre a emergência e a colheita das plantas; área foliar específica (SLA = Af/MSf, em que Af é a área foliar e MSf é a massa seca foliar; e o índice de área (IAF = Af/St, sendo St a superfície de solo, indicando qual a área de folhas por m² de solo. As características avaliadas altura de planta, massa seca e área foliar dos biótipos de azevém suscetível apresentaram menor tendência de redução e maior plasticidade fenotípica, com o incremento da densidade de plantas por área em relação aos biótipos resistentes. Com relação à competição dos biótipos de azevém com plantas de trigo, efeito negativo sobre a cultura também foi observado quando esta se encontrava sob interferência do biótipo suscetível. Conclui-se que o biótipo suscetível de azevém é mais competitivo que o resistente.The objective of this work was to evaluate the competitiveness of ryegrass biotypes resistant and susceptible to glyphosate, as well as their interference in wheat growth at different densities. At harvesting, 50 days after emergence, tillering, height, and leaf area of ryegrass plants were evaluated and shoot and roots of ryegrass and wheat were collected and their root, stalk and leaf dry mass was determined. Based on the data, the following variables were evaluated for ryegrass and wheat: crop growth rate (TCC = MS A/Ndays, with MS A being shoot dry mass and Ndays the number of days between emergence and plant harvesting; specific leaf area (SLA = Af /MSf,with Af being the leaf area and MSf leaf dry mass; and leaf area index (IAF = Af/St, St being soil area, indicating leaf area per soil area. Plant height, dry mass and leaf area of the susceptible ryegrass showed smaller reductions and better phenotypic plasticity, in function of the increasing density per soil area, compared to the resistant one. The susceptible biotype showed to be more competitive and its interference in wheat development was more visible at lower densities. It was concluded that the susceptible ryegrass biotype is more competitive than the resistant one.

  14. Herança da resistência de azevém (Lolium multiflorum ao glyphosate Inheritance of azevém (Lolium multiflorum resistance to glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vargas

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O glyphosate é o principal produto usado para manejo não-seletivo das plantas daninhas. Já foram identificados biótipos de azevém resistentes a esse herbicida no Rio Grande do Sul, os quais estão se tornando predominantes rapidamente. Objetivou-se neste trabalho identificar o tipo de herança, o número de genes que conferem resistência e o grau de resistência dos biótipos homozigotos e heterozigotos resistentes em azevém. Foram realizados cruzamentos recíprocos entre genitores suscetíveis e resistentes para obtenção de sementes F1 e, em seguida, efetuaram-se os retrocruzamentos resistente e sensível. Plantas F1 foram cruzadas, para obtenção da geração F2. Sobre as plantas F1, F2, RCr e RCs e genitores foi aplicado o glyphosate na dose de 720 g ha-1, para avaliar a segregação. A fim de avaliar o grau de resistência, as plantas F1 e os genitores resistente e sensível foram tratados com doses crescentes de glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1.440 e 2.880 g ha-1. As plantas F1 evidenciaram resposta intermediária ao biótipo resistente e sensível, demonstrando que a interação alélica é do tipo dominância incompleta. As plantas F2 mostraram tendência para segregação 3:1, indicando que a característica resistência ao glyphosate é controlada por um gene semidominante.Glyphosate is a non-selective herbicide used to control weeds. Azevem plants, which are tolerant to glyphosate, have been identified in Rio Grande do Sul, where they are rapidly becoming predominant. The objective of this work was to identify inheritance type, number of genes conferring resistance, and the degree of resistance in azevem plants. Reciprocal crossings between sensitive and resistant plants have been carried out to obtain F1 seeds which were crossed among themselves to obtain F2 plants .Herbicide containing 720 g ha-1 was applied on the F1, F2, RCr, Rc and parent plants to estimate segregation. To evaluate the degree of resistance of the F1 plants, resistant and sensitive parents were sprayed with increasing rates of glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1.440 and 2.880 g ha-1. F1 plants showed intermediate response to the resistant and sensitive biotypes, indicating that allelic interaction is of the incomplete dominance type. F2 plants showed a tendency for segregation 3:1, indicating that resistance to glyphosate is controlled by a semi-dominant gene.

  15. Valorization of essential oils from Moroccan aromatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Omar; Fe Andrés, Maria; Sanz, Jesús; Errahmani, Naima; Abdeslam, Lamiri; González-Coloma, Azucena

    2014-08-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of cultivated and wild medicinal and aromatic plants from Morocco (Artemisia herba-alba, Lippia citriodora, Mentha pulegium, M. spicata, Myrtus communis, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Thymus satureioides) are described. The essential oils (EOs) of these species have been analyzed by GC-MS. The antifeedant, nematicidal and phytotoxic activities of the EOs were tested on insect pests (Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae and Rhopalosiphum padi), root-knot nematodes (Meloydogine javanica) and plants (Lactuca sativa, Lolium perenne and Lycopersicum esculentum). EOs from A. herba-alba, M. pulegium and R. officinalis were strong antifeedants against S. littoralis, M. persicae and R. padi. EOs from L. citriodora, M. spicata and T. satureioides showed high nematicidal activity. These biological effects are explained by the activity of the major EO components and/or synergistic effects. PMID:25233584

  16. 大蒜果聚糖水解酶全长cDNA的克隆%Cloning of a full cDNA of a fructan exohydrolase(FEH)in garlic(Allium sativum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何林乾; 黄雪松

    2013-01-01

    采用PCR和RACE的方法,获得大蒜果聚糖水解酶(FEH)基因的全长cDNA序列,并对其基因结构和系统进化进行分析.结果表明,所获得的cDNA序列全长1900bp,开放阅读框(ORF)为1668bp,编码555个氨基酸.在该氨基酸序列中发现已知FEH氨基酸序列的保守功能域;与小麦(Triticum aestivum)、黑麦(Lolium perenne)的FEH氨基酸序列的同源性为53%.基本确定首次获得了大蒜FEH基因.

  17. Spatial distribution and changes in occurrence of some weed species in the orchard in AES Felin near Lublin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Lipecki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available From 1993 to 1997 a study of spatial distribution of most important weeds in apple orchard herbicide strips was performed. This study was continued in 1998, once the trees were cut down. As the time progressed, Epilobium adenocaulon Hausskn., Chenopodium album L., Polygonum aviculare L. and Atriplex patulum L. showed an increase in their occurrence. An opposite tendency was found with Erigeron canadensis L., Convolvulus arvensis L. and Taraxacum fficinale Web. Some species grew in patches (Convolvulus arvensis L., Chenopodium album L., Atriplex patulum L., while the others appeared sporadically throughout the orchard. In 1998, the decrease of occurrence of Epilobium Haussk. was observed. Simultaneously, this was coupled with an increase of occurrence of Taraxacum officinale Web., Erigeron caanadensis L. and Chenopodium album L. The predominating species in 1998 was Cerastium vulgatum L., followed by Lolium perenne L., Poa annua L. and Bromus mollis L.

  18. Effect of four plant species on soil 15N-access and herbage yield in temporary agricultural grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirhofer-Walzl, Karin; Eriksen, J.; Høgh-Jensen, H.;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background and aims We carried out field experiments to investigate if an agricultural grassland mixture comprising shallow- (perennial ryegrass: Lolium perenne L.; white clover: Trifolium repens L.) and deep- (chicory: Cichorium intybus L.; Lucerne: Medicago sativa L.) rooting grassland...... species has greater herbage yields than a shallow-rooting two-species mixture and pure stands, if deep-rooting grassland species are superior in accessing soil 15N from 1.2 m soil depth compared with shallow-rooting plant species and vice versa, if a mixture of deep- and shallow-rooting plant species has......-access of pure stands, two-species and four-species grassland communities. Results Herbage yield and soil 15N-access of the mixture including deep- and shallow-rooting grassland species were generally greater than the pure stands and the two-species mixture, except for herbage yield in pure stand lucerne...

  19. Cutting weeds with a CO2 laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisel, T.; Schou, Jørgen; Christensen, S.;

    2001-01-01

    Stems of Chenopodium album. and Sinapis arvensis. and leaves of Lolium perenne. were cut with a CO2 laser or with a pair of scissors. Treatments were carried out on greenhouse-grown pot plants at three different growth stages and at two heights. Plant dry matter was measured 2 to 5 weeks after...... treatment. The relationship between dry weight and laser energy was analysed using a non-linear dose-response regression model. The regression parameters differed significantly between the weed species. At all growth stages and heights S. arvensis was more difficult to cut with a CO2 laser than C. album....... When stems were cut below the meristems, 0.9 and 2.3 J mm(-1) of CO2 laser energy dose was sufficient to reduce by 90% the biomass of C. album and S. arvensis respectively. Regrowth appeared when dicotyledonous plant stems were cut above meristems, indicating that it is important to cut close...

  20. Effects of atmospheric CO sub 2 enrichment on the leaf anatomy of white clover (Trifolium repens L. ). Wirkungen der atmosphaerischen Kohlendioxid-Anreicherung auf die Blattanatomie des Weissklees (Trifolium repens L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overdieck, D.; Ungemach, E. (Osnabrueck Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich Biologie/Chemie)

    1989-01-01

    Mixtures (1:1) of Trifolium repens L subsp. repens (var. Milka Paybjerg) and Lolium perenne L (var. Printo) were grown from seeds in 2 l plastic soil containers (16 seeds/dm{sup 2}) at 370 {plus minus} 20, 520 {plus minus} 10 and 670 {plus minus} 10 {mu}l CO{sub 2}/l in greenhouse compartments in which the climate was regulated according to the outside conditions. The CO{sub 2} concentration level was the only varied environmental factor. Samples obtained from the first fully expanded leaf of white clover were subjected to routine anatomical procedures and sectioned traversely. Under enriched CO{sub 2} conditions the cross sections showed significant increases of palisade and spongy mesophyll density at the expense of intercellular spaces. Collodium casts of the lower epidermis indicated that the number of stomates per mm{sup 2} was not significantly affected by CO{sub 2} enrichment. (orig.).

  1. Chemically enhanced phytoextraction of lead-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, V Ryan; Krogstad, Eirik J; El-Mayas, Hanan; Greipsson, Sigurdur

    2012-08-01

    The effects of the combined application of soil fungicide (benomyl) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on lead (Pb) phytoextraction by ryegrass (Lolium perenne) were examined. Twenty-five pots of Pb-contaminated soil (200 mg Pb kg(-1)) were seeded with ryegrass and randomly arranged into the following treatments: (1) Control, (2) benomyl, (3) EDTA, (4) benomyl and EDTA (B+E), and (5) benomyl followed by an application of EDTA 14 days later (B .. . E). Chemicals were applied when plants had reached maximum growth. Plants were analyzed for foliage Pb concentration using inductively coupled argon plasma (ICAP) spectrometry. The synergistic effects of the combined benomyl and EDTA application (treatments 4 and 5) were made evident by the significantly (p < 0.05) highest foliage Pb concentrations. However, the foliage dry biomass was significantly lowest for plants in treatments 4 and 5. The bioaccumulation factor (BF) and phytoextraction ratio (PR) were highest for plants in treatment 5 followed by plants in treatment 4.

  2. Annual maize and perennial grass-clover strip cropping for increased resource use efficiency and productivity using organic farming practice as a model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Johansen, Anders; Carter, Mette Sustmann;

    2013-01-01

    A cropping system was designed to fulfill the increasing demand for biomass for food and energy without decreasing long term soil fertility. A field experiment was carried out including alternating strips of annual maize (Zea mays L.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) – clover (Trifolium...... of the grass to compete for soil mineral N. Maize yields were clearly associated with N fertilizer application. When fertilizer N was applied through slurry or anaerobic digested slurry maize yields was increasing with up to 100% equivalent to 1200g carbon (C) m−2 or 35MJm−2. However, the same relative growth...... reduction was found when grown in close proximity to the grass-clover strip. If slurry is available maize secures an efficient N uptake, however, long-term effects of maize cropping and biomass removal on soil quality is of concern. The present strip cropping system did not possess the right balance of co...

  3. Effects of Temperature on Rate of Feeding of the Plant Parasitic Nematodes Rotylenchus robustus, Xiphinema diversicaudatum, and Hemicycliophora conida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boag, B

    1980-07-01

    Rotylenchus robustus, Xiphinema diversicaudatum, and Hemicycgiophora conida were observed feeding over a range of temperatures on perennial rye-grass (Lolium perenne) seedlings grown on agar plates. R. robustus fed between 0.5 and 42.5 C, X. diversicaudatum between 5.0 and 37.0 C and H. conida between 5.0 and 34.0 C. Between 10 and 25 C there was a direct relationship between temperature and rate of esophageal bulb contractions. Above 25 C the number of esophageal contractions/min did not increase at the same rate and eventually decreased. At the extremes of temperature range, abnormal feeding behaviour was observed. Rates of esophageal bulb contraction did not differ in the different nematode life stages and sexes, or at different feeding sites on the roots.

  4. Climate change: Crops and terrestrial ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Geijn, S.C.; Goudriaan, J.; Berendse, F. (eds.)

    1993-01-01

    The publication consists of eight chapters dealing with the impact of climate change, i.e. elevated CO[sub 2] levels and temperature, on physiological processes in crops and terrestrial ecosystems; effects of CO[sub 2] enrichment on photosynthesis and carbohydrate utilization: consequences for regrowth of Lolium perenne; effects of elevated CO[sub 2] on crop photosynthesis, carbon economy and productivity of wheat and faba beans; effects of CO[sub 2] increase on the productivity of cereals and legumes (model exploration and experimental evaluation); influence of air pollution on carbon dioxide effects on plants; effects of climate change on crop production and land use in the Rhine basin; carbon fluxes and organic matter transformations in plant-soil-systems; plant growth and nutrient cycling in nutrient-poor ecosystems; and finally, carbon cycle and ecosystem productivity on a global scale

  5. Phytostabilisation-A Sustainable Remediation Technique for Zinc in Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padmavathiamma, Prabha [University of British Columbia, Faculty of Land and Food Systems (Canada); Li, Loretta, E-mail: lli@civil.ubc.c [University of British Columbia, Department of Civil Engineering (Canada)

    2009-08-15

    Two studies were conducted to determine a feasible and practical phytoremediation strategy for Zn-contaminated soils. The aim of the first study was to identify promising plant species capable of Zn remediation for the soils and climatic conditions of British Columbia. The purpose of the second study was to assess the effects of soil amendments in modifying the soil properties and providing the right conditions for the plants to immobilise Zn. Promising plants for phytostabilisation in the first study (Lolium perenne, Festuca rubra and Poa pratensis) were tested in the presence of soil amendments (lime, phosphate and compost, both individually and in combination) in the second study. The efficiency of treatments to stabilise Zn was based on Zn fractionation in the soil and on absorption and partitioning of Zn in plants. Maximum Zn immobilisation was achieved in the soil by a combination of lime, phosphate and compost, in conjunction with growth of P. pratensis.

  6. Effect of Ryegrasses on Soil Runoff and Sediment Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Living plants and plant roots can reduce runoff and soil erosion.Using a rain simulator,a series of soil erosion experiments were conducted to study the influence of living roots and canopies of ryegrasses(Lolium perenne L.)during the growing season on sediment yields and runoff of a silt loam soil.The results indicated that during the growing season,decrements in runoff and sediment yields increased with time.Sediment yields(r2=0.999)and decrements in runoff (r2=0.946)were closely related to the root surface area density.The contributions of roots and canopies of ryegrasass to the reductions in runoff and sediment yields were different.Canopies usually contributed more to the runoff decrement than the roots,whereas roots contributed up to 96% of the decrease in sediment yields in the late stage of the growing season.

  7. Flavonoids Affect the Light Reaction of Photosynthesis in Vitro and in Vivo as Well as the Growth of Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Flores, Félix; Olivares-Palomares, Karen Susana; Aguilar-Laurents, María Isabel; Rivero-Cruz, José Fausto; Lotina-Hennsen, Blas; King-Díaz, Beatriz

    2015-09-23

    Flavonoids retusin (5-hydroxy-3,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone) (1) and pachypodol (5,4'-dihydroxy-3,7,3'-trimethoxyflavone) (2) were isolated from Croton ciliatoglanduliferus Ort. Pachypodol acts as a Hill reaction inhibitor with its target on the water splitting enzyme located in PSII. In the search for new herbicides from natural compounds, flavonoids 1 and 2 and flavonoid analogues quercetin (3), apigenin (4), genistein (5), and eupatorin (6) were assessed for their effect in vitro on the photosynthetic electron transport chain and in vivo on the germination and growth of the plants Physalis ixocarpa, Trifolium alexandrinum and Lolium perenne. Flavonoid 3 was the most active inhibitor of the photosynthetic uncoupled electron flow (I50 = 114 μM) with a lower log P value (1.37). Results in vivo suggest that 1, 2, 3, and 5 behave as pre- and postemergent herbicides, with 3 and 5 being more active. PMID:26322527

  8. Allelic Variation in the Perennial Ryegrass FLOWERING LOCUS T Gene is Associated with Changes in Flowering Time across a Range of Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøt, Leif; Sanderson, Ruth; Thomas, Ann;

    2011-01-01

    The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene and its orthologs in other plant species (e.g. rice [Oryza sativa] OsFTL2/Hd3a) have an established role in the photoperiodic induction of flowering response. The genomic and phenotypic variations associated with the perennial...... ryegrass (Lolium perenne) ortholog of FT, designated LpFT3, was assessed in a diverse collection of nine European germplasm populations, which together constituted an association panel of 864 plants. Sequencing and genotyping of a series of amplicons derived from the nine populations, containing the...... complete exon and intron sequences as well as 5' and 3' noncoding sequences of LpFT3, identified a total of seven haplotypes. Genotyping assays designed to detect the genomic variation showed that three haplotypes were present in approximately equal proportions and represented 84% of the total, with a...

  9. Nitrate Leaching From Grain Maize After Different Tillage Methods and Long/Short Term Cover Cropping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elly Møller

    trial initiated in 1968 on a coarse sandy soil. The previous trial included spring sown crops undersown (with or without) perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) as cover crop, two N-rates (90 and 120 kg N ha-1) and different tillage methods (shallow tillage and ploughing autumn or spring). With maize......, each previous long-term treatment with soil tillage and cover crop was sub-divided into two, one with perennial ryegrass as cover crop and one without cover crop. The maize was sown in 2009 and 2010 and fertilized with 140 kg N ha-1. The objectives were to determine the effects on leaching of i......) previous history of long-term cover cropping, ii) soil tillage methods, iii) N rates and iv) present short-term use of cover cropping in maize. Preliminary results from 2009 – 2011 suggest that leaching after a history of cover cropping tended to be higher than after no history of cover cropping...

  10. Fructan metabolism and changes in fructan composition during cold acclimation in perennial ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abeynayake, Shamila; Etzerodt, Thomas; Jonavičienė, Kristina;

    2015-01-01

    biomass (top) and the roots, and the transcription of candidate genes involved in fructan metabolism during cold acclimation in perennial ryegrass variety ‘Veyo’ and ecotype ‘Falster’ from distinct geographical origins. We observed changes in fructan composition and induction of low-DP fructans......Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) produces high levels of fructans as a mixture of oligomers with different degrees of polymerization (DP). The present study describes the analysis of the compositional changes in the full spectrum of fructan oligomers, fructan distribution between above ground....... The ecotype ‘Falster’, adapted to cold climates, increased total fructan content and produced more fructans (DP˃7) in the roots than the variety ‘Veyo’, adapted to warmer climates suggesting that accumulation of fructans in roots, especially the high-DP fructans as an adaptive trait for plant recovery after...

  11. Leaching of dissolved organic and inorganic nitrogen from legume-based grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusliene, Gedrime; Eriksen, Jørgen; Rasmussen, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Leaching of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is a considerable loss pathway in grassland soils. We investigated the white clover (Trifolium repens) contribution to N transport and temporal N dynamics under a pure stand of white clover and white clover......-ryegrass (Lolium perenne) mixture. The temporal dynamics of white clover N contribution was analysed by 15N incorporation into DIN and DON in percolating soil solution collected at 25 cm depth following white clover 15N leaf-labelling that was applied at different times during the growing season. The white clover...... contribution to N transport in the soil profile was investigated over two years by analysing 15N in DIN and DON in percolating soil solution collected at 25, 45, and 80 cm depth following 15N leaf labelling of white clover. The 15N analyses showed that white clover was a direct and major source of both DIN...

  12. Inter and intra-specific variation in photosynthetic acclimation response to long term exposure of elevated carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, M. [Univ. of Essex, Colchester (United Kingdom)]|[Writtle Coll. (United Kingdom)

    1996-08-01

    The response of intra and interspecific variation in photosynthetic acclimation to growth at elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration (600{micro}mol mol-l) in six important grassland species was investigated. Plants were grown in a background sward of Lolium perenne and measurements were made after four years of growth at elevated C{sub a}. Elevated CO{sub 2} was maintained using a FACE (Free-Air Carbon Enrichment) system. Significant intra and interspecific variation in acclimation response was demonstrated. The response of adaxial and abaxial stomatal conductance to elevated CO{sub 2} was also investigated. The stomatal conductance of both the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces was found to be reduced by elevated C{sub a}. Significant asymmetric responses in stomatal conductance was demonstrated in D. glomerata and T. pratense. Analysis of stomatal indices and densities indicated that the observed reductions in stomatal conductance were probably the result of changes in stomatal aperture.

  13. Assessing the influence of compost and biochar amendments on the mobility and toxicity of metals and arsenic in a naturally contaminated mine soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, Luke; Inneh, Onyeka S; Norton, Gareth J; Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo; Pardo, Tania; Clemente, Rafael; Dawson, Julian J C

    2014-03-01

    Amending contaminated soils with organic wastes can influence trace element mobility and toxicity. Soluble concentrations of metals and arsenic were measured in pore water and aqueous soil extracts following the amendment of a heavily contaminated mine soil with compost and biochar (10% v:v) in a pot experiment. Speciation modelling and toxicity assays (Vibrio fischeri luminescence inhibition and Lolium perenne germination) were performed to discriminate mechanisms controlling metal mobility and assess toxicity risk thereafter. Biochar reduced free metal concentrations furthest but dissolved organic carbon primarily controlled metal mobility after compost amendment. Individually, both amendments induced considerable solubilisation of arsenic to pore water (>2500 μg l(-1)) related to pH and soluble phosphate but combining amendments most effectively reduced toxicity due to simultaneous reductions in extractable metals and increases in soluble nutrients (P). Thus the measure-monitor-model approach taken determined that combining the amendments was most effective at mitigating attendant toxicity risk.

  14. Nitrogen fertilization of grass/clover swards under cutting or grazing by dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søegaard, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Intensively managed perennial ryegrass/white clover (Lolium perenne L. and Trifolium repens L.) swards receive relatively high levels of fertilizer N, and high N surpluses can subsequently be found. The N-fertilization effects on growth, yield, and herbage quality were therefore examined on three...... management in the rest of the experiment. N-response was greatly affected by management. Under cutting it was higher in Year 1 [16 kg dry matter (DM) kg-1 N] than in Year 2 (9 and 13 kg DM kg-1 N with and without residual effects of fertilization in Year 1). Under grazing with one or two rest periods...... affected. The results indicate different possibilities for strategic fertilization both at farm and field level, and in swards with a high clover content it demonstrates how the clover content can be used as a buffer both for maximizing the N-response and for manipulating the production profile....

  15. Effects of catch crop type and root depth on nitrogen leaching and yield of spring barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapkota, Tek Bahadur; Askegaard, Margrethe; Lægdsmand, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    [chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)] and their effect on soil mineral N (NO3− and NH4+) in different soil layers by using the FASSET model. The simulated results of catch crop biomass and root growth and mineral N in the soil...... simulations showed that fodder radish developed the deepest root system and depleted N from deeper soil layers than chicory and ryegrass. Thirty years of simulations showed that the system with ryegrass catch crop had a smaller amount of N leaching from 1 m depth than the system with other catch crops and...... without catch crops. However, estimated total N leached at 2 m soil depth was smallest in the system with fodder radish followed by the system with chicory, indicating that these catch crops are capable of taking soil N also from below 1 m depth. On average, the system with fodder radish was estimated to...

  16. Genetic variation, population structure, and linkage disequilibrium in European elite germplasm of perennial ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazauskas, Gintaras; Lenk, Ingo; Pedersen, Morten Greve;

    2011-01-01

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is a highly valued temperate climate grass species grown as forage crop and for amenity uses. Due to its outbreeding nature and recent domestication, a high degree of genetic diversity is expected among cultivars. The aim of this study was to assess the extent...... and occurred within 0.4 cM across European varieties, when population structure was taken into consideration. However, an extended LD of up to 6.6 cM was detected within the variety Aberdart. High genetic diversity and rapid LD decay provide means for high resolution association mapping in elite materials...... of linkage disequilibrium (LD) within European elite germplasm and to evaluate the appropriate methodology for genetic association mapping in perennial ryegrass. A high level of genetic diversity was observed in a set of 380 perennial ryegrass elite genotypes when genotyped with 40 SSRs and 2 STS markers...

  17. Pepsin-Cellulase Digestibility of Pasture Silages: Effects of Pasture Type, Maturity Stage, and Variations in the Enzymatic Method Digestibilidad mediante Pepsina-Celulasa de Ensilajes de Pradera: Efectos del Tipo de Pradera, Estado de Madurez y Variaciones en el Método Enzimático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Barchiesi-Ferrari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic in vitro digestibility has been studied as a method to predict energy values of forages for ruminants, although results have been affected by type of forage and methodological details of the technique. This work was performed to evaluate the effects of cellulase concentration (0.75, 1.0 and 6.25 g L-1, incubation time (24 or 48 h and type of final washing of the residue (water or acetone on the in vitro digestibility of the dry matter (DMD, organic matter (OMD and content of digestible organic matter in the DM (D value of silages made at three maturity stages from three types of pastures: a permanent pasture (Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Bromus catharticus Vahl var. catharticus, Trifolium repens and Holcus lanatus; b Italian ryegrass ley (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cv. Tama; c oats (Avena sativa L. and d mixed pasture (L. perenne-T. repens. Regression equations among cellulase results and in vitro values obtained with rumen fluid were also developed. Higher enzyme concentration, longer incubation time and final washing with acetone, resulted in a significant (P La digestibilidad enzimática in vitro ha sido estudiada para predecir el valor energético de forrajes para rumiantes, aunque el tipo de forraje y los detalles metodológicos han afectado los resultados obtenidos. Este trabajo pretende evaluar los efectos de la concentración de celulasa (0,75; 1,0 y 6,25 g L-1, tiempo de incubación (24 o 48 h y tipo de lavado final (agua o acetona del residuo, sobre la digestibilidad in vitro de la materia seca (DMD, materia orgánica (OMD y el contenido de materia orgánica digestible en la materia seca, o valor D (D value de ensilajes hechos con tres estados de madurez, de diferentes praderas: a pradera permanente (Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Bromus catharticus Vahl var. catharticus, Trifolium repens y Holcus lanatus; b ballica Italiana (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cv. Tama; c avena (Avena sativa L.; y d pradera mixta (L. perenne

  18. Effects of feeding level and NDF content of grass-clover silages on chewing activity, fecal particle size and NDF digestibility in dairy heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Anne-Katrine Skovsted; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Nørgaard, Peder

    2014-01-01

    digestibility. Restricting feeding level made heifers eat for a shorter time period while rumination and total chewing was increased, causing the ratio between eating and rumination time to decrease with lower intake of forage fiber. Particle size reduction and digestibility depended mostly on changes in NDF......The objective of this study was to assess effects of feed intake and NDF content of highly digestible grass-clover silage on chewing behavior, fecal particle size distribution and apparent digestibility in restrictively fed heifers. Four grass-clover silages (Lolium perenne, Trifolium pratense......, replicated with further restricted feeding levels (50%, 60%, 70% or 80% of ad libitum) in a balanced 4 × 4 × 4 Greco-Latin square design. Eating activity was estimated from test meal observations, while rumination activity was estimated from jaw movements logged by a jaw recorder system. Total tract...

  19. Establishing the basis for Genomic Prediction in Perennial Ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fé, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Genomic Selection (GS) is a relatively new technology, which has already revolutionized animal breeding and which is expected to have a high impact on plant breeding. In contrast to traditional marker assisted breeding, which only focuses on specific genes. GS estimates the genetic value...... of individuals/families by using genomic information over the Whole genome. The benefits of GS include reductions in expensive and time-consuming phenotyping operations, higher genetic gains, and simultaneous selection of multiple traits. To date, GS has primarely been tested in species, which are grown...... ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), which is the most cultivated forage grass in temperate regions. Different statistical models were used for predicting the phenotypes of perennial ryegrass families, across diffent environments. Results showed good prospects for GS implementation in forage breeding, due...

  20. Estimating legume N-2 fixation in grass-clover mixtures of a grazed organic cropping system using two N-15 methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, F.P.; Jensen, E.S.

    2000-01-01

    The input of Nitrogen (N) through symbiotic N-2 fixation (SNF) in grass-clover mixtures was determined in an organic cropping. system for grazing during 3 years. The mixture of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) was established by undersowing in spring...... barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and maintained subsequently for two production years. Dinitrogen fixation was determined using the N-15 isotope dilution techniques and two labelling procedures. Using either pre-labelling of the soil with immobilisation of the N-15 by addition of a carbon source before...... establishment of the grass-clover mixture or adding the N-15 labelled ammonium to the established crop, resulted in similar estimates of the proportion of N derived from the atmosphere (pNdfa). However, the average coefficient of variance of the pNdfa values was significantly lower with the pre...

  1. The Genus Pithomyces in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. O. Marasas

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available Descriptions are given of South African isolates of  Pithomyces sacchari (Speg. M. B. Ellis, Pithomyces chartarum (Berk. & Curt. M. B. Ellis and  Pithomyces karoo  Marasas & Schumann, sp. nov.  P. sacchari and P. chartarum were isolated from Medicago sativa L. seed.  P. chartarum was also isolated from dead leaves of Lolium perenne L. and  Sporobolus capensis (Willd. Kunth. plants from artificial pastures in the eastern Cape Province.  P. karoo was isolated from stems of Gnidia polycephala (C.A. Mey. Gilg and  Rhigozum trichotomum Burch, from the Karoo, Cape Province and from Avena sativa L. stubble collected in the Orange Free State.

  2. The role of the Oregon State University Endophyte Service Laboratory in diagnosing clinical cases of endophyte toxicoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, A Morrie; Blythe, Linda L; Duringer, Jennifer M

    2014-07-30

    The Oregon State University Colleges of Veterinary Medicine and Agricultural Sciences instituted the Endophyte Service Laboratory to aid in diagnosing toxicity problems associated with cool-season grasses in livestock. The endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophalum) present in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) produces ergopeptine alkaloids, of which ergovaline is the molecule used to determine exposure and toxicity thresholds for the vasoconstrictive conditions "fescue foot" and "summer slump". Another vasoconstrictive syndrome, "ergotism," is caused by a parasitic fungus, Claviceps purpurea, and its primary toxin, ergotamine. "Ryegrass staggers" is a neurological condition that affects livestock consuming endophyte (Neotyphodium lolii)-infected perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) with high levels of lolitrem B. HPLC-fluorescent analytical methods for these mycotoxins are described and were used to determine threshold levels of toxicity for ergovaline and lolitrem B in cattle, sheep, horses, and camels. In addition, six clinical cases in cattle are presented to illustrate diagnosis of these three diseases. PMID:25017309

  3. EFECTO DE LA TEMPERATURA Y LA SUPLEMENTACIÓN ENERGÉTICA SOBRE LA PRODUCCIÓN DE LECHE EN VACAS LECHERAS A PASTOREO Effect of temperature and energy supplementation on milk production of grazing dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Jahn; Susana Arredondo; Walter Bonilla; Alejandro Del Pozo

    2002-01-01

    Se realizó un ensayo con el objeto de determinar el efecto de la suplementación a la sombra durante los meses de verano para vacas que pastorean una pradera de trébol blanco - ballica perenne (Trifolium repens L. -Lolium multiflorum L.). Se compararon 4 tratamientos: I. Pastoreo día y noche sin suplementación; II. Pastoreo día y noche más suplementación; III. Pastoreo día y noche más suplementación a la sombra entre 11:30 y 17:00 h; y IV. Pastoreo día y noche más suplementación al sol entre 1...

  4. Evaluation of legumes and poultry manure for the early protection of burnt soils Evaluación de leguminosas y gallinaza para la protección temprana de suelos quemados Avaliaçao da utilizaçao de leguminosas e estrume de galináceos na protecção precoce de solos queimados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafín González Prieto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Organic amendments combined with the sowing of gramineous grasses are effective for the early protection of burnt soils (BS but cannot restore soil N status to pre-fire level; this has led to interest in combining their use with N2 fixer legumes. The effectiveness of applying poultry manure (PM; 2 Mg ha-1 and sowing legumes (Lotus corniculatus, Lupinus polyphyllus and Trifolium repens for the early protection of BS was compared with that of applying PM + Lolium perenne and growing these four species without PM in a 3-month pot experiment, which also included a control consisting of an unburnt soil (US. In US, the shoot and root biomass increased as follows: Trifolium ~ Lotus << Lolium < Lupinus. Compared with those grown in US, plants grown in BS were smaller and weaker in three species (Lupinus, Lolium and Trifolium. The reverse was true for the four species grown in BS+PM, which showed the benefits of PM addition. In all the treatments, plant N uptake, which prevents soil-N losses, increased as follows: Trifolium ~ Lotus < Lupinus < Lolium. The lack of nodules observed suggested that none of the legumes fixed atmospheric-N2.

    Las enmiendas orgánicas combinadas con la siembra de gramíneas son efectivas para la protección temprana de los suelos quemados (SQ, pero insuficientes para restaurar el estatus pre-incendio del N-edáfico, lo cual deriva en el interés de emplear dichas enmiendas en combinación con leguminosas fijadoras de N2. La utilidad de la gallinaza (G, 2 Mg ha-1 y la siembra de leguminosas (Lotus corniculatus, Lupinus polyphyllus y Trifolium repens para la protección temprana de SQ se comparó con la de G + Lolium perenne y esas cuatro especies sin G en una experiencia en invernadero durante tres meses que tambi

  5. Investigating the Mechanism of Glyphosate Resistance in Rigid Ryegrass (Lolium rigidum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide that has been used extensively for more than 20 yr. The first glyphosate-resistant weed biotype appeared in 1996; it involved a rigid ryegrass population from Australia that exhibited an LD50 value approximately 10-fold higher than that of sensitive biotypes....

  6. Comparative transcriptome analysis within the Lolium/Festuca species complex reveals high sequence conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czaban, Adrian; Sharma, Sapna; Byrne, Stephen;

    2015-01-01

    enabled us to divide ortholog groups into those that are very conserved and those that are more evolutionarily relaxed. The ratio of the non-synonumous to synonymous substitutions enabled us to pinpoint protein sequences evolving in response to positive selection. These proteins may explain some of the...

  7. Agronomic behavior of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum lam. in Rio Grande do Sul State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. F. Conterato

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate forage production and number of days to flowering in 15 common ryegrass populations, one population of the KLM 138 (Uruguay and Fepagro São Gabriel cultivars, and one local population in order to select germplasm with production potential. A randomized block design consisting of three replicates and repeated measures over time (cuts was adopted. Forage production was evaluated by cutting samples of 2 linear meters per plot. The forage samples of each plot were dried and weighed for the determination of total dry matter. A total dry matter subsample of each plot, in each cut, was used to estimate leaf percentage. The data were submitted to analysis of variance using mixed models and means were compared by the Tukey test (P0.05, indicating little variability for this trait in the populations studied during the growth cycle. The populations differed significantly in terms of leaf dry matter percentage (P=0.0002. The highest leaf percentages during the growth cycle were observed for cultivar KLM 138. However, populations of the common Uruguayan, Dom Pedrito and Vacaria cultivars also exhibited good leaf production and may be used for initial selection of new promising materials, considering that a higher percentage of leaves promotes better quality feed offered to animals. The variation in the number of days to flowering permits selection for different maturation cycles of common ryegrass.

  8. Tolerance of Grasses to Heavy Metals and Microbial Functional Diversity in Soils Contaminated with Copper Mine Tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENG Ying; LUO Yong-Ming; HUANG Chang-Yong; LONG Jian; LI Zhen-Gao; P.CHRISTIE

    2008-01-01

    Copper (Cu) mine tallings,because of their high content of heavy metals,are usually hostile to plant colonization.A pot experiment was conducted to determine the tolerance of four forage grasses to heavy metals in Cu mine tailings and to examine the variation in the microbial functional diversity of soils from the tailing sites in southern China.All the four grass species survived on Cu mine tailings and Cu mine tailing-soil mixture.However,on pure mine tailings,the growth was minimal,whereas the growth was maximum for the control without mine railings.The tolerance of grasses to heavy metals followed the sequence: Paspalum notatum >Festuca arundinacea >Lolium perenne >Cynodon dactylon.The planting of forage grasses enhanced the soil microbial biomass.The Biolog data indicated that the soil microbial metabolic profile values (average well color development,community richness,and Shannon index) of the four forage grasses also followed the sequence: P.notatum > F.arundinacea > L.perenne > C.dactylon.Thus,P.notatum,under the experimental conditions of this study,may be considered as the preferred plant species for revegetation of Cu mine tailing areas.

  9. Assessment of the phytotoxicity of seaport sediments in the framework of a quarry-deposit scenario: germination tests of sediments aged artificially by column leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedell, J-P; Bazin, C; Sarrazin, B; Perrodin, Y

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the Sustainable Management of Sediments Dredged in Seaports (SEDIGEST) project is to assess the risks of treated port sediments for terrestrial ecosystems when deposited in quarries. We simulated the "ageing" of these sediments up to the "moment" when plants can germinate. Sediments were leached by water percolating through a laboratory column. Sediments 1 and 2, taken from the port of Toulon (France), were dried and aired. Sediment 3, taken from the port of Guilvinec (France), was stabilised with lime. Phytotoxicity was evaluated on the three artificially aged sediments using germination and early development tests (48 h to 7 days) by Phytotoxkit F(TM) bioassays. The three dilutions tested were performed with the reference "ISO substrate" and with Lolium perenne sp. (rye grass), Sinapis alba (white mustard), and Lepidium sativum (watercress). The tests performed with sediments 1 and 2 showed (1) a decrease of their toxicity to the germination of the species selected following leaching and (2) that L. perenne was the most sensitive species. The tests performed with sediment 3 showed that it was improper for colonisation even after leaching simulating 16 months of ageing. These germination tests on aged sediments identified the effects of leaching and made it possible to appreciate the capacity of the sediments to allow colonisation by plants.

  10. Efficiency of soil organic and inorganic amendments on the remediation of a contaminated mine soil: I. Effects on trace elements and nutrients solubility and leaching risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, T; Bernal, M P; Clemente, R

    2014-07-01

    A mesocosm experiment, in columns, was conducted in a growth chamber to assess the viability of two organic materials (pig slurry and compost; in combination with hydrated lime) for the remediation of a highly acidic and trace elements (TEs) contaminated mine soil and the reduction of its associated leaching risks. Their influence on the evolution throughout the soil depth of the physicochemical properties (including TEs mobility) of the soil and soil solution (in situ periodic collection) and on Lolium perenne growth and foliar TEs accumulation was evaluated. Soluble and extractable concentrations of the different TEs were considerably high, although the organic amendments (with lime) and lime addition successfully decreased TEs mobility in the top soil layer, as a consequence of a rise in pH and changes in the redox conditions. Compost and pig slurry increased the soluble organic-C and dissolved N, K and P of the soil, producing a certain downwards displacement of N and K. The organic amendments allowed the growth of L. perenne in the soil, thus indicating improvement of soil conditions, but elevated TEs availability in the soil led to toxicity symptoms and abnormally high TEs concentrations in the plants. An evaluation of the functioning and ecotoxicological risks of the remediated soils is reported in part II: this allows verification of the viability of the amendments for remediation strategies.

  11. Modelling metal accumulation using humic acid as a surrogate for plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, T T Yen; Swartjes, Frank; Römkens, Paul; Groenenberg, Jan E; Wang, Peng; Lofts, Stephen; Hendriks, A Jan

    2015-04-01

    Metal accumulation in roots was modelled with WHAM VII using humic acid (HA) as a surrogate for root surface. Metal accumulation was simulated as a function of computed metal binding to HA, with a correction term (E(HA)) to account for the differences in binding site density between HA and root surface. The approach was able to model metal accumulation in roots to within one order of magnitude for 95% of the data points. Total concentrations of Mn in roots of Vigna unguiculata, total concentrations of Ni, Zn, Cu and Cd in roots of Pisum sativum, as well as internalized concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn in roots of Lolium perenne, were significantly correlated to the computed metal binding to HA. The method was less successful at modelling metal accumulation at low concentrations and in soil experiments. Measured concentrations of Cu internalized in L. perenne roots were not related to Cu binding to HA modelled and deviated from the predictions by over one order of magnitude. The results indicate that metal uptake by roots may under certain conditions be influenced by conditional physiological processes that cannot simulated by geochemical equilibrium. Processes occurring in chronic exposure of plants grown in soil to metals at low concentrations complicate the relationship between computed metal binding to HA and measured metal accumulation in roots. PMID:25482978

  12. Efficiency of soil organic and inorganic amendments on the remediation of a contaminated mine soil: I. Effects on trace elements and nutrients solubility and leaching risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, T; Bernal, M P; Clemente, R

    2014-07-01

    A mesocosm experiment, in columns, was conducted in a growth chamber to assess the viability of two organic materials (pig slurry and compost; in combination with hydrated lime) for the remediation of a highly acidic and trace elements (TEs) contaminated mine soil and the reduction of its associated leaching risks. Their influence on the evolution throughout the soil depth of the physicochemical properties (including TEs mobility) of the soil and soil solution (in situ periodic collection) and on Lolium perenne growth and foliar TEs accumulation was evaluated. Soluble and extractable concentrations of the different TEs were considerably high, although the organic amendments (with lime) and lime addition successfully decreased TEs mobility in the top soil layer, as a consequence of a rise in pH and changes in the redox conditions. Compost and pig slurry increased the soluble organic-C and dissolved N, K and P of the soil, producing a certain downwards displacement of N and K. The organic amendments allowed the growth of L. perenne in the soil, thus indicating improvement of soil conditions, but elevated TEs availability in the soil led to toxicity symptoms and abnormally high TEs concentrations in the plants. An evaluation of the functioning and ecotoxicological risks of the remediated soils is reported in part II: this allows verification of the viability of the amendments for remediation strategies. PMID:24875879

  13. Modelling metal accumulation using humic acid as a surrogate for plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, T T Yen; Swartjes, Frank; Römkens, Paul; Groenenberg, Jan E; Wang, Peng; Lofts, Stephen; Hendriks, A Jan

    2015-04-01

    Metal accumulation in roots was modelled with WHAM VII using humic acid (HA) as a surrogate for root surface. Metal accumulation was simulated as a function of computed metal binding to HA, with a correction term (E(HA)) to account for the differences in binding site density between HA and root surface. The approach was able to model metal accumulation in roots to within one order of magnitude for 95% of the data points. Total concentrations of Mn in roots of Vigna unguiculata, total concentrations of Ni, Zn, Cu and Cd in roots of Pisum sativum, as well as internalized concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn in roots of Lolium perenne, were significantly correlated to the computed metal binding to HA. The method was less successful at modelling metal accumulation at low concentrations and in soil experiments. Measured concentrations of Cu internalized in L. perenne roots were not related to Cu binding to HA modelled and deviated from the predictions by over one order of magnitude. The results indicate that metal uptake by roots may under certain conditions be influenced by conditional physiological processes that cannot simulated by geochemical equilibrium. Processes occurring in chronic exposure of plants grown in soil to metals at low concentrations complicate the relationship between computed metal binding to HA and measured metal accumulation in roots.

  14. IMPROVING WHEAT TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. BY INTERSPECIFIC AND INTERGENERIC HYBRIDIZATION WITH POACEAE FAMILY SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czaplicki A.Z.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The related species of the family Poaceae (Triticeae are the source of unprecedented new genes that allow the extension of genetic variation of common wheat Triticum aestivum L. These species have similar homoeologous chromosomes and rDNA sequences very similar to T. aestivum L. [1-3]. This allows the introgression of alien genes and their incorporation into the genomes A, B and D of wheat, where they can function permanently in the wheat genetic systems. Many of them have already been transferred to the varieties of T. aestivum L. [4].The experimental material consisted of 28 lines of winter wheat obtained using the interspecific and intergeneric hybridization of T. aestivum L. with alien species T. durum Desf., T. timopheevii Zhuk., Lolium perenne L. and Aegilops speltoides Taush. Among them, 15 lines were developed from the cross-combination with tetraploid species (AABB T. durum Desf., 4 lines from the combination with other tetraploid species of different genome composition (AAGG T. timopheevii Zhuk., 4 lines from cross with L. perenne L. and 5 lines were the double hybrids (three-generic derived with two related species, T. durum Desf. (AABB and Ae. speltoides Taush (BB.The anther culture method was used for obtaining DH lines from these interspecific and intergeneric hybrids. In in vitro culture 124 green plants were regenerated. The method of cluster analysis grouped hybrids in terms of comprehensive general similarity of the studied traits.

  15. [Allelopathic effects of extracts from tuberous roots of Aconitum carmichaeli on three pasture grasses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yu-jie; Wang, Ya-qi; Yuan, Ling

    2015-11-01

    The tuberous roots of Aconitum carmichaeli are largely used in traditional Chinese medicine and widely grown in Jiangyou, Sichuan, China. During the growth process, this medicinal plant releases a large amount of allelochemicals into soil, which retard the growth and development of near and late crops. Therefore, a pure culture experiment was thus carried out by seed soaking to study the allelopathic effects of extracts from tuberous roots of A. carmichaeli (ETR) on the seed germination and young seedling growth of Lolium perenne, Trifolium repens, and Medicago sativa, the late pasture grasses after cultivation of A. carmichaeli. The results showed that three pasture grasses varied significantly in seed germination and young seedling growth in response to ETR concentrations. Seed germination of M. sativa was stimulated by low ERT concentration (0.01 x g(-1)), while all of pasture grass seeds germinated poorly in solution with 1.00 g x L(-1). Seed soaking with 1.00 g x L(-1) also inhibited significantly the growth of pasture young seedlings, with M. sativa showing the highest seedling height reduction of 42.05% in seeding height, followed by T. repens (40.21%) and L. perenne with about 11%. Cultivation of L. perenne could thus be beneficial to increase whole land productivity in A. carmichaeli-pasture grass cropping systems. In addition, hydrolysis of protein, starch, and inositol phosphates was blocked and free amino acids, soluble sugars and phosphorus were decreased in seeds by seed soaking with ETR, which could be one of the reason for the inhibition of seed germination. There was a significant reduction in root vigor, nitrate reductase, and chlorophyll after the seed treatment with ETR, indicating the suppression of nutrient uptake, nitrate assimilation, and photosynthesis by allelopathic chemicals in ETR, which could lead to the slow growth rate of pasture grass seedlings. PMID:27071248

  16. Transfer of radiocaesium to barley, rye grass and pea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In areas with intensive farming, as in Denmark, it is of great interest to identify possible countermeasures to be taken in order to reduce the longterm effects of radioactive contamination of arable land. The most important longer-lived radionuclides from the Chernobyl were 137Cs and 134Cs. The aim of the present project was to identify crops with relatively low or high root uptake of these two isotopes. Although such differences may be small, a shift in varieties might be a cost-effective way to reduce collective doses. The experiment was carried out at Risoe National Laboratory in the summer of 1988. The species used were: spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L) varieties: Golf, Apex, Anker, Sila; Perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne L.) varieties: Darbo (early) and Patoro (late); Italian rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum) variety: Prego; and pea (Pisum arvense L.) variety: Bodil. Each crop was grown in two types of soil, a clay-loam and an organic soil. 137Cs was added to the clay-loam. The organic soil, which was contaminated with 137Cs from the Chernobyl accident, was supplied with 134Cs. Sila barley and Italian rye-grass were identified among the species tested as plants with a relative high uptake of radio-caesium. (author)

  17. Genotypic Differences of Forage Crop Tolerance to Acid Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGYUAI; CHUXIANGYUN; 等

    1998-01-01

    Twenty eight species of forage crops were planted on acid soils derived from Quaternary red clay(pH4.16) and red sandstone(pH4.55) to study genotypic differences of the forage crops in tolerance to acid soils as affected by liming,phosporus and potassium fertilizer application.Eight forage species,Lolium nultiflorum L., Brachiaria decumbens,Digitaria sumtisii,Melinis minutiflora,Paspalum dilatatum,Paspalum wettsteinii,Sataria viridis Beanv and Shcep's Festuca,were highly toleran to acid soils,and grew relatively well in the tested soils without lime application,whereas most of the other 20 tested forage species such as Lolium perenne L., Meadow Festuca and Trifolium praense L. were intolerant to acid soil ,showing retarded growth when the soil pH was below 5.5 and significant increase in dry matter yields by phosphrus fertilizer application at soil pH 6.0 Results showed that large differences in tolerance to acid soils existed among the forage species,and tolerance of the froage species to acid soils might be closely associated with their tolerance to Al and P efficiency.

