WorldWideScience

Sample records for ballasts

  1. Modelling Ballast Water Transport

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, S.; Babu, M.T.; Vethamony, P.

    Ballast water discharges in the coastal environs have caused a great concern over the recent periods as they account for transporting marine organisms from one part of the world to the other. The movement of discharged ballast water as well...

  2. 33 CFR 157.10b - Segregated ballast tanks, dedicated clean ballast tanks, and special ballast arrangements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., dedicated clean ballast tanks, and special ballast arrangements for tank vessels transporting Outer..., dedicated clean ballast tanks, and special ballast arrangements for tank vessels transporting Outer..., 1980 must, if segregated ballast tanks or dedicated clean ballast tanks are not required under §...

  3. Inerting ballast tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, Gabriel L.; Bronneberg, Jos [SBM Offshore, AA Schiedam (Netherlands); Barros, Maria A.S.D. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This report expands upon the work conducted by SBM Offshore to develop a tank preservation treatment, which is intended to achieve a service life of 30 years. This work focuses on the corrosion problems, in the ballast tanks, based on new built hulls, both for the Gas Exploration Market, the FLNG - Floating Liquefied Natural Gas, and for the Oil Exploration market - FPSO's - Floating Production Storage and offloading Units. Herein, the corrosion rate input comes from the various references related to the process of nitrogen injection, which is expected to extend the vessel's time life. The essential elements of this solution comprise the deoxygenation process, corrosion models, coating effects, tests from laboratory, shipboard tests, corrosion institutes and regulations applicable to the operation. The best corrosion protection system for ballast tanks area combines a coating system and an inert gas system. The condition of the tanks will be dependent upon the level of protection applied to the steel structure, including, but not limited to coating, cathodic protection, etc. There is a need for products which extend the life time. It is not sufficient, only have good theoretical base for the corrosion and an excellent treatment system. In addition, the design of the ships structure must also eliminate the presence of local stress concentrations which can result in fatigue cracking and rupture of the protective coating barrier starting the corrosion. As a direct result of this, more problems in corrosion can be mitigated, vessels can have a better corrosion performance with less maintenance and repairs to coating systems in ballast tanks. Furthermore ships will be positively impacted operationally due to less frequent dry docking. There is a huge potential in the application of inert gas to combat the corrosion rate inside the ballast tanks, one of the most corrosive environments on earth. This application can have a direct impact on vessel structure

  4. Ballast Water Treatment Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides functionality for the full-scale testing and controlled simulation of ship ballasting operations for assessment of aquatic nuisance species (ANS)...

  5. 33 CFR 157.35 - Ballast added to cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... segregated ballast tanks or dedicated clean ballast tanks under § 157.09, § 157.10, § 157.10a(a)(1), § 157...; (b) More ballast water than can be carried in segregated ballast tanks or dedicated clean ballast... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ballast added to cargo tanks....

  6. Assessment of didecyldimethylammonium chloride as a ballast water treatment method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Slooten, Cees; Buma, Anita; Peperzak, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Ballast water-mediated transfer of aquatic invasive species is considered a major threat to marine biodiversity, marine industry and human health. A ballast water treatment is needed to comply with International Maritime Organization (IMO) ballast water discharge regulations. Didecyldimethylammonium

  7. Ballasted photovoltaic module and module arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Danning, Matt

    2011-11-29

    A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module and a ballast tray. The PV module includes a PV device and a frame. A PV laminate is assembled to the frame, and the frame includes an arm. The ballast tray is adapted for containing ballast and is removably associated with the PV module in a ballasting state where the tray is vertically under the PV laminate and vertically over the arm to impede overt displacement of the PV module. The PV module assembly can be installed to a flat commercial rooftop, with the PV module and the ballast tray both resting upon the rooftop. In some embodiments, the ballasting state includes corresponding surfaces of the arm and the tray being spaced from one another under normal (low or no wind) conditions, such that the frame is not continuously subjected to a weight of the tray.

  8. Optical ballast and adaptive dynamic stable resonator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Guang-Yin; Jiao Zhi-Yong; Guo Shu-Guang; Zhang Xiao-Hua; Gu Xue-Wen; Yan Cai-Fan; Wu Ding-Er; Song Feng

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a new concept of ‘optical ballast' is put forward. Optical ballast is a kind of device that can be used to decrease the variation and fluctuation of the propagation characteristics of light beams caused by the disturbance of refractive index of the medium. To illustrate the idea clearly and concretely, a fully adaptive dynamic stable solid-state laser resonator is presented as application example of optical ballast.

  9. Analysis of Soft Switched Electronic Ballast

    OpenAIRE

    Pavol Spanik; Ivan Feno; Andrej Teren; Ivan Lokseninec

    2003-01-01

    One of most perspective light sources are based on principle of electric discharge in gases. Feature of this phenomena is nonlinear impedance characteristic. Ballast interconnected between line and light source adapts requirements of light source to possibilities/requirements of the line. Today solution of modern ballast is based is based upon high frequency switch mode power supply, the cuts many disadvantages of standartd magnetic ballast off. The article describes development of high frequ...

  10. 33 CFR 151.1510 - Ballast water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ballast water management. 151..., AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in the Great Lakes and Hudson River § 151.1510 Ballast water management. (a) The master of each vessel subject to this...

  11. 33 CFR 157.220 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Design and Equipment § 157.220 Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Standards. (a) Cargo tanks that are designated as dedicated clean ballast...

  12. 33 CFR 157.218 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.218 Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Alterations. The dedicated clean ballast tanks or equipment on a tank vessel that has...

  13. Analysis of Soft Switched Electronic Ballast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Spanik

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available One of most perspective light sources are based on principle of electric discharge in gases. Feature of this phenomena is nonlinear impedance characteristic. Ballast interconnected between line and light source adapts requirements of light source to possibilities/requirements of the line. Today solution of modern ballast is based is based upon high frequency switch mode power supply, the cuts many disadvantages of standartd magnetic ballast off. The article describes development of high frequency electronic ballast for linear fluorescent tube in the frame of grant project 1/9025/02 with accent to soft switching. The most important advantages of this solutions are compactness, flicker-free lumen effeciency increase and reduced EMI interferencies.

  14. 33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ballast water and trim. 401.30... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.30 Ballast water... exclusive economic zone must agree to comply with the “Code of Best Practices for Ballast Water...

  15. Investigation Of Ballast Water Treatment’s Effect On Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    treatment methods on various alloys routinely encountered in ballast tanks and ballast water systems aboard both fresh water and ocean going vessels...Controlled laboratory tests were conducted using simulated chlorination, deoxygenation and chlorine dioxide disinfection. Materials were exposed to three...far as is practicable. 17. Key Words Corrosion, ballast water treatment, deoxygenation , chlorination, chlorine dioxide 18. Distribution

  16. 78 FR 33774 - Ballast Water Management Reporting and Recordkeeping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    .... USCG-2012-0924] RIN 1625-AB68 Ballast Water Management Reporting and Recordkeeping AGENCY: Coast Guard... ballast water management (BWM) reporting and recordkeeping requirements. The Coast Guard will require... Ballast Water Management CFR Code of Federal Regulations COTP Coast Guard Captain of the Port...

  17. 33 CFR 157.23 - Cargo and ballast system information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.23 Cargo and ballast system information. (a... automatic and manual operation of the cargo and ballast system in the vessel. (b) The format and information... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cargo and ballast...

  18. 33 CFR 151.2040 - What are the mandatory ballast water management requirements for vessels equipped with ballast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... water management requirements for vessels equipped with ballast tanks that operate in the waters of the... Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2040 What are the mandatory ballast water management requirements for vessels equipped with ballast tanks...

  19. 33 CFR 157.10a - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for certain new and existing vessels of 40,000... oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for certain new and existing vessels of 40,000... section; or (2) Dedicated clean ballast tanks that have a total capacity to meet the draft and...

  20. 33 CFR 157.10c - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for certain new and existing tankships of 20... oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for certain new and existing tankships of 20... trim requirements in § 157.09(b); or (2) Dedicated clean ballast tanks that meet the design...

  1. Ballast Water Treatment Corrosion Scoping Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    NANPCA Nonindigenous Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act NaCl Sodium Chloride NIOZ Nederlands Instituut voor Onderzoek der Zee NISA National...Based Testing Report on the Ecochlor System performed by Nederlands Instituut voor Onderzoek der Zee (NIOZ) (Veldhuis, 2008), ballast water treated...and the Relevant IMO Guideline. Nederlands Instituut voor Onderzoek der Zee (NIOZ). Den Burg: Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research. Volkening

  2. Inspection and in situ impedance measurements for ballast water tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Buter, S.; Ferrari, G.; Prent, C.S.W.

    2012-01-01

    The application of coatings in ballast water tanks is critical for the safety of cargo ships. International Maritime Organization (IMO) has delivered a standard for the protection of water ballast tanks in which new built cargo vessels have to comply with {resolution MSC.215(82)}. In case the proced

  3. Harmful aquatic organisms in ballast water: application for basic approval of the VARUNA ballast water treatment system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jak, R.G.; Jongbloed, R.H.; Sneekes, A.C.; Kaag, N.H.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    This document contains the non-confidential information related to the application for Basic Approval of the VARUNA Ballast Water Treatment System submitted in accordance with the Procedure for approval of ballast water management systems that make use of Active Substances (G9) adopted by resolution

  4. Emerging risks from ballast water treatment: The run-up to the International Ballast Water Management Convention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werschkun, B.; Banerji, S.; Basurko, O.C.; David, M.; Fuhr, F; Gollasch, S.; Grummt, T.; Haarich, M.; Jha, A.N.; Kacan, S.; Kehrer, A.; Linders, J.; Mesbahi, E.; Pughiuc, D.; Richardson, S.D.; Schwarz-Schulz, B.; Shah, A.; Theobald, N.; von Gunten, U.; Wieck, S.; Hofer, T.

    2014-01-01

    Uptake and discharge of ballast water by ocean-going ships contribute to the worldwide spread of aquatic invasive species, with negative impacts on the environment, economies, and public health. The International Ballast Water Management Convention aims at a global answer. The agreed standards for b

  5. Electronic screw-in ballast and improved circline lamp phase I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, T.P.

    1980-09-01

    A solid state ballast has been designed for the efficient operation of a 10 in circline fluorescent lamp. The circuit can be manufactured using power hybrid technology. Eight discrete component versions of the ballasts have been delivered to LBL for testing. The results show the solid state fluorescent ballast system is more efficient than the core-coil ballasted systems on the market.

  6. 33 CFR 151.1514 - Ballast water management alternatives under extraordinary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ballast water management... SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in the Great Lakes and Hudson River § 151.1514 Ballast water management alternatives...

  7. 33 CFR 157.224 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Design and Equipment § 157.224 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual. Each Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual...

  8. 33 CFR 157.225 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks operations: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations § 157.225 Dedicated clean ballast tanks operations: General. The master of a tank vessel...

  9. 33 CFR 157.226 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Procedures to be followed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations § 157.226 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations...

  10. Numerical Investigation of a Liquid-Gas Ejector Used for Shipping Ballast Water Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Xueguan Song; Maosen Cao; Wonhyup Shin; Wenping Cao; Sanghoon Kang; Youngchul Park

    2014-01-01

    Shipping ballast water can have significant ecological and economic impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Currently, water ejectors are widely used in marine applications for ballast water treatment owing to their high suction capability and reliability. In this communication, an improved ballast treatment system employing a liquid-gas ejector is introduced to clear the ballast water to reduce environmental risks. Commonly, the liquid-gas ejector uses ballast water as the primary fluid and chemical ...

  11. Vessel-Generated Ballast Water: Gray Water Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    more that thickness increases due to oxidation, the more mass is lost by the specimen, in general. Upon examination, the scaling will be scraped away...N.p., n.d. Web . 22 Apr. 2015. http://www.galvanizeit.org. ASTM. American Society of Testing and Materials. Standard Practice for the Preparation of...Bioinvasions. N.p., n.d. Web . 04 May 2015 http://massbay.mit.edu/exoticspecies/ballast. "Ballast Free Ship Concept Being Developed by University of

  12. Dimmable Electronic Ballast for a Gas Discharge Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raducanu, Marius; Hennings, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is the most efficient photocatalyst for organic oxidative degradation. TiO2 is effective not only in aqueous solution, but also in nonaqueous solvents and in the gas phase. It is photostable, biologically and chemically inert, and non-toxic. Low-energy UV light (approximately 375 nm, UV-A) can be used to photoactivate TiO2. TiO2 photocatalysis has been used to mineralize most types of organic compounds. Also, TiO2 photocatalysis has been effectively used in sterilization. This effectiveness has been demonstrated by its aggressive destruction of microorganisms, and aggressive oxidation effects of toxins. It also has been used for the oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide, and ammonia to nitrogen. Despite having many attractive features, advanced photocatalytic oxidation processes have not been effectively used for air cleaning. One of the limitations of the traditional photocatalytic systems is the ballast that powers (lights) the bulbs. Almost all commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) ballasts are not dimmable and do not contain safety features. COTS ballasts light the UV lamp as bright as the bulb can be lit, and this results in shorter bulb lifetime and maximal power consumption. COTS magnetic ballasts are bulky, heavy, and inefficient. Several iterations of dimmable electronic ballasts have been developed. Some manifestations have safety features such as broken-bulb or over-temperature warnings, replace-bulb alert, logbulb operational hours, etc. Several electronic ballast boards capable of independently lighting and controlling (dimming) four fluorescent (UV light) bulbs were designed, fabricated, and tested. Because of the variation in the market bulb parameters, the ballast boards were designed with a very broad range output. The ballast boards can measure and control the current (power) for each channel.

  13. Discrete element method of improved performance of railway ballast bed using elastic sleeper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高亮; 罗奇; 徐旸; 井国庆; 蒋函珂

    2015-01-01

    With the development of high-speed and heavy-haul railway in China, problems like insufficient thickness of ballast bed and overlarge track stiffness are obvious. Ballast may break into small particles and their contact status will deteriorate under cyclic loading, resulting in ballast degradation. Discrete element method (DEM) was used to research improved performance of ballast bed using elastic sleeper. Clusters were generated by bonding spheres to model real ballasts, while broken bonds were utilized to distinguish breakage. Two kinds of ballast beds with elastic sleeper and conventional sleeper were established, respectively. After applying cyclic loading to the models, differences of mechanical properties between two models were analyzed by contrasting their dynamic behavior indexes, such as particle contact force, sleeper settlement, vibration velocity and acceleration, breakage characteristic. The results illustrate that compared with conventional sleeper, elastic sleeper increases sleeper settlement, while reduces ballast vibration and contact force between particles, which could depress ballast breakage.

  14. Single-stage unity power factor based electronic ballast

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ASHISH SHRIVASTAVA; BHIM SINGH

    2016-10-01

    This paper deals with the design, modeling, analysis and implementation of unity power factor (UPF) based electronic ballast for a fluorescent lamp (FL). The proposed electronic ballast uses a boost AC–DC converter as a power factor corrector (PFC) to improve the power quality at the input ac mains. In this singlestage UPF based electronic ballast, boost PFC converter and a half bridge series resonant inverter (HBSRI) share a common power switch. Thus one power switch is reduced as compared to the conventional two-stage approach. The design, modeling, analysis and implementation of this topology were carried out in MATLAB-Simulink environment for a T8 36 W, 220 V, 50 Hz fluorescent lamp. The switching frequency was kept morethan the resonant frequency of the inverter, to ensure the zero voltage switching (ZVS) operation of both power switches. This resulted in reduction of high frequency switching losses. The power quality parameters such as displacement power factor (DPF), distortion factor (DF), power factor (PF), crest factor (CF) and total harmonicdistortion of ac mains current (THDi) were evaluated to analyze the performance of proposed electronic ballast. Test results on a developed prototype of PFC electronic ballast were included to validate the design and simulated results.

  15. Ballast water: a threat to the Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Newton Narciso; Botter, Rui Carlos; Folena, Rafael Dompieri; Pereira, José Pinheiro Fragoso Neto; da Cunha, Alan Cavalcanti

    2014-07-15

    Ballast water exchange (BWE) is the most efficient measure to control the invasion of exotic species from ships. This procedure is being used for merchant ships in national and international voyages. The ballast water (BW) salinity is the main parameter to evaluate the efficacy of the mid-ocean ballast water exchange. The vessels must report to the Port State Control (PSC), via ballast water report (BWR), where and how the mid-ocean BWE was performed. This measure allows the PSC to analyze this information before the ship arrives at the port, and to decide whether or not it should berth. Ship BW reporting forms were collected from the Captaincy of Santana and some ships were visited near the Port of Santana, located in Macapá (Amazon River), to evaluate the BW quality onboard. We evaluated data submitted in these BWR forms and concluded that the BWE efficacy might be compromised, because data contained in these BWR indicate that some ships did not change their BW. We found mistakes in filling the BWR forms and lack of information. Moreover, these ships had discharged BW with high level of salinity, Escherichia coli and total coliforms into the Amazon River. We concluded that the authorities of the Amazon Region need to develop more efficient proceedings to evaluate the ballast water reporting forms and BW quality, as there is potential risk of future invasion of exotic species in Brazilian ports.

  16. 33 CFR 151.2035 - What are the required ballast water management practices for my vessel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... water management practices for my vessel? 151.2035 Section 151.2035 Navigation and Navigable Waters... SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2035 What are the required ballast water...

  17. 33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ballast water management. 151.1518 Section 151.1518 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of... water management. (a) A person who violates this subpart is liable for a civil penalty in an amount...

  18. 33 CFR 157.212 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Not approved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.212 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Not approved. If the Dedicated Clean...

  19. 33 CFR 157.208 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.208 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank...

  20. Microbial dynamics in acetate-enriched ballast water at different temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stehouwer, P.P.; van Slooten, C.; Peperzak, L.

    2013-01-01

    The spread of invasive species through ships' ballast water is considered as a major ecological threat to the world's oceans. For that reason, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has set performance standards for ballast water discharge. Ballast water treatment systems have been developed

  1. 76 FR 52892 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AB50 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp... fluorescent lamp ballasts (ballasts) pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA). During... The EPCA establishes energy conservation standards for certain ballasts and requires that DOE...

  2. Regrowth in ship's ballast water tanks: Think again!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Carolina; Pollet, Bruno G

    2016-08-15

    With the imminent ratification of the International Maritime Organisation's Ballast Water Management Convention, ship owners and operators will have to choose among a myriad of different Ballast Water Treatment Systems (BWTS) and technologies to comply with established discharge standards. However, it has come to our attention that decision-makers seem to be unaware of the problem of regrowth occurring in ballast water tanks after treatment. Furthermore, the information available on the subject in the literature is surprisingly and unfortunately very limited. Herein we summarise previous research findings that suggest that regrowth of bacteria and phytoplankton could occur 18h to 7days and 4 to 20days after treatment, respectively. By highlighting the problem of regrowth, we would like to encourage scientists and engineers to further investigate this issue and to urge ship owners and ship operators to inform themselves on the risks of regrowth associated with the implementation of different BWTS.

  3. Biomass-Derived Hydrogen from a Thermally Ballasted Gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Robert C

    2007-04-06

    The goal of this project is to develop an indirectly heated gasification system that converts switchgrass into hydrogen-rich gas suitable for powering fuel cells. The project includes investigations of the indirectly-heated gasifier, development of particulate removal equipment, evaluation of catalytic methods for upgrading producer gas, development of contaminant measurement and control techniques, modeling of the thermal performance of the ballasted gasifier, and estimation of the cost of hydrogen from the proposed gasification system. Specific technologies investigated include a thermally ballasted gasifier, a moving bed granular filter, and catalytic reactors for steam reforming and water-gas shift reaction. The approach to this project was to employ a pilot-scale (5 ton per day) gasifier to evaluate the thermally ballasted gasifier as a means for producing hydrogen from switchgrass. A slipstream from the gasifier was used to evaluate gas cleaning and upgrading options. Other tests were conducted with laboratory-scale equipment using simulated producer gas. The ballasted gasifier operated in conjunction with a steam reformer and two-stage water-gas shift reactor produced gas streams containing 54.5 vol-% H2. If purge gas to the feeder system could be substantially eliminated, hydrogen concentration would reach 61 vol-%, which closely approaches the theoretical maximum of 66 vol-%. Tests with a combined catalyst/sorbent system demonstrated that steam reforming and water-gas shift reaction could be substantially performed in a single reactor and achieve hydrogen concentrations exceeding 90 vol-%. Cold flow trials with a laboratory-scale moving bed granular filter achieved particle removal efficiencies exceeding 99%. Two metal-based sorbents were tested for their ability to remove H2S from biomass-derived producer gas. The ZnO sorbent, tested at 450° C, was effective in reducing H2S from 200 ppm to less than 2 ppm (>99% reduction) while tests with the MnO sorbent

  4. 33 CFR 151.2045 - What are the mandatory recordkeeping requirements for vessels equipped with ballast tanks that...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species... following information (Note: Ballast tank is any tank or hold that carries ballast water regardless of design): (1) Vessel information. Include the— (i) Name; (ii) International Maritime Organization...

  5. Chemical assessment of ballast water exchange compliance: Implementation in North America and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monaca eNoble

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence by naturally occurring dissolved organic matter (FDOM is a sensitive indicator of ballast water source, with high FDOM in coastal ballast water decreasing typically dramatically when replaced by oceanic seawater during ballast water exchange. In this study, FDOM was measured in 92 ships arriving at Pacific ports on the US west coast and in New Zealand, and used to assess their compliance with ballast water regulations that required 95% replacement of port water to minimize invasive species risks. Fluorescence in many ships that reported ballast water exchange was significantly higher than is usual for oceanic seawater, and in several cases, significantly higher than in other ships with similar provenance and ballast water management. Pre-exchange source port conditions represented the largest source of uncertainty in the analysis, because residual coastal FDOM when highly fluorescent can significantly influence the fluorescence signature of exchanged ballast water. A meta-analysis comparing the intensities of FDOM in un-exchanged ballast tanks with calculated pre-exchange intensities assuming that ships all correctly implemented and reported ballast water exchange revealed notable discrepancies. Thus, the incidence of high-FDOM port waters was seven times lower in reality than would be expected on the basis of these calculations. The results suggest that a significant rate of reporting errors occur due to a combination of factors that may include inadequate ballast water exchange and unintentional or deliberate misreporting of ballast water management.

  6. Realistic approach to corrosion protection of ballast water tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, G.M.; Buter, S.J.; Zhang, X.; Prent, C.S.W.

    2012-01-01

    Corrosion protection of ballast water tanks is very precarious because of the aggressiveness of the environment and the difficult accessibility of the areas. Numerous accidents have led to regulation by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). Practical circumstances in yards are often not ide

  7. Compact Fluorescent Plug-In Ballast-in-a-Socket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebecca Voelker

    2001-12-21

    The primary goal of this program was to develop a ballast system for plug-in CFLs (compact fluorescent lamps) that will directly replace standard metal shell, medium base incandescent lampholders (such as Levition No. 6098) for use with portable lamp fixtures, such as floor, table and desk lamps. A secondary goal was to identify a plug-in CFL that is optimized for use with this ballast. This Plug-in CFL Ballastin-a-Socket system will allow fixture manufacturers to easily manufacture CFL-based high-efficacy portable fixtures that provide residential and commercial consumers with attractive, cost-effective, and energy-efficient fixtures for use wherever portable incandescent fixtures are used today. The advantages of this proposed system over existing CFL solutions are that the fixtures can only be used with high-efficacy CFLs, and they will be more attractive and will have lower life-cycle costs than screw-in or adapter-based CFL retrofit solutions. These features should greatly increase the penetration of CFL's into the North American market. Our work has shown that using integrated circuits it is quite feasible to produce a lamp-fixture ballast of a size comparable to the current Edison-screw 3-way incandescent fixtures. As for price points for BIAS-based fixtures, end-users polled by the Lighting Research Institute at RPI indicated that they would pay as much as an additional $10 for a lamp containing such a ballast. The ballast has been optimized to run with a 26 W amalgam triple biax lamp in the base-down position, yet can accept non-amalgam versions of the lamp. With a few part alterations, the ballast can be produced to support 32 W lamps as well. The ballast uses GE's existing L-Comp[1] power topology in the circuit so that the integrated circuit design would be a design that could possibly be used by other CFL and EFL products with minor modifications. This gives added value by reducing cost and size of not only the BIAS, but also possibly other

  8. Design and research on a variable ballast system for deep-sea manned submersibles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Zhong-liang

    2008-01-01

    Variable ballast systems are necessary for manned submersibles to adjust their buoyancy. In this paper,the design of a variable ballast system for a manned submersible is described. The variable ballast system uses a super high pressure hydraulic seawater system. A super high pressure seawater pump and a deep-sea brushless DC motor are used to pump seawater into or from the variable ballast tank,increasing or decreasing the weight of the manned submersible. A magnetostrictive linear displacement transducer can detect the seawater level in the variable ballast tank. Some seawater valves are used to control pumping direction and control on-off states. The design and testing procedure for the valves is described. Finally,the future development of variable ballast systems and seawater hydraulic systems is projected.

  9. Where is mineral ballast important for surface export of particulate organic carbon in the ocean?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Correlations between particulate organic carbon (POC) and mineral fluxes in the deep ocean have inspired the inclusion of “ballast effect” parameterizations in carbon cycle models. A recent study demonstrated regional variability in the effect of ballast minerals on the flux of POC in the deep ocean. We have undertaken a similar analysis of shallow export data from the Arctic, Atlantic, and Southern Oceans. Mineral ballasting is of greatest importance in the high-latitude North Atlantic, wher...

  10. Development of a protocol for sampling and analysis of ballast water in Jamaica

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Achsah A.; Webber, Mona K.; Buddo, Dayne; Webber, Dale

    2014-01-01

     The transfer of ballast by the international shipping industry has negatively impacted the environment. To design such a protocol for the area, the ballast water tanks of seven bulk cargo vessels entering a Jamaican port were sampled between January 28, 2010 and August 17, 2010. Vessels originated from five ports and used three main routes, some of which conducted ballast water exchange. Twenty-six preserved and 22 live replicate zooplankton samples were obtained. Abundance and richness were...

  11. Eradication of algae in ships' ballast water by electrolyzing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DANG Kun; SUN Pei-ting; XIAO Jing-kun; SONG Yong-xin

    2006-01-01

    In order to verify the effectiveness of electrolytic treatment on ships' ballast water,experiments are carried out by a pilot system in laboratory. The raw seawater and seawater with different concentrations of different algae are simulated as ships' ballast water. The algae in the raw seawater can be killed if it is treated by electrolysis with an initial residual chlorine concentration of 5 mg/L. If the seawater with one kind of algae (Nitzschia closterum, Dicrateria spp., or Pyramidomonnas sp.105cells/mL) is treated by electrolysis with an initial residual chlorine concentration of 5 mg/L, the alga can be sterilized. If the seawater with one kind of algae (Dunaliella sp., Platymonas or Chlorella spp.)is directly treated by electrolyzing with an initial residual chlorine concentration of 4 mg/L, the instant mortality changes with the concentration of different algae. However, after 72 hours, in all treated samples, there are no live algal cells found.

  12. Magnetic fluorescent ballasts: Market data, market imperfections, and policy success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koomey, J.G.; Sanstad, A.H.; Shown, L.J.

    1995-12-01

    Many economists have strongly questioned engineering-economic studies aimed at demonstrating anomalously slow diffusion of energy-efficient technology and the benefits of regulations to promote such technology. One argument against such studies is that standard techniques of engineering-economics are either inappropriate for or are routinely misapplied in assessing the performance of the market for energy efficiency. This paper presents engineering-economic evidence on the diffusion of energy efficiency improvements that takes account of such critiques. The authors examine the engineering and economic characteristics of standard and energy-efficient magnetic ballasts for fluorescent lighting. Efficient magnetic ballasts represented an excellent investment for 99% of the commercial building floor stock, and a moderately good investment for 0.7% of the commercial floor stock. Still, these ballasts were only being adopted in the 1980s at a rate commensurate with the enactment of appliance efficiency standards in various states. In this case, there is solid empirical evidence for skepticism about the effectiveness of the market mechanism in promoting cost-effective energy efficiency improvements as well as evidence of the benefits of regulation to counteract this shortcoming.

  13. A comparison of six different ballast water treatment systems based on UV radiation, electrochlorination and chlorine dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stehouwer, P.P.; Buma, A.; Peperzak, L.

    2015-01-01

    The spread of aquatic invasive species through ballast water is a major ecological and economical threat. Because of this, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) set limits to the concentrations of organisms allowed in ballast water. To meet these limits, ballast water treatment systems (BWTS

  14. 33 CFR Appendix D to Part 157 - Example of a Procedure for Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations D Appendix D to Part 157 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Procedure for Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations 1. Source. The example procedure for dedicated clean... Protocol. 2. Example Procedure. Dedicated clean ballast tanks operational procedure: (a) Before arrival...

  15. 33 CFR 157.206 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for U.S. tank vessels: Submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.206 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for U.S. tank...

  16. 33 CFR 157.43 - Discharges of clean and segregated ballast: Seagoing tank vessels of 150 gross tons or more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Discharges of clean and segregated ballast: Seagoing tank vessels of 150 gross tons or more. (a) Clean... ballast tanks may discharge clean ballast from those tanks below the waterline at sea. (4) An existing... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discharges of clean...

  17. Effectiveness of a Barge-Based Ballast Water Treatment System for Multi-Terminal Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovro Maglić

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents outcomes of the discrete event simulation of the ballast water management in a multi-terminal port. The simulation includes ship’s manoeuvring, cargo and ballast operations and a barge-based ballast water treatment system operating within all terminal areas. The barge-based ballast water treatment system is used by ships unable to use their own equipment, not equipped with an appropriate ballast treatment system or non-compliant with the Ballast Water Management (BWM Convention 2004 for whatever reason. The main goal is to estimate the productivity and cost effectiveness of such systems as an option to support ships not able to comply with the BWM Convention, once it enters into force. The model was built and tested in Arena simulation software. Process parameters are based on real traffic data for the port of Rijeka. The results indicate that barge-based ballast treatment facility will be heavily underutilized, and that such systems are cost-effective only in ports where large volumes of ballast water need to be delivered to shore treatment systems.

  18. Practical Considerations Concerning the Interleaved Transition Mode Single-stage Ballast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Kjær, Søren Bækhøj; Munk-Nielsen, Stig;

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a novel single-stage interleaved ballast focusing on practical design aspects like: key current expression, overall losses, harmonic analysis of the differential-mode EMI current and preheating ballast function. A new preheating method is also presented. A PSPICE...... model is used to perform the analysis....

  19. Effects of various ballast water treatment methods on the survival of phytoplankton and bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stehouwer, P.P.

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species are among the worst threats to marine biodiversity. The main vector for the spread of these aquatic invasive species is ships’ ballast water. Because of this, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopted the Ballast Water Convention. Part of this convention is the D

  20. Biodegradation of ballast tank coating investigated by impedance spectroscopy and microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyer, A.; D'Souza, F.; Zhang, X.; Ferrari, G.M.; Mol, J.M.C.; Wit, J.H.W. de

    2014-01-01

    This research paper addresses the biodegradation process for ballast tank coatings in marine environments. As part of this new approach, a commercially available ballast tank coating was exposed to bacteria obtained from a culture collection and to a natural bacterial community isolated from a real

  1. Ballast water treatment techniques: review and suggestions regarding use in the Arctic and Great Lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den A.M.; Kaag, N.H.B.M.; Sneekes, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    The retreating ice cover opens up the opportunity for new shipping routes, and consequently shipping traffic in the Arctic region is increasing and with this the risk of introducing non-indigenous species (NIS) via ballast water. Ballast water must therefore be treated to prevent the transport of NI

  2. 33 CFR 157.210 - Approved Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.210 Approved Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual. If the manuals submitted under § 157.206... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved Dedicated Clean...

  3. 75 FR 71570 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AB99 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts... procedures for fluorescent lamp ballasts established under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. The... the Secretary I. Authority and Background Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (42...

  4. Dynamical modelling of the excavating chain of a ballast cleaning machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Petkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ballast bed as part of the railway track fulfils the important functions as the binding element between sleepers and substructure. Fouling increases over the years for various reasons. When the necessary good functioning is no longer assured, ballast bed cleaning must be performed. The machines, that perform that task, are equipped with various complex mechanics - hydraulic systems that ensure high productivity, efficiency and quality of the works. In this article is presented one way of studying the work of the machine for excavating ballast from the ballast bed to the sieving machine. We suggest a dynamic model for simulating the work of a scraper chain of a ballast cleaning machine with different working parameters.

  5. Low salinity residual ballast discharge and exotic species introductions to the North American Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Arthur J; Reid, Donald M

    2003-10-01

    Exotic species introductions to the North American Great Lakes have continued even though ballast water management strategies were implemented in the early 1990s. Overseas vessels that arrive with little or no exchangeable ballast on board have been suspected to be an important source for discharging low salinity ballast containing low salinity tolerant organisms in this region. Residual ballast averaged 18.1+/-13.4 per thousand salinity among 62 samples taken primarily from bottom tanks on 26 vessels that entered the Great Lakes in 1999 and 2000. Sampling of 2-4 tanks each on nine vessels indicated all carried at least one tank of residual ballast of

  6. Behavior of geogrid-reinforced ballast under various levels of fouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indraratna, B.; Ngo, T.; Rujikiatkamjorn, C. [University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia)

    2011-06-15

    This paper presents a study of how the interface between ballast and geogrid copes with fouling by coal fines. The stress-displacement behavior of fresh and fouled ballast, and geogrid reinforced ballast was investigated through a series of large-scale direct shear tests where the levels of fouling ranged from 0% to 95% Void Contamination Index (VCI), at relatively low normal stresses varying from 15 kPa to 75 kPa. The results indicated that geogrid increases the shear strength and apparent angle of shearing resistance, while only slightly reducing the vertical displacement of the composite geogrid-ballast system. However, when ballast was fouled by coal fines, the benefits of geogrid reinforcement decreased in proportion to the increasing level of fouling. A conceptual normalized shear strength model was proposed to predict this decrease in peak shear stress and peak angle of shearing resistance caused by coal fines at a given normal stress.

  7. Characterization of ballasted flocs in water treatment using microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Mathieu; Barbeau, Benoit

    2016-03-01

    Ballasted flocculation is widely used in the water industry for drinking water, municipal wastewater, storm water and industrial water treatment. This gravity-based physicochemical separation process involves the injection of a ballasting agent, typically microsand, to increase the floc density and size. However, the physical characteristics of the final ballasted flocs are still ill-defined. A microscopic method was specifically developed to characterize floc 1) density, 2) size and 3) shape factor. Using this information, probability density functions (PDFs) of the floc settling velocity were calculated. The impacts of the mixing intensity, polymer dosage, microsand size and contact time during the floc maturation phase were assessed. No correlation was identified between the floc diameter, form and density PDFs. The floc equivalent diameter mainly controls the settling velocity (r = 0.94), with the floc density (r = 0.26) and shape factor (r = 0.25) having lower impacts. A velocity gradient of 165 s(-1) was optimal to maintain the microsand in suspension while simultaneously maximizing the floc diameter. An anionic high molecular weight polyacrylamide formed 1.5-fold larger aggregates compared with the starch-based polymer tested, but both polymers produced flocs of similar density (relative density = 1.53 ± 0.03). Generally, the floc mean settling velocity is a good predictor of the turbidity removal. An in-depth analysis of the floc characteristics indicates a correlation between the floc size and the largest microsand grain potentially embeddable in the floc structure.

  8. Application of Hydrocyclone and UV Radiation as a Ballast Water Treatment Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kurtela

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The ballast water exchange methods in open sea are, for the time being, the prevailing procedures accepted by shipowners. However, such methods do not guarantee full efficacy in elimination of allochthonous organisms. Besides, in some navigation zones, in particular in the closed seas, not even the criteria prescribed by international regulations can be fulfilled, i.e. the position of a ship exchanging ballast must be farther than 200Nm from the shore (alternatively 50Nm at the sea depth exceeding 200m. Numerous research attempts on various treatment methods lead to the conclusion that there is still no scientific opinion on the final choice of methods for wide application on board. The treatment methods, such as hydrocyclone separation in the first stage and UV radiation in the second stage, stand a good chance for application on board. Advantages of such a combined method are in the very application of treatment that can be performed during all stages of ballast water treatment, i.e. loading ballast, voyage in ballast and discharging ballast. In closed seas and on shorter routes the operational advantages of hydrocyclone and UV radiation could be the prevailing factor for application. Within the research on the possible application of ballast water treatment by hydrocyclone and UV radiation, a pilot plant with hydrocyclone cluster and UV device was constructed. The research carried out on the pilot plant installed on board the m/v ‘’Naše more’’ proved the effectiveness of such ballast water treatment method and offered a new approach in using hydrocyclone for the inactivation of organisms by hydrodynamic forces. This approach has largely increased the efficacy of the device and a new method for utilization of hydrocyclone in ballast water treatment on board has been discovered. KEY WORDS: ballast water treatment, hydrocyclone, UV radiation, application of method, pilot plant, hydrodynamic forces

  9. Ballast water regulations and the move toward concentration-based numeric discharge limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Ryan J; Lishman, John M; Saxena, Juhi R

    2013-03-01

    Ballast water from shipping is a principal source for the introduction of nonindigenous species. As a result, numerous government bodies have adopted various ballast water management practices and discharge standards to slow or eliminate the future introduction and dispersal of these nonindigenous species. For researchers studying ballast water issues, understanding the regulatory framework is helpful to define the scope of research needed by policy makers to develop effective regulations. However, for most scientists, this information is difficult to obtain because it is outside the standard scientific literature and often difficult to interpret. This paper provides a brief review of the regulatory framework directed toward scientists studying ballast water and aquatic invasive species issues. We describe different approaches to ballast water management in international, U.S. federal and state, and domestic ballast water regulation. Specifically, we discuss standards established by the International Maritime Organization (IMO), the U.S. Coast Guard and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and individual states in the United States including California, New York, and Minnesota. Additionally, outside the United States, countries such as Australia, Canada, and New Zealand have well-established domestic ballast water regulatory regimes. Different approaches to regulation have recently resulted in variations between numeric concentration-based ballast water discharge limits, particularly in the United States, as well as reliance on use of ballast water exchange pending development and adoption of rigorous science-based discharge standards. To date, numeric concentration-based discharge limits have not generally been based upon a thorough application of risk-assessment methodologies. Regulators, making decisions based on the available information and methodologies before them, have consequently established varying standards, or not established standards at all. The

  10. Optimal Control of a Ballast-Stabilized Floating Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Søren; Knudsen, Torben; Bak, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Offshore wind energy capitalizes on the higher and less turbulent wind speeds at sea. The use of floating structures for deeper waters is being explored. The control objective is a tradeoff between power capture and fatigue, especially that produced by the oscillations caused by the reduced...... structural stiffness of a floating installation in combination with a coupling between the fore–aft motion of the tower and the blade pitch. To address this problem, the present paper models a ballast-stabilized floating wind turbine, and suggests a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) in combination with a wind...

  11. A Novel Single-Switch Single-Stage Electronic Ballast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu-Hua Zhu; Xing-Bi Chen; Hong-Sheng Zhong

    2009-01-01

    A single-stage single-switch high- frequency electronic ballast topology is presented. The circuit topology is the integration of a buck power- factor-correction (PFC) converter and a class E resonant inverter with only one active power switch. The buck converter is operated in discontinuous conduction mode and at a fixed switching frequency, and constant duty cycle to achieve high power factor and it can be controlled easily. Detailed analysis of the operation and characteristics of the circuit is provided. Simulation results satisfy present standard require- ments.

  12. DYNAMIC MODELING FOR AIRSHIP EQUIPPED WITH BALLONETS AND BALLAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Zi-li; QU Wei-dong; XI Yu-geng

    2005-01-01

    Total dynamics of an airship is modeled. The body of an airship is taken as a submerged rigid body with neutral buoyancy, i. e. , buoyancy with value equal to that of gravity, and the coupled dynamics between the body with ballonets and ballast is considered. The total dynamics of the airship is firstly derived by Newton-Euler laws and Kirchhoff's equations. Furthermore, by using Hamiltonian and Lagrangian semidirect product reduction theories, the dynamics is formulated as a Lie-Poisson system,control design using energy-based methods for Hamiltonian or Lagrangian system.

  13. Asbestos quantification in track ballast, a complex analytical problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Track ballast forms the trackbeb upon which railroad ties are laid. It is used to bear the load from the railroad ties, to facilitate water drainage, and also to keep down vegetation. It is typically made of angular crushed stone, with a grain size between 30 and 60 mm, with good mechanical properties (high compressive strength, freeze - thaw resistance, resistance to fragmentation). The most common rock types are represented by basalts, porphyries, orthogneisses, some carbonatic rocks and "green stones" (serpentinites, prasinites, amphibolites, metagabbros). Especially "green stones" may contain traces, and sometimes appreciable amounts of asbestiform minerals (chrysotile and/or fibrous amphiboles, generally tremolite - actinolite). In Italy, the chrysotile asbestos mine in Balangero (Turin) produced over 5 Mt railroad ballast (crushed serpentinites), which was used for the railways in northern and central Italy, from 1930 up to 1990. In addition to Balangero, several other serpentinite and prasinite quarries (e.g. Emilia Romagna) provided the railways ballast up to the year 2000. The legal threshold for asbestos content in track ballast is established in 1000 ppm: if the value is below this threshold, the material can be reused, otherwise it must be disposed of as hazardous waste, with very high costs. The quantitative asbestos determination in rocks is a very complex analytical issue: although techniques like TEM-SAED and micro-Raman are very effective in the identification of asbestos minerals, a quantitative determination on bulk materials is almost impossible or really expensive and time consuming. Another problem is represented by the discrimination of asbestiform minerals (e.g. chrysotile, asbestiform amphiboles) from the common acicular - pseudo-fibrous varieties (lamellar serpentine minerals, prismatic/acicular amphiboles). In this work, more than 200 samples from the main Italian rail yards were characterized by a combined use of XRD and a special SEM

  14. Starting of HPS lamps driven by electronic ballast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟强; 王卫; 徐殿国

    2001-01-01

    A complete research of two different starting techniques for HPS lamps driven by electronic ballast is presented while a traditional starting technique based on the series resonant theory which is used widely for fluorescent lamps starting is analyzed in detail. An improved nth harmonic resonant technique is also simulated. Furthermore, a novel starting technique based on a pulse ransformer is proposed, which still offer the automatic switch-off capability. The differences between two starting techniques are explained. The experimental results from a lab prototype are used to verify the design.

  15. 33 CFR 151.2037 - If my vessel cannot conduct ballast water management practices because of its voyage and/or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ballast water management practices because of its voyage and/or safety concerns, will I be prohibited from..., MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2037 If my vessel cannot conduct ballast water...

  16. Investigation of the hydro-mechanical behaviour of fouled ballast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-jun CUI; Trong Vinh DUONG; Anh Minh TANG; Jean-Claude DUPLA; Nicolas CALON; Alain ROBINET

    2013-01-01

    In this study,a fouled ballast taken from the site of Sénissiat,France,was investigated.For the hydraulic behaviour,a large-scale cell was developed allowing drainage and evaporation tests to be carried out with monitoring of both suction and volumetric water content at various positions of the sample.It was observed that the hydraulic conductivity of fouled ballast is decreasing with suction increase,as for common unsaturated soils.The effect of fines content was found to be negligible.For the mechanical behaviour,both monotonic and cyclic triaxial tests were carried out using a large-scale triaxial cell.Various water contents were considered.The results were interpreted in terms of shear strength and permanent axial strain.It appeared that the water content is an important factor to be accounted for since any increase of water content or degree of saturation significantly decreases the shear strength and increases the permanent strain.Constitutive modelling has been attempted based on the experimental results.The model in its current state is capable of describing the effects of stress level,cycle number and water content.

  17. Temporal modelling of ballast water discharge and ship-mediated invasion risk to Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Robert C.; Prowse, Thomas A. A.; Ross, Joshua V.; Wittmann, Talia A.; Cassey, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Biological invasions have the potential to cause extensive ecological and economic damage. Maritime trade facilitates biological invasions by transferring species in ballast water, and on ships' hulls. With volumes of maritime trade increasing globally, efforts to prevent these biological invasions are of significant importance. Both the International Maritime Organization and the Australian government have developed policy seeking to reduce the risk of these invasions. In this study, we constructed models for the transfer of ballast water into Australian waters, based on historic ballast survey data. We used these models to hindcast ballast water discharge over all vessels that arrived in Australian waters between 1999 and 2012. We used models for propagule survival to compare the risk of ballast-mediated propagule transport between ecoregions. We found that total annual ballast discharge volume into Australia more than doubled over the study period, with the vast majority of ballast water discharge and propagule pressure associated with bulk carrier traffic. As such, the ecoregions suffering the greatest risk are those associated with the export of mining commodities. As global marine trade continues to increase, effective monitoring and biosecurity policy will remain necessary to combat the risk of future marine invasion events. PMID:26064643

  18. Numerical Investigation of a Liquid-Gas Ejector Used for Shipping Ballast Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueguan Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shipping ballast water can have significant ecological and economic impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Currently, water ejectors are widely used in marine applications for ballast water treatment owing to their high suction capability and reliability. In this communication, an improved ballast treatment system employing a liquid-gas ejector is introduced to clear the ballast water to reduce environmental risks. Commonly, the liquid-gas ejector uses ballast water as the primary fluid and chemical ozone as the secondary fluid. In this study, high-pressure water and air, instead of ballast water and ozone, are considered through extensive numerical and experimental research. The ejector is particularly studied by a steady three-dimensional multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD analysis with commercial software ANSYS-CFX 14.5. Different turbulence models (including standard k-ε, RNG k-ε, SST, and k-ω with different grid size and bubble size are compared extensively and the experiments are carried out to validate the numerical design and optimization. This study concludes that the RNG k-ε turbulence model is the most efficient and effective for the ballast water treatment system under consideration and simple change of nozzle shape can greatly improve the ejector performance under high back pressure conditions.