  18. Apparent Acquired Resistance by a Weevil to Its Parasitoid Is Influenced by Host Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldson, Stephen L; Tomasetto, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Field parasitism rates of the Argentine stem weevil Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by Microctonus hyperodae Loan (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are known to vary according to different host Lolium species that also differ in ploidy. To further investigate this, a laboratory study was conducted to examine parasitism rates on tetraploid Italian Lolium multiflorum, diploid Lolium perenne and diploid hybrid L. perenne ×L. multiflorum; none of which were infected by Epichloë endophyte. At the same time, the opportunity was taken to compare the results of this study with observations made during extensive laboratory-based research and parasitoid-rearing in the 1990s using the same host plant species. This made it possible to determine whether there has been any change in weevil susceptibility to the parasitoid over a 20 year period when in the presence of the tetraploid Italian, diploid perennial and hybrid host grasses that were commonly in use in the 1990's. The incidence of parasitism in cages, in the presence of these three grasses mirrored what has recently been observed in the field. When caged, weevil parasitism rates in the presence of a tetraploid Italian ryegrass host were significantly higher (75%) than rates that occurred in the presence of either the diploid perennial (46%) or the diploid hybrid (52%) grass, which were not significantly different from each other. This is very different to laboratory parasitism rates in the 1990s when in the presence of both of the latter grasses high rates of parasitism (c. 75%) were recorded. These high rates are typical of those still found in weevils in the presence of both field and caged tetraploid Italian grasses. In contrast, the abrupt decline in weevil parasitism rates points to the possibility of evolved resistance by the weevil to the parasitoid in the diploid and hybrid grasses, but not so in the tetraploid. The orientation of plants in the laboratory cages had no significant effect on

  19. Use of Cellulases to Predict in vivo Digestible Organic Matter (D value in Pasture Silages Uso de Celulasas para Predecir el Contenido de Materia Orgánica Digestible (Valor D in vivo, en Ensilajes de Praderas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Barchiesi-Ferrari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In pasture-based dairy herds where silage is a widely adopted supplement, optimized feeding requires reliable estimations of nutritional quality of this conserved forage. Metabolizable energy, an important nutritional fraction, can be predicted from digestibility-related traits, such as the digestible organic matter contained in the dry matter (D-value. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prediction of D-value and dry matter digestibility (DMD of grass silages made from four different pastures and maturity stages, using the pepsin-cellulase method. Fungal cellulase was used, applying different enzyme concentrations, incubation times and types of final wash. The silages were prepared from permanent pasture (Dactylis glomerata L., Lolium perenne L., Bromus catharticus Vahl var. catharticus, Trifolium repens L. and Holcus lanatus L., rotation pasture (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cv. Tama, oats (Avena sativa L., and mixed pasture (L. perenne-T. repens. These were harvested at three different physiological stages (vegetative, ear emergence and dough grain. The treatment using an incubation time of 24 h, a cellulase concentration of 6.25 g L-1 and final wash with water (Treatment 3 presented the best prediction capacity of the in vivo D-value (R² = 0.78 and in vivo DMD (R² = 0.71. In vivo D-value prediction improved (R² = 0.8 when a chemical determination (crude fibre, gross energy, neutral detergent fibre, total ash or acid detergent fibre was included in addition (multiple regression to D-value obtained with cellulases (Treatment 3. Results of DMD obtained with cellulases show good precision, but underestimate in vivo values, and are closer to those obtained with ruminal fluid. Suitable equations could be used to improve accuracy.En sistemas lecheros pastoriles que utilizan ensilaje como suplemento, se requiere conocer el valor nutricional de éste para optimizar la alimentación del ganado. La energía metabolizable, importante fracci

  20. Uso da água em biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum em condição de competição Water use in italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum biotypes under competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Concenço

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar as características associadas à eficiência de uso da água em biótipos de azevém resistente e suscetível ao glyphosate, em diferentes níveis de competição. O experimento foi realizado em esquema fatorial 2 x 5, com os dois biótipos de azevém, suscetível e resistente, em planta única no centro da parcela, competindo com 0, 1, 2, 3 e 4 plantas do biótipo oposto. Todas as características matéria seca da parte aérea (MSPA, condutância estomática (Gs, pressão de vapor na câmara subestomática (Ean, gradiente entre temperatura da folha e do ar (deltaT e taxa de transpiração (E foram avaliadas 50 dias após a emergência das plantas, sendo calculada também a eficiência do uso da água (WUE pela relação entre a quantidade de CO2 fixado pela fotossíntese e a quantidade de água transpirada. Foi elaborada ainda uma matriz de correlação entre as variáveis. O biótipo suscetível apresentou maior acúmulo de MSPA, comparado ao biótipo resistente ao glyphosate, quando cultivado livre ou em competição, porém foi menos eficiente quanto ao uso da água.The objective of this work was to evaluate the characteristics associated to water use efficiency in ryegrass biotypes resistant and susceptible to glyphosate, under different competition levels. The trial was installed in factorial scheme (2 x 5, with one plant of the studied biotype alone at the center of the plot, under competition against 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 plants of the opposite biotype. The variables (shoot dry matter (MSPA, water vapor stomatal conductance (Gs, water vapor pressure from the leaf chamber (Ean, leaf and air temperature difference (deltaT and transpiration rate (E were evaluated 50 days after emergence, with water use efficiency (WUE being obtained by the relation between the amount of CO2 fixed by photosynthesis and the corresponding transpired water. A correlation table was built between all evaluated variables. The biotype susceptible to glyphosate accumulated dry matter more efficiently than the resistant one, when growing both alone or under competition. On the other hand, the biotype susceptible to glyphosate is less efficient in water use.

  1. Aspectos morfofisiológicos de biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum sensíveis e resistentes ao glyphosate Morphophysiological aspects of ryegrass biotypes (Lolium multiflorum sensitive and resistant to glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Galvan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O azevém é uma gramínea com elevado potencial de infestação em lavouras e pomares, e seu controle com glyphosate tem sido limitado devido à existência de biótipos resistentes a esse herbicida. Objetivou-se comparar quatro biótipos de azevém coletados em diferentes regiões do Rio Grande do Sul, com o intuito de testar a hipótese de que aspectos morfofisiológicos e fenológicos estejam vinculados à resistência. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, onde um biótipo suscetível (B1S, Passo Fundo e três resistentes ao glyphosate (B2R, Santa Maria; B3R, Júlio de Castilhos; e B4R, Vacaria foram colhidos aos 126, 147, 168 e 189 dias de idade. O biótipo B1S mostrou 21 dias de antecipação no florescimento em relação aos demais biótipos. O biótipo B4R produziu significativamente mais folhas (43 por planta, afilhos (14 por planta, espigas (14 por planta, sementes (3.484 por planta e matéria seca total (raízes + parte aérea = 13,8 g por planta. Conclui-se que biótipos sensíveis não podem ser diferidos de biótipos resistentes apenas por aspectos morfológicos relacionados ao vigor.Ryegrass has a high potential for infestation in crops and orchads and its control with glyphosate has been limited due to the existence of herbicide-resistant biotypes. The objective of this work was to compare four ryegrass biotypes collected from different regions in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, to test the hypothesis that morphophysiological aspects and phenology are linked to resistance. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, where four biotypes, one susceptible (B1S, Passo Fundo and three resistant to glyphosate (B2R, Santa Maria; B3R, Julio de Castillos; B4R, Vacaria were collected at 126, 147, 168 and 189 days of age. Biotype B1S showed 21 days in advance of flowering in relation to the other biotypes. Biotype B4R produced significantly more leaves (43 per plant, tillers (14 per plant, ears (14 per plant, seeds (3484 per plant and total dry matter (roots + shoot = 13.8 g per plant. It is concluded that sensitive biotypes cannot be distinguished from the resistant ones only by morphological aspects related to vigor.

  2. Uso da água em biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum) em condição de competição Water use in italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) biotypes under competition

    OpenAIRE

    G. Concenço; E.A. Ferreira; A.A. Silva; F.A. Ferreira; R.G. Viana; L. d'Antonino; L. Vargas; C.M.T. Fialho

    2007-01-01

    Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar as características associadas à eficiência de uso da água em biótipos de azevém resistente e suscetível ao glyphosate, em diferentes níveis de competição. O experimento foi realizado em esquema fatorial 2 x 5, com os dois biótipos de azevém, suscetível e resistente, em planta única no centro da parcela, competindo com 0, 1, 2, 3 e 4 plantas do biótipo oposto. Todas as características matéria seca da parte aérea (MSPA), condutância estomática (Gs), pressã...

  3. Genetic structure of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum populations estimated by RAPD Estrutura genética de populações de azevém anual (Lolium multiflorum estimada por RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alano Vieira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Annual ryegrass is a temperate climate annual foraging grass, grown mostly in the South of Brazil, especially in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Despite its importance, little is known about its genetic diversity, both within and among the populations cultivated. This knowledge is of fundamental importance for developing breeding and conservation strategies. The aim of this study was to characterize the genetic diversity and structure of four populations of annual ryegrass. Three of the populations were located in Rio Grande do Sul and the fourth in Uruguay. RAPD markers were used to study the genetic diversity and structure of these populations. Analysis of 375 individuals sampled from the populations, using six RAPD primers, generated a total of 82 amplified bands. They included 73 polymorphic bands (89,02%. The value of the total genetic diversity index obtained, (0,71 was high, indicating the presence of wide genetic diversity in the four populations. Genetic structure analysis revealed that 98% of total diversity is intrapopulational, whereas interpopulational genetic diversity was only 2%. These results suggest that before these populations separated, they had gone through a period of gene exchange and, even after the separation event, gene frequency stayed at levels similar to the original levels, with no differential selection for these genes in the different cultivation areas.O azevém anual é a gramínea anual forrageira de clima temperado de maior utilização no sul do Brasil, particularmente no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Apesar de toda a importância que a espécie apresenta, pouco se conhece a respeito da diversidade genética presente entre e dentro das populações cultivadas. Este conhecimento é de fundamental importância para o estabelecimento das estratégias de melhoramento genético e de conservação destes materiais. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar a diversidade genética e a estrutura genética de quatro populações de azevém anual, sendo três populações do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul e uma do Uruguai. O nível de diversidade e a estrutura genética destas populações foram estudados com marcadores RAPD. A análise de 375 indivíduos amostrados nas populações, com seis iniciadores, gerou um total de 82 bandas que foram utilizados nas análises, dentre as quais 73 (89,02% foram polimórficas. O valor do índice de diversidade genética total obtido, (0,71 foi elevado evidenciando a presença de uma grande diversidade genética nas quatro populações. A análise da estrutura genética revelou que 98% da diversidade total esta contida dentro das populações, enquanto que a diversidade genética entre as populações representou somente 2%. Sugere-se que antes da separação destas populações, as mesmas tenham passado por um período de troca de genes e que mesmo após o evento de separação elas mantiveram a freqüência destes em níveis semelhantes aos originais, não tendo ocorrido uma seleção diferencial destes genes nos locais de cultivo.

  4. Evolution of floral meristem identity genes. Analysis of Lolium temulentum genes related to APETALA1 and LEAFY of Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gocal, G.F.W.; King, R.W.; Blundell, C.A.;

    2001-01-01

    1 (AP1)-like genes, LtMADS1 and LtMADS2, and of L. temulentum LEAFY (LtLFY). As shown by in situ hybridization, LtMADS1 and LtMADS2 are expressed in the vegetative shoot apical meristem, but expression increases strongly within 30 h of LD floral induction. Later in floral development, LtMADS1 and Lt...

  5. THE EFFECT OF COMPOST MADE WITH SEWAGE SLUDGE ON HEAVY METAL CONTENT IN SOIL AND IN LOLIUM MULTIFLORUM LAM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Malinowska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the effects of different doses of sewage sludge compost mixed with wheat straw on heavy metal content in Italian ryegrass and in soil. A two year experiment with the Italian ryegrass was set up in autumn 2012. The experimental design consisted of a control plot, a plot with NPK fertiliser and three plots with three different doses of municipal sewage sludge compost (5, 10 and 15 Mg of fresh matter·ha-1. Those different compost doses contained the amounts of Nitrogen equivalent to 60, 120 and 180 kg N·ha-1. The two lower doses of compost were supplemented with nitrogen fertiliser so that the amount of this chemical element introduced to the soil of all plots with compost stood at 180 kg·ha-1. During 2013 and 2014 seasons the grass was cut three times a year after about a 30-day growing period. After dry mineralisation the content of Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd in the plant samples was measured with the ICP-AES method. The fertilisers applied significantly diversified the content of chemical elements in the grass and in the soil. The highest dose of compost resulted in the highest concentration of Zn, Cu and Cd in the grass while the highest concentration of Ni and Pb was in the soil and the grass from the plot where the mid dose of compost had been applied. Cadmium concentration in the soil was the highest in the plot where the mid dose was applied. The experiment proved that compost made with sewage sludge and wheat straw is beneficial for plants.

  6. Effect of simulated acid rain stress on germination of four turf grass seeds%模拟酸雨胁迫对4种草坪草种子萌发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田如男; 张培东; 程澄

    2011-01-01

    以中性溶液(pH =7.0)为对照,研究了模拟酸雨(pH为2.0、2.5、3.0、3.5、4.0、5.0)胁迫对黑麦草(Lolium perenne)、高羊茅(Festuca arundinacea)、匍匐剪股颖(Agrostis palustris)和狗牙根(Cynodon dactylon)4种多年生草坪草种子萌发的影响.结果表明:酸雨胁迫对4种草坪草种子萌发的影响不同,pH =2.0的酸雨完全抑制了4种草坪草种子的萌发,表现为发芽率、发芽势、活力指数均为零.黑麦草、高羊茅种子能在pH:≥2.5的酸雨胁迫下正常萌发,匍匐剪股颖种子能在pH≥3.0的酸雨胁迫下正常萌发,狗牙根种子在不同程度酸雨胁迫下均萌发不良.此外,酸雨胁迫还延缓了4种草坪草种子的萌发进程.应用主成分分析和隶属函数分析法对4种草坪草种子抗酸雨胁迫能力进行综合评定,得出4种草坪草种子抗酸雨胁迫能力由强到弱的顺序依次为高羊茅、黑麦草、匍匐剪股颖、狗牙根.%The seeds of Lolium perenne, Festuca arundinacea, Agrostis palustris and Cynodon dactylon were treated with simulated acid rain at pH 2.0,2.5,3.0,3.5,4. 0,5.0 and 7. 0(as control) to study the effects of acid rain on their germination. The results showed that the seeds germination of four turf grass under acid rain stress were affected at different levels. Acid rain intensity pH 2.0 completely inhibited the seed germination of turf grass, showing no germination was observed and germination energy and vigor index was 0.0. The seeds of L. Perenne and F. Arundinacea could germinate normally under acid rain stress (pH^2. 5) ,and the seeds of A. Paluslris could germinate normally under acid rain stress (pH^3.0).The seeds of C. Dactylon germinated poorly under acid rain stress. In addition, the process of germination became slow under acid rain stress. The comprehensive evaluation results derived from principal components analysis and subordinate function analysis showed the order (from strong to weak) of anti-acid rain ability

  7. A critical assessment of soil amendments (slaked lime/acidic fertilizer) for the phytomanagement of moderately contaminated shooting range soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conesa, Hector M.; Gonzalez-Alcaraz, Maria N. [Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena (Spain). Dept. de Ciencia y Tecnologia Agraria; Wieser, Mirjam; Studer, Bjoern; Schulin, Rainer [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland). Inst. of Terrestrial Ecosystems

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: The effects of the addition of an acidic fertilizer solution and/or slaked lime (5.5 g Ca(OH){sub 2}kg{sup -1}) on a slightly acidic shooting range soil (pH 6.1, % organic carbon 5.4) with moderate metal (e.g., 620 mg kg{sup -1} Pb) and metalloid (17 mg kg{sup -1} Sb) concentrations on metal and Sb solubility and plant accumulation were investigated. Materials and methods: In a pot experiment, we grew Plantago lanceolata, Lolium perenne and Triticum aestivum. The pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and metal and Sb concentrations in the leachate were monitored. Results and discussion: The addition of slaked lime increased the soil pH from 6.1 to 7.2 and the DOC from 100 to 300 mg l{sup -1}. In contrast to Sb, we found a correlation between DOC and soluble Cu concentrations. The addition of the acidic fertilizer significantly increased Mn- and Pb-NaNO{sub 3} extractable concentrations. Slaked lime decreased at first, Pb-, Mn- Ni- and Zn-NaNO{sub 3} extractable concentrations, but with time, these concentrations increased. Metal accumulation in shoots was in general low. The highest concentrations were obtained in shoots of L. perenne for Mn (135 mg kg{sup -1} DW). Spikes of T. aestivum accumulated more Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn than shoots. Grains of T. aestivum had higher Zn concentrations (up to 37 mg kg{sup -1}) than spikes and shoots (up to 22 and 19 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively). Antimony concentrations were always below 2 mg kg{sup -1} for the three species studied. Conclusions: Under these growing conditions, these three plant species showed to be suitable for the phytomanagement of moderately contaminated shooting range areas. (orig.)

  8. Spore communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and mycorrhizal associations in different ecosystems, south Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. I. Antoniolli

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF were surveyed in different South Australian ecosystems. The soil was wet-sieved for spore extraction, followed by the determination of presence and abundance of AMF species as well as the percentage of root colonization. Mycorrhizal associations were common and there was substantial fungal diversity in different ecosystems. Spores were most abundant in the permanent pasture system and less abundant under continuous wheat. The incidence of mycorrhizal associations in different plant species and the occurrence of Arum and Paris type colonization generally conformed with previous information. Spores of seventeen AMF were verified throughout seasonal changes in 1996 and 1997 in the permanent pasture and on four host species (Lolium perenne, Plantago lanceolata, Sorghum sp. and Trifolium subterraneum , set up with the same soils under greenhouse conditions. Glomus mosseae was the dominant spore type at all sampling times and in all trap cultures. Mycorrhizal diversity was significantly affected by different sampling times in trap cultures but not in field-collected soil. P. lanceolata, Sorghum sp. and T. subterraneum as hosts for trap cultures showed no differences in richness and diversity of AMF spores that developed in association with their roots. Abundance and diversity were lowest, however, in association with L. perenne , particularly in December 1996. Results show that the combination of spore identification from field-collected soil and trap cultures is essential to study population and diversity of AMF. The study provides baseline data for ongoing monitoring of mycorrhizal populations using conventional methods and material for the determination of the symbiotic effectiveness of AMF key members.

  9. Fate and transport of lignin in the soil-water continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. S.; Dungait, J.; Bol, R.; Abbott, G. D.

    2011-12-01

    Soils have been identified as having the potential to store greater amounts of carbon (C) in soil organic matter (SOM) through appropriate land uses and management practices to increase the input of recalcitrant components of organic matter, such as lignin. Lignin is allocated to the 'slow' soil C pools with residence times between 15 - 100 yrs. Lignin is 30% of the C fixed by plants and is an important C input to soils. However, Recent research has shown that the configuration of lignin monomers within the lignin macromolecule is not random [1], that lignin degradation is monomer specific [2], and that lignin is preferentially degraded relative to the bulk SOM [3], thereby questioning the role of lignin in C sequestration. Although guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) lignin monomers have been identified in fresh, estuarine, and marine waters [4], the initial forms to which lignin is degraded into water-transportable products and lost from the soil C reservoir are not known. The aims of this project are to (i) identify and quantify the lignin-derived products entering the soluble phase in soils, and (ii) determine the rate of lignin degradation into water-soluble components, and their rate of transport through soil. In experiment 1 we tested the best approach to extract and analyse dissolved lignin from outflows from grassland and woodland sites. C18 solid phase extraction (SPE) or freeze-drying (FD) was used to isolate water-borne lignin monomers. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives or tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) thermochemolysis was used to analyse the samples. In a subsequent experiment, we allowed leaves from different vegetation types (Lolium perenne, Ranunculus repens, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus robur), corresponding to the vegetation at our initial sites in Experiment 1, to degrade in soil lysimeters for 1.5 years to determine the rates of decomposition of different plant material and dominant form of lignin

  10. Study on Mixed-sowing Varieties of Cool-season Turfgrass%冷季型草坪混播品种组合研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂英; 周春祥; 刘桂芹

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to screen appropriate lawn varieties and species combinations from cool-season lawn species. [Method ] The characteristics of 11 species in three grass, Midnight, Conni, Blue chip and Merit belonging to Poa pretensis, Cochise, Firdedragon, Eldorado and Avalon belonging to Festuca arundinacea ,Sakini, Derby and Taya belonging to Lolium perenne, were analyzed. Then 6 species belonging to 3 grass (Midnight, Conni, Cochise, Firdedragon, Sakini and Derby) were confirmed to carry out the observation and planting test of 8 combinations by random arrangement with 3 repeated. [ResuJt] The results showed that all of 6 species could be grown in north transition zone as the fine lawn varieties. Firdedragon 50% + Midnight 30% + Sakini 20% was an ideal combination because of its best landscape effect, longer lawn green period, higher resistance to stress. [Conclusion] The study provides a scientific basis for extending lawn lifetime and improving its sight.%[目的]从冷季型草坪品种中筛选出适宜的草坪品种和品种搭配组合.[方法]根据历史研究资料,对3个草种的11个品种进行性状分析,其中草地早熟禾(Poa pretensis)包括午夜、康尼、抢手股、优异,高羊茅(Festuca arundinacea)包括可奇思、火龙、黄金岛、快乐岛,多年生黑麦草(Lolium perenne)包括萨卡尼、德比、托亚,最后确定利用3个草种中6个品种(午夜、康尼、可奇思、火龙、萨卡尼、德比)进行品种间性状观察和种植试验,共设计了8个组合处理,随机排列,3次重复.[结果]6个品种都可作为北过渡带种植的优良草坪品种.火龙50%+午夜30%+萨卡尼20%是比较理想的搭配组合,景观效果最佳,延长了草坪绿期,提高了草坪抗逆性.[结论]该研究可为延长草坪寿命,提高草坪观赏性提供科学依据.

  11. Phytoextraction and phytostabilisation of metal-contaminated soil in temperate maritime climate of coastal British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmavathiamma, P. K.; Li, L. Y.

    2009-04-01

    This research addressed the phytoremediation of roadside soils subjected to multi-component metal solutions. A typical right of way for roads in Canada is around 30 m, and at least 33% of that land in the right of way is unpaved and can support animal life. Thus, land associated with 12,000 km of roads in the province of British Columbia and millions of kilometres around the world represent a substantial quantity of wildlife habitat where metal contamination needs to be remediated. Phytostabilisation, requires least maintenance among different phytoremediation techniques, and it could be a feasible and practical method of remediating in roadside soils along highways and for improving highway runoff drainage. The suitability of five plant species was studied for phytoextraction and phytostabilisation in a region with temperate maritime climate of coastal British Columbia, Canada. Pot experiments were conducted using Lolium perenne L (perennial rye grass), Festuca rubra L (creeping red fescue), Helianthus annuus L (sunflower), Poa pratensis L (Kentucky bluegrass) and Brassica napus L (rape) in soils treated with three different metal (Cu, Pb, Mn and Zn) concentrations. The bio-metric characters of plants in soils with multiple-metal contaminations, their metal accumulation characteristics, translocation properties and metal removal were assessed at different stages of plant growth, 90 and 120 DAS (days after sowing). Lolium was found to be suitable for the phytostabilisation of Cu and Pb, Festuca for Mn and Poa for Zn. Metal removal was higher at 120 than at 90 days after sowing, and metals concentrated more in the underground tissues with less translocation to the above-ground parts. Bioconcentration factors indicate that Festuca had the highest accumulation for Cu, Helianthus for Pb and Zn and Poa for Mn.

  12. Nuevas formas farmacéuticas para el tratamiento de enfermedades alérgicas New pharmaceutical dosage forms for allergy treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ferrer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La inmunoterapia para el tratamiento de enfermedades alérgicas implica ciertas desventajas, que pueden ser reducidas si se emplean adyuvantes adecuados, que sean capaces de amplificar la respuesta inmune con un efecto alergénico mínimo. En ese contexto, las formas farmacéuticas más prometedoras para aumentar la eficacia y seguridad de la inmunoterapia, parecen ser las micro y nanopartículas, de polímeros biodegradables y liposomas. En esta revisión describimos estudios previos de nuestro grupo en los que empleamos como adyuvante nanopartículas Gantrez® AN y demostramos su capacidad de estimular el sistema inmune. Empleamos dos tipos de nanopartículas, con y sin lipopolisacárido de Brucella ovis como inmunomodulador en un modelo de ratón alérgico a L. perenne. Encontramos que los ratones sensiblizados a Phleum cuando recibían inmunoterapia con nanopartículas Lolium-Gantrez® estaban protegidos de la anafilaxia inducida por el alérgeno tanto en las tasas de mortalidad como en los niveles de MCP-1. Probamos asimismo estas formulaciones por vía oral en un modelo animal sensibilizado a ovoalbúmina y comprobamos que les protegía también del shock anafiláctico.Specific immunotherapy involves certain drawbacks which could be minimized by the use of appropriate adjuvants, capable of amplifying the right immune response with minimal side effects. In this context, we review different types of immunotherapy vehicles and coadyuvants. We describe previous studies by our group in which we demonstrated the adjuvant capacity of Gantrez® AN nanoparticles, which can effectively enhance the immune response. We employed two types of nanoparticles (with and without LPS of Brucella ovis as immunomodulator within capsulated ovoalbumin and Lollium perenne extract, tested on a model of mice sensitized to this allergenic mixture. In the challenge experiment involving the sensitized mice, differences in the mortality rate and in the MCP-1 levels were

  13. Can inter-cultivar variation in caesium and strontium uptake reduce contamination of forage grasses? - Can inter-cultivar variation in caesium and strontium accumulation by forage grasses be used to reduce contamination of cows' milk in radiologically contaminated areas?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penrose, B. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Leicestershire, LE12 5RD (United Kingdom); Beresford, N. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Broadley, M.; Crout, N.M.J.; King, J.; Young, S. [School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Leicestershire, LE12 5RD (United Kingdom); Lovatt, A. [Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences (IBERS), Aberystwyth University, Gogerddan, Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, SY23 3E E (United Kingdom); Thomson, R. [Science and Advice for Scottish Agriculture (SASA), Roddinglaw Road, Edinburgh, EH12 9FJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Radiocaesium and radiostrontium primarily enter the food chain via plant root uptake, including indirectly via animal fodders. Inter-species variation in caesium and strontium accumulation in plants has previously been reported to be over two orders of magnitude. This variation could be exploited to select crops with relatively low uptake to reduce transfer of these radionuclides to consumers in contaminated areas. Exploiting intra-species (i.e. inter-cultivar) variation in caesium and strontium uptake has not yet been evaluated as a remediation strategy as sufficient data have not been available. As cows' milk has been one of the main contributors to human dose following the Chernobyl and Mayak accidents, we have chosen to focus on elucidating the extent and nature of inter-cultivar variation in caesium and strontium uptake in forage grasses. A total of 412 cultivars from four species of forage grass; perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne; 284 cultivars), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum; 17 cultivars), hybrid ryegrass (Lolium hybridum; 101 cultivars) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea; 10 cultivars) were sampled from 20 sets of experimental plots in Aberystwyth (Wales, UK) and Edinburgh (Scotland, UK). Fifty-nine cultivars were grown in both locations. At least three replicates of the same cultivar were grown in each set of plots. Vegetation samples from 2208 plots were collected both in spring 2013 (May-June) and summer 2013 (August-September). The samples were oven-dried and milled then analysed for elemental composition using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Stable caesium and strontium were measured as a proxy measurement for radiocaesium and radiostrontium concentrations. Concentrations of chemical analogues of caesium and strontium (potassium and calcium) and a number of other elements were measured. Soil samples from the experimental plots were also collected, dried, milled and analysed using ICP-MS. This paper will present

  14. Fuentes de variación en el tamaño de la semilla de la herbácea perenne Helleborus foetidus L. (Ranunculaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrido, José L.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed size is one of the plant traits more thoroughly studied in plant sciences due to its pivoting ecological position between dispersal processes and emergence, survival and establishment of plant species. Frequently, most seed size variation is located within plant, exceeding variation between plants and between populations. Resource allocation and type of pollination are some of the main causes of within-plant variation in seed mass. This work explores seed mass variation in Helleborus foetidus trying to assess the relative importance of its possible causes. We thoroughly sampled seed size in two hellebore populations by partitioning its variance in the hierarchic levels of population, plant, flower, carpel, and within carpel. Our results show that the most important source of variance is the within-plant variation. Among the factors most likely responsible for variability at this level, our study suggests that resource allocation exerted the strongest influence. In particular, some evidence points towards a relevant role of the post-anthesis flower functionality on the resource allocation to seeds. Although needing further experimental research, we suggest that such functionality is due to the photosinthetic ability of the perianths of Helleborus foetidus flowers. Some variables related to the reproductive effort accounted for the between-plant variation in mean seed mass. Particularly, a trade-off between seed mass and seed production and the costs related to the pollination type are also contribute to the variation of seed size at this level.El tamaño de la semilla ha sido uno de los rasgos vegetales más estudiados por su posición ecológica pivotante entre los procesos de dispersión y los procesos de emergencia, supervivencia y establecimiento de especies. Frecuentemente, la mayor parte de la variación en este rasgo se localiza dentro de la planta y supera a la variación entre plantas y entre poblaciones, y se ha propuesto que la adjudicación de recursos de la planta y el tipo de polinización son las principales fuentes de tal variación. Este trabajo explora la variación en la masa de la semilla de Helleborus foetidus y evalúa la importancia relativa de las posibles causas de tal variación. En dos poblaciones de la especie muestreamos exhaustivamente el peso de la semilla, descomponiendo su variación en los sucesivos niveles de población, planta, flor, carpelo y variación dentro de carpelo. Nuestros resultados confirman que la mayor parte de la variación reside dentro de la propia planta. Entre los posibles factores susceptibles de generar variación a este nivel nuestro estudio sugiere que son los relacionados con cuestiones de adjudicación de recursos los que influyen mayoritariamente. En particular, los resultados apuntan hacia un papel relevante de la función floral post-antesis en la adjudicación de recursos a las semillas. A falta de investigación experimental al respecto, sugerimos que dicha función puede basarse en la capacidad fotosintética que tiene el periantio de la flor de Helleborus foetidus. Por otra parte, algunas variables relacionadas con el esfuerzo reproductivo de la planta contribuyen a explicar una parte importante de la variación entre plantas en peso medio de semillas. En particular, parte de la variación a este nivel se debe a un compromiso entre producción y tamaño de la semilla y, probablemente, a costes asociados con el tipo de polinización.

  15. Global transcriptome changes in perennial ryegrass during early infection by pink snow mould.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovi, Mallikarjuna Rao; Abdelhalim, Mohamed; Kunapareddy, Anil; Ergon, Åshild; Tronsmo, Anne Marte; Brurberg, May Bente; Hofgaard, Ingerd Skow; Asp, Torben; Rognli, Odd Arne

    2016-01-01

    Lack of resistance to pink snow mould (Microdochium nivale) is a major constraint for adaptation of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) to continental regions with long-lasting snow cover at higher latitudes. Almost all investigations of genetic variation in resistance have been performed using cold acclimated plants. However, there may be variation in resistance mechanisms that are functioning independently of cold acclimation. In this study our aim was to identify candidate genes involved in such resistance mechanisms. We first characterized variation in resistance to M. nivale among non-acclimated genotypes from the Norwegian cultivar 'Fagerlin' based on relative regrowth and fungal quantification by real-time qPCR. One resistant and one susceptible genotype were selected for transcriptome analysis using paired-end sequencing by Illumina Hiseq 2000. Transcriptome profiles, GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis indicate that defense response related genes are differentially expressed between the resistant and the susceptible genotype. A significant up-regulation of defense related genes, as well as genes involved in cell wall cellulose metabolic processes and aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity, was observed in the resistant genotype. The candidate genes identified in this study might be potential molecular marker resources for breeding perennial ryegrass cultivars with improved resistance to pink snow mould. PMID:27346054

  16. Plant uptake of explosives from contaminated soil at the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Schneider, J.F.; Tomczyk, N.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Banwart, W.L.; Chen, D. [Univ. of Illinos, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Agronomy

    1995-04-01

    Explosives and their degradation products may enter the animal and human food chains through plants grown on soils contaminated with explosives. Soil and plant samples were collected from the Group 61 area at the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant and analyzed to determine the extent to which 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and its degradation products are taken up by existing vegetation and crops growing on contaminated soils. Neither TNT nor its degradation products was detected in any of the aboveground plant organs of existing vegetation. Oat (Avena sativa L.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) were planted on TNT-contaminated soils amended with three levels of chopped grass hay. Extractable TNT concentrations in hay-amended soils were monitored for almost 1 year. Crop establishment and growth improved with increased levels of hay amendment, but TNT uptake was not affected or detected in any aboveground crop organs. Evidence was found to indicate that soil manipulation and hay addition may reduce extractable TNT concentration in soils, but the wide variations in TNT concentrations in these soils prevented development of conclusive evidence regarding reduction of extractable TNT concentrations. Results from this study suggest that vegetation grown on TNT-contaminated soils is not a major health concern because TNT and its degradation products were not detected in aboveground plant organs. However, low concentrations of TNT, 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene, and 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene were detected in or on some existing vegetation and crop roots. 21 refs., 10 figs., 26 tabs.

  17. The Study of Perennial Grasses and Legumes Mixtures in the Environmental Conditions Part 1: The Evolution of Mixtures Productivity from Someşelor Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin-Benone Pleşa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Lately it is a high interest in the establishing of temporary grasslands, these being considered a valuable source of fodder from the quantitative and qualitative point of view. Temporary grasslands can be established instead of degraded permanent grasslands or in arable lands. In the paper are presented the results of the research which took place in 2010 and 2011, regarding the fodder evolution of a double factor experience; A factor – mixtures (8 complex mixtures of perennial grasses and legumes and one alfalfa pure crop, considered as a witness,B factor – levels of fertilization (0N0P2O5, 60N70P2O5,120N70P2O5 kg·ha-1. In 2010 the highest productions (13.16 SU t·ha-1 were obtained at all the cycles from the 5th mixture composed from red clover and 4 species of grasses Trifolium pratense L., Dactylis glomerata L., Festulolium Asch. & Graebn., Phleum pratense L., Lolium perenne L.. In 2011, mixture number 3, recognized as being recommended for the forest steppe area and composed from Lotus corniculatus L.,Onobrychis viciifolia Scop., Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca pratensis Huds., Bromus inermis Leyss, presented the highest productions (4.82 t·ha-1 for the 60N70P2O5 and 120N70P2O5 kg·ha-1 levels of fertilization.

  18. Differential responses of CO2 assimilation, carbohydrate allocation and gene expression to NaCl stress in perennial ryegrass with different salt tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Hu

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effects of NaCl stress on perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. photosynthesis and carbohydrate flux. The objective of this study was to understand the carbohydrate metabolism and identify the gene expression affected by salinity stress. Seventy-four days old seedlings of two perennial ryegrass accessions (salt-sensitive 'PI 538976' and salt-tolerant 'Overdrive' were subjected to three levels of salinity stress for 5 days. Turf quality in all tissues (leaves, stems and roots of both grass accessions negatively and significantly correlated with GFS (Glu+Fru+Suc content, except for 'Overdrive' stems. Relative growth rate (RGR in leaves negatively and significantly correlated with GFS content in 'Overdrive' (P0.05 for turf quality. A greater up-regulation in the expression of SPS, SS, SI, 6-SFT gene was observed in 'Overdrive' than 'PI 538976'. A higher level of SPS and SS expression in leaves was found in 'PI 538976' relative to 'Overdrive'. Accumulation of hexoses in roots, stems and leaves can induce a feedback repression to photosynthesis in salt-stressed perennial ryegrass and the salt tolerance may be changed with the carbohydrate allocation in leaves and stems.

  19. Influence of plants on the chemical extractability and biodegradability of 2,4-dichlorophenol in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the fate and behaviour of [UL-14C] 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) in planted (Lolium perenne L.) and unplanted soils over 57 days. Extractability of [UL-14C] 2,4-DCP associated activity was measured using calcium chloride (CaCl2), acetonitrile-water and dichloromethane (DCM) extractions. Biodegradability of [UL-14C] 2,4-DCP associated activity was assessed through measurement of 14CO2 production by a degrader inoculum (Burkholderia sp.). Although extractability and mineralisation of [UL-14C] 2,4-DCP associated activity decreased significantly in both planted and unplanted soils, plants appeared to enhance the sequestration process. After 57 days, in unplanted soil, 27% of the remaining [UL-14C] 2,4-DCP associated activity was mineralised by Burkholderia sp., and 13%, 48%, and 38% of 14C-activity were extracted by CaCl2, acetonitrile-water and DCM, respectively. However, after 57 days, in planted soils, only 10% of the [UL-14C] 2,4-DCP associated activity was available for mineralisation, whilst extractability was reduced to 2% by CaCl2, 17% by acetonitrile-water and 11% by DCM. This may be due to the effect of plants on soil moisture conditions, which leads to modification of the soil structure and trapping of the compound. However, the influence of plants on soil biological and chemical properties may also play a role in the ageing process

  20. Mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riet-Correa, Franklin; Rivero, Rodolfo; Odriozola, Ernesto; Adrien, Maria de Lourdes; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Schild, Ana Lucia

    2013-11-01

    In the current study, mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses are reviewed, with an emphasis on the occurrence of these diseases in South America. The main mycotoxicoses observed in grazing cattle include intoxications by indole-diterpenoid mycotoxins (Paspalum spp. contaminated by Claviceps paspali, Lolium perenne infected by Neotyphodium lolii, Cynodon dactylon infected by Claviceps cynodontis, and Poa huecu), gangrenous ergotism and dysthermic syndrome (hyperthermia) caused by Festuca arundinacea (syn. Festuca elatior) infected by Neotyphodium coenophialum (syn. Acremonium coenophialum), and photosensitization in pastures contaminated by toxigenic Pithomyces chartarum. Other mycotoxicoses in grazing cattle include slaframine toxicity in clover pastures infected by Rhizoctonia leguminicola and diplodiosis in cattle grazing in corn stubbles. The mycotoxicoses caused by contaminated concentrated food or byproducts in cattle include poisoning by toxins of Aspergillus clavatus, which contaminate barley or sugar beetroot by-products, gangrenous ergotism or dysthermic syndrome caused by wheat bran or wheat screenings contaminated with Claviceps purpurea, and acute respiratory distress caused by damaged sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas). The main mycotoxicosis of horses is leukoencephalomalacia caused by the fumonisins B1 and B2 produced by Fusarium spp. Poisoning by C. purpurea and F. elatior infected by N. coenophialum has also been reported as a cause of agalactia and neonatal mortality in mares. Slaframine toxicosis caused by the ingestion of alfalfa hay contaminated by R. leguminicola has also been reported in horses. PMID:24091682

  1. Differential regulation of two sucrose transporters by defoliation and light conditions in perennial ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furet, Pierre-Maxime; Berthier, Alexandre; Decau, Marie-Laure; Morvan-Bertrand, Annette; Prud'homme, Marie-Pascale; Noiraud-Romy, Nathalie; Meuriot, Frédéric

    2012-12-01

    Sucrose transport between source and sink tissues is supposed to be a key-step for an efficient regrowth of perennial rye-grass after defoliation and might be altered by light conditions. We assessed the effect of different light regimes (high vs low light applied before or after defoliation) on growth, fructans and sucrose mobilization, as well as on sucrose transporter expression during 14 days of regrowth. Our results reported that defoliation led to a mobilization of C reserves (first sucrose and then fructans), which was parallel to an induction of LpSUT1 sucrose transporter expression in source and sink tissues (i.e. leaf sheaths and elongating leaf bases, respectively) irrespective to light conditions. Light regime (high or low light) had little effects on regrowth and on C reserves mobilization during the first 48 h of regrowth after defoliation. Thereafter, low light conditions, delaying the recovery of photosynthetic capacities, had a negative effect on C reserves re-accumulation (especially sucrose). Surprisingly, high light did not enhance sucrose transporter expression. Indeed, while light conditions had no effect on LpSUT1 expression, LpSUT2 transcripts levels were enhanced for low light grown plants. These results indicate that two sucrose transporter currently identified in Lolium perenne L. are differentially regulated by light and sucrose.

  2. The climate benefits of high-sugar grassland may be compromised by ozone pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, D K L; Mills, G; Hayes, F; Davies, W

    2016-09-15

    High sugar ryegrasses (HSG) have been developed to improve the uptake, digestion and nitrogen (N)-utilisation of grazing stock, with the potential to increase production yields and benefit climate by reducing methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from livestock farming. In this study, the effects of tropospheric ozone pollution on the seasonal growth dynamics of HSG pasture mesocosms containing Lolium perenne cv. AberMagic and Trifolium repens cv. Crusader were investigated. Species-specific ozone (O3) dose-response relationships (seasonal means: 35, 41, 47, 51, 59 & 67ppb) based on the Phytotoxic Ozone Dose (PODy) were constructed for above and below ground biomass, injury, N-fixation and forage quality. The dynamics of effects of ozone exposure on HSG pasture changed over the course of a season, with the strongest responses occurring in the first 4-8weeks. Overall, strong negative responses to ozone flux were found for root biomass, root nodule mass and N-fixation rates, and ozone adversely impacted a range of forage quality parameters including total sugar content and relative and consumable food values. These results indicate that increasing ozone pollution could decrease the N-use efficiency and reduce the sugar content of managed pasture, and thereby partially detract from some of the suggested benefits of HSG. PMID:27161131

  3. Candidate gene association mapping for winter survival and spring regrowth in perennial ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoqing; Pijut, Paula M; Byrne, Stephen; Asp, Torben; Bai, Guihua; Jiang, Yiwei

    2015-06-01

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is a widely cultivated cool-season grass species because of its high quality for forage and turf. Susceptibility to freezing damage limits its further use in temperate zones. The objective of this study was to identify candidate genes significantly associated with winter survival and spring regrowth in a global collection of 192 perennial ryegrass accessions. Significant differences in winter survival (WS), percentage of canopy green cover (CGC), chlorophyll index (Chl), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were found among accessions. After controlling population structure, LpLEA3 encoding a late embryogenesis abundant group 3 protein and LpCAT encoding a catalase were associated with CGC and Chl, while LpMnSOD encoding a magnesium superoxide dismutase and LpChl Cu-ZnSOD encoding a chlorophyll copper-zinc superoxide dismutase were associated with NDVI or Chl. Significant association was also discovered between C-repeat binding factor LpCBF1b and WS. Three sequence variations identified in LpCAT, LpMnSOD, and LpChl Cu-ZnSOD were synonymous substitutions, whereas one pair of adjacent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in LpLEA3 and one SNP in LpCBF1b resulted in amino acid change. The results demonstrated that allelic variation in LpLEA3 and LpCBF1b was closely related to winter survival and spring regrowth in perennial ryegrass. PMID:25900564

  4. Protecting effect of recycled urban wastes (sewage sludge and wastewater) on ryegrass against the toxicity of pesticides at high concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Aránzazu; Mingorance, Ma Dolores; Guzmán, Ignacio; Sánchez, Lourdes; Fernández-Espinosa, Antonio J; Valdés, Benito; Rossini-Oliva, Sabina

    2014-09-01

    Degraded landscapes, like those from abandoned mine areas, could be restored by revegetating them with appropriate plant species, after correction for acidity and improvement by adding exogenous organic material. Application of urban wastes to large areas of derelict land helps in the sustainable development of this landscape. However, the development of plant species in these soils could require in the future the management of possible pests or diseases by pesticide applications which could also affect plant yield. Therefore, ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was planted in a limed soil from the mining area of Riotinto (SW Spain), using an indoor pot experiment and the effects of amendment with sewage sludge, as well as irrigation with urban wastewater on plant uptake of the insecticide thiacloprid and the fungicide fenarimol were examined. Ryegrass biomass was reduced up to 3-fold by pesticide application. Fenarimol residues were the highest in soil, while those of thiacloprid were lower in soil and higher in ryegrass. Addition of sewage sludge and irrigation with wastewater led to a reduction of pesticide translocation to the aerial plant parts, representing a lower hazard to ryegrass quality grown in this mine soil.

  5. Rapid plant identification using species- and group-specific primers targeting chloroplast DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Wallinger

    Full Text Available Plant identification is challenging when no morphologically assignable parts are available. There is a lack of broadly applicable methods for identifying plants in this situation, for example when roots grow in mixture and for decayed or semi-digested plant material. These difficulties have also impeded the progress made in ecological disciplines such as soil- and trophic ecology. Here, a PCR-based approach is presented which allows identifying a variety of plant taxa commonly occurring in Central European agricultural land. Based on the trnT-F cpDNA region, PCR assays were developed to identify two plant families (Poaceae and Apiaceae, the genera Trifolium and Plantago, and nine plant species: Achillea millefolium, Fagopyrum esculentum, Lolium perenne, Lupinus angustifolius, Phaseolus coccineus, Sinapis alba, Taraxacum officinale, Triticum aestivum, and Zea mays. These assays allowed identification of plants based on size-specific amplicons ranging from 116 bp to 381 bp. Their specificity and sensitivity was consistently high, enabling the detection of small amounts of plant DNA, for example, in decaying plant material and in the intestine or faeces of herbivores. To increase the efficacy of identifying plant species from large number of samples, specific primers were combined in multiplex PCRs, allowing screening for multiple species within a single reaction. The molecular assays outlined here will be applicable manifold, such as for root- and leaf litter identification, botanical trace evidence, and the analysis of herbivory.

  6. Rapid plant identification using species- and group-specific primers targeting chloroplast DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallinger, Corinna; Juen, Anita; Staudacher, Karin; Schallhart, Nikolaus; Mitterrutzner, Evi; Steiner, Eva-Maria; Thalinger, Bettina; Traugott, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Plant identification is challenging when no morphologically assignable parts are available. There is a lack of broadly applicable methods for identifying plants in this situation, for example when roots grow in mixture and for decayed or semi-digested plant material. These difficulties have also impeded the progress made in ecological disciplines such as soil- and trophic ecology. Here, a PCR-based approach is presented which allows identifying a variety of plant taxa commonly occurring in Central European agricultural land. Based on the trnT-F cpDNA region, PCR assays were developed to identify two plant families (Poaceae and Apiaceae), the genera Trifolium and Plantago, and nine plant species: Achillea millefolium, Fagopyrum esculentum, Lolium perenne, Lupinus angustifolius, Phaseolus coccineus, Sinapis alba, Taraxacum officinale, Triticum aestivum, and Zea mays. These assays allowed identification of plants based on size-specific amplicons ranging from 116 bp to 381 bp. Their specificity and sensitivity was consistently high, enabling the detection of small amounts of plant DNA, for example, in decaying plant material and in the intestine or faeces of herbivores. To increase the efficacy of identifying plant species from large number of samples, specific primers were combined in multiplex PCRs, allowing screening for multiple species within a single reaction. The molecular assays outlined here will be applicable manifold, such as for root- and leaf litter identification, botanical trace evidence, and the analysis of herbivory. PMID:22253728

  7. Novel Biochar-Plant Tandem Approach for Remediating Hexachlorobenzene Contaminated Soils: Proof-of-Concept and New Insight into the Rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Li, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Fang; Bian, Yongrong; Boughner, Lisa A; Jiang, Xin

    2016-07-13

    Volatilization of semi/volatile persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from soils is a major source of global POPs emission. This proof-of-concept study investigated a novel biochar-plant tandem approach to effectively immobilize and then degrade POPs in soils using hexachlorobenzene (HCB) as a model POP and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) as a model plant growing in soils amended with wheat straw biochar. HCB dissipation was significantly enhanced in the rhizosphere and near rhizosphere soils, with the greatest dissipation in the 2 mm near rhizosphere. This enhanced HCB dissipation likely resulted from (i) increased bioavailability of immobilized HCB and (ii) enhanced microbial activities, both of which were induced by ryegrass root exudates. As a major component of ryegrass root exudates, oxalic acid suppressed HCB sorption to biochar and stimulated HCB desorption from biochar and biochar-amended soils, thus increasing the bioavailability of HCB. High-throughput sequencing results revealed that the 2 mm near rhizosphere soil showed the lowest bacterial diversity due to the increased abundance of some genera (e.g., Azohydromonas, Pseudomonas, Fluviicola, and Sporocytophaga). These bacteria were likely responsible for the enhanced degradation of HCB as their abundance was exponentially correlated with HCB dissipation. The results from this study suggest that the biochar-plant tandem approach could be an effective strategy for remediating soils contaminated with semi/volatile organic contaminants. PMID:27327363

  8. The skin prick test – European standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinzerling Lucie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Skin prick testing is an essential test procedure to confirm sensitization in IgE-mediated allergic disease in subjects with rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, anapylaxis, atopic eczema and food and drug allergy. This manuscript reviews the available evidence including Medline and Embase searches, abstracts of international allergy meetings and position papers from the world allergy literature. The recommended method of prick testing includes the appropriate use of specific allergen extracts, positive and negative controls, interpretation of the tests after 15 – 20 minutes of application, with a positive result defined as a wheal ≥3 mm diameter. A standard prick test panel for Europe for inhalants is proposed and includes hazel (Corylus avellana, alder (Alnus incana, birch (Betula alba, plane (Platanus vulgaris, cypress (Cupressus sempervirens, grass mix (Poa pratensis, Dactilis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, Festuca pratensis, Helictotrichon pretense, Olive (Olea europaea, mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris, ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Alternaria alternata (tenuis, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Parietaria, cat, dog, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, and cockroach (Blatella germanica. Standardization of the skin test procedures and standard panels for different geographic locations are encouraged worldwide to permit better comparisons for diagnostic, clinical and research purposes.

  9. Isolation of prostrate turfgrass mutants via screening of dwarf phenotype and characterization of a perennial ryegrass prostrate mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junmei; Thammina, Chandra; Li, Wei; Yu, Hao; Yer, Huseyin; El-Tanbouly, Rania; Marron, Manon; Katin-Grazzini, Lorenzo; Chen, Yongqin; Inguagiato, John; McAvoy, Richard J; Guillard, Karl; Zhang, Xian; Li, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Prostrate turf varieties are desirable because of their increased low mowing tolerance, heat resistance, traffic resistance and ground coverage compared with upright varieties. Mutation breeding may provide a powerful tool to create prostrate varieties, but there are no simple, straightforward methods to screen for such mutants. Elucidation of the molecular basis of the major 'green revolution' traits, dwarfism and semi-dwarfism, guided us to design a simple strategy for isolating dwarf mutants of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). We have shown that gamma-ray-mediated dominant dwarf mutants can be easily screened for at the three-leaf stage. About 10% of dwarf mutant lines also displayed a prostrate phenotype at mature stages (>10 tillers). One prostrate line, Lowboy I, has been characterized in detail. Lowboy I had significantly shorter canopy, leaf blade and internode lengths compared with wild type. Lowboy I also exhibited greater tolerance to low mowing stress than wild type. Exogenous gibberellic acid (GA) restored Lowboy I to a wild-type phenotype, indicating that the dwarf and prostrate phenotypes were both due to GA deficiency. We further showed that phenotypes of Lowboy I were dominant and stably inherited through sexual reproduction. Prostrate turfgrass mutants are difficult to screen for because the phenotype is not observed at young seedling stages, therefore our method represents a simple strategy for easily isolating prostrate mutants. Furthermore, Lowboy I may provide an outstanding germplasm for breeding novel prostrate perennial ryegrass cultivars. PMID:26955481

  10. Predicting molybdenum toxicity to higher plants: Estimation of toxicity threshold values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, S.P., E-mail: steve.mcgrath@bbsrc.ac.u [Soil Science Department, Centre for Soils and Ecosystems Function, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Mico, C.; Zhao, F.J.; Stroud, J.L. [Soil Science Department, Centre for Soils and Ecosystems Function, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Zhang, H.; Fozard, S. [Division of Environmental Science, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    Four plant species (oilseed rape, Brassica napus L.; red clover, Trifolium pratense L.; ryegrass, Lolium perenne L.; and tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum L.) were tested on ten soils varying widely in soil properties to assess molybdenum (Mo) toxicity. A larger range (66-fold-609-fold) of added Mo concentrations resulting in 50% inhibition of yield (ED{sub 50}) was found among soils than among plant species (2-fold-38-fold), which illustrated that the soils differed widely in the expression of Mo toxicity. Toxicity thresholds based on soil solution Mo narrowed the variation among soils compared to thresholds based on added Mo concentrations. We conclude that plant bioavailability of Mo in soil depends on Mo solubility, but this alone did not decrease the variability in observed toxicity enough to be used in risk assessment and that other soil properties influencing Mo toxicity to plants need to be considered. - Mo toxicity thresholds varied widely in different soils and therefore soil properties need to be taken into account in order to assess the risk of Mo exposure.

  11. ASPECTS OF REHABILITATION OF WASTE DUMPS USING HERBACEOUS PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Masu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are many arguments that underlie research on rehabilitation of large areas of land that were set aside from the agricultural circuit and became heaps of storage for inert waste materials like bottom and boiler slag and fly ash. On the other hand result of biological materials with potential for land recycling i.e. sewage sludge. On the dumps of boiler slag composed of particles of 2-3 mm was gradually installed a layer of grass with the help of sewage sludge as a fertilizing agent and microbial activity stimulating agent, based on an extract of brown seaweed EKO GEA Slovenia. In the second year the amount of biomass harvested was 2 to 2.9 times higher than in the first year of cultivation. Moreover plants not harvested in the second year of culture bore fruit. Also, the root network strongly stabilized the slag and boiler ash particles against land spreading. Rapid and effective rehabilitation of the landscape destroyed was achieved with the use of herbaceous crops of the species Lolium perenne. Monitoring bioaccumulation of heavy metals i.e. Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Ni, Zn, etc. in aerial plant tissue was needed to decide the sector where the biomass harvested from inert waste dump covered with vegetation.

  12. The Use of Bio-Guided Fractionation to Explore the Use of Leftover Biomass in Dutch Flower Bulb Production as Allelochemicals against Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Verpoorte

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A major problem in flower bulb cultivation is weed control. Synthetic herbicides are mainly used, although they cause a range of problems, and integrated weed control through application of naturally occurring allelochemicals would be highly desirable. Flower bulb production creates large amounts of leftover biomass. Utilizing this source for weed control may provide new applications of the bulb crops. We therefore screened 33 flower bulb extracts for allelochemical activity against weeds. Several methanol and chloroform extracts were observed to inhibit germination and growth of Senecio vulgaris L. and Lolium perenne L., as representatives of di- and mono-cotyledonous weeds, respectively. Narciclasine was identified as the bioactive compound in Narcissus. The extract of Amaryllis belladonna L. was equally active, but did not contain any narciclasine. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the A. belladonna extract resulted in the identification of lycorine as the bio-active compound. The IC50 measured for radicle growth inhibition was 0.10 µM for narciclasine and 0.93 µM for lycorine, compared to 0.11 mM of chlorpropham, a synthetic herbicide. Therefore, the leftover biomass from the spring bulb industry represents an interesting potential source for promising allelochemicals for further studies on weed growth inhibition.

  13. Global transcriptome changes in perennial ryegrass during early infection by pink snow mould

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovi, Mallikarjuna Rao; Abdelhalim, Mohamed; Kunapareddy, Anil; Ergon, Åshild; Tronsmo, Anne Marte; Brurberg, May Bente; Hofgaard, Ingerd Skow; Asp, Torben; Rognli, Odd Arne

    2016-01-01

    Lack of resistance to pink snow mould (Microdochium nivale) is a major constraint for adaptation of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) to continental regions with long-lasting snow cover at higher latitudes. Almost all investigations of genetic variation in resistance have been performed using cold acclimated plants. However, there may be variation in resistance mechanisms that are functioning independently of cold acclimation. In this study our aim was to identify candidate genes involved in such resistance mechanisms. We first characterized variation in resistance to M. nivale among non-acclimated genotypes from the Norwegian cultivar ‘Fagerlin’ based on relative regrowth and fungal quantification by real-time qPCR. One resistant and one susceptible genotype were selected for transcriptome analysis using paired-end sequencing by Illumina Hiseq 2000. Transcriptome profiles, GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis indicate that defense response related genes are differentially expressed between the resistant and the susceptible genotype. A significant up-regulation of defense related genes, as well as genes involved in cell wall cellulose metabolic processes and aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity, was observed in the resistant genotype. The candidate genes identified in this study might be potential molecular marker resources for breeding perennial ryegrass cultivars with improved resistance to pink snow mould. PMID:27346054

  14. 湿沉降氮对2种禾本科植物中氮含量的影响%Effects of Atmosphere Deposition on Nitrogen Content of Two Poaceae Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林菲; 史锟

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] It was to study nitrogen use efficiency under the condition of deposition of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), further revealing the difference in gene variation.[Method] A pot experiment was conducted under 3 treatments of rainwater, ammonium-N (aN) and nitrate-N (nN).[Result] In the treatments of aN and nN, the biomass and N contents in plants were obviously higher than those in rainwater treatment, while the largest biomass(36.116 g) was observed in nN treatment. The absorption to aN was best to perennial ryegrass while nN to barley. According to the differential analysis of N content, treatments of both aN and nN was nitrogen superfluous, which led to release excessive N to the atmosphere, and the rainwater treatment and the control were N deficient, the largest N absorption from atmosphere was 0.698 g in rainwater treatment.[Conclusion] Average N use efficiency contributed by atmosphere N deposition ranged from 1.321%-6.116%, while the control of barley had the highest of 6.116%.

  15. Preliminary ecotoxicological characterization of a new energetic substance, CL-20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ping; Sunahara, Geoffrey I; Rocheleau, Sylvie; Dodard, Sabine G; Robidoux, Pierre Yves; Hawari, Jalal

    2004-08-01

    A new energetic substance hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (or CL-20) was tested for its toxicities to various ecological receptors. CL-20 (epsilon-polymorph) was amended to soil or deionized water to construct concentration gradients. Results of Microtox (15-min contact) and 96-h algae growth inhibition tests indicate that CL-20 showed no adverse effects on the bioluminescence of marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the cell density of freshwater green algae Selenastrum capricornutum respectively, up to its water solubility (ca. 3.6 mg l(-1)). CL-20 and its possible biotransformation products did not inhibit seed germination and early seedling (16-19 d) growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) up to 10,000 mg kg(-1) in a Sassafras sandy loam soil (SSL). Indigenous soil microorganisms in SSL and a garden soil were exposed to CL-20 for one or two weeks before dehydrogenase activity (DHA) or potential nitrification activity (PNA) were assayed. Results indicate that up to 10,000 mg kg(-1) soil of CL-20 had no statistically significant effects on microbial communities measured as DHA or on the ammonium oxidizing bacteria determined as PNA in both soils. Data indicates that CL-20 was not acutely toxic to the species or microbial communities tested and that further studies are required to address the potential long-term environmental impact of CL-20 and its possible degradation products. PMID:15234161

  16. Assessment of a sewage sludge treatment on cadmium, copper and zinc bioavailability in barley, ryegrass and earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renoux, Agnes Y. [Sanexen Environmental Services Inc., 1471 Lionel-Boulet Boulevard, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1P7 (Canada)]. E-mail: arenoux@sanexen.com; Rocheleau, Sylvie [Biotechnology Research Institute, National Research Council of Canada, 6100 Royalmount Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H4P 2R2 (Canada); Sarrazin, Manon [Biotechnology Research Institute, National Research Council of Canada, 6100 Royalmount Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H4P 2R2 (Canada); Sunahara, Geoffrey I. [Biotechnology Research Institute, National Research Council of Canada, 6100 Royalmount Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H4P 2R2 (Canada)]. E-mail: geoffrey.sunahara@cnrc-nrc.gc.ca; Blais, Jean-Francois [Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS-ETE), Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement, 490 rue de la Couronne street, Quebec, Quebec G1K 9A9 (Canada)]. E-mail: blaisjf@ete.inrs.ca

    2007-01-15

    The toxicity and bioavailability of metals were assessed to verify the efficiency of a new chemical leaching process (METIX-AC) to minimize the risk of metals found in municipal sewage sludge. For this purpose, sludge samples were spiked with cadmium, copper and/or zinc before being treated using METIX-AC. The sludge decontamination resulted in a removal of spiked metals (79-89%), in a decrease of the more labile fractions, and in a corresponding increase of the residual fraction. The toxicity observed after exposure of two plant species, barley (Hordeum vulgare) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and a terrestrial invertebrate, Eisenia andrei, to sludge-soil mixtures, disappeared after treatment, although the adverse effects were minor before treatment. The sludge treatment also significantly decreased the bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper, and zinc in the exposed species. For cadmium, maximum tissue concentrations of 0.45 {+-} 0.08 mg/kg in barley, 0.79 {+-} 0.27 mg/kg in ryegrass, and 21.82 {+-} 1.85 mg/kg in earthworm exposed to sludge before treatment decreased after treatment to values similar to those observed with negative controls. - Assessment of a sewage sludge treatment on metal bioavailability as measured by metal speciation, toxicity and bioaccumulation.

  17. Ecotoxicological assessment of a high energetic and insensitive munitions compound: 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodard, Sabine G; Sarrazin, Manon; Hawari, Jalal; Paquet, Louise; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

    2013-11-15

    The high explosive nitroaromatic 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) is less shock sensitive than 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and is proposed as a TNT replacement for melt-cast formulations. Before using DNAN in munitions and potentially leading to environmental impact, the present study examines the ecotoxicity of DNAN using selected organisms. In water, DNAN decreased green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata growth (EC50 = 4.0mg/L), and bacteria Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence (Microtox, EC50 = 60.3mg/L). In soil, DNAN decreased perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne growth (EC50 =7 mg/kg), and is lethal to earthworms Eisenia andrei (LC50 = 47 mg/kg). At sub-lethal concentrations, DNAN caused an avoidance response (EC50 = 31 mg/kg) by earthworms. The presence of DNAN and 2-amino-4-nitroanisole in earthworms and plants suggested a role of these compounds in DNAN toxicity. Toxicity of DNAN was compared to TNT, tested under the same experimental conditions. These analyses showed that DNAN was equally, or even less deleterious to organism health than TNT, depending on the species and toxicity test. The present studies provide baseline toxicity data to increase the understanding of the environmental impact of DNAN, and assist science-based decision makers for improved management of potential DNAN contaminated sites. PMID:24021166

  18. Distribution of Fucosylated Xyloglucans among the Walls of Different Cell Types in Monocotyledons Determined by Immunofluorescence Microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maree Brennan; Philip J.Harris

    2011-01-01

    Xyloglucans in the non-lignified primary cell walls of different species of monocotyledons have diverse structures,with widely varying proportions of oligosaccharide units that contain fucosylated side chains(F side chains).To determine whether fucosylated xyloglucans occur in all non-lignified walls in a range of monocotyledon species,we used immunofluorescence microscopy with the monoclonal antibody CCRC-M1.The epitope of this antibody,α-L-Fucp-(1→2)-β-D-Galp.occurs in F side chains.In most non-commelinid monocotyledons,the epitope was found in all non-lignified walls.A similar distribution was found in the palm Phoenix canariensis,which is a member of the basal commelinid order Arecales.However,in the other commelinid orders Zingiberales,Commelinales,and Poales,the occurrence of the epitope was restricted,sometimes occurring in only the phloem walls,but often also in walls of other cell types including stomatal guard and subsidiary cells and raphide idioblasts.No epitope was found in the walls of the commelinids Tradescantia virginiana(Commelinaceae,Commelinales)and Zea mays(Poaceae,Poales),but it occurred in the phloem walls of two other Poaceae species,Lolium multiflorum and L.perenne.The distribution of the epitope is discussed in relation to xyloglucan structures in the different taxa.However,the functional significance of the restricted distributions is unknown.

  19. Interrelations between herbage yield, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, lutein, protein, and fiber in non-leguminous forbs, forage legumes, and a grass-clover mixture as affected by harvest date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgersma, Anjo; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2015-01-21

    Pastures with diverse botanical composition may enhance animal-derived product quality. A recent study demonstrated high vitamin concentrations and yields in some forb species. The objectives of the present study were to investigate interrelations between herbage yields, vitamin concentrations, protein and fiber contents and analyze the effect of harvest date. We hypothesized that interrelations would be similar across investigated forage species. Four nonleguminous forbs: salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor), caraway (Carum carvi), chicory (Cichorium intybus), and ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata), three legumes: yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis), lucerne (Medicago sativa), and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) and a perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne)-white clover (Trifolium repens) mixture were sown in a field trial with two replicated and randomized blocks. Forage in 1.5 m × 9 m plots was grown in two consecutive years and cut four times per year (May-October). Analyses of variance were performed. In most herbages, α-tocopherol and β-carotene were positively correlated as were β-carotene and lutein; all vitamins were negatively correlated with fiber content and herbage yield. β-Carotene was positively correlated with protein content. α-Tocopherol and β-carotene contents were generally highest in October and lowest in July. Our results showed similar interrelationships in most investigated species, and we suggest that these species may be mixed when designing novel biodiverse mixtures for particular product quality characteristics. PMID:25573460

  20. Possible evidence for contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in phytoremediation of iron-cyanide (Fe-CN) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sut, Magdalena; Boldt-Burisch, Katja; Raab, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are integral functioning parts of plant root systems and are widely recognized for enhancing contaminants uptake and metabolism on severely disturbed sites. However, the patterns of their influence on the phytoremediation of iron-cyanide (Fe-CN) complexes are unknown. Fe-CN complexes are of great common interest, as iron is one of the most abundant element in soil and water. Effect of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) roots inoculation, using mycorrhizal fungi (Rhizophagus irregularis and a mixture of R. irregularis, Funneliformis mosseae, Rhizophagus aggregatus, and Claroideoglomus etunicatum), on iron-cyanide sorption was studied. Results indicated significantly higher colonization of R. irregularis than the mixture of AMF species on ryegrass roots. Series of batch experiments using potassium hexacyanoferrate (II) solutions, in varying concentrations revealed significantly higher reduction of total CN and free CN content in the mycorrhizal roots, indicating greater cyanide decrease in the treatment inoculated with R. irregularis. Our study is a first indication of the possible positive contribution of AM fungi on the phytoremediation of iron-cyanide complexes. PMID:27256319

  1. Carbon turnover in two soils with contrasting mineralogy under long-term maize and pasture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total organic carbon (C) and natural 13C abundance were measured in adjacent allophanic soils (Andisols) and non-allophanic soils (Inceptisols) under maize (Zea mays L.) and ryegrass pasture (Lolium perenne L.) to assess the C turnover rate in soils of contrasting mineralogy and specific surface area. The allophanic soil contained more total C than the non-allophanic soil (139v.101t C/ha in the upper 0-35 cm) but neither soil showed a significant difference in C content between pasture and maize, provided maize residue was retained and incorporated. The gross annual inputs under maize and pasture were both estimated to be about 9 t C/ha, consistent with the similar soil total C contents. Since the soil total C content did not appear to change with time, the gross C mineralisation was about 9 t C/ha each year. The proportion of old pasture C remaining in the soil after maize cropping for 25 years was about 78% in the allophanic soils and about 69% in the non-allophanic soils, reflecting the influence of both Al and allophane, with its high specific surface area, on the retention of old C. The maize C retained in 25 years was similar in both the allophanic soil and the non-allophanic soil (29 t/ha). Therefore, the higher total C content of the allophanic soil would appear to arise from stabilisation of old pasture and forest C by Al and allophane. Copyright (2002) CSIRO Publishing

  2. The fate of 15N-labelled organic nitrogen in sheep manure applied to soils of different texture under field conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.; Jensen, E.S.; Nielsen, N.E.

    1994-01-01

    )) were each applied to three soils; soil 1 (100% soil + 0% quartz sand), soil 2 (50% soil + 50% quartz sand) and soil 3 (25% soil + 75% quartz sand). The lysimeters were cropped with spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and undersown ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The barley crop recovered 16...... manure N was found in the subsoil (10-45 cm) of the lysimeters, most of this labelled N probably transported to depth as organic forms by leaching or through the activities of soil fauna. In unplanted soils 67-74% of the labelled manure N was recovered in organic form in the 0-10 cm soil layer after 4......The fate of nitrogen from N-15-labelled sheep manure and ammonium sulfate in small lysimeters and plots in the field was studied during two growth seasons. In April 1991, N-15-labelled sheep faeces (87 kg N ha(-1)) plus unlabelled (NH4)(2)SO4 (90 kg N ha(-1)), and ((NH4)-N-15)(2)SO4 (90 kg N ha(-1...

  3. Heavy metal accumulation of urban domestic rubbish compost in turfgrass by DTA chelating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUO Lian; GAO Yu-bao; ZHAO Shu-lan

    2005-01-01

    Seven kinds of heavy metal accumulation of rubbish compost in turfgrass by EDTA chelating were investigated. With EDTA application, heavy metal accumulation by two species of turfgrass was increased significantly. The enrichment coefficients of Lolium perenne L(L) and Festuca arundinacea L(F) to Cr reached 9.45 and 6.15 respectively. In the range of EDTA dosages given, heavy metal accumulation in turfgrass increased with increasing EDTA level. There were significant differences in remediation of different metals by applying EDTA. L had high ability to accumulate Cr, Cd, Ni and Zn, showing better remediation to heavy metals of rubbish compost.In contrast, F showed high ability to accumulate Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn. Low EDTA level increased aboveground net primary production (ANP) of turfgrass, but EDTA would considerably inhibit it when EDTA was higher than 20 mmol/kg. The results demonstrated that the optimum dosage of EDTA for remediating heavy metals in rubbish compost by turfgrass was between 10 mmol/kg and 20 mmol/kg.

  4. Specific immunotherapy for common grass pollen allergies: pertinence of a five grass pollen vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moingeon, Philippe; Hrabina, Maud; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Jaeger, Siegfried; Frati, Franco; Bordas, Véronique; Peltre, Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    Patients throughout Europe are concomitantly exposed to multiple pollens from distinct Pooideae species. Given the overlap in pollination calendars and similar grain morphology, it is not possible to identify which grass species are present in the environment from pollen counts. Furthermore, neither serum IgE reactivity nor skin prick testing allow the identification of which grass species are involved in patient sensitisation. Due to their high level of amino acid sequence homology (e.g., >90% for group 1, 55-80% for group 5), significant cross-immunogenicity is observed between allergens from Pooideae pollens. Nevertheless, pollen allergens also contain species-specific T or B cell epitopes, and substantial quantitative differences exist in allergen (e.g., groups 1 and 5) composition between pollens from distinct grass species. In this context, a mixture of pollens from common and well-characterised Pooideae such as Anthoxanthum odoratum, Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense and Poa pratensis is suitable for immunotherapy purposes because (1) it has been validated, both in terms of safety and efficacy, by established clinical practice; (2) it reflects natural exposure and sensitisation conditions; (3) it ensures a consistent and well-balanced composition of critical allergens, thus extending the repertoire of T and B cell epitopes present in the vaccine.

  5. Polymer Coated Urea in Turfgrass Maintains Vigor and Mitigates Nitrogen's Environmental Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMonte, Joshua J; Jolley, Von D; Summerhays, Jeffrey S; Terry, Richard E; Hopkins, Bryan G

    2016-01-01

    Polymer coated urea (PCU) is a N fertilizer which, when added to moist soil, uses temperature-controlled diffusion to regulate N release in matching plant demand and mitigate environmental losses. Uncoated urea and PCU were compared for their effects on gaseous (N2O and NH3) and aqueous (NO3(-)) N environmental losses in cool season turfgrass over the entire PCU N-release period. Field studies were conducted on established turfgrass sites with mixtures of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in sand and loam soils. Each study compared 0 kg N ha(-1) (control) to 200 kg N ha(-1) applied as either urea or PCU (Duration 45CR®). Application of urea resulted in 127-476% more evolution of measured N2O into the atmosphere, whereas PCU was similar to background emission levels from the control. Compared to urea, PCU reduced NH3 emissions by 41-49% and N2O emissions by 45-73%, while improving growth and verdure compared to the control. Differences in leachate NO3(-) among urea, PCU and control were inconclusive. This improvement in N management to ameliorate atmospheric losses of N using PCU will contribute to conserving natural resources and mitigating environmental impacts of N fertilization in turfgrass. PMID:26764908

  6. Polymer Coated Urea in Turfgrass Maintains Vigor and Mitigates Nitrogen's Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMonte, Joshua J.; Jolley, Von D.; Summerhays, Jeffrey S.; Terry, Richard E.; Hopkins, Bryan G.

    2016-01-01

    Polymer coated urea (PCU) is a N fertilizer which, when added to moist soil, uses temperature-controlled diffusion to regulate N release in matching plant demand and mitigate environmental losses. Uncoated urea and PCU were compared for their effects on gaseous (N2O and NH3) and aqueous (NO3-) N environmental losses in cool season turfgrass over the entire PCU N-release period. Field studies were conducted on established turfgrass sites with mixtures of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in sand and loam soils. Each study compared 0 kg N ha-1 (control) to 200 kg N ha-1 applied as either urea or PCU (Duration 45CR®). Application of urea resulted in 127–476% more evolution of measured N2O into the atmosphere, whereas PCU was similar to background emission levels from the control. Compared to urea, PCU reduced NH3 emissions by 41–49% and N2O emissions by 45–73%, while improving growth and verdure compared to the control. Differences in leachate NO3- among urea, PCU and control were inconclusive. This improvement in N management to ameliorate atmospheric losses of N using PCU will contribute to conserving natural resources and mitigating environmental impacts of N fertilization in turfgrass. PMID:26764908

  7. A comparative study of the terrestrial ecotoxicity of selected protic and aprotic ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peric, Brezana; Sierra, Jordi; Martí, Esther; Cruañas, Robert; Garau, Maria Antonia

    2014-08-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are a fairly new and very promising group of compounds with a vast variety of possible structures and uses. They are considered to be potentially "green", but their impact on the environment tends to be neglected or not studied enough, especially when it comes to terrestrial ecotoxicity, where there are very few studies performed to date. This work presents a comparative study of the terrestrial ecotoxicity of selected representatives of two ILs groups: a new family of protic ILs (derived from aliphatic amines and organic acids) and some frequently used aprotic ILs (substituted imidazolium and piridinium chlorides). Toxicity of the ILs towards three terrestrial plant species (Allium cepa, Lolium perenne and Raphanus sativus) and soil microorganisms involved in carbon and nitrogen transformation was analyzed. Protic ILs have shown no toxic effect in most of the tests performed. The EC50 values for aprotic ILs are various orders of magnitude lower than the ones for protic ILs in all of the tests. The most toxic ILs are the most complex ones in both of the analyzed groups. Protic ILs seem to have a potential for biodegradation in soil, while aprotic ILs exhibit inhibitory effects towards the carbon transforming microbiota. These findings indicate that protic ILs can be considered as less toxic and safer for the terrestrial environment than the aprotic ILs.

  8. Phytotoxicity and uptake of nitroglycerin in a natural sandy loam soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheleau, Sylvie; Kuperman, Roman G; Dodard, Sabine G; Sarrazin, Manon; Savard, Kathleen; Paquet, Louise; Hawari, Jalal; Checkai, Ronald T; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

    2011-11-15

    Nitroglycerin (NG) is widely used for the production of explosives and solid propellants, and is a soil contaminant of concern at some military training ranges. NG phytotoxicity data reported in the literature cannot be applied directly to development of ecotoxicological benchmarks for plant exposures in soil because they were determined in studies using hydroponic media, cell cultures, and transgenic plants. Toxicities of NG in the present studies were evaluated for alfalfa (Medicago sativa), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli), and ryegrass (Lolium perenne) exposed to NG in Sassafras sandy loam soil. Uptake and degradation of NG were also evaluated in ryegrass. The median effective concentration values for shoot growth ranged from 40 to 231 mg kg(-1) in studies with NG freshly amended in soil, and from 23 to 185 mg kg(-1) in studies with NG weathered-and-aged in soil. Weathering-and-aging NG in soil did not significantly affect the toxicity based on 95% confidence intervals for either seedling emergence or plant growth endpoints. Uptake studies revealed that NG was not accumulated in ryegrass but was transformed into dinitroglycerin in the soil and roots, and was subsequently translocated into the ryegrass shoots. The highest bioconcentration factors for dinitroglycerin of 685 and 40 were determined for roots and shoots, respectively. Results of these studies will improve our understanding of toxicity and bioconcentration of NG in terrestrial plants and will contribute to ecological risk assessment of NG-contaminated sites.

  9. Biochar as possible long-term soil amendment for phytostabilisation of TE-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, Charlotte; Christl, Iso; Schulin, Rainer; Evangelou, Michael W H

    2016-09-01

    Soils contaminated by trace elements (TEs) pose a high risk to their surrounding areas as TEs can spread by wind and water erosion or leaching. A possible option to reduce TE transfer from these sites is phytostabilisation. It is a long-term and cost-effective rehabilitation strategy which aims at immobilising TEs within the soil by vegetation cover and amendment application. One possible amendment is biochar. It is charred organic matter which has been shown to immobilise metals due to its high surface area and alkaline pH. Doubts have been expressed about the longevity of this immobilising effect as it could dissipate once the carbonates in the biochar have dissolved. Therefore, in a pot experiment, we determined plant metal uptake by ryegrass (Lolium perenne) from three TE-contaminated soils treated with two biochars, which differed only in their pH (acidic, 2.80; alkaline, 9.33) and carbonate (0.17 and 7.3 %) content. Root biomass was increased by the application of the alkaline biochar due to the decrease in TE toxicity. Zinc and Cu bioavailability and plant uptake were equally reduced by both biochars, showing that surface area plays an important role in metal immobilisation. Biochar could serve as a long-term amendment for TE immobilisation even after its alkalinity effect has dissipated. PMID:27230149

  10. The Biochar Option to Improve Plant Yields: First Results From Some Field and Pot Experiments in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Baronti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The pyrolysis conversion of agricultural residues into biochar and its incorporation in agricultural soil, avoids CO2 emissions providing a safe long-term soil carbon sequestration. Furthermore, biochar application to soil seems to increase nutrient stocks in the rooting zone, to reduce nutrient leaching and to improve crop yields. This study reports some preliminary results obtained using biochar in two typical Italian agricultural crops. Two field experiments were made on durum wheat (Triticum durum L. in Central Italy and maize (Zea mays L. in Northern Italy. In both the field experiments, an increase in yields (+ 10% and + 6% in terms of grain production, respectively was detected after a biochar application of 10 t ha-1. A further increase in grain production (+24% was detected when biochar was added with maize residues. The biochar dose-effect curve was studied on perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. in a pot experiment. The highest increase of dry matter (+120% was obtained at a biochar rate of 60 t ha-1 and above this threshold, a general reduction of biomass was observed. Results demonstrate the potential of biochar applications to improve in terms of dry matter production, while pointing out the needs for long-term field studies to better understand the effects of biochar on soil.

  11. 几种真菌对3种常见冷季型草坪草的致病性测定%Pathogenicity of ten fungi affecting three common cool-season turfgrasses of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春杰; 南志标; 崔嵩; 胡玉骄; 李东明; 李强; 李悦; 李舟

    2003-01-01

    以我国北方常见的冷季型草坪草高羊茅(Festuca arundinacea)、多年生黑麦草(Lolium perenne)和草地早熟禾(Poa pratensis)为材料,将细交链孢(Alternaria alternata)、根腐离蠕孢(Bipolaris sorokiniana)、枝孢(Cladosporium herbarum)、新月弯孢(Curvularia lunata)、德氏霉(Drechslera sp.)、燕麦镰孢(Fusari-um avenaceum)、锐顶镰孢(F.acuminatum)、尖镰孢(F.oxysporum),腐皮镰孢(F.solani)和粉红粘帚霉(Gliocldium roseum)10种分离自草坪草的真菌接种,进行离体叶片的致病性测定.结果表明:细交链孢、根腐离蠕孢、德氏霉、腐皮镰孢、粉红粘帚霉和枝孢对高羊茅具有明显的致病性;根腐离蠕孢、燕麦镰孢和锐顶镰孢对黑麦草有明显的致病性;而仅根腐离蠕孢对早熟禾有较明显的致病性.

  12. Antifungal, Phytotoxic, and Cytotoxic Activities of Metabolites from Epichloë bromicola, a Fungus Obtained from Elymus tangutorum Grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qiu-Yan; Nan, Zhi-Biao; Gao, Kun; Song, Hui; Tian, Pei; Zhang, Xing-Xu; Li, Chun-Jie; Xu, Wen-Bo; Li, Xiu-Zhang

    2015-10-14

    The development of high-quality herbage is an important aspect of animal husbandry. Inoculating beneficial fungi onto inferior grass is a feasible strategy for producing new varieties of high-quality herbage. Epichloë bromicola is a candidate fungus that is isolated from Elymus tangutorum. A total of 17 metabolites, 1-17, were obtained from E. bromicola, and their biological activities were assayed. Metabolite 1 exhibited antifungal activities against Alternaria alternata, Fusarium avenaceum, Bipolaris sorokiniana, and Curvularia lunata. EC50 values ranged from 0.7 to 5.3 μM, which were better than the positive control, chlorothalonil. Metabolite 8 displayed obvious phytotoxic effects toward Lolium perenne and Poa crymophila seedlings, and it was as active as glyphosate. None of these isolated metabolites displayed cytotoxicity against Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells. The IC50 values were greater than 100 μM, and the metabolites increased the growth of the cells at a concentration of 12.5 μM. The bioassay indicated that E. bromicola may be a beneficial fungus for producing new varieties of herbage with various resistances. Additionally, metabolite 7, 3-(2'-(4″-hydroxyphenyl)acetoxy)-2S-methylpropanoic acid, is a new natural product, and its stereochemistry was determined by means of optical rotation computation and chemical reactions.

  13. Seasonal Abundance and Phenology of Oebalus pugnax (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on Graminaceous Hosts in the Delta Region of Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awuni, G A; Gore, J; Cook, D; Musser, F; Bond, J

    2015-08-01

    The rice stink bug, Oebalus pugnax (F.), is a graminaceous feeder, and the most injurious insect pest of heading rice, Oryza sativa L., in the United States. Rice growers are aware of the economic importance of host grasses in O. pugnax abundance. However, the need for increased knowledge of host sequence relative to O. pugnax abundance is vital. Densities of O. pugnax on 15 graminaceous hosts were evaluated in the central Mississippi Delta from April through August in 2011 and 2012. Two cultivated and 13 wild host grasses were sampled using a sweep net. Overall, populations of O. pugnax were lower in 2012 than in 2011. Italian ryegrass, Lolium perenne L. ssp. multiflorum (Lambert), was the main host that supported O. pugnax survival and reproduction from overwintering to early summer. Echinochloa spp., Digitaria spp., and Eriochloa spp. maintained greater populations of O. pugnax in the summer. Browntop millet, Urochloa ramosa (L.) Nguyen, and broadleaf signalgrass, U. platyphylla (Munro ex C. Wright) R. D. Webster, were important for populations of O. pugnax populations immediately prior to overwintering. Host switching was also an important factor that contributed to O. pugnax abundance. The evolution of Italian ryegrass resistance to the broad spectrum herbicide glyphosate in the central Mississippi delta has become an important component of O. pugnax population dynamics because of its increased abundance in and around agricultural areas. Cultural control measures on host grasses before flowering could result in less use of insecticides, thereby reducing cost of rice production. PMID:26314038

  14. Levanase from Bacillus subtilis hydrolyses β-2,6 fructosyl bonds in bacterial levans and in grass fructans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Susanne L; Diemer, Mikkel B; Lundmark, Maria; Larsen, Flemming H; Blennow, Andreas; Mogensen, Helle K; Nielsen, Tom H

    2016-04-01

    A Levanase, LevB, from Bacillus subtilis 168, was expressed as a His6-tagged protein in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was purified and characterised for its activity and substrate specificity. LevB has a pH optimum of 6.0-6.5 and a maximum observed specific activity of 3 U mg(-1) using levan from Erwinia herbicola as substrate. Hydrolysis products were analysed by HPAEC, TLC, and NMR using chicory root inulin, mixed linkage fructans purified from ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and levan from E. herbicola as substrates. This revealed that LevB is an endolevanase that selectively cleaves the (β-2,6) fructosyl bonds and does not hydrolyse inulin. Ryegrass fructans and bacterial levan was hydrolysed partially releasing oligosaccharides, but together with exoinulinase, LevB hydrolysed both ryegrass fructans and bacterial levan to near completion. We suggest that LevB can be used as a tool to achieve more structural information on complex fructans and to achieve complete degradation and quantification of mixed linkage fructans. PMID:26773563

  15. Ice recrystallization inhibition mediated by a nuclear-expressed and -secreted recombinant ice-binding protein in the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauersen, Kyle J; Vanderveer, Tara L; Berger, Hanna; Kaluza, Isabell; Mussgnug, Jan H; Walker, Virginia K; Kruse, Olaf

    2013-11-01

    A Lolium perenne ice-binding protein (LpIBP) demonstrates superior ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) activity and has proposed applications in cryopreservation, food texturing, as well as in being a "green" gas hydrate inhibitor. Recombinant production of LpIBP has been previously conducted in bacterial and yeast systems for studies of protein characterization, but large-scale applications have been hitherto limited due to high production costs. In this work, a codon-optimized LpIBP was recombinantly expressed and secreted in a novel one-step vector system from the nuclear genome of the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Both mixotrophic and photoautotrophic growth regimes supported LpIBP expression, indicating the feasibility of low-cost production using minimal medium, carbon dioxide, and light energy as input. In addition, multiple growth and bioproduct extraction cycles were performed by repetitive batch cultivation trials, demonstrating the potential for semi-continuous production and biomass harvesting. Concentrations of recombinant protein reached in this proof of concept approach were sufficient to demonstrate IRI activity in culture media without additional purification or concentration, with activity further verified by thermal hysteresis and morphology assays. The incorporation of the recombinant LpIBP into a model gas hydrate offers the promise that algal production may eventually find application as a "green" hydrate inhibitor.

  16. Nematodes enhance plant growth and nutrient uptake under C and N-rich conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremikael, Mesfin T.; Steel, Hanne; Buchan, David; Bert, Wim; De Neve, Stefaan

    2016-01-01

    The role of soil fauna in crucial ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling remains poorly quantified, mainly because of the overly reductionistic approach adopted in most experimental studies. Given that increasing nitrogen inputs in various ecosystems influence the structure and functioning of soil microbes and the activity of fauna, we aimed to quantify the role of the entire soil nematode community in nutrient mineralization in an experimental set-up emulating nutrient-rich field conditions and accounting for crucial interactions amongst the soil microbial communities and plants. To this end, we reconstructed a complex soil foodweb in mesocosms that comprised largely undisturbed native microflora and the entire nematode community added into defaunated soil, planted with Lolium perenne as a model plant, and amended with fresh grass-clover residues. We determined N and P availability and plant uptake, plant biomass and abundance and structure of the microbial and nematode communities during a three-month incubation. The presence of nematodes significantly increased plant biomass production (+9%), net N (+25%) and net P (+23%) availability compared to their absence, demonstrating that nematodes link below- and above-ground processes, primarily through increasing nutrient availability. The experimental set-up presented allows to realistically quantify the crucial ecosystem services provided by the soil biota. PMID:27605154

  17. Polymer Coated Urea in Turfgrass Maintains Vigor and Mitigates Nitrogen's Environmental Impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J LeMonte

    Full Text Available Polymer coated urea (PCU is a N fertilizer which, when added to moist soil, uses temperature-controlled diffusion to regulate N release in matching plant demand and mitigate environmental losses. Uncoated urea and PCU were compared for their effects on gaseous (N2O and NH3 and aqueous (NO3(- N environmental losses in cool season turfgrass over the entire PCU N-release period. Field studies were conducted on established turfgrass sites with mixtures of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L. and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. in sand and loam soils. Each study compared 0 kg N ha(-1 (control to 200 kg N ha(-1 applied as either urea or PCU (Duration 45CR®. Application of urea resulted in 127-476% more evolution of measured N2O into the atmosphere, whereas PCU was similar to background emission levels from the control. Compared to urea, PCU reduced NH3 emissions by 41-49% and N2O emissions by 45-73%, while improving growth and verdure compared to the control. Differences in leachate NO3(- among urea, PCU and control were inconclusive. This improvement in N management to ameliorate atmospheric losses of N using PCU will contribute to conserving natural resources and mitigating environmental impacts of N fertilization in turfgrass.

  18. Heavy metal concentrations in plants and different harvestable parts: A soil-plant equilibrium model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guala, Sebastian D. [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento, Gutierrez 1150, Los Polvorines, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vega, Flora A. [Departamento de Bioloxia Vexetal e Ciencia do Solo, Facultade de Bioloxia, Universidade de Vigo, Lagoas, Marcosende, 36310 Vigo, Pontevedra (Spain); Covelo, Emma F., E-mail: emmaf@uvigo.e [Departamento de Bioloxia Vexetal e Ciencia do Solo, Facultade de Bioloxia, Universidade de Vigo, Lagoas, Marcosende, 36310 Vigo, Pontevedra (Spain)

    2010-08-15

    A mathematical interaction model, validated by experimental results, was developed to modeling the metal uptake by plants and induced growth decrease, by knowing metal in soils. The model relates the dynamics of the uptake of metals from soil to plants. Also, two types of relationships are tested: total and available metal content. The model successfully fitted the experimental data and made it possible to predict the threshold values of total mortality with a satisfactory approach. Data are taken from soils treated with Cd and Ni for ryegrass (Lolium perenne, L.) and oats (Avena sativa L.), respectively. Concentrations are measured in the aboveground biomass of plants. In the latter case, the concentration of metals in different parts of the plants (tillering, shooting and earing) is also modeled. At low concentrations, the effects of metals are moderate, and the dynamics appear to be linear. However, increasing concentrations show nonlinear behaviors. - The model proposed in this study makes possible to characterize the nonlinear behavior of the soil-plant interaction with metal pollution.

  19. Potential applications of synthetic zeolites for in situ land reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebedea, I.; Edwards, R. [Liverpool John Moores University (United Kingdom). School of Chemical and Physical Sciences Byrom Street; Lepp, N.W. [Liverpool John Moores University (United Kingdom). School of Biological and Earth Science Byrom Street; Lovell, A.J. [Crosfield Chemicals, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The results of a detailed study on the use of synthetic zeolites for the amelioration of contaminated soils are presented. Binary exchange isotherms (25 C) for the systems Na/M (where M is Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+}) and three synthetic zeolites have been derived. The zeolites studied, 4A, P and Y, showed a preference for the exchanging divalent metal cation over sodium. The effect of the three zeolites on the pool of plant available heavy metals of three contaminated soils (mine spoil and sewage sludge application) has been determined, with all three zeolites showing beneficial effects at differing levels of application. The phyto-toxicity and metal bioavailability in the soils, with and without zeolite application, was assessed by growing test species, Lolium perenne, Helianthus annuus and Zea mays and determining the resulting plant metal concentrations and plant biomass. The optimum application rates for the various zeolites were determined

  20. Specific plant DNA adducts as molecular biomarkers of genotoxic atmospheric environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber-Lotfi, F; Obrecht-Pflumio, S; Guillemaut, P; Kleinpeter, J; Dietrich, A

    2005-03-01

    The general purpose of this study was to determine whether the formation of DNA addition products ('adducts') in plants could be a valuable biomarker of genotoxic air pollution. Plants from several species were exposed to ambient atmosphere at urban and suburban sites representative of different environmental conditions. The levels of NO2 and of the quantitatively major genotoxic air pollutants benzene, toluene, and xylene were monitored in parallel with plant exposure. DNA adducts were measured in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), rye-grass (Lolium perenne), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) seedlings by means of the [32P]-postlabeling method. Whereas, no correlation was found between the levels of the major genotoxic air pollutants and the total amounts of DNA adducts, individual analyses revealed site-specific and plant species-specific adduct responses, both at the qualitative and quantitative level. Among these, the amount of a specific rye-grass DNA adduct (rgs1) correlated with benzene/toluene/xylene levels above a threshold. For further characterization, rye-grass seedlings were treated in controlled conditions with benzene, toluene, xylene or their derivatives. On the other hand, in vitro DNA adduct formation assays were developed involving benzene, toluene, xylene, or their derivatives, and plant microsomes or purified peroxidase. Although in some cases, these approaches produced specific adduct responses, they failed to generate the rgs1 DNA adduct, which appeared to be characteristic for on-site test-plant exposure. Our studies have thus identified an interesting candidate for further analysis of environmental biomarkers of genotoxicity.

  1. Removal of chemical oxygen demand and dissolved nutrients by a sunken lawn infiltration system during intermittent storm events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lizhu; Yang, Huan; Li, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Urban surface water runoff typically contains high but varying amounts of organic matter and nutrients that require removal before reuse. Infiltration systems such as sunken lawns can improve water quality. However, there is currently insufficient information describing the treatment efficiency of lawn-based infiltration systems. In this study, novel sunken lawn infiltration systems (SLISs) were designed and their pollutant removal effectiveness was assessed. The results revealed that SLISs with Poa pratensis and Lolium perenne effectively removed most chemical oxygen demand (CODCr) and dissolved nutrients. Average CODCr, total nitrogen (TN), ammonium-nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations were reduced by 78.93, 66.64, 71.86 and 75.83%, respectively, and the corresponding effluent concentrations met the standard for urban miscellaneous water consumption in China. The NH4(+)-N in the synthetic runoff was shown to be removed by adsorption during the stormwater dosing and nitrification during subsequent dry days, as well as through uptake by plants. Phosphorus was mainly removed by adsorption and chemical precipitation. The NH4(+)-N and phosphorus Langmuir isotherm model fitted the clay loam soil adsorption process better than the Freundlich model. Overall, these results indicate that an SLIS provides an alternative means of removing runoff pollutants owing to its efficiency, easy operation and maintenance. PMID:24473312

  2. Functional characterization and hormonal regulation of the PHEOPHYTINASE gene LpPPH controlling leaf senescence in perennial ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Yu, Guohui; Wen, Wuwu; Ma, Xiqing; Xu, Bin; Huang, Bingru

    2016-02-01

    Chlorophyll (Chl) degradation occurs naturally during leaf maturation and senescence, and can be induced by stresses, both processes involving the regulation of plant hormones. The objective of this study was to determine the functional roles and hormonal regulation of a gene encoding pheophytin pheophorbide hydrolyase (PPH) that catabolizes Chl degradation during leaf senescence in perennial grass species. A PPH gene, LpPPH, was cloned from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). LpPPH was localized in the chloroplast. Overexpressing LpPPH accelerated Chl degradation in wild tobacco, and rescued the stay-green phenotype of the Arabidopsis pph null mutant. The expression level of LpPPH was positively related to the extent of leaf senescence. Exogenous application of abscisic acid (ABA) and ethephon (an ethylene-releasing agent) accelerated the decline in Chl content in leaves of perennial ryegrass, whereas cytokinin (CK) and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG; an ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor) treatments suppressed leaf senescence, corresponding to the up- or down-regulation of LpPPH expression. The promoters of five orthologous PPH genes were predicted to share conserved cis-elements potentially recognized by transcription factors in the ABA and CK pathways. Taken together, the results suggested that LpPPH-mediated Chl breakdown could be regulated positively by ABA and ethylene, and negatively by CK, and LpPPH could be a direct downstream target gene of transcription factors in the ABA and CK signaling pathways. PMID:26643195

  3. Root development of non-accumulating and hyperaccumulating plants in metal-contaminated soils amended with biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Frédéric; Sterckeman, Thibault; Morel, Jean Louis

    2016-01-01

    Biochar may be used as an amendment in contaminated soils in phytoremediation processes. The mechanisms controlling plant metal uptake in biochar-amended soils remain however unclear. This work aimed at evaluating the influence of biochar on root development and its consequence on plant metal uptake, for two non-hyperaccumulating plants (Zea mays and Lolium perenne) and one hyperaccumulator of Cd and Zn (Noccaea caerulescens). We conducted rhizobox experiments using one acidic and one alkaline soil contaminated with Cd, Pb and Zn. Biochar was present either homogeneously in the whole soil profile or localized in specific zones. A phenomenon of root proliferation specific to biochar-amended zones was seen on the heterogeneous profiles of the acidic soil and interpreted by a decrease of soil phytotoxicity in these zones. Biochar amendments also favored root growth in the alkaline soil as a result of the lower availability of certain nutrients in the amended soil. This increase of root surface led to a higher accumulation of metals in roots of Z.mays in the acidic soil and in shoots of N. caerulescens in the alkaline soil. In conclusion, biochar can have antagonist effects on plant metal uptake by decreasing metal availability, on one hand, and by increasing root surface and inducing root proliferation, on the other hand.