  19. Tests to evaluate the ecological impact of treated ballast water on three Chinese marine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanan; Wang, Zixi; Cai, Leiming; Cai, Xiang; Sun, Wenjun; Ma, Liqing

    2014-09-01

    Ballast water has been a topic of concern for some time because of its potential to introduce invasive species to new habitats. To comply with the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments, members of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) must equip their ships with on-board treatment systems to eliminate organism release with ballast water. There are many challenges associated with the implementation of this IMO guideline, one of which is the selection of species for testing the ecological impacts of the treated ballast water. In the United States, ballast water toxicity test methods have been defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. However, the test methods had not been finalized in China until the toxicity test methods for ballast water were established in 2008. The Chinese methods have been based on species from three trophic levels: Skeletonema costatum, Neomysis awatschensis, and Ctenogobius gymnauchen. All three species live in broad estuarine and open sea areas of China; they are sensitive to reference toxicants and acclimatize easily to different conditions. In this paper, the biological characteristics, test processes and statistical analysis methods are presented for the three species. Results indicate that the methods for evaluating these three organisms can be included in the ecological toxicity tests for treated ballast water in China.

  20. Discrete element method analysis of lateral resistance of fouled ballast bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐旸; 高亮; 张艳荣; 尹辉; 蔡小培

    2016-01-01

    The lateral resistance of sleeper plays an important role in ensuring the stability of a railway track, which may change in the operation of railway, due to the fouling in the ballast bed. In this work, discrete element method was adopted to investigate the effect of fouling on the lateral resistance of sleeper. The shape information of ballast was captured by method of three-dimensional vision reconstruction. In order to calibrate the mechanical parameters and verify the models, a lateral resistance field test was carried out by using a custom-made device. The contact force distributions in the different parts of sleeper as well as the interaction between ballast and sleeper were discussed in depth. The results show that fouling of ballast bed evidently reduces the lateral resistance of sleeper and the decreasing degree is also related to the fouled position of ballast bed, in the order of shoulder > bottom > side. Therefore, the effect of fouling, especially the fouling in the ballast shoulder, on the lateral resistance of sleeper, should be taken into account in ballast track maintenance work.

  1. Stratification of living organisms in ballast tanks: how do organism concentrations vary as ballast water is discharged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    First, Matthew R; Robbins-Wamsley, Stephanie H; Riley, Scott C; Moser, Cameron S; Smith, George E; Tamburri, Mario N; Drake, Lisa A

    2013-05-07

    Vertical migrations of living organisms and settling of particle-attached organisms lead to uneven distributions of biota at different depths in the water column. In ballast tanks, heterogeneity could lead to different population estimates depending on the portion of the discharge sampled. For example, concentrations of organisms exceeding a discharge standard may not be detected if sampling occurs during periods of the discharge when concentrations are low. To determine the degree of stratification, water from ballast tanks was sampled at two experimental facilities as the tanks were drained after water was held for 1 or 5 days. Living organisms ≥50 μm were counted in discrete segments of the drain (e.g., the first 20 min of the drain operation, the second 20 min interval, etc.), thus representing different strata in the tank. In 1 and 5 day trials at both facilities, concentrations of organisms varied among drain segments, and the patterns of stratification varied among replicate trials. From numerical simulations, the optimal sampling strategy for stratified tanks is to collect multiple time-integrated samples spaced relatively evenly throughout the discharge event.

  2. Effects of Ocean Acidification on the Ballast of Surface Aggregates Sinking through the Twilight Zone

    OpenAIRE

    de Jesus Mendes, Pedro A.; Laurenz Thomsen

    2012-01-01

    The dissolution of CaCO(3) is one of the ways ocean acidification can, potentially, greatly affect the ballast of aggregates. A diminution of the ballast could reduce the settling speed of aggregates, resulting in a change in the carbon flux to the deep sea. This would mean lower amounts of more refractory organic matter reaching the ocean floor. This work aimed to determine the effect of ocean acidification on the ballast of sinking surface aggregates. Our hypothesis was that the decrease of...

  3. Study on the Elasticity-Plasticity-Stickiness of the Railway Crushed Stone Ballast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Liang

    2004-01-01

    This paper is mainly aimed at the mechanics characteristic elas of ticity-plasticitystickiness existed in the CWR (continuously welded rails) track plane of the railway crushed stone ballast. As an important mechanics parameter of the CWR track plane, the ballast resistance is mainly influenced by this mechanics characteristic. Through the systematic experimental research and the theoretical analysis, this mechanics characteristic of the ballast resistance is revealed and a reasonable theoretical model is built for it. This study set a sound foundation for further studying the CWR track deformation property. It will be beneficial to the development of high-speed railway in China.

  4. Obstacles and opportunities in the commercialization of the solid-state-electronic fluorescent-lighting ballast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.; Marcus, A.A.; Campbell, R.S.; Sommers, P.; Skumatz, L.; Berk, B.; Petty, P.; Eschbach, C.

    1981-10-01

    The Solid State Ballast (SSB) Program, aimed at improving the efficiency of fluorescent lights, is described. The first generation of solid state electronic ballasts has been developed and the technology has been transferred to the private sector. This report examines the opportunities for rapid dissemination of this technology into the marketplace. It includes a description of product characteristics and their influence on the commercialization of the SSB, a description of the technology delivery system presently used by the ballast industry, an analysis of the market for SSB, and identification of some high-leverage opportunities to accelerate the commercialization process. (MCW)

  5. Treating ballast water with hydroxyl radical on introduced organisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With physical method of micro-gap gas discharge, a large amount of hydroxyl radical can be produced in 20t/h pilot-scale system using the ionization of O2 and H2O. In this paper, the effect of biochemistry of hydroxyl radicals on introduced organisms in ballast water was experimentally investigated. The results indicate that the contents of chlorophyl-a, chlorophyl-b, chlorophyl-c and carotenoid are decreased by 35%-64% within 8.0s and further to the lowest limit of test 5 minutes. In addition, the main reasons of cell death are the lipid peroxidation, the strong destruction to the monose, amylose, protein, DNA and RNA of cell, and damage in CAT, POD and SOD of antioxidant enzyme system.

  6. Application of polyurethane geocomposites to help maintain track geometry for high-speed ballasted railway tracks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Keith WOODWARD; Abdellah EL KACIMI; Omar LAGHROUCHE; Gabriela MEDERO; Meysam BANIMAHD

    2012-01-01

    There are many issues surrounding the performance of critical assets on high-speed ballasted railway lines.At assets like switch & crossings and bridge transitions high track forces can be produced resulting in higher ballast settlements and hence track misalignments.The latter result in higher track forces and hence more settlement,leading to the need for increased track maintenance to ensure comfort and safety.Current technologies for solving issues like ballast movement under high-speed loading regimes are limited.However,a technique that has been well used across the UK and now increasingly overseas to stabilise and reinforce ballasted railway tracks is the application of in-situ polyurethane polymers,termed XiTRACK.This paper discusses how this technique can be used to solve these types of long-standing issues and presents actual polymer application profiles at two typical critical sites,namely a junction and a transition onto concrete slab-track.

  7. All aboard! A biological survey of ballast water onboard vessels spanning the North Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steichen, Jamie L; Schulze, Anja; Brinkmeyer, Robin; Quigg, Antonietta

    2014-10-15

    Global movement of nonindigenous species, within ballast water tanks across natural barriers, threatens coastal and estuarine ecosystem biodiversity. In 2012, the Port of Houston ranked 10th largest in the world and 2nd in the US (waterborne tonnage). Ballast water was collected from 13 vessels to genetically examine the eukaryotic microorganism diversity being discharged into the Port of Houston, Texas (USA). Vessels took ballast water onboard in North Atlantic Ocean between the Port of Malabo, Africa and Port of New Orleans, Louisiana, (USA). Twenty genera of Protists, Fungi and Animalia were identified from at least 10 phyla. Dinoflagellates were the most diverse and dominant identified (Alexandrium, Exuviaella, Gyrodinium, Heterocapsa, Karlodinium, Pfiesteria and Scrippsiella). We are reporting the first detection of Picobiliphytes, Apusozoa (Amastigomonas) and Sarcinomyces within ballast water. This study supports that global commerce by shipping contributes to long-distance transportation of eukaryotic microorganisms, increasing propagule pressure and invasion supply on ecosystems.

  8. Association of bacteria with marine invertebrates: Implications for ballast water management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, L.; Anil, A.C.

    Bacteria associated with plankton are of importance in marine bioinvasions and the implementation of ship’s ballast water treatment technologies. In this study, epibiotic and endobiotic bacteria associated with zooplankton, including barnacle...

  9. Ballast water: a review of the impact on the world public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CK Takahashi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the nineteenth century ships have been using ballast water (BW for safety, stability, propulsion and maneuverability, as well as to redress loss of fuel weight and water consumption, and to maintain structural stress at acceptable levels. Ballast water has been spreading many non-native species around the globe, but little is known about the extent and potential significance of ship-mediated transfer of microorganisms. The global movements of ballast water by ships create a long-distance dispersal mechanism for human pathogens that may be important in the worldwide distribution of microorganisms, as well as for the epidemiology of waterborne diseases. Only a few studies have been carried out on this subject, most of them involving ballast water containing crustacean larvae and phytoplankton. Specialized microbiological studies on these waters are necessary to avoid a repeat of what happened in 1991, when epidemic cholera was reported in Peru and rapidly spread through Latin America and Mexico. In July of 1992, Vibrio cholerae was found in the USA and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA determined that it came from ballast water of ships whose last port of call was in South America. In Brazil, just a few studies about the subject have been performed. An exploratory study by the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária - ANVISA found in ballast water different microorganisms, such as fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Clostridium perfringens, coliphages, Vibrio cholerae O1 and Vibrio cholerae non-O1. Until now, Brazil has been focusing only on organisms transported to its territory from other countries by ballast water, to avoid their establishment and dissemination in Brazilian areas. Studies that can assess the probability that water ballast carries pathogenic microorganisms are extremely important, as is the examination of ships that arrive in the country

  10. Design and fabrication of carbon nanotube field-emission cathode with coaxial gate and ballast resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yonghai; Yeow, John T W; Jaffray, David A

    2013-10-25

    A low density vertically aligned carbon nanotube-based field-emission cathode with a ballast resistor and coaxial gate is designed and fabricated. The ballast resistor can overcome the non-uniformity of the local field-enhancement factor at the emitter apex. The self-aligned fabrication process of the coaxial gate can avoid the effects of emitter tip misalignment and height non-uniformity.

  11. Evaluation of the Strength of Railway Ballast Using Point Load Test for Various Size Fractions and Particle Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohmishi, Mehdi; Palassi, Massoud

    2016-07-01

    The ballast layer is one of the most important components of the railway track superstructure in which angular aggregates of high strength rocks are used. Ballast degradation is one of the main sources of railway problems in which the ballast aggregates are gradually degraded due to the abrasion of the sharp corners of the angular particles and splitting each individual particle into two or several small pieces under loading. In this paper, the effects of rock type, aggregate size and particle shape on the strength of the single ballast particles are investigated. For this purpose, point load test is carried out on ballast aggregates of four rock types including basalt, marl, dolomite and trachyte. According to the obtained results, as the size of the aggregates increases, the point load strength index decreases. The influence of size on the strength is more noticeable for ballasts obtained from higher strength rocks. It is also found that the shape of ballast particles has no major effect on its strength. Furthermore, our findings show that the failure pattern for ballasts of higher strength is so that each particle commonly splits into three pieces; while the dominant failure pattern for ballast particles with less strength is breaking the particle into two pieces.

  12. Analysis and experimental results of a single-stage high-power-factor electronic ballast based on flyback converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calleja, A.J.; Alonso, J.M.; Lopez, E.; Ribas, J.; Martinez, J.A.; Rico-Secades, M.

    1999-11-01

    A new single-stage high-power-factor electronic ballast based on a flyback converter is presented in this paper. The ballast is able to supply a fluorescent lamp assuring a high-input power factor for the utility line. Other features are lamp power regulation against line voltage variations and low lamp current crest factor, both assuring long lamp life. The ballast is analyzed at steady-state operation, and design equations and characteristics are obtained. Also, a procedure for the ballast design is presented. Finally, simulation and experimental results from a laboratory prototype are shown.

  13. Innovative Ballasted Flat Roof Solar PV Racking System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, Richard T.

    2015-01-23

    The objective of this project was to reduce the cost of racking for PV solar on flat commercial rooftops. Cost reductions would come from both labor savings and material savings related to the installation process. The rack would need to accommodate the majority of modules available on the market. Cascade Engineering has a long history of converting traditional metal type applications over to plastic. Injection molding of plastics have numerous advantages including selection of resin for the application, placing the material exactly where it is needed, designing in features that will speed up the installation process, and weight reduction of the array. A plastic rack would need to meet the requirements of UL2703, Mounting systems, mounting devices, clamping/retention devices, and ground lugs for use with flat-plate photovoltaic modules and panels. Comparing original data to the end of project racking design, racking material costs were reduced 50% and labor costs reduced 64%. The racking product accommodates all 60 and 72 cell panels on the market, meets UL2703 requirements, contributes only 1.3 pounds per square foot of weight to the array, requires little ballast to secure the array, automatically grounds the module when the module is secured, stacks/nests well for shipping/fewer lifts to the roof, provides integrated wire routing, allows water to drain on the roof, and accommodates various seismic roof connections. Project goals were achieved as noted in the original funding application.

  14. Innovative Ballasted Flat Roof Solar PV Racking System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, Richard T. [Cascade Engineering, Grand Rapids, MI (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The objective of this project was to reduce the cost of racking for PV solar on flat commercial rooftops. Cost reductions would come from both labor savings and material savings related to the installation process. The rack would need to accommodate the majority of modules available on the market. Cascade Engineering has a long history of converting traditional metal type applications over to plastic. Injection molding of plastics have numerous advantages including selection of resin for the application, placing the material exactly where it is needed, designing in features that will speed up the installation process, and weight reduction of the array. A plastic rack would need to meet the requirements of UL2703, Mounting systems, mounting devices, clamping/retention devices, and ground lugs for use with flat-plate photovoltaic modules and panels. Comparing original data to the end of project racking design, racking material costs were reduced 50% and labor costs reduced 64%. The racking product accommodates all 60 and 72 cell panels on the market, meets UL2703 requirements, contributes only 1.3 pounds per square foot of weight to the array, requires little ballast to secure the array, automatically grounds the module when the module is secured, stacks/nests well for shipping/fewer lifts to the roof, provides integrated wire routing, allows water to drain on the roof, and accommodates various seismic roof connections. Project goals were achieved as noted in the original funding application.

  15. Optimization of bow shape for a non ballast water ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van He, Ngo; Ikeda, Yoshiho

    2013-09-01

    In this research, a commercial CFD code "Fluent" was applied to optimization of bulbous bow shape for a non ballast water ships (NBS). The ship was developed at the Laboratory of the authors in Osaka Prefecture University, Japan. At first, accuracy of the CFD code was validated by comparing the CFD results with experimental results at towing tank of Osaka Prefecture University. In the optimizing process, the resistances acting on ships in calm water and in regular head waves were defined as the object function. Following features of bulbous bow shapes were considered as design parameters: volume of bulbous bow, height of its volume center, angle of bow bottom, and length of bulbous bow. When referring to the computed results given by the CFD like resistance, pressure and wave pattern made by ships in calm water and in waves, an optimal bow shape for ships was discovered by comparing the results in the series of bow shapes. In the computation on waves, the ship is in fully captured condition because shorter waves, λ/ L pp <0.6, are assumed.

  16. Preventive Maintenance of Railway Tracks: Ballast Performance Anticipation in the Cameroon Railway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lezin Seba Minsili

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research study is to produce a methodology that provides an understanding of the mechanical behaviour of ballast and its degradation in order to reflect field performance of different ballast materials used by CAMRAIL in their railway network, and to better anticipate an efficient planning of the railway track maintenance. Based on existed literature, on collected data of different railway sections, and on the finite element analysis of the vehicle-track mechanical interaction, a preventive ballast cleaning and renewal strategy, formulated through ballast deterioration indexes is proposed. Comparing to the ongoing dayto- day maintenance strategy the proposed functionality-based preventive maintenance offers the following advantages: security and comfort of users; forecasting of ballast corrective measures; planned maintenance actions; higher functional and exploitation level of the track and availability of needed materials and mechanisms. The administration of CAMRAIL has promised to extend further the findings of this work in other to fully optimized the track maintenance cost in each railway section.

  17. Free living and plankton-associated vibrios: assessment in ballast water, harbor areas and coastal ecosystems in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Nelly G. Rivera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ballast water is a major transport vector of exotic aquatic species and pathogenic microorganisms. The wide-ranging spread of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 from harbor areas has been frequently ascribed to discharge of contaminated ballast water into eutrophic coastal environments, such as during the onset of the seventh cholera pandemic in South America in the early 1990s. To determine the microbiological hazards of ballast waters transported to Brazilian ports, we evaluated water and plankton samples taken from (i ballast water tanks of recently arrived ships, (ii port areas along the Brazilian coastline from ~1 to 32 oS and (iii three coastal areas in São Paulo State. Vibrio concentration and toxigenic V. cholerae O1 occurrence were analyzed. Plankton-associated vibrios were more abundant than free-living vibrios in all studied environments. Vibrio cholerae was found in 9.5% of ballast tanks and 24.2% of port samples, both as free-living and attached forms, and was absent off São Paulo State. Toxigenic V. cholerae O1 isolates (ctxA+, tcpA+, involved in cholera disease, were found in ballast water (2% and harbor (2% samples. These results confirm that ballast water is an important carrier of pathogenic organisms, and that monitoring of vibrios and other plankton-attached bacteria is of paramount importance in ballast water management programs.

  18. Aquatic organisms in ballasting. New international agreement; Organismos acuaticos perjudiciales en el agua de lastre. Proyecto de nuevo convenio internacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villnueva, F. J.

    2002-07-01

    The Committee of Protection of the Marine Environment of the International Marine Organization has been working for several years on the possible regulation on the ballasting and unballasting of ships. Different countries presented documents titled Aquatic Organisms that harm the ballast water. (Author)

  19. Time and concentration dependency in the potentially affected fraction of species: the case of hydrogen peroxide treatment of ballast water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.G.D.; Ebbens, E.; Jak, R.G.; Huijbregts, M.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Transport of large volumes of ballast water contributes greatly to invasions of species. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can be used as a disinfectant to prevent the spread of exotic species via ballast water. Instead of using environmental risk assessment techniques for protecting a certain fraction of th

  20. Effects of Hydroxyl Radicals on Introduced Organisms of Ship's Ballast Water Based Micro-Gap Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Mindong; ZHANG Zhitao; BAI Mindi; YANG Bo; BAI Xiyao

    2007-01-01

    With the physical method of micro-gap gas discharge,OH.radicals were produced by the ionization of O2 in air and H2O in the gaseous state,in order to explore more effective method totreat the ship's ballast water.The surface morphology of A1203 dielectric layer was analysed using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM),where the size of A1203 particles was in the range of 2 μm to 5 μm.At the same time,the biochemical effect of hydroxyl radicals on the introduced organisms and the quality of ship's ballast water were studied.The results indicate that the main reasons of cell death are lipid peroxide and damage of the antioxidant enzyme system in Catalase (CAT),Peroxidase (POD) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD).In addition,the quality of the ballast water was greatly improved.

  1. A comparison of six different ballast water treatment systems based on UV radiation, electrochlorination and chlorine dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehouwer, Peter Paul; Buma, Anita; Peperzak, Louis

    2015-01-01

    The spread of aquatic invasive species through ballast water is a major ecological and economical threat. Because of this, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) set limits to the concentrations of organisms allowed in ballast water. To meet these limits, ballast water treatment systems (BWTSs) were developed. The main techniques used for ballast water treatment are ultraviolet (UV) radiation and electrochlorination (EC). In this study, phytoplankton regrowth after treatment was followed for six BWTSs. Natural plankton communities were treated and incubated for 20 days. Growth, photosystem II efficiency and species composition were followed. The three UV systems all showed similar patterns of decrease in phytoplankton concentrations followed by regrowth. The two EC and the chlorine dioxide systems showed comparable results. However, UV- and chlorine-based treatment systems showed significantly different responses. Overall, all BWTSs reduced phytoplankton concentrations to below the IMO limits, which represents a reduced risk of aquatic invasions through ballast water.

  2. Inactivation of Amphidinium sp. in ballast waters using UV/Ag-TiO2+O3 advanced oxidation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Donghai; You, Hong; Zhang, Ran; Chen, Chuan; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2011-11-01

    Ballast water poses a biological threat to the world's waterways by transferring aquatic species from one body of water to another. This study investigates the use of combined ultraviolet (UV)/Ag-TiO(2)+ozone (O(3)) processes for treating ballast water using Amphidinium sp. as an indicator microorganism. Sufficient Amphidinium sp. cells in ballast waters can be inactivated using O(3) alone, UV irradiation alone (with or without an Ag-TiO(2) coating), and combined treatments. For the low inactivation ratio (treatment produced excess hydroxyl radicals and total residual oxidants (TROs), and readily damaged cell membranes to release intracellular substances. The comparison tests revealed that the combined treatments synergistically inactivate Escherichia coli in ballast waters. However, the combined process did not synergistically inactivate Amphidinium sp. cells. Inactivating different aqua species in ballast waters needs distinct treatment methods and dosages.

  3. High frequency ballast algorithm simulation base on square error optimize on MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Moslemi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study Design of the High pressure electronic ballast algorithm for sodium vapor lamp in MATLAB that regulate power by variable frequency despite of voltage variations and characteristic lamp gnawing in total time of lamp longevity. Electronic ballast structure and algorithm of design it, is explained and its design with mathematic model is described. Design process using offer plan in such that in addition of dominant to voice resonance variable frequency and voltage variations keep lamp power to nominal power. Design process performed by consideration characteristic of 250 W sodium vapor lamp. Theory studies ratification with MATLAB.

  4. Osmotic Ballasts Enhance Faradaic Efficiency in Closed-Loop, Membrane-Based Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, Ryan S; Coronell, Orlando

    2017-02-07

    Aqueous processes for energy storage and conversion based on reverse electrodialysis (RED) require a significant concentration difference across ion exchange membranes, creating both an electrochemical potential and an osmotic pressure difference. In closed-loop RED, which we recently demonstrated as a new means of energy storage, the transport of water by osmosis has a very significant negative impact on the faradaic efficiency of the system. In this work, we use neutral, nonpermeating solutes as "osmotic ballasts" in a closed-loop concentration battery based on RED. We present experimental results comparing two proof-of-concept ballast molecules, and show that the ballasts reduce, eliminate, or reverse the net transport of water through the membranes when cycling the battery. By mitigating osmosis, faradaic and round-trip energy efficiency are more than doubled, from 18% to 50%, and 7% to 15%, respectively in this nonoptimized system. However, the presence of the ballasts has a slightly negative impact on the open circuit voltage. Our results suggest that balancing osmotic pressure using noncharged solutes is a promising approach for significantly reducing faradaic energy losses in closed-loop RED systems.

  5. Inactivation of dinoflagellate Scripsiella trochoidea in synthetic ballast water by advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhishan; Jiang, Wenju; Zhang, Yi; Lim, T M

    2015-01-01

    Ship-borne ballast water contributes significantly to the transfer of non-indigenous species across aquatic environments. To reduce the risk of bio-invasion, ballast water should be treated before discharge. In this study, the efficiencies of several conventional and advanced oxidation processes were investigated for potential ballast water treatment, using a marine dinoflagellate species, Scripsiella trochoidea, as the indicator organism. A stable and consistent culture was obtained and treated by ultraviolet (UV) light, ozone (O3), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and their various combinations. UV apparently inactivated the cells after only 10 s of irradiation, but subsequently photo-reactivation of the cells was observed for all methods involving UV. O3 exhibited 100% inactivation efficiency after 5 min treatment, while H2O2 only achieved maximum 80% inactivation in the same duration. Combined methods, e.g. UV/O3 and UV/H2O2, were found to inhibit photo-reactivation and improve treatment efficiency to some degree, indicating the effectiveness of using combined treatment processes. The total residual oxidant (TRO) levels of the methods were determined, and the results indicated that UV and O3 generated the lowest and highest TRO, respectively. The synergic effect of combined processes on TRO generation was found to be insignificant, and thus UV/O3 was recommended as a potentially suitable treatment process for ballast water.

  6. Possible Ballast Water Transfer of Lionfish to the Eastern Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIsaac, Hugh J; De Roy, Emma M; Leung, Brian; Grgicak-Mannion, Alice; Ruiz, Gregory M

    2016-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific Red Lionfish was first reported off the Florida coast in 1985, following which it has spread across much of the SE USA, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. Lionfish negatively impact fish and invertebrate assemblages and abundances, thus further spread is cause for concern. To date, the fish has not been reported on the Pacific coast of North or Central America. Here we examine the possibility of ballast water transfer of lionfish from colonized areas in the Atlantic Ocean to USA ports on the Pacific coast. Over an eight-year period, we documented 27 commercial vessel-trips in which ballast water was loaded in colonized sites and later discharged untreated into Pacific coast ports in the USA. California had the highest number of discharges including San Francisco Bay and Los Angeles-Long Beach. A species distribution model suggests that the probability of lionfish establishment is low for the western USA, Colombia and Panama, low to medium for Costa Rica, Nicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala, medium to high for mainland Ecuador, and very high for western Mexico, Peru and the Galapagos Islands. Given the species' intolerance of freshwater conditions, we propose that ballast water exchange be conducted in Gatún Lake, Panama for western-bound vessels carrying 'risky' ballast water to prevent invasion of the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  7. 76 FR 25211 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts AGENCY: Office of Energy... energy conservation standards are required, they will be issued or published by June 30, 2011, and use of... Background Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (42 U.S.C. 6291, et seq.; ``EPCA'' or,...

  8. 76 FR 20089 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... April 11, 2011 Part II Department of Energy 10 CFR Part 430 Energy Conservation Program: Energy... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts AGENCY: Office of Energy... public meeting. SUMMARY: The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) prescribes energy......

  9. 76 FR 70547 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... November 14, 2011 Part II Department of Energy 10 CFR Part 430 Energy Conservation Program: Energy...-AB50 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts AGENCY... Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), as amended, prescribes energy conservation...

  10. Efficacy and production of disinfection by-products of ozone treated ballast water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneekes, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    AirTree is preparing for land-based testing at the NIOZ/IMARES test facility. As the Ballast Water Management System (BWMS) developed by AirTree uses ozone as active substance, IMO Guideline G9 applies and Basic and Final Approval are also required. In preparing the Basic Approval dossier, it appear

  11. Combining Ballast Water Exchange and Treatment To Maximize Prevention of Species Introductions to Freshwater Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briski, Elizabeta; Gollasch, Stephan; David, Matej; Linley, R Dallas; Casas-Monroy, Oscar; Rajakaruna, Harshana; Bailey, Sarah A

    2015-08-18

    The most effective way to manage species transfers is to prevent their introduction via vector regulation. Soon, international ships will be required to meet numeric ballast discharge standards using ballast water treatment (BWT) systems, and ballast water exchange (BWE), currently required by several countries, will be phased out. However, there are concerns that BWT systems may not function reliably in fresh and/or turbid water. A land-based evaluation of simulated "BWE plus BWT" versus "BWT alone" demonstrated potential benefits of combining BWE with BWT for protection of freshwater ecosystems. We conducted ship-based testing to compare the efficacy of "BWE plus BWT" versus "BWT alone" on voyages starting with freshwater ballast. We tested the hypotheses that there is an additional effect of "BWE plus BWT" compared to "BWT alone" on the reduction of plankton, and that taxa remaining after "BWE plus BWT" will be marine (low risk for establishment at freshwater recipient ports). Our study found that BWE has significant additional effect on the reduction of plankton, and this effect increases with initial abundance. As per expectations, "BWT alone" tanks contained higher risk freshwater or euryhaline taxa at discharge, while "BWE plus BWT" tanks contained mostly lower risk marine taxa unlikely to survive in recipient freshwater ecosystems.

  12. Alternative, indirect measures of ballast water treatment efficacy during a shipboard trial: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, D.A.; Welschmeyer, N.A.; Peperzak, L.

    2015-01-01

    A shipboard study was conducted aboard the cruise ship Coral Princess during a scheduled cruise from San Pedro, CA, USA to Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The investigation involved three members of the global TestNet group, with experience in certification testing of ballast water treatment sy

  13. Ballast water management that adapts to climate changes and reduces harmful bio-invasions in marine eco-systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne

    2015-01-01

    for them. In addition, future changes of temperature, storm patterns and sea-currents may also change shipping routes and ballast water management practices. Based on methods like stock taking, trend tracking and scenario modeling the paper aims to evaluate possible ecological and economic impacts......The shipping ballast water is defined as water taken on board a ship to control trim, cargo, draught, stability and stress of the ship. Alien bio-organisms in ballast water have a range of ecological impacts, for instance reducing native bio-diversity, altering habitat and potentially the overall...... in marine ecosystem of changed factors in the shipping sector, for instance change of number, size, and design of vessels as well as treatment technologies of ballast water. New areas for shipping due to climate changes are also included. Our study would contribute to improve decision support tools, usable...

  14. The effects of prolonged darkness on temperate and tropical marine phytoplankton, and their implications for ballast water risk management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Carney, K.J.; Delany, J.E.; Sawant, S.S.; Mesbahi, E.

    seawater promoted the highest levels of growth. Seasonality had a significant influence on species survival. Understanding the effects of all these factors can aid the development of effective risk assessments in ballast water management....

  15. Fate of Enteromorpha flexuosa (Wulfen) J. Agardh and its spores in darkness: Implications for ballast water management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kolwalkar, J.P.; Sawant, S.S.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    of Enteromorpha flexuosa (Wulfen) J. Agardh and its spores in darkness: Implications for ballast water management Janhavi P. Kolwalkar, Subhash S. Sawant* and Vinod K. Dhargalkar National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa. 403004 ? India... interest from the perspective of ballast water management issues (Drake et al., 2002; Gollasch et al., 2000; Lavoie et al., 1999; Williams et al., 1988; Wonham et al., 2001). Generally it is believed that macroalgae disintegrate in a situation where dark...

  16. Methods coagulation/flocculation and flocculation with ballast agent for effective harvesting of microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, Kirill V; Sergeeva, Yana E; Butylin, Victor V; Komova, Anastasiya V; Pojidaev, Victor M; Badranova, Gulfiya U; Shapovalova, Anna A; Konova, Irina A; Gotovtsev, Pavel M

    2015-10-01

    The effects of coagulant (FeCl3·6H2O), various flocculants based on polyacrylamide (PAA), polyethylenoxide (PEO) and flocculated biomass as ballast agent, dosage and sedimental time on flocculation efficiency of harvesting Chlorella vulgaris GKV1 cultivated in a laboratory were investigated. The results of this work indicated that the flocculation efficiency achieved about 90% after 5 min of sedimentation when adding of coagulant and flocculant mixture (FeCl3 50 mg/l+PEO based Sibfloc-718 7.5 mg/l) or flocculant with ballast agent (Sibfloc-718 7.5 mg/l+10% flocculated biomass). PAA and PEO showed good flocculation efficiency at dosage of 0.025 and 0.015 g/l, respectively without pH adjustment. Finally, the most suitable flocculation method was discussed in this paper.

  17. Assessing exemptions under the ballast water management convention: preclude the Trojan horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olenin, Sergej; Ojaveer, Henn; Minchin, Dan; Boelens, Rick

    2016-02-15

    The International Maritime Organization (IMO) Ballast Water Management Convention (BWMC) is a powerful instrument aimed at reducing spread of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens (HAOPs). As BWMC is expected to enter into force soon, shipping companies will start seeking exemptions for ballast water management in accordance with BWMC Regulation A-4. However, without scientifically robust risk assessment (RA) and consistent rules, the exemptions may introduce a new form of risk within a convention generally designed to reduce risks. This paper describes an adaptive system for granting exemptions, consisting of six major components: target species selection procedure, port-to-port RA, monitoring, information support, administrative decision and review process. The system is based on key principles defined in the IMO guidelines for RA and is designed to continuously accumulate evolving experience on granting exemptions. The ultimate goal is to contribute to the control of the spread of HAOPs, without placing an unnecessary burden on the shipping industry.

  18. Difficulties in obtaining representative samples for compliance with the Ballast Water Management Convention

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Carney, K.J.; Basurko, O.C.; Pazouki, K.; Marsham, S.; Delany, J.E.; Desai, D.V.; Anil, A.C.; Mesbahi, E.

    the UKIERI (UK India Education and Research Initiative) project funded by the British Council, the UK Department for Education and Skills (DfES), Office of Science and Innovation, the FCO , Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales, GSK, BP, Shell and BAE... for the benefit of the India Higher Education Sector and the UK Higher Education Sector. The views expressed are not necessarily those of the funding bodies. In addition, the North Sea Ballast Water Opportunity project, co-financed by the European Union through...

  19. Global ballast water management and the "same location" concept: a clear term or a clear issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Matej; Gollasch, Stephan; Pavliha, Marko

    2013-03-01

    The United Nations recognized the transfer of harmful organisms and pathogens across natural barriers as one of the four greatest pressures to the world's oceans and seas, causing global environmental changes, while also posing a threat to human health, property, and resources. Ballast water transferred by vessels was recognized as a prominent vector of such species and was regulated by the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ship's Ballast Water and Sediments (2004). Permanent exceptions from ballast water management requirements may apply when the uptake and discharge of ballast water occur at the "same location." However, the "same location" concept may be interpreted differently, e.g., a port basin, a port, an anchorage, or a larger area even with more ports inside. Considering that the Convention is nearing the beginning of enforcement, national authorities all around the world will soon be exposed to applications for exceptions. Here we consider possible effects of different interpretations of the "same location" concept. We have considered different possible extensions of the same location through environmental, shipping, and legal aspects. The extension of such areas, and the inclusion of more ports, may compromise the Convention's main purpose. We recommend that "same location" mean the smallest practicable unit, i.e., the same harbor, mooring, or anchorage. An entire smaller port, possibly also including the anchorage, could be considered as same location. For larger ports with a gradient of environmental conditions, "same location" should mean a terminal or a port basin. We further recommend that IMO consider the preparation of a guidance document to include concepts, criteria, and processes outlining how to identify "same location," which limits should be clearly identified.

  20. Disinfection by-products in ballast water treatment: an evaluation of regulatory data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werschkun, Barbara; Sommer, Yasmin; Banerji, Sangeeta

    2012-10-15

    To reduce the global spread of invasive aquatic species, international regulations will soon require reductions of the number of organisms in ballast water discharged by ships. For this purpose, ballast water treatment systems were developed and approved by an international procedure. These systems rely on established water treatment principles which, to different degrees, have been proven to generate disinfection by-products with hazardous properties but have only scarcely been investigated in marine environments. Our study evaluates the publicly available documentation about approved ballast water treatment systems with regard to by-product formation. The most commonly employed methods are chlorination, ozonation, and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Chlorination systems generate trihalomethanes, halogenated acetic acids, and bromate in substantially larger quantities than reported for other areas of application. Levels are highest in brackish water, and brominated species predominate, in particular bromoform and dibromoacetic acid. Ozonation, which is less frequently utilized, produces bromoform in lower concentrations but forms higher levels of bromate, both of which were effectively reduced by active carbon treatment. In systems based on UV radiation, medium pressure lamps are employed as well as UV-induced advanced oxidation. For all UV systems, by-product formation is reported only occasionally. The most notable observations were small increases in nitrite, hydrogen peroxide, halogenated methanes and acetic acids. The assessment of by-product formation during ballast water treatment is limited by the lacking completeness and quality of available information. This concerns the extent and statistical characterisation of chemical analysis as well as the documentation of the test water parameters.

  1. A GPR-based simulation approach for the analysis of railway ballast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Andrea; Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; Tosti, Fabio; Pajewski, Lara; Alani, Amir M.; Loizos, Andreas; Umiliaco, Andrea; Giulia Brancadoro, Maria; Pirrone, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    This study aims at proposing a model capable to assess the physical conditions of railway ballast, in terms of percentage of fouling within the material, by analyzing its electromagnetic response. For the calibration of such a model, a laboratory set-up was implemented in order to reproduce a real-scale railway environment. In more details, a 1.47 m long × 1.47 m wide × 0.48 m high plexiglass formwork was laid over a metal sheet, to define a proper domain of investigation. The formwork was then filled up with railway ballast, progressively fouled with a fine-grained pollutant material, namely, an A4 soil type according to the ASSHTO soil classification. At each step of fouling percentage, electromagnetic surveys were carried out by employing several ground-penetrating radar (GPR) systems, in both ground-coupled and air-coupled configurations. On the other hand, the validation of the model was performed through a simulation-based approach. In particular, the main physical and geometrical properties of each ballast-pollutant configuration were reproduced by means of a random sequence absorption (RSA) approach. For the representation of the shape of the solid matrix of the ballast, a relatively complex geometry was here adopted. Finally, the developed geometries were processed by the GprMax 2D numerical simulator, employing a finite-difference time domain (FDTD) model capable of generating a synthetic GPR response for the several configurations analysed in laboratory environment. As result, the potential of the combined use of RSA and FDTD approaches is demonstrated, and a model for characterizing such a complex coarse-grained heterogeneous material is finally proposed. Acknowledgement The Authors thank COST, for funding the Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar."

  2. Results of Shipboard Approval Tests of Ballast Water Treatment Systems in Freshwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Results of Shipboard Approval Tests of Ballast Water Treatment Systems in Freshwater Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release...distribution is unlimited. November 2014 Report No. CG-D-05-15 Results of Shipboard Approval Tests of BWT Systems in Freshwater ii...London, CT 06320 Results of Shipboard Approval Tests of BWT Systems in Freshwater iii UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 R&DC | Cangelosi, et al

  3. Chlorine dioxide as a treatment for ballast water to control invasive species: shipboard testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranda, Lucie; Cox, Annie M; Campbell, Robert G; Smith, David C

    2013-10-15

    The efficacy of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) in eliminating organisms present in estuarine ballast water of a containership was determined under actual operating conditions by comparing the survival of planktonic communities present in waters of treated and control ballast tanks. Sampling was via ballast-tank hatches. The treatment (5 mg L(-1)ClO2 without pre-filtration) delivered by a prototype ClO2-generating system was generally effective against planktonic assemblages, although bacterial communities rebounded after a few days. Regardless of temperature, ClO2 was very effective against phytoplankton; the effect was immediate, without resurgence. Some zooplankters in the ≥ 50-μm fraction may survive the biocide, especially those able to find refuge within a protective coating (e.g., cysts, resting eggs, and shells) or in sediment. In order to boost efficacy, a pre-filtration step is recommended (now installed as standard equipment) to lower the intake of the ≥ 50-μm fraction and lessen the challenge posed by this size class.

  4. Sunlight-induced photochemical decay of oxidants in natural waters: implications in ballast water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, William J; Jones, Adam C; Whitehead, Robert F; Zika, Rod G

    2007-05-15

    The transport and discharge of ship ballast water has been recognized as a major vector for the introduction of invasive species. Chemical oxidants, long used in drinking water and wastewater treatment, are alternative treatment methods for the control of invasive species currently being tested for use on ships. One concern when a ballasted vessel arrives in port is the adverse effects of residual oxidant in the treated water. The most common oxidants include chlorine (HOCl/OCl-), bromine (HOBr/OBr-), ozone (03), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), chlorine dioxide (ClO2), and monochloramine (NH2Cl). The present study was undertaken to evaluate the sunlight-mediated photochemical decomposition of these oxidants. Sunlight photodecomposition was measured at various pH using either distilled water or oligotrophic Gulf Stream water for specific oxidants. For selected oxidants, quantum yields at specific wavelengths were obtained. An environmental photochemical model, GCSOLAR, also provided predictions of the fate (sunlight photolysis half-lives) of HOCI/OCl-, HOBr/OBr-, ClO2, and NH2Cl for two different seasons at latitude 40 degrees and in water with two different concentrations of chromophoric dissolved organic matter. These data are useful in assessing the environmental fate of ballast water treatment oxidants if they were to be discharged in port.

  5. Potential effects of LNG trade shift on transfer of ballast water and biota by ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Kimberly K; Muirhead, Jim R; Minton, Mark S; Carney, Katharine J; Miller, A Whitman; Ruiz, Gregory M

    2017-02-15

    As the US natural gas surplus grows, so does the prospect of establishing new trade partnerships with buyers abroad, a process that has major consequences for global ship movement and ballast water delivery. Since US annual imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG) peaked in 2004-2007, the country is rapidly transitioning from net importer to net exporter of LNG. Combining multiple datasets, we estimated changes in the associated flux of ships' ballast water to the US during 2015-2040, using existing scenarios for projected exports of domestic LNG by ships. Our analysis of the current market (2015) scenario predicts an approximate 90-fold annual increase in LNG-related ballast water discharge to the US by 2040 (42millionm(3)), with the potential to be even greater under high oil prices. We also described changes in geographic connectivity related to trade direction. These findings highlight how 21(st) century global energy markets could dramatically alter opportunities for seaborne introductions and invasions by nonnative species.

  6. Detecting nuisance species using NGST: Methodology shortcomings and possible application in ballast water monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaiko, Anastasija; Martinez, Jose L; Ardura, Alba; Clusa, Laura; Borrell, Yaisel J; Samuiloviene, Aurelija; Roca, Agustín; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2015-12-01

    Detecting the presence of potential invasive species in ballast water is a priority for preventing their spread into new environments. Next generation sequencing technologies are being increasingly used for exploring and assessing biodiversity from environmental samples. Here we apply high throughput sequencing from DNA extracted from ballast water (BW) samples employing two different platforms, Ion Torrent and 454, and compare the putative species catalogues from the resulting Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU). Water samples were taken from the RV Polastern ballast tank in five different days between the second and the twentieth navigation day. Pronounced decrease of oxygen concentration and increase of temperature occurred in the BW during this time, coincident with a progressively higher proportion of unassigned OTU and short reads indicating DNA degradation. Discrepancy between platforms for species catalogues was consistent with previously published bias in AT-rich sequences for Ion Torrent platform. Some putative species detected from the two platforms increased in frequency during the Polarstern travel, which suggests they were alive and therefore tolerant to adverse conditions. OTU assigned to the highly invasive red alga Polysiphonia have been detected at low but increasing frequency from the two platforms. Although in this moment NGST could not replace current methods of sampling, sorting and individual taxonomic identification of BW biota, it has potential as an exploratory methodology especially for detecting scarce species.

  7. A Comparison of Microbial Water Quality and Diversity for Ballast and Tropical Harbor Waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmaine Ng

    Full Text Available Indicator organisms and antibiotic resistance were used as a proxy to measure microbial water quality of ballast tanks of ships, and surface waters in a tropical harbor. The survival of marine bacteria in ballast tanks appeared to diminish over longer water retention time, with a reduction of cell viability observed after a week based on heterotrophic plate counts. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes showed distinct differences in microbial composition of ballast and harbor waters. The harbor waters had a higher abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs assigned to Cyanobacteria (Synechococcus spp. and α-proteobacteria (SAR11 members, while marine hydrocarbon degraders such as γ-proteobacteria (Ocenspirillaes spp., Thiotrchales spp. and Bacteroidetes (Flavobacteriales spp. dominated the ballast water samples. Screening of indicator organisms found Escherichia coli (E. coli, Enterococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa in two or more of the ballast and harbor water samples tested. Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp. were detected exclusively in harbor water samples. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR, we screened for 13 antibiotic resistant gene (ARG targets and found higher abundances of sul1 (4.13-3.44 x 102 copies/mL, dfrA (0.77-1.80 x10 copies/mL and cfr (2.00-5.21 copies/mL genes compared to the other ARG targets selected for this survey. These genes encode for resistance to sulfonamides, trimethoprim and chloramphenicol-florfenicol antibiotics, which are also known to persist in sediments of aquaculture farms and coastal environments. Among the ARGs screened, we found significant correlations (P<0.05 between ereA, ermG, cfr and tetO genes to one or more of the indicator organisms detected in this study, which may suggest that these members contribute to the environmental resistome. This study provides a baseline water quality survey, quantitatively assessing indicators of antibiotic resistance, potentially pathogenic organisms and a

  8. INVESTIGATION OF INNER SHEAR RESISTANCE OF GEOGRIDS BUILT UNDER GRANULAR PROTECTION LAYERS AND RAILWAY BALLAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sz. Fischer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Using adequate granular materials and layer structures in the railway super- and substructure is able to stabilise railway track geometry. For this purpose special behaviour of above materials has to be determined, e.g. inner shear resistance. Inner shear resistance of granular media with and without geogrid reinforcement in different depths is not known yet. Methodology. The author developed a special laboratory method to measure and define inner shear resistance of granular materials, it is called «multi-level shear box test». This method is adequate to determine inner shear resistance (pushing force vs. depth (distance from the «zero» surface. Two different granular materials: andesite railway ballast (31.5/63 mm and andesite railway protection layer material (0/56 mm, and seven different types of geogrids (GG1…GG7 were used during the tests. Findings. Values of inner shear resistance functions of andesite railway ballast without geogrid reinforcement and reinforced with different types of geogrids and andesite granular protection layer in function of the vertical distance from the geogrid plane were determined with multi-layer shear box tests when the material aggregation is uncompacted and compacted. Only the compacted sample was tested in case of the 0/56 mm protection layer. Cubic polynomial regression functions fitted on the mean values of the measurements are described graphically. Determination coefficients with values of R2>0.97 were resulted in all the cases of regression functions. Based on the polynomial regression functions fitted on the mean values of the test results, three increasing factors were determined in function of the distance measured from the geogrid. Increasing factor «A», «B» and «D». Originality. Multi-level shear box test, developed by the author, is certified unequivocally adequate for determining inner shear resistance of reinforced and unreinforced granular materials, e.g. railway ballast

  9. Inactivation of invasive marine species in the process of conveying ballast water using OH based on a strong ionization discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Mindong; Zheng, Qilin; Tian, Yiping; Zhang, Zhitao; Chen, Cao; Cheng, Chao; Meng, Xiangying

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, invasive marine species in medium-salinity ballast water were inactivated using OH generated from a strong ionization discharge. The OH is determined by the concentration of oxygen active species combined with the effects of water jet cavitation. The results indicated that the OH concentration reached 7.62 μM, within 1 s, which is faster and higher than in conventional AOP methods. In a pilot-scale OH ballast water system with a capacity of 10 m(3)/h, algae were inactivated when CT value was 0.1 mg min/L with a contact time only 6 s. The viable and nonviable cells were determined using SYTOX Green nucleic acid stain and Flow cytometry. As a result, the OH treatment could be completed during the process of conveying the ballast water. In addition, the concentrations of relevant disinfection by-products (DBPs), such as trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), and bromate, were less than that required by the World Health Organization's drinking water standards, which suggest that the discharged ballast water posed no risks to the oceanic environment. Nevertheless, for conventional ozonation and electrolysis methods, the ballast water should be treated only in the treated tanks during the ship's voyage and form higher level DBPs.

  10. 33 CFR 155.350 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of less...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of less than 400 gross tons. 155.350 Section 155... mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of less than 400 gross tons. (a) No person may operate an oceangoing ship of less than 400 gross tons, unless it either:...

  11. A New Cross-Shaped Graphite Furnace with Ballast Body for Reduction of Interferences in Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Asweisi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new crossed graphite furnace for atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS was designed and installed in heated graphite atomizer (HGA500 combined with Perkin-Elmer spectrometer (AAS1100. The Tungsten ballast body was inserted inside one part of the crossed furnace in a way perpendicular to light path. The analyzed sample was injected manually on the ballast body inside the cross and pushed into the measuring zone using the original inner and additional purge gas. The sample was adsorbed strongly on the ballast and evaporated and transferred with different rates at different temperatures during the temperature program allowing the separation of analyte and matrix signals. Analysis of middle volatile element such as copper and manganese in standard urine sample (seronorm 2525 showed complete separation of analyte and background signals with good sensitivity and repeatability.

  12. Analysis and performance of novel and highly efficient electronic ballast operating at unity-power-factor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V B Borghate; H M Suryawanshi; G A Dhomane

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents the electronic ballast, in which the coupling inductors are used to inject the current to the dc-bus capacitors, to boost the dc-bus voltage and to filter out the ripples from input line current. The current injection coupling inductor injects its stored energy to the dc-bus capacitors in every switching half cycle. Whereas, the boost coupling inductor keeps the dc-bus voltage always above the peak of ac input voltage. Therefore, the proposed ballast maintains unity-power-factor and high efficiency with ripple-free input current over wide range of input line voltage in case of worst regulation. A symmetrical half-bridge inverter is used to drive the fluorescent lamps. The experimental results of the laboratory prototype ballast for 2 × 36 W fluorescent lamps operating at 50 kHz are presented.

  13. Guidance for a harmonized emission scenario document (ESD) on ballast water discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zipperle, Andreas [BIS - Beratungszentrum fuer integriertes Sedimentmanagement, Hamburg (Germany); Gils, Jos van [DELTARES, Delft (Netherlands); Hattum, Bert van [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). IVM - Institute for Environmental Studies; Heise, Susanne [BIS - Beratungszentrum fuer integriertes Sedimentmanagement, Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    The present report provides guidance for a harmonized Emission Scenario Document (ESD) for the exposure assessment as part of the environmental risk assessment process which applicants seeking approval of a ballast water management system (BWMS) need to perform prior to notification and authorisation procedures. Despite the global variability of the marine environment, ballast water discharges and treatment methods, exposure assessments need to be comparable between different applications. In order to achieve this, this ESD points out the following aspects: - Applicants should use standardized scenarios in order to predict mean exposure. These should reflect generic situations, independent of region or port so that results are widely applicable. In addition to a harbour scenario, a standardized shipping lane scenario should be considered, - During or right after ballast water discharge, high concentrations may persist in a water body for a certain length of time until extensive mixing results in mean concentrations. Not taking exposure to peak concentrations within gradients into account could lead to an underestimation of risk, especially for rapidly degrading substances. Efforts have been made to approximate maximum exposure concentration with simple dilution factors. Their applicability was checked by near-field-evaluations. - Chemical properties determine the environmental fate of substances. If they are ambiguous, selection of a specific set of data strongly influences the result of an exposure assessment. Guidance is given on what to do about lacking data. - In order to harmonize the exposure assessments, reliable chemical model software should be used. A discussion on the requirements of suitable software and an evaluation of MAMPEC is given in this report. (orig.)

  14. A home away from home: a meiobenthic assemblage in a ship's ballast water tank sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Rokicka-Praxmajer

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The world-wide research on ship-aided dispersal of marineorganisms and invasions of non-indigenous species focuses primarilyon the plankters, which show the greatest potential for invadingnew areas and establishing viable populations in them, eitherin the water column (holoplankton or on the bottom (meroplanktoniclarvae of benthic species settling on the sea floor. As meiobenthicanimals usually lack a pelagic larval stage in their life cycle,no biological invasion study has, to our knowledge, ever specificallytargeted marine transport as a means of meiofaunal dispersal. Here we present a set of data showing that the sedimentdeposited in a ship's ballast water tank does support a viablemeiobenthic assemblage. We examined 0.015-dm3 aliquotsof a 1 dm3 sample from a c. 1.5-cm thick layerof sediment residue in the ballast tank of MS Donnington, broughtto the "Gryfia" Repair Shipyard in Szczecin (Poland. The sampleswere found to contain representatives of calcareous Foraminifera,hydrozoans, nematodes, turbellarians, harpacticoid copepods andtheir nauplii, and cladocerans, as well as meiobenthic-sizedbivalves and gastropods. Nematodes proved to be the most constantand most numerous component of the assemblage. The sediment portionsexamined revealed the presence of 1-11 individuals representing11 marine nematode genera. The viability of the meiobenthic assemblagewas evidenced by the presence of ovigerous females of both nematodesand harpacticoids. Survival of the meiobenthos in shipborne ballast tank sedimentresidues may provide at least a partial explanation for the cosmopolitandistribution of meiobenthic taxa and may underlie the successfulcolonisation of new habitats by invasive meiofaunal species.

  15. Bromination of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter following Full Scale Electrochemical Ballast Water Disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsior, Michael; Mitchelmore, Carys; Heyes, Andrew; Harir, Mourad; Richardson, Susan D; Petty, William Tyler; Wright, David A; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    An extensively diverse array of brominated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) were generated following electrochemical disinfection of natural coastal/estuarine water, which is one of the main treatment methods currently under consideration for ballast water treatment. Ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry revealed 462 distinct brominated DBPs at a relative abundance in the mass spectra of more than 1%. A brominated DBP with a relative abundance of almost 22% was identified as 2,2,4-tribromo-5-hydroxy-4-cyclopentene-1,3-dione, which is an analogue to several previously described 2,2,4-trihalo-5-hydroxy-4-cyclopentene-1,3-diones in drinking water. Several other brominated molecular formulas matched those of other known brominated DBPs, such as dibromomethane, which could be generated by decarboxylation of dibromoacetic acid during ionization, dibromophenol, dibromopropanoic acid, dibromobutanoic acid, bromohydroxybenzoic acid, bromophenylacetic acid, bromooxopentenoic acid, and dibromopentenedioic acid. Via comparison to previously described chlorine-containing analogues, bromophenylacetic acid, dibromooxopentenoic acid, and dibromopentenedioic acid were also identified. A novel compound at a 4% relative abundance was identified as tribromoethenesulfonate. This compound has not been previously described as a DBP, and its core structure of tribromoethene has been demonstrated to show toxicological implications. Here we show that electrochemical disinfection, suggested as a candidate for successful ballast water treatment, caused considerable production of some previously characterized DBPs in addition to novel brominated DBPs, although several hundred compounds remain structurally uncharacterized. Our results clearly demonstrate that electrochemical and potentially direct chlorination of ballast water in estuarine and marine systems should be approached with caution and the concentrations, fate, and toxicity of DBP need to be further characterized.

  16. Assessing ballast treatment standards for effect on rate of establishment using a stochastic model of the green crab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Cooper

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a stochastic model used to characterize the probability/risk of NIS establishment from ships' ballast water discharges. Establishment is defined as the existence of a sufficient number of individuals of a species to provide for a sustained population of the organism. The inherent variability in population dynamics of organisms in their native or established environments is generally difficult to quantify. Muchqualitative information is known about organism life cycles and biotic and abiotic environmental pressures on the population, but generally little quantitative data exist to develop a mechanistic model of populations in such complex environments. Moreover, there is little quantitative data to characterize the stochastic fluctuations of population size over time even without accounting for systematic responses to biotic and abiotic pressures. This research applies an approach using life-stage density and fecundity measures reported in research to determine a stochastic model of an organism's population dynamics. The model is illustrated withdata from research studies on the green crab that span a range of habitats of the established organism and were collected over some years to represent a range of time-varying biotic and abiotic conditions that are expected to exist in many receiving environments. This model is applied to introductions of NIS at the IMO D-2 and the U.S. ballast water discharge standard levels designated as Phase Two in the United States Coast Guard'sNotice of Proposed Rulemaking. Under a representative range of ballast volumes discharged at U.S. ports, the average rate of establishment of green crabs for ballast waters treated to the IMO-D2 concentration standard (less than 10 organisms/m3 is predicted to be reduced to about a third the average rate from untreated ballast water discharge. The longevity of populations from the untreated ballast water discharges is expected to be reducedby about 90% by

  17. Possible Ballast Water Transfer of Lionfish to the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    MacIsaac, Hugh J.; De Roy, Emma M.; Leung, Brian; Grgicak-Mannion, Alice; Ruiz, Gregory M.

    2016-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific Red Lionfish was first reported off the Florida coast in 1985, following which it has spread across much of the SE USA, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. Lionfish negatively impact fish and invertebrate assemblages and abundances, thus further spread is cause for concern. To date, the fish has not been reported on the Pacific coast of North or Central America. Here we examine the possibility of ballast water transfer of lionfish from colonized areas in the Atlantic Ocean to ...

  18. The ships' ballast water impact on the Black Sea marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acomi, Nicoleta; Acomi, Ovidiu

    2015-04-01

    Ships use ballast water to provide stability during voyages. This type of seawater loaded on board from one geographical area and discharged in very different port areas as ballasting practice, turned into a vector for spreading the non-native sea life species. The reduction and limitation of invasive species is a problem that the modern world addresses. Thus, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) developed the BWM 2004 Convention. Adopting international regulations influences the socio-economic sector and this is the reason why the ballast water, the subject of this paper, has been on the IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee's agenda for more than 10 years, while the Convention has not yet been ratified and enforced. Although the Black Sea was subject to incidents regarding the invasive species the Romanian Government, as member of the IMO, did not ratify the Convention. The Black Sea was the subject of four major incidents regarding the ships' ballast water. One of them refers to the North American Comb Jelly, native from the Eastern Seaboard of America, introduced in the Black, Azov and Caspian Seas and seriously affecting the Romanian coastal environment in the 1990's. This invasive species has negative impacts: it reproduces rapidly under favourable conditions, it feeds excessively on zooplankton, it depletes zooplankton stocks, altering the food web and the ecosystem functionality, and contributed significantly to the collapse of Black and Azov Sea fisheries in the 1990s, with massive economic and social impact. There are studies for identifying the invasive species for the Black sea, structured in a database for marine species - the Black Sea Red Data Book. For these invasive species, there have been identified and developed charts to emphasize their ways of migration into the Black Sea. This paper aims to analyse the marine traffic in Romanian ports, broken down according with seasons and types of vessels, and to assess its relationship with

  19. Assessment of Energy Efficient LED Ballasts Based on their Weight and Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milashevski, Irena; Tetervenok, Oleg; Galkin, Ilya

    2011-01-01

    LED elements always require some electronic ballast that may consist of a primary power supply and a number of secondary dimmers for light regulation. These circuits can be implemented as DC/DC converters. In the paper buck and boost dimmers are investigated from the point of view of their weight and size, that are close related to their losses. The analysis is provided for various modulation techniques and configurations of the converters. The above mention converters are investigated analytically, through simulation and experimentally.

  20. Added Resistance Acting on Hull of a Non Ballast Water Ship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ngo Van He; Yoshiho Ikeda

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, added resistances acting on a hull of non ballast water ship (NBS) in high waves is discussed. The non ballast water ships were developed at the laboratory of the authors at Osaka Prefecture University, Japan. In the present paper, the performances of three kinds of bow shapes developed for the NBS were theoretically and experimentally investigated to find the best one in high waves. In previous papers, an optimum bow shape for the NBS was developed in calm water and in moderated waves. For a 2 m model for experiments and computations, the wave height is 0.02 m. This means that the wave height is 15%of the draft of the ship in full load conditions. In this paper, added resistances in high waves up to 0.07 m for a 2 m model or 53%of the full load draft are investigated. In such high waves linear wave theories which have been used in the design stage of a ship for a long time may not work well anymore, and experiments are the only effective tool to predict the added resistance in high waves. With the computations for waves, the ship is in a fully captured condition because shorter waves,λ/Lpp<0.6, are assumed.

  1. Ballast Water Treatment, U.S. Great Lakes Bulk Carrier Engineering and Cost Study. Volume 2: Analysis of On-Board Treatment Methods, Alternative Ballast Water Management Practices, and Implementation Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    tank and injected into ballast stream), cavitation , neutralization on discharge 12 NEI VOS™ Treatment System NEI Deoxygenation and cavitation 13 NK...Technology Co., Ltd. 50 μm filtration, electrolysis- electrochlorination advanced oxidation process (AOP), generation of OH radicals, ultrasound ...electrochlorination (electrolytic generation of sodium hypochlorite in side stream), cavitation , deoxygenation option, neutralization on discharge 16 OptiMarin

  2. UV-based technologies for marine water disinfection and the application to ballast water: Does salinity interfere with disinfection processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Andrés, Javier; Romero-Martínez, Leonardo; Acevedo-Merino, Asunción; Nebot, Enrique

    2017-03-01

    Water contained on ships is employed in the majority of activities on a vessel; therefore, it is necessary to correctly manage through marine water treatments. Among the main water streams generated on vessels, ballast water appears to be an emerging global challenge (especially on cargo ships) due to the transport of invasive species and the significant impact that the ballast water discharge could have on ecosystems and human activities. To avoid this problem, ballast water treatment must be implemented prior to water discharge in accordance with the upcoming Ballast Water Management Convention. Different UV-based treatments (photolytic: UV-C and UV/H2O2, photocatalytic: UV/TiO2), have been compared for seawater disinfection. E. faecalis is proposed as a biodosimeter organism for UV-based treatments and demonstrates good properties for being considered as a Standard Test Organism for seawater. Inactivation rates by means of the UV-based treatments were obtained using a flow-through UV-reactor. Based on the two variables responses that were studied (kinetic rate constant and UV-Dose reductions), both advanced oxidation processes (UV/H2O2 and photocatalysis) were more effective than UV-C treatment. Evaluation of salinity on the processes suggests different responses according to the treatments: major interference on photocatalysis treatment and minimal impact on UV/H2O2.

  3. Effect of type and concentration of ballasting particles on sinking rate of marine snow produced by the Appendicularian Oikopleura dioica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombard, Fabien; Guidi, L.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Ballast material (organic, opal, calcite, lithogenic) is suggested to affect sinking speed of aggregates in the ocean. Here, we tested this hypothesis by incubating appendicularians in suspensions of different algae or Saharan dust, and observing the sinking speed of the marine snow formed by the...

  4. The Brazilian dilution method for ballast water exchange; O metodo de diluicao brasileiro para troca de agua de lastro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauro, Celso Alleluia [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Avaliacao e Monitoramento Ambiental]. E-mail: celso@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Land, Claudio Goncalves [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Abastecimento, Logistica e Planejamento]. E-mail: cgland@petrobras.com.br; Pimenta, Jose Maria Hollanda Alvares; Barreto, Francisco Carlos Peixoto [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Engenharia; Brandao, Marcus Vinicius Lisboa; Marroig, Nilton Lemos [Transpetro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Frota Nacional de Petroleiros. Inspetoria Geral; Tristao, Maria Luiza Braganca [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Quimica; Fadel, Andre Luiz da Fonseca [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Financas Corporativa e Tesouraria; Villac, Maria Celia; Fernandes, Lohengrin; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Dias, Cristina; Bonecker, Sergio; Denise Tenenbaum [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia; Persich, Graziela; Garcia, Virginia; Odebrecht, Clarisse [Fundacao Universidade do Rio Grande, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Oceanografia

    2002-12-01

    In a precautionary approach and dealing with the coming International Maritime Organization (IMO) regulations on ballast water, PETROBRAS developed a new method for ballast water exchange in tankers. Differently from ordinary methods PETROBRAS method which have been called Brazilian Dilution Method (BDM) or Dilution Method involves ballast loading through the top with simultaneous unloading from the bottom of the tanks. The method proposal was firstly presented to IMO, which encouraged PETROBRAS to carry out a field trial. PETROBRAS in June 1998 carried out a trial in the product carrier M/V Lavras. A simulation study was useful to plan the trial assessing the theoretical efficiency of the method, establishing the best sampling points and comparing the BDM with the Tank Overfilling Method (TOM). Simulation showed that for the same tank shape, the water renewal in BDM is more effective than in TOM and that 90 % of water renewal could be obtained by BDM. A dye concentration variation monitoring and a biological assessment were performed and the results confirmed that over than 90 % of the ballast water was renewed after three exchanges. The method was proved safe, practical, economical and suitable to minimize the risk of exotic species transport between ports. (author)

  5. Production, oxygen respiration rates, and sinking velocity of copepod fecal pellets: Direct measurements of ballasting by opal and calcite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, H.; Iversen, M.H.; Koski, Marja;

    2008-01-01

    sp., T. weissflogii, and E. huxleyi, respectively. The average carbon-specific respiration rate was 0.15 d(-1) independent on diet (range: 0.08-0.21 d(-1)). Because of ballasting of opal and calcite, sinking velocities were significantly higher for pellets produced on T. weissflogii (322 +/- 169 m d...

  6. Ballast minerals and the sinking carbon flux in the ocean: carbon-specific respiration rates and sinking velocity of marine snow aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Iversen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations have shown that fluxes of ballast minerals (calcium carbonate, opal, and lithogenic material and organic carbon fluxes are closely correlated in the bathypelagic zones of the ocean. Hence it has been hypothesized that incorporation of biogenic minerals within marine aggregates could either protect the organic matter from decomposition and/or increase the sinking velocity via ballasting of the aggregates. Here we present the first combined data on size, sinking velocity, carbon-specific respiration rate, and composition measured directly in three aggregate types; Emiliania huxleyi aggregates (carbonate ballasted, Skeletonema costatum aggregates (opal ballasted, and aggregates made from a mix of both E. huxleyi and S. costatum (carbonate and opal ballasted. Overall average carbon-specific respiration rate was ~0.13 d−1 and did not vary with aggregate type and size. Ballasting from carbonate resulted in 2- to 2.5-fold higher sinking velocities than those of aggregates ballasted by opal. We compiled literature data on carbon-specific respiration rate and sinking velocity measured in aggregates of different composition and sources. Compiled carbon-specific respiration rates (including this study vary between 0.08 d−1 and 0.20 d−1. Sinking velocity increases with increasing aggregate size within homogeneous sources of aggregates. When compared across different particle and aggregate sources, however, sinking velocity appeared to be independent of particle or aggregate size. The carbon-specific respiration rate per meter settled varied between 0.0002 m−1 and 0.0030 m−1, and decreased with increasing aggregate size. It was lower for calcite ballasted aggregates as compared to that of similar sized opal ballasted aggregates.

  7. Recolonization by heterotrophic bacteria after UV irradiation or ozonation of seawater; a simulation of ballast water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess-Erga, Ole-Kristian; Blomvågnes-Bakke, Bente; Vadstein, Olav

    2010-10-01

    Transport of ballast water with ships represents a risk for introduction of foreign species. If ballast water is treated during uptake, there will be a recolonization of the ballast water by heterotrophic bacteria during transport. We investigated survival and succession of heterotrophic bacteria after disinfection of seawater in the laboratory, representing a model system of ballast water treatment and transport. The seawater was exposed to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, ozone (2 doses) or no treatment, incubated for 16 days and examined with culture-dependent and -independent methods. The number of colony-forming units (CFU) was reduced below the detection level after disinfection with UV and high ozone dose (700 mV), and 1% of the initial level for the low ozone dose (400 mV). After less than 3 days, the CFU was back or above the starting point for the control, UV and low ozone treatment, whereas it took slightly more than 6 days for the high ozone treatment. Disinfection increased substrate availability and reduced cell densities. Lack of competition and predation induced the recolonization by opportunistic bacteria (r-strategists), with significant increase in bacterial numbers and a low diversity (based on DGGE band pattern). All cultures stabilized after the initial recolonization phase (except Oz700) where competition due to crowding and nutrient limitation favoured bacteria with high substrate affinity (K-strategists), resulting in higher species richness and diversity (based on DGGE band pattern). The bacterial community was significantly altered qualitatively and quantitatively and may have a higher potential as invaders in the recipient depending on disinfection method and the time of release. These results have implications for the treatment strategy used for ballast water.

  8. Enhanced rates of particulate organic matter remineralization by microzooplankton are diminished by added ballast minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. C. Le Moigne

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To examine the potentially competing influences of microzooplankton and calcite mineral ballast on organic matter remineralization, we incubated diatoms in darkness in rolling tanks with and without added calcite minerals (coccoliths and microzooplankton (rotifers. Concentrations of particulate organic matter (POM, suspended or in aggregates, of dissolved organic matter (DOM, and of dissolved inorganic nutrients were monitored over 8 days. The presence of rotifers enhanced the remineralization of ammonium and phosphate, but not dissolved silicon, from the biogenic material, up to 40% of which became incorporated into aggregates early in the experiment. Added calcite resulted in rates of excretion of ammonium and phosphate by rotifers that were depressed by 67% and 36%, respectively, demonstrating the potential for minerals to inhibit the destruction of POM in the water column by zooplankton. Lastly, the presence of the rotifers and added calcite minerals resulted in more rapid kinetics of aggregation, although not a greater overall amount of aggregation during the experiment.

  9. Using MCDA methods THOR in an application for outranking the ballast water management options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Francisco Simões Gomes

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The Multicriteria Analysis Methodology has been developed in order to support and guide decision-makers in the evaluation and selection of alternatives/solutions. In this case, it is used to compare alternatives for the management ballast water (BW exchange systems and treatment methods.O Apoio Multicritério à Decisão (AMD desenvolve metodologias que ajudam o tomador ou agente de decisão a avaliar e selecionar alternativas. Este trabalho apresenta uma aplicação real do AMD em uma situação de ordenação de alternativas para o gerenciamento do problema de água de lastro.

  10. A semi-empirical model for the prediction of fouling in railway ballast using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; Tosti, Fabio; Benedetto, Andrea; Alani, Amir M.; Loizos, Andreas; D'Amico, Fabrizio; Calvi, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    The first step in the planning for a renewal of a railway network consists in gathering information, as effectively as possible, about the state of the railway tracks. Nowadays, this activity is mostly carried out by digging trenches at regular intervals along the whole network, to evaluate both geometrical and geotechnical properties of the railway track bed. This involves issues, mainly concerning the invasiveness of the operations, the impacts on the rail traffic, the high costs, and the low levels of significance concerning such discrete data set. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can represent a useful technique for overstepping these issues, as it can be directly mounted onto a train crossing the railway, and collect continuous information along the network. This study is aimed at defining an empirical model for the prediction of fouling in railway ballast, by using GPR. With this purpose, a thorough laboratory campaign was implemented within the facilities of Roma Tre University. In more details, a 1.47 m long × 1.47 m wide × 0.48 m height plexiglass framework, accounting for the domain of investigation, was laid over a perfect electric conductor, and filled up with several configuration of railway ballast and fouling material (clayey sand), thereby representing different levels of fouling. Then, the set of fouling configurations was surveyed with several GPR systems. In particular, a ground-coupled multi-channel radar (600 MHz and 1600 MHz center frequency antennas) and three air-launched radar systems (1000 MHz and 2000 MHz center frequency antennas) were employed for surveying the materials. By observing the results both in terms of time and frequency domains, interesting insights are highlighted and an empirical model, relating in particular the shape of the frequency spectrum of the signal and the percentage of fouling characterizing the surveyed material, is finally proposed. Acknowledgement The Authors thank COST, for funding the Action TU1208 "Civil

  11. Enhancing the efficacy of electrolytic chlorination for ballast water treatment by adding carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyung-Gon; Seo, Min-Ho; Lee, Heon-Young; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Sup; Shin, Kyoungsoon; Choi, Keun-Hyung

    2015-06-15

    We examined the synergistic effects of CO2 injection on electro-chlorination in disinfection of plankton and bacteria in simulated ballast water. Chlorination was performed at dosages of 4 and 6ppm with and without CO2 injection on electro-chlorination. Testing was performed in both seawater and brackish water quality as defined by IMO G8 guidelines. CO2 injection notably decreased from the control the number of Artemia franciscana, a brine shrimp, surviving during a 5-day post-treatment incubation (1.8 and 2.3 log10 reduction in seawater and brackish water, respectively at 6ppm TRO+CO2) compared with water electro-chlorinated only (1.2 and 1.3 log10 reduction in seawater and brackish water, respectively at 6ppm TRO). The phytoplankton Tetraselmis suecica, was completely disinfected with no live cell found at >4ppm TRO with and without CO2 addition. The effects of CO2 addition on heterotrophic bacterial growth was not different from electro-chlorination only. Total residual oxidant concentration (TRO) more rapidly declined in electro-chlorination of both marine and brackish waters compared to chlorine+CO2 treated waters, with significantly higher amount of TRO being left in waters treated with the CO2 addition. Total concentration of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) measured at day 0 in brackish water test were found to be 2- to 3-fold higher in 6ppm TRO+CO2-treated water than in 6ppm TRO treated water. The addition of CO2 to electro-chlorination may improve the efficiency of this sterilizing treatment of ballast water, yet the increased production of some disinfection byproducts needs further study.

  12. Conference on Ballast Water and Waste Water Treatment Aboard Ships and in Ports. Held in Bremerhaven, Germany on 11-13 June 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-13

    with the effect that damage is caused by the fast propagation of by using heavy fuel oils in ships everything that is organisms having no natural...additive at concentrations up to 100 mg/l. Peraclean® Ocean is a fast -acting oxidizing biocide effective against a broad spectrum of I micro-organisms...marine microbiota typical of those in ballast water. Proceedings of Vs BWT Standards Workshop, GloBallast PCU, London, April 2001. Ruiz, G.M., Carlton

  13. Data on metals (Zn, Al, Sr, and Co and metalloid (As concentration levels of ballast water in commercial ships entering Bushehr port, along the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Soleimani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we determined the concentration levels of metals including Zn, Al, Sr, and Co and metalloid of As of ballast water in commercial ships entering Bushehr port, along the Persian Gulf. Ballast water samples were taken from commercial ships entering Bushehr port from 34 ports around the world during 15 February and 25 August 2016. The concentration levels of metals and metalloid were determined by using a graphite furnace absorption spectrometer (AAS.

  14. Pandemic serotypes of Vibrio cholerae isolated from ships' ballast tanks and coastal waters: assessment of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes (tcpA and ctxA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Fred C; Goodrich, Amanda L; Thomson, Frank K; Hynes, Wayne

    2013-05-01

    There is concern that ships' ballasting operations may disseminate Vibrio cholerae to ports throughout the world. Given evidence that the bacterium is indeed transported by ships, we isolated pandemic serotypes O1 and O139 from ballast tanks and characterized them with respect to antibiotic resistance and virulence genes ctxA and tcpA. We carried out concurrent studies with V. cholerae isolated from coastal waters. Of 284 isolates, 30 were serotype O1 and 59 were serotype O139. These serotypes were overrepresented in ballast tanks relative to the coastal waters sampled. All locations, whether coastal waters or ballast tanks, yielded samples from which serotype O1, O139, or both were isolated. There were three groups among the 62 isolates for which antibiotic characterization was conclusive: those exhibiting β-lactamase activity and resistance to at least one of the 12 antibiotics tested; those negative for β-lactamase but having antibiotic resistance; those negative for β-lactamase and registering no antibiotic resistance. When present, antibiotic resistance in nearly all cases was to ampicillin; resistance to multiple antibiotics was uncommon. PCR assays revealed that none of the isolates contained the ctxA gene and only two isolates, one O139 and one O1, contained the tcpA gene; both isolates originated from ballast water. These results support the bacteriological regulations proposed by the International Maritime Association for discharged ballast water.

  15. Inactivation characteristics of ozone and electrolysis process for ballast water treatment using B. subtilis spores as a probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Youmi; Yoon, Yeojoon; Hong, Eunkyung; Kwon, Minhwan; Kang, Joon-Wun

    2013-07-15

    Since ballast water affects the ocean ecosystem, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) sets a standard for ballast water management and might impose much tighter regulations in the future. The aim of this study is to evaluate the inactivation efficiency of ozonation, electrolysis, and an ozonation-electrolysis combined process, using B. subtilis spores. In seawater ozonation, HOBr is the key active substance for inactivation, because of rapid reactivity of ozone with Br(-) in seawater. In seawater electrolysis, it is also HOBr, but not HOCl, because of the rapid reaction of HOCl with Br(-), which has not been recognized carefully, even though many electrolysis technologies have been approved by the IMO. Inactivation pattern was different in ozonation and electrolysis, which has some limitations with the tailing or lag-phase, respectively. However, each deficiency can be overcome with a combined process, which is most effective as a sequential application of ozonation followed by electrolysis.

  16. Use of rubber shreds to enhance attenuation of railway sub-ballast layers made of unbound aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hidalgo-Signes

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the approaches for solving the problem of induced vibrations in railways is by slightly modifying the materials that form the track. A study is presented of the attenuation capacity of mixes composed of granular soil and rubber shreds when used as sub-ballast (the layer located immediately below the ballast layer. Rubber shreds are obtained from scrap tyres, a troublesome waste material whose reuse and recycling is necessary. A series of mixes of granular soil and rubber shreds with rubber contents of between 1% and 10% are submitted to hammer impact tests to study their response to dynamic excitation. Results reveal that mixing rubber shreds with granular soil increases damping ratios, thus demonstrating the potential of the proposed mixes for attenuating vibration.

  17. Relative invasion risk for plankton across marine and freshwater systems: examining efficacy of proposed international ballast water discharge standards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Casas-Monroy

    Full Text Available Understanding the implications of different management strategies is necessary to identify best conservation trajectories for ecosystems exposed to anthropogenic stressors. For example, science-based risk assessments at large scales are needed to understand efficacy of different vector management approaches aimed at preventing biological invasions associated with commercial shipping. We conducted a landscape-scale analysis to examine the relative invasion risk of ballast water discharges among different shipping pathways (e.g., Transoceanic, Coastal or Domestic, ecosystems (e.g., freshwater, brackish and marine, and timescales (annual and per discharge event under current and future management regimes. The arrival and survival potential of nonindigenous species (NIS was estimated based on directional shipping networks and their associated propagule pressure, environmental similarity between donor-recipient ecosystems (based on salinity and temperature, and effects of current and future management strategies (i.e., ballast water exchange and treatment to meet proposed international biological discharge standards. Our findings show that current requirements for ballast water exchange effectively reduce invasion risk to freshwater ecosystems but are less protective of marine ecosystems because of greater environmental mismatch between source (oceanic and recipient (freshwater ecoregions. Future requirements for ballast water treatment are expected to reduce risk of zooplankton NIS introductions across ecosystem types but are expected to be less effective in reducing risk of phytoplankton NIS. This large-scale risk assessment across heterogeneous ecosystems represents a major step towards understanding the likelihood of invasion in relation to shipping networks, the relative efficacy of different invasion management regimes and seizing opportunities to reduce the ecological and economic implications of biological invasions.

  18. Amplicon-Based Pyrosequencing Reveals High Diversity of Protistan Parasites in Ships' Ballast Water: Implications for Biogeography and Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagenkopp Lohan, K M; Fleischer, R C; Carney, K J; Holzer, K K; Ruiz, G M

    2016-04-01

    Ships' ballast water (BW) commonly moves macroorganisms and microorganisms across the world's oceans and along coasts; however, the majority of these microbial transfers have gone undetected. We applied high-throughput sequencing methods to identify microbial eukaryotes, specifically emphasizing the protistan parasites, in ships' BW collected from vessels calling to the Chesapeake Bay (Virginia and Maryland, USA) from European and Eastern Canadian ports. We utilized tagged-amplicon 454 pyrosequencing with two general primer sets, amplifying either the V4 or V9 domain of the small subunit (SSU) of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene complex, from total DNA extracted from water samples collected from the ballast tanks of bulk cargo vessels. We detected a diverse group of protistan taxa, with some known to contain important parasites in marine systems, including Apicomplexa (unidentified apicomplexans, unidentified gregarines, Cryptosporidium spp.), Dinophyta (Blastodinium spp., Euduboscquella sp., unidentified syndinids, Karlodinium spp., Syndinium spp.), Perkinsea (Parvilucifera sp.), Opisthokonta (Ichthyosporea sp., Pseudoperkinsidae, unidentified ichthyosporeans), and Stramenopiles (Labyrinthulomycetes). Further characterization of groups with parasitic taxa, consisting of phylogenetic analyses for four taxa (Cryptosporidium spp., Parvilucifera spp., Labyrinthulomycetes, and Ichthyosporea), revealed that sequences were obtained from both known and novel lineages. This study demonstrates that high-throughput sequencing is a viable and sensitive method for detecting parasitic protists when present and transported in the ballast water of ships. These data also underscore the potential importance of human-aided dispersal in the biogeography of these microbes and emerging diseases in the world's oceans.

  19. Jet-Suspended, Calcite-Ballasted Cyanobacterial Waterwarts in a Desert Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichel-Garcia, Ferran; Wade, Bman D.; Farmer, Jack D.

    2002-01-01

    We describe a population of colonial cyanobacteria (waterwarts) that develops as the dominant primary producer in a bottom-fed, warm spring in the Cuatro Cienegas karstic region of the Mexican Chihuahuan Desert. The centimeter-sized waterwarts were suspended within a central, conically shaped, 6-m deep well by upwelling waters. Waterwarts were built by an unicellular cyanobacterium and supported a community of epiphytic filamentous cyanobacteria and diatoms but were free of heterotrophic bacteria inside. Sequence analysis of genes revealed that this cyanobacterium is only distantly related to several strains of other unicellular teria Cyanothece, Waterwarts contained orderly arrangements of mineral made up of microcrystalline low-magnesium calcite with high levels of strontium and sulfur. Waterwarts were 95.9% (v/v) glycan, 2.8% cells, and 1.3% mineral grains and had a buoyant density of 1.034 kg/L. An analysis of the hydrological properties of the spring well and the waterwarts demonstrated that both large colony size and the presence of controlled amounts of mineral ballast are required to prevent the population from being washed out of the well. The unique hydrological characteristics of the spring have likely selected for both traits. The mechanisms by which controlled nucleation of extracellular calcite is achieved remain to be explored.

  20. CMOS based image cytometry for detection of phytoplankton in ballast water

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, J M; Martínez, P; Yáñez, M A; Catalan, V; Parker, A; Veldhuis, M; Pruneri, V

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an image cytometer (I-CYT) for the analysis of phytoplankton in fresh and marine water environments. A linear quantification of cell numbers was observed covering several orders of magnitude using cultures of Tetraselmis and Nannochloropsis measured by autofluorescence in a laboratory environment. We assessed the functionality of the system outside the laboratory by phytoplankton quantification of samples taken from a marine water environment (Dutch Wadden Sea, The Netherlands) and a fresh water environment (Lake Ijssel, The Netherlands). The I-CYT was also employed to study the effects of two ballast water treatment systems (BWTS), based on chlorine electrolysis and UV sterilization, with the analysis including the vitality of the phytoplankton. For comparative study and benchmarking of the I-CYT, a standard flow cytometer was used. Our results prove a limit of detection (LOD) of 10 cells/ml with an accuracy between 0.7 and 0.5 log, and a correlation of 88.29% in quantification and 96.21% in vit...

  1. Characteristic correlation study of UV disinfection performance for ballast water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Te; Li, Hongying; Osman, Hafiiz; Kang, Chang-Wei

    2016-11-01

    Characteristic correlation between ultraviolet disinfection performance and operating parameters, including ultraviolet transmittance (UVT), lamp power and water flow rate, was studied by numerical and experimental methods. A three-stage model was developed to simulate the fluid flow, UV radiation and the trajectories of microorganisms. Navier-Stokes equation with k-epsilon turbulence was solved to model the fluid flow, while discrete ordinates (DO) radiation model and discrete phase model (DPM) were used to introduce UV radiation and microorganisms trajectories into the model, respectively. The UV dose statistical distribution for the microorganisms was found to move to higher value with the increase of UVT and lamp power, but moves to lower value when the water flow rate increases. Further investigation shows that the fluence rate increases exponentially with UVT but linearly with the lamp power. The average and minimum resident time decreases linearly with the water flow rate while the maximum resident time decrease rapidly in a certain range. The current study can be used as a digital design and performance evaluation tool of the UV reactor for ballast water treatment.

  2. Ergonomics evaluation of work posture in OWAS method in Ballast mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasl Seraji J

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, musculoskeletal disorders incidents have been found through NMQ. Then, with the OWAS method the results have been analysed. In this thesis, we have studied the case in two different workshops of Ballast Production Company. The jobs were classified according to static load caused by poor work posture and recommendations for reducing the hurmful load were made. The study of the questionnaire showe that there is meaningful relation between work experience and Low Back Pain (LBP (P<3%. Meanwhile BMI (Body Mass Index is closely related to LBP (P<2%. However a relation was found between low back and back and shoulder pain complaints during recent one year and last one week with that of the existence of the pains, respectively P<2% and P<5%. Jobs related with repair and maintenance rates the first as regards static load on the muscloskeletal system. Cooking, digging operations, driving bullodozer, operation of stone crushing device, loaders and lorries rank respectively in order.

  3. Nonlinear Finite Element Modelling of Railway Turnout System considering Bearer/Sleeper-Ballast Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sae Siew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rail turnouts are built to enable flexibility in the rail network as they allow for vehicles to switch between various tracks, therefore maximizing the utilisation of existing rail infrastructure. In general, railway turnouts are a safety-critical and expensive feature to a rail system as they suffer aggressive operational loads, in comparison to a plain rail track, and thus require frequent monitoring and maintenance. In practice, great consideration is given to the dynamic interaction between the turnouts components as a failed component may have adverse effects on the performance of neighbouring components. This paper presents a nonlinear 3D finite element (FE model, taking into account the nonlinearities of materials, in order to evaluate the interaction and behaviour of turnout components. Using ABAQUS, the finite element model was developed to simulate standard concrete bearers with 60 kg/m rail and with a tangential turnout radius of 250 m. The turnout structure is supported by a ballast layer, which is represented by a nonlinearly deformable tensionless solid. The numerical studies firstly demonstrate the importance of load transfer mechanisms in the failure modes of the turnout components. The outcome will lead to a better design and maintenance of railway turnouts, improving public safety and operational reliability.

  4. 铁路散体道床捣固作业的离散元分析∗%Discrete Element Analysis of Railway Ballast under Tamping Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周陶勇; 胡斌

    2016-01-01

    捣固作业是铁路散体道床养护维修作业中一项重要的工作,由于铁路散体道床是由形状大小各异的散粒体道砟组成的,这就给捣固效果的研究带来了一定的困难。为了从微观尺度上对铁路散体道床捣固作业进行研究,运用离散元分析方法,创建了铁路散体道床捣固作业的离散元分析模型,分析了捣固作业过程中道砟的流动趋势和道床的密实程度。分析表明,在捣固作业过程中,轨枕之间的道砟向轨枕下方有空隙的地方流动,轨枕下方捣固区域的道床密实程度得到了提高。%Tamping operation is an important work in the railway ballast maintenance and repair operations,because the railway ballast is composed of various shapes and sizes of granular ballast gravel,which bring some difficulty to research the tamping effect.In order to study on railway ballast under tamping operation from micro scale,the discrete element analysis model of railway ballast under tamping operation is created using discrete element method,and the research is done on the motion trend of ballast gravel and compaction degree of railway ballast during the tamping process.The analysis shows that the ballast gravels between sleepers are moved to fill the voids under sleeper and the ballast compactness in tamping area un-der sleeper is also improved during tamping process.

  5. Key aspects on the behaviour of the ballast and substructure of a modern railway track: research-based practical observations in Finland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antti NURMIKOLU

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview on the wide-ranging track structure studies at the Tampere University of Technology (TUT),Finland dealing with the key aspects of track geotechnics related to high-speed passenger traffic on ballasted tracks.Special attention is paid to ballast and sub-ballast,while also considering frost action,embankment stability,track stiffness,track geometry and transition zones.As a result,this paper states that understanding the ballast degradation mechanism and its consequences and assessment of its condition occupy an important role in the construction and maintenance of a smooth high-speed rail line.The choices related to building the sub-ballast also have a dramatic impact on later track deformations and maintenance needs.In cold climate,especially where seasonal frost occurs,understanding and taking into account the frost action mechanism is crucial.Especially in the maintenance and rehabilitation planning of existing tracks,high-class analyses of ground penetrating radar data and its integrated analysis with other data can yield considerable benefits.

  6. Not all calcite ballast is created equal: differing effects of foraminiferan and coccolith calcite on the formation and sinking of aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schmidt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Correlation between particulate organic carbon (POC and calcium carbonate sinking through the deep ocean has led to the idea that ballast provided by calcium carbonate is important for the export of POC from the surface ocean. While this idea is certainly to some extent true, it is worth considering in more nuance, for example, examining the different effects on the aggregation and sinking of POC of small, non-sinking calcite particles like coccoliths and large, rapidly sinking calcite like planktonic foraminiferan tests. We have done that here in a simple experiment carried out in roller tanks that allow particles to sink continuously without being impeded by container walls. Coccoliths were efficiently incorporated into aggregates that formed during the experiment, increasing their sinking speed compared to similarly sized aggregates lacking added calcite ballast. The foraminiferan tests, which sank as fast as 700 m d−1, became associated with only very minor amounts of POC. In addition, when they collided with other, larger, foraminferan-less aggregates, they fragmented them into two smaller, more slowly sinking aggregates. While these effects were certainly exaggerated within the confines of the roller tanks, they clearly demonstrate that calcium carbonate ballast is not just calcium carbonate ballast- different forms of calcium carbonate ballast have notably different effects on POC aggregation, sinking, and export.

  7. Ballast water as a vector of coral pathogens in the Gulf of Mexico: the case of the Cayo Arcas coral reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Macedo, M Leopoldina; Vidal-Martinez, Victor M; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A; Valdés-Lozano, David S; Herrera-Rodríguez, Miguel; Olvera-Novoa, Miguel A

    2008-09-01

    The discharge of nutrients, phytoplankton and pathogenic bacteria through ballast water may threaten the Cayo Arcas reef system. To assess this threat, the quality of ballast water and presence of coral reef pathogenic bacteria in 30 oil tankers loaded at the PEMEX Cayo Arcas crude oil terminal were determined. The water transported in the ships originated from coastal, oceanic or riverine regions. Statistical associations among quality parameters and bacteria were tested using redundancy analysis (RDA). In contrast with coastal or oceanic water, the riverine water had high concentrations of coliforms, including Vibrio cholerae 01 and, Serratia marcescens and Sphingomona spp., which are frequently associated with "white pox" and "white plague type II" coral diseases. There were also high nutrient concentrations and low water quality index values (WQI and TRIX). The presence of V. cholerae 01 highlights the need for testing ballast water coming from endemic regions into Mexican ports.

  8. Survey on germination and species composition of dinoflagellates from ballast tanks and recent sediments in ports on the South Coast of Finland, North-Eastern Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pertola, Sari [Finnish Institute of Marine Research, Department of Biological Research, P.O. Box 2, FI-00561 Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail sari.pertola@fimr.fi; Faust, Maria A. [Department of Botany, US National Herbarium, Smithsonian Institution, 4210 Silver Hill Road, Suitland, Maryland 20746 (United States); Kuosa, Harri [Tvaerminne Zoological Station, University of Helsinki, FI-10900 Hanko (Finland)

    2006-08-15

    Cyst beds in ships and ports in Finland have previously been unstudied. Therefore, sediments from ships' ballast water tanks and four Finnish ports were sampled for dinoflagellate cysts and other phytoplankton. Untreated sediments were incubated at 10 {sup o}C and 20 {sup o}C in the local 6 psu salinity for 1, 4 and 7 days, and vegetative cells were examined with light and scanning electron microscope. Sediments were inhabited by various dinoflagellates, diatoms, chlorophytes, cyanophytes and small flagellates. Germinated dinoflagellates were found in 90% of ballast tanks and in all ports. Gymnodiniales spp. and Heterocapsa rotundata formed a major proportion of the proliferating dinoflagellate cells. One species, Peridinium quinquecorne, not previously reported from the Baltic Sea, was identified with SEM. The study emphasises that ships are potential transport vehicles for dinoflagellate cysts even in the low salinity Finnish waters, and small-sized dinoflagellates should be focused upon in ballast water studies.