  4. Feeding on Different Host Plants Alters the Natural Abundances of delta (1)(3)C and delta (1)N in Longidoridae (Nemata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, R; Brown, D J

    1999-03-01

    Natural abundances of the stable isotope pairs (1)(3)C/(1)(2)C (delta (1)(3)C) and (1)N/(1)N (delta (1)N) have been used previously to study food sources and trophic relationships in soil invertebrates. In this study, delta (1)(3)C and delta (1)N were measured in five species of Longidoridae to investigate the effect of transferring nematodes from one plant host to another. Longidorus elongatus, Paralongidorus maximus, Xiphinema diversicaudatum, X. index, and X. vuittenezi were cultured initially on Lolium perenne, Petunia hybrida, Rubus ideaus, Ficus carica, and Rubus ideaus, respectively, and subsequently transferred to 4-week-old P. hybrida seedlings. After feeding on P. hybrida for 28 days, whole body delta (1)(3)C and delta (1)N values of the three Xiphinema species were depleted (P = 0.001) and enriched (P = 0.001), respectively, compared to nematode populations that had fed solely on the original plant hosts. Similar changes in L. elongatus and P. maximus whole body delta (1)(3)C and delta (1)N were not detected. Changes in whole body delta (1)(3)C are considered to be indicative of the new plant host (P. hybrida), whereas differences in whole body delta (1)N are probably related to the different feeding strategies used by the longidorid nematodes in this study.

  5. Global transcriptome changes in perennial ryegrass during early infection by pink snow mould.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovi, Mallikarjuna Rao; Abdelhalim, Mohamed; Kunapareddy, Anil; Ergon, Åshild; Tronsmo, Anne Marte; Brurberg, May Bente; Hofgaard, Ingerd Skow; Asp, Torben; Rognli, Odd Arne

    2016-01-01

    Lack of resistance to pink snow mould (Microdochium nivale) is a major constraint for adaptation of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) to continental regions with long-lasting snow cover at higher latitudes. Almost all investigations of genetic variation in resistance have been performed using cold acclimated plants. However, there may be variation in resistance mechanisms that are functioning independently of cold acclimation. In this study our aim was to identify candidate genes involved in such resistance mechanisms. We first characterized variation in resistance to M. nivale among non-acclimated genotypes from the Norwegian cultivar 'Fagerlin' based on relative regrowth and fungal quantification by real-time qPCR. One resistant and one susceptible genotype were selected for transcriptome analysis using paired-end sequencing by Illumina Hiseq 2000. Transcriptome profiles, GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis indicate that defense response related genes are differentially expressed between the resistant and the susceptible genotype. A significant up-regulation of defense related genes, as well as genes involved in cell wall cellulose metabolic processes and aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity, was observed in the resistant genotype. The candidate genes identified in this study might be potential molecular marker resources for breeding perennial ryegrass cultivars with improved resistance to pink snow mould.

  6. Enhanced Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiencies in monocot cells is associated with attenuated defense responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wan-Jun; Dewey, Ralph E; Boss, Wendy; Phillippy, Brian Q; Qu, Rongda

    2013-02-01

    Plant defense responses can lead to altered metabolism and even cell death at the sites of Agrobacterium infection, and thus lower transformation frequencies. In this report, we demonstrate that the utilization of culture conditions associated with an attenuation of defense responses in monocot plant cells led to highly improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiencies in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The removal of myo-inositol from the callus culture media in combination with a cold shock pretreatment and the addition of L-Gln prior to and during Agrobacterium-infection resulted in about 84 % of the treated calluses being stably transformed. The omission of myo-inositol from the callus culture media was associated with the failure of certain pathogenesis related genes to be induced after Agrobacterium infection. The addition of a cold shock and supplemental Gln appeared to have synergistic effects on infection and transformation efficiencies. Nearly 60 % of the stably transformed calluses regenerated into green plantlets. Calluses cultured on media lacking myo-inositol also displayed profound physiological and biochemical changes compared to ones cultured on standard growth media, such as reduced lignin within the cell walls, increased starch and inositol hexaphosphate accumulation, enhanced Agrobacterium binding to the cell surface, and less H(2)O(2) production after Agrobacterium infection. Furthermore, the cold treatment greatly reduced callus browning after infection. The simple modifications described in this report may have broad application for improving genetic transformation of recalcitrant monocot species.

  7. In situ Shear Tests of Soil Samples with Grass Roots in Alpine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Comino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The presence of vegetation increases the soil burden stability along slopes and reduces soil erosion. Its contribution is due to mechanical (reinforcing soil shear resistance and hydrologic controls on streambank and superficial landslides. This study presented the results carried out from experimental in situ test focused to study the increased shear resistance of soil blocks due to root-reinforcement. A shear apparatus was set up in order to realize the measure. Approach: In this research the researchers tested the capacity root reinforcement of Festuca pratensis, Lolium perenne and Poa pratensis (Poaceae families, Medicago sativa, Trifolium pratensis and Lotus corniculatus (Fabaceae families grass species widespread in the Alpine environment. Results: In situ shear tests results revealed that grass roots fail progressively and their tendency were to slip, without failing. Shear-strengths calculated for root-reinforced soil with Fabaceae, yielded values between 19 and 166% higher than directly measured shear-strengths in soil with no roots. The shear displacement had an increase included between 493 and 1.900%. The shear time was always superior. The clod with roots, after the trials, were always packed together. Conclusion: These data were lower than those obtained with Poaceae tests (from 50-318%, but the two grass families were functional for a grass mix useful in technical seeding.

  8. Revegetation of Copper Mine Tailings with Ryegrass and Willow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Xiu-Zhen; ZHOU Dong-Mei; SI You-Bin

    2004-01-01

    To restore vegetation on metal mine tailings is very difficult because they often contain high concentrations of heavy metals, low nutrient content and low water retention capacity. This study involved 3 experiments that evaluated the effects of 4 treatment amendments: montmorillonite, rice straw, organic manure and chemical fertilizer on the growth of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and willow (Saliz viminalis L.) with Cu and Zn mine tailings from two mining areas. The results showed that ryegrass was the most tolerant of 4 crops to Cu toxicity. Also when organic manure, which contained high concentrations of inorganic salts, was added to the mine tailings, it significantly hindered ryegrass growth (P = 0.05).Meanwhile, with ryegrass organic manure significantly increased (P= 0.05) the extractable Cu concentration in both mine tailings. When montmorillonite was used as a mine tailings amendment with willow, the height and tress number at the 1st cut were significantly greater (P =- 0.05) than a control without montmorillonite. However there was no significant difference for height, tress number, dry weight or root dry weight at the 2nd cut. So, amendment applications to reduce metal toxicity and increase nutrients retention in mine tailings were essential during revegetation of mine tailings.

  9. Nematodes enhance plant growth and nutrient uptake under C and N-rich conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremikael, Mesfin T; Steel, Hanne; Buchan, David; Bert, Wim; De Neve, Stefaan

    2016-01-01

    The role of soil fauna in crucial ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling remains poorly quantified, mainly because of the overly reductionistic approach adopted in most experimental studies. Given that increasing nitrogen inputs in various ecosystems influence the structure and functioning of soil microbes and the activity of fauna, we aimed to quantify the role of the entire soil nematode community in nutrient mineralization in an experimental set-up emulating nutrient-rich field conditions and accounting for crucial interactions amongst the soil microbial communities and plants. To this end, we reconstructed a complex soil foodweb in mesocosms that comprised largely undisturbed native microflora and the entire nematode community added into defaunated soil, planted with Lolium perenne as a model plant, and amended with fresh grass-clover residues. We determined N and P availability and plant uptake, plant biomass and abundance and structure of the microbial and nematode communities during a three-month incubation. The presence of nematodes significantly increased plant biomass production (+9%), net N (+25%) and net P (+23%) availability compared to their absence, demonstrating that nematodes link below- and above-ground processes, primarily through increasing nutrient availability. The experimental set-up presented allows to realistically quantify the crucial ecosystem services provided by the soil biota. PMID:27605154

  10. How Do Grass Species, Season and Ensiling Influence Mycotoxin Content in Forage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Nawrath

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungal species that have harmful effects on mammals. The aim of this study was to assess the content of mycotoxins in fresh-cut material of selected forage grass species both during and at the end of the growing season. We further assessed mycotoxin content in subsequently produced first-cutting silages with respect to the species used in this study: Lolium perenne (cv. Kentaur, Festulolium pabulare (cv. Felina, Festulolium braunii (cv. Perseus, and mixtures of these species with Festuca rubra (cv. Gondolin or Poa pratensis (Slezanka. The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and T-2 toxin were mainly detected in the fresh-cut grass material, while fumonisin and aflatoxin contents were below the detection limits. July and October were the most risky periods for mycotoxins to occur. During the cold temperatures in November and December, the occurrence of mycotoxins in fresh-cut material declined. Although June was a period with low incidence of mycotoxins in green silage, contents of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in silages from the first cutting exceeded by several times those determined in their biomass collected directly from the field. Moreover, we observed that use of preservatives or inoculants did not prevent mycotoxin production.

  11. The selection of plant species-organic amendment combinations aids to restore soil microbial function recovery in a metal-contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Josef; Caravaca, Fuensanta; Azcón, Rosario; Diáz, Gisela; Fuensanta, Garcia-Orenes; Roldan, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    A mesocosm experiment was established to evaluate the effect of two organic wastes: fermented sugar beet residue (SBR) and urban waste compost on the stimulation of plant growth, phytoaccumulation of heavy metals and soil biological quality and their possible use in phytostabilitation tasks with native (Piptatherum miliaceum, Retama sphaerocarpa, Bituminaria bituminosa, Coronilla juncea and Anthyllis cytisoides) and non-native (Lolium perenne) plants in a heavy metal contaminated semiarid soil. Excepting R. sphaerocarpa, SBR increased the contents of shoot N, P and K and shoot biomass of all plants. The percentage of mycorrhizal colonization was not affected by the organic amendments. The highest increase in dehydrogenase and β-glucosidase activities was recorded in SBR-amended P. miliaceum. SBR reduced toxic levels of HM in shoot of P. miliaceum, mainly decreasing Fe and Pb uptake to plants. This study pointed out that the SBR was the most effective amendment for enhancing the plant performance and for improving soil quality. The combination of SBR and P. miliaceum can be regarded the most effective strategy for being employed in phytostabilisation projects of this contaminated site.

  12. The effect of drought and interspecific interactions on the depth of water uptake in deep- and shallow-rooting grassland species as determined by δ18O natural abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, N. J.; Finn, J. A.; Lüscher, A.

    2014-03-01

    Increased incidence of weather drought, as predicted under climate change, has the potential to negatively affect grassland production. Compared to monocultures, vertical belowground niche complementarity between shallow- and deep-rooting species may be an important mechanism resulting in higher yields and higher resistance to drought in grassland mixtures. However, very little is known about the belowground responses in grassland systems and increased insight into these processes may yield important information both to predict the effect of future climate change and better design agricultural systems to cope with this. This study assessed the effect of a 10-week experimental summer drought on the depth of water uptake of two shallow-rooting species (Lolium perenne L. and Trifolium repens L.) and two deep-rooting species (Chicorium intybus L. and Trifolium pratense L.) in grassland monocultures and four-species-mixtures by using the natural abundance δ18O isotope method. We tested the following hypotheses: (1) drought results in a shift of water uptake to deeper soil layers, (2) deep-rooting species take up a higher proportion of water from deeper soil layers relative to shallow-rooting species, (3) as a result of interspecific interactions in mixtures, the water uptake of shallow-rooting species become shallower when grown together with deep-rooting species and vice versa, resulting in reduced niche overlap. The natural abundance δ18O technique provided novel insights into the depth of water uptake of deep- and shallow- rooting grassland species and revealed large shifts in response to drought and interspecific interactions. Compared to control conditions, drought reduced the proportional water uptake from 0-10 cm soil depth (PCWU0-10) of L. perenne, T. repens and C. intybus in monocultures by on average 54%. In contrast, the PCWU0-10 of T. pratense in monoculture increased by 44%, and only when grown in mixture did the PCWU0-10 of T. pratense decrease under

  13. The effect of drought and interspecific interactions on depth of water uptake in deep- and shallow-rooting grassland species as determined by δ18O natural abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, N. J.; Finn, J. A.; Hofer, D.; Lüscher, A.

    2014-08-01

    Increased incidence of drought, as predicted under climate change, has the potential to negatively affect grassland production. Compared to monocultures, vertical belowground niche complementarity between shallow- and deep-rooting species may be an important mechanism resulting in higher yields and higher resistance to drought in grassland mixtures. However, very little is known about the belowground responses in grassland systems and increased insight into these processes may yield important information both to predict the effect of future climate change and better design agricultural systems to cope with this. This study assessed the effect of a 9-week experimental summer drought on the depth of water uptake of two shallow-rooting species (Lolium perenne L. and Trifolium repens L.) and two deep-rooting species (Cichorium intybus L. and Trifolium pratense L.) in grassland monocultures and four-species mixtures by using the natural abundance δ18O isotope method. We tested the following three hypotheses: (1) drought results in a shift of water uptake to deeper soil layers, (2) deep-rooting species take up a higher proportion of water from deeper soil layers relative to shallow-rooting species, and (3) as a result of interspecific interactions in mixtures, the water uptake of shallow-rooting species becomes shallower when grown together with deep-rooting species and vice versa, resulting in reduced niche overlap. The natural abundance δ18O technique provided novel insights into the depth of water uptake of deep- and shallow- rooting grassland species and revealed large shifts in depth of water uptake in response to drought and interspecific interactions. Compared to control conditions, drought reduced the proportional water uptake from 0-10 cm soil depth (PCWU0-10) of L. perenne, T. repens and C. intybus in monocultures by on average 54%. In contrast, the PCWU0-10 of T. pratense in monoculture increased by 44%, and only when grown in mixture did the PCWU0-10 of T

  14. Analysis of the nutritional components and feeding values of commonly used roughages%常用粗饲料营养成分和饲用价值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳; 王之盛; 张晓明; 吴发莉; 邹华围

    2015-01-01

    protein (SCP),and non-protein nitrogen (NPN)in Lo-lium perenne ,Hemarthria altissima and sweet potato stem were significantly higher than those in corn stover and rice straw.In contrast,contents of neutral detergent fiber (NDF)and acid detergent fiber (ADF)in L. perenne ,H .altissima and sweet potato stem were significantly lower than those in corn stover and rice straw. The L.perenne and sweet potato stem had higher levels of sugar (CA)and rapidly degraded pure protein (PB1 ) than the other roughages analyzed.Compared to corn stover and rice straw,H .altissima,L.perenne and sweet potato stem had higher levels of starch,pectin (CB1),non-structural carbohydrates (NSC)and slowly degraded pure protein (PB3 ).Rice straw had the highest levels of available fiber (CB2 ),and corn stover had the highest levels of carbohydrate (CHO),unavailable fiber (CC)and intermediately degraded pure protein (PB2 ).The amino acid (AA)components of the roughages were significantly different,with different poten-tials for supplying limiting amino acid (LAA).Among the roughages analyzed,L.perenne had the highest level of total amino acids (TAA),essential amino-acid (EAA)and LAA,while corn stover and rice straw had the lowest.L.perenne had higher levels of digestible dry matter (DDM)and relative feed value (RFV)than the other roughages.The contents of dry matter intake (DMI)and RFV in sweet potato stem were significant-ly higher than those in H .altissima,while the contents of DMI,DDM and RFV in corn stover and rice straw were the lowest levels,with no significant differences between them.Therefore,L.perenne has the highest nutrient value and H .altissima and sweet potato stem are mid-range,while corn stover and rice straw have the lowest nutrient value.

  15. Herbicidal activity of Brassicaceae seed meal on wild oat (Avena fatua), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) and prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an on-going need for the development of sustainable methods of weed control in crop production systems. Studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of different Brassicaceae seed meals and application rates on the emergence of several weed species including wild oat, Italian rye grass, ...

  16. Identificação e quantificação de fungos associados a sementes de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Eduardo Loureiro da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivos, identificar e quantificar os fungos associados a sementes de azevém, comparar a incidência em diferentes meios de cultura, e determinar o número de escleródios de Claviceps purpurea presentes em amostras de sementes. Foram analisadas 37 amostras de sementes de azevém provenientes de municípios do Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina e Paraná. As sementes foram plaqueadas em três meios de cultura: BDA, semi-seletivo de Reis e semi-seletivo de Segalin & Reis, analisando-se a incidência dos fungos. Para detecção de C. purpurea, foram pesados 100g de sementes por amostra e, através de exame visual, foi determinado o número de escleródios. Os fungos detectados foram Alternaria alternata, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Drechslera spp., D. siccans, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp. e Penicillium sp. A incidência de A. alternata variou de 0,0% a 33,7% e freqüência de 89,2% nas amostras analisadas. Para B. sorokiniana a incidência foi de 0,0% a 2,2% e frequência de 62,2%, Drechslera spp., apresentou incidência de 0,0% a 40,3% e frequência de 78,4%. D. siccans a incidência foi de 0,1% a 20,0% e frequência de 100%.Para Fusarium spp., e F. graminearum a incidência foi de 0,0% a 31,0% e 0,0% a 11,3% e frequência de 81,1% e 64,9%, de 0,0% a 43,7% de incidência e 94,6% de frequência para Aspergillus spp. e Penicillium sp. com incidência entre 0,0% a 51,7% e frequência de 91,9%, respectivamente. O fungo C. purpurea foi encontrado em 81,1% das amostras em estudo.

  17. Selective Deactivation of Gibberellins below the Shoot Apex is Critical to Flowering but Not to Stem Elongation of Lolium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Rod W; Mander, Lewis N; Asp, Torben;

    2008-01-01

    in their effectiveness for flowering because they are deactivated by C-2 hydroxylation below the shoot apex. In contrast, GA5 is effective because of its structural protection at C-2. Excised vegetative shoot tips rapidly degrade [14C]GA1, [14C]GA4, and [14C]GA20 (>80% in 6 h), but not [14C]GA5. Coincidentally, genes...... in florally induced shoot tips and these GAs can become active for floral development. Structural changes which stabilize GA4 confirm the link between florigenicity and restricted GA 2β-hydroxylation (e.g. 2 -hydroxylation and C-2 di-methylation). Additionally, a 2-oxidase inhibitor (Trinexapac Ethyl...

  18. Influence of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. as intercrop with spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. on the diversity of weed communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Orzech

    2014-09-01

    Spring barley weeding was significantly higher in case of cultivating it in mixed stand with Italian ryegrass (without chemical control, than in pure stand (with control. In the plots with mixed crop, lower diversity and homogeneity of weeds’ communities were recorded than in pure stand. Barley in mixed crop sown after spring barley, during both times of evaluation (spring and before harvest, increased the value of the index of dominance according to the number of species the most. As concerns the composition of species, number and biomass, the communities of pure stand and mixed crop with Italian ryegrass on the plot after potato were the most similar.

  19. [Effects of Three Industrial Organic Wastes as Amendments on Plant Growth and the Biochemical Properties of a Pb/Zn Mine Tailings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xi-zhu; Yang, Sheng-xiang; Li, Feng-mei; Cao, Jian-bing; Peng, Qing-jing

    2016-01-15

    A field trial was conducted in an abandoned Pb/Zn mine tailings to evaluate the effectiveness of three industrial wastes [sweet sorghum vinasse (SSV), medicinal herb residues (MHR) and spent mushroom compost (SMC)] as organic amendments on plant growth, soil nutrients and enzyme activities, and heavy metal concentrations in plant tissues and the mine tailings. (1) The main findings were as follows: (1) The mean concentrations of diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in SSV, MHR and SMC treatments decreased by 24.2%-27.3%, 45.7%-48.3%, 18.0%-20.9% and 10.1%-14.2% as compared to the control tailings. When compared to the control tailings, the mean values of organic matter, ammonium-N and available P in SSV, MHR and SMC treatments increased by 2.27-2.32, 12.4-12.8 and 4.04-4.74 times, respectively. Similarly, the addition of SSV, MHR and SMC significantly enhanced soil enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, beta-glucosidase, urease and phosphatase), being 5.51-6.37, 1.72-1.96, 6.32-6.62 and 2.35-2.62 times higher than those in the control tailings. (2) The application of these wastes promoted seed germination and seedling growth. The vegetation cover reached 84%, 79% and 86% at SSV, MHR and SMC subplots. For Lolium perenne and Cynodon dactylon, the addition of SSV, MHR and SMC led to significant increases in the shoot biomass yields with 4.2-5.6 and 15.7-17.3 times greater than those in the tailings. Moreover, the addition of SSV, MHR and SMC significantly reduced the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the shoots of L. perenne and C. dactylon in comparison with the control tailings. (3) Pearson's correlation coefficients showed that the vegetation cover and biomass were positively correlated with soil nutrient elements and enzyme activities. Significant negative correlations were observed between DTPA-extractable metal concentrations and vegetation cover and biomass. The metal concentrations in plants were positively correlated with

  20. Prueba cutánea con extractos alergénicos de pólenes y relación con signos clínicos de rinitis alérgica y asma bronquial en Camagüey, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpio Rodríguez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Los pólenes inciden sobre las mucosas provocando sensibilización alérgica, sin embargo, en Cuba son insuficientes los estudios sobre estos alergenos. Con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de Ambrosía psilostachya, Amaranthus leucocarpus, Helianthus annuus, Rumex acetosella, Lolium perenne, Cupressus lindley y Cocos nucifera, se realizó un estudio observacional analítico en el Servicio de Alergia del policlínico Previsora, Camagüey. La muestra fue de 529 individuos con rinitis o asma, con pruebas cutáneas por punción (prick test positivas a los ácaros, hongos y pólenes; el 40% de la misma estaba sensibilizada a pólenes con prueba de provocación nasal a estos alergenos. Se compararon según gravedad de los síntomas y los valores del habón de 3, 4 y 5 mm. Los grupos etarios con valores más altos de sensibilización fueron los de 6 a 12 y 19 a 44 años. No hubo diferencias significativas de sensibilización a los pólenes según sexo. Ambrosía y Lolium presentaron los porcentajes más altos de respuesta cutánea, con habones de 3 mm en un 49,98% y 40,09%, respectivamente. Tampoco se detectaron diferencias significativas. El 89,6% de los pacientes sensibilizados reaccionaron clínicamente a la provocación nasal. En los asintomáticos predominaron los habones de 3 mm y en los graves los de 5 mm. Los pólenes constituyeron una causa importante de sensibilización alérgica. Existió relación entre las pruebas cutáneas y la prueba de provocación nasal. El diámetro del habón de la respuesta cutánea a prick test se relacionó con la severidad de los síntomas clínicos.

  1. Effect of Various Measures on Weed Occurrence from Artificial Grass%人工草地不同措施对杂草发生状况的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢健; 陈彬; 武玉祥; 田兵; 文令; 李升; 冉雪琴; 王嘉福

    2012-01-01

    通过在人工草地设置不同管理模式、不同种植类型的2个实验组。对不同管理模式下杂草入侵情况进行分析,用重要值来反映各种杂草的入侵程度。人工管理组分别设置6种种植类型:鸭茅(80%)+菊苣(20%)、鸭茅(80%)+白三叶(20%)、车前草(80%)+白三叶(20%)、黑麦草单播、车前草单播、鸭茅单播,以研究其对杂草抑制能力的大小和物种竞争力的大小。结果表明:共发现杂草18个科38个种,无人工管理组杂草入侵严重,有31种,占81.5%,优势杂草为灰菜、豨签、小飞蓬、空心莲子草;人工管理组有杂草10种,占26.3%,优势种为空性莲子草。不同种植类型下,黑麦草中入侵杂草种类只有4种,密度12.5株/m2,皆为最低,表明黑麦草竞争能力强于车前草和鸭茅。%The situation of weeds invasion was analyzed by different level of management and planting model in cultivated grassland. The level of weeds invasion was analyzed by using importance value. Six sowing types were Dactylis glomerata( L. ) (80%) + Cichorittm intybus L. (20%) ,Dactylis glomerata( L. )(80% ) + Trifolium repens( 20% ),Plantago asiatica( L. )( 80% ) + Trifolium repens( 20% ),Lolium perenne (L.) ,Plantago asiatica (L.), Dactylis glomerata( L. ). The results showed that the many kinds of weeds were observed in cultivated grassland, which belong to 38 species in 18 families. The weeds were occurred seriously at extensive management, which were 81.5% including 31 species. The dominant weeds were Chenopodi- um album (L.) , Siegesbeckia orientalis (L.) , Conyza canadensis (L.) and Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. The weeds including 10 species were found at intensive management, Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb was the dominate species. 4 weeds were observed in sowing Lolium perenne (L.) and its density was 12.5 plants per square meter in different planting group, all of these were the lowest compared

  2. Comparative chemistry and biological properties of the solid residues from hydrodistillation of Spanish populations of Rosmarinus officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Vioque, R.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid residues from the hydrodistillation of selected Spanish populations of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. have been analyzed for their polyphenol composition, and antioxidant and bioplaguicide activities. The objective was to evaluate and select the most suitable plant materials as sources of natural antioxidants and crop protectants. Total polyphenol content and polyphenol composition of rosemary populations were very dependent on the growth location: populations from Aranjuez showed a higher content of total polyphenols and were richer in rosmarinic acid as compared with their equivalent populations from Cuenca, whereas these latter were characterized by an overall higher content in genkwanin and carnosol. Most of the antioxidant activities were highly correlated with the total content of polyphenols although some polyphenols like carnosic acid and carnosol seemed to favor such activities. The extracts from R. officinalis were strong antifeedants against Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say and moderate against Spodoptera littoralis Boisd and Myzus persicae Sulzer, according to their feeding ecologies. The biological effects of the active samples cannot be accounted by their chemical composition, suggesting additive or synergistic effects. Both the phytotoxic and stimulating effects on Lactuca sativa L., and Lolium perenne L. leaf and/or root growth were observed.Se ha analizado la composición en polifenoles y las actividades antioxidante y bioplaguicida de los residuos sólidos procedentes de la hidrodestilación de poblaciones seleccionadas de romero (Rosmarinus officinalis L.. El objetivo fue evaluar y seleccionar los materiales vegetales más adecuados como fuente de antioxidantes y bioplaguicidas naturales. El contenido total y la composición en polifenoles de las poblaciones de romero dependieron mucho de la localidad de cultivo: las poblaciones de Aranjuez mostraron un mayor contenido en polifenoles y fueron más ricas en

  3. Biosolids effectiveness to yield ryegrass based on their nitrogen content Eficiência de biossólidos na produção de azevém baseado no conteúdo de nitrogênio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Studart Corrêa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Biosolids have been reported to increase yields and supply plant nutrients. However, complying with health and environmental standards is necessary before applying biosolids to land. Thus, sludge stabilization is required to make biosolids safe enough for their agricultural use. Side effects of stabilization processes on agronomic features of sewage sludge are not quite known, although their understanding is essential for biosolids management. Based on a model equivalent to the Mitscherlich equation, effects of the most common processes for sludge stabilization were evaluated (composting, liming, heat-drying and solar irradiation in relation to the agronomic effectiveness of biosolids to yield Lolium perenne L. on two tropical soils, with NH4H2PO4 as a reference. Sewage stabilization processes have affected the ability of biosolids to promote plant growth. Their effectiveness was usually higher than fertilizer in a Spodosol and lower in an Oxisol. Solar-irradiated sludge presented the highest effectiveness among the biosolids and reached peak yields at the lowest application rate independent on soil type. Biosolids could efficiently substitute fertilizers and even yield more plant dry matter than the NH4H2PO4 reference, depending on the biosolid and soil type.Biossólidos têm sido citados como capazes de aumentar a produção de culturas e suprir nutrientes para plantas. Questões sanitárias e ambientais demandam que eles sejam estabilizados para que sejam usados na agricultura. Os efeitos dos processos de estabilização sobre as propriedades agronômicas de biossólidos não são completamente conhecidos, apesar de essenciais para o seu manejo. Baseado em um modelo equivalente à equação de Mitscherlich, este trabalho avaliou os efeitos dos processos mais comuns para a estabilização de lodos de esgotos (compostagem, caleação, secagem térmica e irradiação solar sobre a eficiência agronômica de biossólidos na produção de Lolium

  4. Nitrogen Losses under Different Cattle Grazing Frequencies and Intensities in a Volcanic Soil of Southern Chile Pérdidas de Nitrógeno bajo Diferentes Frecuencias e Intensidades de Pastoreo en un Suelo Volcánico del Sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Núñez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Chilean livestock production systems have intensified over the last years, with increasing amounts of N fertilizer inputs creating the potentiality for environmental damage through N pollution of water and air, so that alternative production strategies have been developed to reduce such environmental impacts. This study assesses N losses under different grazing frequencies and intensities on permanent pasture (Lolium perenne L., Festuca arundinacea Schreb., Dactylis glomerata L., and Trifolium repens L. on an Andisol in Southern Chile. Four grazing strategies were evaluated: frequent-heavy (FH, frequent-light (FL, infrequent-heavy (IH, infrequent-light (IL, and a no grazing control (C treatment, and each with three replicates in a randomized complete block design. Results of the experiment indicate that N leaching losses were greater in the FH treatment (58.7 kg available N ha-1; p Los sistemas chilenos de producción ganadera se han intensificado en los últimos años con el uso creciente de fertilizantes que aportan nitrógeno (N, creando el potencial de daño ambiental a través de la contaminación del agua y el aire con N, de manera que se han diseñado estrategias alternativas de producción con el objetivo de reducir este potencial impacto. El presente estudio busca determinar las pérdidas de N bajo diferentes frecuencias e intensidades de pastoreo en una pradera permanente (Lolium perenne L., Festuca arundinacea Schreb., Dactylis glomerata L., y Trifolium repens L. en un Andisol del sur de Chile. Se evaluaron cuatro estrategias de pastoreo: frecuente-intenso (FH, frecuente-laxo (FL, infrecuente-intenso (IH, infrecuente-laxo (IL, y un control (C o tratamiento sin pastoreo, cada uno con tres repeticiones en un diseño de bloques completos al azar. Las pérdidas de N por lixiviación fueron mayores en el tratamiento FH (59 kg N disponible ha-1; P ≤ 0,05 donde la mayor parte de las pérdidas ocurrieron en la primavera (39%. En promedio

  5. Rendimiento y composición mineral del forraje de una pradera permanente fertilizada con magnesio Yield and forage mineral composition of a permanent pasture fertilized with magnesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Balocchi

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Como una alternativa de manejo agronómico de la hipomagnesemia en rebaños a pastoreo se estudió, durante dos años, el efecto de la fertilización magnésica (0, 24, 48 y 96 kg ha-1 año-1 de Mg sobre la concentración de magnesio, calcio, potasio y sodio y sus relaciones en la materia seca del forraje cosechado de una pradera permanente compuesta por Lolium perenne y Trifolium repens. El ensayo se realizó en un suelo Hapludand (Serie Valdivia con un nivel inicial de 0,8 cmol c kg-1 de Mg. No se detectó un efecto de la fertilización magnésica sobre la producción de materia seca de la pradera, pero la concentración de magnesio en la materia seca se incrementó proporcionalmente a la dosis de magnesio aplicada. Considerando el promedio ponderado anual el aumento de la concentración de magnesio fue de 0,006 y 0,012 g kg-1 de materia seca por cada kg de magnesio aplicado, durante el primero y segundo año, respectivamente. La fertilización magnésica disminuyó la concentración de calcio, pero no afectó la concentración de potasio ni de sodio en la materia seca del forraje cosechado. Las relaciones entre Ca/Mg, K/Mg y Na/Mg en general disminuyeron en la medida que aumentó la dosis de fertilización con magnesio.This research was conducted for two years to evaluate magnesium fertilizer application (0, 24, 48 and 96 kg ha-1 year-1 of Mg on a permanent pasture composed by Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens as an agronomic alternative of hypomagnesaemia management in grazing herds. The effect on magnesium, calcium, potassium and sodium concentration in the pasture dry matter and the ratio between cations were evaluated. The research was carried out on an Hapludand (Valdivia serie with an initial available magnesium content of 0.8 cmol c kg-1. Pasture dry matter production was not affected by magnesium fertilization, nevertheless, the concentration of magnesium in the pasture dry matter increased proportionally to the magnesium applied. A

  6. Climate, vegetation, distribution of taxa and diversity: A synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt has been made to investigate from a range of viewpoints the principle of the climatic control of plant distribution. The accumulated plant weight (w) is related to the incoming solar radiation (S) and is dependent on leaf area index, the incoming solar radiation and the efficiency of solar radiation to dry matter conversion. A review is presented and a model is discussed in order to stimulate interest and knowledge in this crucial and central theme of ecology. The aim is to develop a model based on eco-physiological principles to predict the major vegetational zones of the globe. Predictions were based on various plant responses, such as low temperature survival and evapo-transpiration. Taxonomic diversity declined in a poleward direction; for both the northern and southern hemispheres family diversity is greatest near the equator, declined markedly from latitude 30 deg. to 90 deg. Strong correlation between family diversity and absolute minimum temperature exists and a regression line suggests a decrease of 3.3 families per deg. C reductions in minimum temperature. Analysis of the islands ecology differing in areas at various altitudes of the present and past has been most productive in providing means of investigating dispersal and migration and vertical diversity. Experimental studies have been attempted in herbaceous vegetation at different latitudes (tundra and British Isles) by clearing the native species (Carex bigelowii, Eriphorum vaginatum) of the area and by introducing exotic species such as Lolium perenne. The cover of the exotic species subsequently declined and ultimately became extinct and was covered by the native species. In order to investigate the climatic control of the distribution of taxa it becomes necessary to split the life (life cycles) of a plant into a number of stages, each of which is a link in the chain of survival and each of which can dominate the control of distribution. When a stage of life cycle is broken then

  7. Root Exudates, Rhizosphere Zn Fractions, and Zn Accumulation of Ryegrass at Different Soil Zn Levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wei-Hong; LIU Huai; MA Qi-Fu; XIONG Zhi-Ting

    2007-01-01

    A glasshouse experiment was conducted using a root-bag technique to study the root exudates, rhizosphere Zn fractions, and Zn concentrations and accumulations of two ryegrass cultivars (Lolium perenne L. cvs. Airs and Tede) at different soil Zn levels (0, 2, 4, 8, and 16 mmol kg-1 soil). Results indicated that plant growth of the two cultivars was not adversely affected at soil Zn level≤8 mmol kg-1. Plants accumulated more Zn as soil Zn levels increased, and Zn concentrations of shoots were about 540 /μg g-1 in Aris and 583.9μg g-1 in Tede in response to 16 mmol Zn kg-1 soil. Zn ratios of shoots to roots across the soil Zn levels were higher in Tede than in Airs, corresponding with higher rhizosphere available Zn fractions (exchangeable, bound to manganese oxides, and bound to organic matter) in Airs than in Tede. Low-molecular-weight (LMW) organic acids (oxalic, tartaric, malic, and succinic acids) and amino acids (proline, threonine, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid, etc.) were detected in root exudates, and the concentrations of LMW organic acids and amino acids increased with addition of 4 mmol Zn kg-1 soil compared with zero Zn addition. Higher rhizosphere concentrations of oxalic acid, glutamic acid, alanine, phenylalanine, leucine, and proline in Tede than in Airs likely resulted in increased Zn uptake from the soil by Tede than by Airs. The results suggested that genotypic differences in Zn accumulations were mainly because of different root exudates and rhizosphere Zn fractions.

  8. Climate extreme effects on the chemical composition of temperate grassland species under ambient and elevated CO2: a comparison of fructan and non-fructan accumulators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamada AbdElgawad

    Full Text Available Elevated CO2 concentrations and extreme climate events, are two increasing components of the ongoing global climatic change factors, may alter plant chemical composition and thereby their economic and ecological characteristics, e.g. nutritional quality and decomposition rates. To investigate the impact of climate extremes on tissue quality, four temperate grassland species: the fructan accumulating grasses Lolium perenne, Poa pratensis, and the nitrogen (N fixing legumes Medicago lupulina and Lotus corniculatus were subjected to water deficit at elevated temperature (+3°C, under ambient CO2 (392 ppm and elevated CO2 (620 ppm. As a general observation, the effects of the climate extreme were larger and more ubiquitous in combination with elevated CO2. The imposed climate extreme increased non-structural carbohydrate and phenolics in all species, whereas it increased lignin in legumes and decreased tannins in grasses. However, there was no significant effect of climate extreme on structural carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and mineral contents and stoichiometric ratios. In combination with elevated CO2, climate extreme elicited larger increases in fructan and sucrose content in the grasses without affecting the total carbohydrate content, while it significantly increased total carbohydrates in legumes. The accumulation of carbohydrates in legumes was accompanied by higher activity of sucrose phosphate synthase, sucrose synthase and ADP-Glc pyrophosphorylase. In the legumes, elevated CO2 in combination with climate extreme reduced protein, phosphorus (P and magnesium (Mg contents and the total element:N ratio and it increased phenol, lignin, tannin, carbon (C, nitrogen (N contents and C:N, C:P and N:P ratios. On the other hand, the tissue composition of the fructan accumulating grasses was not affected at this level, in line with recent views that fructans contribute to cellular homeostasis under stress. It is speculated that quality losses will

  9. The Canopy Conductance of a Humid Grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C. T.; Hsieh, C. I.

    2015-12-01

    Penman-Monteith equation is widely used for estimating latent heat flux. The key parameter for implementing this equation is the canopy conductance (gc). Recent research (Blaken and Black, 2004) showed that gc could be well parameterized by a linear function of An/ (D0* X0c), where An represents net assimilation, D0 is leaf level saturation deficit, and X0c is CO2 mole fraction. In this study, we tried to use the same idea for estimating gcfor a humid grassland. The study site was located in County Cork, southwest Ireland (51o59''N 8o46''W), and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was the dominant grass species in this area. An eddy covariance system was used to measure the latent heat flux above this humid grassland. The measured gc was calculated by rearranging Penman-Monteith equation combined with the measured latent heat flux. Our data showed that the gc decreased as the vapor pressure deficit and temperature increased. And it increased as the net radiation increased. Therefore, we found out that the best parameterization of gc was a linear function of the product of the vapor deficit, temperature, and net radiation. Also, we used the gc which was estimated by this linear function to predict the latent heat flux by Penman-Monteith equation and compared the predictions with those where the gc was chosen to be a fixed value. Our analysis showed that this simple linear function for gc can improve the latent heat flux predictions (R square increased from 0.48 to 0.66).

  10. Hydrological heterogeneity in Mediterranean reclaimed slopes: runoff and sediment yield at the patch and slope scales along a gradient of overland flow

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    L. Merino-Martín

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological heterogeneity is recognized as a fundamental ecosystem attribute in drylands controlling the flux of water and energy through landscapes. Therefore, mosaics of runoff and sediment sinks and source patches are frequently identified in these dry environments. There is a remarkable scarcity of studies about hydrological spatial heterogeneity in restored slopes, where ecological succession and overland flow are interacting. We conducted a field research to study the hydrological role of patches and slopes along an overland flow gradient in three reclaimed slopes coming from mining reclamation in a Mediterranean-continental climate. We found that runoff generation and routing in non-rilled slopes showed a pattern of source and sink areas of runoff. Such hydrological microenvironments were associated to seven vegetation patches (characterized by plant community types and cover. Two types of sink patches were identified: shrub Genista scorpius patches could be considered as a "deep sink", while patches where the graminoids Brachypodium retusum and Lolium perenne dominate were classified as "surface sinks" or "runoff splays". A variety of source patches were also identified spanning from "extreme sources" (Medicago sativa patches; equivalent to bare soil to "poor sources" (areas scattered by dwarf-shrubs of Thymus vulgaris or herbaceous tussocks of Dactylis glomerata. Finally, we identified the volume of overland flow routing along the slope as a controlling major factor of hydrological diversity: when overland flow increases at the slope scale hydrological diversity diminishes.

  11. Influence of cover crop treatments on the performance of a vineyard in a humid region

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    Emiliano Trigo-Córdoba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vineyards are usually managed by tilling the inter-rows to avoid competition from other plants for soil water and nutrients. However, in humid and sub-humid climates, such as that of NW Spain, cover crops may be an advantage for controlling vine vegetative growth and improving berry composition, while reducing management costs. The current study was conducted over three consecutive growing seasons (2012-2014 to assess the effects of establishing three permanent cover crop treatments on water relations, vine physiology, yield and berry composition of a vineyard of the red cultivar ‘Mencía’ (Vitis vinifera L. located in Leiro, Ourense. Treatments consisted of four different soil management systems: ST, soil tillage; NV, native vegetation; ER, English ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.; and SC, subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.. Midday stem water potential was more negative in the native vegetation treatment, causing significant reductions in leaf stomatal conductance on certain dates. Total vine leaf area and pruning weight was reduced in the cover crop treatments in the last year of the experiment. Yield was unaffected by the presence of a cover crop. No significant differences among treatments were observed for berry composition; however, wines were positively affected by the SC treatment (higher tannin content and colour intensity and lower malic acid concentration when compared with ST. Wines from the cover crop treatments were preferred by taste panelists. These results indicate that in humid climates cover crop treatments can be useful for reducing vine vegetative growth without compromising yield and berry quality.

  12. Synthesis and herbicidal activity evaluation of novel α-amino phosphonate derivatives containing a uracil moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Jian-yi; Xu, Xiao-yun; Tang, Zi-long; Gu, Yu-cheng; Shi, De-qing

    2016-02-15

    A series of novel α-amino phosphonate derivatives containing a uracil moiety 3a-3l were designed and synthesized by a Lewis acid (magnesium perchlorate) catalyzed the Kabachnik-Fields reaction. The bioassays {in vitro, in vivo [Glass House 1 (GH1) and Glass House 2 (GH2)]} showed that most of compounds 3 exhibited excellent and selective herbicidal activities; for example, in GH1 test, compounds 3b, 3d, 3f, 3h and 3j showed excellent and wide spectrum herbicidal activities at the dose of 1000 g/ha, and compounds 3b and 3j exhibited 100% inhibition activities against the four plants in both post- and pre-emergence treatments. Moreover, most of compounds 3 showed higher inhibition against Amaranthus retroflexus and Digitaria sanguinalis than Glyphosate did in pre-emergence treatment. In GH2 test, the four compounds (3b, 3d, 3h and 3j) exhibited 100% inhibition against Solanum nigrum, Amaranthus retroflexus and Ipomoea hederacea in post-emergence treatment and displayed 100% inhibition against Solanum nigrum, Amaranthus retroflexus in pre-emergence treatment at the rate of 250 g/ha, and compound 3b showed the best and broad spectrum herbicidal activities against the six test plants. However, the four compounds displayed weaker herbicidal activities against Lolium perenne and Echinochloa crus-galli than the other four plants at the rate of 250 g/ha in both pre- and post-emergence treatments. So, compounds 3 can be used as a lead compound for further structure optimization for developing potential selective herbicidal agent. Their preliminary structure-activity relationships were also investigated. PMID:26786699

  13. EFECTO DE LA CALIDAD DE LA LUZ EN EL CULTIVO DEL MAÍZ: UNA HERRAMIENTA PARA EL MANEJO DE PLANTAS ARVENSES

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    Yaisys Blanco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Las señales de luz como el rojo y el rojo lejano (R/RL son reflejadas desde el tallo y la superficie de las hojas de las arvenses vecinas, estas pueden desencadenar una respuesta por efecto de sombra en las plántulas de maíz, lo que resulta en cambios morfológicos. Dos experimentos de laboratorio se llevaron a cabo bajo condiciones controladas con el objetivo de determinar el efecto de las arvenses vecinas y la competencia por luz sobre plantas de maíz en etapas tempranas de su desarrollo. En el primer experimento, se utilizó Turface® como suelo para plantar las semillas de maíz, y se estudiaron dos tratamientos (libre de arvenses y con arvenses. Raigrás (Lolium perenne L se utilizó como especie de arvense. En todos los parámetros estudiados se observó una disminución en el experimento con arvenses después de las 48 h de la siembra excepto en la longitud del tallo, que antes de las 48 h fue mayor en el tratamientos libre de arvenses, ocurriendo el efecto contrario después de las 48 h. El segundo experimento, constó de tres tratamientos con diferentes densidades de siembra (baja, media y alta con nueve, 28 y 81 plantas respectivamente. Los diferentes parámetros se comportaron de forma mayor en la densidad baja, excepto el largo del tallo, que fue mayor en la densidad alta, donde las plantas de maíz tuvieron una reacción de evitación por sombra de las arvenses, debido a la competencia por luz, ya que era el único factor limitante, incluso cuando las plantas eran mayores a la etapa V4. Este enfoque puede proporcionar una oportunidad para mejorar la competitividad del cultivo en condiciones de alta densidad.

  14. Effects of chicory/perennial ryegrass swards compared with perennial ryegrass swards on the performance and carcass quality of grazing beef steers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L Marley

    Full Text Available An experiment investigated whether the inclusion of chicory (Cichorium intybus in swards grazed by beef steers altered their performance, carcass characteristics or parasitism when compared to steers grazing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne. Triplicate 2-ha plots were established with a chicory/ryegrass mix or ryegrass control. Forty-eight Belgian Blue-cross steers were used in the first grazing season and a core group (n = 36 were retained for finishing in the second grazing season. The experiment comprised of a standardisation and measurement period. During standardisation, steers grazed a ryegrass/white clover pasture as one group. Animals were allocated to treatment on the basis of liveweight, body condition and faecal egg counts (FEC determined 7 days prior to the measurement period. The measurement period ran from 25 May until 28 September 2010 and 12 April until 11 October 2011 in the first and second grazing year. Steers were weighed every 14 days at pasture or 28 days during housing. In the first grazing year, faecal samples were collected for FEC and parasite cultures. At the end of the first grazing year, individual blood samples were taken to determine O. ostertagi antibody and plasma pepsinogen levels. During winter, animals were housed as one group and fed silage. In the second grazing year, steers were slaughtered when deemed to reach fat class 3. Data on steer performance showed no differences in daily live-weight gain which averaged 1.04 kg/day. The conformation, fat grade and killing out proportion of beef steers grazing chicory/ryegrass or ryegrass were not found to differ. No differences in FEC, O. ostertagi antibody or plasma pepsinogen levels of beef steers grazing either chicory/ryegrass or ryegrass were observed. Overall, there were no detrimental effects of including chicory in swards grazed by beef cattle on their performance, carcass characteristics or helminth parasitism, when compared with steers grazing ryegrass.