  9. Survey on germination and species composition of dinoflagellates from ballast tanks and recent sediments in ports on the South Coast of Finland, North-Eastern Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertola, Sari; Faust, Maria A; Kuosa, Harri

    2006-08-01

    Cyst beds in ships and ports in Finland have previously been unstudied. Therefore, sediments from ships' ballast water tanks and four Finnish ports were sampled for dinoflagellate cysts and other phytoplankton. Untreated sediments were incubated at 10 degrees C and 20 degrees C in the local 6 psu salinity for 1, 4 and 7 days, and vegetative cells were examined with light and scanning electron microscope. Sediments were inhabited by various dinoflagellates, diatoms, chlorophytes, cyanophytes and small flagellates. Germinated dinoflagellates were found in 90% of ballast tanks and in all ports. Gymnodiniales spp. and Heterocapsa rotundata formed a major proportion of the proliferating dinoflagellate cells. One species, Peridinium quinquecorne, not previously reported from the Baltic Sea, was identified with SEM. The study emphasises that ships are potential transport vehicles for dinoflagellate cysts even in the low salinity Finnish waters, and small-sized dinoflagellates should be focused upon in ballast water studies.

  10. Factors influencing densities of non-indigenous species in the ballast water of ships arriving at ports in Puget Sound, Washington, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordell, J.R.; Lawrence, D.J.; Ferm, N.C.; Tear, L.M.; Smith, S.S.; Herwig, R.P.

    2009-01-01

    Oceanographic characteristics and the presence of international shipping in Puget Sound, Washington, USA contribute to its vulnerability to non-indigenous species (NIS) invasions. To evaluate NIS arriving in ballast water, zooplankton was sampled in 380 ballast tanks of ships after they entered Puget Sound. Taxa were classified into a higher risk group of coastal organisms (including known NIS), and a lower risk group of largely oceanic species. Most ships reported conducting mid-ocean ballast water exchange (BWE). However, despite state regulations requiring BWE, and apparent compliance by ship operators, most sampled tanks from both transpacific and coastal routes had coastal zooplankton densities exceeding internationally proposed discharge standards. BWE efficiency models and controlled before-and-after BWE experiments indicate that BWE consistently removes most coastal zooplankton. However, this study found that although the empty-refill method of BWE significantly reduced coastal plankton compared with un-exchanged tanks, the flow-through method did not, and in either case remaining coastal plankton densities presented appreciable risks of introducing NIS. Densities of high risk taxa were consistently and significantly higher from US domestic trips dominated by tank ships carrying ballast water from California, and lower in samples from trans-Pacific trips dominated by container ships and bulk carriers with ballast from Asia. These findings are probably a result of the dense and diverse NIS assemblages present in California and other US west coast estuaries and the comparatively short transit times between them and Puget Sound. While it appears that BWE can effectively replace NIS with less risky ocean species, new reporting, verification, and operational procedures may be necessary to enhance BWE efficacy. In the long-term, the introduction of ballast water treatment technologies may be required to significantly reduce the discharge of risky organisms from

  11. How many organisms are in ballast water discharge? A framework for validating and selecting compliance monitoring tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Lisa A; Tamburri, Mario N; First, Matthew R; Smith, G Jason; Johengen, Thomas H

    2014-09-15

    As regulations governing the discharge of living organisms in ships' ballast water enter into force, tools to rapidly and easily measure compliance with the discharge standards will be essential. To assess, validate, and select compliance tools, a framework-consisting of three parts-is presented: proof-of-concept, validation and verification, and final selection stages. Next, a case study describing the proof-of-concept stage is discussed. Specifically, variable fluorescence was evaluated as an approach for determining compliance with the discharge standard for living organisms ⩾10 μm and compliance monitoring tools.

  12. Formation of a spark discharge in an inhomogeneous electric field with current limitation by a large ballast Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldanov, B. B., E-mail: baibat@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physical Material Science, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Results of studies of a spark discharge initiated in argon in a point–plane electrode gap with limitation of the discharge current by a large ballast resistance are presented. It is shown that the current flowing through the plasma channel of such a low-current spark has the form of periodic pulses. It is experimentally demonstrated that, when a low-current spark transforms into a constricted glow discharge, current pulses disappear, the spatial structure of the cathode glow changes abruptly, and a brightly glowing positive plasma column forms in the gap.

  13. Alfa Laval to meet the ballast water challenge%阿法拉伐应对压载水的挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Alfa Laval, the market leader in separation, heat transfer and freshwater generation, is widening its offering of solutions for environmental protection. The company hereby announces that a potent technology for dealing with unwanted organisms in ballast water will be commercially available as early as 2006.

  14. Efficacy of Coagulants and Ballast Compounds in Removal of Cyanobacteria (Microcystis) from Water of the Tropical Lagoon Jacarepaguá (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magalhães, de Leonardo; Noyma, Natália Pessoa; Furtado, Luciana Lima; Nunes Teixeira Mucci, Maira; Oosterhout, van Frank; Huszar, Vera L.M.; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi; Lurling, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Eutrophication is considered the most important water quality problem in freshwaters and coastal waters worldwide promoting frequent occurrence of blooms of potentially toxic cyanobacteria. Removal of cyanobacteria from the water column using a combination of coagulant and ballast is a promising

  15. A physical based equivalent circuit modeling approach for ballasted InP DHBT multi-finger devices at millimeter-wave frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midili, Virginio; Squartecchia, Michele; Johansen, Tom Keinicke

    2016-01-01

    Multifinger InP DHBTs can be designed with a ballasting resistor to improve power capability. However accurate modeling is needed to predict high frequency behavior of the device. This paper presents two distinct modeling approaches: one based on EM simulations and one based on a physical equival...

  16. Comparison of the community structure of planktonic bacteria in ballast water from entry ships and local sea water in Xiamen Port

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Ma; Hejian Xiong; Senming Tang; Qingshuang Yang; Minjuan Li

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the bacterial community structures in samples of ballast water collected from a ship from Singapore and of local sea water collected from Xiamen Port were compared using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Except for dominant α-Proteobacteria that are common to both systems, the bacterial community structures of the two systems were quite different. Most of the clones derived from the different systems were grouped into different phylogenetic clusters, and the sys-tems share only one common RFLP pattern. The ballast water, which is likely from clean offshore waters, contains sequences specific to α- and γ-Proteobacteria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the ballast water contained sequences belonging to attached bacteria and bacteria commonly found in the open sea, as well as many novel sequences. In addition, no known pathogenic bacteria were detected in the ballast water samples. Conversely, water samples from Xiamen Port were apparently affected by the near shore environments.Specifically, in addition to α- and γ-Proteobacteria, water from Xiamen Port contained β- and δ-Proteobacteria, Synechococcus, Bacter-oidetes and Actinobacteria, which are common in coastal environments. Additionally, four pathogenic bacterial sequences and one plas-mid sequence of a potential red tide forming alga were detected in the water from Xiamen Port, which suggests that the local sea water is polluted. The results of this study can be used as background information to assess the risk associated with the introduction of non-indig-enous species to local systems and to establish ballast water management systems.

  17. Structural analysis and design of frost resistance function for subgrade of high-speed railway ballasted track in cold regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Luo; WenQiang Lv; QingZhi Ye; RuiGuo Zhang

    2015-01-01

    According to the technical characteristics of short fixed wheelbase of a high-speed carriage, a subgrade-track integrated space mechanical response analysis model is proposed for trains under the action of biaxial load after the comparison of the stress distribution characteristics of the ballast track subgrade bed structures for high-speed railway under the action of uniaxial load and biaxial load. The loading threshold value (high-cycle long-term dynamic strength) under the circum-stance where the cumulative deformation of subgrade structure gradually develops and finally reaches the convergent state, and its relationship with the foundation coefficient K30 were deduced, based on the characteristics of cumulative defor-mation evolution obtained from the unit structure filling model test under the action of cyclic loading. In view of structure stability and frost resistance requirements of the railway subgrade in cold regions, technical conditions to maintain good service performance of subgrade structure of high-speed railway ballasted track are discussed and analyzed. Study results show that the additive effect manifests itself obviously for railway train bogies under the action of biaxial load than uni-axial load, which has a significant dynamic effect on the subgrade bed bottom and a slight effect on the surface layer. Thus, the adoption of a biaxial load model in the design of a high-speed railway subgrade accurately reflects the vehicle load. Pursuant to the structure design principle, the design method of the subgrade structure of high-speed railway ballasted track is proposed to meet the technical requirements such as structural strength, bearing stiffness and high-cyclic and long-term stability. Technical indicators are obtained for the variation of thickness of the surface layer of reinforced sub-grade bed in the double-layer subgrade mode along with the change of K30 at the subgrade bed bottom. The double-layer structure mode of"closure on the upper

  18. Eco-geomorphic processes that maintain a small coral reef island: Ballast Island in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayanne, Hajime; Aoki, Kenji; Suzuki, Takuya; Hongo, Chuki; Yamano, Hiroya; Ide, Yoichi; Iwatsuka, Yuudai; Takahashi, Kenya; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Sekimoto, Tsunehiro; Isobe, Masahiko

    2016-10-01

    Landform changes in Ballast Island, a small coral reef island in the Ryukyu Islands, were investigated by remote sensing analysis and a field survey. The area of the island almost doubled after a mass coral bleaching event in 1998. Coral branches generated by the mass mortality and broken by waves were delivered and stocked on a reef flat and accumulated to expand the area of the island. In 2012 high waves generated by typhoons also changed the island's topography. Overall, the island moved in the downdrift direction of the higher waves. Waves impacting both sides of the island piled up a large volume of coral gravels above the high-tide level. Eco-geomorphic processes, including a supply of calcareous materials from the corals on the same reef especially during stormy wave conditions, were key factors in maintaining the dynamic topographic features of this small coral reef island.

  19. Effects of UV/Ag-TiO2/O3 advanced oxidation on unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina: Implications for removal of invasive species from ballast water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donghai Wu; Hong You; Jiaxuan Du; Chuan Chen; Darui Jin

    2011-01-01

    The UV/Ag-TiO2/O3 process was investigated for ballast water treatment using Dunaliella salina as an indicator.Inactivation curves were obtained, and the toxicity of effluent was determined.Compared with individual unit processes using ozone or UV/Ag-TiO2, the inactivation efficiency of D.salina by the combined UV/Ag-TiO2/O3 process was enhanced.The presence of ozone caused an immediate decrease in chlorophyll a (chi-a) concentration.Inactivation efficiency and chl-a removal efficiency were positively correlated with ozone dose and ultraviolet intensity.The initial total residual oxidant (TRO) concentration of effluent increased with increasing ozone dose, and persistence of TRO resulted in an extended period of toxicity.The results suggest that UV/Ag-Ti02/03 has potential for ballast water treatment.

  20. Costs and benefits to European shipping of ballast-water and hull-fouling treatment: Impacts of native and non-indigenous species

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Jose A.; Santos, Lionel; Vance, Thomas; Fileman, Tim; Smith, David Stanley; Smith, David; Bishop, John D. D.; Viard, Frédérique; Queirós, Ana M.; Merino, Gorka; Buisman, Erik; Austen, Melanie C.

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Maritime transport and shipping are impacted negatively by biofouling, which can result in increased fuel consumption. Thus, costs for fouling reduction can be considered an investment to reduce fuel consumption. Anti-fouling measures also reduce the rate of introduction of non-indigenous species (NIS). Further mitigation measures to reduce the transport of NIS within ballast water and sediments impose additional costs. The estimated operational cost of NIS mitigation ...

  1. Onboard ship evaluation of the effectiveness and the potential environmental effects of PERACLEAN Ocean for ballast water treatment in very cold conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lafontaine, Y; Despatie, S-P; Veilleux, E; Wiley, C

    2009-02-01

    This study verified the effectiveness and the potential toxic impact of PERACLEAN Ocean ballast water treatment for very cold freshwater (0.1-0.5 degrees C) in real ballast tank (750 m(3)) conditions aboard a ship and in large-volume (4.5 m(3)) polyethylene tanks. Concentrations of peracetic acid (PAA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) gradually dropped by 41-59% over 5 days. The treatment altered the quality of the treated waters by causing a pH drop of 0.9-1.3 units and a fourfold to sevenfold increase in dissolved organic carbon and organophosphates concentrations. More than 90% of the biomass of free-floating micro-organisms and viable phytoplankton were eliminated within 48 h after treatment. The treatment resulted in 100% mortality in caged fish exposed to treated waters but was totally ineffective against adult zebra mussels and some nematods living in tank sediments. Toxic response from ecotoxicological assays indicated that treated waters after 5 days should be diluted by a factor of 1:2 to 1:200 to reduce toxicity below selected endpoints of acute lethality tests. On the basis of PAA degradation rate, fresh waters treated with 100-ppm PERACLEAN Ocean should be kept in ballast tanks for 15-20 days after treatment to reduce toxicity. It is concluded that the treatment can be an effective biocide to rapidly eliminate organisms of the water column inside the ballast tanks over a wide range of environmental conditions, but that the discharge of the toxic treated waters should be properly managed to minimize potential environmental impact.

  2. On the Hull Parameters of a Ballast-free Ship Type%一种无压载水船船型参数探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏晖; 洪碧光; 于洋; 髙孝日

    2016-01-01

    To research a ballast-free ship’s ship form parameters, fuses international advanced ballast-free ideas.The con-nectivity pipes is used to transform American though flow system and integrate into Japanese V -shape hull, so as to design a new ballast-free Panama ship type .On the basis of empirical formula , the new and mother ship datum are calculated and compared . The results show that the new ship form parameters is basically in line with mother ship , meets the requirement of practice , and the design scheme is feasible .%借鉴国际上先进的无压载水船舶设计理念,利用连通管路对美国贯通流系统进行改造,并融合至日本的V形船身,设计出一种新型的无压载水船舶,将巴拿马型散货船作为母船型进行优化实践。分别将新船型与母船型通过经验公式进行计算比较,结果表明,二者船型参数基本一致,满足实践要求,表明设计船型可行。

  3. Application of immobilized TiO2 photocatalysis to improve the inactivation of Heterosigma akashiwo in ballast water by intense pulsed light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Daolun; Xu, Shihong; Liu, Gang

    2015-04-01

    Ballast water exotic discharge has been identified as a leading vector for marine species invasion. Here immobilized TiO2 photocatalysis is introduced to improve the performance of intense pulsed light. For intense pulsed light/TiO2 photocatalysis, a typical inactivation of 99.89±0.46% can be achieved under treatment condition of 1.78 L min(-1) flow rate, 300 V pulse peak voltage, 15 Hz pulse frequency and 5 ms pulse width. Moreover, within tested 220-260 V peak voltage, 18.37-40.51% elevation in inactivation is observed in comparison with intense pulsed light treatment alone. The rough energy consumption of the tested intense pulsed light/TiO2 treatment system is about 1.51-2.51 times higher than that of the typical commercial UV ballast water treatment system. The stability of the photocatalytic reactivity and intactness of loaded TiO2 film is proved within 20-d's test, while local erosion on stainless steel support is observed after 30-d's test. The results indicate that intense pulsed light/TiO2 photocatalysis is likely to be a competitive ballast water treatment technique, while further measures is needed to reduce the energy consumption and ensure the performance of TiO2 film in a long run.

  4. Efficacy of pH elevation as a bactericidal strategy for treating ballast water of freight carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford E. Starliper

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of ship ballast water with sodium hydroxide (NaOH is one method currently being developed to minimize the risk to introduce aquatic invasive species. The bactericidal capability of sodium hydroxide was determined for 148 bacterial strains from ballast water collected in 2009 and 2010 from the M/V Indiana Harbor, a bulk-freight carrier plying the Laurentian Great Lakes, USA. Primary culture of bacteria was done using brain heart infusion agar and a developmental medium. Strains were characterized based on PCR amplification and sequencing of a portion of the 16S rRNA gene. Sequence similarities (99+ % were determined by comparison with the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI GenBank catalog. Flavobacterium spp. were the most prevalent bacteria characterized in 2009, comprising 51.1% (24/47 of the total, and Pseudomonas spp. (62/101; 61.4% and Brevundimonas spp. (22/101; 21.8% were the predominate bacteria recovered in 2010; together, comprising 83.2% (84/101 of the total. Testing was done in tryptic soy broth (TSB medium adjusted with 5 N NaOH. Growth of each strain was evaluated at pH 10.0, pH 11.0 and pH 12.0, and 4 h up to 72 h. The median cell count at 0 h for 148 cultures was 5.20 × 106 cfu/mL with a range 1.02 × 105–1.60 × 108 cfu/mL. The TSB adjusted to pH 10.0 and incubation for less than 24 h was bactericidal to 52 (35.1% strains. Growth in pH 11.0 TSB for less than 4 h was bactericidal to 131 (88.5% strains and pH 11.0 within 12 h was bactericidal to 141 (95.3%. One strain, Bacillus horikoshii, survived the harshest treatment, pH 12.0 for 72 h.

  5. Inactivation of dinoflagellate Scrippsiella trochoidea in synthetic ballast water by reactive species generated from dielectric barrier discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Qiong; Jiang Wenju; Yang Zhishan [Institute of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Zhang Yi; Lim Tuti Mariana, E-mail: TMLim@ntu.edu.s [Institute of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technology University, Innovation Center, Block 2, Unit 237, 18 Nanyang Drive, 637723 Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-05-07

    The inactivation of dinoflagellate Scrippsiella trochoidea in synthetic ballast water by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) system was investigated. The OH{sup .} radical, ozone and hydrogen peroxide generated from the DBD system were measured. Before and after the treatment, the viability of dinoflagellate S. trochoidea was evaluated by analyzing chlorophyll a, protein and saccharide content and morphology of the cells, as well as the pH of the cell culture media. The results show OH{sup .} radical was the major reactive species when humid air was used. The inactivation of S. trochoidea was found to be dependent on the applied voltage and the gas flow rate, and was completed within 4 min at a gas flow rate of 7 L min{sup -1} and an applied voltage of 20 kV. The change of chlorophyll a, protein and saccharide concentrations of S. trochoidea and the morphology of the cells indicates that the reactive species generated from the DBD system can break up the cells via oxidation.

  6. Molecular detection of native and invasive marine invertebrate larvae present in ballast and open water environmental samples collected in Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J.B.J.; Hoy, M.S.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Non-native marine species have been and continue to be introduced into Puget Sound via several vectors including ship's ballast water. Some non-native species become invasive and negatively impact native species or near shore habitats. We present a new methodology for the development and testing of taxon specific PCR primers designed to assess environmental samples of ocean water for the presence of native and non-native bivalves, crustaceans and algae. The intergenic spacer regions (IGS; ITS1, ITS2 and 5.8S) of the ribosomal DNA were sequenced for adult samples of each taxon studied. We used these data along with those available in Genbank to design taxon and group specific primers and tested their stringency against artificial populations of plasmid constructs containing the entire IGS region for each of the 25 taxa in our study, respectively. Taxon and group specific primer sets were then used to detect the presence or absence of native and non-native planktonic life-history stages (propagules) from environmental samples of ballast water and plankton tow net samples collected in Puget Sound. This methodology provides an inexpensive and efficient way to test the discriminatory ability of taxon specific oligonucleotides (PCR primers) before creating molecular probes or beacons for use in molecular ecological applications such as probe hybridizations or microarray analyses. This work addresses the current need to develop molecular tools capable of diagnosing the presence of planktonic life-history stages from non-native marine species (potential invaders) in ballast water and other environmental samples. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  7. 基于CFD的潜艇高压气吹除主压载水舱系统模拟%The simulation research of high Pressure air blowing the main ballast tank based on CFD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李其修; 刘辉; 吴向君

    2012-01-01

    高压气吹除主压载水舱是潜艇舱室进水情况下最有效的应急挽回手段之一.由于高压气吹除时压载水舱中剧烈的气液混合流动,导致建立的理论模型有一定局限性.本文通过CFD中两相流VOF模型对高压气吹除压载水舱的动态过程进行仿真,分析吹除过程中压载水舱中气-液混合现象、压力变化情况及压载水舱排水速率等特点,以验证高压气吹除压载水舱的理论模型.%The high pressure air blowing ballast tanks are the most effective means of emergency to restore under flooded submarine. As the process of blowing, there will bring the flow of exquisite gas-liquid mixture in the ballast compartment. This led to the theoretical models that have certain limitations. The paper simulates the dynamic process of high-pressure air blowing ballast tanks by VOF two-phase flow model to analyze gas-liquid mixture phenomena, pressure changes, the ballast tank drainage rate during the process of blowing ballast tank, which provides the basis to theoretical models for the establishment of the high pressure air blowing ballast tanks.

  8. UV spectrophotometry for monitoring the performance of a yeast-based deoxygenation process to treat ships' ballast water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Éloïse; de Lafontaine, Yves; Thomas, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    This study assessed the usefulness of UV spectrophotometry for the monitoring of a yeast-based deoxygenation process proposed for ships' ballast water treatment to prevent the transfer of aquatic invasive species. Ten-day laboratory experiments using three treatment concentrations and different water types were conducted and resulted in complete oxygen depletion of treated waters. The treatment performance and quality of treated waters were determined by measuring the UV-visible absorbance spectra of water samples taken over time. Samples were also used for laboratory analysis of water quality properties. The UV absorbance spectra values were strongly correlated (r = 0.96) to yeast cell density in treated waters. The second-order derivative (D (2)) of the spectra varied greatly over time, and the spectrum profiles could be divided into two groups corresponding to the oxygenated and anoxic phases of the treatment. The D (2) value at 215 nm was strongly correlated (r = 0.94) to ammonia levels, which increased over time. The D (2) value at 225 nm was strongly correlated (r > 0.97) to DO concentration. Our results showed that UV spectrophotometry may provide a rapid assessment of the behavior and performance of the yeast bioreactor over time by quantifying (1) the density of yeast cells, (2) the time at which anoxic conditions were reached, and (3) a water quality index of the treated water related to the production of ammonia. We conclude that the rapidity of the technique confers a solid advantage over standard methods used for water quality analysis in laboratory and would permit the direct monitoring of the treatment performance on-board ships.

  9. The design and application of ballast valve groups remote-control system for Ro-Ro ship%滚装船压载阀组遥控系统的设计与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万会雄; 明仁雄; 章琅浩

    2001-01-01

    了实现对滚装船压载舱压载阀的开闭实行有效的控 制,文章介绍了压载阀组遥控系统的组成、工作原理以及该系统的设计特点与应用。%To realize the effective control to starting an d shutting of ballast valve groups,this paper introduces the composition,working principle,designing features and application of ballast valve groups remote-co ntrol system for Ro-Ro ship.

  10. Effects of sonication and advanced chemical oxidants on the unicellular green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta and cysts, larvae and adults of the brine shrimp Artemia salina: a prospective treatment to eradicate invasive organisms from ballast water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavand, Meghana R; McClintock, James B; Amsler, Charles D; Peters, Robert W; Angus, Robert A

    2007-11-01

    Uptake and release of ship-borne ballast water is a major factor contributing to introductions of aquatic phytoplankton and invasive macroinvertebrates. Some invasive unicellular algae can cause harmful algal blooms and produce toxins that build up in food chains. Moreover, to date, few studies have compared the efficacy of ballast water treatments against different life history phases of aquatic macroinvertebrates. In the present study, the unicellular green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta, and three discrete life history phases of the brine shrimp Artemia salina, were independently used as model organisms to study the efficacy of sonication as well as the advanced oxidants, hydrogen peroxide and ozone, as potential ballast water treatments. Algal cells and brine shrimp cysts, nauplii, and adults were subjected to individual and combined treatments of sonication and advanced oxidants. Combined rather than individual treatments consistently yielded the highest levels of mortality in algal cells (100% over a 2 min exposure) and in brine shrimp (100% and 95% for larvae and adults, respectively, over a 2 min exposure). In contrast, mortality levels in brine shrimp cysts (66% over 2 min; increased to 92% over a 20 min exposure) were moderately high but consistently lower than that detected for larval or adult shrimp. Our results indicate that a combination of sonication and advanced chemical oxidants may be a promising method to eradicate aquatic unicellular algae and macroinvertebrates in ballast water.

  11. 船舶压载水处理设备及应用技术研究进展%Research on Ship' s Ballast Water Treatment Equipment and Technolgies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱力强; 张晓荣

    2012-01-01

    The indiscriminate discharge of ballast water and sediment in ships will bring other invasion biol- ogy which was harm to the globe ' s ocean environment. So, the IMO was highly regarded in the marine environ- ment problems caused by ship' s ballast wate, ((International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships Ballast Water and Sediments))was adopted in February 2004 ,which makes the treatment of ship's ballast wate becoming one of the most pressing issues for shipping enterprise. This paper introduced and analyzed the latest global ballast handlinz eauinments and technologies.%船舶压载水和沉积物的随意排放会造成生物入侵,严重威胁海洋环境。为此,船舶压栽水及其对海洋环境的危害问题受到了IMO越来越多的关注。特别是《船舶压栽水及沉积物控制和管理公约》于2004年2月通过后,使得远洋船舶压载水处理成为了各国航运企业亟待解决的现实技术问题。本文对近年来国际上船舶压载水处理设备及应用技术的最新研究进展进行介绍、分析。

  12. Modeling and Analysis of a Buoyancy-Ballast Driven Airship%一类“浮力-压块”驱动飞艇建模与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬依林; 刘屿

    2012-01-01

    In view of a new kind of buoyancy-ballast driven airship, the model and dynamics of a kind of buoyancy-ballast driven airship are studied. Based on Kirchhoff equations and Newton-Euler laws, we developed the six degree of freedom nonlinear dynamic model for an airship equipped with independent ballonets and moveable ballast by analysis its movement and stress. On the condition of little perturbation, the nonlinear dynamic model is divided into three group equations by restricting airship motion in longitudinal, lateral and e2-e3 planes respectively. Then the characteristics of mode and respond to input of airship are studied using linearization model and its related parameter. The results of simulation verify the correctness of established model and rationality of theoretical analysis on this kind of stratospheric airship, thus making itself a theoretical basis for the design of its control strategy.%针对一类新型“浮力-压块”驱动的自治飞艇,研究了该类飞艇的动力学建模和动力学特性.在Kirchhoff方程和Newton-Euler理论基础上,通过对飞艇运动及受力分析,建立了包括独立气囊和可运动压块的飞艇六自由度非线性动力学模型,并采用小扰动线性化方法,将飞艇运动分别限制在纵向、横侧向和e2-e3平面内,得到与之对应的三组飞艇线性化方程,其后基于飞艇相关参数和线性化模型,利用Matlab软件平台对飞艇运动模态和输入响应特性进行了分析研究.仿真结果验证了谊类飞艇模型的正确性和理论分析的合理性,为其后控制策略设计提供理论依据.

  13. Ballast Water Self Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    water treatment systems for disinfection including:  Chlorination  Electrochlorination  Ozonation  Chlorine dioxide  Peracetic acid ...presents a challenge since the reagents used are themselves chemically hazardous. Peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide (provided as a blend of the two...dosage and usage -Hydrogen peroxide readings from both on-line sensor and sample analysis -Hydrogen peroxide dosage and usage Peracetic acid On

  14. Experimental investigation and modelling of the interaction between an AVR and ballast load frequency controller in a stand-alone micro-hydroelectric system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarman, R.; Bryce, P. [University of Technology, Sydney, Broadway, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2007-07-15

    Extensive field experience in micro-hydroelectric systems in remote rural communities demonstrates that the use of a typical automatic voltage regulator (AVR), as supplied with a brushless self-exciting synchronous alternator, can be the cause of unsatisfactory system performance. This paper presents results from experiments undertaken on a full-scale micro-hydroelectric test rig as well as system modelling with PSCAD. The source of the instability is considered to stem from the similar time constants of the ballast load frequency controller and the AVR as two competing feedback control systems. System modelling is used to verify steady state operating points, and confirms that the under-frequency roll-off characteristic of the AVR also contributes to unsatisfactory performance. (author)

  15. 莫桑比克用窄轨石砟漏斗车研制%Development of Mozambique with the Narrow Gauge Stone Ballast Hopper Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱秀琴

    2015-01-01

    介绍了莫桑比克用窄轨石砟漏斗车的研制过程、技术特点、性能参数,分析了该车的优化设计及结构强度,得出该车车体结构设计满足TB 1335—1996的要求,车体基本结构、关键尺寸和性能满足用户的有关要求。%This paper introduce the development process of Mozambique used narrow gauge stone ballast hopper car, techni-cal features, performance parameters, main structure, analyses the optimization design and structural strength of the car body, find the design of the car body meet the requirements of TB 1335-1996, the basic structure, key sizes and can meet the re-quirements of users.

  16. 压载水过滤器流场压降模拟分析%Pressure Drop Analysis of the Flow Field for Ballast Water Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐莉萍; 马志勇; 南晓青

    2016-01-01

    CFD methods are used to analyze and calculate the pressure drop of the ballast water filter.Provide the necessary theoretical basis for the product structure design,performance improvement and thrift experimental cost.The theoretical apply of porous media in mesh modeling simplified the entity modeling of ballast water filter,with ensure the accuracy of the computing re-sults by analysis on the internal flow field in the modeling and operation.Simulation results has certain reference value for the im-provement of the domestic marine seawater filter,also contribute to the relative practical application development.%采用 CFD 软件对流体通过压载水过滤器的压降进行模拟分析,为产品的结构性能优化提供必要的理论依据,以节省产品研制成本。通过 Analysis 对其内部流场进行了建模、运算,应用多孔介质理论简化过滤器的实体建模保证计算结果准确性。对仿真数据与试验数据进行了对比分析,结果表明仿真结果有效,对国内船用海水过滤器的设计开发有一定的参考价值。

  17. 盐田港船舶压载水致病微生物入侵风险分析%Analysis on invasion risk of pathogenic microorganisms in ship's ballast water at Yantian seaport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小洪; 刘文正; 杨燕秋; 赵爽

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解盐田港港区海水及船舶压载水致病微生物种类和数量,分析压载水致病微生物的入侵风险,为船舶压载水管理提供依据.方法 采用实验室技术对港区海水及船舶压载水水样进行检测分析,采用一般性统计描述、x2检验、秩和检验等对数据进行比较研究.结果 近处水域海水水质较远处水域海水水质差;船舶压载水水质明显较港区海水水质差;不同来源地压载水水质相差不大.港区海水共检出8种致病性弧菌,其中优势弧菌为溶藻弧菌(39.13%)、创伤弧菌(17.39%)、鲨鱼弧菌(13.04%).船舶压载水样本共检出12种致病弧菌,其中优势弧菌为溶藻弧菌(34.69%)、副溶血性弧菌(28.57%).结论 船舶压载水存在致病性微生物入侵性风险,必须采取预防性消毒处理后方可排放;港区海水日常监测主要采集浅层海水,增加对优势弧菌的监测内容.%Objective To understand species and quantity of pathogenic microorganisms in Yantian port seawater and ship's ballast water,and to analyze invasive risks of pathogenic microbes parasitizing in ballast water,and to provide identifiable basis for supervising ballast water.Methods Through laboratory technology,water samples in port seawater and ballast water was analyzed.Through statistic method,such as general statistical description,x2 test,rank-sum test,etc,the data was compared and investigated.Results Water quality in nearby water was worse compared to the distant water.Quality of ballast water was worse compared to the ports water,while the differences of ballast water loaded in different sources were little.Eight kinds of pathogenic vibrios were detected in port water,in which,the dominant vibrios were Vibrio alginolyticus (39.13%),Vibrio vulnificus (17.39%),and Vibrio carchariae (13.04%).Twelve kinds of pathogenic vibrios were detected in ballast water,in which,the dominant vibrios incluld Vibrio alginolyticus (34.69

  18. Natural gas ballast requirement to allow participation of thermal plants in the new energy auctions: analysis and proposals; Requisito de lastro de gas natural para viabilizar a participacao de termeletricas nos leiloes de energia nova: analise e propostas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Pedro Luis de; Bezerra, Bernardo Vieira; Barroso, Luiz Augusto Nobrega; Pereira, Mario Veiga; Rosenblatt, Jose [PSR, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Since the first New Energy Auction (LEN), held in December 2005, there has been a continuous process of improving the auction rules and mechanism. For the specific case of gas-fired plants, a significant change was observed between the LEN A-3/2011 and LEN A-5/2011, and refers to the need of natural gas ballast for candidate projects in the auction. This rule was introduced by ANP Resolution No. 52, which establishes that the gas supply agreements must be backed up by proven reserves (analogous to the requirement in the power sector contracts of physical guarantee backup), and Ordinance MME No. 21/2008, which deals with power plants qualification for the new energy auctions. The latter was amended by MME Ordinance No. 514, which requires proven natural gas reserves to support the GSA of all candidate projects in a LEN. In other words, the gas supplier now has to prove that there are sufficient gas reserves to meet requirements of all candidate project in an auction, regardless of the plausibility of their engagement in the auction. In this context, the present study discusses these issues and has as main contributions: (I) a review of current regulations on contract ballast in the Brazilian natural gas sector, (II) a proposal to conciliate the need of fuel supply contract ballast to the dynamics of the natural gas sector, and (III) a proposal to conciliate the need for fuel contract ballast to the contracting process of the thermoelectric power in the new energy auctions. These contributions aim at a better integration between the sectors of natural gas and electricity in Brazil, leading to a more efficient use of resources and infrastructure development. (author)

  19. 船舶压载水UV处理装置的设计与仿真%Design and simulation of ship's ballast water UV treatment devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟梦; 包国治; 陈宁

    2015-01-01

    针对船舶压载水排放要求,结合当前船舶压载水处理技术,采用紫外技术设计处理量为200 m3/h的压载水装置。基于紫外线的工作原理,设计了新型UV压载水处理装置,其中包括灯管的选择、腔体结构的设计和紫外线辐照强度、剂量的计算等。采用Fluent软件分别对新型与原型UV装置内的流场分布、流体过流时间进行数值模拟;分别采用Fluent和Mat-lab软件对装置内的紫外辐照强度和辐照剂量进行仿真模拟,并将模拟结果进行对比分析。模拟结果显示,新型UV装置内的流体过流时间与辐射剂量较原型装置均有所增加;与Fluent软件相比较,Matlab软件能够精确计算装置内各点的UV强度与剂量,且模拟过程更加简便,对UV装置展开深入的研究提供了一种定量分析的新方法。%In view of the requirements for ship's ballast water discharging,combining with current technologies, ultraviolet technology is used in the design of ship's ballast water treatment devices. Based on the working princi-ple of the ultraviolet ray,a new UV ballast water treatment device is designed. The design includes selection of tubes,the calculation of ultraviolet doses and the design of cylinder bodies,etc. The flow field and residence time of the UV device are simulated by the Fluent software,and the UV intensity and dose are calculated by both Fluent and Matlab. The results show that compared with the prototype UV device,both the residence time and UV dose of the new UV device increase;compared with the Fluent software,UV intensity and dose of each point in the UV device can be calculated by Matlab accurately and it's process of simulation is easier,and it provides a new method for quantitative analysis of the further study of intensive UV device.

  20. Levantamento florístico das macroalgas da baía de Sepetiba e adjacências, RJ: ponto de partida para o Programa GloBallast no Brasil Floristic survey of the macroalgae from Sepetiba bay and surrounding area, Rio de Janeiro State: starting point for the GloBallast Programme in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Menezes de Széchy

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O Porto de Sepetiba, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, foi escolhido, no Brasil, como área-piloto do projeto "Remoção de barreiras para a implementação efetiva do controle de água de lastro e medidas de gestão em países em desenvolvimento" (Programa GloBallast. Para possibilitar comparações, os seis países participantes do Programa GloBallast foram orientados a adotar a mesma metodologia para o levantamento preliminar da biota das áreas-pilotos valorizando a identificação em nível de espécie. O presente estudo teve como objetivo aplicar metodologia estabelecida pelo Centro para Pesquisa sobre Espécies Marinhas Introduzidas, da Austrália (Procedimento CRIMP, com algumas adaptações, no levantamento florístico das macroalgas de substratos consolidados naturais da área-piloto do Porto de Sepetiba. Coletas de macroalgas foram realizadas em novembro/2001, em nove locais da baía de Sepetiba e adjacências, desde a franja da região sublitorânea até cerca de -4 m de profundidade. Em cada local, seis quadrados de 0,1 m² de área foram raspados. O material foi depositado no Herbário do Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro (RB. Das 96 espécies identificadas (20 Chlorophyta, 16 Phaeophyta, 60 Rhodophyta, 12 não haviam sido citadas anteriormente para a área de estudo. Cladophora pellucidoidea C. Hoek, Coelothrix irregularis (Harv. Boergesen e Acrochaetium savianum (Menegh. Nägeli são ocorrências novas para o Estado. Não há indícios de que as novas ocorrências equivalem a espécies recentemente introduzidas por meio das atividades portuárias. O procedimento metodológico adotado mostrou-se eficiente, resultando em listagem de espécies comparável às de levantamentos florísticos com maior esforço amostral e complementando os dados pretéritos existentes para a baía de Sepetiba e adjacências. No entanto, ressalta-se a importância de uma reavaliação das escalas temporal e espacial da estratégia de

  1. Development of an electronic ballast with high power factor, using cd/cd conversion techniques for fluorescent lamps; Desarrollo de un balastro electronico con alto factor de potencia, utilizando tecnicas de conversion cd/cd para lamparas fluorescentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Raul Antonio

    1995-02-01

    The recent advances and improvements in fluorescent lamps and ballasts technologies have resulted in substantial gain in efficiency, in illumination (lm/w), in the useful life of the lamp, in ballasts (electric characteristics), and consequently, an increase in energy saving in the fluorescent illumination systems. This thesis work was for the development of an electronic ballast that incorporates active correction of the PF for the handling of fluorescent lamps of the fast start type F4OW T-12. The prototype was implemented in two stages. In the first stage, for the Power Factor Correction (PFC) a converter CD/CD of the boost type in Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM) was chosen. The control technique that was used for this converter was the Average Current Mode (ACM) control. This thesis work comprised part of a collaboration project between the Electronics Department of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and the Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico (National Center of Investigation and Technological Development (CENIDET)) named Technology Assimilation of the Power Factor Correction in the Electronic Equipment Design. In chapter 1 of this thesis the advantages of fluorescent illumination systems (IS) are mentioned, with respect to the traditional incandescent illumination systems. Also the most important characteristics of the fluorescent lamps and the operation (physical) principle will be presented, as well as the design aspects of electronic ballasts and their evolution. The proposal of the development of an experimental electronic prototype of ballast will be set forth. Chapter 2 mentions the evolution of the different schemes of fluorescent lamps ballasts, of electromagnetic, as well as electronic. Also some of the specifications that were taken into consideration for the design of the electronic prototype of the ballast presented in this thesis are mentioned. In chapter 3 the specifications of the electronic prototype of

  2. 潜艇高压气吹除主压载水舱过程的数值模拟%Numerical simulation on compressed gas blowing ballast tank of submarine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建华; 胡坤; 刘常波

    2015-01-01

    采用结构化六面体网格对主压载水舱内部流场进行离散化,基于FLUENT流体计算软件,应用VOF两相流模型,对10 m及20 m水深时高压气吹除主压载水舱过程进行了数值模拟,研究了气液两相界面的形成及生长过程,深入分析了水舱排水速率的变化规律,并针对压载水的残留现象提出了实际操艇过程中需要注意的问题。仿真结果与现有文献中实体模型的实验结果吻合较好,均揭示了吹除过程中水舱内部压力及排水速率的波动现象,验证了数值模拟方法的准确性和有效性。为与实际情况相符,还提出了针对入口及出口边界条件的改进方案。%The inner fluid domain of the ballast tank for computing was dispersed and meshed by applying the structured hexahedral grid, and by using the VOF two-phase flow model, the process of high compressed gas blowing ballast tank while at 10 m and 20 m depth under water was numerically simulated based on computational fluid dynamics package FLUENT. The research studied the forming and developing process of the gas-water two-phase interface was studied, the draining rule of the ballast tank was analysed, and the attention issues in the process of practically steering submarine aiming at the remanet ballast water were indicated. The simulation results match the model experiment results of the existing literatures very well, and for both the results indicating the undulation phenomenon of the interior pressure of the tank and the draining velocity in the process of blowing, the veracity and validity of the numerical simulation is validat-ed. For matching the actual situation, the amelioration schemes of the inlet and outlet boundary conditions were given.

  3. Application of floating ballast concrete floor slab at diversion tunnel of Baoxing Hydropower Project%浮碴混凝土底板在宝兴水电站引水隧洞中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹坤; 胡嘉航

    2014-01-01

    For the diversion tunnel of Baoxing Hydropower Project,field floating ballast concrete floor slab lifting test against external water pressure was conducted during construction. With reference to the testing results and the experience of similar projects,the original plain concrete floor slab construction scheme was optimized and floating ballast concrete floor slab scheme was adopted for the tunnel sections with II~III category surrounding rock ,which had played an active role in cost control and accelerating construction progress due to simplified floor slab cleaning procedures,reduced concrete slab thickness,increased drainage holes on base slab and walls.%在宝兴水电站引水隧洞底板施工过程中,通过现场浮碴混凝土底板抗外水抬动试验,并参考类似工程经验,对原素混凝土底板施工方案进行了优化,在部分Ⅱ-Ⅲ类围岩洞段采用浮碴混凝土底板,简化了底板清理的施工工序,降低了底板混凝土厚度,增加了混凝土底板及边墙排水孔,对控制投资、加快施工进度起到了积极作用。

  4. Study and implementation of a non-resonant inverter as electronic ballast for discharge lamps; Estudio e implementacion de un inversor no resonante como balastro electronico para lamparas de descarga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Garcia, Efren

    2003-02-15

    Implementation of an electronic ballast with integrated ignition circuit that feeds a high density discharge lamp and that limits the current through it without closing the control loop under the technique of current square waves to eliminate the acoustic resonances characteristic of these high pressure lamps. In chapter 1 the basic concepts are presented of high intensity discharge lamps, showing their classification and describing their operation. In addition, the phenomenon of acoustic resonances is mentioned, emphasizing the square wave shape use for its elimination and presenting the state-of-the-art around the use of this technique for the elimination of acoustic resonances. In chapter 2 the different techniques are presented to stabilize the current in a discharge lamp. In addition, a topology of converter DC-DC is proposed that stabilizes the discharge in presenting a resistance in series with the lamp and it does not use a control loop for this, presenting its analysis and raising the necessary characteristics for its correct operation. In chapter 3 the analysis of each one of the stages that conforms the ballast is presented, simultaneously two igniter topologies are presented, that on the basis of an analysis one of them is selected for its implementation. In addition, the simulation results of the ballast performed in the PSpice simulator are presented. In chapter 4 is shown the form in which the implementation of the ballast was carried out, presenting the experimental results and verifying that the ballast operates according to the originally proposed specifications. Finally, in chapter 5 the conclusions of the work and the recommendations for future works are presented. [Spanish] Implementacion de un balastro electronico con circuito de encendido integrado que alimenta a una lampara de alta densidad de descarga y que limita la corriente a traves de ella sin cerrar el lazo de control bajo la tecnica de ondas cuadradas de corriente para eliminar las

  5. Strategies for the correction of the power factor in electronic ballasts with low crest factor; Estrategias para la correccion del factor de potencia en balastros electronicos con bajo factor de cresta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Mata, Arturo Javier

    2002-07-15

    The goal in this work is to develop electronic ballast for fluorescent lamps with high power factor with the smaller number of components. With this aim it is looked for 1) to study the impact of the value of the filtrating capacitor used in a conventional rectifier on the harmonic content of the line current and the crest factor in the lamp, 2) to study resonant tanks commonly used in electronic ballasts with the purpose of observing the feasibility of implementing a control in frequency to vary the gain of the resonant tank and 3) to propose a strategy of frequency modulation that allows to reach low harmonic distortion of the line current maintaining a low crest factor. In chapter one the used theoretical concepts in illumination systems are presented, the justification for the use of electronic ballasts in fluorescent lamps, a revision of the state-of-the-art in the correction of the power factor in electronic ballasts and two strategies for the correction of this factor. In the next chapter the conventional resonant topologies used in the literature are presented, together with the analysis of resonant structures with high gain in steady state to compensate the variations of the instantaneous voltage of the DC bus that feeds the resonant inverter. Also simulations in PSpice are included to know the behavior of each one of the resonant structures and to be able to select, in that way, the most adequate resonant topology for this work. In the third chapter the strategy is presented for the correction of the power factor, eliminating the filtering capacitor. The effects of this elimination as far as the line current and the lamp current are shown. The characterization of the resonant tank in open loop and closed loop is presented. The method is described to control the gain of the resonant investor and its implementation. Experimental results obtained when reducing the filtering capacitor are included and the implementation of the proposed control loop to reduce

  6. Numerical Simulation on Stir System of Jet Ballast in High Level Liquid Waste Storage Tank%高放废液贮槽气镇器搅拌系统的数值模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    逯迎春

    2012-01-01

    以后处理厂高放废液贮槽气镇器搅拌系统为模拟对象,其中气相、液相和固相分别为空气、硝酸钠水溶液和球磨后的钛白粉,基于颗粒动力学理论,建立适用于高放废液贮槽气镇器搅拌系统的气、液、固三相流动的数学模型,用CFD商用计算软件对其进行计算,得到了高放废液贮槽气镇器搅拌过程中气、液和固三相的速度、压力和相含率等详细数据.研究结果表明,计算值与实验值吻合较好,验证了建立的数学模型的正确性和适用性,为高放废液贮槽气镇器搅拌系统进一步优化设计和放大提供参考.%The stir system of jet ballast in high level liquid waste storage tank was simulation object. Gas, liquid and solid were air, sodium nitrate liquor and titanium whitening, respectively. The mathematic model based on three-fluid model and the kinetic theory of particles was established for the stir system of jet ballast in high level liquid waste storage tank. The CFD software by commerciality was used for solving this model. The detail flow parameters as three phase velocity, pressure and phase loadings were gained. The calculated results agree with the experimental results, so they can well define the flow behavior in the tank. And this offers a basic method for the scale-up and optimization design of the stir system of jet ballast in high level liquid waste storage tank.