  15. Ground cover and tree growth on calcareous minesoils: Greater influence of soil surface than nitrogen rate or seed mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growth of ground cover and trees was evaluated for five growing seasons on calcareous coal minesoil surfaces (standard graded topsoil, graded and ripped topsoil, graded gray cast overburden) in southeastern Ohio. Soil surface plots were seeded in September 1987 with either a standard herbaceous seed mix [orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), timothy (Phleum pratense L.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), Ranger alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), Mammoth red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), Empire birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)], or a modified mix using no alfalfa and half the rate of orchardgrass. Nitrogen (45, 90, or 135 kg ha/N) was applied as ammonium nitrate in September 1987 and April 1989. White ash (Fraxinus americana L.), silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) were planted in spring 1989 into 0.8 m-wide strips sprayed with glyphosate herbicide at 2.24 kg/ha in October 1988. Total cover and total biomass were highest in July 1989, following the last application of nitrogen fertilizer in April 1989. Total cover ranged from 44% to 56%, and total biomass ranged from 102 to 162 g/0.5 m2 from 1990 to 1993. Total cover and total biomass were lower at the lowest nitrogen rate in 1989 only. Type of herbaceous seed mix did not affect growth of ground cover or trees. Overall tree survival was 82.0% the first year but declined to 40.6% after 5 yr. Survival varied significantly among all tree species (3.5% for pine, 22.2% for oak, 38.5% for maple, 98.1% for ash)

  16. Target Identification in Ory S1 Pollen Protein Allergen from Oryza sativa in the Course of Construction of Hypoallergenic Vaccines

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    Ruchi Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Recombinant-based approaches are mostly focused on genetic modification of allergens to produce molecules with reduced allergenic activity and conserved antigenicity, such as hypoallergens. Recombinant allergens represent promising tools for diagnosis and therapy of type I allergy. This approach was probably feasible with every allergen with known amino acid sequence. Approach: The primary aim of this study was to determine the consensus epitope from twenty homologous protein sequences of Ory S1 allergenic protein sequence from Oryza sativa (indica group pollen. Molecular modeling calculations had been used to investigate the allergenic protein models for the epitope. Results: Oryza sativa (japonica, Phleum pratense, Poa pratensis, Holcus lanatus, Lolium perenne, Triticum aestivum, Dactylis glomerata and Zea mays were found more closely related (alignment score 1145-812 among all the homologs and investigated further. The major binding pocket comprised an area of 604.5 Å2 and 970 Å3 volume and another key binding pocket had 425.6 Ų area and 658.8 ų volume. The residues found in the key site included ile2, lys13, cys14, ser15, lys16, pro17, ala25, leu26, ile27, tyr40, his41, phe42, asp43, leu44, ser45, gly46, leu47, ala48, met49, ala50, asp55, leu58, arg59, ala61, gly62, ile63, ile64, asp65, gln67, phe68; corresponding to the allergen binding site and the IgE binding epitope given in the title. Conclusion: These are the functional sites on the allergenic proteins that can be mutated to develop hypoallergenic vaccine. These sites can be rationalized on the basis of simple arguments that lead to vaccine development, by predicting the structure of the allergenic epitopes and comparative analysis.

  17. Carbon mineralisation and plant growth in soil amended with compost samples at different degrees of maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Antonio; Bernal, María Pilar; Roig, Asunción

    2003-04-01

    The carbon and nitrogen mineralisation of a composting mixture of brewing yeast and lemon tree prunings was studied, at different degrees of stabilisation of this matrix, within an incubation experiment in soil. Meanwhile, a growth test in pots with ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was carried out using the selected soil and equal amounts of the composting mixture taken at different maturation steps, in order to evaluate the additions of these organic amendments in terms of fertilising value. Samples of the composting mixture, when poorly transformed through the biostabilisation process, showed high CO2-C releases in the soil, due to the microbial attack on easily degradable organic fractions still present in the mixture, with 24.7% mineralisation of the initial total organic carbon (TOC) after a 70 day incubation. On the other hand, mature compost was the most stable matrix, with only 5.4% of TOC mineralised after 70 days. Furthermore, amendments with the initial composting mixture led to negative net N-mineralisation during 56 days of incubation with soil. Only slight negative values of the net N-mineralisation were detected with fully stabilised compost. Nevertheless, pot experiments with ryegrass revealed that mature compost may promote N mineralisation to certain extents. Moreover, mature compost did not produce any phytotoxic effect, behaving as a slow-action organic fertiliser with N made available through a progressive mineralisation. Thus, the results gained through this study are a confirmation that the fertilising quality of a compost destined for agricultural uses is heavily affected by the complete exhaustion of the maturation reactions.

  18. Nutrient and trace element dynamics in blended topsoils containing spent foundry sand and compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehouwer, Richard C; Hindman, Jennifer M; Macdonald, Kirsten E

    2010-01-01

    Spent foundry sand (SFS) could be used with compost to produce blended synthetic topsoil material but many environmental agencies restrict such use out of concern for leaching and plant uptake of contaminants in SFS. A 3 yr field experiment assessed the potential for contaminant leaching and plant uptake from natural soils and blended synthetic topsoils made with three SFSs and three composts. Plots were instrumented with lysimeters and planted with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Growth was better on blended soils than natural soils and tissue content of most nutrients and trace elements remained within normal ranges in plants grown on both blended and natural soils, though concentrations of N, P, K, S, B, Cu, Mo, and Zn were larger from some of the blended soils. Blended soils leached more P and K than natural soils and blended soil made with low C/N ratio compost leached more NH(4) than the natural soil. All blended soils leached more Cu, and some leached more As, Mo, and Zn than natural soils. With the exception of As in leachates from one blended soil no trace elements exceeded drinking water standards. None of the 13 polyaromatic hydrocarbons or 11 phenolics analyzed was detected in the leachates. We conclude use of SFS in blended soils presents low risk from trace metal or organic contaminants in SFS. Blended soils with SFS and compost perform well as topsoil substitutes and the greatest environmental risk is N and P leaching from use of low C/N ratio or immature composts. PMID:20176832

  19. Effect of compost-, sand-, or gypsum-amended waste foundry sands on turfgrass yield and nutrient content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koff, J P; Lee, B D; Dungan, R S; Santini, J B

    2010-01-01

    To prevent the 7 to 11 million metric tons of waste foundry sand (WFS) produced annually in the USA from entering landfills, current research is focused on the reuse of WFSs as soil amendments. The effects of different WFS-containing amendments on turfgrass growth and nutrient content were tested by planting perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and tall fescue (Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub) in different blends containing WFS. Blends of WFS were created with compost or acid-washed sand (AWS) at varying percent by volume with WFS or by amendment with gypsum (9.6 g gypsum kg(-1) WFS). Measurements of soil strength, shoot and root dry weight, plant surface coverage, and micronutrients (Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, B, Na) and macronutrients (N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg) were performed for each blend and compared with pure WFS and with a commercial potting media control. Results showed that strength was not a factor for any of the parameters studied, but the K/Na base saturation ratio of WFS:compost mixes was highly correlated with total shoot dry weight for perennial ryegrass (r = 0.995) and tall fescue (r = 0.94). This was further substantiated because total shoot dry weight was also correlated with shoot K/Na concentration of perennial ryegrass (r = 0.99) and tall fescue (r = 0.95). A compost blend containing 40% WFS was determined to be the optimal amendment for the reuse of WFS because it incorporated the greatest possible amount of WFS without major reduction in turfgrass growth. PMID:20048325

  20. Ecopiling: a combined phytoremediation and passive biopiling system for remediating hydrocarbon impacted soils at field scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germaine, Kieran J; Byrne, John; Liu, Xuemei; Keohane, Jer; Culhane, John; Lally, Richard D; Kiwanuka, Samuel; Ryan, David; Dowling, David N

    2014-01-01

    Biopiling is an ex situ bioremediation technology that has been extensively used for remediating a wide range of petrochemical contaminants in soils. Biopiling involves the assembling of contaminated soils into piles and stimulating the biodegrading activity of microbial populations by creating near optimum growth conditions. Phytoremediation is another very successful bioremediation technique and involves the use of plants and their associated microbiomes to degrade, sequester or bio-accumulate pollutants from contaminated soil and water. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a combined phytoremediation/biopiling system, termed Ecopiling, to remediate hydrocarbon impacted industrial soil. The large scale project was carried out on a sandy loam, petroleum impacted soil [1613 mg total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) kg(-1) soil]. The contaminated soil was amended with chemical fertilizers, inoculated with TPH degrading bacterial consortia and then used to construct passive biopiles. Finally, a phyto-cap of perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne) and white clover (Trifolium repens) was sown on the soil surface to complete the Ecopile. Monitoring of important physico-chemical parameters was carried out at regular intervals throughout the trial. Two years after construction the TPH levels in the petroleum impacted Ecopiles were below detectable limits in all but one subsample (152 mg TPH kg(-1) soil). The Ecopile system is a multi-factorial bioremediation process involving bio-stimulation, bio-augmentation and phytoremediation. One of the key advantages to this system is the reduced costs of the remediation process, as once constructed, there is little additional cost in terms of labor and maintenance (although the longer process time may incur additional monitoring costs). The other major advantage is that many ecological functions are rapidly restored to the site and the process is esthetically pleasing.

  1. Changes in Soil Solution Cu and Zn Follogwing Application of Alkaline Stabilised Sewage Sludge and Gamma-Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    A glasshouse pot experiment was conducted to study study changes in the solubility of copper and zinc in the soil-plant system follwing heavy application of sewage sludge and partial sterilisation of the sludge/soil mixture,A silghtly acid sandy loam was mixed with alkaline stabilised and composted urban sewage sludge solids ('Agri-Soil',180 t hm-2),and the soil/sludge mixture was γ-irradiated( 10 kGy).The contrasts without the application of sewage sludge and γ-irradiation were also included in the experiment.Perennial ryegrass(Lolium perenne,cv.Magella) was grown on irradiated and unirradiated soils for 50 days. Soil solution samples were obtained using soil suction samplers immediately before plant transplantation and every ten days thereafter.The soil solution smmples were used directly for determination of Cu and Zn,together with pH,electrical conductivity(EC) and absorbance at wavelength 360 nm(A360).Application of Agri-Soil led to a substantial increase in dissolved Cu and a significant derease in dissolved Zn in the soil solution and thess effect were accompanied by increased soil solution pH ,EC and A360 ,The alkaline sludge product(Agri-Soil) in combination with γ-irradiation also led to pronounced elevtion of Cu and A360 but a marked decline in EC, indicatig an increase in dissolvedorganic compounds and a decrease in the ionic strength of the soil solution ,The dissolved Cu and Zn,EC and A360 usually decreased while the ph increased fter plant growth for 50 days.

  2. Rice pseudomolecule-anchored cross-species DNA sequence alignments indicate regional genomic variation in expressed sequence conservation

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    Thomas Howard

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various methods have been developed to explore inter-genomic relationships among plant species. Here, we present a sequence similarity analysis based upon comparison of transcript-assembly and methylation-filtered databases from five plant species and physically anchored rice coding sequences. Results A comparison of the frequency of sequence alignments, determined by MegaBLAST, between rice coding sequences in TIGR pseudomolecules and annotations vs 4.0 and comprehensive transcript-assembly and methylation-filtered databases from Lolium perenne (ryegrass, Zea mays (maize, Hordeum vulgare (barley, Glycine max (soybean and Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress was undertaken. Each rice pseudomolecule was divided into 10 segments, each containing 10% of the functionally annotated, expressed genes. This indicated a correlation between relative segment position in the rice genome and numbers of alignments with all the queried monocot and dicot plant databases. Colour-coded moving windows of 100 functionally annotated, expressed genes along each pseudomolecule were used to generate 'heat-maps'. These revealed consistent intra- and inter-pseudomolecule variation in the relative concentrations of significant alignments with the tested plant databases. Analysis of the annotations and derived putative expression patterns of rice genes from 'hot-spots' and 'cold-spots' within the heat maps indicated possible functional differences. A similar comparison relating to ancestral duplications of the rice genome indicated that duplications were often associated with 'hot-spots'. Conclusion Physical positions of expressed genes in the rice genome are correlated with the degree of conservation of similar sequences in the transcriptomes of other plant species. This relative conservation is associated with the distribution of different sized gene families and segmentally duplicated loci and may have functional and evolutionary implications.

  3. Phyto extraction of 99Tc on soil cores with aged contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    99Tc is an artificial radionuclide which is found in high-activity and long-lived nuclear waste. This work was designed to study the phyto-extraction of 99Tc in soils that had received aged contamination and to monitor the resulting 99Tc concentrations in the soil solution of undisturbed soil cores in a greenhouse. Undisturbed soil cores had been sampled previously from a Rendzic Leptosol (R), a Fluvic cambisol (F) and a Dystric cambisol (D), using 0.5-m diameter PVC tubing (3 samples/soil type) without disturbing soil structure (1). Each core was equipped with two nylon porous cups (respectively 20 and 35 cm deep) and a final leachate collector. A 99TcNO3 solution had been supplied at the soil surface of each core during the two previous years (4200 kBq in total) in which maize and wheat had been successively cropped. These two crops had already removed 30-65% of total contamination before the present study. After the second year no more 99Tc was added to the cores. Thereafter, Lolium perenne was cultivated for 20 successive months. 99Tc was determined in both plant aerial parts and water samples (from both cups and collectors), and the balance of 99Tc in the system was established after phyto-extraction. Results showed that transfer of 99Tc to plants vary among soils: 7% on soil R to 11% on soil D. Concentration of 99Tc in the porous cups dramatically decreased in all soils. The plants maintained low and stable concentration levels of 99Tc in the soil solution which decreased the potential migration of the radionuclide through the cores: The leaching of 99Tc in the final collectors of the R soil cores decreased from 18 to 1.7 Bq mL-1. (author)

  4. Retention and phytoavailability of radioniobium in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioniobium is present in long-lived nuclear waste as a result of the activation of zirconium pellets associated with the nuclear fuel. The behaviour of niobium (Nb) in the environment and especially its fate in the soil-plant system has not been thoroughly investigated so far. In safety assessment of French long-lived nuclear waste disposal, data concerning the mobility and the bioavailability of Nb in soils are needed as well as general trends of its fate in the specific environment around the site of French underground research laboratory. Therefore, we investigated the mobility of 95Nb in three different soils typical of the area of north-eastern France and its uptake by two plants, rye grass (Lolium perenne L.) and winter wheat (Triticum [aelig ]stivum L.). Soil:solution distribution of 95Nb was observed in 1:10 batch experiments with deionized water for a 3-day period. Results showed that Kd values were high (in the order of 103 L kg-1) and were still significantly increasing after 3 days. A mathematical model, fitted to describe the decrease of the radioactivity after 3 days, is proposed to calculate sorption ratios--SR--(rather than Kd values as equilibrium was not reached) over longer periods. Soil-to-plant concentration ratios (CR) were measured in shoots and roots of the two plants after cultivation on two soils spiked with 95Nb (406 kBq kg-1). Soil-to-root dry weight CR were high (0.30-1.52) and could probably be due to efficient uptake into the roots. However, no transfer of Nb to plant shoots was detected in any of the soils. Nb is thus a rather immobile element in soils and its transfer to plants seems limited to underground parts. It would therefore tend to accumulate in surface horizons of soils in case of long-term continuous surface release

  5. Effect of NO3- on the fate of 99TcO4- in the soil-plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was undertaken to study the effect of NO3-fertilization on the uptake of 99TcO4- by plants. Rye-grass (Lolium perenne) was grown in a growth chamber on a silty loam soil to which were added increasing quantities of ammonium nitrate (21, 50 and 100 mg N kg-1). Soil samples were then amended with 99TcO4- at a constant level of 29.6 kBq kg-1 dry weight. Total initial NO3- content was 43.3, 57.8 and 82.8 mg N kg-1, and total NH4+ content was 24.7, 39.2 and 64.2 mg B kg-1. Three cuts were made at 4-week intervals, and aerial biomass was analysed for total 99Tc and N. Results showed that total uptake of 99Tc was decreased by increasing mineral N additions at the first cut, as mineral nitrogen was not a limiting factor for plant growth at this stage. Technetium-99 content in plants varied from 64% of the total applied 99Tc with the lowest NO3- content to 31% with the highest. However, at the third cut, cumulative 99Tc uptake reached the same level for the three treatments (80-83%) with no further effect of initial N applications, as NO3- was depleted in the soil. Therefore, 99TcO4- was diluted in the pool of soil NO3- and was absorbed proportionally to nitrate by rye-grass. (author)

  6. Availability of 99Tc to rye grass grown on agricultural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to describe the time change in the uptake rates of 99Tc by rye grass (Lolium perenne L. cv. Callan) on contaminated soils, to calculate the transfer factors from soil to plants, and to evaluate the means of predicting the accumulation of Tc in plants. Rye grass was grown for 22 weeks on two agricultural soils contaminated with increasing concentrations of 99Tc (2.5, 25 and 250 kBq/kg). The aerial parts were harvested every 4 weeks, and the dry matter yield and uptake of 99Tc by the shoots were determined. The effect of phosphate fertilization on the availability of 99Tc to rye grass was also tested. Chemical extractions (i.e. water, CaCl2 (0.01M) and Na2CO3 (0.5M)) were performed on freshly contaminated and unplanted soils after the 22 week growth period. The results showed a stimulation in growth at low 99Tc concentrations (2.5 and 25 kBq/kg) at the first cutting. Application of 250 kBq/kg, however, had no significant effect on plant growth. Accumulation of 99Tc in shoots reached 62-78% of the initial 99Tc after 22 weeks, and only 2% was found in the roots. The uptake rates decreased sharply after the first cutting and followed an exponential model with time. A decrease in uptake and accumulation of 99Tc was observed with increasing phosphate fertilization. The time change in the accumulation of 99Tc by rye grass followed a y = a (1 - e-ct) model, where the a value is the maximum accumulation of 99Tc. The a value, which was reached at the end of the 22 week growth period, could be predicted before culture from Na2CO3 extractions of 99Tc from freshly contaminated soil. (author). 16 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  7. Effect of NO-3 on the fate of 99TcO-4 in the soil plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was undertaken to study the effect of NO-3 fertilization on the uptake of 99TcO-4 by plants. Rye-grass (Lolium perenne) was grown in a growth chamber on a silty loam soil to which were added increasing quantities of ammonium nitrate (21, 50 and 100 mg N kg-1). Soil samples were then amended with 99TcO-4 at a constant level of 29.6 k Bq kg-1 dry weight. Total initial NO-3 content was 43.3, 57.8 and 82.8 mg N kg-1, and total NH+4 content was 24.7, 39.2 and 64.2 mg N kg-1. Three cuts were made at 4-week intervals, and aerial biomass was analysed for total 99Tc and N. Results showed that total uptake of 99Tc was decreased by increasing mineral N additions at the first cut, as mineral nitrogen was not a limiting factor for plant growth at this stage. Technetium-99 content in plants varied from 64% of the total applied 99Tc with the lowest NO-3 content to 31% with the highest. However, at the third cut, cumulative 99Tc uptake reached the same level for the three treatments (80-83%) with no further effect of initial N applications, as NO-3 was depleted in the soil. Therefore, 99TcO-4 was diluted in the pool of soil NO-3 and was absorbed proportionally to nitrate by rye-grass

  8. Effect of NO{sub 3}{sup -} on the fate of {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} in the soil-plant system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echevarria, G.; Morel, J.L. [ENSAIA-INRA/INPL, Lab. of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy, 54 (France); Vong, P.C. [ENSAIA-INRA/INPL, Lab. of Isotopes, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy, 54 (France)

    1998-06-01

    This work was undertaken to study the effect of NO{sub 3}{sup -}fertilization on the uptake of {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} by plants. Rye-grass (Lolium perenne) was grown in a growth chamber on a silty loam soil to which were added increasing quantities of ammonium nitrate (21, 50 and 100 mg N kg{sup -1}). Soil samples were then amended with {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} at a constant level of 29.6 kBq kg{sup -1} dry weight. Total initial NO{sub 3}{sup -} content was 43.3, 57.8 and 82.8 mg N kg{sup -1}, and total NH{sub 4}{sup +} content was 24.7, 39.2 and 64.2 mg B kg{sup -1}. Three cuts were made at 4-week intervals, and aerial biomass was analysed for total {sup 99}Tc and N. Results showed that total uptake of {sup 99}Tc was decreased by increasing mineral N additions at the first cut, as mineral nitrogen was not a limiting factor for plant growth at this stage. Technetium-99 content in plants varied from 64% of the total applied {sup 99}Tc with the lowest NO{sub 3}{sup -} content to 31% with the highest. However, at the third cut, cumulative {sup 99}Tc uptake reached the same level for the three treatments (80-83%) with no further effect of initial N applications, as NO{sub 3}{sup -} was depleted in the soil. Therefore, {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} was diluted in the pool of soil NO{sub 3}{sup -} and was absorbed proportionally to nitrate by rye-grass. (author).

  9. Subtropical grass pollen allergens are important for allergic respiratory diseases in subtropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Janet

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass pollen allergens are a major cause of allergic respiratory disease but traditionally prescribing practice for grass pollen allergen-specific immunotherapy has favoured pollen extracts of temperate grasses. Here we aim to compare allergy to subtropical and temperate grass pollens in patients with allergic rhinitis from a subtropical region of Australia. Methods Sensitization to pollen extracts of the subtropical Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum, Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon as well as the temperate Ryegrass (Lolium perenne were measured by skin prick in 233 subjects from Brisbane. Grass pollen-specific IgE reactivity was tested by ELISA and cross-inhibition ELISA. Results Patients with grass pollen allergy from a subtropical region showed higher skin prick diameters with subtropical Bahia grass and Bermuda grass pollens than with Johnson grass and Ryegrass pollens. IgE reactivity was higher with pollen of Bahia grass than Bermuda grass, Johnson grass and Ryegrass. Patients showed asymmetric cross-inhibition of IgE reactivity with subtropical grass pollens that was not blocked by temperate grass pollen allergens indicating the presence of species-specific IgE binding sites of subtropical grass pollen allergens that are not represented in temperate grass pollens. Conclusions Subtropical grass pollens are more important allergen sources than temperate grass pollens for patients from a subtropical region. Targeting allergen-specific immunotherapy to subtropical grass pollen allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis in subtropical regions could improve treatment efficacy thereby reducing the burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma.

  10. Endophyte isolate and host grass effects on Chaetocnema pulicaria (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Olivier J P; Gwinn, Kimberly D; Pless, Charles D; Popay, Alison J

    2011-04-01

    Endophytic fungi belonging to the genus Neotyphodium, confer resistance to infected host grasses against insect pests. The effect of host species, and endophtye species and strain, on feeding and survival of the corn flea beetle, Chaetocnema pulicaria Melsheimer (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was investigated. The grass-endophyte associations included natural and artificially derived associations producing varying arrays of common endophyte-related alkaloids or alkaloid groups, peramine, lolitrem B, ergovaline, and the lolines. Preference and nonpreference tests showed that C. pulicaria feeding and survival were reduced by infection of tall fescue with the wild-type strain of N. coenophialum, the likely mechanism being antixenosis rather than antibiosis. In the preference tests, endophyte and host species effects were observed. Of the 10 different Neotyphodium strains tested in artificially derived tall fescue associations, eight strongly deterred feeding by C. pulicaria, whereas the remaining two strains had little or no effect on feeding. Infection of tall fescue with another fungal symbiont, p-endophyte, had no effect. Perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne L., infected with six strains of endophyte, was moderately resistant to C. pulicaria compared with endophyte-free grass, but four additional strains were relatively inactive. Six Neotyphodium-meadow fescue, Festuca pratensis Huds., associations, including the wild-type N. uncinatum-meadow fescue combination, were resistant, whereas three associations were not effective. Loline alkaloids seemed to play a role in antixenosis to C. pulicaria. Effects not attributable to the lolines or any other of the alkaloids examined also were observed. This phenomenon also has been reported in tests with other insects, and indicates the presence of additional insect-active factors.

  11. Investigating the dynamics of recombinant protein secretion from a microalgal host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauersen, Kyle J; Huber, Isabel; Wichmann, Julian; Baier, Thomas; Leiter, Andreas; Gaukel, Volker; Kartushin, Viktor; Rattenholl, Anke; Steinweg, Christian; von Riesen, Lena; Posten, Clemens; Gudermann, Frank; Lütkemeyer, Dirk; Mussgnug, Jan H; Kruse, Olaf

    2015-12-10

    Production of recombinant proteins with microalgae represents an alternative platform over plant- or bacterial-based expression systems for certain target proteins. Secretion of recombinant proteins allows accumulation of the target product physically separate from the valuable algal biomass. To date, there has been little investigation into the dynamics of recombinant protein secretion from microalgal hosts-the culture parameters that encourage secreted product accumulation and stability, while encouraging biomass production. In this work, the efficiency of recombinant protein production was optimized by adjusting cultivation parameters for a strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii previously engineered to secrete a functional recombinant Lolium perenne ice binding protein (LpIBP), which has applications as a frozen food texturing and cryopreservation additive, into its culture medium. Three media and several cultivation styles were investigated for effects on secreted LpIBP titres and culture growth. A combination of acetate and carbon dioxide feeding with illumination resulted in the highest overall biomass and recombinant protein titres up to 10mgL(-1) in the culture medium. Pure photoautotrophic production was possible using two media types, with recombinant protein accumulation in all cultivations correlating to culture cell density. Two different cultivation systems were used for scale-up to 10L cultivations, one of which produced yields of secreted recombinant protein up to 12mgL(-1) within six cultivation days. Functional ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) of the LpIBP from total concentrated extracellular protein extracts was demonstrated in a sucrose solution used as a simplified ice cream model. IRI lasted up to 7 days, demonstrating the potential of secreted products from microalgae for use as food additives. PMID:25975624

  12. Antifreeze protein from freeze-tolerant grass has a beta-roll fold with an irregularly structured ice-binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Adam J; Marshall, Christopher B; Faucher, Frédérick; Bar-Dolev, Maya; Braslavsky, Ido; Campbell, Robert L; Walker, Virginia K; Davies, Peter L

    2012-03-01

    The grass Lolium perenne produces an ice-binding protein (LpIBP) that helps this perennial tolerate freezing by inhibiting the recrystallization of ice. Ice-binding proteins (IBPs) are also produced by freeze-avoiding organisms to halt the growth of ice and are better known as antifreeze proteins (AFPs). To examine the structural basis for the different roles of these two IBP types, we have solved the first crystal structure of a plant IBP. The 118-residue LpIBP folds as a novel left-handed beta-roll with eight 14- or 15-residue coils and is stabilized by a small hydrophobic core and two internal Asn ladders. The ice-binding site (IBS) is formed by a flat beta-sheet on one surface of the beta-roll. We show that LpIBP binds to both the basal and primary-prism planes of ice, which is the hallmark of hyperactive AFPs. However, the antifreeze activity of LpIBP is less than 10% of that measured for those hyperactive AFPs with convergently evolved beta-solenoid structures. Whereas these hyperactive AFPs have two rows of aligned Thr residues on their IBS, the equivalent arrays in LpIBP are populated by a mixture of Thr, Ser and Val with several side-chain conformations. Substitution of Ser or Val for Thr on the IBS of a hyperactive AFP reduced its antifreeze activity. LpIBP may have evolved an IBS that has low antifreeze activity to avoid damage from rapid ice growth that occurs when temperatures exceed the capacity of AFPs to block ice growth while retaining the ability to inhibit ice recrystallization.

  13. Shifts in Abundance and Diversity of Soil Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria and Archaea Associated with Land Restoration in a Semi-Arid Ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Chen

    Full Text Available The Grain to Green Project (GGP is an unprecedented land restoration action in China. The project converted large areas (ca 10 million ha of steep-sloped/degraded farmland and barren land into forest and grassland resulting in ecological benefits such as a reduction in severe soil erosion. It may also affect soil microorganisms involved in ammonia oxidization, which is a key step in the global nitrogen cycle. The methods for restoration that are typically adopted in semi-arid regions include abandoning farmland and growing drought tolerant grass (Lolium perenne L. or shrubs (Caragana korshinskii Kom.. In the present study, the effects of these methods on the abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA were evaluated via quantitative real-time PCR, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and clone library analysis of amoA genes. Comparisons were made between soil samples from three restored lands and the adjacent farmland in Inner Mongolia. Both the abundance and community composition of AOB were significantly different between the restored lands and the adjacent control. Significantly lower nitrification activity was observed for the restored land. Clone library analysis revealed that all AOB amoA gene sequences were affiliated with Nitrosospira. Abundance of the populations that were associated with Nitrosospira sp. Nv6 which had possibly adapted to high concentrations of inorganic nitrogen, decreased on the restored land. Only a slight difference in the AOB communities was observed between the restored land with and without the shrub (Caragana korshinskii Kom.. A minor effect of land restoration on AOA was observed. In summary, land restoration negatively affected the abundance of AOB and soil nitrification activities, suggesting the potential role of GGP in the leaching of nitrates, and in the emission of N2O in related terrestrial ecosystems.

  14. Hydrological heterogeneity in Mediterranean reclaimed slopes: runoff and sediment yield at the patch and slope scales along a gradient of overland flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Merino-Martín

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological heterogeneity is recognized as a fundamental ecosystem attribute in drylands controlling the flux of water and energy through landscapes. Therefore, mosaics of runoff and sediment source patches and sinks are frequently identified in these dry environments. There is a remarkable scarcity of studies about hydrological spatial heterogeneity in restored slopes, where ecological succession and overland flow are interacting. We conducted field research to study the hydrological role of patches and slopes along an "overland flow gradient" (gradient of overland flow routing through the slopes caused by different amounts of run-on coming from upslope in three reclaimed mining slopes of Mediterranean-continental climate. We found that runoff generation and routing in non-rilled slopes showed a pattern of source and sink areas of runoff. Such hydrological microenvironments were associated with seven vegetation patches (characterized by plant community types and cover. Two types of sink patches were identified: shrub Genista scorpius patches could be considered as "deep sinks", while patches where the graminoids Brachypodium retusum and Lolium perenne dominate were classified as "surface sinks" or "runoff splays". A variety of source patches were also identified spanning from "extreme sources" (Medicago sativa patches; equivalent to bare soil to "poor sources" (areas scattered by dwarf-shrubs of Thymus vulgaris or herbaceous tussocks of Dactylis glomerata. Finally, we identified the volume of overland flow routing along the slope as a major controlling factor of "hydrological diversity" (heterogeneity of hydrological behaviours quantified as Shannon diversity index: when overland flow increases at the slope scale hydrological diversity diminishes.

  15. Natural enemies act faster than endophytic fungi in population control of cereal aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härri, Simone A; Krauss, Jochen; Müller, Christine B

    2008-05-01

    1. Fast-growing populations of phytophagous insects can be limited by the presence of natural enemies and by alkaloids that are produced by symbiotic associations of many temperate grass species with endophytic fungi. It is unclear if and how acquired plant defences derived from endophytic fungi interact with natural enemies to affect phytophagous insect populations. 2. To assess the relative importance of endophytic fungi compared to that of natural enemies on the population dynamics of phytophagous insects, we carried out a fully factorial field experiment, in which the presence of natural enemies and the presence of endophytic fungi were manipulated simultaneously. Target colonies of aphids were monitored for 8 weeks starting from their natural appearance in the field to the end of the aphid season. 3. We show that on Lolium perenne increased natural enemy densities reduced the individual numbers of two common cereal aphids, Rhopalosiphum padi and Metopolophium festucae. 4. The presence of the endophytic fungi Neotyphodium lolii reduced the number of M. festucae but did not affect the number of R. padi. The reduction in R. padi numbers by predators and parasitoids was not influenced by the presence of endophytes. For adult M. festucae, however, the negative effects of natural enemies were significant only in the absence of endophytes. 5. Over the duration of the experiment, the effect of natural enemies on aphid colony growth was much stronger than the effect of the endophytic fungi N. lolii, presumably because predator and parasitoid action on aphid colonies is much faster than any effects of endophytes. 6. Our results demonstrate that with simultaneous action of acquired endosymbionts and natural enemies, both factors can control aphid colony growth but they generally act independently of each other.

  16. Ecopiling: a combined phytoremediation and passive biopiling system for remediating hydrocarbon impacted soils at field scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germaine, Kieran J.; Byrne, John; Liu, Xuemei; Keohane, Jer; Culhane, John; Lally, Richard D.; Kiwanuka, Samuel; Ryan, David; Dowling, David N.

    2015-01-01

    Biopiling is an ex situ bioremediation technology that has been extensively used for remediating a wide range of petrochemical contaminants in soils. Biopiling involves the assembling of contaminated soils into piles and stimulating the biodegrading activity of microbial populations by creating near optimum growth conditions. Phytoremediation is another very successful bioremediation technique and involves the use of plants and their associated microbiomes to degrade, sequester or bio-accumulate pollutants from contaminated soil and water. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a combined phytoremediation/biopiling system, termed Ecopiling, to remediate hydrocarbon impacted industrial soil. The large scale project was carried out on a sandy loam, petroleum impacted soil [1613 mg total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) kg-1 soil]. The contaminated soil was amended with chemical fertilizers, inoculated with TPH degrading bacterial consortia and then used to construct passive biopiles. Finally, a phyto-cap of perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne) and white clover (Trifolium repens) was sown on the soil surface to complete the Ecopile. Monitoring of important physico-chemical parameters was carried out at regular intervals throughout the trial. Two years after construction the TPH levels in the petroleum impacted Ecopiles were below detectable limits in all but one subsample (152 mg TPH kg-1 soil). The Ecopile system is a multi-factorial bioremediation process involving bio-stimulation, bio-augmentation and phytoremediation. One of the key advantages to this system is the reduced costs of the remediation process, as once constructed, there is little additional cost in terms of labor and maintenance (although the longer process time may incur additional monitoring costs). The other major advantage is that many ecological functions are rapidly restored to the site and the process is esthetically pleasing. PMID:25601875

  17. More milk from forage: Milk production, blood metabolites, and forage intake of dairy cows grazing pasture mixtures and spatially adjacent monocultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pembleton, Keith G; Hills, James L; Freeman, Mark J; McLaren, David K; French, Marion; Rawnsley, Richard P

    2016-05-01

    There is interest in the reincorporation of legumes and forbs into pasture-based dairy production systems as a means of increasing milk production through addressing the nutritive value limitations of grass pastures. The experiments reported in this paper were undertaken to evaluate milk production, blood metabolite concentrations, and forage intake levels of cows grazing either pasture mixtures or spatially adjacent monocultures containing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), white clover (Trifolium repens), and plantain (Plantago lanceolata) compared with cows grazing monocultures of perennial ryegrass. Four replicate herds, each containing 4 spring-calving, cross-bred dairy cows, grazed 4 different forage treatments over the periods of early, mid, and late lactation. Forage treatments were perennial ryegrass monoculture (PRG), a mixture of white clover and plantain (CPM), a mixture of perennial ryegrass, white clover, and plantain (RCPM), and spatially adjacent monocultures (SAM) of perennial ryegrass, white clover, and plantain. Milk volume, milk composition, blood fatty acids, blood β-hydroxybutyrate, blood urea N concentrations, live weight change, and estimated forage intake were monitored over a 5-d response period occurring after acclimation to each of the forage treatments. The acclimation period for the early, mid, and late lactation experiments were 13, 13, and 10 d, respectively. Milk yield (volume and milk protein) increased for cows grazing the RCPM and SAM in the early lactation experiment compared with cows grazing the PRG, whereas in the mid lactation experiment, milk fat increased for the cows grazing the RCPM and SAM when compared with the PRG treatments. Improvements in milk production from grazing the RCPM and SAM treatments are attributed to improved nutritive value (particularly lower neutral detergent fiber concentrations) and a potential increase in forage intake. Pasture mixtures or SAM containing plantain and white clover could be a

  18. Leaf economics spectrum-productivity relationships in intensively grazed pastures depend on dominant species identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Norman W H; Orwin, Kate; Lambie, Suzanne; Woodward, Sharon L; McCready, Tiffany; Mudge, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Plant functional traits are thought to drive variation in primary productivity. However, there is a lack of work examining how dominant species identity affects trait-productivity relationships. The productivity of 12 pasture mixtures was determined in a 3-year field experiment. The mixtures were based on either the winter-active ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or winter-dormant tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Different mixtures were obtained by adding forb, legume, and grass species that differ in key leaf economics spectrum (LES) traits to the basic two-species dominant grass-white clover (Trifolium repens) mixtures. We tested for correlations between community-weighted mean (CWM) trait values, functional diversity, and productivity across all plots and within those based on either ryegrass or tall fescue. The winter-dormant forb species (chicory and plantain) had leaf traits consistent with high relative growth rates both per unit leaf area (high leaf thickness) and per unit leaf dry weight (low leaf dry matter content). Together, the two forb species achieved reasonable abundance when grown with either base grass (means of 36% and 53% of total biomass, respectively, with ryegrass tall fescue), but they competed much more strongly with tall fescue than with ryegrass. Consequently, they had a net negative impact on productivity when grown with tall fescue, and a net positive effect when grown with ryegrass. Strongly significant relationships between productivity and CWM values for LES traits were observed across ryegrass-based mixtures, but not across tall fescue-based mixtures. Functional diversity did not have a significant positive effect on productivity for any of the traits. The results show dominant species identity can strongly modify trait-productivity relationships in intensively grazed pastures. This was due to differences in the intensity of competition between dominant species and additional species, suggesting that resource-use complementarity is a

  19. Effects of chicory/perennial ryegrass swards compared with perennial ryegrass swards on the performance and carcass quality of grazing beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Christina L; Fychan, Rhun; Davies, John W; Scollan, Nigel D; Richardson, R Ian; Theobald, Vince J; Genever, Elizabeth; Forbes, Andy B; Sanderson, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    An experiment investigated whether the inclusion of chicory (Cichorium intybus) in swards grazed by beef steers altered their performance, carcass characteristics or parasitism when compared to steers grazing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Triplicate 2-ha plots were established with a chicory/ryegrass mix or ryegrass control. Forty-eight Belgian Blue-cross steers were used in the first grazing season and a core group (n = 36) were retained for finishing in the second grazing season. The experiment comprised of a standardisation and measurement period. During standardisation, steers grazed a ryegrass/white clover pasture as one group. Animals were allocated to treatment on the basis of liveweight, body condition and faecal egg counts (FEC) determined 7 days prior to the measurement period. The measurement period ran from 25 May until 28 September 2010 and 12 April until 11 October 2011 in the first and second grazing year. Steers were weighed every 14 days at pasture or 28 days during housing. In the first grazing year, faecal samples were collected for FEC and parasite cultures. At the end of the first grazing year, individual blood samples were taken to determine O. ostertagi antibody and plasma pepsinogen levels. During winter, animals were housed as one group and fed silage. In the second grazing year, steers were slaughtered when deemed to reach fat class 3. Data on steer performance showed no differences in daily live-weight gain which averaged 1.04 kg/day. The conformation, fat grade and killing out proportion of beef steers grazing chicory/ryegrass or ryegrass were not found to differ. No differences in FEC, O. ostertagi antibody or plasma pepsinogen levels of beef steers grazing either chicory/ryegrass or ryegrass were observed. Overall, there were no detrimental effects of including chicory in swards grazed by beef cattle on their performance, carcass characteristics or helminth parasitism, when compared with steers grazing ryegrass. PMID:24489708

  20. Variation in the expression of ergot alkaloids between individual tillers of perennial ryegrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Wade; Lunn, Kristy; Lloyd-West, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    Epichloë fungal endophytes of cool season grasses are well known to produce a range of alkaloids of benefit to the host. Some of these compounds are advantageous to agriculture due to qualities that promote pasture persistence (e.g. the loline class of alkaloids confer insect protection) while others are detrimental to the wellbeing of grazing livestock. The ergot alkaloids (e.g. ergovaline), produced in ryegrass and tall fescue associations, causes poor animal health in farming regions in many countries around the world and further study is required to improve our knowledge on this class of compounds. Here we present the application of a quantitative LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry) method measuring eight ergot alkaloids (chanoclavine, agroclavine, elymoclavine, lysergol, lysergic acid, ergine, lysergyl alanine, ergovaline) produced by endophyte infected grasses, to monitor levels in individual tillers from multiple plants of a single cultivar of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne cv. ‘Grasslands Samson’) infected with a common toxic endophyte strain (Epichloë festucae var. lolii). Monitoring the expression in individual tillers allows an estimation of the variability within a plant (between tillers) as well as between plants. The study showed that there is significant variation in the concentration of the ergot alkaloids between tillers of a single plant, at or exceeding the level of variation observed between individual plants of a population. This result emphasizes the fundamental importance of robust experimental design and sampling procedures when alkaloid expression assessment is required and these need to be rigorously tailored to the hypothesis being tested.

  1. Animal performance and economic comparison of novel and toxic endophyte tall fescues to cool-season annuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, P A; Gunter, S A; Lusby, K S; West, C P; Watkins, K B; Hubbell, D S

    2008-08-01

    Increased costs of annual establishment of small grain pasture associated with fuel, machinery, and labor are eroding the profitability of stocker cattle enterprises. Interest has therefore increased in development of cool-season perennial grasses that are persistent and high quality. This study occurred on 24 ha (divided into thirty 0.81-ha paddocks) located at the University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture Livestock and Forestry Branch Station, near Batesville. Two tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) cultivars infected with novel endophytes (NE), Jesup infected with AR542 endophyte (Jesup AR542), and HiMag infected with Number 11 endophyte (HM11) were established in September 2002. Jesup AR542 and HM11 were compared with endemic endophyte Kentucky 31 (KY-31) tall fescue; wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and cereal rye (WR, Secale cereale L.) planted in September 2003, 2004, and 2005; and annual ryegrass [RG, Lolium perenne L. ssp. multiflorum (Lam.) Husnot] planted in September 2004 and 2005. Each year, 3 steers (3.7 steers/ha) were placed on each pasture for fall and winter grazing, and 5 steers (6.2 steers/ha) were placed on each pasture for spring grazing. Animal performance is presented by year in the presence of a year x treatment interaction (P or = 0.14). Body weight gain per hectare was least (P < 0.01) for steers grazing KY-31. Average net return of NE tall fescue was greater (P < 0.01) than KY-31, but profitability of NE did not consistently differ from cool-season annuals. Across the 3-yr study, NE tall fescue produced net returns per hectare of $219; this level of profitability would require 4 yr for a new planting of NE tall fescue to break even. Novel endophyte tall fescues offer potential benefits related to decreased risk of stand establishment of annual forage crops, longer growing season, and acceptable animal performance.

  2. Foliar or root exposures to smelter particles: consequences for lead compartmentalization and speciation in plant leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, Eva; Dappe, Vincent; Sarret, Géraldine; Sobanska, Sophie; Nowak, Dorota; Nowak, Jakub; Stefaniak, Elżbieta Anna; Magnin, Valérie; Ranieri, Vincent; Dumat, Camille

    2014-04-01

    In urban areas with high fallout of airborne particles, metal uptake by plants mainly occurs by foliar pathways and can strongly impact crop quality. However, there is a lack of knowledge on metal localization and speciation in plants after pollution exposure, especially in the case of foliar uptake. In this study, two contrasting crops, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and rye-grass (Lolium perenne L.), were exposed to Pb-rich particles emitted by a Pb-recycling factory via either atmospheric or soil application. Pb accumulation in plant leaves was observed for both ways of exposure. The mechanisms involved in Pb uptake were investigated using a combination of microscopic and spectroscopic techniques (electron microscopy, laser ablation, Raman microspectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy). The results show that Pb localization and speciation are strongly influenced by the type of exposure (root or shoot pathway) and the plant species. Foliar exposure is the main pathway of uptake, involving the highest concentrations in plant tissues. Under atmospheric fallouts, Pb-rich particles were strongly adsorbed on the leaf surface of both plant species. In lettuce, stomata contained Pb-rich particles in their apertures, with some deformations of guard cells. In addition to PbO and PbSO4, chemical forms that were also observed in pristine particles, new species were identified: organic compounds (minimum 20%) and hexagonal platy crystals of PbCO3. In rye-grass, the changes in Pb speciation were even more egregious: Pb-cell wall and Pb-organic acid complexes were the major species observed. For root exposure, identified here as a minor pathway of Pb transfer compared to foliar uptake, another secondary species, pyromorphite, was identified in rye-grass leaves. Finally, combining bulk and spatially resolved spectroscopic techniques permitted both the overall speciation and the minor but possibly highly reactive lead species to be determined in order to better assess the

  3. Greenhouse studies on the phyto-extraction capacity of Cynodon nlemfuensis for lead and cadmium under irrigation with treated wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madyiwa, S.; Chimbari, M. J.; Schutte, C. F.; Nyamangara, J.

    For over 30 years, discharge of sewage effluent and sludge on pasturelands has been used in Zimbabwe as a cheap method for secondary treatment of wastewater without any monitoring of accumulation of heavy metals in soils and grasses, let alone in animals grazing on the pastures. Cynodon nlemfuensis (star grass) has been the main grass planted on the wastewater irrigated pasturelands. This study was conducted to assess the capacity of star grass to accumulate lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) and develop models incorporating grass yield, metal uptake and soil bio-available (EDTA extractable) metal content, that could be used to determine critical grass and soil concentrations at which grass productivity declines. Star grass was planted in 30 fertilized pots containing sandy soil within a greenhouse. The pots consisted of nine treatments of varying levels of added inorganic Pb and Cd subjected to treated wastewater application and one control that had no added metals and received water application only. The elements were applied to the soils once just after planting the grass. Chemical analyses showed that star grass had a relatively high phyto-extraction capacity of Pb and Cd, comparable to that of hyper-accumulating grasses such as Lolium perenne (rye grass). It accumulated Pb and Cd to levels far beyond the recommended maximum limits for pasture grass. Analysis of variance on log-normal transformed data showed that bio-available soil metal concentrations correlated strongly with grass metal content and grass metal content correlated strongly with the yield. There was however a weak correlation between the yield and bio-available soil levels. The yield versus grass metal content models that were developed for the first crop and re-growth predicted similar critical metal concentrations and yields. Using the critical grass metal concentrations in the soil bio-available metal concentration versus grass metal concentration models allowed for the prediction of the

  4. Phyto extraction of {sup 99}Tc on soil cores with aged contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoura, S.T.; Echevarria, G.; Morel, J.L. [Institut National Polytechnique, Lab. Sols et Environnement, ENSAIA/INRA-INPL, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Massoura, S.T.; Leclerc-Cessac, E. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs, ANDRA, 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France); Denys, D. [INERIS, 60 - Verneuil en Halatte (France)

    2004-07-01

    {sup 99}Tc is an artificial radionuclide which is found in high-activity and long-lived nuclear waste. This work was designed to study the phyto-extraction of {sup 99}Tc in soils that had received aged contamination and to monitor the resulting {sup 99}Tc concentrations in the soil solution of undisturbed soil cores in a greenhouse. Undisturbed soil cores had been sampled previously from a Rendzic Leptosol (R), a Fluvic cambisol (F) and a Dystric cambisol (D), using 0.5-m diameter PVC tubing (3 samples/soil type) without disturbing soil structure (1). Each core was equipped with two nylon porous cups (respectively 20 and 35 cm deep) and a final leachate collector. A {sup 99}TcNO{sub 3} solution had been supplied at the soil surface of each core during the two previous years (4200 kBq in total) in which maize and wheat had been successively cropped. These two crops had already removed 30-65% of total contamination before the present study. After the second year no more {sup 99}Tc was added to the cores. Thereafter, Lolium perenne was cultivated for 20 successive months. {sup 99}Tc was determined in both plant aerial parts and water samples (from both cups and collectors), and the balance of {sup 99}Tc in the system was established after phyto-extraction. Results showed that transfer of {sup 99}Tc to plants vary among soils: 7% on soil R to 11% on soil D. Concentration of {sup 99}Tc in the porous cups dramatically decreased in all soils. The plants maintained low and stable concentration levels of {sup 99}Tc in the soil solution which decreased the potential migration of the radionuclide through the cores: The leaching of {sup 99}Tc in the final collectors of the R soil cores decreased from 18 to 1.7 Bq mL{sup -1}. (author)

  5. Thresholds of copper phytotoxicity in field-collected agricultural soils exposed to copper mining activities in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdejo, José; Ginocchio, Rosanna; Sauvé, Sébastien; Salgado, Eduardo; Neaman, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    It has been argued that the identification of the phytotoxic metal thresholds in soil should be based on field-collected soil rather than on artificially-contaminated soils. However, the use of field-collected soils presents several difficulties for interpretation because of mixed contamination and unavoidable covariance of metal contamination with other soil properties that affect plant growth. The objective of this study was to estimate thresholds of copper phytotoxicity in topsoils of 27 agricultural areas historically contaminated by mining activities in Chile. We performed emergence and early growth (21 days) tests (OECD 208 and ISO 11269-2) with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The total Cu content in soils was the best predictor of plant growth and shoot Cu concentrations, while soluble Cu and pCu(2+) did not well correlate with these biological responses. The effects of Pb, Zn, and As on plant responses were not significant, suggesting that Cu is a metal of prime concern for plant growth in soils exposed to copper mining activities in Chile. The effects of soil nutrient availability and shoot nutrient concentrations on ryegrass response were not significant. It was possible to determine EC10, EC25 and EC50 of total Cu in the soil of 327 mg kg(-1), 735 mg kg(-1) and 1144 mg kg(-1), respectively, using the shoot length as a response variable. However, the derived 95% confidence intervals for EC10, EC25 and EC50 values of total soil Cu were wide, and thus not allowing a robust assessment of metal toxicity for agricultural crops, based on total soil Cu concentrations. Thus, plant tests might need to be performed for metal toxicity assessment. This study suggests shoot length of ryegrass as a robust response variable for metal toxicity assessment in contaminated soils with different nutrient availability. PMID:26233921

  6. Development of a standard test procedure for devices on thermal weed control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verschwele, Arnd

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the standard evaluation of the efficacy of pesticides and the testing of spraying equipment there are no comparable testing procedure for equipment of thermal weed control. It is the aim of the investigations described here to develop a standard procedure for assessing temperature distribution and biological efficacy. This will be the basis for quality testing which can be directly used by practical users. Also it can help engineers to improve devices if constructive gaps will be identified by these tests. The results from testing a flaming device (Green-Flame 850 E demonstrated such a potential for technical improvement: The temperature decreased from 159 °C to 89 °C by increasing driving speed from 0.35 m/s to 0.81 m/s. The variation of the temperature related to the working width was extremely high: The range was 60 °C at highest speed and 79 °C at lowest speed, respectively. The biological efficacy against the test plant species Sinapis arvensis was also affected by the driving speed and the corresponding temperature. A driving speed not higher than 0.53 m/s resulted in efficacy rates of almost 95%. However, the efficacy was only 66% at the highest tested speed of 0.81 m/s. Thus, the needed effective temperature is between 89 °C und 106 °C. In contrast, Lolium perenne was controlled by only 72% under the tested conditions. Here a dose-response relationship was not observed. The variation of the temperature, as well as the biological efficacy, was extremely heterogeneous and not satisfying in terms of an economic and safe use. Similar results were found for other devices on thermal weed control.

  7. Variation in the expression of ergot alkaloids between individual tillers of perennial ryegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade Jeffray Mace

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Epichloë fungal endophytes of cool season grasses are well known to produce a range of alkaloids of benefit to the host. Some of these compounds are advantageous to agriculture due to qualities that promote pasture persistence (e.g. the loline class of alkaloids confer insect protection while others are detrimental to the wellbeing of grazing livestock. The ergot alkaloids (e.g. ergovaline, produced in ryegrass and tall fescue associations, causes poor animal health in farming regions in many countries around the world and further study is required to improve our knowledge on this class of compounds. Here we present the application of a quantitative LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry method measuring eight ergot alkaloids (chanoclavine, agroclavine, elymoclavine, lysergol, lysergic acid, ergine, lysergyl alanine, ergovaline produced by endophyte infected grasses, to monitor levels in individual tillers from multiple plants of a single cultivar of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne cv. ‘Grasslands Samson’ infected with a common toxic endophyte strain (Epichloë festucae var. lolii. Monitoring the expression in individual tillers allows an estimation of the variability within a plant (between tillers as well as between plants.The study showed that there is significant variation in the concentration of the ergot alkaloids between tillers of a single plant, at or exceeding the level of variation observed between individual plants of a population. This result emphasizes the fundamental importance of robust experimental design and sampling procedures when alkaloid expression assessment is required and these need to be rigorously tailored to the hypothesis being tested.

  8. Bioassay and use in irrigation of untreated and treated wastewaters from phosphate fertilizer industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouider, Mbarka; Feki, Mongi; Sayadi, Sami

    2010-07-01

    Wastewater from phosphate fertilizer industry that contains essentially a significant amount of both fluoride and phosphate was treated by separative precipitation of fluoride ions with hydrated lime. Thus, a phosphate-rich effluent with low content of fluoride was obtained. The microtoxicity of the treated wastewater was then monitored by LUMIStox and its phytotoxicity was investigated on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), wheat (Triticum aestivum), maize (Zea mays), ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) seed germination and plant growth. The cress (Lepidium sativum) was used as a standard species for the germination index and phytotoxicity evaluation. Seedlings of four species (namely wheat, maize, ryegrass, and alfalfa) were grown in pots, which were irrigated with untreated wastewater, treated wastewater, aqueous solution of triple superphosphate fertilizer (TSP) or with tap water as control. LUMIStox tests showed that lime treatment allowed a significant toxicity removal. The treated water displayed beneficial fertilizing effect on plants. An increase in the germination index from 100% to 119% was observed. However, the untreated wastewater inhibited the species germination even when diluted 10 times. Neither plants mortality nor growth inhibition was observed after 90 days of treated wastewater application. Moreover, an improvement in plant growth, leaf number and a root development were noticed in these plants when compared with those irrigated with tap water or with fertilizer. In contrast, leaf necrosis and growth inhibition were observed in plants amended with raw wastewater. The irrigation with treated wastewater also improved soil labile P content. Indeed, soils amended with treated wastewater had more a double labile P concentration (38.15 mg kg(-1)) in comparison with control soil (15.53 mg kg(-1)). PMID:20061024

  9. Performance of lactating dairy cows fed alfalfa silage or perennial ryegrass silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, P C; Combs, D K; Casler, M D

    1998-01-01

    The nutrient contents of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) are reasonably similar. Despite similarities, the lactation performance of dairy cows fed perennial ryegrass has not been compared with the lactation performance of dairy cows fed alfalfa. The present study was implemented to compare the performance of lactating cows fed alfalfa or perennial ryegrass silage. Alfalfa and perennial ryegrass were harvested at late bud and boot stages of maturity, respectively, and ensiled in separate 4.9- x 18.3-m concrete silos. The experimental silages were supplemented with a concentrate mix at 31.1% of dietary dry matter and fed to 18 multiparous Holstein cows in early lactation in a crossover experimental design with 28-d periods. Digestibility and rate of passage of experimental diets were also measured using rare earth markers. The perennial ryegrass contained 3.0 percentage units more neutral detergent fiber than did alfalfa, but in vitro digestibility of neutral detergent fiber was 8.8 percentage units higher for perennial ryegrass. In vitro digestibility of dry matter was also higher for perennial ryegrass. Cows fed alfalfa silage produced more milk (31.8 kg/d) than did cows fed perennial ryegrass silage (30.2 kg/d). Cows fed perennial ryegrass silage ate less feed (2.2 kg/d) than did cows fed alfalfa. Because dry matter intake was lower, diet digestibilities were higher, and rate of passage was slower, for cows consuming perennial ryegrass. Based on laboratory evaluations, perennial ryegrass silage has high nutritional quality, but performance of lactating cows indicated that the forage was suboptimal for supporting high milk production when compared with alfalfa. The perennial ryegrass silage was suboptimal because it did not stimulate high amounts of dry matter intake in lactating cows. PMID:9493091

  10. Quantum dot transport in soil, plants, and insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salim, Najeh; Barraclough, Emma; Burgess, Elisabeth; Clothier, Brent; Deurer, Markus; Green, Steve; Malone, Louise; Weir, Graham

    2011-08-01

    Environmental risk assessment of nanomaterials requires information not only on their toxicity to non-target organisms, but also on their potential exposure pathways. Here we report on the transport and fate of quantum dots (QDs) in the total environment: from soils, through their uptake into plants, to their passage through insects following ingestion. Our QDs are nanoparticles with an average particle size of 6.5 nm. Breakthrough curves obtained with CdTe/mercaptopropionic acid QDs applied to columns of top soil from a New Zealand organic apple orchard, a Hastings silt loam, showed there to be preferential flow through the soil's macropores. Yet the effluent recovery of QDs was just 60%, even after several pore volumes, indicating that about 40% of the influent QDs were filtered and retained by the soil column via some unknown exchange/adsorption/sequestration mechanism. Glycine-, mercaptosuccinic acid-, cysteine-, and amine-conjugated CdSe/ZnS QDs were visibly transported to a limited extent in the vasculature of ryegrass (Lolium perenne), onion (Allium cepa) and chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum sp.) plants when cut stems were placed in aqueous QD solutions. However, they were not seen to be taken up at all by rooted whole plants of ryegrass, onion, or Arabidopsis thaliana placed in these solutions. Leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae fed with these QDs for two or four days, showed fluorescence along the entire gut, in their frass (larval feces), and, at a lower intensity, in their haemolymph. Fluorescent QDs were also observed and elevated cadmium levels detected inside the bodies of adult moths that had been fed QDs as larvae. These results suggest that exposure scenarios for QDs in the total environment could be quite complex and variable in each environmental domain. PMID:21632093

  11. 湖南省铅锌尾矿污染区植被修复适生植物选择研究%Screening of Vegetation for Ecological Restoration around Lead-Zinc Tailings Site in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙伟; 王琼; 张望; 吴亮亮; 周连碧

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a very effective way to remedy heavy metal polluted site. The investigations and tests on vegetation and plants of Qiaokou & Yongxing Peng lead-zinc tailings area in Zixing city, Hunan shows that: ①Herbs have perfect ability to adapt lead-zinc tailings contaminated land; ②Absorption capacity of heavy metals by plants are mutually influenced by genetic factor and environment domestication;③Caulis Fici Tikouae, Lespedeza bicolor Turc. and Lolium perenne L. have perfect ability of migrating and gathering Pb and zinc, and could be used for ecological restoration at Pb and zinc pollution site.%植物修复技术是重金属污染场地修复十分有效的方法。本研究通过调查、测试湖南资兴市东江湖桥口和永兴棚铅锌尾矿污染区的植物与土壤,分析得出:淤草本植物对铅锌尾矿污染土地有强适应能力;于植物对重金属吸收能力受遗传特性与环境的驯化共同影响;盂地枇杷、胡枝子和黑麦草分别对Pb和Zn有较强的迁移能力和富集能力,可用于Pb和Zn污染地区的生态修复。

  12. Impact of drought on C forms and fluxes in the soil - plant continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpel, Cornelia; Sanaullah, Muhammad; Chabbi, Abad

    2016-04-01

    Global change is likely to increase the drought periods, which may have significant consequences for the turnover of SOM, in particular through their effect on plants. The aim of the study was to assess different compartments of the soil - plant continuum for their response to drought stress by combining field and laboratory experiments. We focused on three common grassland species (Lolium perenne, Festuca arundinacea and Dactylis glomerata) found to constitute grasslands of the temperate climate. We investigated drought impact on (1) plant biochemistry and potential mineralization of this material in soil, (2) decomposition of aboveground plant leaf litter of different quality, (3) plant-mediated soil C fluxes including (4) soil microbial biomass and their enzyme activities in the rhizosphere. Plant elemental and biochemical composition showed contrasting changes depending on the species in response to drought stress. The changes in elemental and biochemical composition of leaf litter, ultimately influenced its mineralization in soil. Drought stress highly modified the decomposition dynamics of litter from the three grassland species as a function of litter quality. Moreover, drought stress resulted in significant decrease in both shoot and root biomass in monocultures, while root biomass did not change when they were grown in mixture. Under drought stress, we observed higher belowground allocation of photosynthates and the drought had reduced root-derived respiration. This resulted in significant changes of soil enzyme activities. Our results suggested that plant species and community composition strongly influenced the drought effects in the rhizosphere. Thus, plant community composition and in particular the introduction of legumes might be used as a tool to attenuate drought stress not only because of different water use efficiency by plants, but also by their indirect effects on soil microbial activities affecting C and N cycles.

  13. Fate and transformation products of amine-terminated PAMAM dendrimers under ozonation and irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago-Morales, Javier [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alcalá, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Rosal, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.rosal@uah.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alcalá, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Advanced Study Institute of Madrid, IMDEA Agua, Parque Científico Tecnológico, 28805 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Hernando, María D. [Spanish National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology – INIA, Crta. de la Coruña, km 7.5, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ulaszewska, Maria M. [Advanced Study Institute of Madrid, IMDEA Agua, Parque Científico Tecnológico, 28805 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); García-Calvo, Eloy [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alcalá, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Advanced Study Institute of Madrid, IMDEA Agua, Parque Científico Tecnológico, 28805 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R. [Advanced Study Institute of Madrid, IMDEA Agua, Parque Científico Tecnológico, 28805 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Pesticide Residue Research Group, Department of Hydrogeology and Analytical Chemistry, University of Almería, 04120 Almería (Spain)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • We detected transformation products from dendrimer under ozonation and irradiation. • Retro-Michael fragmentation pathway with highly oxygenated structures. • High toxicity of G3 PAMAM dendrimer for green algae. • Reactive oxygen species were associated with the toxic damage. • Transformation mixtures could be more toxic than the parent dendrimer. -- Abstract: This article deals with the degradation of a third-generation (G3) poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer under ozonation and irradiation. The identification and quantification of G3 PAMAM dendrimer and its transformation products has been performed by liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization-hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. The dendrimer was completely depleted by ozone in less than 1 min. The effect of ultraviolet irradiation was attributed to hydroxyl-mediated oxidation. The transformation products were attributed to the oxidation of amines, which resulted in highly oxidized structures with abundance of carboxylic acids, which started from the formation of amine oxide and the scission of the C-N bond of the amide group. We studied the toxicity of treated mixtures for six different organisms: the acute toxicity for the bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the microcrustacean Daphnia magna, the multigenerational growth inhibition of the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, and the seed germination phytotoxicity of Licopersicon esculentum, Lactuca sativa and Lolium perenne. Ozonation and irradiation originated transformation products are more toxic than the parent dendrimer. The toxicity of the dendrimer for the green alga was linked to a strong increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species with intense lipid peroxidation.

  14. Mass spectrometric analysis of electrophoretically separated allergens and proteases in grass pollen diffusates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geczy Carolyn L

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pollens are important triggers for allergic asthma and seasonal rhinitis, and proteases released by major allergenic pollens can injure airway epithelial cells in vitro. Disruption of mucosal epithelial integrity by proteases released by inhaled pollens could promote allergic sensitisation. Methods Pollen diffusates from Kentucky blue grass (Poa pratensis, rye grass (Lolium perenne and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon were assessed for peptidase activity using a fluorogenic substrate, as well as by gelatin zymography. Following one- or two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, Coomassie-stained individual bands/spots were excised, subjected to tryptic digestion and analysed by mass spectrometry, either MALDI reflectron TOF or microcapillary liquid chromatography MS-MS. Database searches were used to identify allergens and other plant proteins in pollen diffusates. Results All pollen diffusates tested exhibited peptidase activity. Gelatin zymography revealed high Mr proteolytic activity at ~ 95,000 in all diffusates and additional proteolytic bands in rye and Bermuda grass diffusates, which appeared to be serine proteases on the basis of inhibition studies. A proteolytic band at Mr ~ 35,000 in Bermuda grass diffusate, which corresponded to an intense band detected by Western blotting using a monoclonal antibody to the timothy grass (Phleum pratense group 1 allergen Phl p 1, was identified by mass spectrometric analysis as the group 1 allergen Cyn d 1. Two-dimensional analysis similarly demonstrated proteolytic activity corresponding to protein spots identified as Cyn d 1. Conclusion One- and two-dimensional electrophoretic separation, combined with analysis by mass spectrometry, is useful for rapid determination of the identities of pollen proteins. A component of the proteolytic activity in Bermuda grass diffusate is likely to be related to the allergen Cyn d 1.

  15. 施肥量和施肥方式对人工混播草地产草量的影响%Influence of fertilizer application rates and methods on forage yield in mixed sward

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫本田; 罗天琼; 韩永芬

    2000-01-01

    采用裂区试验设计探讨了施肥量和施肥方式两个因素对以苇状羊茅、多年生黑麦草为主的人工混播草地产草量的影响,结果表明:随着施肥量增加,鲜草产量明显提高,不同施肥量处理间产量差异达极显著水平(P<0.01);随着基肥比例的增大,追肥比例的减少,鲜草产量反而降低,不同基肥比例处理间产量差异也达极显著水平(P<0.01).另外,相同氮肥量条件下3种施用方式处理与相应的鲜草产量间都成直线关系(r5:5=0.9771**,r6:4=0.9630**,r7:3=0.9643**).%The influence of fertilizer application rates and methods on forage yield in mixed sward, predominantly Lolium perenne and Festuca arundinacea, was tested by split--plot design. The results showed that green forage yield was significant difference (P<0.01)among fertilizer application rates, green forage yield increased with the rates. Whereas response to ground fertilizer proportion increased and top fertilizer proportion decreased, green forage yield declined and was significant difference (P<0.01) among those treatments. Linear positive correlation(P~0.01) between nitrogen application amounts and green forage yield was observed in all of the three ground and top fertilizer ratio treatments included 50%: 50%.4 (r =0. 977 1), 60%:40%(r=0. 963 0) and 70%:30%(r=0. 964 3).

  16. Thresholds of copper phytotoxicity in field-collected agricultural soils exposed to copper mining activities in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdejo, José; Ginocchio, Rosanna; Sauvé, Sébastien; Salgado, Eduardo; Neaman, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    It has been argued that the identification of the phytotoxic metal thresholds in soil should be based on field-collected soil rather than on artificially-contaminated soils. However, the use of field-collected soils presents several difficulties for interpretation because of mixed contamination and unavoidable covariance of metal contamination with other soil properties that affect plant growth. The objective of this study was to estimate thresholds of copper phytotoxicity in topsoils of 27 agricultural areas historically contaminated by mining activities in Chile. We performed emergence and early growth (21 days) tests (OECD 208 and ISO 11269-2) with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The total Cu content in soils was the best predictor of plant growth and shoot Cu concentrations, while soluble Cu and pCu(2+) did not well correlate with these biological responses. The effects of Pb, Zn, and As on plant responses were not significant, suggesting that Cu is a metal of prime concern for plant growth in soils exposed to copper mining activities in Chile. The effects of soil nutrient availability and shoot nutrient concentrations on ryegrass response were not significant. It was possible to determine EC10, EC25 and EC50 of total Cu in the soil of 327 mg kg(-1), 735 mg kg(-1) and 1144 mg kg(-1), respectively, using the shoot length as a response variable. However, the derived 95% confidence intervals for EC10, EC25 and EC50 values of total soil Cu were wide, and thus not allowing a robust assessment of metal toxicity for agricultural crops, based on total soil Cu concentrations. Thus, plant tests might need to be performed for metal toxicity assessment. This study suggests shoot length of ryegrass as a robust response variable for metal toxicity assessment in contaminated soils with different nutrient availability.

  17. Vegetation establishment on a deposit of zinc mine wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergholm, J; Steen, E

    1989-01-01

    Field trials concerning the establishment of plant cover on a deposit of wastes from the Ammeberg zinc mine in central Sweden were carried out during 1976-1985. Different soil conditioners and manures were applied and plant species cultivars were evaluated with regard to plant biomass, vigour, durability and content of zinc, lead and cadmium. Sewage sludge and topsoil led to better establishment of grasses than did municipal waste, straw and hydraulic seeding. After 2 years, Festuca rubra and Poa pratensis dominated the swards. Other species (Dactylis glomerata, Bromus inermis, Lolium perenne, Phleum nodosum, Festuca pratensis and F. arundinacea) constituted only a minor part of the stand. After 10 years, F. rubra was the most dominant species, while native Agrostis tenuis had invaded 20-50% of the area within the plots. Merlin was the clearly dominant red fescue cultivar. The concentration of zinc in shoots (616 mg kg(-1) dw) was about 10% of that in the soil. Zinc concentration decreased with increasing biomass above ground. It increased with age in Scots pine needles and was very high in birch leaves. Grasses survived longer than legumes in the zinc sand waste. Among the surviving grasses was a group with high (3800 mg kg(-1) dw) and a group with low (320 mg kg(-1) dw) zinc concentrations. The low group included Merlin red fescue and Sobel creeping bent. The cultivar Merlin contained a much lower zinc concentration than the other cultivars of red fescue (375 and 624 mg kg(-1) dw, respectively). A large amount of root biomass was present in plots with dominating Merlin red fescue (1715 g m(-2)), 97% of which was concentrated in the top 10 cm of the soil. The concentration of zinc in the roots was very high (13 000-25 000 mg kg(-1) dw). Nitrate fertilizer, especially ammonium nitrate, and acidic water (pH 4.3) increased zinc leaching.

  18. Alteração das características biológicas dos biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum ocasionada pela resistência ao herbicida glyphosate Change in the biological characteristics of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum biotypes caused by resistance to the herbicide glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vargas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A resistência de biótipos de azevém ao herbicida glyphosate está alterando o manejo da vegetação de cobertura do solo em pomares de maçã. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a dose de glyphosate necessária para reduzir 50% do acúmulo de matéria seca (GR50, a resposta do biótipo resistente e sensível a herbicidas graminicidas e o acúmulo de matéria seca destes biótipos durante o ciclo. Para isso, foram conduzidos três experimentos. No primeiro, os tratamentos constaram de doses crescentes de glyphosate aplicadas sobre plantas dos biótipos resistente e sensível para determinar o GR50. No segundo experimento, os tratamentos constaram de doses dos herbicidas glyphosate, haloxyfop-r, diclofop, fluazifop-p, fenoxaprop-p e paraquat. No terceiro experimento, sementes dos biótipos resistente e sensível foram semeadas em recipientes com capacidade para 10 L e as plantas originadas delas foram colhidas quinzenalmente, para determinação da matéria seca da parte aérea, radicular e total. Como resultados, foi obtido GR50 de 287,5 e de 4.833,5 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate para os biótipos sensível e resistente, respectivamente, e verificou-se que existem diferenças significativas na resposta dos biótipos aos herbicidas graminicidas, dependendo da dose utilizada. Além disso, o biótipo sensível evidenciou maior capacidade de acúmulo de matéria seca e produção de sementes. Constatouse, assim, fator de resistência (FR de 16,8 e que o mecanismo de resistência provoca alterações nas características biológicas do biótipo resistente e afeta a sensibilidade deste aos herbicidas graminicidas.The identification of ryegrass biotypes resistant to glyphosate is causing changes in weed management in apple orchards. Three experiments were carried out to determine the GR50 of the biotypes, to grass herbicides and dry matter accumulation. The first experiment tested different rates of glyphosate. Their effects on GR50 dry matter accumulation by the biotype were assessed. In the second experiment different rates of glyphosate and grass herbicides were tested: glyphosate, haloxyfop-r, diclofop, fluazifop-p, fenoxaprop-p and paraquat. A third experiments was carried out under glasshouse conditions to determine the curve of dry matter accumulation. The results showed GR50 of 287.5 and 4,833.5 g e. a. ha-1 of glyphosate for the sensitive and resistant biotypes, respectively. The results showed that the resistant factor (RF was 16.8 and that the resistance mechanism alters the biological characteristics of the resistant biotype affecting its sensitivity to grass herbicides.

  19. Residual da mistura formulada dos herbicidas imazethapyr e imazapic em solo de várzea sobre azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cultivado em sucessão ao arroz tolerante Carryover of the formulated mixture of the herbicides imazethapyr and imazapic in lowland soils, affecting ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Grohs

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Herbicidas do grupo das imidazolinonas, como imazethapyr e imazapic, podem persistir no solo e afetar culturas não-tolerantes cultivadas em sucessão. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito residual da mistura formulada de imazethapyr+imazapic sobre azevém semeado e conduzido sob condições de casa de vegetação. Para isso, inicialmente foi conduzido um experimento em campo, em que aplicou-se sobre a cultivar tolerante de arroz ("IRGA 422 CL" diferentes doses da mistura formulada de imazethapyr+imazapic, representadas por: 0L ha-1 (testemunha; 0,7L ha-1 em pré-emergência (PRE seguido da aplicação de 0,7L ha-1 em pós-emergência (POS; 1,0L ha-1 em PRE; e 1,0L ha-1 em POS. Posteriormente, aos 194 dias após a aplicação das doses, foram coletadas amostras intactas de solo na camada de 0-10cm, as quais foram utilizadas na condução de um bioensaio com azevém. Foram avaliadas a porcentagem de plantas emergidas aos três e 22 DAE (dias após a emergência e a matéria seca do azevém aos 40 DAE. Verificou-se que a aplicação dos herbicidas na cultura do arroz no verão não ocasiona danos ao azevém semeado 194 dias após a aplicação do produto.Imidazolinone herbicides, such as imazethapyr and imazapic, may persist in the soil and carryover to non-tolerant crops. This work aimed at evaluating the field carryover of the formulated mixture of imazethapyr+imazapic affecting ryegrass. For this reason, a field experiment was carried out, in which different rates of the formulated mixture of imazethapyr and imazapic were applied on a tolerant rice cultivar (';IRGA 422 CL';: 0L ha-1 (check plot; 0.7L ha-1 preemergence (PRE followed by 0.7L ha-1 postemergence (POS; 1.0L ha-1 PRE; 1.0L ha-1 POS. Later, 194 days after herbicide application, intact soils cores samples were collected at 0 to 10cm depth to carry out a bioassay in greenhouse, sowing ryegrass. It was evaluated the percentage of plants established at three and 22 DAE (days after emergence and ryegrass dry biomass at 40 DAE. The results showed that herbicides applied on rice crop during summer does not cause damage to the ryegrass sowed 194 days after herbicide application.

  20. Efeito de fertilizantes minerais e orgânicos na produção de Azevém (Lolium multiflorum L.: produção de matéria seca e azoto aparentemente recuperado Effect of mineral and organic fertilizers in the ryegrass yield (Lolium multiflorum L.: Dry matter yield and apparent N recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arrobas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o azoto disponibilizado para as plantas a partir de fertilizantes minerais e orgânicos, foi instalado um ensaio em vasos com azevém anual. Os fertilizantes utilizados foram: Casca de Castanha (CC com 0,6% de azoto (N; Estrume de Bovino (EB, com 2,3% de N; Beira Adubo (BA, um guano comercial com 3,0% de N; Nitrato de Amónio (NA, com 20,5% de N, Entec (En, adubo com um inibidor da nitrificação, com 26% de N; e Fertigafsa (Fg, adubo composto ternário 4-16-12. Estabeleceu-se também uma modalidade Testemunha (T sem N. Todos os fertilizantes foram aplicados em dose equivalente a 200 mg de N por kg da fracção terra fina de um solo com textura franco-limosa, com pH (H2O 5,2 e 27 g kg-1 de matéria orgânica. Em todos os vasos foi aplicada uma solução nutritiva sem N. A sementeira foi efectuada a 1 de Outubro de 2004. Após germinação, foram mantidas 50 plantas por vaso. A produção de biomassa foi avaliada em 6 cortes, entre 9 de Novembro de 2004 e 4 de Agosto de 2005. Foi avaliada a produção de biomassa, o N exportado e o N aparentemente recuperado (NAR. A produção média acumulada de matéria seca variou significativamente entre 1,7 e 4,1 g/vaso em T e NA, respectivamente. A modalidade NA registou a exportação mais elevada (167 mg N/vaso e o maior valor de NAR (64%. Entre os fertilizantes minerais destacou-se o menor valor de NAR associado a En (45%, enquanto que os materiais orgânicos BA e EB tiveram comportamento semelhante entre si (24 e 22%, respectivamente. Nestas condições, os fertilizantes orgânicos (BA e EB e En foram pouco efectivos na libertação de N para a cultura. Os resultados fazem antever dificuldades na gestão destes fertilizantes em culturas anuais de ciclo curto, uma vez que estas podem ficar privadas de N durante fases importantes do seu desenvolvimento.A pot experiment with italian ryegrass was carried out to evaluate the N release from several fertilisers and organic amendments. The fertilizing materials were: chestnut fruit bark (CC, with 0.6% N, farmyard manure (EB, with 2.3% N, Beira Adubo (BA, a commercial organic amendment with 3% N; ammonium nitrate (NA, with 20.5% N; Entec (En, a fertiliser with a nitrification inhibitor, with 26% N; Fertigafsa (Fg a 4-16-12 compound fertiliser, and control (T without N fertilisation. All the fertilisers were applied at a rate equivalent to 200 mg N per kg of soil (< 2mm. A silt-loam soil with pH(H2O 5.2 and 27 g kg-1 of organic matter was used in the soil/fertiliser mixtures. A nutrient solution without N was added to all the pots. The crop was sown on the 1st October, 2004. After crop emergence, the plants were thinned to 50 plants per pot. Six harvests of ryegrass were taken between November 9, 2004 and August 4, 2005. Nitrogen uptake and apparent N recovery (NAR were also estimated after the determination of tissue N content. Total dry matter yields (6 cuts were significantly different between treatments. Extreme values ranged between 1.7 g/pot (T and 4.1 g/pot (NA. The higher N uptake was recorded in the NA treatment (167 mg N/pot, as well as the higher NAR (64%. Entec produced the lowest NAR (45% among the mineral fertilisers. The organic amendments BA and EB showed similar NAR, 24 and 22%, respectively. The N released from BA, EB and En during the growing season was very low. The results stress the difficulties in properly managing this kind of fertilisers in annual crops with short growing cycles, where a N shortage could occur during important phases of crop development.

  1. Residual da mistura formulada dos herbicidas imazethapyr e imazapic em solo de várzea sobre azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) cultivado em sucessão ao arroz tolerante Carryover of the formulated mixture of the herbicides imazethapyr and imazapic in lowland soils, affecting ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mara Grohs; Fernando Machado dos Santos; Enio Marchezan; Paulo Fabrício Sachet Massoni; Diego Rost Arosemena; Luis Antônio de Avila

    2008-01-01

    Herbicidas do grupo das imidazolinonas, como imazethapyr e imazapic, podem persistir no solo e afetar culturas não-tolerantes cultivadas em sucessão. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito residual da mistura formulada de imazethapyr+imazapic sobre azevém semeado e conduzido sob condições de casa de vegetação. Para isso, inicialmente foi conduzido um experimento em campo, em que aplicou-se sobre a cultivar tolerante de arroz ("IRGA 422 CL") diferentes doses da mistura formulada de imazet...

  2. Response of Hyperaccumulator Ryegrass(Loliurn perenne L.) to Cadmium, Zinc and their combined pollution%重金属富集植物黑麦草对锌、镉复合污染的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐卫红; 王宏信; 王正银; 熊治庭

    2006-01-01

    采用盆栽试验研究了锌、镉单一及复合污染对重金属蓄集植物黑麦草生长、叶绿素、抗氧化酶活性、锌及镉吸收的影响.结果表明,锌、镉及复合污染对黑麦草生物量存在不同程度的抑制作用.锌、镉及复合污染均明显降低了黑麦草叶绿素含量,提高了叶片POD、SOD的活性.黑麦草吸收的锌、镉主要集中在植株地上部.以锌、镉复合污染的处理植株抗氧化酶POD、SOD活性最强,对锌、镉的吸收量最大,其地上部锌、镉含量分别达到(3108.72、73.97mg/kg).黑麦草存在作为土壤重金属锌、镉复合污染植物修复材料的潜力.

  3. Classification of Irregular Varieties : Minimal Models and Abelian Varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Catanese, Fabrizio; Ciliberto, Ciro

    1992-01-01

    M. Andreatta,E.Ballico,J.Wisniewski: Projective manifolds containing large linear subspaces; - F.Bardelli: Algebraic cohomology classes on some specialthreefolds; - Ch.Birkenhake,H.Lange: Norm-endomorphisms of abelian subvarieties; - C.Ciliberto,G.van der Geer: On the jacobian of ahyperplane section of a surface; - C.Ciliberto,H.Harris,M.Teixidor i Bigas: On the endomorphisms of Jac (W1d(C)) when p=1 and C has general moduli; - B. van Geemen: Projective models of Picard modular varieties; - J.Kollar,Y.Miyaoka,S.Mori: Rational curves on Fano varieties; - R. Salvati Manni: Modular forms of the fourth degree; A. Vistoli: Equivariant Grothendieck groups and equivariant Chow groups; - Trento examples; Open problems

  4. Effects of Cattle Barnyard Compost and Nitrogen Fertilizer Application on Yield and Chemical Composition of Maize (Zea mays L.) and Italian Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) in Double Cropping System

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Ahmad Darobin; Kumagai, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of cattle barnyard compost (CBC) and nitrogen (N) fertilizer on soil and on yield and quality of maize (MZ) and italian ryegrass (IR) in double cropping system. The experiment used 4 rates of CBC and N fertilizer, respectively, i.e. CBC at rate of 0, 3, 6, 9 ton/10a and N fertilizer at rate of 0, 18, 36, 54 kg N/10a for MZ and 0, 10, 20, 30 kg N/10a for IR. Cattle barnyard compost increased organic matter and total N in soil. There was n...

  5. Phenotypic and molecular genetic characterization indicate no major race-specific interactions between Xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis and Lolium multiflorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wichmann, F; Hug, B Müller; Widmer, F;

    2011-01-01

    (AMMI) analysis revealed five genotypes which did not cluster close to the origin of the biplot, indicating specific interactions between these genotypes and some bacterial isolates. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to identify marker-resistance associations using the same plant genotypes...

  6. Expression of alkane monooxygenase (alkB) genes by plant-associated bacteria in the rhizosphere and endosphere of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) grown in diesel contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For phytoremediation of organic contaminants, plants have to host an efficiently degrading microflora. To assess the role of endophytes in alkane degradation, Italian ryegrass was grown in sterile soil with 0, 1 or 2% diesel and inoculated either with an alkane degrading bacterial strain originally derived from the rhizosphere of Italian ryegrass or with an endophyte. We studied plant colonization of these strains as well as the abundance and expression of alkane monooxygenase (alkB) genes in the rhizosphere, shoot and root interior. Results showed that the endophyte strain better colonized the plant, particularly the plant interior, and also showed higher expression of alkB genes suggesting a more efficient degradation of the pollutant. Furthermore, plants inoculated with the endophyte were better able to grow in the presence of diesel. The rhizosphere strain colonized primarily the rhizosphere and showed low alkB gene expression in the plant interior. - Bacterial alkane degradation genes are expressed in the rhizosphere and in the plant interior.

  7. Características agronômicas produtivas, qualidade e custo de produção de forragem em pastagem de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam fertilizada com dois tipos de adubo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Filho Dari Celestino

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido, com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento produtivo e qualitativo, bem como, o custo de produção de forragem da pastagem de azevém comum, em pastejo contínuo, fertilizada com dois tipos de adubos: Organo-mineral (AOM e Químico (AQ. O estabelecimento da pastagem foi em 24/04/1999, com semeadura a lanço e o nível de adubação, em cobertura, foi de 300kg ha-1 do AOM na fórmula 06-08-08 ou do AQ na fórmula 10-18-20. Não houve interação significativa entre os fertilizantes e período de avaliação para as variáveis estudadas. A fonte de nutrientes, para os valores médios, não afetou significativamente o teor de matéria seca (MS no resíduo (22,6 vs 22,2%, a taxa de acumulação diária (72,3 vs 63,3kg ha-1 de MS, a produção total de forragem (7.518 vs 6.801kg ha-1 de MS, o teor de proteína bruta (12,8 vs 12,7%, a fibra em detergente neutro (57,4 vs 57,4% e a fibra em detergente ácido (31,0 vs 32,3%, respectivamente, para o AOM e AQ. O custo total da pastagem foi de 225,90 e 253,50 R$ ha-1, e a fonte de nutrientes representou 37,6 e 44,4%, respectivamente, para o AOM e AQ. Para o custo de forragem produzida, os valores foram de 0,030 e 0,037 R$ kg-1 de MS para a pastagem fertilizada com AOM e AQ, respectivamente.

  8. Expression of alkane monooxygenase (alkB) genes by plant-associated bacteria in the rhizosphere and endosphere of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) grown in diesel contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andria, Verania [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Bioresources Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Reichenauer, Thomas G. [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Unit of Environmental Resources and Technologies, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Sessitsch, Angela, E-mail: angela.sessitsch@ait.ac.a [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Bioresources Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2009-12-15

    For phytoremediation of organic contaminants, plants have to host an efficiently degrading microflora. To assess the role of endophytes in alkane degradation, Italian ryegrass was grown in sterile soil with 0, 1 or 2% diesel and inoculated either with an alkane degrading bacterial strain originally derived from the rhizosphere of Italian ryegrass or with an endophyte. We studied plant colonization of these strains as well as the abundance and expression of alkane monooxygenase (alkB) genes in the rhizosphere, shoot and root interior. Results showed that the endophyte strain better colonized the plant, particularly the plant interior, and also showed higher expression of alkB genes suggesting a more efficient degradation of the pollutant. Furthermore, plants inoculated with the endophyte were better able to grow in the presence of diesel. The rhizosphere strain colonized primarily the rhizosphere and showed low alkB gene expression in the plant interior. - Bacterial alkane degradation genes are expressed in the rhizosphere and in the plant interior.

  9. Ingestión y digestibilidad aparente de forrajes por la llama (Lama glama. II. heno de trébol rosado (Trifolium pratense, heno de ballica (Lolium multiflorum, paja de poroto (Phaseolus vulgaris y paja de avena (Avena sativa: Intake and apparent digestibility of forages in llamas (Lama glama. II. clover hay (Trifolium pratense, riegrass hay (Lolium multiflorum, beans straw (Phaseolus vulgaris and oat straw (Avena sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. LÓPEZ V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un estudio de digestibilidad in vivo bajo condiciones de estabulación con recolección total de fecas, según un diseño de cuadrado latino 4x4 con dos repeticiones, en el que se usaron ocho llamas macho adultos para estudiar la utilización de cuatro diferentes forrajes, los que constituyeron las dietas experimentales: 1 heno de trébol rosado, 2 heno de ballica, 3 paja de porotos y 4 paja de avena. La ingestión de materia seca fue afectada por la calidad de la dieta (PA 4x4 latin square design was used to run a total collection digestion trial, in which eight llamas were used to study the utilization of four different diets: 1 red clover hay, 2 riegrass hay, 3 beans straw and 4 oat straw. Dry matter intake was affected by diet quality (P<0.05 and reached 38,8; 29,2; 28,8 and 20,9 g/kg0,75/day, respectively. The apparent digestibility (% of the main nutrients differed significantly between diets (P<0.05 and were : 55,3; 37,9; 35,0; -1,4; for crude protein; 44,1; 46,9; 54,0; 57,1; for NDF; 36,0; 38,2; 52,2; 51,8; for ADF; 62,8; 65,9; 60,0; 67,6; for hemicellulose and 55,8; 55,7; 66,0; 66,0; for cellulose , respectively. While crude protein digestibility decreased as intake protein decreased, the digestibility of most cell wall constituents increased when the quality of diets decreased as a result of the increased % of these components in diets. These facts confirm the greater ability of these animals to utilize fibrous feeds.

  10. Inlfuences of sod culture on soil physical and chemical characteristics of fresh jujube orchard in Southern China%生草栽培对南方鲜食枣园土壤理化性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李承想; 袁德义; 韩志强; 张琳; 陈文涛

    2015-01-01

    In order to explore suitable grass for fresh jujube orchard in Southern China, using white clover,Lolium multilforumand L. perenne as test materials, sod cultivation experiments on fresh jujube were carried out and the effect of different treatments on soil physical and chemical characteristics were studied. The results showed that:① In the condition of culturing white clover, water storage of 0-15, 15-30 and 30-45 cm soil layers could be increase by 37.5%, 22.4% and 15.6% respectively compared with CK; white clover decreased temperature of soil surface and 20 cm soil layers by 4.8 and 6.4℃ compared with CK; The effect of white clover decreasing temperature and soil moisture conservation was better than the other treatments;② In addition, sod culture could decrease soil bulk density and increase soil porosity compared with CK, the order of the treatments based on soil porosity from high to low was: white clover,L. perenne,L. multilforum, CK;③Nutrient contents in the 0-15 cm soil layers at all sod culture areas were higher than CK, the order of the treatments was white clover, L. perenne,L. multilforum, CK, based on the increasing ranges of soil organic matter, total P, total K and available N contents from high to low, and the order of the treatments was white clover,L. multilforum,L. perenne, CK, based on the increasing ranges of total N, available P and available K from high to low.%为探寻适宜南方鲜食枣园生草栽培的草种,以白三叶、1年生黑麦草和多年生黑麦草为试材,在鲜食枣园分区分别进行生草栽培试验,通过与清耕区的对比,研究不同处理对土壤理化性质的影响。结果表明:①白三叶生草栽培条件下枣园0~15、15~30、30~45 cm的土壤含水量分别比对照高出37.5%、22.4%、15.6%;夏季白三叶生草栽培区地表和20 cm土层的温度分别比对照降低了4.8和6.4℃,降温保墒效果优于其它处理。②与对照相比,白三叶生草栽培

  11. Recovery of ammonium nitrogen from the effluent of UASB treating poultry manure wastewater by MAP precipitation as a slow release fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Sapci-Zengin, Zehra

    2009-07-15

    Magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate (MgNH(4)PO(4).6H(2)O, MAP) precipitation was studied on up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) pretreated poultry manure wastewater in a lab-scale batch study. To recover high strength of ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)(+)-N=1318 mg/L) from UASB effluent, three combinations of chemicals including MgCl(2).6H(2)O+KH(2)PO(4), MgSO(4).7H(2)O+NaHPO(4).7H(2)O, and MgO+85% H(3)PO(4) were first applied at the stoichiometric ratio (Mg(2+):NH(4)(+)-N:PO(4)(3-)-P=1:1:1) and at different pH levels ranging from 4.45 to 11. Preliminary test results indicated that maximum NH(4)(+)-N removal, as well as maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color reductions, were obtained as 85.4%, 53.3% and 49.8% at pH 9.0 with the addition of MgCl(2).6H(2)O+KH(2)PO(4), respectively. The paired experimental data obtained from batch studies were statistically evaluated by a non-parametric Mann-Whitney test and a two-sample t-test. Based on the previous results, another batch experiments were then performed at pH 9.0 using MgCl(2).6H(2)O+KH(2)PO(4) for different molar ratios applied as overdose (1.2:1:1, 1.5:1:1, 1:1:1.2, 1:1:1.5) and underdose (0.5:1:1, 0.8:1:1, 1:1:0.5, 1:1:0.8). In the final step, the fertility of the MAP precipitate as struvite was also tested on the growth of three test plants including purslane (Portulaca oleracea), garden cress (Lepidum sativum) and grass (Lolium perenne). Findings of this experimental study clearly confirmed the recovering of NH(4)(+)-N from UASB pretreated poultry manure wastewater by MAP precipitation, and also the application of recovered MAP sludge as a valuable slow release fertilizer for agricultural use. PMID:19097699

  12. Experimental Research on Seedling Greening Plants on Rock Slope Growth Rhythm of Common of Expressway in Guizhou%贵州高速公路岩石边坡常用绿化植物幼苗生长规律实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符治明; 张晓龙; 李洪青; 唐洋洋

    2012-01-01

    10 species of trees, shrubs and 10 herbs, which are commonly used as greening plants on rocky slopes of expressway in Guihzou, were studied for their seedling growth rhythm, in order to select suitable plant species for highway greening. The results showed that: 1)Cassia bicapsularis is the first emerging species, and Cajanus cajan, Sophora xanthantha and Amorpha fruticosa have higher germination rate and height; 2) the height growth of various tree and shrub seedlings presented a "slow-fast-slow" , namely "S" type, of growth rhythms;3) the herb plants, Cynodon dactylon and Trifolium repens, have higher coverage rate and height growth; 4)Robinia pseudoacacia, Sophora xanthantho, Indigofera pseudotinctoria, Cynodondactylon, Trifolium repens, Festuca arundinacea,and Lolium perenne can be used as the pioneer plant species, which have great interspecific competition advantageous, thereby speed up the formation of plant communities and achieve the goals of rapidly covering and fixation of the highway rock slopes.%本文通过播种试验,研究贵州高速公路边坡绿化常用的10种乔、灌植物和10种草本植物的幼苗生长规律,以选择出最适合高速公路绿化的植物种类。结果表明:乔灌木植物中双荚决明出苗时间最短,木豆、双荚决明、紫穗槐、多花木兰的出苗率及高生长较大,各种乔灌木幼苗的高生长总体呈现“慢一快一慢”即“S”型的生长节律;草本植物中狗牙根和自三叶的盖度及高生长较大;刺槐、双荚决明和多花木兰及狗牙根、白三叶、草坪高羊茅、草坪黑麦草等可作为主要的护坡植物先锋种,其应用于高速公路岩石边坡绿化可在种问竞争中处于相对有利的地位,有利于植物群落的形成和实现快速覆盖固坡的作用。

  13. An investigation into the potential use and sustainability of surfactant coated turfgrass seed for the green industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidanza, Michael; McMillan, Mica; Kostka, Stan; Madsen, Matthew D.

    2014-05-01

    Turfgrass seed germination and emergence is influenced mostly by water and oxygen availability, temperature, nutrition and biological activity in the rootzone. In many areas globally, seed germination and subsequent turfgrass establishment is greatly diminished due to inadequate irrigation water amount and quality, and the problem is further compound due to water repellent soils. Successful turfgrass seed germination is critical when attempting to establish a more sustainable turfgrass species in place of an existing, high-input required turf stand. Greenhouse research investigations were conducted in 2013 in Pennsylvania (USA), to evaluate surfactant coated perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) seed for germination and emergence, seedling vigor and overall turfgrass quality. Both turfgrasses tested are cool-season or C3 grasses, and perennial ryegrass has a bunch-type growth habit while Kentucky bluegrass is rhizomatous. Perennial ryegrass is used world-wide as a principal component in sports turf mixes and in overseeding programs, and typically germinates rapidly in 3 to 10 days after seeding. Kentucky bluegrass also is used world-wide for sports turf as well as lawns and landscapes, and germinates slowly in 7 to 28 days. Research results indicate that surfactant coated seed of both species germinated one to three days faster compared to uncoated seed, and that seedling vigor and overall turfgrass quality was better with surfactant coated seed compared to uncoated seed. In a study with only perennial ryegrass, surfactant-coated seed without fertilizer (i.e., N and Ca) applied at time of sowing resulted in seedling vigor and quality considered to be similar or better than uncoated seed with fertilizer applied at time of sowing. Therefore, the potential benefits with seed germination and emergence, and seedling vigor and turfgrass quality also may be attributed to the surfactant coating and not only a fertilizer response. The

  14. Prevalence of pollinosis in patients with allergic asthma, rhinitis and conjunctivitis in the South of Mexico City 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar-López, Arturo; López-Rocha, Eunice; Rodríguez-Mireles, Karen; Segura-Méndez, Nora; Del Rivero-Hernández, Leonel

    2014-01-01

    familia Pooideae (Lolium perenne) y la familia Chloroideae (Cynodon dactylon).

  15. Foliar or root exposures to smelter particles: Consequences for lead compartmentalization and speciation in plant leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreck, Eva [Université de Toulouse, INP, UPS, EcoLab (Laboratoire Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement), ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); CNRS, EcoLab, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); Géosciences Environnement Toulouse (GET), Observatoire Midi Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, IRD, 14 Avenue E. Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Dappe, Vincent [LASIR (UMR CNRS 8516), Université de Lille 1, Bât. C5, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Sarret, Géraldine [ISTerre, UMR 5275, Université Grenoble I, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Sobanska, Sophie [LASIR (UMR CNRS 8516), Université de Lille 1, Bât. C5, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Nowak, Dorota; Nowak, Jakub; Stefaniak, Elżbieta Anna [Department of Chemistry, John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Al. Kraśnicka 102, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Magnin, Valérie [ISTerre, UMR 5275, Université Grenoble I, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Ranieri, Vincent [CEA-INAC, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Dumat, Camille, E-mail: camille.dumat@ensat.fr [Université de Toulouse, INP, UPS, EcoLab (Laboratoire Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement), ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); CNRS, EcoLab, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France)

    2014-04-01

    In urban areas with high fallout of airborne particles, metal uptake by plants mainly occurs by foliar pathways and can strongly impact crop quality. However, there is a lack of knowledge on metal localization and speciation in plants after pollution exposure, especially in the case of foliar uptake. In this study, two contrasting crops, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and rye-grass (Lolium perenne L.), were exposed to Pb-rich particles emitted by a Pb-recycling factory via either atmospheric or soil application. Pb accumulation in plant leaves was observed for both ways of exposure. The mechanisms involved in Pb uptake were investigated using a combination of microscopic and spectroscopic techniques (electron microscopy, laser ablation, Raman microspectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy). The results show that Pb localization and speciation are strongly influenced by the type of exposure (root or shoot pathway) and the plant species. Foliar exposure is the main pathway of uptake, involving the highest concentrations in plant tissues. Under atmospheric fallouts, Pb-rich particles were strongly adsorbed on the leaf surface of both plant species. In lettuce, stomata contained Pb-rich particles in their apertures, with some deformations of guard cells. In addition to PbO and PbSO{sub 4}, chemical forms that were also observed in pristine particles, new species were identified: organic compounds (minimum 20%) and hexagonal platy crystals of PbCO{sub 3}. In rye-grass, the changes in Pb speciation were even more egregious: Pb–cell wall and Pb–organic acid complexes were the major species observed. For root exposure, identified here as a minor pathway of Pb transfer compared to foliar uptake, another secondary species, pyromorphite, was identified in rye-grass leaves. Finally, combining bulk and spatially resolved spectroscopic techniques permitted both the overall speciation and the minor but possibly highly reactive lead species to be determined in order to

  16. Fast effects of biochar amendment on soil C and N dynamics, nutrient availability and fertility under controlled conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Rosa, J. M.; Knicker, H.