  7. "Sõputshii ballast" stabilnosti / Vassili Kononenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kononenko, Vassili

    2005-01-01

    Avaliku arvamuse uurimise ülevenemaalise keskuse läbiviidud küsitluste andmeil on Venemaal kasvanud muutuste pooldajate hulk, ühiskonna tähelepanu keskmesse on tõusnud varasemaga võrreldes teised probleemid

  8. New Technology of Laying Ballast Turnout of High- speed Railway%有砟高速道岔铺设新技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宏伟

    2011-01-01

    研究目的:高速道岔铺设是客运专线轨道工程施工的重点和难点,传统施工方法难以满足高速道岔铺设的标准和要求,必须研究有砟高速道岔施工的新技术,以提高道岔的铺设质量和铺设效率.研究结论:结合甬台温客运专线铁路轨道工程高速道岔施工情况,国内首次研制了有砟高速道岔基地组装平台,开发出高速道岔平台预组装、整组运输及铺设成套技术,实现了高速道岔铺设基地工厂化、机械化、专业化施工,完全符合铁道部关于高速道岔施工技术的要求.该成套施工新技术先进合理,有效提高了高速道岔的铺设质量和铺设效率,极大地缩短了施工工期,节约了施工成本,为高速道岔铺设提供了参考.%Research purposes: Laying turnout is the key point and one of the most difficult works in construction of high- speed railway.The traditional construction methods can not meet the standards and requirements of laying the turnout of high - speed railway.So the study has to be done on the new technology of laying ballast turnout of high-speed railway to improve the quality and efficiency of laying turnout.Research conclusions: For laying the turnouts of Ningbo -Taizhou -Wenzhou Passenger Dedicated Line, the base platform for assembling the turnout of high - speed railway has been developed in China for the first time, and the complete technologies of pre - assembling the turnout of high - speed railway on the base, transporting the entire turnout unit and turnout laying have been developed to realize the factory, mechanization and specialization constructions of the turnout laying base for high -speed railway.This completely conforms to the technical requirement of the Ministry of Railways for laying the turnout of high - speed railway.This new complete construction technologies are advanced and reasonable and can be as the reference to the similar works.By using this complete technologies, the quality

  9. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  10. 船舶压载水系统UV模块的优化设计及实验验证%UV ballast water system optimal design and experimental verification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡明

    2014-01-01

    Ballast water system using the method of UV sterilization, is already a very mature technology. By adding baffles, this article is to improve the original UV chamber, and through numerical simulation and the experimental of biological approaches to solve the problems in practical application, such as the radiation dose not reaching the standard and consuming too much power.%压载水系统利用紫外线进行杀菌处理的方法,已经是一套很成熟的技术。本文通过增加导流板来改进原有的UV腔体,并通过数值模拟和生物实验的方法来解决实际应用中出现的问题,如辐射剂量不达标,消耗的功率太大等。

  11. Security Risk Assessment of Ultraviolet Radiation for Self-ballasted Fluorescent Lamps for General Lighting Service%普通照明用自镇流荧光灯产品紫外辐射安全风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋松林

    2015-01-01

    Self-ballasted fluorescent lamps for general lighting service (energy saving lamp for short), is the lighting equipment which combining the fluorescent lamps and ballast together. Energy saving lamp will transmit ultraviolet radiation through glass tube to environment with working condition, and the nearer the object to the lamp, the stronger the ultraviolet radiation will be. This paper provides the analysis of main problems, and the suggestion and safeguard procedures for risk treatment by carding the risk source and the risk case for ultraviolet radiation of energy saving lamp, combining the risk monitoring and assessment result of this project.%普通照明用自镇流荧光灯,又称紧凑型荧光灯或一体式荧光灯(下文中简称节能灯),是指将荧光灯与镇流器组合成一个整体的照明设备.节能灯在使用过程中灯管内的紫外线会有部分透过玻璃管辐射到环境中,加之荧光粉的脱落等因素,节能灯会产生一定的紫外辐射.而且灯与被照物的距离越近,紫外线辐射强度越高.本文通过对节能灯紫外辐射的风险源和风险案例进行梳理,结合针对该项目的风险监测和评估结果,详细分析了目前存在的主要问题,最后提出了风险处理的意见和防护措施.

  12. 电子镇流器无源功率因数校正的实现方法%Method to realize passive power factor correction of electronic ballast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵龙

    2012-01-01

    In electronic ballast and energy saving lamp, the passive power factor correction (PFC) circuit has the advantages of low cost, high stability and easy debugging, but its harmonic content often fails to meet the requirement of EMC standard. With the comparison and analysis of several ways to realize the passive power factor correction, a new method was found. It can decrease the harmonic content to less than 15%, make the power factor less than 0. 96 and meet the requirement of EMC standard.%在电子镇流器及节能灯中,无源功率因数校正电路具有成本低,可靠性好,调试容易等优点,但往往在谐波含量问题上达不到电磁兼容标准的要求.下面对无源功率因数校正的几种实现方法进行了对比分析,并延深出了一种新的实现方法,可使无源功率因数校正电路的谐波含量降到15%以下,功率因数不小于0.96,满足电磁兼容标准要求,在实际应用中可供借鉴.

  13. Research on frequency tracking technology of electronic ballasts for electrodeless lamp%无极灯电子镇流器频率跟踪控制技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈豫; 林国庆; 唐建山

    2013-01-01

    Due to the excellent features of high efficiency, high color rendering, no flash and long life, electrode-less lamp becomes a new gas-discharge light source with a good development prospect. Electrodeless lamp has a negative resistance property, so that a reliable electronic ballast assorted is needed for the lamp. Based on the analysis of the electrical model of electrodeless lamp, a novel control strategy suitable for load characteristics of electrodeless lamp is presented in the paper. The resonant frequency is searched to get the trigger high voltage by frequency sweeping. In order to achieve the maximum output power and best load matching, the phase difference between inverter output voltage and resonant capacitor voltage is adopted as the phase loop control variable to track resonant frequency automatically in normal operation. Finally, the simulation and experiment results have proved the feasibility of the proposed strategy.%基于无极灯电气模型的分析,提出一种适合于无极灯负载特性的控制策略.通过扫频控制寻找谐振频率以产生点灯所需的高压脉冲,正常运行时以半桥逆变器中点电压与谐振电容电压的相位差作为闭环控制变量实现对谐振频率的自动跟踪控制,以获得最大的功率输出和最佳的负载匹配.电路仿真和实验结果验证了所提出的方案是可行的.

  14. Desempenho de um trator em função do tipo de pneu, da lastragem e da velocidade de trabalho Performance of an tractor as a function of tire type, ballasting and forward speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Lopes

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho comparou o desempenho de um trator agrícola 4x2 TDA de 89 kW (121cv em função do tipo de pneus (radial, diagonal e de baixa pressão, a condição de lastragem (com e sem água nos pneus e quatro velocidades [V1 (1,84km h-1, V2 (3,18km h-1, V3 (4,57km h-1, V4 (5,04km h-1]. O experimento foi realizado na UNESP-Jaboticabal-SP, em condição de preparo do solo com escarificador de sete hastes a 30cm de profundidade. Os pneus foram do tipo R1, com as seguintes características: [radial (dianteiros-14.9 R 26; traseiros-620/75 R 30 diagonal (dianteiros-14.9-26, traseiros-23.1-30 e BPAF (dianteiros-500/60-26.5; traseiros-700/55-34]. O delineamento experimental foi blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 3x2x4, com 24 tratamentos e três repetições. Os resultados evidenciaram vantagens para o trator equipado com pneus radiais.The objective of this study was to compare the performance of the FWD agricultural tractor, equipped with three types of tires (bias ply, radial and low pressure, with and without tire water ballasting, operating in four forward speed. The research was carried out at UNESP, SP, Brazil, with the tractor pulling a chisel plow. A tractor with 89kW (121cv engine power equipped with FWD, was used in the experiment, and the tires used had the following characteristics: radial (front: 14.9R26 and rear: 620/75R30, bias ply (front: 14.9-26 and rear: 23.1-30 and low pressure (front: 500/60-26.5 and rear: 700/55-34. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block, design (3x2x4, with 24 treatments and three replications. The results evidenced advantages for the tractor equipped with radial tires.

  15. Tank Access for Ballast Water Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation. ~~r R~ obert C. chards "Director of Technical Development United States Coast Guard Research...Water Sampling Protocols (Technical Report No. 18). Hobart, Tasmania: Centre for Research on Introduced Marine Pests. U.S. Department of

  16. Analysis of the population structure of dinoflagellate cysts in the sediment of ballast tank of four cargo boats at Zhoushan Port%舟山港4艘商船压舱箱沉积物中甲藻孢囊种群结构的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴鑫烽; 陆斗定; 王春生; 夏平; 黄雷; 王采典; 王红霞; 黄海燕; 何飘霞

    2012-01-01

    为了解商船压舱箱沉积物在海洋水生生物入侵过程中扮演的潜在媒介作用,本文利用光学显微镜观察法,研究了停泊于我国舟山港4艘商船压舱箱沉积物中甲藻孢囊的种类组成、孢囊密度、香农-威纳指数(H')和PSP原因种,并对甲藻孢囊种群结构进行了相关性分析.结果表明,鉴定出的甲藻孢囊隶属于5大类,共24种,4份样品中甲藻孢囊的种群结构各有差异,但均检测出能产生麻痹性贝毒(Paralytic Shellfish Poisons,PSP)的甲藻孢囊,如亚历山大藻Alexandrium spp.和链状裸甲藻Gymnodium catenatum.在4艘商船的压舱箱沉积物中均检测出有硅藻分布,其中在富成轮压舱箱沉积物中还检测出3种未知种孢囊.通过相关性分析可知,甲藻孢囊H'值与PSP甲藻孢囊密度占总甲藻孢囊密度的比率呈负相关.甲藻可以通过商船压舱箱沉积物为传播媒介,以孢囊形式来扩大其生物地理分布,提高甲藻物种多样性可有助于降低PSP甲藻的破坏风险.因此,有效处理船只压舱箱沉积物、积极保护当地海洋生物物种多样性,对于降低外来甲藻物种(特别是一些有毒有害种)的赤潮风险和保持当地海洋生态系统的平衡,具有十分重要的意义.%Ballast water of the merchant vessel plays an important role in the invasion of alien marine species which may damage the local marine ecosystem. However, the potential role of the ballast tank sediment in the transmission of the alien species is always underestimated. Using optical microscopic viewing method, the species composition, cyst density, Shannon-Weiner index(H'), Paralytic Shellfish Poisons (PSP) causative species and their relationships of the dinoflagellate cysts from the sediment of four cargo boats at Zhoushan Port were studied, and 24 types of dinoflagellate cysts of 5 groups were identified including some toxic species such as Alexandrium spp. And Gymnodium catenatum which could produce PSP

  17. Improvement of the Construction Technique of Jointless Track Replacement Track-laying Method of Newly Built Double-track Railway Ballast Track%新建双线铁路有砟轨道无缝线路换铺法施工技术改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高娃

    2016-01-01

    Based on in-depth knowledge of replacement track-laying method and combined with the construction characteristics and project case of the present newly built double-track ballast jointless line, this paper introduces the improvement idea of the current replacement track-laying method and the independently developed practical device, obtaining significant comprehensive benefit in improving working efficiency, reducing safety risk, reducing labor intensity and saving cost. This paper can provide reference for similar projects.%本文在对换铺法深入了解的基础上,结合目前新建双线有砟无缝线路的施工特点和工程实例,介绍了对现有换铺技术提出的改进思路,和自主开发的实用性装置,在提高工效、降低安全风险、降低劳动强度、节省成本等方面取得了显著的综合效益,谨供同类工程参考。

  18. 有砟轨道长轨直铺技术在太原西南环铁路施工中的应用%Application of Straight Laying of Long Trails on Ballast Tracks in the Construction of the Southwest-ring Railways in Taiyuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王四虎

    2016-01-01

    In construction of railway lines, how to select track laying method is the key to the success of the entire project, it directly determines the duration and cost of two important goals. This paper described the construction process of YZ500⁃TY track⁃laying machine with straight laying of long trails on ballast tracks, and introduced in detail the construction method applied to the construction of Southwest⁃ring Railways in Taiyuan. For short circuit or temporary land acquisition difficulty in laying base⁃building project, this construction method has a great advantage.%在铁路线路工程施工中,铺轨方法的选择,是整个项目成败的关键,它直接决定了工期、成本两个重要的目标。本文阐述了YZ500⁃TY铺轨机组进行有砟轨道长轨直铺法的施工过程,详细介绍了该施工方法在太原西南环铁路施工中的应用。该方法对于短距离线路或临时征地困难无法建设铺轨基地的工程项目,有着较大的施工优势。

  19. Fuel consumption of a tractor in function of wear, of ballasting and tire inflation pressure Consumo de combustível de um trator em função do desgaste, da lastragem e pressão de inflação dos pneus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger T. Spagnolo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available When using appropriate inflation pressures and load capacity (ballast, it may obtain a higher yield and prolongation of the life of the tire, besides it may minimize the problems of loss of traction, increased slippage and fuel consumption. This study aimed to evaluate the fuel consumption of a tractor operating with new and worn tires in three conditions of ballasting and three inflation pressures, when driving on compacted soil with vegetation cover. The experiment was conducted at the experimental unit from the Department of Animal Science, Federal University of Lavras, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in an agricultural soil compacted by cattle trampling and with vegetation cover. It was used a tractor 4x2 with front wheel assist, of a 65.62 kW engine power. The tires were of R1 type, diagonal (front: 12.4 to 24; and rear: 18.4 to 30, the average height of the clutches of the new tires were 0.3 and 0.35 m for front and rear tires, respectively, and for the worn tires were 0.018 and 0.0045 m, for the front and the rear tires, respectively. The results showed advantages for the tractor equipped with new tires.Ao se utilizar pressão de inflação e a capacidade de carga (lastro adequadas, pode-se obter um rendimento maior e um prolongamento da vida útil do pneu; além disso, minimizam-se os problemas de perda de tração, aumento de patinhagem e consumo de combustível. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o consumo de combustível de um trator agrícola operando com pneus novos e desgastados, em três condições de lastragem e três pressões de inflação, ao trafegar sobre solo compactado com cobertura vegetal. O experimento foi realizado na unidade experimental do Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras-MG, em um solo compactado pelo pisoteio de bovinos e com cobertura vegetal. Utilizou-se um trator 4x2 TDA, com potência de 65,62 kW no motor. Os pneus foram do tipo R1, diagonal (dianteiros: 12

  20. Towards a prototype Decision Support Tool for ballast water risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, F. T.; Andersen, Jesper; Uhrenholdt, T.

    , pelagic larvae of benthic invertebrates or juvenile fish) connectivity is primarily determined by the sea currents and secondarily by species specific life histories and motional behaviour. We have developed a prototype methodology for mapping the connectivity of marine areas of the North Sea region...

  1. Intercomparison of U.S. Ballast Water Test Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ASize determined by “maximum dimension on the smallest axis” (EPA, 2010). BThe concentrations of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae , Escherichia coli, and...day, and the Vibrio cholerae analyses were completed the following day. The discharge operation (of the treatment tank) started at 09:19 on Thursday...aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria using HPC) (cfu mL-1) Mean (SD) ≥ 1000 1700 (1300) 2350 (1390) 994 (466) 9 Vibrio cholerae (O1/O139

  2. Jettisoning ballast en route to the next millennium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esveld, C.

    2000-01-01

    Railway engineering has been a traditional discipline for over hundred years. Most developments were based upon experience and progressed thus very slowly. Recent proposed new railway structures and new applications make the traditional empirical approach ineffective. To support the new developments

  3. Stress-based Variable-inductor for Electronic Ballasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lihui; Xia, Yongming; Lu, Kaiyuan

    2015-01-01

    presents a new stress-based variable inductor to control inductance using the inverse magnetostrictive effect of a magnetostrictive material. The stress can be applied by a piezoelectrical material, and thus a voltage-controlled variable inductor can be realized with zero-power consumption. The new stress...

  4. Computational Analysis of Reagent Mixing in Ballast Water Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    CH*tributk>n after 50 minutes Double Bottom Tanks Hopper Side Tasks I pper Winf! Tanks Compartment Normalized Tracer Volume Distribution attar 180...minutes Double Bottom Tanks Hopper Side Tanks I pper Wing Tanks Compartment Normalized Tracer Volume Distribution after 120 minutes Double Bottom

  5. Ballast water risk assessment in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, Ruurd van der

    2012-01-01

    Auteur: Ruurd van der Meer Centrum voor Energie en Milieukunde, IVEM Bèta 2012-03 EES-2012-134T ISBN (boek): 978-90-367-5528-3 ISBN (digitaal): 978-90-367-5529-0 Bèta Wetenschapswinkel Rijksuniversiteit Groningen Nijenborgh 4 9747 AG Groningen T: 050-363 41 32 E: c.m.ree@rug.nl W: www.rug.nl/wewi Be

  6. Evaluation Of Biocides for Potential Treatment of Ballast Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    very soluble in water Hazardous Substances Data Bank 2004 Target Organism Treatment Dosage Citation brine shrimp, Artemia salina , at four stages levels...accumulation, growth, physiology, population PAN 2004 Crustacean, A. salina For a concentration level of 40 mg/L, Irgarol caused 30% mortality of the...above 350 ppm resulted in 100% mortality of all Artemia live stages. Fuchs 2001 coliforms Intial concentration of 0.5-4 mg/L with 8-38 min contact

  7. 46 CFR 56.50-50 - Bilge and ballast piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... suctions may be required. (2) Arrangements shall be made whereby water in the compartments will drain to the suction pipes. Efficient means shall be provided for draining water from all tank tops, other... position between the bilge suction manifold and the pump. (h) Pipes for draining cargo holds or...

  8. Disinfection of Water by Ultrasound: Application to Ballast Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, fungus and viruses (Scherba et al., 1991). Mortality increased with both exposure time...at 20 kHz, 150 W reduced the heat resistance of Bacillus subtilis spores (Garcia et al., 1989). While sonication followed by thermal treatment...and protected the surviving cells from Cl2 exposure. Thus, combining ultrasound and Cl2 can be antagonistic. There may be a hint of this antagonism

  9. Desempenho de um trator agrícola equipado com pneus radiais e diagonais com três níveis de lastros líquidos Performance of an agricultural tractor equipped with radial and bias ply tires on three levels of liquid ballast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de A. Monteiro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização correta de pneus em tratores, tanto em relação ao seu tipo quanto à calibração de sua pressão interna, e a lastragem ideal para cada condição de carga são fatores que influem significativamente no desempenho do trator. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo comparar o desempenho de um trator equipado com pneus radiais e com pneus diagonais, para três condições de lastragem líquida (0%, 40% e 75% de água, em três condições superficiais de um Nitossolo Vermelho distrófico (superfície firme, preparada e com cobertura vegetal de resto de milho e em três velocidades teóricas de deslocamento (4 km h-1, 5 km h-1 e 7 km h-1, informadas no painel do trator, correspondendo às marchas B1, B2 e C1. O melhor desempenho do trator, equipado com pneu diagonal, ocorreu na condição de 75% de água nos pneus, apresentando maior velocidade de deslocamento, menor patinhagem do trator, menor consumo horário de combustível e gerando maior potência na barra de tração. Com pneus radiais, o melhor desempenho do trator ocorreu na condição de 40% de água nos pneus, proporcionando maiores velocidades de deslocamento do trator, menores patinhagens, menores consumos, horário e específico de combustível, e maiores potência e rendimento na barra de tração.The correct use of tires, as for its construction type as for internal pressure calibration and the optimal weighting for each load condition are factors that impact significantly on their performance. This study aimed to compare the performance of a tractor equipped with radial tires and bias ply tires in three conditions of liquid ballast (0%, 40% and 75% water, three surface conditions of a Dystrophic Red Alfisol (firm surface, tillage surface and surface with corn residues coverage and three theoretical traveling speeds (4 km h-1, 5 km h-1 and 7 km h-1, as indicated at the tractor display, related to the gear boxes B1, B2 and C1. The best tractor's performance, equipped with

  10. Key Construction Technology of 60 kg/m No. 42 Single Ballasted Turnout Inserted into Existing Line%60kg/m42号单开有砟道岔既有线插入施工关键技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈仁超

    2015-01-01

    文章以贵广铁路施工Ⅰ标老罗堡线路所2组1/42有砟单开道岔为例,采用侧位拼装整体推移插铺方案技术,研究总结了大号码道岔区间插入施工技术和工艺;插入施工的关键技术主要有:采用侧位拼装整体推移插铺方案;研制道岔钢轨件吊卸组合桁架,实现了道岔长大钢轨件的卸车作业;研制的尖轨区及辙叉心起道用辅助桁架,解决了液压高程起道机无法在1/42道岔长尖轨、长辙叉心直接安设的技术难题;用绝缘轨距拉杆提高道岔整体刚度;分级控制道岔轨排拨接量,保证道岔轨排拨接过程有良好的平顺性和到位精度;测设轨道控制桩网,施工时分段使用,达到控制道岔轨排横移到位精度;为防止道岔横移过程中滑轮倾覆,采用组合滑轮等技术,取得了较好效果。%Taking Laoluobao 1 / 42 ballasted single turnout of construction sectionⅠof Guiyang - Guangzhou railway as an example,by adopting the mature process and technology of lateral assembly integral movement and inserted laying,the construction technologies of large-size turnout inserted into the interval is stduied and concluded,which mainly include:adopting the scheme of lateral assembly integral movement and inserted laying;developing the turnout rail part slinging and unloading composite truss to realize the unloading operation of the long rail part of turnout;developing the auxiliary truss for track lifting of switch rail area and frog center to solve the technical problem of hydraulic elevation track lifting jack unable to be installed directly in long switch rail and long frog center of 1 / 42 turnout;adopting Insulation gauge tie rod to improve the integral rigidity of the turnout;hierarchically controlling the lining and joining quantity of track panel of switch to ensure the good ride and position accuracy in lining and joining process of track panel of switch;setting-out the track control

  11. Stratification of Living Organisms in Ballast Tanks: How Do Organism Concentrations Vary as Ballast Water is Discharged

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    action stimulated movement within 10 s, the organism was determined to be living;7 if not, the organism was tallied as “dead”. Some organisms (e.g...e.g., chloroplasts and cell walls) were intact. A portion of the concentrated sample collected from each of the drain segments at NRL was analyzed to...using standard movement and response to stimuli techniques, consistent with the ETV protocol,7 and analysis occurred within 1 h of collecting the

  12. Ethical codes. Fig leaf argument, ballast or cultural element for radiation protection?; Ethik-Codes. Feigenblatt, Ballast oder Kulturelement fuer den Strahlenschutz?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gellermann, Rainer [Nuclear Control and Consulting GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The international association for radiation protection (IRPA) adopted in May 2004 a Code of Ethics in order to allow their members to hold an adequate professional level of ethical line of action. Based on this code of ethics the professional body of radiation protection (Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz) has developed its own ethical code and adopted in 2005.

  13. Recommendations for Evaluating Multiple Filters in Ballast Water Management Systems for US Type Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    W.J. Parson3, and Jonathan F. Grant4 Chemistry Division, Naval Research Laboratory , Washington, DC 20375 Funded by the US Coast Guard Research and...Spargo 40 (Acting Superintendent, Chemistry Division, Naval Research Laboratory ) improved it—thank you. 10 REFERENCES American Society of...Protection Agency (2005) Membrane Filtration Guidance Manual , EPA 815- R-06-009, Office of Water, Cincinnati US Environmental Protection Agency (2010

  14. Current-injection in a ballastic multiterminal superconductor/two-dimensional electron gas Josephson junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schäpers, Th.; Guzenko, V.A.; Müller, R.P.; Golubov, A.A.; Brinkman, A.; Crecelius, G.; Kaluza, A.; Lüth, H.

    2003-01-01

    We study the suppression of the critical current in a multi-terminal superconductor/two-dimensional electron gas/superconductor Josephson junction by means of hot carrier injection. As a superconductor Nb is used, while the two-dimensional electron gas is located in a strained InGaAs/InP heterostruc

  15. Developing Molecular Methods to Identify and Quantify Ballast Water Organisms: A Test Case with Cnidarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-15

    AF358070 Cystonectae Physaliidae Physalia physalis AF358065 Physalia sp. This project Physalia utriculus AF358066 Physonectae Agalmatidae...U19378 Siphonophora Cystonectae Physaliidae Physalia physalis This project Trachylina Trachymedusae Geryoniidae Liriope tetraphylla...Obelia dichotoma 226 188, 20, 18 102, 93, 31 DNC DNC DNC Physalia physalis 252 214, 20, 18 123, 78, 51 DNC 158, 94 DNC Liriope tetraphylla 254 216, 20

  16. Generic Protocol for the Verification of Ballast Water Treatment Technology. Version 5.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    protocol. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae densities should determined by a DNA colony blot hybridization method that detects ctxA gene (Huq et al., 2006...Detection, Isolation, and Identification of Vibrio cholerae from the Environment. Current Protocols in Microbiology: 6A.5 Klemm, D.J., G.E. Morrison...assessment utilized two Gram negative pathogen-indicator organisms, Enterococcus avium (ATCC 14025) and Vibrio cholerae (ATCC 14033), and two Gram positive

  17. Characterization of Bacteria in Ballast Water Using MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Emami, K.; Askari, V.; Ullrich, M.; Mohinudeen, K.; Anil, A.C.; Khandeparker, L.; Burgess, J.G.; Mesbahi, E.

    for Education and Skills (DfES), Office of Science and Innovation, the FCO, Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales, GSK, BP, Shell and BAE for the benefit of the India Higher Education Sector and the UK Higher Education Sector. The views expressed are not necessarily... those of the funding bodies. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing Interests: This study was partially funded by GSK, BP, Shell and BAE for the benefit...

  18. Improvement of train-track interaction in transition zones via reduction of ballast damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Markine, V.L.; Dollevoet, R.P.B.J.; Shevtsov, I.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Transition zones in railway tracks are locations with considerable changes in the vertical stiffness of the rail support. Typically they are located near engineering structures, such as bridges, culverts, tunnels and level crossings. In such locations, the differential settlement always exists and c

  19. Ship ballast tanks a review from microbial corrosion and electrochemical point of view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyer, A.; D'Souza, F.; Morales, C.F.L.; Ferrari, G.; Mol, J.M.C.; Wit, J.H.W. de

    2013-01-01

    Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) is the term used for the phenomenon in which corrosion is initiated and/or accelerated by the activities of microorganisms. MIC is a very serious problem for the ship industry as it reduces structural lifetime in combination with safety risks for crewmemb

  20. Influence of an Additional Ballast Volume on a Pulsed ICP Discharge (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-10

    24] Makabe T and Petrović Z 2002 Appl. Surf . Sci. 192 88 [25] Bogdanov E A, Kudryavtsev A A and Arslanbekov R R 2006 Contrib. Plasma Phys. 46 807...J P 2002 J. Appl. Phys. 92 6990 [28] 1999–2006 CFD -PLASMA: User’s Manual (Huntsville, TX: CFD ) AQ2[29] Bogdanov E A, Kudryavtsev A A, Arslanbekov R R

  1. Large-Scale Testing of Treatment Processes as Alternatives to Ballast Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Kazumi, Linda Farmer, Sharon Smith, Peter Lane, Steven Smith, Gary Hitchcock, Thomas Capo, Natalia Zurcher 8. Performing Organization Report No...Richard D. Irwin, Homewood, IL. Patterson, J., P. Brezonik and H. Putman . 1970. Measurement and significance of adenosine triphosphate in activated sludge

  2. Efficacy of Ballast Water Treatment Systems: A Report by the EPA Science Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    Journal of Microbiological Methods 17...nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl tetrazolium chloride. Journal of Microbiological Methods 53:411-415. Munn, C.B. 2006. Viruses as pathogens of marine organisms...of the vital stain propidium iodide and its combined use with molecular probes in aquatic samples. Journal of Microbiological Methods

  3. Costs and benefits to European shipping of ballast-water and hull-fouling treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes, Jose A.; Santos, Lionel; Vance, Thomas; Fileman, Tim; Smith, David; Bishop, John D.D.; Viard, Frédérique; Queirós, Ana M.; Merino, Gorka; Buisman, Erik; Austen, Melanie C.

    2016-01-01

    Maritime transport and shipping are impacted negatively by biofouling, which can result in increased fuel consumption. Thus, costs for fouling reduction can be considered an investment to reduce fuel consumption. Anti-fouling measures also reduce the rate of introduction of non-indigenous species

  4. 75 FR 14287 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... Energy 10 CFR Part 430 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures and Standards for Fluorescent Lamp... OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AB99 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent... energy conservation standards rulemaking (see proposal in today's Federal Register) for the same...

  5. Ballast Water Risk Assessment, Ports of Mumbai and Jawaharlal Nehru, India, October 2003: Final Report

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anil, A.C.; Clarke, C.; Hayes, T.; Hilliard, R.; Joshi, G.; Krishnamurthy, V.; Polglaze, J.; Sawant, S.S.; Raaymakers, S.

    This report describes the BWRA activity undertaken for the neighbouring ports of Mumbai and Jawaharlal Nehru, which form the Mumbai Demonstration Site and are managed by the Mumbai Port Trust (MPT) and Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT) respectively...

  6. Global concerns of ship`s ballast water mediated translocation of bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, L.; Anil, A.C.

    of the convention), the planktonic forms need to be substantially reduced before discharge. In view of this, technologists are considering various options while designing the treatment technologies. The primary reason is the alteration in the microbial population...

  7. Evaluation of Deoxygenation as a Corrosion Control Measure for Ballast Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Classification X U C (or abstract) ( ) Journal article (refereed) ( ) Journal article (not refereed) Sponsor ( ) Oral Presentation, published ( ) Oral ...diverse microbial microflora in the bulk seawater medium, it is impossible to elaborate on the role/mechanisms of MIC in the cycling experiments. Bacterial...the natural microflora can be cultured using selective culture media and a single incubation temperature. Furthermore the organisms cultured from the

  8. Lamp-Ballast Compatibility Index for Efficient Ceramic Metal Halide Lamp Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Sourish Chatterjee

    2013-01-01

    Development of energy efficient products and exploration of energy saving potential are major challenges for present day’s technology. Ceramic Metal Halide lamp is the latest improved version of metal halide lamp that finds its wide applications in indoor commercial lighting especially in retail shop lighting. This lamp shows better performance in terms of higher lumen per watt and colour constancy in comparison to conventional metal halide lamp. The inherent negative incremental impedance of...

  9. Availability and Efficacy of Ballast Water Treatment Technology: Background and Issue Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    peracetic acid ; non-oxidizing chemicals such as menadione/vitamin K (trade name SeaKleen©). Systems using chemical biocides need to be designed to avoid...using PERACLEAN® Ocean, which uses the proprietary biocide PERACLEAN® Ocean, a peracetic acid -based oxidant, was found to have significantly longer...Hydrocyclone, electrolysis/ electrochlorination Y Y Siefert and Siers (2007) Hamann AG (SEDNA® 250 BWMS) Hydrocyclone, filtration, peracetic acid Y Y

  10. Interaction of subway LIM vehicle with ballasted track in polygonal wheel wear development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Li; Xin-Biao Xiao; Xue-Song Jin

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a coupled dynamics model for a linear induction motor (LIM) vehicle and a subway track to investigate the influence of polygonal wheels of the vehicle on the dynamic behavior of the system. In the model,the vehicle is modeled as a multi-body system with 35 degrees of freedom. A Timoshenko beam is used to model the rails which are discretely supported by sleepers. The sleepers are modeled as rigid bodies with their vertical, lateral,and rolling motions being considered. In order to simulate the vehicle running along the track, a moving sleeper support model is introduced to simulate the excitation by the discrete sleeper supporters, in which the sleepers are assumed to move backward at a constant speed that is the same as the train speed. The Hertzian contact theory and the ShenHedrick-Elkins' model are utilized to deal with the normal dynamic forces and the tangential forces between wheels and rails, respectively. In order to better characterize the linear metro system (LMS), Euler beam theory based on modal superposition method is used to model LIM and RP. The vertical electric magnetic force and the lateral restoring force between the LIM and RP are also taken into consideration.The former has gap-varying nonlinear characteristics, whilst the latter is considered as a constant restoring force of 1 kN.The numerical analysis considers the effect of the excitation due to polygonal wheels on the dynamic behavior of the system at different wear stages, in which the used data regarding the polygonal wear on the wheel tread are directly measured at the subway site.

  11. Interaction of subway LIM vehicle with ballasted track in polygonal wheel wear development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Xiao, Xin-Biao; Jin, Xue-Song

    2011-04-01

    This paper develops a coupled dynamics model for a linear induction motor (LIM) vehicle and a subway track to investigate the influence of polygonal wheels of the vehicle on the dynamic behavior of the system. In the model, the vehicle is modeled as a multi-body system with 35 degrees of freedom. A Timoshenko beam is used to model the rails which are discretely supported by sleepers. The sleepers are modeled as rigid bodies with their vertical, lateral, and rolling motions being considered. In order to simulate the vehicle running along the track, a moving sleeper support model is introduced to simulate the excitation by the discrete sleeper supporters, in which the sleepers are assumed to move backward at a constant speed that is the same as the train speed. The Hertzian contact theory and the Shen-Hedrick-Elkins' model are utilized to deal with the normal dynamic forces and the tangential forces between wheels and rails, respectively. In order to better characterize the linear metro system (LMS), Euler beam theory based on modal superposition method is used to model LIM and RP. The vertical electric magnetic force and the lateral restoring force between the LIM and RP are also taken into consideration. The former has gap-varying nonlinear characteristics, whilst the latter is considered as a constant restoring force of 1 kN. The numerical analysis considers the effect of the excitation due to polygonal wheels on the dynamic behavior of the system at different wear stages, in which the used data regarding the polygonal wear on the wheel tread are directly measured at the subway site.

  12. Investigation into the Distribution of Ballast Water Tracers in Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    for nonnative species to the coasts of North America. In: G.M. Ruiz and J.T. Carlton (Editors), Invasive species: vectors and management strategies...Editors), 2003. Invasive species: vectors and management strategies. Island Press, Washington, D.C., 600 pp. Ruiz, G.M., Fofonoff, P.W., Carlton, J.T...3629. Stabenau, E.R., Zepp, R.G., Bartels, E. and Zika , R.G., 2004. Role of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum as a source of chromophoric dissolved

  13. Model-Based Control of a Ballast-Stabilized Floating Wind Turbine Exposed to Wind and Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Søren

    2013-01-01

    wind turbine, for water depths beyond 50 meters where winds are stronger and less turbulent. A floating wind turbine is subject to not only aerodynamics and wind induced loads, but also to hy-drodynamics and wave induced loads. In contrast to a bottom fixed wind turbine, the floating structure......The wind turbine is a commercial product which is competing against other sources of energy, such as coal and gas. This competition drives a constant development to reduce costs and improve effi-ciency in order to reduce the total cost of the energy. The latest offshore development is the floating......, the hydrodynamics and the loads change the dynamic behavior of a floating wind turbine. Consequently, conventional wind turbine control cause instabilities on floating wind turbines. This work addresses the control of a floating spar buoy wind turbine, and focuses on the impact of the additional platform dynamics...

  14. Ballast Water Treatment, U.S. Great Lakes Bulk Carrier Engineering and Cost Study. Volume 1: Present Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Calcite , MI Carrollton, MI Dearborn, MI Buffalo, NY Hancock, MI Presque Isle (UP), MI Escanaba, MI Calumet, IL Cedarville, MI Essexville, MI...2,584,280 6.1 4 Duluth 2,008,944 4.8 5 Calcite 1,926,582 4.6 6 Port Inland 1,805,522 4.3 7 Marquette 1,600,102 3.8 8 Presque Isle 1,414,239 3.4 9...River Rouge Presque Isle Buffington Calcite Buffington Calcite Buffington Stoneport Newer, Intermediate Capacity 800’ –900’ Laker N.W. Lake

  15. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 157 - Procedure for Determining Distribution of Segregated Ballast Tanks To Provide Protection Against...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Ramming, or Collision C Appendix C to Part 157 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Pt. 157, App. C Appendix C to Part 157—Procedure for Determining...

  16. 压载舱涂层保护新工艺%The New Techniques of Ballast Tanks Coating Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆信浩

    2012-01-01

    介绍海水压载舱涂层性能保护所采取的新技术、新工艺,讨论从设计到平台总组、搭载各阶段的具体实施方法.通过前期的技术准备和工艺试行,使涂层得到了有效的保护,降低了机械损伤引起的破损,也满足了船舶压载舱保护涂层性能标准(PSPC)中的严格要求.

  17. 77 FR 17253 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... BWM regulations not less than every 3 years based on the best scientific information available to her... Hallegraeff 1993; Smith et al. 1996; Taylor and Bruce 2000; Zhang and Dickman 1999) although lower efficacies... factor other than best available technology. Whether the commenters meant ``best available...

  18. Model-based control of a ballast-stabilized floating wind turbine exposed to wind and waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, Soeren

    2013-01-15

    The wind turbine is a commercial product which is competing against other sources of energy, such as coal and gas. This competition drives a constant development to reduce costs and improve efficiency in order to reduce the total cost of the energy. The latest offshore development is the floating wind turbine, for water depths beyond 50 meters where winds are stronger and less turbulent. A floating wind turbine is subject to not only aerodynamics and wind induced loads, but also to hydrodynamics and wave induced loads. In contrast to a bottom fixed wind turbine, the floating structure, the hydrodynamics and the loads change the dynamic behavior of a floating wind turbine. Consequently, conventional wind turbine control cause instabilities on floating wind turbines. This work addresses the control of a floating spar buoy wind turbine, and focuses on the impact of the additional platform dynamics. A time varying control model is presented based on the wind speed and wave frequency. Estimates of the wind speed and wave frequency are used as scheduling variables in a gain scheduled linear quadratic controller to improve the electrical power production while reducing fatigue. To address the problem of negative damped fore-aft tower motion, additional control loops are suggested which stabilize the response of the onshore controller and reduce the impact of the wave induced loads. This research is then extended to model predictive control, to further address wave disturbances. In the context of control engineering, the dynamics and disturbances of a floating wind turbine have been identified and modeled. The objectives of maximizing the production of electrical power and minimizing fatigue have been reached by using advanced methods of estimation and control. (Author)

  19. High-Power Ultrasound for Disinfection of Graywater and Ballast Water: A Beaker-Scale and Pilot-Scale Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    sonication medium was a mineral salts base (50% strength phosphate buffered saline, PBS) with starch, gelatin , and laundry detergent. Variations on this...DRED were determined in the same way as for the beaker-scale tests. Plankton Phytoplankton experiments were carried out by the Center for Applied Aquatic

  20. Analysis, design and optimization of the LCC resonant inverter as a high-intensity discharge lamp ballast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, J.M.; Blanco, C.; Lopez, E.; Calleja, A.J.; Rico, M. [Univ. de Oviedo, Gijon (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Electrica y Electronica

    1998-05-01

    A complete study of the clamped-mode (CM) series-parallel (LCC) resonant inverter together with some of the control-to-output characteristics are presented in this paper. Also, a new control method for the CM LCC resonant inverter is introduced. With this method, the inverter is forced to operate with optimum commutations and without handling reactive energy, thus minimizing both switching and conduction losses. The corresponding design procedure is illustrated with a design example. Finally, some experimental results obtained from a prototype at the laboratory are also shown to validate the analysis and evaluate the proposed control method.

  1. 33 CFR 157.03 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the load waterline corresponding to the assigned summer freeboard. Dedicated clean ballast tank means a cargo tank that is allocated solely for the carriage of clean ballast. Domestic trade means trade... installation of segregated ballast tanks, dedicated clean ballast tanks, a crude oil washing system,...

  2. Marine bioinvasion: Concern for ecology and shipping

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anil, A.C.; Venkat, K.; Sawant, S.S.; DileepKumar, M.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Ramaiah, N.; Harkantra, S.N.; Ansari, Z.A.

    of the problems currently faced by the global R&D and shipping communities is that there are currently no internationally agreed and approved standards and in particular, effectiveness standards for the evaluation and approval of new ballast water - treatment... - treatment methods are soon developed. 1. Ballast Water News , GloBallast, IMO, GEF, UNDP, 2000, 1. 2. Stopping the Ballast Water Stowaways , Global Ballast Water Management Programme, IMO, March 2001. Table 2. Technological options under...

  3. Development of a Method to Determine the Number of Viable Organisms >or- 50 micrometers (Nominally Zooplankton) in Ships’ Ballast Water: A Combination of Two Vital, Fluorescent Stains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    organisms ranging from mysid shrimp and larval fish to copepods and algae (Seepersad et al. 2004; Bicket et al. 2008). Both aniline blue and neutral...Mortality of zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, veligers during downstream transport. Freshwater Biology 42: 69-76. International Maritime Organization

  4. STUDI KOMPARASI PIPA SCH 40 GALVANIZE DENGAN SCH 40 NON GALVANIZE PADA SISTEM PIPA BALLAST DIKAJI DARI SEGI TEKNIS DAN EKONOMIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarjito Jokosisworo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Vessel is an effective and efficient medium of sea transportation because it can transport goods in a large number. In planing and constructing the vessel, therefore, it is not only striven to be economical without decreasing its function, instruction of classification, and contruction power, but also simple to get the treatment. It will make the vessel more durable and the condition of equipment structure more stable to support the operation. One the important project and construction is to determine materials that will be used on the vessel. Pipe is a dominant component in operational system of each activator engine. Besides, it is as medium to transfer bold fluid and gas from a space to another space. Hence, it is important to protect the pipe from decreasing function which is caused by corrosion, so that damages the pipe. Considering the high vessel reparation fee, it is better to shade the pipe from the damages. The most efficient and the easiest protection and treatment to reduce corrosion in a pipe system is by using Galvanized method

  5. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 2, Fluorescent lamp ballasts, television sets, room air conditioners, and kitchen ranges and ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This document is divided into ``volumes`` B through E, dealing with individual classes of consumer products. Chapters in each present engineering analysis, base case forecasts, projected national impacts of standards, life-cycle costs and payback periods, impacts on manufacturers, impacts of standards on electric utilities, and environmental effects. Supporting appendices are included.

  6. 76 FR 10430 - BNSF Railway Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... permit BNSF to move empty and loaded ballast trains to and from the ballast pit at Elsey, Cal., which is... notice contains false or misleading information, the exemption is void ab initio. Petitions to revoke...

  7. Marine Bioinvasion: An Overview

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anil, A.C.; Venkat, K.; Sawant, S.S.

    Organisation a program that looks at marine bioinvasion mediated through ballast water carried by the ships. The first phase of this global ballast water management program has the participation of six countries (Brazil, China, India, Iran, South Africa... and Ukraine). In India, Mumbai and Jawaharlal Nehru Ports have been chosen for this program. The management measure recommended under the existing IMO ballast water guidelines is ballast exchange at sea (three times the volume). It is widely recognized...

  8. 33 CFR 157.222 - Pump and piping arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Design and Equipment § 157.222 Pump and piping arrangements. (a) Dedicated clean ballast tanks must be connected to the least practicable: (1... each dedicated clean ballast tank must be arranged so that oily water does not enter any...

  9. 33 CFR 157.202 - Plans and documents for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157..., Washington, D.C. 20593-0001— (a) Plans that include: (1) The dedicated clean ballast tank arrangement; and (2) A drawing or diagram of the pumping and piping system for the dedicated clean ballast tanks; and...

  10. 33 CFR 157.200 - Plans for U.S. tank vessels: Submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.200 Plans for U.S. tank... or documents that include the following: (1) The dedicated clean ballast tank arrangement. (2... dedicated clean ballast tanks, meets the stability standards for load line assignment in 46 CFR part 42....

  11. 33 CFR 157.214 - Required documents: U.S. tank vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.214 Required documents: U... ballast tank system plans; (b) The Coast Guard approved Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Required documents: U.S....

  12. 46 CFR 11.472 - Officer endorsements as barge supervisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., mechanic, electrician, crane operator, subsea specialist, ballast control operator or equivalent supervisory position on MODUs. At least 84 days of that service shall have been as a ballast control operator..., electrician, crane operator, subsea specialist, ballast control operator or equivalent supervisory position...

  13. Comparing the sensitivity of four bioassays for acrolein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneekes, A.C.; Kaag, N.H.B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction of non-indigenous species is a risk associated with discharge of ballast water from ships transporting cargo between regions. The IMO has set out a mandatory framework for ballast water management on board ships. EnvioMar GmbH has developed a Ballast Water Treatment System (BWTS) using

  14. Preventing Maritime Transfer of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaten, Douglas D.; Marano, Nina; Tappero, Jordan W.; Wellman, Michael; Albert, Ryan J.; Hill, Vincent R.; Espey, David; Handzel, Thomas; Henry, Ariel; Tauxe, Robert V.

    2012-01-01

    Organisms, including Vibrio cholerae, can be transferred between harbors in the ballast water of ships. Zones in the Caribbean region where distance from shore and water depth meet International Maritime Organization guidelines for ballast water exchange are extremely limited. Use of ballast water treatment systems could mitigate the risk for organism transfer. PMID:23017338

  15. 33 CFR 157.155 - COW operations: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... stripping suction; (9) Before the tank vessel begins each ballast voyage, each cargo tank and each cargo... piping of the COW system is drained of crude oil; (11) When the cargo tanks are not being water washed... ballasting the cargo tanks is drained of all crude oil; and (2) Before ballasting or deballasting cargo...