    2012-04-01

    The shift towards a biobased economy will probably trigger the application of bioenergy by-products and charred residues to the soil as either amendments or fertilizers. However, limited research has been done to determine how this will influence C and N dynamics and soil functioning. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of 15N enriched pyrogenic organic matter (15N-PyOM) on C and N mineralisation, nutrient availability and fertility of amended soil. A typical Andalusian agricultural soil (calcareous Rhodoxeralf) was amended (0.1% w/w) with 15N enriched-biochar produced from Lolium perenne. The bioavailability and partitioning of the 15N from the biochars was tested by determining its content in the soil and the ray grass grown on this soil under controlled conditions for 72 days. After 30, 60 and 72 days of incubation, soil samples were analyzed for C, N, 15N, microbial biomass C. In addition, the chemical alteration of the 15N-containing organic structures during mobilization/immobilization was followed by solid-state 15N NMR spectroscopy. Soil amendment led to a general increase in the biomass production and N retention. After 72 days of incubation, 10 % of the 15N added in the soil with the PyOM had been degraded and available for grass growth. 15N and 13C NMR spectra confirmed that part of the pyrogenic heterocyclic N has been transformed into amide N, possibly by the use of microbiologically mobilized 15N from the char. Newer results indicate that PyOM can be microbially degraded, the efficiency of which depends on its chemical composition and properties. The chemical properties of the used material as well as the optimal conditions for microbial decay during the laboratory incubation experiments are likely to have augmented PyOM decomposition. In summary, our results indicate that: i) a re-evaluation of the potential of pyrogenic material as a sink of C and N is needed. ii) the characterization of the chemical composition of char material is

  17. Does White Clover (Trifolium repens) Abundance in Temperate Pastures Determine Sitona obsoletus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Larval Populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Mark R.; van Koten, Chikako; Cave, Vanessa M.; Chapman, David; Hodgson, Hamish

    2016-01-01

    To determine if host plant abundance determined the size of clover root weevil (CRW) Sitona obsoletus larval populations, a study was conducted over 4 years in plots sown in ryegrass (Lolium perenne) (cv. Nui) sown at either 6 or 30 kg/ha and white clover (Trifolium repens) sown at a uniform rate of 8 kg/ha. This provided a range of % white clover content to investigate CRW population establishment and impacts on white clover survival. Larval sampling was carried out in spring (October) when larval densities are near their spring peak at Lincoln (Canterbury, New Zealand) with % clover measured in autumn (April) and spring (September) of each year. Overall, mean larval densities measured in spring 2012–2015 were 310, 38, 59, and 31 larvae m-2, respectively. There was a significant decline in larval populations between 2012 and 2013, but spring populations were relatively uniform thereafter. The mean % white clover measured in autumns of 2012 to 2015 was 17, 10, 3, and 11%, respectively. In comparison, mean spring % white clover from 2012 to 2015, averaged c. 5% each year. Analysis relating spring (October) larval populations to % white clover measured in each plot in autumn (April) found the 2012 larval population to be statistically significantly larger in the ryegrass 6 kg/ha plots than 30 kg/ha plots. Thereafter, sowing rate had no significant effect on larval populations. From 2013 to 2015, spring larval populations had a negative relationship with the previous autumn % white clover with the relationship highly significant for the 2014 data. When CRW larval populations in spring 2013 to 2015 were predicted from the 2013 to 2015 autumn % white clover, respectively, based on their positive relationship in 2012, the predicted densities were substantially larger than those observed. Conversely, when 2015 spring larval data and % clover was regressed against 2012–2014 larval populations, observed densities tended to be higher than predicted, but the numbers came

  18. How Efficient is Vegetation in Reducing Wind Erosion and Emission of Health-Threatening Fine Dust PM10? - A Wind Tunnel Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, K.; Graf, F.

    2009-04-01

    World wide, wind erosion and desertification are most alarming processes of environmental degradation. Not only do they cause tremendous losses of fertile soil, but they also seriously affect human health. Pulmonary tuberculosis (silicosis) is one of the major diseases that have been linked to mineral fine dust (PM10) in the atmosphere. It is widely accepted that the re-establishment of an intact vegetation cover is the most effective measure against wind erosion. However, despite numerous investigations, the mechanisms responsible for the protective effect of vegetation are still not completely understood. Since the phenomenon involves highly variable interactions between soil, plants and atmosphere, it is particularly difficult to quantify the efficiency of vegetation in reducing wind erosion. As an alternative to field investigations, wind tunnel experiments offer the advantage to control specific parameters within this highly complex system. In this study, a series of wind tunnel experiments was performed including measurements of sediment transport and PM10 emission in differently dense grass canopies of Lolium perenne (91, 24, 5 and 0 plants per square meter). The novelty of the present wind tunnel study is the use of living plants instead of artificial imitations or dead plant parts. Although more and more sophisticated imitations of vegetation have been used in recent studies, the behaviour of living plants is likely to differ significantly. Coloured quartz sand was used for visualizing sand erosion and deposition patterns. The vertical profiles of aeolian sediment flux were analysed with a stackable sediment sampler composed of 60 collecting boxes, each with a height of 1 cm. The results of this study confirm that both sediment transport and PM10 emission strongly decrease with increasing plant cover. The protective effect of the plants was found to be linked to characteristic changes in the vertical profile of aeolian sediment flux and to specific spatial

  19. Effect of Water Stress on Ultrastructures of Chloroplast and Mitochondria and Photosynthesis in Six Gramineous Grass Species%水分胁迫对6种禾草叶绿体、线粒体超微结构及光合作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑敏娜; 李向林; 万里强; 何峰; 席翠玲

    2009-01-01

    利用透射电镜技术,研究了水分胁迫下柳枝稷(Panicum virgatum L.)、巴哈雀稗(Paspalum notatum Flugge)、毛花雀稗(Paspalum dilatatum Poir)、羊茅黑麦草(×Festulolium Asch. et Graebn.)、草芦(Phalaris arundinnacea L.)及多年生黑麦草(Lolium perenne L.)6种禾本科牧草叶肉细胞叶绿体和线粒体超微结构的变化,并结合对叶绿素含量和光合速率的测定,分析了其生理功能对水分胁迫的响应,旨在为耐旱草种的选择、引种和选育提供形态学和生理学依据.结果表明,经过8 d水分胁迫后,6种牧草的叶绿体均膨大变圆并向细胞中央移动;叶绿体内分布有一定数量的嗜锇颗粒和少量淀粉粒,受伤害严重的叶绿体中的基粒和被膜破损;线粒体数目均增加,且对水分胁迫的耐受性强于叶绿体;光合速率的高低与叶绿体的结构变化相关.可将6种牧草分为3个不同的抗旱等级:柳枝稷和巴哈雀稗抗旱性较强,羊茅黑麦草和草芦抗旱性中等,多年生黑麦草和毛花雀稗抗旱性较弱.

  20. Arabinogalactan proteins in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Szczuka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AGPs (arabinogalactan-proteins are the major constituent of arabic gum and have been used as emulsifiers and stabilizing agents. They are also one of the most abundant and heterogeneous class forming a large family of proteoglycans that sculpt the surface not only of plant but also of all eukaryotic cells. Undoubtedly, AGPs appear in numerous biological processes, playing diverse functions. Despite their abundance in nature and industrial utility, the in vivofunction(s of AGPs still remains unclear or even unknown. AGPs are commonly distributed in different plant organs and probably participate in all aspects of plant growth and development including reproduction (e.g. they are present in the stigma including stigma exudates, and in transmitting tissues in styles, pollen grains, and pollen tubes. The functions and evident involvement of AGPs in sexual plant reproduction in a few plant species as Actinidia deliciosa (A.Chev. C.F.Liang & A.R.Ferguson, Amaranthus hypochondriacus L., Catharanthus roseus (L. G.Don, Lolium perenneL. and Larix deciduaMill. are known from literature. The localization of two kinds of AGP epitopes, recognized by the JIM8 and JIM13 mAbs, in anatomically different ovules revealed some differences in spatial localization of these epitopes in ovules of monocots Galanthus nivalis L. and Galtonia candicans (Baker Decne. and dicots like Oenothera species and Sinapis albaL. A detailed study of the localization of AGPs in egg cells, zygotes, including the zygote division stage, and in two-celled proembryos in Nicotiana tabacumL. prompts consideration of the necessity of their presence in the very early steps of ontogenesis. The selective labeling obtained with AGP mAbs JIM8, JIM13, MAC207, and LM2 during Arabidopsis thaliana(L. Heynh. development suggests that some AGPs can be regarded as molecular markers for gametophytic cell differentiation. Moreover, the results show evident differences in the distribution of specific AGP

  1. Combined analysis of the chloroplast genome and transcriptome of the Antarctic vascular plant Deschampsia antarctica Desv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungeun Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antarctic hairgrass (Deschampsia antarctica Desv. is the only natural grass species in the maritime Antarctic. It has been researched as an important ecological marker and as an extremophile plant for studies on stress tolerance. Despite its importance, little genomic information is available for D. antarctica. Here, we report the complete chloroplast genome, transcriptome profiles of the coding/noncoding genes, and the posttranscriptional processing by RNA editing in the chloroplast system. RESULTS: The complete chloroplast genome of D. antarctica is 135,362 bp in length with a typical quadripartite structure, including the large (LSC: 79,881 bp and small (SSC: 12,519 bp single-copy regions, separated by a pair of identical inverted repeats (IR: 21,481 bp. It contains 114 unique genes, including 81 unique protein-coding genes, 29 tRNA genes, and 4 rRNA genes. Sequence divergence analysis with other plastomes from the BEP clade of the grass family suggests a sister relationship between D. antarctica, Festuca arundinacea and Lolium perenne of the Poeae tribe, based on the whole plastome. In addition, we conducted high-resolution mapping of the chloroplast-derived transcripts. Thus, we created an expression profile for 81 protein-coding genes and identified ndhC, psbJ, rps19, psaJ, and psbA as the most highly expressed chloroplast genes. Small RNA-seq analysis identified 27 small noncoding RNAs of chloroplast origin that were preferentially located near the 5'- or 3'-ends of genes. We also found >30 RNA-editing sites in the D. antarctica chloroplast genome, with a dominance of C-to-U conversions. CONCLUSIONS: We assembled and characterized the complete chloroplast genome sequence of D. antarctica and investigated the features of the plastid transcriptome. These data may contribute to a better understanding of the evolution of D. antarctica within the Poaceae family for use in molecular phylogenetic studies and may also help researchers

  2. The impact of biochars prepared from agricultural residues on phosphorus release and availability in two fertile soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolikaki, Ioanna I; Mangolis, Argirios; Diamadopoulos, Evan

    2016-10-01

    Biochars have a high variability in chemical composition, which is influenced by pyrolysis conditions and type of biomass. Essential macronutrient P retained in biochar could be released and made available to plants, enhancing plant growth. This study was conducted in order to evaluate whether biochar, produced from agricultural residues, could release P in water, as well as study its potential effect on plant growth and P uptake. Biochar samples were prepared from rice husks, grape pomace and olive tree prunings by pyrolysis at 300 °C and 500 °C. These samples were used for P batch successive leaching experiments in order to determine P release in water. Subsequently, rice husk and grape pomace biochars, produced by pyrolysis at 300 °C, were applied to two temperate soils with highly different pH. A three-month cultivation period of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was studied in threefold replication, while three harvests were accomplished. Treatments comprised control soils (without amendment) and soils amended only with biochar. Results of P leaching tests showed a continuous release of P from all biochars as compared to raw biomass samples, for which the highest P concentrations were detected during the first extraction. Grape pomace and rice husk biochars pyrolyzed at 500 °C showed higher levels of water-extractable P, as compared to their corresponding raw biomass. Biochars, at 500 °C, leached more P in all four extractions, compared to biochars at 300 °C, apart from olive tree prunings biochars, where both pyrolysis temperatures presented a similar trend. Concerning plant yield of ryegrass, rice husk and grape pomace biochars showed positive statistically significant effects on plant yield only in slightly acidic soil in second and third harvests. In terms of P uptake of ryegrass, grape pomace biochars depicted positive significant differences (P < 0.05) in third harvest, in slightly acidic soil, while in first and second harvests positive

  3. CHEMISTRY OF PLANTS AND RECLAIMED GROUNDS ON SODA WASTE SITE AT JANIKOWO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Siuta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the state of soda waste dumping site prior to reclamation, including the initial vegetation and properties of local grounds, the chemistry of plants colonizing the alkaline grounds in 2013 as well as the comparison of mineral element contents in leaves of trees spontaneously growing on the soda waste site in the years 2000 and 2013. The paper consists an integral part of a wider work concerning the effectiveness of sewage sludge application for bioremediation of highly saline and alkaline waste at the Janikowo Soda Plant. The spontaneous vegetation on soda waste in 2000 was scarce and patchy, its development conditioned by local microrelief where depressions provided water for plant establishment. The main species entering the site included grasses (Lolium perenne, Calamagrostis epigeios and herbs (Reseda lutea, Tussilago farfara and Picris hieracioides. The physico-chemical properties of waste grounds varied widely both horizontally and spatially. In 2013, the reclaimed dumping site was covered by a well-established meadow-likevegetation and the soil top layer (0–5 cm contained 9.2–13.9% Ca and 15–161 mg Cl/kg, at pH 7.6–7.8. The underlying 10–20 cm layer contained 21.1–63.3% Ca and 204–3110 mg Cl/kg, at pH 7.93–9.04. In the deeper 40-60 cm layer there was found 30.0-37.5% Ca and 9 920-16 320 mg Cl/kg, at pH 11.5–12.1. The vegetation growing in the vicinity of soil profiles contained: 1.65–3.36% N; 0.25–0.43% P; 1.38–2.95% K; 0.33–1.10 % Ca and 0.13–0.54% Mg. The contents of heavy metals in plants approximated the average amounts found in meadow clippings in Poland. The contents of main nutrients in leaves of trees spontaneously growing on the waste site were significantly higher in 2013 (2.70–3.21% N; 0.25–0.34% P and 0.98–1.75% K than in the year 2000 (1.70–2.04% N; 0.11–0.21% P and 0.54–0.80% K. The application of sewage sludge and subsequent fertilization of vegetation on waste

  4. The effect of high polyphenol oxidase grass silage on metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids and nitrogen across the rumen of beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M R F; Theobald, V J; Gordon, N; Leyland, M; Tweed, J K S; Fychan, R; Scollan, N D

    2014-11-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in red clover (Trifolium pratense) has been reported to reduce both proteolysis and lipolysis, resulting in greater N use efficiency and protection of PUFA across the rumen. Although high levels of PPO have been reported in grasses such as cocksfoot (orchard grass; Dactylis glomerata), no in vivo research has determined whether grass PPO elicits the same response as red clover PPO. To test the hypothesis that silage ensiled from grass with high levels of PPO protects N and PUFA across the rumen, 6 steers with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were offered cocksfoot silage (CO; high-PPO grass), perennial ryegrass silage (PR; Lolium perenne; low-PPO grass), or red clover silage (RC; high-PPO control) at 16 g DM/kg BW daily with the experiment consisting of two 3 × 3 Latin squares with 21-d periods, consisting of 12 d of diet adaptation, 6 d of duodenal marker infusion, 2 d of duodenal sampling, and 1 d of ruminal sampling. All silages were well preserved, with DM of 34.4, 55.3, and 45.4% for CO, PR, and RC. Activity of PPO in silages was low due to deactivation but was greater in CO than either PR or RC (0.15 vs. 0.05 and 0.08 μkatal/g DM). Protein-bound phenol (mg/g DM) as a measure of the degree of oxidation and an indication of PPO protection was greatest for RC (15.9) but comparable for PR (10.1) and CO (12.2). Biohydrogenation of C18 PUFA was significantly lower on RC compared to the 2 grass silages with CO greater than PR. Despite lower levels of total fatty acid intake and subsequent duodenal flow, CO resulted in greater levels of phytanic acid and total branched and odd chain fatty acids in duodenal digesta than RC or PR. Ruminal ammonia concentration was greatest for RC, with no difference between the grasses. Duodenal flow of microbial N and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis were lowest for CO and comparable for RC and PR. The CO (high-grass PPO) did not result in elevated levels of C18 PUFA escaping the rumen or

  5. Retention and phytoavailability of radioniobium in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echevarria, G. E-mail: Guillaume.Echevarria@ensaia.inpl-nancy.fr; Morel, J.L.; Leclerc-Cessac, E

    2005-03-01

    Radioniobium is present in long-lived nuclear waste as a result of the activation of zirconium pellets associated with the nuclear fuel. The behaviour of niobium (Nb) in the environment and especially its fate in the soil-plant system has not been thoroughly investigated so far. In safety assessment of French long-lived nuclear waste disposal, data concerning the mobility and the bioavailability of Nb in soils are needed as well as general trends of its fate in the specific environment around the site of French underground research laboratory. Therefore, we investigated the mobility of {sup 95}Nb in three different soils typical of the area of north-eastern France and its uptake by two plants, rye grass (Lolium perenne L.) and winter wheat (Triticum [aelig ]stivum L.). Soil:solution distribution of {sup 95}Nb was observed in 1:10 batch experiments with deionized water for a 3-day period. Results showed that K{sub d} values were high (in the order of 10{sup 3} L kg{sup -1}) and were still significantly increasing after 3 days. A mathematical model, fitted to describe the decrease of the radioactivity after 3 days, is proposed to calculate sorption ratios--SR--(rather than K{sub d} values as equilibrium was not reached) over longer periods. Soil-to-plant concentration ratios (CR) were measured in shoots and roots of the two plants after cultivation on two soils spiked with {sup 95}Nb (406 kBq kg{sup -1}). Soil-to-root dry weight CR were high (0.30-1.52) and could probably be due to efficient uptake into the roots. However, no transfer of Nb to plant shoots was detected in any of the soils. Nb is thus a rather immobile element in soils and its transfer to plants seems limited to underground parts. It would therefore tend to accumulate in surface horizons of soils in case of long-term continuous surface release.

  6. Adaptation to climate change in desertified lands of the marginal regions in Egypt through sustainable crop and livestock diversification systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan M. El Shaer

    2015-01-01

    Environmental degradation resulting from current climate changes, including prolonged drought, land degradation, desertification, and loss of biodiversity, is presenting enormous challenges to achieve food security and eradication of poverty in the marginal regions (about 90%of the total area) of Egypt. In addition to the natural constraints of high temperature, wind erosion, sand dune movement, and recurrent drought, such regions are subjected to improper land and water management. Moreover, there is a lack of knowledge, technologies, and experiences to match with the current severe climatic changes. There is a great need for establishing sustainable integrated ecosystem rehabilitation and management programs to overcome such problems in the marginal areas, particularly in the Sinai Peninsula due to its strategic and social importance. A series of research and development programs have been conducted in 2006 to im-prove the livelihoods of smallholders through enhancing the efficient management and utilization of local resources that can cope with the drastic changes of climate in the Sinai Peninsula. An integrated livestock/salt-tolerant fodder crop system was introduced, in 2010 by the project teamwork of Desert Research center, Egypt, to many smallholders in the South Sinai region, where studies were conducted at both the general research and individual farmer levels. The most important results were:(1) adoption of the most salt-tolerant genotypes of three forage crops:pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and Sudan grass (Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf.); two cereal crops (triticale and barley);and two oil crops:safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) and Brassica (Mustard). Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. and Medicago arborium), cowpeas (Vigna sinensis L.), fodder beets (Beta vulgaris L.), clumping desert bunchgrass (Panicum turgedum), ryegrass (Lolium perenne) Ray grass, forage shrubs (Kochia indica, Atriplex num-mularia, Sesbania sesban L

  7. Dairy cows increase ingestive mastication and reduce ruminative chewing when grazing chicory and plantain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorini, P; Minnee, E M K; Griffiths, W; Lee, J M

    2013-01-01

    Although the nutritive value of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) has been thoroughly studied, little is known about the grazing behavior of cattle feeding on chicory and plantain swards. The objective of the present study was to assess and describe the grazing behavior of dairy cows as affected by dietary proportions of chicory and plantain fed as monocultures for part of the day. Ninety Holstein-Friesian cows (489±42 kg of body weight; 4.1±0.3 body condition score, and 216±15 d in milk) were randomly assigned to 15 groups (6 cows per group) and grazed according to 7 treatments: control (CTL, 3 groups), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) dominant sward (24-h pasture strip); 3 chicory treatments comprising 20, 40, and 60% of the diet, strip-grazing a monoculture of chicory to a fixed postgrazing residual before strip-grazing a perennial ryegrass dominant sward (2 groups of cows per treatment); and 3 plantain treatments comprising 20, 40, and 60% of the diet, strip-grazing a monoculture of plantain to a fixed postgrazing residual before strip-grazing a perennial ryegrass dominant sward (2 groups of cows per treatment). Four focal animals per group were equipped with 3-dimensional motion sensors, which provided the number of steps taken at each minute of the day. These cows were also fitted with automatic jaw-movement recorders that identified bites, mastication during ingestion, chewing during rumination, and determined grazing, rumination and idling times and bouts. Daily grazing time and bouts were not affected by treatments but rumination time differed and was reduced by up to 90 min when cows were allocated to chicory and plantain as 60% of their diet. Ruminative chewing was reduced in cows grazing chicory and plantain by up to 20% in cows allocated to the 60% treatments. Compared with perennial ryegrass, as the dietary proportion of chicory and plantain increased, cows spent more time idling and less time ruminating

  8. Detoxification of Heavy Metal Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floarea Damian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of the heavy metals in the soils from the strong affected zones because of the mining and metallurgical industry, Baia Mare and Zlatna (Romania, is significant due to the high values of the contents and association of the four metals Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd. The efficacy of the natural zeolites in heavy metals immobilization from the studied soils was evaluated in experiments in which the plant growth was observed. Heavy metals contaminated soils have been treated with a mixture of organic substance and zeolites (organo – zeolitic material. Zeolitic tuffs were roll-crushed and ground in small grains with dimensions between 0.05 and 2.0 mm. Clinoptilolite is the predominant zeolite and appears as compact masses of tabular and prismatic micron – sized crystals that are evident in SEM images. In the mixture, the polluted soil represents 83% and the organo – zeolitic material represents 17%. The soils used in the experiment are excessive contaminated with Pb (40375-1054ppm in association with Zn (1175-490ppm, Cd (24.2-13.2ppm and Cu (409.5-37.6ppm in Baia Mare zone and with Cu (7000-360ppm in association with Zn (3100-1900ppm, Cd (80-40ppm and Pb (2000-50ppm in Zlatna zone. The original soil and the treated soil have been planted with Lolium perenne. The growth of the plants has demonstrated that the soil treated with organo–zeolitic material allows the growth of vegetation much faster than the original soil. These results show that growth of the plants was possible because the organo–zeolitic material mixed with the soil provides the substances necessary for the plants to develop (ammonium, humus, potassium, calcium. At the same time, heavy metals that inhibit the plant development are blocked through the cationic exchange mechanism that makes them enter the zeolites structure and they no longer directly have access to the plant roots.

  9. Nutrients transfer for host plant and litter decompositon by AMF in Karst soil%AMF对喀斯特土壤枯落物分解和对宿主植物的养分传递

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何跃军; 钟章成; 董鸣

    2012-01-01

    为探索丛枝菌根真菌(arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi,AMF)在喀斯特土壤中养分利用机制,采用分室系统隔室装置(用20μm 或0.45 μm尼龙网双层隔离)对香樟(Cinnamomum camphora)幼苗进行幼套球囊霉(Glomus etunicatum)接种处理和施氮处理,并采用15N稳定同位素技术标记了黑麦草(Lolium perenn)枯落物作为土壤有机残体,幼苗生长15周后测定了隔室幼苗生长性状指标、氮、磷摄取量、植株和隔室土壤中的δ15N值、微生物量碳、微生物量氮以及菌丝体密度,结果表明:AMF具有腐生营养能力,促进了土壤枯落物的分解并吸收其释放的15N传递给宿主植物利用;香樟幼苗优先利用根际周围氮维持生长;在低氮状态下,香樟植株通过AMF菌丝体更多地利用了相邻隔室枯落物分解释放的15N;施加根际外源氮有利于AMF对隔室枯落物的分解,但降低了植株对枯落物氮的利用;根际高氮状态下植株的氮、磷摄取量较大;高养分状态下提高了相邻隔室微生物量碳、氮含量和菌丝体密度.

  10. Biochemical stability of sewage sludge chars and their impact on soil organic matter of a Mediterranean Cambisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paneque, Marina; María De la Rosa, José; Aragón, Carlos; Kern, Jürgen; Knicker, Heike

    2016-04-01

    Transformation of sewage sludge (SS) into char achieves sludge hygienisation, which is necessary prior its application into agricultural soils. The pyrolysis of SS increases its stability in a degree which depends on the thermal treatment used. Thus, chars produced by using hydrothermal carbonization are typically more stable than normal soil organic matter (SOM), but less stable than chars from dry pyrolysis (Libra et al., 2011). Addition of highly-recalcitrant SS-chars to soil will likely increase its carbon sequestration potential; however the fertilizing properties of SS may be compromised due to its alteration during the pyrolysis. The main goal of this work was to investigate the biochemical recalcitrance of two 13C-enriched SS-chars once applied in a Mediterranean Cambisol as well as to evaluate their impact on the SOM quality and carbon stability. Thus, we studied the distribution of 13C between plants and soil after the addition of the 13C-enriched chars (2 atm%) to the soil. Therefore, we performed a greenhouse incubation experiment, using a Mediterranean Cambisol as matrix and tested the following treatments: control (soil alone), raw SS, SS-hydrochar, SS-pyrochar. The SS was produced in a pilot-scale waste-water plant and enriched with 13C by the addition of 13C-glucose during the treatment. The amendment was only applied to the upper 2 cm of the soil matrix where it accounted for 5% of its dry weight. Per pot, 25 seeds of Lolium perenne were sowed and incubated under controlled conditions. The biomass production as well as the concentration of 13C in leaves and roots was determined after 1, 2 and 5 months. The partitioning of the 13C between soil and plant and its transformation into bioavailable forms were monitored by stable isotopic mass spectrometry. The 13C-enrichment of the chars allowed the use of solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy as a means for the detection of chemical alterations of the chars during their aging. Libra J., Ro K., Kammann C

  11. Prevalencia de sensibilización a aeroalérgenos en pacientes con rinitis alérgica en el sur de Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliot Iván Narváez-Gómez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available La rinitis alérgica es la enfermedad crónica más común, de elevado impacto sanitario y de importancia creciente en la mayor parte del mundo, los aeroalérgenos de ácaros, hongos y pólenes constituyen los desencadenantes más frecuentes de alergia respiratoria, por lo que se realizó un estudio de prevalencia para comprobar la sensibilización cutánea a los mismos, utilizando la prueba de Prick en pacientes con rinitis alérgica en el sur de Bolivia. El estudio fue descriptivo en el universo de pacientes derivados al servicio de Alergia en la ciudad de Tarija. Se incluyeron 350 pacientes con diagnóstico de rinitis alérgica entre 11 y 60 años y se realizaron 18 pruebas cutáneas a cada uno, asignados por orden consecutivo entre junio de 2013 y julio de 2015. Como instrumentos de recogida de información se utilizaron la historia clínica, registro de pacientes atendidos y una encuesta confeccionada y validada en nuestra institución. Las variables de estudio fueron edad, sexo y sensibilización cutánea hacia Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Blomia tropicalis, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium herbarum, Penicillium notatum, Acer negundo, Betula verrucosa, Cupressus arizonica, Eucalyptus globulus, Salix fragilis, Cynodon dactylon, Lolium perenne, Poa pratensis, Amaranthus retroflexus, Ambrosia trifida y Chenopodium album. La prueba de Prick se consideró positiva cuando los habones fueron ≥3 mm. Se realizaron 6300 pruebas cutáneas, la mayor prevalencia de sensibilización fue para los ácaros Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (90% y Dermatophagoides farinae (66%, seguido del hongo Alternaria alternata (23% y pólenes Chenopodium álbum (20%, Amaranthus retroflexus (19% y Salix fragilis (21%. Se concluye que los ácaros Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus y Dermatophagoides farinae constituyeron la causa de mayor sensibilización cutánea en pacientes con rinitis alérgica.

  12. Quantum dot transport in soil, plants, and insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Salim, Najeh [Industrial Research Ltd, P.O. Box 31310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand); Barraclough, Emma; Burgess, Elisabeth [New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd, Private Bag 92169, Victoria Street West, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Clothier, Brent, E-mail: brent.clothier@plantandfood.co.nz [New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd, Private Bag 11600, Manawatu Mail Centre, Palmerston North 4442 (New Zealand); Deurer, Markus; Green, Steve [New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd, Private Bag 11600, Manawatu Mail Centre, Palmerston North 4442 (New Zealand); Malone, Louise [New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd, Private Bag 92169, Victoria Street West, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Weir, Graham [Industrial Research Ltd, P.O. Box 31310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand)

    2011-08-01

    Environmental risk assessment of nanomaterials requires information not only on their toxicity to non-target organisms, but also on their potential exposure pathways. Here we report on the transport and fate of quantum dots (QDs) in the total environment: from soils, through their uptake into plants, to their passage through insects following ingestion. Our QDs are nanoparticles with an average particle size of 6.5 nm. Breakthrough curves obtained with CdTe/mercaptopropionic acid QDs applied to columns of top soil from a New Zealand organic apple orchard, a Hastings silt loam, showed there to be preferential flow through the soil's macropores. Yet the effluent recovery of QDs was just 60%, even after several pore volumes, indicating that about 40% of the influent QDs were filtered and retained by the soil column via some unknown exchange/adsorption/sequestration mechanism. Glycine-, mercaptosuccinic acid-, cysteine-, and amine-conjugated CdSe/ZnS QDs were visibly transported to a limited extent in the vasculature of ryegrass (Lolium perenne), onion (Allium cepa) and chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum sp.) plants when cut stems were placed in aqueous QD solutions. However, they were not seen to be taken up at all by rooted whole plants of ryegrass, onion, or Arabidopsis thaliana placed in these solutions. Leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae fed with these QDs for two or four days, showed fluorescence along the entire gut, in their frass (larval feces), and, at a lower intensity, in their haemolymph. Fluorescent QDs were also observed and elevated cadmium levels detected inside the bodies of adult moths that had been fed QDs as larvae. These results suggest that exposure scenarios for QDs in the total environment could be quite complex and variable in each environmental domain. - Research highlights: {yields} Quantum dots are transported rapidly through soil but half were retained. {yields} Intact roots of plants did not take up quantum dots. Excised plants

  13. The impact of biochars prepared from agricultural residues on phosphorus release and availability in two fertile soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolikaki, Ioanna I; Mangolis, Argirios; Diamadopoulos, Evan

    2016-10-01

    Biochars have a high variability in chemical composition, which is influenced by pyrolysis conditions and type of biomass. Essential macronutrient P retained in biochar could be released and made available to plants, enhancing plant growth. This study was conducted in order to evaluate whether biochar, produced from agricultural residues, could release P in water, as well as study its potential effect on plant growth and P uptake. Biochar samples were prepared from rice husks, grape pomace and olive tree prunings by pyrolysis at 300 °C and 500 °C. These samples were used for P batch successive leaching experiments in order to determine P release in water. Subsequently, rice husk and grape pomace biochars, produced by pyrolysis at 300 °C, were applied to two temperate soils with highly different pH. A three-month cultivation period of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was studied in threefold replication, while three harvests were accomplished. Treatments comprised control soils (without amendment) and soils amended only with biochar. Results of P leaching tests showed a continuous release of P from all biochars as compared to raw biomass samples, for which the highest P concentrations were detected during the first extraction. Grape pomace and rice husk biochars pyrolyzed at 500 °C showed higher levels of water-extractable P, as compared to their corresponding raw biomass. Biochars, at 500 °C, leached more P in all four extractions, compared to biochars at 300 °C, apart from olive tree prunings biochars, where both pyrolysis temperatures presented a similar trend. Concerning plant yield of ryegrass, rice husk and grape pomace biochars showed positive statistically significant effects on plant yield only in slightly acidic soil in second and third harvests. In terms of P uptake of ryegrass, grape pomace biochars depicted positive significant differences (P < 0.05) in third harvest, in slightly acidic soil, while in first and second harvests positive

  14. Shear-Stress Partitioning in Live Plant Canopies and Modifications to Raupach's Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Benjamin; Gromke, Christof; Lehning, Michael

    2012-08-01

    The spatial peak surface shear stress {tau _S^'' on the ground beneath vegetation canopies is responsible for the onset of particle entrainment and its precise and accurate prediction is essential when modelling soil, snow or sand erosion. This study investigates shear-stress partitioning, i.e. the fraction of the total fluid stress on the entire canopy that acts directly on the surface, for live vegetation canopies (plant species: Lolium perenne) using measurements in a controlled wind-tunnel environment. Rigid, non-porous wooden blocks instead of the plants were additionally tested for the purpose of comparison since previous wind-tunnel studies used exclusively artificial plant imitations for their experiments on shear-stress partitioning. The drag partitioning model presented by Raupach (Boundary-Layer Meteorol 60:375-395, 1992) and Raupach et al. (J Geophys Res 98:3023-3029, 1993), which allows the prediction of the total shear stress τ on the entire canopy as well as the peak {(tau _S ^''/tau )^{1/2}} and the average {(tau _S^'/tau )^{1/2}} shear-stress ratios, is tested against measurements to determine the model parameters and the model's ability to account for shape differences of various roughness elements. It was found that the constant c, needed to determine the total stress τ and which was unspecified to date, can be assumed a value of about c = 0.27. Values for the model parameter m, which accounts for the difference between the spatial surface average {tau _S^' and the peak {tau _S ^'' shear stress, are difficult to determine because m is a function of the roughness density, the wind velocity and the roughness element shape. A new definition for a parameter a is suggested as a substitute for m. This a parameter is found to be more closely universal and solely a function of the roughness element shape. It is able to predict the peak surface shear stress accurately. Finally, a method is presented to determine the new a parameter for different kinds

  15. Effects of fungal endophytes from perennial ryegrass on the growth of plant pathogens%黑麦草内生真菌对植物病原真菌生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马敏芝; 南志标

    2011-01-01

    为确定黑麦草内生真菌及其发酵产物对病原真菌生长的影响,从不同品种的多年生黑麦草(Lolium perenne)(爱神特、美迭丽、顶峰和球道)中分离出N-A1、N-M2、N-P2和N-F1共4株Neotyphodium属的内生真菌菌株,分别采用平板对峙培养、菌落生长及孢子萌发等方法对细交链孢(Alternaria alternata)、小麦根腐离蠕孢(Bipolaris sorokiniana)、新月弯孢霉(Curvularia lunata)和德氏霉(Drechslera sp.)等病原真菌进行室内生物测定.结果表明,在平板对峙培养中,不同内生真菌对同一种病原菌的抑制作用不同,不同病原菌对同一内生真菌的敏感程度表现出差异,4株内生真菌对各病原菌的抑制率范围依次为42.51%~46.25%、31.45%~43.97%、34.51%~46.55%和40.19%~46.62%.在对病原菌的生物测定中,4株内生真菌的发酵产物均可抑制病原菌的生长,N-F1菌株的抑菌效果显著高于其他3株内生真菌(P<0.05),对小麦根腐离蠕孢的菌落生长和孢子萌发表现出较强的抑制作用,抑制率分别达到57.20%和86.60%.

  16. Allelopathic Sensitivity of Five Economic Species to Aqueous Leaf Extract of Eucalyptus urophylla × E.grandis with Different Ages%5种经济植物对幼龄尾巨桉叶片提取液的化感敏感性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小雪; 刘芸; 邵呈龙; 唐小荐; 黄小辉; 吴艳冰; 唐吉芳; 何炳辉

    2011-01-01

    近几年,随着重庆"森林工程"全面启动,重庆西部主要区县充分利用当地有利自然条件,大规模发展速生桉树人工用材林.种植桉树需5年以上才能产生经济效益,因此,开展幼龄林林下种植成为以短养长、提高桉农收益的有效途径.但很多研究发现:桉树不仅具有较强的水、肥竞争力,而且作为一种外来树种,化感作用为其在新生境的生长和繁殖提供了"Novel weapon"(Bais et al.,2003;Hierro et al.,2003;吴锦容等,2005).%In order to guide scientifically planting on forest floor in eucalyptus plantations, screen suitable plants, and understand allelopathic effects of eucalyptus trees with different young ages (1 a, 2 a and 3 a) on the understory species and growth germination rate and seedling growth of five species widely planted in the local region were measured after treatments with different concentration of aqueous leaf extract of Eucalyptus urophylla × E. Grandis treatments with different concentration. The results showed that the leaf extract reduced seed germination rate and inhibited seedling growth of all five species, and had a stronger inhibiting effect on radical than hypocotyl growth. The species tested in this study had different sensitivity to the leaf extract. The inhibition rate of Lolium perenne, Sorghum sudanense, Phaseolus aureus, Phaseolus vulgaris and Glycine max was 56. 85% , 54. 58% , 33. 48% , 20. 81% , 16. 01% , respectively, among which Giycine max and Phaseolus vulgaris were the most insensitive to the leaf extract. The allelopathy of the leaf extract was concentration dependent, increasing with increase of the concentration, and low concentration (0.01 g · mL-1 ) had no significant influence on the species. Furthermore, the allelopathy aqueous leaf extract of E. Urophylla × E. Grandis to the five species had no significant difference with increase of their ages.

  17. Effects of exogenous nitric oxide on seed germination and reactive oxygen species metabolism of seedling leaves in ryegrass under osmotic stress%外源NO对渗透胁迫下黑麦草种子萌发及活性氧代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建新; 王金成; 贾海燕; 王凤琴

    2012-01-01

    以黑麦草为试材,研究了一氧化氮(NO)供体硝普钠(SNP)对聚乙二醇6000渗透胁迫下种子萌发、幼苗叶片活性氧代谢和渗透溶质积累的影响,探讨外源NO对渗透胁迫下牧草生理响应的调节作用.结果表明:100μmol/L SNP显著提高了渗透胁迫下黑麦草种子的发芽率、发芽指数和活力指数,缓解了植株鲜重和干重的下降幅度,提高了幼苗叶片SOD、POD、APX、质膜H+-ATPase活性及谷胱甘肽、可溶性糖、游离氨基酸、脯氨酸、K+、Na+含量和植株含水量,降低了O2-.产生速率及H2O2、丙二醛和可溶性蛋白含量.表明外源NO能够促进渗透胁迫下黑麦草种子的萌发,对渗透胁迫引起的黑麦草幼苗膜脂过氧化具有缓解作用.%To discuss the regulating effect of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) on the physiological response of herbage under osmotic stress of simulated by polyethylene glycol, we investigated the effects of exogenous NO donor sodium nitro-prusside (SNP) on the seed germination, reactive oxygen species metabolism and osmotica accumulation in seedling leaves with the experimental materials of ryegrass( Lolium perenne L) . The results showed that under the stress, applying 100 μmol/L SNP increased significantly the seed germination rate, germination index, and vigor index, alleviated the decreases of fresh and dry weights of whole plant, increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) , guaiacol peroxi-dase (POD) , ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and plasma membrane H+ — ATPase and the contents of glutathione, soluble sugar, free amino acid, proline, K+ , and Na+ as well as plant water content, and decreased O2- production rate and the contents of H2O2, malondialdehyde and soluble protein in leaves. The results indicated that exogenous NO could promote the seed germination of ryegrass under osmotic stress and alleviate the membrane lipid peroxidation induced by osmotic stress in seedling leaves.

  18. Herbage intake and milk production of late-lactation dairy cows offered a second-year chicory crop during summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, S K; Ward, G N; Jacobs, J L

    2015-12-01

    Chicory (Cichorum intybus L.) is a summer-active forage herb which has been proposed as an option to increase summer feed supply, increase dry matter intake, nutrient intake, and milk yield from nonirrigated dairy production systems in southern Australia. Dry matter intake, nutrient intake, milk yield, and yield of milk fat and protein of predominantly Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in late lactation consuming 3 herbage-based diets (4 replicates per treatment) were measured. The 3 grazed herbages were second-year chicory (CHIC) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.; PRG) monocultures and a mixed sward (~50:50) of chicory and perennial ryegrass (MIX). All diets (CHIC, PRG, and MIX) were supplemented with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay (5.5kg of DM/cow per day) and an energy-based concentrate pellet (4.0kg of DM/cow per day). There were no significant differences in milk yield (12.0 to 12.6kg/d across the treatments) or the yield of milk fat (539 to 585g/d) and milk protein (433 to 447g/d) between the 3 herbage-based diets. No differences in DMI (17.9 to 19.2kg/d) or estimated metabolizable energy intake (173 to 185MJ/d) were noted between treatments. Estimated metabolizable energy concentrations in the forages on offer were lower in CHIC than PRG (7.6 vs. 8.2MJ/kg of dry matter), but the concentration in consumed herbage was not different (9.1 vs. 9.2MJ/kg of dry matter); as such, potential for increased milk yield in cows offered CHIC was limited. Increased concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids was observed in chicory herbage compared with perennial ryegrass. This was associated with increased milk conjugated linoleic acid and milk polyunsaturated fatty acids when chicory formed part of the diet (CHIC compared to PRG and MIX). Chicory could be used as an alternative to perennial ryegrass in summer; however, the developmental stage of chicory will influence concentrations of metabolizable energy and neutral detergent fiber and, therefore, intake and milk

  19. Quantum dot transport in soil, plants, and insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental risk assessment of nanomaterials requires information not only on their toxicity to non-target organisms, but also on their potential exposure pathways. Here we report on the transport and fate of quantum dots (QDs) in the total environment: from soils, through their uptake into plants, to their passage through insects following ingestion. Our QDs are nanoparticles with an average particle size of 6.5 nm. Breakthrough curves obtained with CdTe/mercaptopropionic acid QDs applied to columns of top soil from a New Zealand organic apple orchard, a Hastings silt loam, showed there to be preferential flow through the soil's macropores. Yet the effluent recovery of QDs was just 60%, even after several pore volumes, indicating that about 40% of the influent QDs were filtered and retained by the soil column via some unknown exchange/adsorption/sequestration mechanism. Glycine-, mercaptosuccinic acid-, cysteine-, and amine-conjugated CdSe/ZnS QDs were visibly transported to a limited extent in the vasculature of ryegrass (Lolium perenne), onion (Allium cepa) and chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum sp.) plants when cut stems were placed in aqueous QD solutions. However, they were not seen to be taken up at all by rooted whole plants of ryegrass, onion, or Arabidopsis thaliana placed in these solutions. Leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae fed with these QDs for two or four days, showed fluorescence along the entire gut, in their frass (larval feces), and, at a lower intensity, in their haemolymph. Fluorescent QDs were also observed and elevated cadmium levels detected inside the bodies of adult moths that had been fed QDs as larvae. These results suggest that exposure scenarios for QDs in the total environment could be quite complex and variable in each environmental domain. - Research highlights: → Quantum dots are transported rapidly through soil but half were retained. → Intact roots of plants did not take up quantum dots. Excised plants did slightly.

  20. Changes in soil quality following poplar short-rotation forestry under different cutting cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Di Bene

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the change of energy concept induced by global warming and fossil fuel depletion together with the advances in agriculture towards a multifunctional and a more sustainable use of rural areas promoted the development of biomass crops. In this regard, Populus is largely utilised in short-rotation forestry (SRF, as it is known to be a fast-growing tree, producing large yields and having a high energy potential. Most studies focused on economic-productive and energetic aspects of Populus plantations, whereas their impact on soil quality and health have been poorly investigated. In this study, the main soil chemical parameters, microbial biomass and activity were assessed aiming at evaluating the impact of Populus SRF under one, two and three-year cutting cycles (T1, T2 and T3 in comparison with an intensive food cropping system (wheat-soybean rotation, WS. In addition, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungal inoculum potential was measured using root colonisation (RC and number of entry points (EP. In the 0-10 cm soil depth, pH, phosphorus (P, total nitrogen (N and soil organic carbon (SOC were significantly affected by the management. In comparison with WS, Populus SRF treatments produced significant pH decreases together with N and SOC increases, these last ones ranging from 11 to 34% and from 21 to 57%, respectively. Under T3 soil pH decreased of 0.25 units, while P, N and SOC increased of 10, 34 and 57%, respectively, in comparison with WS. Microbial biomass and soil respiration under SRF showed also mean increases of 71 and 17%, respectively. Under SRF treatments, Lolium perenne, commonly observed in all field plots, was more than twofold colonised by AM fungi in comparison with WS, while the number of EP, observed on Lactuca sativa used as a test plant, showed values ranging from 8 to 21 times higher. The present study shows the potential of a Populus SRF to improve soil chemical, biochemical and biological quality parameters in

  1. Foliar or root exposures to smelter particles: Consequences for lead compartmentalization and speciation in plant leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In urban areas with high fallout of airborne particles, metal uptake by plants mainly occurs by foliar pathways and can strongly impact crop quality. However, there is a lack of knowledge on metal localization and speciation in plants after pollution exposure, especially in the case of foliar uptake. In this study, two contrasting crops, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and rye-grass (Lolium perenne L.), were exposed to Pb-rich particles emitted by a Pb-recycling factory via either atmospheric or soil application. Pb accumulation in plant leaves was observed for both ways of exposure. The mechanisms involved in Pb uptake were investigated using a combination of microscopic and spectroscopic techniques (electron microscopy, laser ablation, Raman microspectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy). The results show that Pb localization and speciation are strongly influenced by the type of exposure (root or shoot pathway) and the plant species. Foliar exposure is the main pathway of uptake, involving the highest concentrations in plant tissues. Under atmospheric fallouts, Pb-rich particles were strongly adsorbed on the leaf surface of both plant species. In lettuce, stomata contained Pb-rich particles in their apertures, with some deformations of guard cells. In addition to PbO and PbSO4, chemical forms that were also observed in pristine particles, new species were identified: organic compounds (minimum 20%) and hexagonal platy crystals of PbCO3. In rye-grass, the changes in Pb speciation were even more egregious: Pb–cell wall and Pb–organic acid complexes were the major species observed. For root exposure, identified here as a minor pathway of Pb transfer compared to foliar uptake, another secondary species, pyromorphite, was identified in rye-grass leaves. Finally, combining bulk and spatially resolved spectroscopic techniques permitted both the overall speciation and the minor but possibly highly reactive lead species to be determined in order to better assess

  2. Biochar and biological carbon cycling in temperate soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, S. A.; Vanbergen, A. J.; Bardgett, R. D.; Hopkins, D. W.; Ostle, N.

    2012-04-01

    Production of biochar, the recalcitrant residue formed by pyrolysis of plant matter, is suggested as a means of increasing storage of stable carbon (C) in the soil (1). Biochar has also been shown to act as a soil conditioner, increasing the productivity of certain crops by reducing nutrient leaching and improving soil water-holding capacity. However, the response of soil carbon pools to biochar addition is not yet well understood. Studies have shown that biochar has highly variable effects on microbial C cycling and thus on soil C storage (2,3,4). This discrepancy may be partially explained by the response of soil invertebrates, which occupy higher trophic levels and regulate microbial activity. This research aims to understand the role of soil invertebrates (i.e. Collembola and nematode worms) in biochar-mediated changes to soil C dynamics across a range of plant-soil communities. An open-air, pot-based mesocosm experiment was established in May, 2011 at the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh. Three treatments were included in a fully-factorial design: biochar (presence [2 % w/w] or absence), soil type (arable sandy, arable sandy loam, grassland sandy loam), and vegetation type (Hordeum vulgare, Lolium perenne, unvegetated). Monitored parameters include: invertebrate and microbial species composition, soil C fluxes (CO2 and trace gas evolution, leachate C content, primary productivity and soil C content), and soil conditions (pH, moisture content and water-holding capacity). Preliminary results indicate that biochar-induced changes to soil invertebrate communities and processes are affected by pre-existing soil characteristics, and that soil texture in particular may be an important determinant of soil response to biochar addition. 1. Lehmann, 2007. A handful of carbon. Nature 447, 143-144. 2. Liang et al., 2010. Black carbon affects the cycling of non-black carbon in soil. Organic Geochemistry 41, 206-213. 3. Van Zwieten et al., 2010. Influence of

  3. Temperature and Plant Genotype Alter Alkaloid Concentrations in Ryegrass Infected with an Epichloë Endophyte and This Affects an Insect Herbivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Louise M.; Popay, Alison J.; Finch, Sarah C.; Clearwater, Michael J.; Cave, Vanessa M.