  16. Research on ballast production craft and equipment allocation at Xuanxing Mine Plant in Muchuan%沐川玄兴矿厂道砟生产工艺及设备配套的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余华超

    2012-01-01

    分别介绍了沐川玄兴矿厂地质概况、矿体特征及开采条件,针对该厂现行生产工艺及设备配置进行了分析,提出了提高产能和产品质量的具体措施并作了详尽描述,以指导实践。%The study introduces the geological survey, the ore body characteristics, and exploitation conditions of Xuanxing Mine Plant in Muchuan, analyzes the current production craft and equipment allocation, and points out the factual measures to improve the productivity and product quality and has the detailed description, so as to direct the practice.

  17. 有砟客运专线CPⅢ控制网测量方法与实践%The CPⅢ Control Network Mehtod and Practice in Ballasted Track of Passenger Special Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石峰

    2014-01-01

    有砟客运专线的列车运营速度较一般列车快,对轨道的平顺度要求较高,借鉴无砟客运专线CPⅢ控制测量技术对有砟客运专线进行CPⅢ控制网测量.以胶济铁路为例,详细论述平面控制测量、高程控制测量和数据处理方法,实践验证该方法可行,能够为类似工程提供借鉴.

  18. Detection of pathogenic Vibrio in the ballast water by polymerase chain reaction%PCR技术检测海运船舶压载水病原弧菌初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍颖异; 许学伟; 王春生; 黄雷; 吴刚; 吴敏

    2010-01-01

    船舶压载水引起的外来物种入侵,及由此引发的经济、环境和卫生等方面的灾害性后果,已成为当前世界海洋所面临的最大威胁之一.弧菌作为一种广泛存在于海洋环境的病原微生物,其数量已成为船舶压载水是否可以排放的一项指标.本文采用PCR扩增病原弧菌特征基因技术,结合弧菌相关16S rRNA基因文库,初步探讨压载水中病原弧菌快速检测技术.从采集自舟山远洋船舶压载水水样S1中,检测到hlyA和vvh基因,表明样品中含有霍乱弧菌(Vibrio cholerae)和创伤弧菌(V. vulnificus)的毒力基因.文库序列分析结果显示,重组克隆子中部分序列与副溶血弧菌(V. parahaemolyticus)和费氏弧菌(V. fischeri)相似性较高.研究结果表明,压载水样品S1中含有多种对人和动植物有害的病原弧菌,对海洋生态平衡、公共卫生安全和海洋养殖业具有潜在危害.

  19. Performance of Asphalt Mixture Fatigue Research Adding the Ballast and RAP%添加底碴与 RAP 的沥青混合料疲劳性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄书科

    2015-01-01

    This study used in AC -10 as the softener,viscosity of control target is 2000 poise,in accordance with the ratio of regeneration design calculation asphalt content,and according to different content at the bottom of the design in accordance with the return to call high tar content.Then the inciner-ator bottom dross and recycled asphalt concrete are the basic physical properties test,using the SGC pro-portioning design fatigue specimens,as a supplement to different levels of incinerator bottom dross and re-cycling of asphalt concrete,both the evaluation to the effect of relaxation modulus and fatigue properties of asphalt concrete.Experimental results show that the recycled asphalt concrete to replace high volume re-laxation modulus maximum value will increase,add a maximum of specimens of RAP for not add 1.5 to 2 times,speculation for the aging of asphalt recycling material contains specimen stiffness to improve the effects of the.%使用 AC -10(粘度分级)为软化剂,对焚化炉底碴以及回收沥青混凝土进行基本物理性质试验,评估两者对于沥青混凝土松弛模量以及疲劳性质的影响。试验结果显示,添加 RAP 的试件的最大值为未添加的1.5至2倍。而天然粒料取代量高的情况下,试件松弛模量平缓值有下降的趋势,这可能受底碴本身多孔易碎性的结构特性影响。回收料含量高的试件,微观裂缝发生的荷载次数有下降趋势,底碴含量增加至30%时较易生成微观裂缝;而底碴含量增加至30%以及 RAP 含量增加至40%时,疲劳寿命有下降的趋势。各种评估疲劳寿命的方式差异不大,都可有效评估。

  20. 400W太阳能高压钠灯电子镇流器的研制%Research of solar energy electronic ballast for 400W high pressure sodium lamp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂臣; 苏建徽; 张国荣

    2005-01-01

    针对太阳能高压钠灯电子镇流器的特点和高压钠灯在高频下的缺陷,设计了一种基于廉价驱动芯片SG3525A为基础的新颖太阳能高压钠灯电子镇流器,采用频率调制技术消除了声共振.并且设计了可靠的启动电路及过流、过压和异常保护电路,且能实现恒功率控制,最后给出了实验结果.

  1. Energy optimised lighting in buildings with simultaneous improvement of quality of life by daylight utilisation and innovative lamps and ballast techniques; Energieoptimierte Beleuchtung bei gleichzeitiger Verbesserung der Lebensqualitaet durch Nutzung von Tageslicht und neuer Lampen- und Vorschalttechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaase, Heinrich; Aydinli, Sirri; Gramm, Stefan; Thiel, Stefan [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Fakultaet IV Elektrotechnik und Informatik, FG Lichttechnik, Berlin (Germany); De Boer, Jan; Erhorn, Hans [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Bauphysik, Stuttgart (Germany); Kuhn, Tilman; Wienold, Jan [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany); Hillmann, Gustav; Korolkow, Margarethe [IBUS GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Piazena, Helmut [Universitaetsklinikum Charite, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    The scientific and technical goals of this project were developed in five parts. The individual topics arising from current issues, they still have a generally applicable nature. The consortium has worked on the following subprojects: (1) Development of a measurement technique to determine energy and photometric key figures of daylight components with a round robin test with three institutes. (2) Implementation of a detailed evaluation and documentation process for daylighting of interior spaces in different climate zones. (3) For lighting control in private living areas a ''Power Line Carrier Communication'' system has been evaluated and the advantages of a wireless transmission system were identified. (4) In a home for elderly quantitative studies on the well-being, for the fulfillment of visual tasks and the capability of melatonin suppression at different scenarios of general lighting with two different color temperatures of lamps (''warm white'' with TCP = 3000 K and ''cold white daylight'' with TCP = 6500 K) and vertical illuminance at the eyes of the subjects between 100 lx and 700 lx were performed. (5) For two school buildings in Berlin, the final energy consumption of the existing lighting system, the reference building and a re-planning were determined. It became clear in both examples that the existing lighting system exceeds the permitted value (EnEV 2009) by far. A good redesign, however, can be significantly less than the maximum allowed value. These studies were accompanied by a one-year monitoring of energy consumption. A cross-sectional analysis of 48 schools with a total of 86 buildings shows a substantial need for renovation of school buildings that were built before 1990.

  2. The Maritime Environment - International Conference and Exhibition on Ballast Water, Waste Water and Sewage Treatment on Ships and in Ports Held in Bremerhaven, Germany on 12-14 September 2001. Conference Proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    Natural Micro-Organisms for Black and Greywater Systems Bryan Spencer, United-Tech. Inc., US 15.30 - 16.00 COFFEE 16.00 - 16.30 Retrofitting Shipboard...treatment - simple adaptation to different hydraulic demands - insensibility to alternating loads - rejection of bacteria and viruses - reuse of the...will be necessary for achieving a pure effluent which can be reused as technical water (toilet flushing and boiler feed water) or discharged

  3. 压载水处理UV模块的CFD数值模拟及实验研究%Ballast water system of the UV sterilizer CFD numerical simulation and experimental research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宁; 焦晨; 陈刚

    2014-01-01

    针对船舶压载水系统对紫外(UV)杀菌器腔体设计技术水平要求高的特点,应用计算流体动力学(CFD)方法对UV杀菌器中压载水的杀菌过程建立数值模拟模型,并以300 m3/h处理量的UV杀菌器为对象,对其内部流场进行了模拟计算,重点对水力、辐射、剂量进行了模拟分析,获得了腔体内辐射剂量分布情况,并通过生物实验来检测实验装置是否满足IMO标准。%Ultraviolet light disinfection is an important kind of sewage depth processing method.By using compu-tational fluid dynamics (CFD)methods,the internal flow field in the uv tube is simulated and computaed,using Fluent software for hydraulic,radiation,dose of simulation analysis to obtain the distribution of radiation in the cylinder.And biological experiments were done to test whether it meet the standard of IMO.

  4. Design and Experimental Analysis of Experimental Device of Ballast Water Sterilizer of UV & US%UV+US的压载水杀菌器实验装置设计与实验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘建国; 孟宪振; 陈宁; 柯林华

    2013-01-01

    针对压载水携带有害微生物所造成的危害日益严重,在分析了紫外线协同超声波杀菌技术的可行性的基础上,对杀菌装置进行了设计,其中包括灯管的选型、紫外线照射剂量的计算、简体的设计、超声波功率和频率的设计、超声波换能器的选型等.通过灭活藻类实验、分析杀菌效果,验证了该技术在处理压载水方面的可行性.

  5. Application of Variable Precision Rough Set Theory in Intelligent Detection for the Electronic Ballasts%变精度粗糙集理论VPRS在镇流器智能检测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵荣泳; 高晓康; 李翠玲; 王昭云

    2009-01-01

    将变精度粗糙集理论VPRS引入电子镇流器的在线质量检测中,提出了一种基于变精度粗糙集理论的知识发现模型.在满足检测工艺流程要求的条件下,增加了对于不一致检测规则的容错处理能力.在此基础上,经过属性约简和属性值约简,得出了有用的智能检测规则.通过镇流器质量检测的工程实例,验证了该知识发现模型的有效性.

  6. 欧盟荧光灯、高强度气体放电灯及配套镇流器与灯具生态设计要求法规解析%Interpretation & Analysis to EU Commission Regulation (EC) No 245/2009 on Ecodesign Requirements for Fluorescent Lamps without Integrated Ballast, for High Intensity Discharge Lamps,and for Ballasts and Luminaires Able to Operate Such Lamps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊斌

    2009-01-01

    欧盟为贯彻用能产品生态设计指令(EuP指令),已出台两个针对照明电器的法规.本文介绍了编号为(EC)No 245/2009法规的要求,解析了这些要求的用意.最后对两个法规的异同进行了小结和点评.

  7. Mapping of biodiversity in the Mumbai port using GIS

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A.; Joglekar, V.V.

    , 2003). The various ballast water discharge, environmental matching and risk species data were processed by the database with other risk factors including voyage duration and tank size, to provide preliminary indication of the relative over all risk... posed by each ballast water source port, and which destination ports appeared most at risk from any ballast water uplifted at the demonstration site. This paper presents how GIS is used to characterize biodiversity of the marine ecosystem...

  8. 33 CFR 151.07 - Delegations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER... Office, is delegated the authority to— (a) Issue International Oil Pollution Prevention...

  9. A perspective of marine bioinvasion

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anil, A.C.

    ) and if an average of 200 000 dollars is considered, the BWT (ballast water treatment) would cost 15 billion dollars. The running cost is estimated to be 666 million dollars, considering a cost of 3.7 cents/tonne with an average of 40 000 tonnes/ship for 75 000... pursued are given below. Ballast water treatment systems Ballast water treatment by filtration Self-cleaning screen-filtration systems are one of the technological options for ballast water management. The technolo gies currently available off...

  10. 77 FR 5614 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Maritime Labour Convention, 2006; Development of guidelines on port State control under the 2004 Ballast Water Management (BWM) Convention; Comprehensive analysis of difficulties encountered in...

  11. 78 FR 8682 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... guidelines in relation to the Maritime Labour Convention, 2006; Development of guidelines on port State control under the 2004 Ballast Water Management (BWM) Convention; Comprehensive analysis of...

  12. 78 FR 2479 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... guidelines in relation to the Maritime Labour Convention, 2006; Development of guidelines on port State control under the 2004 Ballast Water Management (BWM) Convention; Comprehensive analysis of...

  13. 75 FR 82129 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... seafarers' working hours and PSC guidelines in relation to the Maritime Labour Convention, 2006; -- Development of guidelines on port State control under the 2004 Ballast Water Management (BWM)...

  14. Compact fluorescent lamp using horizontal and vertical insulating septums and convective venting geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siminovitch, Michael

    1998-01-01

    A novel design for a compact fluorescent lamp, including a lamp geometry which will increase light output and efficacy of the lamp in a base down operating position by providing horizontal and vertical insulating septums positioned in the ballast compartment of the lamp to provide a cooler coldspot. Selective convective venting provides additional cooling of the ballast compartment.

  15. 78 FR 13463 - Editorial Corrections to the Export Administration Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... and the Web site address: telephone (202) 663- 2700, facsimile (202) 261-8695, and Web site http://www...(j)(3), Recordkeeping requirements for deep water ballast exchange'' which was moved by a final rule.... 754.2(j)(3), Recordkeeping requirements for deep water ballast exchange'' and inserts the...

  16. Study on Treating Halobios Pollution by Hydroxyl Radical

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The high ratio concentration hydroxyl solution is produced by strong discharge, and applied to the prevention of invasive species in ship ballast water and red tide. This paper introduces the plasma process of hydroxyl radical production, the production process of high ratio hydroxyl solution, and the application to treating ballast water and red tide.

  17. 33 CFR 157.132 - Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...(a)(2) or § 157.10c(b)(2) without sufficient segregated ballast tanks or dedicated clean ballast... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK...

  18. 33 CFR 157.228 - Isolating Valves: Closed during a voyage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations § 157.228 Isolating Valves: Closed during a voyage. (a) The master of each U.S. tank vessel under §...

  19. 33 CFR 157.204 - Letter of acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.204 Letter of acceptance. The Coast Guard... submitted under § 157.202 show that the dedicated clean ballast tank system meets this subpart....

  20. 33 CFR 157.216 - Required documents: Foreign tank vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.216 Required documents... the United States unless the vessel has on board— (1) The Dedicated Clean Ballast Tank Operations... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Required documents: Foreign...

  1. 33 CFR 157.172 - Limitations on grades of crude oil carried.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 157.10c(b)(2) does not have segregated ballast tanks or dedicated clean ballast tanks that meet § 157... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations §...

  2. 75 FR 8700 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Request for Nominations of Experts To Augment the SAB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... under authority of the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the U.S. Coast Guard under authority of the... vessels equipped with ballast water tanks and bound for ports or places in the United States after... near-shore voyages and saltwater flushing of ballast water tanks that are empty or contain only...

  3. Impact analyses for negative flexural responses (hogging) in railway prestressed concrete sleepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewunruen, S.; Ishida, T.; Remennikov, AM

    2016-09-01

    By nature, ballast interacts with railway concrete sleepers in order to provide bearing support to track system. Most train-track dynamic models do not consider the degradation of ballast over time. In fact, the ballast degradation causes differential settlement and impact forces acting on partial and unsupported tracks. Furthermore, localised ballast breakages underneath railseat increase the likelihood of centrebound cracks in concrete sleepers due to the unbalanced support under sleepers. This paper presents a dynamic finite element model of a standard-gauge concrete sleeper in a track system, taking into account the tensionless nature of ballast support. The finite element model was calibrated using static and dynamic responses in the past. In this paper, the effects of centre-bound ballast support on the impact behaviours of sleepers are highlighted. In addition, it is the first to demonstrate the dynamic effects of sleeper length on the dynamic design deficiency in concrete sleepers. The outcome of this study will benefit the rail maintenance criteria of track resurfacing in order to restore ballast profile and appropriate sleeper/ballast interaction.

  4. New Design of a Low Cost Analogue Current Supply for Power LEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Bogdan Dragomir

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes an innovative and inductive ballast-based power LED supply. This new design LED powering solution is a cost-efficient alternative to high-end switching mode power supply (SMPS used to feed LED clusters. The current supply circuit topology will be explained. The AC component of the LED current is analysed both from the ballast inductance and the value of the DC filtering capacitor standpoint. The PSIM and MATLAB tools have been used to simulate the circuit output when different ballast voltage conditions will be applied. Transitory and steady-state driver performances have been taken into account.

  5. BALTRIM v.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffney, Thomas M.

    1999-02-01

    BalTrim is an Excel(R) spreadsheet designed to calculate the inertial mass properties and ballast trim weight for either an assembled reentry vehicle (RV) or reentry body (RB). With this application, the user enters known mass properties and global coordinates for each subcomponent of the assembly, and BalTrim calculates the mass properties of the total assembly. Then, using the assembly mass properties, BalTrim calculates the necessary amount of ballast trim weight required to dynamically and statically balance the assembly mass properties. The final mass properties and trim ballast weight calculated with BalTrim agree with physicaly measured values.

  6. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 3, Water heaters, pool heaters, direct heating equipment, and mobile home furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This is Volume 3 in a series of documents on energy efficiency of consumer products. This volume discusses energy efficiency of water heaters. Water heaters are defined by NAECA as products that utilize oil, gas, or electricity to heat potable water for use outside the heater upon demand. These are major appliances, which use a large portion (18% on average) of total energy consumed per household (1). They differ from most other appliances in that they are usually installed in obscure locations as part of the plumbing and are ignored until they fail. Residential water heaters are capable of heating water up to 180{degrees}F, although the setpoints are usually set lower.

  7. STR-B5450 Series Combination IC with Ballast Controller/Driver and Power MOSFET%集镇流器控制、驱动及功率MOSFET于一体的STR-B5450系列组合IC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛兴武; 祝大卫; 法文清; 解学军

    2000-01-01

    STR-B5450是日本三肯公司生产的集控制电路、高压驱动器及两只功率开关MOSFET于一体的系列SankenTM组合IC,使用该IC能使荧光灯电子镇流器元件数量减少约40%.并具有预热、点火、调光、自动再启动、开/关与复位及故障/失效保护等功能.工作可靠,最大输出功率达200W.本文介绍了该器件的内部结构、工作原理及典型应用.

  8. 75 FR 66757 - Stakeholder Input; Listening Session Seeking Suggestions for Improving the Next National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... runoff and above water line hull cleaning; bilge water; ballast water; anti-fouling leachate from anti-fouling hull coatings; aqueous film forming foam (AFFF); boiler/economizer blowdown; cathodic...

  9. 76 FR 30229 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ...-committees. --Work of other bodies. --Status of conventions. --Harmful anti-fouling systems for ships... ballast water. --Recycling of ships. --Prevention of air pollution from ships. --Reduction of GHG emissions from ships. --Consideration and adoption of amendments to mandatory instruments....

  10. 33 CFR 151.10 - Control of oil discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic... ship is not within a special area; (4) The ship is proceeding enroute; (5) The oil content of...

  11. 33 CFR 151.08 - Denial of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships General § 151.08 Denial of entry. (a) Unless a ship...

  12. 33 CFR 151.75 - Grinders or comminuters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Garbage Pollution and Sewage § 151.75 Grinders...

  13. 33 CFR 151.04 - Penalties for violation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships General § 151.04 Penalties for violation. (a) A person...

  14. 33 CFR 151.57 - Waste management plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Garbage Pollution and Sewage § 151.57 Waste...

  15. 33 CFR 151.28 - Plan review and revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Oil Pollution § 151.28 Plan review and revision. (a)...

  16. 33 CFR 157.24a - Submission of calculations, plans, and specifications for existing vessels installing segregated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... modification will be made or to the appropriate Coast Guard technical office listed in 157.100(b): (1) A drawing or diagram of the pumping and piping system for the segregated ballast tanks. (2) A drawing of...

  17. Stable, inflatable life raft for high seas rescue operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, J. H., Jr.; Harrison, F.; Marak, R.; Radnofsky, M. I.

    1971-01-01

    Raft is easily deployed and highly maneuverable in water. It has false bottom of water ballast containers attached to underside, making it exceptionally stable platform from which swimmers can operate. Raft is attachable to external moorings.

  18. Track Loading Vehicle - TLV

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The TLV is designed to apply forces close to the strength limits of the rails and other track structure components, such as ties, rail fasteners, and ballast, while...

  19. IC-BASED CONTROLS FOR ENERGY-EFFICIENT LIGHTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Zhang

    2005-03-01

    A new approach for driving high frequency energy saving ballasts is developed and documented in this report. The developed approach utilizes an IC-based platform that provides the benefits of reduced system cost, reduced ballast size, and universal application to a wide range of lamp technologies, such as linear fluorescent lamps (LFL), compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) and high intensity discharge lamps (HID). The control IC chip set developed for the platform includes dual low voltage (LV) IC gate drive that provides gate drive for high and low side power switches in typical ballast circuits, and ballast controller IC that provides control functionalities optimal for different lamps and digital interface for future extension to more sophisticated control and communication.

  20. Invasive Estuarine and Marine Animals of the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    hulls or ballast water, they include two sponges ( porifera ), two hydrozoans, three anemones, five barnacles, eight bryozoans, three kamptozoans...vastifica Porifera MA Halichondria bowerbankia Porifera ME MA RI CN NY Blackfordia virginica Hydromedusa

  1. Detection of damaged supports under railway track based on frequency shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Longqi; Zhang, Yao; Lie, Seng Tjhen

    2017-03-01

    In railway transportation systems, the tracks are usually fastened on sleepers which are supported by the ballast. A lot of research has been conducted to guarantee the safety of railway track because of its importance, and more concern is expressed about monitoring of track itself such as railway level and alignment. The ballast and fasteners which provide strong support to the railway track are important as well whereas the detection of loose or missing fasteners and damaged ballast mainly relies on visual inspection. Although it is reliable when the fastener is missing and the damaged ballast is on the surface, it provides less help if the fastener is only loose and the damaged ballast is under the sleepers, which are however frequently observed in practice. This paper proposes an approach based on frequency shift to identify the damaged supports including the loose or missing fasteners and damaged ballast. In this study, the rail-sleeper-ballast system is modeled as an Euler beam evenly supported by a series of springs, the stiffness of which are reduced when the fastener is loose or missing and the ballast under the sleepers is damaged. An auxiliary mass is utilized herein and when it is mounted on the beam, the natural frequencies of the whole system will change with respect to the location of the auxiliary mass. The auxiliary mass induced frequency shift is analyzed and it is found the natural frequencies change periodically when the supports are undamaged, whereas the periodicity will be broken due to damaged supports. In fact, the natural frequencies drop clearly when the auxiliary mass moves over the damaged support. A special damage index only using the information of the damaged states is proposed and both numerical and experimental examples are carried out to validate the proposed method.

  2. Morphing Aircraft Technology - New Shapes for Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    different speeds, depending on whether it is in the cruise or climb mode. Designers use camber changing flaps and water ballast to improve performance as...leading edge and trailing edge flap deflections to control camber, although imperfectly. The Mission Adaptive Wing (MAW) supercritical airfoil camber...they move from one mode of flight to the other. The disadvantage of ballast is that, like fuel, once it is gone, it is gone

  3. Diatom community dynamics in a tropical, monsoon-influenced environment: West coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeCosta, P.M.; Anil, A.C.

    collected at Mumbai and Jawaharlal Nehru ports, along the west coast of India (18°54'N, 72°40'E) (Fig. 1) as part of the Global Ballast Water Management Program initiative in India. Sampling was conducted during two consecutive post-monsoon periods... with regard to physico-chemical variables, zooplankton and bacterial abundance, data generated as part of the Global Ballast Water Management Program. 2. Results 2.1. Phytoplankton community Overall, 117 species belonging to 48 genera were recorded...

  4. Remediation plan for fluorescent light fixtures containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-04-30

    This report describes the remedial action to achieve compliance with 29 CFR 1910 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements of fluorescent light fixtures containing PCBs at K-25 site. This remedial action is called the Remediation Plan for Fluorescent Light Fixtures Containing PCBs at the K-25 Site (The Plan). The Plan specifically discusses (1) conditions of non-compliance, (2) alternative solutions, (3) recommended solution, (4) remediation plan costs, (5) corrective action, (6) disposal of PCB waste, (7) training, and (8) plan conclusions. The results from inspections by Energy Systems personnel in 2 buildings at K-25 site and statistical extension of this data to 91 selected buildings at the K-25 site indicates that there are approximately 28,000 fluorescent light fixtures containing 47,036 ballasts. Approximately 38,531 contain PCBs and 2,799 of the 38,531 ballasts are leaking PCBs. Review of reportable occurrences at K-25 for the 12 month period of September 1990 through August 1991 shows that Energy Systems personnel reported 69 ballasts leaking PCBs. Each leaking ballast is in non-compliance with 29 CFR 1910 - Table Z-1-A. The age of the K-25 facilities indicate a continued and potential increase in ballasts leaking PCBs. This report considers 4 alternative solutions for dealing with the ballasts leaking PCBs. The advantages and disadvantages of each alternative solution are discussed and ranked using cost of remediation, reduction of health risks, and compliance with OSHA as criteria.

  5. Effects of Battery Voltage in Fluorescent Lamps for Use in Photovoltaic Systems; Efectos de la Tension de Bateria en Lamparas Fluorescentes para Uso en Instalaciones Fotovoltaicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Rosillo, F.; Egido Aguilera, M. A.

    2008-07-01

    It is known the importance of lighting systems with fluorescent lamps and electronic ballast in isolated photo-voltaic systems. The positive characteristics of the fluorescent lamps sometimes are not developed in full, due to the incorrect choice of ballast The failure of a lamp in the photovoltaic system can have great significance in the subjective perception of the user for the complete system. The purpose of this study is to analyze the behavior of two very similar fluorescent lamps, fed with different electronic ballasts, showing the great influence of the electronic ballast topology in the operation of the fluorescent lamp. In particular, this work aims to analyze the effect of variations of the input voltage to the ballast in the electrical and luminous characteristics of the lamp, as well as to understand the influence of electrical parameters in the life time of the fluorescent lamp. It is also analyzed the operating temperature of the electrode and the time necessary for electrode cooling after switching off the lamp. (Author) 23 refs.

  6. Transporting Ocean Viromes: Invasion of the Aquatic Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yiseul; Aw, Tiong Gim; Rose, Joan B.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of marine viromes (viral metagenomes) have revealed that DNA viruses are highly diverse and exhibit biogeographic patterns. However, little is known about the diversity of RNA viruses, which are mostly composed of eukaryotic viruses, and their biogeographic patterns in the oceans. A growth in global commerce and maritime traffic may accelerate spread of diverse and non-cosmopolitan DNA viruses and potentially RNA viruses from one part of the world to another. Here, we demonstrated through metagenomic analyses that failure to comply with mid-ocean ballast water exchange regulation could result in movement of viromes including both DNA viruses and RNA viruses (including potential viral pathogens) unique to geographic and environmental niches. Furthermore, our results showed that virus richness (known and unknown viruses) in ballast water is associated with distance between ballast water exchange location and its nearest shoreline as well as length of water storage time in ballast tanks (voyage duration). However, richness of only known viruses is governed by local environmental conditions and different viral groups have different responses to environmental variation. Overall, these results identified ballast water as a factor contributing to ocean virome transport and potentially increased exposure of the aquatic bioshpere to viral invasion. PMID:27055282

  7. Experimental Study on A Pendulum Wave Energy Converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Shou-qiang; YE Jia-wei; WANG Dong-jiao; LIANG Fu-lin

    2013-01-01

    Many of the existing wave energy converters (WEC) are of oscillating water column (OWC) and point absorber (PA) types.Fewer references have been published in public on the pendulum type WEC.A series of experimental tests on a bottom-hinged pendulum WEC model are carried out and some results are revealed in the present study.The purpose of this paper is to present a detailed description of the tests.It is found that wave energy conversion efficiency varies with the applied damping and wave conditions.In addition,special attention is given to the effect of the water ballast on the efficiency of the wave energy converter.It is demonstrated that the ballast plays an important role in energy extraction.Better understanding on how the performance of the device is influenced by damping,wave height,wave period and ballast is shown.

  8. Feasibility test program of application of coalescing phase oil/water separators to self compensating fuel tanks in surface ships. Final report, Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaiz, J.B.; Batutis, E.

    1974-05-01

    The report covers the evaluation of the General Electric Coalescing Plate Oil/Water Separator concept as applied to ballast water discharged from a ship equipped with self compensating fuel tanks during fueling operations. It was used to remove the entrained fuel oil from de-ballasted water being discharged during routine fueling operations. This separator was chosen because it has a cross sectional area and volume very nearly equivalent to a DE-1040 forward fuel tank. By attaching the separator directly to the ship's discharge port and refuelling at several flow rates it was possible to evaluate the performance of the coalescing plate banks in a de-ballasting operation.

  9. Utilization of washery dirt and mine refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leininger, D.; Schieder, T.

    1975-10-02

    Washery dirt and mine refuse may be used without processing as road ballast, embankments and dykes, and for filling gravel pits and subsidence areas. The properties required in road ballast are outlined. For the top portions of embankments and for frost protection layers, washery dirt must be processed to remove particles of the wrong size. Methods of heat treatment are listed, and the chemical composition of the dirt is discussed. Because of its different chemical composition, large particles are preferable to fine dirt for some applications, even if they have to be crushed. Tree planting experiments on spoilbanks are described.

  10. Dynamic analysis of rail transit elevated bridge with ladder track

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He XIA; Yushu DENG; Yongwei ZOU; Guido DE ROECK; Geert DEGRANDE

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a dynamic analysis model of an elevated bridge with ladder tracks under moving train load is established. The whole process of a train running through an elevated bridge at different speeds is simulated.The dynamic responses of the elevated bridge with ladder track and the running safety and comfort index of train vehicles are evaluated. Compared with the dynamic responses of an elevated bridge with ordinary non-ballasted slab track, the ladder track's effect on reducing the vibration of an elevated bridge is analyzed. The analysis results show that the ladder track has good vibration reduction characteristics as compared to ordinary non-ballasted track.

  11. Distribution and status of marine invasive species in and bordering the West Coast National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B. Robinson

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available On a global scale, species are constantly being moved from their areas of origin to new locales. Such range extensions can occur naturally, but are frequently aided (intentionally or non-intentionally by humans (Mack et al. 2000. As a result, the marked world-wide increase in animal, plant, and microbial immigrations, has been found to roughly track the increase in human commerce (Mack et al. 2000. The principal vectors of human-mediated marine invasions are ballast water (Williams et al. 1988, mariculture (Minchin 1996, sediment held in ballast tanks (Carlton 1985, and ship hull fouling (Minchin 1996.

  12. Treatment of Invasive Marine Species on Board by Using Micro-gap Discharge Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A pilot-scale experiment of 20 t/h for the treatment of ship's ballast water is reexperiment, the rate of destroying bacteria, mono-algae, protozoan reached 100% within 2.67 s.The effect of hydroxyl radicals on biochemical processes was also studied. The attenuation rate of photosynthesis pigment was 100%. And the main reason for the cells' death was the strong destruction of the monose, amylose, protein, DNA and RNA in the cells. As an advanced oxidation method, the procedure can destroy invasive marine species when a ship is in the process of discharging its ballast water.

  13. Life raft stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radnofsky, M. I.; Barnett, J. H., Jr.; Harrison, F. L.; Marak, R. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An improved life raft stabilizer for reducing rocking and substantially precluding capsizing is discussed. The stabilizer may be removably attached to the raft and is defined by flexible side walls which extend a considerable depth downwardly to one another in the water. The side walls, in conjunction with the floor of the raft, form a ballast enclosure. A weight is placed in the bottom of the enclosure and water port means are provided in the walls. Placement of the stabilizer in the water allows the weighted bottom to sink, producing submerged deployment thereof and permitting water to enter the enclosure through the port means, thus forming a ballast for the raft.

  14. The Buffer and Backfill Handbook. Part 2: Materials and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Roland [Geodevelopment AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2001-12-01

    Improved technology and prospection yielding more pure and homogeneous raw materials for preparing buffers and backfills will ultimately outdate the clays and ballast materials described in the present part of the Handbook. It describes experimentally investigated materials of potential use in repositories but other, more suitable materials will replace them in the future. The Handbook will hence have to be reviewed regularly, making room for superior materials in future, upgraded Handbook versions. Buffer is the term for dense clay used for embedment of canisters with highly radioactive waste, while backfill is soil used for filling tunnels and shafts in repositories. Examples of soil materials of potential use as buffers and backfills in repositories of KBS-3 type are described in this part of the Handbook. They are: smectitic clay materials intended for preparation of buffers (canister-embedding clay) and used as clay component in artificially prepared tunnel and shaft backfills consisting of mixtures of clay and ballast. Ballast materials intended for backfilling of tunnels and shafts and used as components of artificially prepared backfills. Smectitic natural clay soils intended for use as buffers and backfills. Very fine-grained smectite clay used as grout for sealing rock fractures. In this part of the Handbook for Buffers and Backfills, description of various candidate materials will be made with respect to their mineral composition and physical properties, with respect to the groundwater chemistry that can be expected in a deep repository in Swedish bedrock. Chapter 3 deals with smectitic clay materials intended for embedment of heat-producing canisters with highly radioactive waste. Focus is on the nature of the buffer constituents, i. e. the smectite content, the non-expanding clay minerals colloidal and the accessory non-clay minerals as well as amorphous matter and organic substances. The dominant part of the chapter describes the occurrence and origin

  15. 40 CFR 419.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... runoff and is not commingled or treated with process wastewater, it may be discharged if it does not... 110 mg/l TOC is not commingled or treated with any other type of wastewater, the quantity of... provisions of § 419.12(c) apply to discharges of process wastewater pollutants attributable to ballast...

  16. 40 CFR 419.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... wastewater consists solely of contaminated runoff and is not commingled or treated with process wastewater... commingled or treated with process wastewater, or if wastewater consisting solely of contaminated runoff... discharges of process wastewater pollutants attributable to ballast water by a point source subject to...

  17. 40 CFR 419.24 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contaminated runoff and is not commingled or treated with process wastewater, it may be discharged if it does...) If contaminated runoff is commingled or treated with process wastewater, or if wastewater consisting... wastewater pollutants attributable to ballast water by a point source subject to the provisions of...

  18. 40 CFR 419.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... treated with process wastewater, it may be discharged if it does not exceed 15 mg/l oil and grease and 110... contaminated runoff is commingled or treated with process wastewater, or if wastewater consisting solely of...) apply to discharges of process wastewater pollutants attributable to ballast water by a point...

  19. 40 CFR 419.44 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contaminated runoff and is not commingled or treated with process wastewater, it may be discharged if it does...) If contaminated runoff is commingled or treated with process wastewater, or if wastewater consisting... wastewater pollutants attributable to ballast water by a point source subject to the provisions of...

  20. 78 FR 14400 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... facilities; --Reports of sub-committees; --Work of other bodies; --Harmful anti-fouling systems for ships... the following: --Harmful aquatic organisms in ballast water; --Recycling of ships; --Air pollution and energy efficiency; --Reduction of GHG emissions from ships; --Consideration and adoption of amendments...

  1. 77 FR 52105 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ...; --Reports of sub-committees; --Work of other bodies; --Status of conventions; --Harmful anti-fouling systems... include: --Harmful aquatic organisms in ballast water; --Recycling of ships; --Air pollution and energy efficiency; --Reduction of GHG emissions from ships; --Consideration and adoption of amendments to...

  2. 77 FR 54648 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ...-committees; --Work of other bodies; --Status of conventions; --Harmful anti-fouling systems for ships... organisms in ballast water; --Recycling of ships; --Air pollution and energy efficiency; --Reduction of GHG emissions from ships; --Consideration and adoption of amendments to mandatory instruments;...

  3. 75 FR 8176 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... facilities --Reports of sub-committees --Work of other bodies --Status of conventions --Harmful anti-fouling systems for ships --Promotion of implementation and enforcement of MARPOL and related instruments... ballast water --Recycling of ships --Prevention of air pollution from ships --Consideration and...

  4. Bivalve aquaculture transfers in Atlantic Europe. Part B: Environmental impacts of transfer activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenner, M.; Fraser, D.; Nieuwenhove, van K.; Kamermans, P.

    2014-01-01

    For centuries human populations have moved live shellfish around the world for consumption or aquaculture purposes; being relayed from their area of origin for growout or sale. This is in contrast to the inadvertent anthropogenic spreading of species via e.g. ballast waters. There are inherent risks

  5. 14 CFR 23.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... gravity. 23.29 Section 23.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Flight General § 23.29 Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must be determined by weighing the airplane with— (1) Fixed ballast;...

  6. Biogeochemical significance of transport exopolymer particles in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Ramaiah, N.; Gauns, M.; DeSousa, S.N.

    sub-oxic layers in the Arabian Sea. Results support the mineral ballast theory in the Bay of Bengal and also reveal the hitherto not noticed organic matter reservoir, which seems to be in surplus, to meet the higher carbon demand by bacteria...

  7. 49 CFR 1242.10 - Administration-track (account XX-19-02).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... accounts are separated between freight and passenger services: Roadway: Running (XX-17-10) Switching (XX-18-10) Ties: Running (21-17-13) Switching (21-18-13) Rails: Running (21-17-14) Switching (21-18-14) Other Track Materials: Running (21-17-15) Switching (21-18-15) Ballast: Running (21-17-16) Switching...

  8. Bivalve aquaculture transfers in Atlantic Europe. Part B: Environmental impacts of transfer activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenner, M.; Fraser, D.; Van Nieuwenhove, K.

    2014-01-01

    For centuries human populations have moved live shellfish around the world for consumption or aquaculture purposes; being relayed from their area of origin for growout or sale. This is in contrast to the inadvertent anthropogenic spreading of species via e.g. ballast waters. There are inherent ri...

  9. On the occurrence of Carcinus maenas (Linnaeus) and its parasite Sacculina carcini Thompson in Burma, with notes on the transport of crabs to new localities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, H.

    1972-01-01

    From time to time crabs have been found in localities at great distances from their normal area of distribution, owing to their being transported by ships in ballast water tanks or on the hulls. Much attention has been paid to a report by Catta (1876), who examined the Crustacea taken from the hull

  10. 21 CFR 1040.30 - High-intensity mercury vapor discharge lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mercury and that is contained within an outer envelope. (2) Advertisement means any catalog, specification... ballast is an inductive reactor designed to have the operating characteristics as listed in Section 7 in... advertisement. Advertising for any high-intensity mercury vapor discharge lamp that does not comply...

  11. Air Structures: Inflatable Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Joseph M.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Describes and evaluates several avant garde'' examples of air structures. Included are a soft'' child's playpen, a pneudome that employs a water ballast for anchoring, a one-acre enclosed campus, an instant city'' constructed for an industrial design conference, and the Fuji Pavilion, at Expo '70 in Osaka, Japan, that was large enough to cover…

  12. 17.5万吨散货船布置特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶颖

    2003-01-01

    The first 175000dwt bulk carrier of environment friendly type is designed and built by Waigaoqiao Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. It was delivered in June this year and is also the biggest bulk carrier ever designed and constructed by China itself by now. This paper describes the major characteristics of the arrangements on its fuel tanks and ballast tanks etc.

  13. Graywater Discharges from Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    addition, based on personal contact with the shipping company, storing graywater in ballast tanks while in port can limit vessel stability considering...enters the treatment system and mixes with the aerated liquid already in the aeration chamber. EPDM Air diffuser injects air near the bottom of the

  14. Surface Structures and Transitions and the Evolution from Firm to Bulk Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-22

    and vermicular graphite. Advances in cell powder design, together with high brightness synchrotron radiation x-ray sources, have made possible studies...focused beam with an Si dotbie •I monochromator and a Ge analyzer. In the sample cell we used vermicular graphite powder as a ballast to control the

  15. Recruitment potential of a green alga Ulva flexuosa Wolfen dark preserved zoospore and its development

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Imchen, T.

    . Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 75: 547–555. 10. Kolwalkar JP, Sawant SS, Dharkalkar VK (2007) Fate of Enteromorpha (Wulfen) J. Agardh and its spores in darkness: Implication for ballast water management. Aquatic Botany 86: 86–88. 11. Raffaelli DJ...

  16. 33 CFR 158.240 - Ship repair yards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship repair yards. 158.240... Facilities: Oily Mixtures § 158.240 Ship repair yards. The reception facility that services oceangoing ships using a ship repair yard must have a capacity for receiving— (a) An amount of ballast from bunker...

  17. Internal Wave Generation Processes at Deep-Sills in the Luzon Passage Region of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    a Benthos pinger, and Vader with an Xeos GPS iridium beacon. Both instruments were ballasted to fall at 0.75 m/s using two expendable weights. Vito...Initially, it was used with the Benthos pinger with 2 drop-weights, but was later switched to the Xeos GPS beacon with 1 drop-weight. The latter

  18. 76 FR 24043 - Buy American Exceptions Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ..., 2009) (Recovery Act), and implementing guidance of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), this... installation of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and energy efficient fluorescent electronic light ballasts for... published on April 23, 2009 (74 FR 18449), this notice advises the public that, on April 1, 2011,...

  19. Physiological Adaptation and Invasion Success: A Comparison of Native and Invasive Species of Bay Mussels in the Central California Hybrid Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Somero, George N.

    2005-01-01

    Invasive aquatic species can pose serious ecological and economic threats to coastal habitats. Although the mechanisms by which invasive species are introduced are generally well understood, and frequently caused by discharging ballast water, less is known about the physiological characterists that allow an invasive species to proliferate so successfully.

  20. Historical invasions of the intertidal zone of Atlantic North America associated with distinctive patterns of trade and emigration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brawley, S.H.; Coyer, J.A.; Blakeslee, A.M.H.; Hoarau, G.G.; Johnson, L.E.; Byers, J.E.; Stam, W.T.; Olsen, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Early invasions of the North American shore occurred mainly via deposition of ballast rock, which effectively transported pieces of the intertidal zone across the Atlantic. From 1773- 1861, > 880 European ships entered Pictou Harbor, Nova Scotia, as a result of emigration and trade from Europe. The

  1. Indications of marine bioinvasion from network theory. An analysis of the global cargo ship network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kölzsch, A.; Blasius, B.

    2011-01-01

    The transport of huge amounts of small aquatic organisms in the ballast tanks and at the hull of large cargo ships leads to ever increasing rates of marine bioinvasion. In this study, we apply a network theoretic approach to examine the introduction of invasive species into new ports by global shipp

  2. 33 CFR 151.1504 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... adverse impacts to the structure and function of an ecosystem, minimize adverse effects on non-target organisms and ecosystems, and that emphasize integrated pest management techniques and non-chemical measures... Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in the Great Lakes and Hudson River §...

  3. 46 CFR 170.110 - Stability booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... restrictions used to determine compliance with applicable intact and damage stability criteria must encompass... used to determine compliance with applicable intact and damage stability criteria. (8) Examples of... cross-flooding fittings. (14) The amount and location of fixed ballast. (15) Any other...

  4. The Pivotal Role of Education in the Association between Ability and Social Class Attainment: A Look across Three Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendy; Brett, Caroline E.; Deary, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have established that family social background and individual mental ability and educational attainment contribute to adult social class attainment. We propose that social class of origin acts as ballast, restraining otherwise meritocratic social class movement, and that education is the primary means through which social class…

  5. Numerical Study on the Effect of Buffer Bow Structure in Ship-to-ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Endo, Hisayoshi; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2005-01-01

    a very large crude oil carrier (VLCC) in ballast condition collides with the midship region of a D/H VLCC in a laden condition. Fracture of fillet welds, elastic-plastic material properties and strain rate effects, are taken into account in the simulations. The effect of the equivalent failure strain (FS...

  6. 75 FR 37975 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... respect to HID lamp-and-ballast system efficacy, NEMA referenced its whitepaper LSD 54-2010, ``The... Division Document LSD 14-2002, ``Guidelines on the Application of Dimming High Intensity Discharge Lamps,'' to evaluate typical practices for HID dimming. LSD 14-2002 notes the four applicable dimming...

  7. 33 CFR 157.166 - Hydrocarbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon emissions. 157.166... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.166 Hydrocarbon emissions. If the... ballasted in that port the hydrocarbon vapors in each tank are contained by a means under § 157.132....

  8. 33 CFR 151.15 - Reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Oil Pollution § 151.15 Reporting requirements. (a) The... instantaneous rate permitted in §§ 151.10 or 151.13 of this chapter, or NLS in bulk, in 46 CFR 153.1126 or...

  9. 46 CFR 151.45-2 - Special operating requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ballasting) substantially free of water. Periodic inspections and necessary pumping shall be carried out to insure maintenance of such water-free condition in order to minimize the free surface effects, both in... background. The minimum spacing between adjacent words and lines of characters shall be 2 inches. The...

  10. 46 CFR 169.682 - Distribution and circuit loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of 50 Volts Or More on Vessels of... be installed; or (2) 50 watts per outlet. (b) Circuits supplying electrical discharge lamps must be computed using the ballast input current. (c) The branch circuit cables for motor and lighting loads...

  11. 46 CFR 35.20-40 - Maneuvering characteristics-T/OC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for the normal load and normal ballast condition for: (1) Calm weather—wind 10 knots or less, calm sea... conditions, upon which the maneuvering information is based, are varied: (1) Calm weather—wind 10 knots or... calculations; (4) Simulations; (5) Information established from another vessel of similar hull form,...

  12. Increasing the Size of the Effective United States Control Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-01

    Bottomed; DH – Double Hulled; SH – Single Hulled; SBT – Segregated Ballast Tanks 2. Esso Petrolera Argentina SRL ( Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada ...new name for Esso SAPA ( Sociedad Anonima Petrolera Argentin) Source: Appendix E Table 5.2, M.I.T. EUSC, Militarily Useful Tanker Fleet for June 2002 85

  13. 33 CFR 151.17 - Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER... International Oil Pollution Prevention (IOPP) Certificate on board and to which this part applies, except as... that the oily-water separating equipment and associated pumps and piping systems remain...