    2016-01-01

    Asexual Epichloë endophytes colonize agricultural forage grasses in a relationship which is mutually beneficial and provides the host plant with protection against herbivorous insects. The endophyte strain AR37 (Epichloë festucae var. lolii) produces epoxy-janthitrem alkaloids and is the only endophyte known to provide ryegrass with resistance against porina larvae (Wiseana cervinata (Walker)), a major pasture pest in cooler areas of New Zealand. This study examined the effect of temperature on concentrations of epoxy-janthitrems in AR37-infected ryegrass and determined how the resulting variations in concentration affected consumption, growth and survival of porina larvae. Twenty replicate pairs of perennial (Lolium perenne L.) and Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum Lam.) plants with and without endophyte were prepared by cloning, with one of each pair grown at either high (20°C) or low (7°C) temperature. After 10 weeks, herbage on each plant was harvested, divided into leaf and pseudostem, then freeze dried and ground. Leaf and pseudostem material was then incorporated separately into semi-synthetic diets which were fed to porina larvae in a bioassay over 3 weeks. Epoxy-janthitrem concentrations within the plant materials and the semi-synthetic diets were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. AR37-infected ryegrass grown at high temperature contained high in planta concentrations of epoxy-janthitrem (30.6 μg/g in leaves and 83.9 μg/g in pseudostems) that had a strong anti-feedant effect on porina larvae when incorporated into their diets, reducing their survival by 25–42% on pseudostems. In comparison, in planta epoxy-janthitrem concentrations in AR37-infected ryegrass grown at low temperature were very low (0.67 μg/g in leaves and 7.4 μg/g in pseudostems) resulting in a small anti-feedant effect in perennial but not in Italian ryegrass. Although alkaloid concentrations were greatly reduced by low temperature this reduction did not occur

  4. Perfil químico y biológico de aceites esenciales de plantas aromáticas de interés agro-industrial en Castilla-La Mancha (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santana, O.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils of Salvia officinalis L., Salvia lavandulifolia Vahl., Lavandula x intermedia Emeric ex Loisel., Lavandula latifolia Medik., Lavandula angustifolia Mill. and Thymus vulgaris L. are presented. The essential oils have been analysed by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry and 61 compounds were identified, 23 of which represented more than 1% of the essential oil. The 1,8 cineole (16-23% appeared as the main compound of Salvia sp. essential oils. The high content of α-thujone was characteristic in S. officinalis oil. Remarkable concentrations of linalool (30-33%, camphor (5-17% and linalyl acetate (9-28% were detected in Lavandula sp. oils while carvacrol (21.6% and p-cimene (23.7% were the most abundant compounds in T. vulgaris oil. Biological characterization was based on their bioplaguicide activity. The essential oils studied had strong antifeedant effects against Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, Spodoptera littoralis Boisd., Myzus persicae Sulzer and Rhopalosiphum padi L., phytotoxic activity against Lactuca sativa L. and Lolium perenne L. and also exhibited high antifungal activity against Fusarium sp. Oils from T. vulgaris and L. latifolia showed the highest levels of bioactivity against all target species. These results provide an added-value to the essential oils of aromatic plants of agro-industrial interest for its potential use in the development of natural agrochemicals.

    En este trabajo se presenta el estudio químico y biológico de los aceites esenciales de Salvia officinalis L., Salvia lavandulifolia Vahl., Lavandula x intermedia Emeric ex Loisel., Lavandula latifolia Medik., Lavandula angustifolia Mill. y Thymus vulgaris L. El estudio químico por cromatografía de gases acoplada a

  5. Remediation of Lead Polluted Chaotu Soil with Low Phosphorus Availability by Phosphorus Fertilizer Amendment and Ryegrass%磷肥和黑麦草结合修复铅污染贫磷潮土的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢维芹; 李立平; 王琳; 赵永祥; 黄海涛

    2009-01-01

    在Pb污染土壤中施用磷肥是降低Pb有效性的有效方法.在低磷或高Pb胁迫下,植物根际的一系列变化将促进植物对磷的吸收或对Pb毒性的降低,但低磷胁迫下植物对土壤Pb有效性的影响研究不多.为探讨Pb污染低磷土壤上施用磷肥对Pb有效性、植物吸收Pb的影响及黑麦草(Lolium perenne L.)对土壤Pb有效性的影响,设置0、500和1000mg·kg~(-1)3个Pb用量和0、2729mg·kg~(-1)两个普通过磷酸钙磷肥用量,种植黑麦草,0和1000mg·kg~(-1)Pb下设置不种植植物的对照的盆栽试验,植物生长48d后收获,测定植物地上部和根系产量、长度、Pb浓度及土壤DTPA-Pb含量.结果表明,施用磷肥后植物产量和地上部长度增加、根冠比、根系长度和Pb浓度减小,500mg·kg~(-1)Pb用量时,未施用磷肥和施用磷肥时植物产量分别为0.37和1.70g·pot~(-1),1000mg·kg~(-1)Pb用量时这两个数值分别为0.24和1.50g·pot~(-1),500mg·kg~(-1)Pb用量时,植物产量与未施Pb处理(产量为0.75g·pot~(-1))差异显著(p0.05).0mg·kg~(-1)Pb用量下,种植植物的处理土壤DTPA-Pb含量比未种植植物处理高54.3%;1000mg·kg~(-1)Pb处理时,种植植物处理土壤DTPA-Pb含量比未种植植物平均低18.5%.以上结果表明,在0mg·Kg~(-1)Pb用量下,植物生长受到了一定程度的磷胁迫.在磷胁迫下,种植植物提高了土壤Pb有效性,而在1000mg·kg~(-1)Pb用量下,不管是否施用磷肥,种植植物均降低了土壤Pb有效性.本研究结果表明,在低磷和高Pb胁迫下,施用水溶性磷肥可降低士壤Pb有效性,促进黑麦草生长,促进Pb向植物地上部转移;在低磷胁迫且无Pb污染条件下,黑麦草对土壤Pb的有效性表现为促进;在高Pb胁迫下,不管是否施用磷肥,黑麦草均可降低土壤Pb有效性.

  6. Influence of contrast morphogenetic features of urban constructed soils on the functioning of Moscow green lawn urban ecosystems: analysis based on the field model experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epikhina, Anna; Vizirskaya, Mariya; Mazirov, Ilya; Vasenev, Vyacheslav; Vasenev, Ivan; Valentini, Riccardo

    2014-05-01

    sand-soil (SS)) with three version of the depths (5, 10 and 20 cm). Soil construction with 10 cm organic horizon from TS top soil was taken as a reference. Grass mixture used for the green lawn including: Lolium perenne, Poa pratensis and Festuca rubra. For all the containers we measured soil CO2 emission by Li-820, soil temperature and moisture and the grass ornamental quality based on the 30-score scale (Laptev; 1988). All the measurements have been done in June-October 2013 with two-week time steps. We also observed the dynamic in soil chemical features (Corg, Ntot and pHKCl) monthly. We found high seasonal dynamics for all the observed functioning parameters. The highest CO2 emission was obtained in the beginning of July, whereas the lowest one - at the end of August. Maximal averaged CO2 emission was shown for the TSa and TSo substrates with the 20 cm depth. The lowest flux has been fixed for the more mineralized substrat. Soil moisture was shown as the main driving factor influencing CO2 emission both for the seasonal dynamics and for the averaged values for different substrates and depths (r=0.5, p0.05). This outcome highlights that the standards of urban constructed soils' optimal features should be the compromise between the beauty of the green lawn and climate mitigation demands. Supported by the RF governmental grant 11.G34.31.0079

  7. “中苎1号”和“中苎2号”苎麻营养价值的初步评价%Preliminary Evaluation on Nutritional Value for Ramie [ Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud.] Zhongzhu No.1 and Zhongzhu No.2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱涛涛; 喻春明; 王延周; 陈继康; 熊和平; 陈平; 谭龙涛; 卢凌霄; 郑建树

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper was to evaluate the nutritional value of two ramie varieties Zhongzhu No.1 and Zhongzhu No.2 and provide a reference for ramie as a forage crop.The results showed that the nutritional quality of ramie [ Boehmeria nivea ( L.) Gaud.] was better than that of pe-rennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) and Pennisetum purpureum Schum.Besides, the nutritional quality of ramie was comparable to that found in alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) .The crude protein content and leaf-stem ratio of ramie at 80 cm reaping height were significantly higher ( P<0.05 ) than 100 cm and 120 cm.The crude fiber content at 80 cm reaping height was significantly lower ( P<0.05 ) than 100 cm and 120 cm.DM yield and gross protein yield at 80 cm were obviously higher than 60 cm ( P<0.05 ) .The growth period at 80 cm height was 8 and 13 days less than 100 cm and 120 cm respectively , In addi-tion, the daily growth rate of crude protein of Zhongzhu No.1 at 80cm reaping height was significantly higher ( P<0.05 ) than other reaping heights.Based on the results , Zhongzhu No.1 and Zhongzhu No.2 could be used as forage crop , and in their second growth season , ramie should be reaped at about 80 cm height as ruminant feed.%本研究的目的是对“中苎1号”和“中苎2号”苎麻的营养价值进行初步评价,为苎麻作牧草利用提供参考。试验结果表明,苎麻的营养品质优于黑麦草和象草,和苜蓿相近;80 cm收割高度下苎麻的叶、茎粗蛋白含量和叶茎比均显著高于100 cm和120 cm ( P<0.05)的收割高度,叶、茎粗纤维含量则显著低于100 cm和120 cm ( P<0.05),同时干物质产量和粗蛋白产量均显著高于60 cm ( P<0.05),生长时间相对100 cm和120 cm分别缩短了8 d和13 d。此外,“中苎1号”在80 cm收割高度下的粗蛋白日增产速率显著高于其他收割高度( P<0.05)。综上可知,“中苎1号”和“中苎2号”可以做牧草开发利

  8. Residuos de poda compostados y sin compostar: uso potencial como enmienda orgánica en suelo Pruning waste and its potential use as amendement to agricultural soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilda M Arrigo

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available La aplicación de materiales orgánicos al suelo es una práctica habitual en sistemas de agricultura sostenible. El objetivo de este trabajo fue: i estudiar el efecto de la incorporación al suelo de material orgánico obtenido en diferentes etapas del proceso de compostaje sobre el crecimiento de raygrass e ii determinar el efecto que causa el material orgánico incorporado sobre la nutrición nitrogenada en las plantas. Se armaron 4 pilas integradas por el mismo material inicial las cuales fueron monitoreadas en las siguientes etapas del proceso de compostaje: a- material inicial (T1, b- al final de la fase activa, 2 meses (T2, c- al promediar la fase de maduración, 7 meses (T3 y d- al finalizar la fase de maduración, 12 meses (T4. Se sembró raygrass sobre estos materiales y los mismos mezclado con suelo. La producción de materia seca de raygrass en los materiales T1 y T2 fue significativamente menor que en los restantes tratamientos. Resultados similares fueron cuantificados cuando los mismos materiales se incorporaron al suelo. El contenido de N en planta fue menor al incorporar al suelo los materiales T1 y T2 indicando inmovilización de este nutriente. Al adicionar los materiales T3 y T4 al suelo se comprobó que no hubo diferencias significativas entre ellos, en consecuencia, el empleo del material T3 puede considerarse una buena opción ya que puede utilizarse anticipadamente lográndose beneficios económicos y medioambientales.Land application of organic materials is a common practice in sustainable agriculture. Our aim was i to study the effect of the incorporation of organic material at different maturity stages on the ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. growth, and ii to estimate the stage capable to produce the product more efficient in providing nitrogen to the plant nutrition. Four compost samples consisted of pruning waste, leaves and grass clippings were selected from four different piles at different stages of the composting

  9. 几种植物对土壤中阿特拉津的吸收富集特征及去除效率研究%Uptake and Removal Efficiency of Atrazine in Soil by Several Weeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建军; 李明锐; 张坤; 李元

    2014-01-01

    通过盆栽实验比较研究了7种植物对土壤中阿特拉津的去除效率,阿特拉津在植物体内的富集、转移,以及土壤中阿特拉津去除效率与植物生物量、根系发达程度之间的关系。结果表明:植物能有效促进土壤中阿特拉津的去除,不同植物对土壤中阿特拉津的去除能力存在差异,其中去除效率最高的是皇竹草,比对照提高了40.37%,7种植物的去除率大小依次为皇竹草﹥斑茅﹥黑麦草﹥高羊茅﹥龙葵﹥牛筋草﹥香附子;不同植物的生物量、根冠比与植物对阿特拉津的去除率存在明显的正相关关系,相关系数分别为0.838、0.866;7种植物对阿特拉津均有一定的吸收、富集与转运的能力,其中皇竹草的富集系数和转运系数最高,分别为0.54和2.81,其次为斑茅和高羊茅。可见,皇竹草、斑茅和高羊茅对土壤阿特拉津污染具有较好的修复潜力。%Atrazine was the most commonly detected herbicide contaminating soil and water. Phytoremediation has been approved to a cost-effective technique. In this study, a pot experiment was carried out to compare the uptake and removal efficiency of atrazine in soil by seven weeds. Enrichment and transfer characteristics of atrazine in plants as well as relationships between the removal efficiency of atrazine and plant biomass, root growth were also investigated. Growing plants profoundly improved the removal efficiency of atrazine from soil. Compared with the control, the highest removal efficiency of atrazine was found in Pennisetum hydridumn with the removal efficiency being increased by 40.37%. The removal efficiency of atrazine was in order of P. hydridum﹥Saccharum arundinaceum﹥Lolium perenne L.﹥Festuca elata﹥Solanum nigrum L.﹥Gramineae﹥C. rotundus, and was significantly positively correlated with plant biomass(r=0.838)and ratio of root to shoot biomass(r=0.866). Seven weed plants did show absorption

  10. [Responses of agricultural crops of free-air CO2 enrichment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, B A; Zhu, Jianguo; Cheng, Lei; Kobayashi, K; Bindi, M

    2002-10-01

    Over the past decade, free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments have been conducted on several agricultural crops: wheat(Triticum aestivum L.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and rice(Oryza sativa L.) which are C3 grasses; sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Möench), a C4 grass; white clover (Trifolium repens), a C3 legume; potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), a C3 forb with tuber storage; and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and grape (Vitis vinifera L.) which are C3 woody perennials. Using reports from these experiments, the relative responses of these crops was discussed with regard to photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, canopy temperature, water use, water potential, leaf area index, shoot and root biomass accumulation, agricultural yield, radiation use efficiency, specific leaf area, tissue nitrogen concentration, nitrogen yield, carbohydrate concentration, phenology, soil microbiology, soil respiration, trace gas emissions, and soil carbon sequestration. Generally, the magnitude of these responses varied with the functional type of plant and with the soil nitrogen and water status. As expected, the elevated CO2 increased photosynthesis and biomass production and yield substantially in C3 species, but little in C4, and it decreased stomatal conductance and transpiration in both C3 and C4 species and greatly improved water-use efficiency in all the crops. Growth stimulations were as large or larger under water-stress compared to well-watered conditions. Growth stimulations of non-legumes were reduced at low soil nitrogen, whereas elevated CO2 strongly stimulated the growth of the clover legume both at ample and under low N conditions. Roots were generally stimulated more than shoots. Woody perennials had larger growth responses to elevated CO2, while at the same time, their reductions in stomatal conductance were smaller. Tissue nitrogen concentrations went down while carbohydrate and some other carbon-based compounds went up due to elevated CO2, with leaves and

  11. Surface Shear Stress Around a Single Flexible Live Plant and a Rigid Cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, B. A.; Gromke, C.; Leonard, K. C.; Clifton, A.; Lehning, M.

    2010-12-01

    The sheltering effect of vegetation against soil erosion and snow transport has direct implications on land degradation and local water storage as snow in many arid and semi arid regions. Plants influence the erosion, transport and redeposition of soil and snow by the wind through momentum absorption, local stress concentration, trapping particles in motion and reducing the area of sediment exposed to the wind. The shear stress distributions on the ground beneath plant canopies determine the onset and magnitude of differential soil and snow erosion on rough or vegetated surfaces, but this has been studied exclusively with artificial and rigid vegetation elements thus far. Real plants have highly irregular structures that can be extremely flexible and porous. They align with the flow at higher wind speeds, resulting in considerable changes to the drag and flow regimes relative to rigid imitations of comparable size. We present measurements in the SLF atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel of the surface shear stress distribution around a live grass plant (Lolium Perenne) and a solid cylinder of comparable size. Irwin sensors are used to measure pressure differences close to the surface which can be calibrated with surface shear stress velocities. The basal to frontal area index of the plant and the cylinder as well as the Reynolds number of the two experimental setups have been checked for similarity and show good agreement. Distinctive differences between the shear stress pattern around the plant and the cylinder can be attributed to the influence of the plant’s porosity and flexibility. The sheltered zone behind the plant is narrower in cross-stream and longer in streamwise direction than that of the cylinder. For the plant, the lowest shear stresses in the sheltered zone are 50% lower than the mean surface shear stress (τ = 0.15 N/m2) in the undisturbed flow. The sheltering was higher behind the cylinder with values reduced by 70% relative to background.

  12. 水分胁迫对混播草坪生理生态特性的影响%Influence of Water Stress on Physical Ecology Characteristics of Mixed Lawn Grass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李楠; 李海梅

    2014-01-01

    The resistance to water stress of three kinds of lawns were studied by pot experiment and field experiment.The T1 lawn as control contained single species Poa pretensis,the T2 lawn consisted of P.pretensis, Festuca arundinacea and Lolium perenne with the mixed ratio of 6∶2∶2,and the T3 lawn consisted of P.pretensis, F.rubra and Agrostis tenuis with the mixed ratio of 5∶4∶1 .The results were as following:along with the enhance-ment of water stress,the appearance quality comprehensive evaluation was in the order of T1 >T2 >T3 .T1 had the lowest decline of soil water content,leaf relative water content and root activity,followed by T2 ,and then T3 .The chlorophyll content in leaves followed the order of T1 >T2 >T3 .The resistance of these lawns to water stress were T1 >T2 >T3 .These lawns had different optimum soil water content,which the percentage of soil water content to field water capacity was 84.5%-94.8% for T1 ,80.4%-91 .8% for T2,and 77.5%-90.7% for T3.%为了研究混播草坪抗水分胁迫能力,采用盆栽试验与大田试验相结合的方法,以草地早熟禾(Poa pretensis)单播草坪(简称T1)为对照,以草地早熟禾、高羊茅(Festuca arundinacea)、多年生黑麦草(Loli-um perenne)混播草坪(简称T2,混播比例为6∶2∶2)和草地早熟禾、紫羊茅(F.rubra)、细弱翦股颖(Agrostis tenuis)混播草坪(简称T3,混播比例为5∶4∶1)为研究对象,分析水分胁迫对混播草坪生理生态特性的影响。结果表明,随着水分胁迫增加,3种草坪的外观质量综合评价表现为T1>T2>T3;单播草坪土壤含水量、叶片相对含水量及根系活力下降幅度均低于混播草坪,变幅表现为T3>T2>T1;而叶片叶绿素含量均值表现为T1>T2>T3。3种供试草坪抗水分胁迫能力表现为T1>T2>T3,T1适宜的土壤含水量占田间持水量百分比范围为84.5%~94.8%,T2为80.4%~91.8%,T3为77

  13. Identification of cellulose decomposing fungi strain F1 and decomposition activity to two kinds of lawn grass litter%一株纤维素分解菌的鉴定及对两种草坪草凋落物分解活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芦光新; 陈秀蓉; 杨成德; 薛莉; 刘雯; 卞静

    2011-01-01

    A fungal isolate (strain F1) was isolated from east part of grassland soil in Qilian alpine. Taxonomic status and decomposition activity to two kinds of lawn grass litter were studied in this study. Combinated morphology with rDNA-ITS molecular biology methods, the fungus was Microdochium bolleyi. The dynamics of lignocellulolytic enzymes secreted by M. Bolleyi and cell wall material (CWM) decomposition of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and white clover (Trifolium repens) litter were investigated for 42 d at 25 ℃ on a rotary shaker at 150 r/min in flask liquid fermentation method. 1) Insoluble cell wall material(ICWM) of two kinds of lawn grass litter significantly reduced after inoculation strain F1 (P<0. 05); 2) When two kinds of lawn grass litter acts as substrate respectively, the laccase secreted by strain F1 appears first, followed by the cellulase enzyme and xylanase, catechol oxidase and guaiacol oxidase occurs at the latest; 3) Perennial ryegrass compared with white clover, the insoluble cell wall material (ICWM) and cell wall material (CWM) degradation rate of perennial ryegrass litter was higher (P<0.05); 4) The FPAase, CMCase, xylanase, pycocatechol oxidase and guaiacol oxidase activity except for the laccase secreted by M. Bolleyi in perennial ryegrass litter were higher than those in white clover litter (P<0.05).%对1株分离筛选自东祁连山高寒草地土壤真菌菌株F1的分类学地位及对多年生黑麦草和白三叶凋落物的分解活性进行了研究.采用形态学和rDNA-ITS分子生物学相结合的方法,对菌株F1的分类学地位进行了确定,初步鉴定为Microdochium bolleyi;应用摇瓶液体发酵法,通过接种和不接种处理,分别以2种草坪草凋落物为底物,于25℃,150r/min震荡培养42 d,测定了2种草坪草凋落物诱导真菌分泌木质纤维素酶活力动态变化和草坪草凋落物细胞壁物质(CWM)的降解率.结果表明,1)接种处理后,2种草坪草细胞壁非水溶性

  14. Integrated management of organic wastes for remediation of massive tailings storage facilities under semiarid mediterranean climate type: efficacy of organic pork residues as study case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginocchio, Rosanna; Arellano, Eduardo; España, Helena; Gardeweg, Rosario; Bas, Fernando; Gandarillas, Mónica

    2016-04-01

    seeded with Lolium perenne. Experimental pots were kept under controlled conditions and irrigated up to 70% field water capacity for 42 days. After this period, chemical characteristics of the substrate and productive plant variables were determined and contrasted. Results showed that both pig wastes evaluated had significant (positive) and dose-dependent effects on plant productivity (both aerial and root biomass), but an increase in copper and zinc contents in aerial tissues occurred. Metal increments in aerial plant tissues were, however, below plant toxicity thresholds and represent no risk for cattle consumption. Application of any pork waste to mine tailings increased organic matter and macronutrient contents, besides raising pH. No substrate salinization was detected under the evaluated doses. These promising results show that organic pork residues are useful amendments for remediation of TSFs in north-central Chile. Furthermore, a twofold solution for environmental problems generated by two very relevant industrial sectors of the country is thus possible. Further studies are, however needed. Study funded by Project DIP-FAIF of P. Universidad Católica de Chile and by Project FB 0002-2014 of CONICYT. CICAP is also acknowledged.

  15. Black Nitrogen or Plant-Derived Organic Nitrogen - which Form is More Efficiently Sequestered in Soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martín, María; Velasco-Molina, Marta; Knicker, Heike

    2014-05-01

    Input of charcoal after forest fires can lead to considerable changes of the quality and quantity of organic matter in soils (SOM). This affects not only its organic C pool but also shifts its organic N composition from peptideous to N-heterocyclic structures (Knicker et al., 1996). In the present study we sought to understand how this alteration is affecting the N availability in fire affected soils. Therefore, we performed a medium-term pot experiment in which grass material (Lolium perenne) was grown on soil material (Cambisols) of a fire-affected and a fire-unaffected forest. The soils were topped with mixtures of ground fresh grass residues and KNO3 or charred grass material (pyrogenic organic matter; PyOM) with KNO3. Here, either the organic N or the inorganic N was isotopically enriched with 15N. Following the 15N concentration in the soil matrix and the growing plants as a function of incubation time (up to 16 months) by isotopic ratio mass spectrometry allowed us to indentify which N-source is most efficiently stabilized and how PyOM is affecting this process. Preliminary data indicated that only after the germination of the seeds, the concentration of the added inorganic 15N in the soil decreased considerably most likely due to its uptake by the growing plants but also due to N-losses by leaching and volatilization. Additional addition of plant residues or PyOM had no major effect on this behavior. Covering the soil with 15N-grass residues which simulates a litter layer led to a slow increase of the 15N concentration in the mineral soil during the first month. This is best explained by the ongoing incorporation of the litter into the soil matrix. After that a small decrease was observed, showing that the organic N was only slowly mobilized. Addition of 15N-PyOM showed a comparable behavior but with 15N concentration in the soil corresponding to twice of those of the pots amended with 15N-grass residues. After that the 15N concentrations decrease quickly

  16. Compost and residues from biogas plant as potting substrates for salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cam Van, Do Thi

    2013-08-01

    Compost and residues from biogas plant have been increasingly recognized as potting substrates in horticulture. To investigate the suitability of both materials to grow salt tolerant plants in 2010 a pot experiment was conducted in the greenhouse of INRES-Plant nutrition, University of Bonn. Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), rape (Brassica napus) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) were chosen as experimental plants. To reduce the high salt content compost and residues from biogas plant were leached. To improve physical characteristics of raw materials, additives including Perlite, Styromull, Hygromull, Lecaton, Peat, Cocofiber were incorporated into compost or residues from biogas plant with the volumetric ratio of 4:1. Plant growth (DM) and nutrient uptake (N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Na and S) of the experimental plants grown in compost-based or residue-based substrates with and without additives and standard soil as a control were determined. Preliminary results reveal that origin compost and residues from biogas plant without leaching are suitable potting substrates for those plants. For compost leaching may not be recommended while for residues from biogas plant the effect of leaching was not distinct and needs further investigations. The incorporation of additives into the basic materials partially resulted in higher plant dry matter yield and nutrient uptake. However, differences between the additives on both parameters were mainly insignificant. Incorporation of Hygromull or Peat, especially into residues from biogas plant favored plant growth and enhanced total nutrient uptake. In 2011, pot experiments were continued with the salt-sensitive ornamental plants, Pelargonium (Pelargonium zonale Toro) and Salvia (Salvia splendens). Two separate experiments were carried out for the mixtures of compost and additives (SPS standard soil type 73 based on Peat, Hygromull or Cocofiber) with different volumetric ratios (4:1, 1:1, 1:4) and the mixtures of Peat incorporated with small

  17. Application and improvement of Raupach's shear stress partitioning model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, B. A.; Lehning, M.; Gromke, C.

    2012-12-01

    Aeolian processes such as the entrainment, transport and redeposition of sand, soil or snow are able to significantly reshape the earth's surface. In times of increasing desertification and land degradation, often driven by wind erosion, investigations of aeolian processes become more and more important in environmental sciences. The reliable prediction of the sheltering effect of vegetation canopies against sediment erosion, for instance, is a clear practical application of such investigations to identify suitable and sustainable counteractive measures against wind erosion. This study presents an application and improvement of a theoretical model presented by Raupach (Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 1992, Vol.60, 375-395 and Journal of Geophysical Research, 1993, Vol.98, 3023-3029) which allows for quantifying the sheltering effect of vegetation against sediment erosion. The model predicts the shear stress ratios τS'/τ and τS''/τ. Here, τS is the part of the total shear stress τ that acts on the ground beneath the plants. The spatial peak τS'' of the surface shear stress is responsible for the onset of particle entrainment whereas the spatial mean τS' can be used to quantify particle mass fluxes. The precise and accurate prediction of these quantities is essential when modeling wind erosion. Measurements of the surface shear stress distributions τS(x,y) on the ground beneath live vegetation canopies (plant species: lolium perenne) were performed in a controlled wind tunnel environment to determine the model parameters and to evaluate the model performance. Rigid, non-porous wooden blocks instead of the plants were additionally tested for the purpose of comparison, since previous wind tunnel studies used exclusively artificial plant imitations for their experiments on shear stress partitioning. The model constant c, which is needed to determine the total stress τ for a canopy of interest and which remained rather unspecified to date, was found to be c ≈ 0

  18. Seed-and soil-borne fungi of 3 turf grass species and effects of fungicide seed treatment%三种草坪草的种带与土传真菌及杀菌剂拌种的防效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张成霞; 南志标; 李春杰; 王彦荣

    2004-01-01

    以多年生黑麦草(Lolium perenne)、高羊茅(Festuca arundinacea)和草地早熟禾(Poa pratensis)等3种9个草坪草品种为材料,在实验室、温室和田间开展了系列研究.实验室结果表明:高羊茅Barlexas品种和草地早熟禾的3个品种,在滤纸苗床发芽率显著高于同样条件下田间土床上的发芽率(P<0.05).对种带和土传真菌的分离表明,自种子上仅分离获得4种常见种带真菌,而经在田间土壤培养后,分离获得14种真菌,包括早熟禾德氏霉(Drechslera poae)、立枯丝核菌(Rhizoctonia solani)和数种镰刀菌(Fusarium spp.)等.以福美双、甲基硫菌灵和三唑酮对参试品种单独拌种进行温室盆栽试验,播后13~16d,福美双显著提高了多年生黑麦草品种Premier和草地早熟禾品种Platini的出苗率,增幅最高分别为80.6%和45.2%.与对照比,三唑酮拌种显著提高了高羊茅3个品种的出苗率,增幅最高的是Barlexas品种,可达166.7%.福美双、甲基硫菌灵或三唑酮均可提高多年生黑麦草Taya每盆根和茎干重,与对照比,每盆茎干重分别增加47.2%、29.5%和34.7%,福美双和甲基硫菌灵使其根干重分别增加67.7%和97.1%.福美双和三唑酮显著提高了多年生黑麦草Gator Ⅱ每盆茎干重,增幅分别为32.1%和29.6%.甲基硫菌灵拌种使草地早熟禾Platini品种的根与茎干重分别增加230%和100%,参试品种每株幼苗根与茎干重对杀菌剂拌种的反应与每盆重量相似.田间试验结果表明:杀菌剂拌种不同程度地提高了草坪草出苗率和田间生物量.经相关与回归分析,参试草坪草在田间与温室盆栽条件下的生物量存在显著的正相关,二者根和茎的相关系数分别为0.81和0.82,回归方程式分别为Y1=13.178+3.5911X1和Y2=0.11803+3.6845X2表示.

  19. How does pyrogenic organic matter affect the N dynamic in agricultural soils? An incubation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Rosa, José M.; Knicker, Heike

    2010-05-01

    to a typical Andalusian agricultural soil (calcareous Rhodoxeralf, FAO-UNESCO classification). The bioavailability of the 15N from the biochars was tested by determining its content in grass (lolium perenne) grown on this soil under defined conditions. Following the 15N within the soil fractions gave further information about some mechanisms involved in N-partioning and stabilization. Chemical alteration of the 15N-containing organic structures during mobilization/immobilization were followed by solid-state NMR spectroscopy in order to obtain some more insights into the processes involved in the C and N-sequestration. References: Campbell, C.A., V.O. Biederbeck, G. Wen, R.P. Zentner, J. Schoenau and D. Hahn, Canadian Journal of Soil Science 79 (1999), pp. 73-84. Dick, R.P., Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 40 (1992), pp. 25-36. González-Pérez, J.A., F.J., González-Vila, G., Almendros and H., Knicker, Environment International 30 (2004), pp. 855-870. Schlesinger, W.H., J.E. Reynolds, G.L. Cunningham, L.F. Huenneke, W.M. Jarrell, R.A. Virginia and W.G. Whitford, Science 247 (1990), pp. 1043-1048.

  20. Effects of exogenous nitric oxide on photosynthetic and bioluminescent characteristics in ryegrass seedlings under osmotic stress%外源一氧化氮对渗透胁迫下黑麦草幼苗光合和生物发光特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建新; 王金成; 王瑞娟; 贾海燕

    2013-01-01

    为了探讨一氧化氮(NO)对渗透胁迫下牧草光合生理响应的调节作用,采用水培方法,研究了外源NO供体硝普钠(SNP)对15% PEG 6000(-0.5 MPa)渗透胁迫下黑麦草幼苗叶片光合色素含量、气体交换参数、叶绿素荧光和生物发光强度的影响.结果表明,在渗透胁迫下,外施100 μmol/L SNP显著提高了黑麦草叶片中光合色素含量、净光合速率(Pn)、气孔导度(Gs)、蒸腾速率(Tr)、气孔限制值(Ls)、PSⅡ最大光化学效率(Fv/Fm)和实际光化学效率(ΦPSⅡ),明显降低了胞间CO2浓度(Ci)、PSⅡ激发压(1-qP)和非光化学猝灭(NPQ)及超弱发光强度、荧光强度和磷光强度.但SNP的这种效应可被NO的清除剂血红蛋白(Hb)所逆转.而100 μmol/L的NOx-(NO的分解产物)或Na3 Fe(CN)6(SNP的相似物或分解产物)对渗透胁迫无显著改善.表明NO可能通过提高光合色素含量和光能利用率,降低生物发光强度,缓解渗透胁迫对黑麦草光合机构的破坏和光合速率的抑制.%The regulating effect of nitric oxide (NO) on photosynthetic physiological response of herbage under osmotic stress, was studied in a hydroponic experiment. The effect of the exogenous NO donor sodium nitro-prusside (SNP) on the photosynthetic pigment content, gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and bioluminescence intensity in leaves of ryegrass (Lolium perenne) under osmotic stress simulated by 15% PEG-6000 were investigated. The stress from 100 μmol/L SNP significantly increased photosynthetic pigment contents, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal limited value (Ls), PSⅡ maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and actual photochemical efficiency (ΦPSⅡ ), but reduced intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), PS Ⅱ excitation pressure (1-qp), non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), ultra-weak luminescence intensity, fluorescence intensity and phosphorescence intensity in ryegrass

  1. Compostagem da fracção sólida do chorume com palha de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) ou tojo (Ulex europaeus L.) Composting cattle slurry solid fraction with Italian ryegrass straw (Lo­lium multiflorum Lam.) or gorse (Ulex europaeus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    L. M. Brito; A. L. Amaro; I. Mourão; Coutinho, J.

    2010-01-01

    A fracção sólida do chorume (FSC) de uma exploração de pecuária leiteira intensi­va foi compostada com adição de doses crescentes de palha de azevém ou de tojo, em pilhas estáticas com três revolvimentos. A temperatura aumentou na FSC até 65 ºC após o primeiro revolvimento mas as tempe­raturas máximas registaram-se mais cedo e foram mais elevadas nas pilhas com adição de palha ou de tojo. Estes materiais aumen­taram as taxas de mineralização da matéria orgânica (MO) em todas as pilhas. No ent...

  2. Compostagem da fracção sólida do chorume com palha de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. ou tojo (Ulex europaeus L. Composting cattle slurry solid fraction with Italian ryegrass straw (Lo­lium multiflorum Lam. or gorse (Ulex europaeus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Brito

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A fracção sólida do chorume (FSC de uma exploração de pecuária leiteira intensi­va foi compostada com adição de doses crescentes de palha de azevém ou de tojo, em pilhas estáticas com três revolvimentos. A temperatura aumentou na FSC até 65 ºC após o primeiro revolvimento mas as tempe­raturas máximas registaram-se mais cedo e foram mais elevadas nas pilhas com adição de palha ou de tojo. Estes materiais aumen­taram as taxas de mineralização da matéria orgânica (MO em todas as pilhas. No entanto, a MO potencialmente mineralizável e o teor de N orgânico nos compostos finais foram inferiores. A razão C/N diminuiu de forma semelhante para todas as pilhas de 32-38 no início do processo para 13-17 no final da compostagem. A baixa temperatura, a baixa razão C/N e a baixa concentração de NH4+, em combinação com o aumento da concentração de NO 3-dos compostos finais, indicaram que estes estavam estabilizados. O elevado teor de MO (784-832 g kg-1 MS e de N total (28-35 g kg-1 MS e a baixa condutividade eléctrica (0,72-1,16 dS m-1 sugerem que os compostados da FSC podem ser utilizados como correctivos orgânicos do solo. A utilização de palha ou de tojo contribuiu para melhor garantir a higienização do composto.Cattle slurry solid fraction (SF was col­lected from a dairy farm (SF and com­posted with increasing rates of Italian rye-grass straw or gorse, in static piles turned only three times. Temperatures increased to a maximum of 65 ºC after the first turn in the pile only with SF. In contrast, higher temperatures were registered much sooner in piles mixed with straw or gorse. The ad­dition of these bulking agents to SF in­creased temperatures and also the initial rates of organic matter (OM mineralisation. In contrast, potential OM mineralisation and organic N content decreased. The C/N ratio declined following a similar pattern for all compost treatments, from 32-38 at the beginning of the proc­ess, to a value of 13-17 towards the end of composting. Stabilized compost was obtained from raw SF feedstock as indi­cated by the low compost temperature, low C/N ratio and the small content of NH4+ combined with increased concentra­tions of NO3-. The high concentration of OM (784-832 g kg-1 and total N (28-35 g kg-1 in final composts in addition to a low electrical conductivity (0.72-1.16 dS m-1 suggests that SF composts may be ef­fective as soil amendments. The use of straw or gorse contributed to guarantee compost sanitation.

  3. Sementes nocivas que ocorreram em amostras de sementes de azevém (Lolium multiflorum, analisadas no Rio Grande do Sul nos anos de 1978 e 1979 Weed seeds in ryegrass seeds, analysed in Rio Grande do Sul, during 1978 and 1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Giaretta

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram levantadas informações sobre a qualidade da semente de azevém utilizadas no Rio Grande do Sul e produzida no próprio Estado ou em outras uni dades da Federação e mesmo em outros Países, nos anos de 1978 e 1979. Estas informações foram obtidas através de fichas e Boletins de Análise de Sementes dos Laboratórios de Análise de Sementes (LAS do Rio Grande do Sul. Em 1978 analisou-se 2.319 t de azevém sendo 74% da semente oriunda do Rio Grande do Sul e 26% introduzida, enquanto que das 4.772 t analisadas em 1979 99,6% são do Rio Grande do Sul e 0,4% são introduzidas. O percentual de sementes de azevém, produzidas no Estado, contaminadas com sementes nocivas foi de 61,5% em 1978 e de 60,0% em 1979; e o de sementes int roduzidas no Estado foi de 45,6% em 1978 e de 29,4%em 1979. Foi observado que ent re as sementes originárias do RS destacaram -se com maior ocorrênci a em 1978 as espécies nocivas de Silene gallica, Setaria geniculata, Anthemis cotula, Digitaria adscendens e Echinochloa spp, enquanto que nas sementes int roduzidas desta caram-se Sida spp e Rumex spp; em 1979, na semente oriunda do Estado desta caram-se Amaranthus spp, Silene gallica e Setaria geniculata, enquanto que nas sementes introduzidas a maior ocorrência foi de Setaria geniculata, Echinochloa spp e Solanum spp.This paper presents a quality record of rye-grass seeds produced in Rio Grande do Sul or imported from other countries. It refers to the presence of weeds in ryegrass during 1978 and 1979. These record were obtained in the Analysis Bulletins at the Seed Analysis Laboratory of the Instituto de Pesquisas Agronômicas (IPAGRO Rio Grande do Sul°Brasil and in those from other institutions. This State produced 74% of 2.319 t analysed seeds and 26% come from other places in 1978. In 1979 4.772 t were registred, 99,6% from here and 0,4% from outside. The percentage of ryegrass seeds contaminated with weed seeds produced in the State, in 1978, were 61,5% and 45,6% in the imported seeds. In 1979 these values were 60,0% and 29,4%, respectively. The commonest seeds of weed species that were found among the samples, in the seeds produced at Rio Grande do Sul, in 1978 were: Silene gallica, Setaria geniculata, Anthemis cotula, Digitaria adscendens and Echinochloa spp. In 1979 the weeds were: Amaranthus spp, Silene gallica and Setaria geniculata. In seeds imported from other countries we found, in 1978, Sida spp and Rumex spp; in 1979 Setaria geniculata, Echinochloa spp and Solanum spp.

  4. Validation of a housekeeping gene for use in bovine vascular gene expression studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of ungulate vasculature to ergot alkaloids while grazing endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)-infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) affects vasoactivity and causes vasoconstriction. Bovine vascular gene expression as affected by exposure to ergot alkaloids in tall fescue is largely un...

  5. Two new Grasses from Paraguay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1922-01-01

    Paspalum plumosum, HENR. nov. spec., — Perenne, dense caespitosum. Culmi stricte erecti, 6—9 dm alti, graciles, simplices, teretes, laeves pauci-nodes, nodis paullulo pilosis. Foliorum vaginae subarctae, apice hiantes, leviter compressae, laeves, glabrae, nitentes, striatae, sordide stramineo-fuscae

  6. Within and between population variation in inbreeding depression in the locally threatened perennial Scabiosa columbaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angeloni, F.; Vergeer, P.; Wagemaker, C.A.M.; Ouborg, N.J.

    2014-01-01

    Inbreeding depression plays a central role within the conservation genetics paradigm. Until now inbreeding depression is incorporated into models of population viability as a mean value (e.g. number of lethal equivalents) for all traits in a population. In this study of the locally threatened perenn

  7. Effect of seed rate and row spacing in seed production of Festulolium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Gislum, R; Boelt, B

    2010-01-01

    Festulolium ( Festulolium) is a cross between the two species fescue (Festuca L.) and ryegrass (Lolium L.) and is a promising forage and seed crop. To stimulate the production of Danish organic festulolium seeds a three-year field experiment was performed from 1999 to 2002 in a ryegrass-type fest......Festulolium ( Festulolium) is a cross between the two species fescue (Festuca L.) and ryegrass (Lolium L.) and is a promising forage and seed crop. To stimulate the production of Danish organic festulolium seeds a three-year field experiment was performed from 1999 to 2002 in a ryegrass...

  8. Study on Plant Species Composition for Revegetatation at Zinc and Indium Mining Area%锌铟矿区植被结构优化造林模式的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常恩福; 侬时增; 刘永国; 李娅; 钱兴廷; 安康发; 周文华

    2013-01-01

    Silvicultural experiments including 10 species composition of 12 tested plant species were conducted in Zinc and indium mine waste accumulation site located in Dulong of Maguan county of Yunnan province from 2010 to 2013.Twelve tested plant species were Cupressus lusitanica,Alnus nepalensis,A.cremastogyne cv.yanshan,Ficus microcarpa vat.pusillifolia,Celtis kunmingensis,Pinus eltiottii,Buxus sinica,Ligustrum quihoui,Cajanus cajan,Neyraudia reynaudiana,Festuca arundinacea and Lolium perenne.Three years after field planting,the growth increments of 10 designed species composition were measured,and the soil nutritional status were analyzed as well.By considering the ecological status,site characteristics and the objectives of revegetation,four plant species with promising adaptability,afforestation survival rate and preserving rate were screened out,they were A.cremastogyne cv.yanshan,Cajanus cajan,A.nepalensis and Neyraudia reynaudiana.Combining A.cremastogyne cv.yanshan with Neyraudia reynaudiana or Cajanus cajan with Neyraudia reynaudiana,could speed up the positive succession,and form multilayer stand structure,with the survival rate over 95 % and preserving rate over 87 %.The average tree height and DBH of three years A.cremastogyne cv.yanshan were 4.79 m and 4.5 cm respectively,the average tree height and DBH of three years Cajanus cajan were 2.16 m and 2.8 cm respectively,the average height of Neyraudia reynaudiana was 2.18 m.The experimental results also indicated that at the initial stage of revegetation,choosing proper plant species and combining the species scientifically,the biodiversity could be maintained effectively,and the ideal community structure could be achieved,which therefore quite promising for the improve the soil fertility of the site.%2010 ~2013年在马关都龙曼家寨锌铟矿山采用墨西哥柏、旱冬瓜、川滇桤木、小叶榕、滇朴、湿地松、黄杨、小叶女桢、木豆、类芦、苇状羊茅、黑麦草12

  9. Sewage sludge hydrochars: properties and agronomic impact as related to different production conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paneque, Marina; María De la Rosa, José; Aragón, Carlos; Kern, Jürgen; Conte, Pellegrino; Knicker, Heike

    2015-04-01

    amount of hydrochar equivalent to 5 and 25 t ha-1 were prepared in quadruplicate for each hydrochar using Lolium perenne as test plant (25 seeds per pot). Hydrochars were not washed before this experiment. Control pots, without hydrochar amendment, were also settled for comparison purposes (n=6). After adjusting the soil humidity to 60% of the maximum WHC, the pots were placed into a greenhouse under similar conditions than those reported by [3]. In this experiment germination, survival rates and biomass production per pot were measured periodically. Elemental analysis and the determination of several chemical properties of hydrochars such as pH, electrical conductivity and ash content were performed. Additionally, 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was applied to elucidate the main chemical groups whereas fast field cycling (FFC) NMR relaxometry was valuable for investigating the porous structure and water dynamic in the different hydrochars. This work confirmed that production conditions of hydrochars vary their chemical properties and hence their agronomic effect. Biomass production raised significantly in presence of all hydrochars, being the response in presence of hydrochars produced at 200˚C significantly higher than the response in presence of hydrochars produced at 260˚C, whereas the residence time of the hydrochars in the reactor did not affect biomass productivity. Concerning the characterization data, hydrochars which showed the highest biomass production were those which contain the highest mineralized nitrogen content (NH4, NO2 and NO3) and a greater presence of alkyl carbons and carboxyl groups. Hydrochars FFC NMR relaxometry results show a lower T1 (longitudinal relaxation time) compared to the pure sewage sludge, which suggests that HTC processes reduced the average pore size of the system. This has further implications in the water and nutrient retention capacity of the hydrochars compared to the pure sewage sludge. Acknowledgements: The

  10. Contrasting agronomic response of biochar amendment to a Mediterranean Cambisol: Incubation vs. field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Rosa, José M.; Paneque, Marina; De Celis, Reyes; Miller, Ana Z.; Knicker, Heike

    2015-04-01

    wood biochars. The FESEM-EDS distinguished compositional and structural differences of the studied biochars such as macropores on the surface of pyrolysis wood biochars. In the frame of a pot experiment, the biochar characteristics (physical properties and chemical composition) were related to the germination rates and to the plant biomass production of a Lolium perenne. Incubation was carried out in 300 mL pots during 79 days in which a calcic Cambisol [3] was amended with 10, 20 and 40 t ha-1 biochar. After adjusting the soil humidity to 60% of the maximum water holding capacity (WHC), the pots were placed into a greenhouse under similar conditions than those reported by [4]. Biochar amendment improved significantly germination rates and soil fertility (excepting kiln wood biochar), and had no negative pH impact on the already alkaline soil. Application of sewage sludge biochar, the richest in minerals and nitrogen, resulted in the highest soil fertility. In this case, increase of the dose went along with an enhancement of plant production. Considering further costs due to production and transport of biochar, the application of 10 t ha-1 turned out as the most efficient for the crop and soil used in the incubation experiment [further details in 5]. The field study was performed with seeds of Helianthus annuus, at the experimental station "La Hampa", located in the Guadalquivir river valley (SW Spain; 37° 21.32' N, 6° 4.07' W), Seville. The calcic Cambisol which was also used as matrix for the pot experiments was amended with doses equivalent to 0 (control), 1.5 and 15 t ha-1 of the five biochars, making a total of 12 different treatments. Soil properties and composition were monitored during the growing time including elemental composition, pH, water holding capacity and soil microbial biomass. After 6 months of growth, sunflower plants were harvested. Plant height, chlorophyll content and sunflower seeds production were recorded. Results of this field experiment

  11. Spring nitrogen fertilization of ryegrass-bermudagrass for phytoremediation of phosphorus-enriched soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen fertilization of forage grasses is critical for optimizing biomass and utilization of manure soil nutrients. Field studies were conducted in 2007-09 to determine the effects of spring N fertilization on amelioration of high soil P when cool-season, annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) is...

  12. Phytoremediation of high phosphorus soil by annual ryegrass and common bermudagrass harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Removal of soil phosphorus (P) in crop harvest is a remediation option for soils high in P. This four-year field-plot study determined P uptake by annual ryegrass (ARG, Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and common bermudagrass (CB, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) from Ruston s