  14. Environmental Assessment: Maintenance of the Bear Lake Storm Water Retention Pond Whiteman Air Force Base, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    LBP), mercury containing switches, thermostats, and fluorescent lights ; polychlorinated biphenyls light ballasts; petroleum; solvents; and...less than approximately 2 ac. Vegetation in these areas consists of horticultural varieties of turf grass, weeds, and volunteer herbaceous species...native prairies and grasslands near small creeks or marshes. Coloration is tan or light gray, with numerous brown or black spots. There is a faint

  15. 76 FR 77914 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Test Procedures for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... Parts 429 and 431 RIN 1904-AC37 Energy Conservation Program for Certain Commercial and Industrial.... Power Supply Impedance c. Reference Ballasts d. Instrumentation i. Instrumentation Required for Electrical Measurement ii. Instrumentation for Photometric Measurement 2. Lamp Selection and Setup a....

  16. 33 CFR 158.120 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in this part: Bunker oil means oil loaded into bunker tanks for use as fuel. Captain of the Port... facilities required under the Act and MARPOL 73/78, and has Form A, Form B, or Form C attached. Clean ballast... liquid form from cargo tanks and cargo pump room bilges, including but not limited to,...

  17. 46 CFR 16.105 - Definitions of terms used in this part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... a controlled-substance analog (as defined in section 102 of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse and Control...; electric power generators; bilge, ballast, fire, and cargo pumps; deck machinery including winches..., collectors, BATs and STTs, laboratories, MROs, substance abuse professionals, and C/TPAs. To act as...

  18. Dynamic Axle Loads as a Main Source of Railway Track Degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, M.J.M.M.; De Jong, E.; Zoeteman, A.

    2015-01-01

    During train operation, geometrical irregularities develop in soil-supported ballasted railway tracks as a function of born tonnage. This form of degradation is combatted by periodic maintenance in the form of tamping by specially equipped trains in order to guarantee predefined levels of structural

  19. 33 CFR 157.49 - Instruction manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Instruction manual. 157.49... Vessel Operation § 157.49 Instruction manual. The master of a tank vessel shall ensure that the instruction manual under § 157.23 is available and used when the cargo or ballast systems are operated....

  20. Riding the Sea and Chasing the Wave Chinese Ceramics Sold to Europe in the Ming and Qing Dynasties(II)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正Orders from Europe: Features of Chinese Export Porcelain Chinese porcelain was first imported to Europe by Portuguese traders. However, the glossy ware was not supposed to be profitable and was bought as ballast for silk, lacquer ware, spice, and other dearly cargos.

  1. 10 CFR 431.326 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy conservation standards and their effective dates. 431.326 Section 431.326 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Metal Halide Lamp Ballasts and Fixtures Energy...

  2. 10 CFR 431.286 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy conservation standards and their effective dates. 431.286 Section 431.286 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Mercury Vapor Lamp Ballasts Energy Conservation...

  3. Guidance on Port Biological Baseline Surveys (PBBS)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Awad, A.; Haag, F.; Anil, A.C.; Abdulla, A.

    This publication has been prepared by GBP, IOI, CSIR-NIO and IUCN in order to serve as guidance to those who are planning to carry out a port biological baseline survey, in particular in the context of Ballast Water Management. It has been drafted...

  4. The effect of low temperatures on the toxicity of PERACLEAN Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaag, N.H.B.M.; Sneekes, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Ballast water treatment systems are routinely tested for efficacy and residual toxicity at spring and summer temperatures in temperate areas, as that is the period when biological production is sufficiently high to match IMO testing requirements (guideline G8). Shipping, however, continues throughou

  5. Comparative Analyses of Multi-Pulse Phase Controlled Rectifiers in Continuous Conduction Mode with a Two-Pole LC Output Filter for Surface Ship DC Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ballasts), utility interfaces with non- conventional energy sources, in-process technology like welding , power supplies for telecommunications...frequency 1f ) component, and shi is the component at the h harmonic frequency  1hf hf  . The amount of distortion in the current waveform is

  6. 46 CFR 45.105 - Information supplied to the master.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information supplied to the master. 45.105 Section 45... LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.105 Information supplied to the master. Unless otherwise authorized... information. (a) To enable the master to load and ballast the vessel in a manner that avoids...

  7. 49 CFR 661.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: Infrastructure projects not made primarily of steel or iron, including structures (terminals, depots, garages, and bus shelters), ties and ballast; contact rail not made primarily of steel or iron; fare collection...) Steel and iron end products: Items made primarily of steel or iron such as structures, bridges,...

  8. Experimental study of the effect of high porewater salinity on the physical properties of a natural smectitic clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Roland [Geodevelopment AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    Natural smectitic clays for backfilling tunnels and shafts in deep repositories may be an alternative to mixtures of bentonite and ballast. Very salt groundwater is known to raise the hydraulic conductivity and reduce the expandability of clay materials in general and of bentonite/ballast mixtures in particular and the present study aimed at determining the impact of salt water on the major physical properties of natural smectitic clays, represented by the German Friedland Ton. The investigation showed that the compactability of the investigated clay is not significantly affected by the water content in contrast to bentonite/ballast fills, and that the conductivity and expandability are acceptable even at salt contents of up to 20 % if the bulk density at saturation is slightly higher than 2000 kg/m{sup 3} . For salt contents up to 3. 5 % the corresponding density is around 1900 kg/m{sup 3}. In general, the investigated clay offers better physical properties than mixtures of bentonite/ballast mixtures with up to 30 % bentonite content.

  9. Feasibility of an appliance energy testing and labeling program for Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermayer, Peter; Busch, John; Hakim, Sajid; Turiel, Issac; du Pont, Peter; Stone, Chris

    2000-04-01

    A feasibility study evaluated the costs and benefits of establishing a program for testing, labeling and setting minimum efficiency standards for appliances and lighting in Sri Lanka. The feasibility study included: refrigerators, air-conditioners, flourescent lighting (ballasts & CFls), ceiling fans, motors, and televisions.

  10. 46 CFR 182.520 - Bilge pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge pumps. 182.520 Section 182.520 Shipping COAST...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.520 Bilge pumps. (a) A vessel must be provided with bilge pumps in accordance with Table 182.520(a). A second power pump is an acceptable alternative to...

  11. 46 CFR 119.520 - Bilge pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge pumps. 119.520 Section 119.520 Shipping COAST... Ballast Systems § 119.520 Bilge pumps. (a) Each vessel must be provided with bilge pumps in accordance... have a portable hand bilge pump that must be: (1) Capable of pumping water, but not...

  12. Developing strategies for aquatic invasive species early detection in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a webinar round-table discussion of invasive species and ballast water research, Dr. Trebitz will be giving a short overview of the research that she and co-PIs Jack Kelly, Joel Hoffman, and Greg Peterson are conducting in this area. Key findings from the 2005-2007 sam...

  13. Design and Operation of Automated Ice-Tethered Profilers for Real-Time Seawater Observations in the Polar Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    required. Instrument ballasting is an application of Archimedes principle : buoyancy force equals the weight of the displaced water, p V g = m g, where m...lokdiga The only way to break out of SURFCON externally is by activating the RESET line via the console port (or with a push button switch on the SURFCON

  14. RAILCAR4 Toxic Industrial Chemical Source Characterization Program (Software User’s Manual)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    of the release trench.3 Even the over 2,000 deaths in Bhopal, India that resulted from the December 3, 1984 release of 40 tons of methyl isocyanate ... asphalt or even ballast stone will evaporate before the responders are likely to arrive and don protective gear. The final significant observation was

  15. 46 CFR 46.15-5 - Engineering requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engineering requirements. 46.15-5 Section 46.15-5... Lakes Voyages § 46.15-5 Engineering requirements. (a) Bilge and ballast systems, piping, inlets and... subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter....

  16. 46 CFR 119.510 - Bilge piping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge piping system. 119.510 Section 119.510 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... Ballast Systems § 119.510 Bilge piping system. A vessel must be provided with a piping system that...

  17. 46 CFR 182.510 - Bilge piping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge piping system. 182.510 Section 182.510 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.510 Bilge piping system. (a) A vessel of at least...

  18. Improving work load and comfort of operators on modified hydraulic excavators in rail road maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grinten, M.P. van der; Houtman, I.I.D.

    2000-01-01

    In small-scale projects of mechanized maintenance of rail roads special equipped hydraulic excavators (HE) are used in several maintenance tasks. One task concerns the exchange of the old crossbars and ballast under the rails by new materials (MCE-task). This task requires high precision of the HE-o

  19. Feasibility of an appliance energy testing and labeling program for Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Biermayer, Peter; Busch, John; Hakim, Sajid; Turiel, Issac; du Pont, Peter; Stone, Chris

    2000-01-01

    A feasibility study evaluated the costs and benefits of establishing a program for testing, labeling and setting minimum efficiency standards for appliances and lighting in Sri Lanka. The feasibility study included: refrigerators, air-conditioners, flourescent lighting (ballasts & CFls), ceiling fans, motors, and televisions.

  20. The Status of Benthos in Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benthic community of Lake Ontario was dominated by an amphipod (Diporeia spp.) prior to the 1990’s. Two dreissenid mussel species D. polymorpha (zebra) and D. bugensis (quagga) were introduced in 1989 and 1991 via ballast water exchange. D. bugensis was observed as deep as 85...

  1. Simplified Analysis Tool for Ship-Ship Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2007-01-01

    to the collision scenario thatwhere a VLCC in ballast condition collides perpendicularly with the mid part of another D/H VLCC in fully loaded condition. The results obtained from the present tool are compared with those obtained by large scale FEA, and fairy good agreements are achieved. The applicability......, limitation and future enhancement of the present tool are discussed in detail....

  2. Numerical investigation of piled raft foundation in mitigating embankment vibrations induced by high-speed trains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付强; 刘汉龙; 丁选明; 郑长杰

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional dynamic finite element model of track-ballast-embankment and piled raft foundation system is established. Dynamic response of a railway embankment to a high-speed train is simulated for two cases: soft ground improved by piled raft foundation, and untreated soft ground. The obtained results are compared both in time domain and frequency domain to evaluate the effectiveness of the ground improvement in mitigating the embankment vibrations induced by high-speed trains. The results show that ground improving methods can significantly reduce the embankment vibrations at all considered train speeds(36-432 km/h). The ground response to a moving load is dictated largely by the relationship between load speed and characteristic value of wave velocities of the ground medium. At low speeds, the ground response from a moving load is essentially quasi-static. That is, the displacements fields are essential the static fields under the load simply moving with it. For the soft ground, the displacement on the ballast surface is large at all observed train speeds. For the model case where the ground is improved by piled raft foundation, the peak displacement is reduced at all considered train speeds compared with the case without ground improvement. Based on the effect of energy-dissipating of ballast-embankment-ground system with damping, the train-induced vibration waves moving in ballast and embankment are trapped and dissipated, and thus the vibration amplitudes of dynamic displacement outside the embankment are significantly reduced. But for the vibration amplitude of dynamic velocity, the vibration waves in embankment are absorbed or reflected back, and the velocity amplitudes at the ballast and embankment surface are enhanced. For the change of the vibration character of embankment and ballast, the bearing capacity and dynamic character are improved. Therefore, both of the static and dynamic displacements are reduced by ground improvement; the dynamic

  3. Numerical investigation of piled raft foundation in mitigating embankment vibrations induced by high-speed trains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付强; 刘汉龙; 丁选明; 郑长杰

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional dynamic finite element model of track-ballast-embankment and piled raft foundation system is established. Dynamic response of a railway embankment to a high-speed train is simulated for two cases: soft ground improved by piled raft foundation, and untreated soft ground. The obtained results are compared both in time domain and frequency domain to evaluate the effectiveness of the ground improvement in mitigating the embankment vibrations induced by high-speed trains. The results show that ground improving methods can significantly reduce the embankment vibrations at all considered train speeds (36− 432 km/h). The ground response to a moving load is dictated largely by the relationship between load speed and characteristic value of wave velocities of the ground medium. At low speeds, the ground response from a moving load is essentially quasi-static. That is, the displacements fields are essential the static fields under the load simply moving with it. For the soft ground, the displacement on the ballast surface is large at all observed train speeds. For the model case where the ground is improved by piled raft foundation, the peak displacement is reduced at all considered train speeds compared with the case without ground improvement. Based on the effect of energy-dissipating of ballast-embankment-ground system with damping, the train-induced vibration waves moving in ballast and embankment are trapped and dissipated, and thus the vibration amplitudes of dynamic displacement outside the embankment are significantly reduced. But for the vibration amplitude of dynamic velocity, the vibration waves in embankment are absorbed or reflected back, and the velocity amplitudes at the ballast and embankment surface are enhanced. For the change of the vibration character of embankment and ballast, the bearing capacity and dynamic character are improved. Therefore, both of the static and dynamic displacements are reduced by ground improvement; the dynamic

  4. Experimental monitoring of geotechnical response of railway track systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsabhan, Abdullah H.

    An important issue that compromises rail track operations and safety is ballast fouling. Ballast fouling may lead to track deformation, reduction of track load capacity and train speed, and ultimately train derailment. This problem is quite costly for the railway industry thus, assessing and controlling ballast fouling and then preventing train derailment while optimizing maintenance operation is very important for reducing the overall cost of freight and passenger transportation. This study presents a proposed holistic methodology that extends assessing fouling while monitoring rail track deformation. The techniques uses deformation monitoring instruments (e.g., fiber optic (FO) sensors and LVDTs) coupled with Electromagnetic (EM) surveying: Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and a time domain reflectometry (TDR). The methodology aims at gathering data to create an early warning system that would allow railway engineers to develop a symptomatic approach to ballast maintenance procedures. This proposed methodology was tested on a full scale track model (FSTM). This model comprises 2.45 m rail supported by five ties embedded in ballast layer that was fouled under controlled conditions. The testing program considered three common types of fouling: mineral fouling, clay fouling, and silica sand fouling. A comparison between rail settlement measurements measured by LVDTs and rail bending strain measurement measured by FO sensors showed that FO sensors do not provide an indication of track deterioration due to cyclic loading, moisture content, and fouling depth. In addition, results showed a high correlation between rate of plastic settlement and amount of fouling detected by EM survey. Experimental results also showed that EM survey results can be used to determine depth and type of fouling.

  5. Acute and chronic toxicity of selected disinfection byproducts to Daphnia magna, Cyprinodon variegatus, and Isochrysis galbana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Daniel; Yonkos, Lance; Ziegler, Gregory; Friedel, Elizabeth; Burton, Dennis

    2014-05-15

    Ballast water treatment has become a major issue in the last decade due to the problem of invasive species transported and released by the uptake and discharge of ballast water for shipping operations. One of the important issues considering ballast water treatment is to determine whether treated ballast water, once discharged, is safe to the aquatic environment. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) Marine Environmental Protection Committee (MEPC) has determined that prior to approval of a ballast water management system, aquatic toxicity data must be available for both the active substance and relevant byproducts. Many proposed ballast water treatment systems use chlorine as the active ingredient. Although there are sufficient toxicity data concerning active substances such as chlorine, there are limited toxicity data concerning disinfection (halogenated) byproducts including dibromochloromethane, four haloacetic acids and sodium bromate. Acute and chronic toxicity were determined for these disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Acute toxicity values ranged from 96-h LC50s of 46.8 mg/l for Daphnia magna for both dibromochloromethane and sodium bromate to a 96-h LC50 of 376.4 mg/l for Cyprinodon variegatus for tribromoacetic acid. Acute Isochrysis galbana population growth effect values ranged from a 72-h EC10 of 39.9 mg/l for dichloroacetic acid to a 72-h EC50 of 15,954 mg/l for sodium bromate. Chronic toxicity mortality/reproduction effects values for D. magna ranged from a 21-d IC25 of 160.9 mg/l for tribromoacetic acid to a 21-d LOEC of 493.0 mg/l for trichloroacetic acid. Chronic toxicity mortality/growth values for C. variegatus ranged from a 32-d IC25 of 246.8 mg/l for trichloroacetic acid to a 32-d LOEC of 908.1 mg/l for tribromoacetic acid. I. galbana 96-h chronic population growth effects values ranged from an EC10 of 38.5 mg/l for trichloroacetic acid to an LOEC of 500.0 mg/l for tribromoacetic acid. Acute to chronic ratios for all of these

  6. Vessel traffic patterns in the Port of Kaohsiung and the management implications for preventing the introduction of non-indigenous aquatic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ta-Kang; Tsai, Tzung-Kuen

    2011-03-01

    Data on shipping traffic in one of the busiest seaports in the world, the Port of Kaohsiung, were analyzed to evaluate the implications for ballast water management. Results show that 67% of the arriving vessels were registered to a flag of convenience, which typically have a lower degree of environmental records. The top five donor countries historically suffer from harmful algal bloom problems. The short journey and busy trading between these countries and Taiwan lead to a higher risk of inoculation. In addition, only 1.4% of all vessels visited more than once every year during the 9-year span, indicating that the port authority encounters many new vessels each year. These findings could influence the design and application of ballast water management strategies as well as highlight the challenges in their implementation. We suggest that an analysis of vessel traffic patterns should be coupled with other useful vessel information to make risk assessment successful.

  7. Liquid filtration properties in gravel foundation of railroad tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelkov, A.; Teplykh, S.; Bukhman, N.

    2016-08-01

    Railway bed gravel foundation has a constant permanent impact on urban ecology and ground surface. It is only natural that larger objects, such as railway stations, make broader impact. Surface run-off waters polluted by harmful substances existing in railroad track body (ballast section) flow along railroad tracks and within macadam, go down into subterranean ground flow and then enter neighbouring rivers and water basins. This paper presents analytic calculations and characteristics of surface run-off liquid filtration which flows through gravel multiple layers (railroad track ballast section). The authors analyse liquids with various density and viscosity flowing in multi-layer porous medium. The paper also describes liquid stationary and non-stationary weepage into gravel foundation of railroad tracks.

  8. DEFORMATION CHARACTERISTICS OF CRUSHED-STONE LAYER UNDER CYCLIC IMPACT LOADING FROM MICRO-MECHANICAL VIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Akiko; Matsushima, Takashi

    'Hanging sleepers', which have gaps between sleepers and ballast layer are often found in the neighborhood of rail joints or rugged surface rails. This suggests that differential settlement of the ballast layer is due to impact loading generated by the contact between running wheel and rugged surface rail. Then cyclic loading tests were performed on crushed-stone layer with two loading patterns, the one is a cyclic impact loading and the other one is cyclic 'standard' loading controlled at 1/10 loading velocity of the impact loading. It was shown that the crashed-stone layer deforms with volumetric expansion during every off-loading processes under the cyclic impact loading. This phenomena prevents crushed stone layer from forming stable grain columns, then the residual settlement under the cyclic impact loading is larger than that under the cyclic 'standard' loading. A simple mass-spring model simulates that two masses move in the opposite direction with increased frequency of harmonic excitation.

  9. Characteristics of a compression wave propagating over porous plate wall in a high-speed railway tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A pressure wave is generated ahead of a high-speed train, while entering a tunnel. This pressure wave propagates to the tunnel exit and spouts as a micro-pressure wave, which causes an exploding sound. From the fact that the ballast track tunnel has smaller noise than the slab track tunnel, we have suggested a new inner tunnel model to decrease the noise of the micro-pressure wave, using the ballast effect. Experimental and numerical investigations are carried out to clarify the attenuation and distortion of propagating compression wave over porous plate wall in a model tunnel. Data shows that the strength of the compression wave and a maximum pressure gradient of the compression wave was weakened. These data shows the possibility of the present a11eviative method using the porous plate wall in a tunnel

  10. Transonic flutter study of a wind-tunnel model of a supercritical wing with/without winglet. [conducted in Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhlin, C. L.; Rauch, F. J., Jr.; Waters, C.

    1982-01-01

    The model was a 1/6.5-size, semipan version of a wing proposed for an executive-jet-transport airplane. The model was tested with a normal wingtip, a wingtip with winglet, and a normal wingtip ballasted to simulate the winglet mass properties. Flutter and aerodynamic data were acquired at Mach numbers (M) from 0.6 to 0.95. The measured transonic flutter speed boundary for each wingtip configuration had roughly the same shape with a minimum flutter speed near M=0.82. The winglet addition and wingtip mass ballast decreased the wing flutter speed by about 7 and 5 percent, respectively; thus, the winglet effect on flutter was more a mass effect than an aerodynamic effect.

  11. The Panama Canal and the transoceanic dispersal of marine invertebrates: evaluation of the introduced amphipod Paracaprella pusilla Mayer, 1890 in the Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Macarena; Ashton, Gail V; Lacerda, Mariana B; Carlton, James T; Vázquez-Luis, Maite; Guerra-García, José M; Ruiz, Gregory M

    2014-08-01

    Although the Panama Canal is one of the major corridors for shipping and potential dispersal of marine invaders in the tropics, little is known about the effect that the Canal has had on the distribution of marine biota. In this study, we (a) document the existence of established populations of the Western Atlantic caprellid amphipod Paracaprella pusilla, Mayer, 1890 for the first time at the Pacific entrance to the Canal, (b) review its distribution in the Pacific Ocean, and (c) evaluate possible mechanisms of introduction. The confirmed distribution of P. pusilla in the Pacific Ocean is limited to Australia, Hawaii, and Panama, despite earlier published reports from Chile and China. Laboratory experiments demonstrated intolerance of P. pusilla to freshwater, causing 100% mortality, and suggest invasion of the Pacific coast of Panama occurred through the Canal via ships' ballast water or by secondary spread via ships (ballast water or hull fouling) from another Pacific region.

  12. Microcontroller–Based Modified SEPIC Converter for Driving Lamp with Power Factor Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Yamuna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A methodological study of electronic ballast for electrode less lamps including design and development issues is presented in this paper. The ballast is intended to feed a 300 W ultra violet lamp at 100 kHz with dimming feature. The proposed topology is composed of a Single-Ended Primary Inductance Converter (SEPIC, used as power factor correction (PFC stage, integrated with a resonant half-bridge inverter, used as lamp power control (PC stage. The integration of both stages is proposed in this paper, in order to reduce the number of active switches, as well as to simplify the required driving and control circuitry for this application. The implemented topology attained very high power factor (0.9982, and low line current total harmonic distortion (THD (1.86%, without using electromagnetic interference (EMI filter, while the measured efficiency was 90% at nominal lamp power.

  13. Improved power converter for pulsed operation of DBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz-Kiene, Peter; Heering, Wolfgang

    2000-04-01

    In this paper an electronic ballast for pulsed operation of dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) is presented. The converter is designed as a transformer coupled square wave power source optimized for capacitive loads like DBD. The special features are the bipolar trapezoid waveform with variable slew rate (dU/dt), duty cycle, frequency and amplitude of the output voltage, which is balanced to ground. The power stage is designed in zero voltage switching technology. The ballast is primarily designed to investigate the discharge characteristics of DBD in dependence on the waveform parameters. A simple electrical DBD model is presented, which allows to predict the external DBD voltage and the discharge power in dependence of slew rate and duty cycle. The paper is closed with some experimental results of pulse XeCl*-excimer lamps.

  14. Winnebago Tribe Solar Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieman, Autumn [Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska Solar Project (United States)

    2016-02-26

    The strategy of the Solar Project was to reduce fuel use within two years by a roof mounted photovoltaic system. The police/fire building is completely powered by electricity. The renewable energy system we have selected has a power capacity of 23kW and the ability to export 44.3 MWh. We anticipate 32.55% kWh energy savings, an excess of the required 30% reduction, in the building’s total fuel use based on the most current 12 months of data (2012). The solar electric system is a grid-tie, ballast mounted on a flat roof over the police/fire station. The solar electric system includes 280 Watt modules for a nominal total of 22.80 kW. Approximately 84 modules are ballast mounted to the flat roof facing south.

  15. Innovation in product and services in the shipping retrofit industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Köhler, Jonathan

    . Similarly, given the deindustrialisation dynamics to regions with lower manufacturing costs, it is argued that a combination of knowledge intensive and service-based economy will eventually fill the gap left by manufacturing industries. To create added value to their products, some leading firms...... are increasingly developing product-service systems. It is however, argued that product-service systems are not always sustainable, and thus little evidence connect them with green growth. To fill in this gap, we are carrying a case study guided by the following research question: “How the ballast water treatment...... regulation could create innovation in green products and services in the maritime retrofitting industry?” Our case study focus on business models for the development, installation and operation of ballast water management systems in Denmark. We engaged the perspectives of ship-owners, equipment manufacturers...

  16. Innovation in product and services in the shipping retrofit industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Köhler, Jonathan; Scheepens, Arno

    2015-01-01

    to shed light on this issue, the authors develop a conceptual framework to show how a specific type of business model (Product-Service Systems) could be applied to the context of the maritime industry. With a focus on the Danish maritime industry, the case study addresses two questions: Which business...... to propose a possible product-service system. These results suggest that port-based systems have the highest potential for eco-efficient value creation and a possible product-service system can be designed for this kind of technology. The article highlights the point that authorities need to improve...... models are being used to develop, install and service the ballast water treatment technology? And, How can these business models add value to the ballast water treatment systems in the market? The case shows that different business models are applied depending on whether the installation is on new...

  17. Holistic control of ship noise emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Borelli Davide; Gaggero Tomaso; Rizzuto Enrico; Schenone Corrado

    2016-01-01

    The sustainability of anthropogenic activities at sea is recently gaining more and more attention. As regards shipping, emissions from ships into the environment of various nature (engine exhaust gases, anti-fouling paints leaching, ballast exchange, releases at sea of oil and other noxious liquid or solid cargoes, of sewage and of garbage) have been recognized as sources of pollution and therefore controlled and limited since a long time. The subject of noise emission...

  18. Environmental Assessment: The Development of a Borrow Source Cape Canaveral Air Force Station to Provide Material for Future Emergency Renourishment Projects Patrick Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Ferromagnetic materials such as iron cannon, metal ships fittings, anchors, some ballast, pottery , and kiln fired clay items may be detected...was found to be mostly interbedded or over-burdened with non-beach compatible dredge spoils (silt, clay , organics), and was deemed to be infeasible to...disposal of dredged materials from the inner basins of the harbor, almost all of which is characterized by muds, silts and clays . Deposits of

  19. Environmental Assessment Addressing the Defense Language Institute English Language Center (DLIELC), and the Inter-American Air Forces Academy (IAAFA) Area Development Plan at Lackland Air Force Base, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Shelter 2,805 222 7539 Troop Shelter 2,805 222 7620 Latrine 448 35 9110 BMT Dormitory 215,824 17,050 9210 BMT Dormitory 215,824 17,050 9310 BMT...as SQGs; and nine facilities within the Lackland Leaseback Area are classified as CESQGs. There are currently 222 satellite accumulation points...repairs and renovations occur, the ballasts are removed and disposed of as hazardous waste (LAFB 2002b). Radon . Lackland AFB is in Federal USEPA

  20. Columbia River Channel Improvement Project: Final Supplemental Integrated Feasibility Report and Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    E ATTN: Robert Willis Attention: Judy Grigg P.O. Box 2946, Portland, OR 97208-2946 P.O. Box 1258, Longview, WA 98632-7739 Phone: (503) 808...the origin of many exotic species that could invade the Columbia River, the Chinese mitten crab, zebra mussel and Eurasian milfoil are known...found for their control. Transferred to the U.S. in ballast water and on the hulls of vessels, zebra mussels have caused great environmental and

  1. On the increase in the limiting current of an atmospheric-pressure glow discharge in an argon flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldanov, B. B.; Ranzhurov, Ts. V.

    2014-04-01

    The initiation of an atmospheric-pressure glow discharge (APGD) is studied in the multitip cathode-planar anode electrode system through which an argon flow passes. It is shown that sectioning of the cathode and ballast resistances present at corona tips make it possible to substantially expand the current region of the discharge and considerably raise the limiting current of the APGD. The shape of the coronafree electrode is found to influence the limiting discharge current.

  2. Carbohydrate-degrading bacteria closely associated with Tetraselmis indica: Influence on algal growth

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Arora, M.; Anil, A.C.; Delany, J.; Rajarajan, N.; Emami, K.; Mesbahi, E.

    , in hydrolysing organic matter and in influencing the dynamics of phytoplankton.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This document is an output from the UKIERI (UK- INDIA Education and Research Initiative) project entitled ‘Development of Methodology for Biological... Assessment of Ballast Water Management Systems’ funded by the British Council, the UK Department for Education and Skills (DfES), Office of Science and Innovation, the FCO, Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales, GSK, BP, Shell and BAE for the benefit...

  3. Effects of Voluntary Fluid Intake Deprivation on Mental and Psychomotor Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Petri, Nadan M.; Dropulić, Nataša; Kardum, Goran

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To assess if there is deterioration in mental and psychomotor performance during 24-hour voluntary fluid intake deprivation. Methods: A battery of computer generated psychological tests (Complex Reactionmeter Drenovac) was applied to 10 subjects to test light signal position discrimination, short-term memory, simple visual orientation, simple arithmetic, and complex motor coordination. We measured total test solving time, minimum (best) single task solving time, total ballast time, an...

  4. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 14, Number 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    Soil Mechanics Information and Analysis Center The SMIAC is staffed by a director and one other (SMIAC) is located at the U.S. Army Engineer Water ...An auger construction is provided which reduces the surface include references to caissons, railway ballast , and pipeline noise radiated by the auger...chord (0.3m) and constant thick- fication of the helicopter model by least-squared-error or ness 116%) supercritical wing. This study provided extensive

  5. Flight Attendant Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    vapors; light ballast; cabin furnishings; stowage bins/hat racks ; trash containers; clothing; APU; jetway; ramp fires 10.2.2 Identify class of fire...are closed 1.7.14 Ensure proper precautions for passenger seats and stowage on combi (sic) aircraft 1.7.15 Check that class B cargo compartments...are clear for crew fire fighting 1.7.16 Check stowage areas for unapproved items and proper restraints 1.7.17 Identify seats with removable aisle

  6. Environmental Assessment of Proposed White Lakes Drop Zones for Kirtland Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    measuring 2’ X 3’, filled with rubber ballast (each weighing approximately 45 pounds [lbs]). Half of these drops would occur with parachutes...Santa Fe, NM Rayo McCollough Data Services Manager New Mexico Natural Heritage Program UNM Biology Dept. University of New Mexico Terry...5270 Mr. Rayo McCollough Information Coordinator Natural Heritage New Mexico UNM Biology Department MSC03 2020 1 University of New Mexico

  7. New Developments in Mitigation of Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-12

    experiment to evaluate deoxygenation of natural seawater as a corrosion control measure for unprotected carbon steel seawater ballast tanks. They...either consistently aerobic or deoxygenated conditions. CONCLUSIONS: It is difficult to compare the laboratory studies on corrosion inhibition due to...using nitrogen gas. Report of Research and Development to the Ship and Ocean Foundation. 1999 October, Japan. 31. Lee JS, Ray RI, Lemieux E, Falster A

  8. Analysis of Toxic and Non-Toxic Alexandrium (Dinophyceae) Species Using Ribosomal RNA Gene Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    1990). Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic paleoceanography of the northern polar oceans. In: Grantz, A., Johnson, L., Sweeny, U.. (eds.). The Geology of...Cultures represent isolates from North America, Western Europe, Thailand, Japan, Australia and the ballast water of several cargo vessels, and include... eastern North America. The B gene is considered to be a pseudogene. A restriction fragment L-ngth polymorphism (RFLP) assay developed to detect the A

  9. Summary of Coating Surveys on the Four Air Command Frigates (Zeven Provincien Class) (Onderzoek naar de conditie van de coatingsystemen op vier luchtcommandofregatten (Zeven Provincien Klasse))

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-26

    surface cleanliness Sa 21/2 1 F/C Sigmaguard CSF 85, 300 pim Water ballast tanks Welds and burnt spots blasting to Sa 2V2, Sewage tanks sweeping of...AlphaGen) was used. Table 13: Coating specifications underwater hulls LCF’s Systems LCF1I LCF 2 LCF 3 LCF 4 Blasting to surface cleanliness Sa 21/ x x x X_ 1

  10. Advanced Lighting Controls for Reducing Energy use and Cost in DoD Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    combination photo and occupancy sensor, which are interconnected using ZigBee PRO [3] wireless technology. The 9 dimmer switch controls line voltage...In-room Connectivity Wireless based on ZigBee PRO standard Wireless based on ZigBee PRO standard Wired Building-wide connectivity Wired...was custom fitted with a ZigBee radio module, a 0-10 Volt ballast controller and accessories (e.g., power adapter and relay switch), which increased

  11. Ageing of ships, LPG tankers

    OpenAIRE

    Ask, Martin

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades there have been several major ship accidents, and it is believed that old ships are more unsafe than newer ships. To get a better understanding of this phenomenon the thesis is investigating different issues with ship ageing. This thesis consists of a general description of the most important ageing issues, and the condition of sea water ballast tanks is identified as one of the most critical issue regarded to ageing on LPG-tankers. This investigation consists of...

  12. 75 FR 66686 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages, School Bus Passenger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Standards (telephone: 202-366-0247) (fax: 202-366-4921), NVS-113. For legal issues, Ms. Dorothy Nakama... 305 mm (8.5 in x 12.2 in) rigid plate be used to ``simulate the shape of a single 6-year-old'' child, and that the agency should ballast the plate to ensure an evenly-distributed 22 kg (48.4 lb) mass....

  13. Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP), Technology Demonstration Plan, MTADS Airborne and Vehicular Survey of Target S1 at Isleta Pueblo, Albuquerque, NM, 17 February - 2 March, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Manager, or Senior UXO Supervisor/UXO Safety Officer. Standard field gear (work boots, socks and light-colored coveralls) provide good protection...covered with hair. b. Spray outer clothing, particularly your pant legs and socks , BUT NOT YOUR SKIN, with an insect repellant that contains permethrinor...necessary to adjust the ballast configuration or to move weight installed in the baggage compartment when the system is removed for ferry flights. SLIP

  14. MX Siting Investigation. Geotechnical Evaluation. Aggregate Resources Study, Lake Valley, Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-27

    use of aggregate material for asphaltic concrete, base course in road construction, or ballast material. However, many of the suitability tests for...ranged from 5 to 14 feet (1.5 to 4.3 m). While the Verification stud - ies are not specifically designed- to generate aggregate data, the sampling...AGGREGATE CHARACTERISTIC’LSI CASU CASI ABRASION RESISTANCE. PERCENT WEAR 2 អ អ >50 No S04 12 --12 --12 COARSE AGGREGATE SOUNDNESS, M O 1 1

  15. Rolling the Black Pearl Over: Analyzing the Physics of a Movie Clip

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    as far as reason- ably possible. Theory of ship stability Although a full-scale version of the Black Pearl was con- structed for the second and third...through the center of gravity G and the buoyant force FB, which according to Archimedes ’ principle acts vertically upward through the center of...feature of the analysis, but it is difficult to confirm it based on our theory , for several reasons: • cargo and ballast will begin shifting

  16. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-23

    Stern Frame and Main Crane because both Allied HPU’s would not produce the required hydraulic oil pressure needed. The pressure settings for both...A frame unsuccessful. Neither HPU able to achieve necessary pressures to meet the requirements of the test plan. Allied Reps present for test but...ballast tank . Yard will provide a metal guard over the hoses but still represents a compromise on fantail utilization. Request we investigate

  17. Visualization and Measurement of the Burning Surface of Wire-Embedded Energetic Materials, Part 1: JA2 and Pentolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    figure 4). The apparatus includes a windowed chamber capable of being pressurized up to 10 MPa. It also includes a ballast tank that adds considerably... pressures were acquired, and they can be employed to validate a state-of-the-art CFD model that ARL is developing to accelerate the development of...rates at pressure near 5.18 MPa. ..............................................................12 Figure 11. JA2 burning rates at 6.90 MPa

  18. IMPROVING THE POSITIONING ACCURACY OF TRAIN ON THE APPROACH SECTION TO THE RAILWAY CROSSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Havryliuk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the paper it is necessary to analyze possibility of improving the positioning accuracy of train on the approach section to crossing for traffic safety control at railway crossings. Methodology. Researches were performed using developed mathematical model, describing dependence of the input impedance of the coded and audio frequency track circuits on a train coordinate at various values of ballast isolation resistances and for all usable frequencies. Findings. The paper presents the developed mathematical model, describing dependence of the input impedance of the coded and audio-frequency track circuits on the train coordinate at various values of ballast isolation resistances and for all frequencies used in track circuits. The relative error determination of train coordinate by input impedance caused by variation of the ballast isolation resistance for the coded track circuits was investigated. The values of relative error determination of train coordinate can achieve up to 40-50 % and these facts do not allow using this method directly for coded track circuits. For short audio frequency track circuits on frequencies of continuous cab signaling (25, 50 Hz the relative error does not exceed acceptable values, this allow using the examined method for determination of train location on the approach section to railway crossing. Originality. The developed mathematical model allowed determination of the error dependence of train coordinate by using input impedance of the track circuit for coded and audio-frequency track circuits at various frequencies of the signal current and at different ballast isolation resistances. Practical value. The authors proposethe method for train location determination on approach section to the crossing, equipped with audio-frequency track circuits, which is a combination of discrete and continuous monitoring of the train location.

  19. Adapting Wireless Technology to Lighting Control and Environmental Sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dana Teasdale; Francis Rubinstein; Dave Watson; Steve Purdy

    2005-10-01

    The high cost of retrofitting buildings with advanced lighting control systems is a barrier to adoption of this energy-saving technology. Wireless technology, however, offers a solution to mounting installation costs since it requires no additional wiring to implement. To demonstrate the feasibility of such a system, a prototype wirelessly-controlled advanced lighting system was designed and built. The system includes the following components: a wirelessly-controllable analog circuit module (ACM), a wirelessly-controllable electronic dimmable ballast, a T8 3-lamp fixture, an environmental multi-sensor, a current transducer, and control software. The ACM, dimmable ballast, multi-sensor, and current transducer were all integrated with SmartMesh{trademark} wireless mesh networking nodes, called motes, enabling wireless communication, sensor monitoring, and actuator control. Each mote-enabled device has a reliable communication path to the SmartMesh Manager, a single board computer that controls network functions and connects the wireless network to a PC running lighting control software. The ACM is capable of locally driving one or more standard 0-10 Volt electronic dimmable ballasts through relay control and a 0-10 Volt controllable output. The mote-integrated electronic dimmable ballast is designed to drive a standard 3-lamp T8 light fixture. The environmental multi-sensor measures occupancy, light level and temperature. The current transducer is used to measure the power consumed by the fixture. Control software was developed to implement advanced lighting algorithms, including daylight ramping, occupancy control, and demand response. Engineering prototypes of each component were fabricated and tested in a bench-scale system. Based on standard industry practices, a cost analysis was conducted. It is estimated that the installation cost of a wireless advanced lighting control system for a retrofit application is at least 30% lower than a comparable wired system for

  20. Restabilizing Mechanisms after the Onset of Thermal Instability in Bipolar Transistors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liang; ZHANG Wan-Rong; XIE Hong-Yun; JIN Dong-Yue; DING Chun-Bao; FU Qiang; WANG Ren-Qing; XIAO Ying; ZHAO Xin

    2011-01-01

    The restabilizing mechanisms after the onset of thermal instability in bipolar transistors are studied by theoretical analyses,computer simulations and experimental measurements.Restability conditions are described by novel analytical formulae.Furthermore,the expression of collect current in the second fly-back point is given for the first time.The effects of emitter ballast resistance,collector-emitter voltage and thermal resistance on restabilization mechanisms are expressed and investigated.

  1. BUBBLE-NET - System to catch fish and the respective method of use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Margarida Mouga

    2014-06-01

    Tests carried out under controlled conditions in aquaculture show success indicators regarding the behavior of the bubbles relatively shoal. Pilot scale prototype is currently being developed to validate the results obtained in real sea conditions. The device includes a compressor, an air-lung, two sets of hoses, floaters and ballast. Finally, further tests are required for the implementation and optimization of this new gear on commercial vessels.

  2. Waterproof, Breathable Fabrics for Military Clothing Systems: An Innovative Approach to Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    extracting) and then dry bag in automatic tumble dryer set on permanent press cycle, 1501-1601 F for fifteen 20 (15) minutes (more than one bag can be...into the washer. The duration of each laundering cycle shall be 30 + 5 minutes. After laundering, place sample and ballast in an automatic tumble ... dryer set on permanent press cycle, 150’-1600 F, and dry for approximately 15 minutes. Conduct 20 laundering and drying cycles. After each drying cycle

  3. Information overload, retrieval strategies and Internet user empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Christopher N.

    2003-01-01

    Initial user benefits from search engine technology have been critically degraded over time by the rapid increase of Internet pages. Traditional retrieval strategies therefore yield increasingly poor results due to a dramatic increase in ballast in the results. Search engine users thus increasingly experience information overload. Technical approaches to dealing with this problem have caused an initial euphoria, yet have proven ineffective in solving the problem. Enhancement of user empow...

  4. Parim tudengifilm tuli nimekast Poola koolist / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    Pimedate Ööde filmifestivali tudengi- ja lühifilmide alafestival Sleepwalkers, mis toimus 15.-18. novembrini, jagas eile auhindu. Parimaks tunnistati Poola tudengi Jan Wagneri lühimängufilm "Porno". Eesti võistluse võitis Madli Lääne dokfilm "Tähelepanu, start!", 2. koha sai Mihkel Ulgi mängufilm "Südameasjad" ja 3. koha Julia Sokolova mängufilm "Ballast"

  5. Transverse strength of railway tracks: part 3. Multiple scenarios test field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio De Iorio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the design and construction choices of a test field for the ballast lateral resistance measurement, in order to produce data useful for the development of a numerical model able to simulate the service critical conditions of a continuous welded rail track, are described. Some construction details described herein allow to better understand the methodological approach followed in the design of experiments, the tests management philosophy as well as of the accuracy achieved in their implementation.

  6. High Efficiency SEPIC Converter For High Brightness Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) System

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Yaxiao

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT This thesis presents an investigation into the characteristics of and driving methods for light emitting diode (LED) lamp system. A comprehensive overview on the lighting development is proposed. The characteristic of the light emitting diode (LED) lamp is described and the requirements of the ballast for the light emitting diode (LED) lamp are presented. Although LED lamps have longer lifetime than fluorescent lamps, the short lifetime limitation of LED driver imposed by ele...

  7. EN TOTALKOSTNADSJÄMFÖRELSE MELLAN CELL-, SKUM- OCH LECA-BETONG

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Mattias; Åslew Andersson, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This report provides a comparison between the products cellular concrete, foam concrete and LECA concrete. The questions to be answered during the work is how the cellular concrete stands up in cost terms to the existing competitors on the market, how the concrete products differ in design work, and in which situations the concrete varieties are preferred to use. Cellular concrete is a variant of ordinary concrete, with the difference that the ballast is exchanged from stone materials to expa...

  8. Invasive Marine and Estuarine Animals of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    4 3 5 Porifera 5 5 5 3 7 Polychaete 7 45 13 15 47 Oligochaete 1 4 4 5 Bivalve 16 25 12 6 26 Gastropod 16 23 14 6 26 Nudibranch 2 2 2 2...ballast water, they include species of 13 hydrozoans, 7 sponges ( porifera ), 5 anemones (anthozoans), 3 barnacles, 14 bryozoans, 2 entoprocts, 15...ST SF HU Obelia geniculata Hydrozoan ST Aurelia aurita Scyphozoan NB ST SF HU Phyllorhiza punctatus Scyphozoan NB ST Cliona sp. Porifera

  9. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. June 2005 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    imports, and Chinese spread of unapproved GMO varieties, might increase other countries’ verification procedures for different varieties of GMO food ...over GMO Bans Continue.……..………………….……………..9 8.9 Ratification began for the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast...Issues––June 2005 8 AC/UNU Millennium Project 8.8 The Controversies over GMO Bans Continue The EU is still divided

  10. Three-Dimensional Dynamic Analyses of Track-Embankment-Ground System Subjected to High Speed Train Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional finite element model was developed to investigate dynamic response of track-embankment-ground system subjected to moving loads caused by high speed trains. The track-embankment-ground systems such as the sleepers, the ballast, the embankment, and the ground are represented by 8-noded solid elements. The infinite elements are used to represent the infinite boundary condition to absorb vibration waves induced by the passing of train load at the boundary. The loads were applied on the rails directly to simulate the real moving loads of trains. The effects of train speed on dynamic response of the system are considered. The effect of material parameters, especially the modulus changes of ballast and embankment, is taken into account to demonstrate the effectiveness of strengthening the ballast, embankment, and ground for mitigating system vibration in detail. The numerical results show that the model is reliable for predicting the amplitude of vibrations produced in the track-embankment-ground system by high-speed trains. Stiffening of fill under the embankment can reduce the vibration level, on the other hand, it can be realized by installing a concrete slab under the embankment. The influence of axle load on the vibration of the system is obviously lower than that of train speed.

  11. Parallel Operation of Microhollow Cathode Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Robert H.; Shi, Wenhui; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    1998-10-01

    The dc current-voltage characteristics of microhollow cathode discharges has, in certain ranges of the discharge current, a positive slope [1]. In these current ranges it should be possible to operate multiple discharges in parallel without individual ballast, and be used as flat panel excimer lamps [2] or large area plasma cathodes. In order to verify this hypothesis we have studied the parallel operation of two microhollow cathode discharges of 100 micrometer hole diameter in argon at pressures from 100 Torr to 800 Torr. Stable dc operation of the two discharges, without individual ballast, was obtained if the voltage-current characteristics of the individual discharges had a positive slope greater than 10 V/mA over a voltage range of more than 5 to obtain parallel operation over the entire current range of the microhollow cathode discharges, which includes regions of negative differential conductivity, we have replaced the metal anode by a semi-insulating semiconductor, which serves as distributed resistive ballast. With this method, we were able to ignite and sustain an array of dc microhollow cathode discharges over a wide range of pressure and discharge current. [1] K.H.Schoenbach et al. Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 13 (1996). [2] A.El-Habachi and K.H.Schoenbach, APL. 72, 1 (1998). This work was funded by the Department of Energy, Advanced Energy Division, and by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) in cooperation with the DDR&E Air Plasma Ramparts MURI Program.

  12. The Use of Deconstructed Tires as Elastic Elements in Railway Tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Sol-Sánchez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Elastic elements such as rail pads, under sleeper pads and under ballast mats are railway components that allow for a reduction in track deterioration and vibrations. And they are furthermore commonly used to obtain an optimal vertical stiffness of the infrastructure. However, the use of elastomeric materials can increase construction costs and the consumption of raw materials. Thus, the utilization of used tire layers offers an alternative to reuse an abundant waste reducing the cost of elastic elements. In addition, an innovator technique allows deconstructing tire layers without grinding up the material, reducing production costs at the same time that tire properties are remained. This research is focused on the study of the viability of developing elastic components from used tire layers by evaluating the influence of thickness, the resistance capacity of the elements and their behavior in a ballast box. Results indicate the ability of tire pads to manufacture elastic elements (rail pads, under sleeper pads and under ballast mats to be used in railway tracks.

  13. Efficiency of Artemia cysts removal as a model invasive spore using a continuous microwave system with heat recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Sundar; Ortego, Jeffrey; Rusch, Kelly A; Boldor, Dorin

    2008-12-15

    A continuous microwave system to treat ballast water inoculated with Artemia salina cysts as a model invasive spore was tested for its efficacy in inactivating the cysts present. The system was tested at two different flow rates (1 and 2 L x min(-1)) and two different power levels (2.5 and 4.5 kW). Temperature profiles indicate that the system could deliver heating loads in excess of 100 degrees C in a uniform and near-instantaneous manner when using a heat recovery system. Except for a power and flow rate combination of 2.5 kW and 2 L x min(-1), complete inactivation of the cysts was observed at all combinations at holding times below 100 s. The microwave treatment was better or equal to the control treatment in inactivating the cysts. Use of heat exchangers increased the power conversion efficiency and the overall efficiency of the treatment system. Cost economics analysis indicates that in the present form of development microwave treatment costs are higher than the existing ballast water treatment methods. Overall, tests results indicated that microwave treatment of ballast water is a promising method that can be used in conjunction with other methods to form an efficient treatment system that can prevent introduction of potentially invasive spore forming species in non-native waters.

  14. The Applicability of Hydrofoils as a Ship Control Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md. Shamim Mahmud

    2015-01-01

    Centrifugal forces are commonly created when ships turn, which may cause a ship to capsize in a critical situation. A mathematical model has been developed to optimize the stability coefficients for ship, with the aim to prevent capsizing and to increase ship maneuverability in high-speed water craft. This model can be used to develop algorithms for control system improvement. The mathematical model presented in this paper optimized the use of multipurpose hydrofoils to reduce heeling and the trimming moment, maintaining an upright ship’s position and lessening the resistance via transverse force. Conventionally, the trimming and heeling of a ship are controlled using ballast water;however, under variable sea conditions it is sometimes difficult to control a ship’s motion using ballast water. In this case, a hydrofoil would be more stable and maneuverable than a ballast tank controlled vessel. A movable hydrofoil could theoretically be adapted from moveable aerofoil technology. This study proves the merit of further investigation into this possibility.

  15. Importance of the harmonics in the lighting systems for the electric energy saving; Importancia de las armonicas en el sistema de iluminacion para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garibay Mendoza, V. [Lumisistemas, departamento de aseguramineto de calidad, Naucalpan (Mexico); Hernandez Bernal, J. M. [UNICORP, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    In a lighting system the discharge lamps (fluorescent and high intensity discharge (HID)), ballast and controls are generating elements of harmonics. As a consequence of the tendency of saving energy, the use of electronic ballasts and controls that integrate dimmers, daylight and present sensors has increased in order to optimize the energy use. This paper presents the harmonics generation resulting from the fluorescent lamps operating different electronic ballasts as well as their electronic controls. Likewise, are also shown the effects caused by generation of harmonics components by the lighting system in the electric system that go from the voltage and current distortion, the presence of currents in the neutral conductor in balanced systems to the repercussions in the metering equipment such as watthour meters and the effects the lighting equipment suffer due to the presence of harmonics, such as the power factor decrease in ballasts that are of high power factor and the temperature increment in the magnetic type ballasts. [Espanol] Dentro de un sistema de iluminacion, las lamparas de descarga (fluorescentes y alta intensidad de descarga {sup H}ID{sup )}, balastros y los controles son elementos generadores de armonicas. A consecuencia de la tendencia al ahorro de energia se ha incrementado el uso de balastros electronicos y controles que integran atenuadores de luz (dimmers), sensores de luz natural y de presencia con el fin de optimizar el uso de la energia. Este trabajo presenta los resultados de generacion de armonicas para lamparas fluorescentes, operando diferentes balastros electronicos asi como con controles electronicos. Asi mismo son presentados los efectos causados por la generacion de componentes armonicas por el sistema de iluminacion dentro del sistema electrico que van desde la distorsion en voltaje y corriente, la presencia de corrientes dentro del conductor neutro en sistemas balanceados, asi como la repercusion en los equipos de medicion tales

  16. Dynamics of particulate organic carbon flux in a global ocean model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Lima

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The sinking of particulate organic carbon (POC is a key component of the ocean carbon cycle and plays an important role in the global climate system. However, the processes controlling the fraction of primary production that is exported from the euphotic zone (export ratio and how much of it survives respiration in the mesopelagic to be sequestered in the deep ocean (transfer efficiency are not well understood. In this study, we use a three-dimensional, coupled physical-biogeochemical model (CCSM-BEC to investigate the processes controlling the export of particulate organic matter from the euphotic zone and its flux to depth. We also compare model results with sediment trap data and other parameterizations of POC flux to depth to evaluate model skill and gain further insight into the causes of error and uncertainty in POC flux estimates. In the model, export ratios are mainly a function of diatom relative abundance and temperature while absolute fluxes and transfer efficiency are driven by mineral ballast composition of sinking material. The temperature dependence of the POC remineralization length scale is modulated by denitrification under low O2 concentrations and lithogenic (dust fluxes. Lithogenic material is an important control of transfer efficiency in the model, but its effect is restricted to regions of strong atmospheric dust deposition. In the remaining regions, CaCO3 content of exported material is the main factor affecting transfer efficiency. The fact that mineral ballast composition is inextricably linked to plankton community structure results in correlations between export ratios and ballast minerals fluxes (opal and CaCO3, and transfer efficiency and diatom relative abundance that do not necessarily reflect ballast or direct ecosystem effects, respectively. This suggests that it might be difficult to differentiate between ecosystem and ballast effects in observations. The model's skill at reproducing sediment trap observations

  17. AUTOMATED TECHNOLOGY FOR CURRENT MAINTENANCE OF RAILWAY TRACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sychev Vyacheslav Petrovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors consider the possibility and provide specific solutions to create the automated system of track maintenance on the example of automation of technological operations to restore the equal elasticity of the undersleeper foundation. The relevance of the work stems from the fact that the modern and perspective requirements to the track maintenance in the conditions of the transition to high-speed, high-speed, high-tonnage traffic can be implemented only by switching to a new system of track maintenance based on the performance of work of specialized high-performance machines and on the new system with maximum opportunity for automation technology. More than half of the volume of works on the current maintenance of the tracks are the works on the removal of splashes, straightening and tamping of track, the technology of which can be divided into two components: calculation-evaluation and the generation of control actions on the railway track. Track machines are used extensively at the local bearing places of the occurrence of splashes on track sections or for continuous bearing plot ways to restore the equal elasticity of the undersleeper base and reduce the degree of non-uniformity deviations in rails’ position on level and in plan, as well as track subsidence. The bunker for filling the ballast may be mounted on additional frame or on offset brackets of the machine. The device for measuring the position of a railway track includes the means for measuring the deflections of the road, bending rise the track in the longitudinal profile and the position of the track on level (elevation of one rail in relation to another and the adjacent block determining the actual position of a railway track in plan, in longitudinal profile and on level. The block of determining the amount of ballast consists of interconnected devices for determining the value of shifts and raise of the track and the block of comparing the track raise values

  18. Influence of plankton community structure on the sinking velocity of marine aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, L. T.; Boxhammer, T.; Larsen, A.; Hildebrandt, N.; Schulz, K. G.; Riebesell, U.

    2016-08-01

    About 50 Gt of carbon is fixed photosynthetically by surface ocean phytoplankton communities every year. Part of this organic matter is reprocessed within the plankton community to form aggregates which eventually sink and export carbon into the deep ocean. The fraction of organic matter leaving the surface ocean is partly dependent on aggregate sinking velocity which accelerates with increasing aggregate size and density, where the latter is controlled by ballast load and aggregate porosity. In May 2011, we moored nine 25 m deep mesocosms in a Norwegian fjord to assess on a daily basis how plankton community structure affects material properties and sinking velocities of aggregates (Ø 80-400 µm) collected in the mesocosms' sediment traps. We noted that sinking velocity was not necessarily accelerated by opal ballast during diatom blooms, which could be due to relatively high porosity of these rather fresh aggregates. Furthermore, estimated aggregate porosity (Pestimated) decreased as the picoautotroph (0.2-2 µm) fraction of the phytoplankton biomass increased. Thus, picoautotroph-dominated communities may be indicative for food webs promoting a high degree of aggregate repackaging with potential for accelerated sinking. Blooms of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi revealed that cell concentrations of 1500 cells/mL accelerate sinking by about 35-40%, which we estimate (by one-dimensional modeling) to elevate organic matter transfer efficiency through the mesopelagic from 14 to 24%. Our results indicate that sinking velocities are influenced by the complex interplay between the availability of ballast minerals and aggregate packaging; both of which are controlled by plankton community structure.

  19. A 3D model for coupling dynamics analysis of high-speed train/track system%一种高速列车-轨道三维空间耦合动力学模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang LING; Xin-biao XIAO; Jia-yang XIONG; Li ZHOU; Ze-feng WEN; Xue-song JIN‡

    2014-01-01

    A 3D dynamic model of a high-speed train coupled with a flexible ballast track is developed and is presented in this study. In this model, each vehicle is modeled as a 42 degrees of freedom multi-body system, which takes into consideration the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of the suspensions. A detailed inter-vehicle connection model including nonlinear couplers and inter-vehicle dampers, and the linear tight-lock vestibule diaphragm is established to simulate the effect of the end connections of neighboring vehicles on dynamic behavior. The track is modeled as a traditional three-layer discrete elastic support model. The rails are assumed to be Timoshenko beams supported by discrete sleepers. Each sleeper is treated as an Euler beam and the ballast bed is replaced by equivalent rigid ballast bodies. The reliability of the present model is then validated through a detailed nu-merical simulation comparison with the commercial software SIMPACK, with the effect of the track flexibility on the train/track interaction being analyzed simultaneously. The proposed model is finally applied to investigate the difference between dynamic performances obtained using the entire-train/track model (TTM) and the single-vehicle/track model (VTM). Several key dynamic performances, including vibration frequency response, ride comfort, and curving performance, calculated by the two types of dynamic models are compared and discussed. The numerical results show that there is a significant difference between the dy-namic behaviors obtained by VTM and TTM, and that inter-vehicle connections have an important influence on the dynamic behavior of high-speed vehicles.

  20. Cooling effect of ripped-stone embankments on Qing-Tibet railway under climatic warming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The heat convection in ballast mass and ripped-stone mass in railway embankments is the problem of heat convection in porous media. In order to calculate the temperature distribution of Qing-Tibet railway embankment, from the governing equations used to study forced convection for incompressible fluids porous media, the finite element formulae for heat convection in porous media are derived by using Galerkin's method. The temperature fields of the traditional ballast embankment and the ripped-stone mass embankment, constructed on July 15, have been analyzed and compared under the case that the air temperature in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau will be warmed up by 2.0℃ in the future 50 years. The calculated results indicate that, the permafrost 5 m below the traditional ballast embankment will be thawed in the regions in which the air yearly-average temperature is larger than -3.5℃ or the yearly-average temperature at the native surface is larger than -1℃. The embankment will cause large thawing settlement. The railway embankment will be damaged by permafrost degradation. The ripped-stone mass embankment can not only resist the effect of climatic warm up on it but also provide cool energy for the permafrost under it. It can assure permafrost stability and not subjected to thawing. Therefore, it is highly recommended that the ripped-stone mass embankment be taken as the Qing-Tibet railway embankment structure in high-temperature permafrost regions so that permafrost embankment can be protected as possible as we could.

  1. El papel de lo ahistórico en el programa de Nietzsche

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    El peso de la historia se convierte en el lastre que dificulta el paso al superhombre. Nietzsche apela a la sinrazón que se instala en la conciencia colectiva a partir de la llegada de los elementos socráticos y sus respectivas formulaciones en la tradici The weight of the history turns into the ballast that impedes the step to the übermensch. Nietzsche appeals to the unreasonableness that one installs in the collective conscience from the arrival of the socratic elements and his respectiv...

  2. Low profile, highly configurable, current sharing paralleled wide band gap power device power module

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Brice; Killeen, Peter D.; Lostetter, Alex; Shaw, Robert; Passmore, Brandon; Hornberger, Jared; Berry, Tony M

    2016-08-23

    A power module with multiple equalized parallel power paths supporting multiple parallel bare die power devices constructed with low inductance equalized current paths for even current sharing and clean switching events. Wide low profile power contacts provide low inductance, short current paths, and large conductor cross section area provides for massive current carrying. An internal gate & source kelvin interconnection substrate is provided with individual ballast resistors and simple bolted construction. Gate drive connectors are provided on either left or right size of the module. The module is configurable as half bridge, full bridge, common source, and common drain topologies.

  3. Time-series measurements of settling particulate matter in Alfonso Basin, La Paz Bay, southwestern Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Norman; Aguirre-Bahena, Fernando; Mucci, Alfonso

    2014-08-01

    More than 200 sediment trap samples were collected at 310 or 360 m depth during 2002-2009 from the center of the 410 m-deep Alfonso Basin in La Paz Bay, an arid, subtropical embayment of the southern Gulf of California. Sample splits were analyzed for total mass flux (TMF), particulate organic carbon (POC), inorganic carbon (CaCO3) and opal (biogenic silica BioSi). The lithogenic (Litho) and biogenic fluxes (Biogen), but especially the particulate organic matter (POM) and CaCO3, fluxes are relatively high compared with those recorded in a number of other coastal basins at depths less than ~500 m. The average yearly Litho fluxes (mean of 133±158 g m-2 yr-1) are well correlated with the frequency of strong wind gusts and reflect the relative proximity of the mooring to shore and the importance of eolian transport. The sedimentation patterns are influenced by monsoonal shifts-cool temperatures and strong northerly winds in late fall and winter sustain a well-mixed deep surface layer and high lithogenic fluxes, whereas progressive heating and relatively weak southerlies in summer and fall lead to a shallower, more-stratified surface layer with lower nutrient levels, limited productivity and generally low particulate fluxes. There is considerable interannual variability in the size of the various fluxes. This is likely related to a number of regional and internal factors whose timing, intensity and interactions remain to be resolved. Although there is an inverse relationship between SST and satellite-derived net primary production (NPP) estimates, no correlation was found between NPP and the POC, CaCO3 and BioSi fluxes (r20.05). Significant correlations (p<0.001) do exist, however, between the POC flux and the total mineral flux as well as with the CaCO3, Litho and BioSi fluxes (r=0.86, 0.82, 0.79 and 0.69, respectively). As suggested by the ballast ratio hypothesis, the strength of these correlations follows the relative density of the individual ballast components

  4. Investigation of characteristics and radiation hardness of the Beetle 1.0 front-end chip

    CERN Document Server

    Van Bakel, N; Jans, E; Klous, S; Verkooijen, H

    2001-01-01

    Noise characteristics of the Beetle 1.0 front-end chip have been investigated as a function of input capacitance. Values for the equivalent noise charge and ballastic deficit have been extracted. Amplification and pulse shape have been studied by varying the bias settings over a wide range. Results are compared with simulations that include realistic impedances at the input and output. The chip has been subjected to 10 Mrad of radiation. Subsequently, its behaviour is measured again and compared to that preceeding the irradiation. Observed radiation damage effects are discussed.

  5. Impact of parasitic resistance on the ESD robustness of high-voltage devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Lijuan; Jiang Lingli; Fan Hang; Zhang Bo

    2012-01-01

    The impacts ofsubstrate parasitic resistance and drain ballast resistance on electrostatic discharge (ESD)robustness of LDMOS are analyzed.By increasing the two parasitic resistances,the ESD robustness of LDMOS are significantly improved.The proposed structures have been successfully verified in a 0.35 μm BCD process without using additional process steps.Experimental results show that the second breakdown current of the optimal structure increases to 3.5 A,which is about 367% of the original device.

  6. Force Measurements in Short-Duration Hypersonic Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-01

    alphabetical list of references is appended. 2 both of its water vapour cortent and of some of the constituents of the air, takes place. Driers can be...off-axis. Where additional mass can be tolerated, ballast could be used. A better arrangement, if space is available, is to accommodate a fourth beam...the provision of supercritical damping (damping ratio > 1) should be considered. The response to a step force input for such a system is Fo Řwn t x(t

  7. Adapting Wireless Technology to Lighting Control and Environmental Sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dana Teasdale; Francis Rubinstein; David S. Watson; Steve Purdy

    2006-04-30

    Although advanced lighting control systems offer significant energy savings, the high cost of retrofitting buildings with advanced lighting control systems is a barrier to adoption of this energy-saving technology. Wireless technology, however, offers a solution to mounting installation costs since it requires no additional wiring to implement. To demonstrate the feasibility of such a system, a prototype wirelessly-controlled advanced lighting system was designed and built. The system includes the following components: a wirelessly-controllable analog circuit module (ACM), a wirelessly-controllable electronic dimmable ballast, a T8 3-lamp fixture, an environmental multi-sensor, a current transducer, and control software. The ACM, dimmable ballast, multi-sensor, and current transducer were all integrated with SmartMesh{trademark} wireless mesh networking nodes, called motes, enabling wireless communication, sensor monitoring, and actuator control. Each mote-enabled device has a reliable communication path to the SmartMesh Manager, a single board computer that controls network functions and connects the wireless network to a PC running lighting control software. The ACM is capable of locally driving one or more standard 0-10 Volt electronic dimmable ballasts through relay control and a 0-10 Volt controllable output, in addition to 0-24 Volt and 0-10 Volt inputs. The mote-integrated electronic dimmable ballast is designed to drive a standard 3-lamp T8 light fixture. The environmental multisensor measures occupancy, light level and temperature. The current transducer is used to measure the power consumed by the fixture. Control software was developed to implement advanced lighting algorithms, including open and closed-loop daylight ramping, occupancy control, and demand response. Engineering prototypes of each component were fabricated and tested in a bench-scale system. Based on standard industry practices, a cost analysis was conducted. It is estimated that the

  8. Development of a Semi-Autonomous Underwater Vehicle for Intervention Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    E 60 IP - C AR R IE R JR 3 BO AR D M AT R IX M D - AD D AI O R ES O LV ER R EF ER EN C ES R ES O LV ER IN PU T VME Rack Batteries Batteries...center level of the frame. Batteries, ballast and arm stowage space occupy the lower section of the frame as one proceeds from aft to the bow...drive systems, twin spur gear and rack designs. The design eventually chosen must deal with stirred up grit and sand, extensive seawater exposure, as

  9. Report of the EMI Testing of the Johnson Noise Thermometry System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton Jr., Charles L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roberts, Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report summarizes the Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) testing of the Johnson Noise Thermometry System developed at ORNL. The EMI performance is very important for Johnson Noise Thermometry because it requires accurate measurement of a very small noise signal that is amplified 10,000 times. Any interference in the form on pickup from external signal sources from such as fluorescent lighting ballasts, motors, etc. can skew the measurement. Testing is therefore very important in determining the effects of these external noise sources. Results from testing in several environments with various sources of EMI are presented here.

  10. Alien invasive species and biological pollution of the Great Lakes Basin ecosystem[Great Lakes Water Quality Board : Report to the International Joint Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    The displacement of important native species in the Great Lakes is a result of an invasion by a succession of non indigenous aquatic species. These invasion also resulted in interference with the proper human water uses and cost billions of dollars. The problem was considered serious enough that the International Joint Commission asked the Great Lakes Water Quality Board in 1999 to review the regulations in place and make recommendations, if necessary, for the implementation of additional measures that could be considered to keep control over the introduction of alien invasive species. Escapes from aquaria, aquaculture, research and educational facilities, canal and diversion water flows, and release of live bait are all sources of this invasion. The effectiveness of alternative technologies to control the invasion was to be examined by the Board. Other efforts taking place to address the situation in the basin are being complemented by the publication of this report. It is considered that the most important source of alien invasive species (AIS) to the Great Lakes is the discharge of ballast water from shipping vessels coming from outside the United States and Canada. A major concern is the role played by vessels reporting no ballast on board (NOBOB) upon entering the basin. A number of recommendations were made concerning: (1) implementation and enforcement of the ballast water discharge standards agreed upon by both countries, (2) the evaluation of the effectiveness of alternative technologies to achieve ballast water discharge standards over the long term, combined with the use of chemical treatment while the evaluation is being performed, (3) the implementation of optimal management practices to control sediments in shipping vessels, (4) modifications to the design of shipping vessels, and (5) the monitoring and contingency plans in the event of a repeat scenario in the future. Composed of an equal number representatives from the United States and Canada, at

  11. Airworthiness and Flight Characteristics Test of the OH-6A Configured to a Light Combat Helicopter (JOH-6A LCH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    reference to a premeasured weighted cord hung from the front of the right landing gear skid. Ballast was incrementally removed from the aircraft...usability of the material or end product. AIRSPEED CALIBRATION 12. The boom and ships pitot-static system was calibrated by using the trailing bomb...FIOURE. 4Z LATERAL tONT PL_ SPONSE AND SEN$ITIVMr ... %eVAs A&&P USA 1A% 69-I!6 AVG ’OSS LJCATZN- G- CZT AT- -ROTOR CALBRAED WE.16HT LONO ;..LA.T AL XfVutr

  12. CISM course on mechanical behaviour of soils under environmentally induced cyclic loads

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, David; Mechanical Behaviour of Soils Under Environmentally Induced Cyclic Loads

    2012-01-01

    The book gives a comprehensive description of the mechanical response of soils (granular and cohesive materials) under cyclic loading. It provides the geotechnical engineer with the theoretical and analytical tools necessary for the evaluation of settlements developng with time under cyclic, einvironmentally idncued loads (such as wave motion, wind actions, water table level variation) and their consequences for the serviceability and durability of structures such as the shallow or deep foundations used in offshore engineering, caisson beakwaters, ballast and airport pavements and also to interpret monitoring data, obtained from both natural and artificial slopes and earth embankments, for the purposes of risk assessment and mitigation.

  13. Lake Michigan faces exotic species, dune sand mining, other challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    As Steve Pothoven scooped out his bottom trawl catch on the deck of a U.S. government research vessel in June, he expected the regular monitoring exercise to land alewives and a mound of zebra mussels. These two now-ubiquitous exotic aquatic species are among more than 130 that have entered the Great Lakes ecosystem over the past century. They have invaded by various means: hiding in ballast water, navigating through connecting channels such as the Welland Canal that was completed in 1829 as a route around Niagara Falls, or introduced on purpose.

  14. HOUSEHOLDS' EXPERIENCES WITH THE RED IMPORTED FIRE ANT IN SOUTH CAROLINA

    OpenAIRE

    Dukes, F.R.; Miller, Stephen E.; Henry, Mark S.; Vander Mey, Brenda J.; Horton, Paul M.

    1999-01-01

    The red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta), abbreviated as RIFA, is believed to have been brought by accident to Mobile, Alabama in the 1930s via ship ballast from South America. The RIFA was first reported in Charleston and Orangeburg counties in South Carolina in 1952 and has since spread to all 46 counties in the state. The RIFA has had adverse impacts on the environments it has infested. In natural environments, the young of ground-nesting insects, reptiles, birds and mammals are subj...

  15. Effect of chemical composition of steel on the structure of hot – dip galvanized coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pokorny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the effect of the content of conventional steel impurity elements on the thickness and composition of the zinc layer. This article is focused primarily on low-temperature, batch hot-dip galvanizing; however, the continuous coating process is also mentioned. The main discussion covers galvanizing from pure zinc melt, and only touches on galvanizing from melts with the usual amounts of aluminium (0,2 wt. %. Silicon, phosphorus, aluminium and sulfur may have an especially negative effect on the mechanical properties of the coating and its final appearance. The content of ballast carbon and manganese has a rather limited effect on composition and coating thickness.

  16. Propuesta de sistema móvil de tratamiento de aguas de lastre para utilización en puerto

    OpenAIRE

    Cerdán Fiz, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    La Organización Marítima Internacional (IMO por sus siglas en inglés), siguiendo las recomendaciones de Naciones Unidas, puso en marcha en 2004 la adopción y entrada en vigor del Convenio sobre tratamiento de aguas de lastre, conocida en Inglés como Ballast Water Management (BWM), desde entonces, son numerosos los esfuerzos que se han puesto en marcha a nivel internacional para tratar de encontrar sistemas que permitan el tratamiento de las aguas de lastre de los buques. Este TFG estudia en p...

  17. Route Choice by the VLCCS from Middle East Gulf to North Atlantic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Risto Laulajainen

    2009-01-01

    <正>Three alternatives for round voyages between the Middle East Gulf and North Atlantic,Cape/Cape,Suez/Cape and Suez/Suez(laden/ballast),are compared from actor perspective.Ship owners benefit from long routes when rates are not rising steeply.Refineries minimize logistics costs by selecting short routes.Traders also should opt for them,provided that their investment horizontal equals the laden leg.In the real world,Northwest Europe selects 10 pet Suez and the US Gulf 10 pet Cape.East Coast Canada is route neutral.Cargos from West Africa tilt this equation in favor of the Cape/Cape alternative.

  18. Research on Goods and the Ship Interaction Based on ADAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Fangzhen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The equivalent method of the relative movement goods on board is discussed in details. This method is to establish dynamic model based on moving trajectory of gravity-center for goods and to take rigid body geometric model with the trajectory as constraints in ADAMS. The difference of simulation methods for the different goods in carrier rolling is compared. The interact of relative moving objects with bulk carrier is discussed by using the ADAMS model. It is verified that the ballast water can maintain the ship’s stability by means of the ADAMS model.

  19. Recent developments in semiprocessed cold rolled magnetic lamination steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilinski, E. J.

    2006-09-01

    Over the past 10 years the magnetic property performance of semi-processed cold rolled magnetic lamination steels in North America have approached those of nonoriented, semi-processed silicon steel. This improvement was accomplished via higher alloy levels in conjunction with hot band annealing. New temper rolling strategies can produce weakly oriented steels tailored to specific applications, such as small transformers used in fluorescent lighting ballasts. Recently, production trials for 0.0138 in product cold rolled on tin mills has been undertaken. Efforts to further improve properties through a better understanding of texture control and via implementation of new production processes, such as thin slab or strip casting, continue.

  20. Unique features of cylindrical type solar-module contrasted with plane or conventional type ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, Hirohisa; Hiraki, Akio; Maeda, Masakatsu; Takahashi, Yasuo

    2012-08-01

    Due to their shape and construction, Cu(In,Ga)Se2 [CIGS] cylindrical photovoltaic [PV] panels have unique features that planar or conventional PV panels do not have. For example, a) they capture sunlight over an angular range of 360°, b) they are self-ballasting (no roof penetrations, no attachments required) and c) they are high-reliability hermetically sealed cylindrical packages. In field tests in Japan, cylindrical PV panels have proven their durability against typhoons, and also their excellent electrical properties. Finally, as a new application of cylindrical PV panels, we suggest the new concept of fusion or combination of PV generation and agriculture.

  1. Lead ingots from a shipwreck off Poompuhar, Tamil Nadu, east coast of India: Evidence for overseas trade and their significance

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Parthiban, G.; Vora, K.H.; Sundaresh; Bandodkar, S.N.

    stream_size 28077 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Int_J_Naut_Archaeol_32_225.pdf.txt stream_source_info Int_J_Naut_Archaeol_32_225.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Lead... as paying ballast and cargo. Further, based on compositional and isotopic data we can often trace the source of metal used for the manufacture of the lead ingots and discuss the implications for overseas trade. Context Poompuhar, a port town from the 3rd...

  2. ROLLING NOISE SIMULATION OF A RAILWAY VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian MAZILU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Rolling noise of the railway vehicles is occurred by the wheel/rail vibration excited bythe rolling surfaces roughness. This paper presents an acoustic model able to predict the rollingnoise level of a railway vehicle. The acoustic model is based on a wheel/rail vibration modelwhich takes into account the structural wheel vibration (Remington model and the bendingvertical waves of the rail. To this, the track model with an infinite Euler Bernoulli beam elasticallysupported on two layers is applied to simulate the effect of the ballasted track. The influence of therolling surfaces roughness and vehicle velocity on the rolling noise is investigated.

  3. Incorporating mesh-insensitive structural stress into the fatigue assessment procedure of common structural rules for bulk carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Seong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces a fatigue assessment procedure using mesh-insensitive structural stress method based on the Common Structural Rules for Bulk Carriers by considering important factors, such as mean stress and thickness effects. The fatigue assessment result of mesh-insensitive structural stress method have been compared with CSR procedure based on equivalent notch stress at major hot spot points in the area near the ballast hold for a 180 K bulk carrier. The possibility of implementing mesh-insensitive structural stress method in the fatigue assessment procedure for ship structures is discussed.

  4. Prototype Testing of the Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2006-01-01

    The Wave Dragon is an offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type. It consists of two wave reflectors focusing the incoming waves towards a ramp, a reservoir for collecting the overtopping water and a number of hydro turbines for converting the pressure head into power. In the period...... from 1998 to 2001 extensive wave tank testing on a scale model was carried at Aalborg University. Then, a 57!27 m wide and 237 tonnes heavy (incl. ballast) prototype of the Wave Dragon, placed in Nissum Bredning, Denmark, was grid connected in May 2003 as the world’s first offshore wave energy...

  5. Prototype Testing of the Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter Bak; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2004-01-01

    The Wave Dragon is an offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type. It consists of two wave reflectors focusing the incoming waves towards a ramp, a reservoir for collecting the overtopping water and a number of hydro turbines for converting the pressure head into power. In the period...... from 1998 to 2001 extensive wave tank testing on a scale model was carried at Aalborg University. Then, a 57 x 27 m wide and 237 tonnes heavy (incl. ballast) prototype of the Wave Dragon, placed in Nissum Bredning, Denmark, was grid connected in May 2003 as the world's first offshore wave energy...

  6. Image processing for safety assessment in civil engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Belen; Pomares, Juan C; Irles, Ramon; Espinosa, Julian; Mas, David

    2013-06-20

    Behavior analysis of construction safety systems is of fundamental importance to avoid accidental injuries. Traditionally, measurements of dynamic actions in civil engineering have been done through accelerometers, but high-speed cameras and image processing techniques can play an important role in this area. Here, we propose using morphological image filtering and Hough transform on high-speed video sequence as tools for dynamic measurements on that field. The presented method is applied to obtain the trajectory and acceleration of a cylindrical ballast falling from a building and trapped by a thread net. Results show that safety recommendations given in construction codes can be potentially dangerous for workers.

  7. Binary synaptic connections based on memory switching in a-Si:H for artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakoor, A. P.; Lamb, J. L.; Moopenn, A.; Khanna, S. K.

    1987-01-01

    A scheme for nonvolatile associative electronic memory storage with high information storage density is proposed which is based on neural network models and which uses a matrix of two-terminal passive interconnections (synapses). It is noted that the massive parallelism in the architecture would require the ON state of a synaptic connection to be unusually weak (highly resistive). Memory switching using a-Si:H along with ballast resistors patterned from amorphous Ge-metal alloys is investigated for a binary programmable read only memory matrix. The fabrication of a 1600 synapse test array of uniform connection strengths and a-Si:H switching elements is discussed.

  8. Procedures for photovoltaic equipment systems testing in rural areas; Procedimientos de ensajos de equipamentos para sistemas fotovoltaicos isolados aplicados a eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado-Neto, L. V. B.; Cabral, C. V. T.; Oliveira-Filho, D.; Diniz, A. S. A. C.

    2004-07-01

    The sustainability development of photovoltaic systems demands equipment quality control. Presently, in Brazil, there are many initiatives being developed, whose basic strategy is the development of tests covering minimum equipment performance requirements. To fund these initiatives and the sustainability of the systems of the Sun Light Program from Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais CEMIG, tests are being developed for photovoltaic generators, charge controllers, batteries, inverters and electronic ballasts. The initial acquired results are helping the sustainability of the systems installed by CEMIG, funding the government initiatives and promoting an improvement of equipment quality in the local industry. (Author)

  9. Wave energy absorption by a floating air bag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurniawan, Adi; Chaplin, John; Greaves, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    A floating air bag, ballasted in water, expands and contracts as it heaves under wave action. Connecting the bag to a secondary volume via a turbine transforms the bag into a device capable of generating useful energy from the waves. Small-scale measurements of the device reveal some interesting...... properties, which are successfully predicted numerically. Owing to its compressibility, the device can have a heave resonance period longer than that of a rigid device of the same shape and size, without any phase control. Furthermore, varying the amount of air in the bag is found to change its shape...

  10. The invasion of five alien species in the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebmann, Daniel; Mai, Ana Cecília G; Lee, James T

    2010-09-01

    Marine biological invasions have been regarded as one of the major causes of native biodiversity loss, with shipping and aquaculture being the leading contributors for the introductions of alien species in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, five aquatic alien species (one mollusk, three crustaceans and one fish species) were detected during dives, shore searches and from the fisheries on the coast of the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, in the States of Piauí and Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil. The species were the bicolor purse-oyster Isognomon bicolor, the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the Indo-Pacific swimming crab Charybdis hellerii and, the muzzled blenny Omobranchus punctatus. Ballast water (I. bicolor, C. hellerii, and O. punctatus) and aquaculture activities (L. vannamei and M. rosenbergii) in adjacent areas are the most likely vectors of introduction. All exotic species found have potential impact risks to the environment because they are able to compete against native species for resources (food and habitat). Isognomon bicolor share the same habitat and food items with the native bivalve species of mussels and barnacles. Litopenaeus vannamei share the same habitat and food items with the native penaeids such as the pinkspot shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, the Southern brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus subtilis, and the Southern white shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti, and in the past few years L. vannamei was responsible for a viral epidemics in the cultivation tanks that could be transmitted to native penaeid shrimps. Charybdis hellerii is also able to cause impacts on the local fisheries as the species can decrease the populations of native portunid crabs which are commercialized in the studied region. Macrobrachium rosenbergii may be sharing natural resources with the Amazon River prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum. Omobranchus punctatus shares habit with the native redlip blenny

  11. Buildings sector demand-side efficiency technology summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koomey, J.G.; Johnson, F.X.; Schuman, J. [and others

    1994-03-01

    This report provides descriptions of the following energy efficiency technologies: energy management systems; electronic fluorescent ballasts; compact fluorescent lamps; lighting controls; room air conditioners; high albedo materials, coatings and paints; solar domestic water heaters; heat pump water heaters; energy-efficient motors; adjustable-speed drives; energy-efficient refrigerators; daylight control glazing; insulating glazing; solar control glazing; switchable glazing; tree planting; and advanced insulation. For each technology, the report provides a description of performance characteristics, consumer utility, development status, technology standards, equipment cost, installation, maintenance, conservation programs, and environmental impacts.

  12. The utilization of coal mining wastes as filling materials in reinforced earth structures. III. Construction of a full scale experimental structure; Utilizacion de los esteriles del carbon como material de relleno en estructuras de tierra reforzada. II. Construccion de una estructura experimental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CaNibano Gonzalez, J.; Martinez, C.; Gonzalez, M.R. [HUNOSA. Programa Desarrollo Esteriles. Oviedo (Spain); Pardo, F.; SopeNa, L. [CEDEX. Laboratorio Geotecnia, Madrid (Spain); Torres, M. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas, Oviedo (Spain); Perez, J.J. [MOPTMA. Demarcacion Carreteras del Estado, Oviedo (Spain)

    1997-06-01

    This article describes the construction of a full scale experimental structure in which coal mining wastes (mine stones) were utilized as a filling material. In such structure, which was 20 m long and 2 high coal mining wastes from two different tips were tested together with different types of reinforcing frames such as metal bands, geomeshes and Paraweb (Freyssisol) bands. Also, thermocouples were placed at different heights. On the other hand, the said structure was subjected to 3.085 passes of a truck having a ballast of 10.5 tons on its rear axle. The performance of the coal mining wastes was completely satisfactory. (Author) 3 refs.

  13. Innovative signal processing for Johnson Noise thermometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezell, N. Dianne Bull [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Britton, Jr, Charles L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roberts, Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This report summarizes the newly developed algorithm that subtracted the Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). The EMI performance is very important to this measurement because any interference in the form on pickup from external signal sources from such as fluorescent lighting ballasts, motors, etc. can skew the measurement. Two methods of removing EMI were developed and tested at various locations. This report also summarizes the testing performed at different facilities outside Oak Ridge National Laboratory using both EMI removal techniques. The first EMI removal technique reviewed in previous milestone reports and therefore this report will detail the second method.

  14. Saharan dust enhances carbon sequestration in the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabortsava, Katsiaryna; Lampitt, Richard; Le Moigne, Frederic; Sanders, Richard; Statham, Peter

    2016-04-01

    We present unique time-series data from sediment traps deployed at 3000 m depth in the subtropical North (NOG) and South (SOG) Atlantic oligotrophic gyres during 2007-2010. The sampling sites have similar physical properties and carbon fixation rates but different surface ocean biogeochemistry owing to enhanced input of Saharan dust in the North. NOG and SOG sites are thus ideal to investigate the effects of dust input on carbon sequestration in low-nutrient low-chlorophyll oceans. Analyses of the trap material (chemical, microscopic and stable isotope) revealed significant inter-basin differences in the downward particle flux and its composition, showing that biogeochemical differences at the surface have major effects on deep ocean sequestration scenarios. Particulate organic carbon flux in the dustier Northern gyre was twice that in the dust-poor Southern gyre. We conclude that this is a consequence of tight coupling between fertilization and ballasting due to dust deposition. We suggest that excess of micronutrient Fe from the dust increased phytoplankton biomass by stimulating di-nitrogen fixation, while dust particles caused rapid and more efficient transport to depth via ballasting. These findings present compelling direct evidence of two distinct biogeochemical provinces in the subtropical oligotrophic Atlantic not only with respect to surface nutrient biogeochemistry but also with respect to carbon sequestration.

  15. Marine oxygen holes as a consequence of oceanic acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, M.; Schellnhuber, H.-J.

    2009-04-01

    An increase of atmospheric CO2 levels will not only drive future global mean temperatures towards values unprecedented during the whole Quaternary, but will also lead to an acidification of sea water which could harm the marine biota. Here we assess possible impacts of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations on the marine biological carbon pump by utilizing a business-as-usual emission scenario of anthropogenic CO2. A corresponding release of 4075 Petagrams of Carbon in total has been applied to simulate the current millennium by employing an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity (EMIC). This work is focused on studying the implications of reduced biogenic calcification caused by an increasing degree of oceanic acidification on the marine biological carbon pump. The attenuation of biogenic calcification imposes a small negative feedback on rising atmospheric pCO2 levels, tending to stabilize the Earth's climate. Since mineral ballast, notably particulate CaCO3, plays a dominant role in carrying organic matter through the water column, a reduction of its export fluxes weakens the strength of the biological carbon pump. There is, however, a dramatic effect discovered in our model world with severe consequences: since organic matter is oxidized in shallow waters when mineral-ballast fluxes weaken, oxygen holes (hypoxic zones) start to expand considerably in the oceans with potentially harmful impacts on a variety of marine ecosystems. Our study indicates that unbridled ocean acidification would exacerbate the observed hypoxia trends due to various environmental factors as reported in recent empirical studies.

  16. Experimental evidence of the thermal effect of lubricating oil sprayed in sliding-vane air compressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Valenti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A way to increase the efficiency of positive-displacement air compressor is spraying the lube oil to exploit it not only as lubricating and sealing agent but also as thermal ballast. This work seeks the experimental evidence in sliding-vane compressors by measuring the air standard volume flow rate and the electrical power input of three diverse configurations. The first configuration, taken as the reference, employs a conventional injection system comprising calibrated straight orifices. The other two, referred to as advanced, adopt smaller orifices and pressure-swirl full-cone nozzles designed for the purpose; the third configuration utilizes a pump to boost the oil pressure. The laser imagining technique shows that the nozzles generate sprays that break-up within a short distance into spherical droplets, ligaments, ramifications and undefined structures. Tests on the packaged compressors reveal that the advanced configurations provide almost the same air flow rate while utilizing half of the oil because the sprays generate a good sealing. Moreover, the sprayed oil is acting as a thermal ballast because the electrical input is reduced by 3.5% and 3.0%, respectively, if the pump is present or not , while the specific energy requirement, accounting for the slightly reduced air flow, by 2.4% and 2.9%, respectively.

  17. Rolling in Nature and Robotics: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rhodri H. Armour; Julian F. V. Vincent

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a review of recent rolling robots including Rollo from Helsinki University of Technology,Spherical Mobile Robot from the Politecnico of Bari,Sphericle from the University of Pisa,Spherobot from Michigan State University,August from Azad University of Qazvin and the University of Tehran,Deformable Robot from Ritsumeijan University,Kickbot from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Gravitational Wheeled Robot from Kinki University,Gyrover from Carnegie Seven rolling robot design principles are presented and discussed (Sprung central member,Car driven,Mobile masses,Hemispherical wheels,Gyroscopic stabilisation,Ballast mass - fixed axis,and Ballast mass - moving axis). Robots based on each of the design principles are shown and the performances of the robots are tabulated. An attempt is made to grade the design principles based on their suitability for movement over an unknown and varied but relatively smooth terrain. The result of this comparison suggests that a rolling robot based on a mobile masses principle would be best suited to this specific application.Some wonderful rolling organisms are introduced and defined as "active" or "passive" depending on whether they generate their own rolling motion or external forces cause their rolling.

  18. Synthesis of ZnWO4 Electrode with tailored facets: Deactivating the Microorganisms through Photoelectrocatalytic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Su; Zhou, Feng; Huang, Naibao; Liu, Yujun; He, Qiuchen; Tian, Yu; Yang, Yifan; Ye, Fei

    2017-01-01

    The exotic invasive species from the ballast water in the ship will bring about serious damages to ecosystem. Photocatalyst films have been widely studied for sterilization. In this study, ZnWO4 with different exposed facets was synthesized by hydrothermal method, and ZnWO4 film electrodes have been applied in ballast water treatment through the electro-assisted photocatalytic system. Then the samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS), Field emission on scanning electron microcopy (FE-SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), BET specific surface area analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS). ZnWO4 with an appropriate exposure of (0 1 1) facets ratio exhibited the best photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic activities. The microorganisms deactivated completely in 10 min by ZnWO4 films with 3 V bias. The mechanisms of (0 1 1) facets enhanced the photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic activities which were deduced based on the calculated result from the first principles. Simultaneously, appropriate exposed facets and applied bias could reduce the recombination of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs, and improve the photocatalytic activities of ZnWO4.

  19. Transonic flutter study of a wind-tunnel model of a supercritical wing with/without winglet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhlin, C. L.; Rauch, F. J., Jr.; Waters, C.

    1982-01-01

    The scaled flutter model was a 1/6.5-size, semispan version of a supercritical wing (SCW) proposed for an executive-jet-transport airplane. The model was tested cantilever-mounted with a normal wingtip, a wingtip with winglet, and a normal wingtip ballasted to simulate the winglet mass properties. Flutter and aerodynamic data were acquired at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 0.95. The measured transonic flutter speed boundary for each wingtip configuration had roughly the same shape with a minimum flutter speed near M = 0.82. The winglet addition and wingtip mass ballast decreased the wing flutter speed by about 7 and 5%, respectively; thus, the winglet effect on flutter was more a mass effect than an aerodynamic effect. Flutter characteristics calculated using a doublet-lattice analysis (which included interference effects) were in good agreement with the experimental results up to M = 0.82. Comparisons of measured static aerodynamic data with predicted data indicated that the model was aerodynamically representative of the airplane SCW.

  20. Indications of marine bioinvasion from network theory. An analysis of the global cargo ship network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölzsch, A.; Blasius, B.

    2011-12-01

    The transport of huge amounts of small aquatic organisms in the ballast tanks and at the hull of large cargo ships leads to ever increasing rates of marine bioinvasion. In this study, we apply a network theoretic approach to examine the introduction of invasive species into new ports by global shipping. This is the first stage of the invasion process where it is still possible to intervene with regulating measures. We compile a selection of widely used and newly developed network properties and apply these to analyse the structure and spread characteristics of the directed and weighted global cargo ship network (GCSN). Our results reveal that the GCSN is highly efficient, shows small world characteristics and is positive assortative, indicating that quick spread of invasive organisms between ports is likely. The GCSN shows strong community structure and contains two large communities, the Atlantic and Pacific trading groups. Ports that appear as connector hubs and are of high centralities are the Suez and Panama Canal, Singapore and Shanghai. Furthermore, from robustness analyses and the network's percolation behaviour, we evaluate differences of onboard and in-port ballast water treatment, set them into context with previous studies and advise bioinvasion management strategies.