WorldWideScience

Sample records for ballasts

  1. Inerting ballast tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, Gabriel L.; Bronneberg, Jos [SBM Offshore, AA Schiedam (Netherlands); Barros, Maria A.S.D. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This report expands upon the work conducted by SBM Offshore to develop a tank preservation treatment, which is intended to achieve a service life of 30 years. This work focuses on the corrosion problems, in the ballast tanks, based on new built hulls, both for the Gas Exploration Market, the FLNG - Floating Liquefied Natural Gas, and for the Oil Exploration market - FPSO's - Floating Production Storage and offloading Units. Herein, the corrosion rate input comes from the various references related to the process of nitrogen injection, which is expected to extend the vessel's time life. The essential elements of this solution comprise the deoxygenation process, corrosion models, coating effects, tests from laboratory, shipboard tests, corrosion institutes and regulations applicable to the operation. The best corrosion protection system for ballast tanks area combines a coating system and an inert gas system. The condition of the tanks will be dependent upon the level of protection applied to the steel structure, including, but not limited to coating, cathodic protection, etc. There is a need for products which extend the life time. It is not sufficient, only have good theoretical base for the corrosion and an excellent treatment system. In addition, the design of the ships structure must also eliminate the presence of local stress concentrations which can result in fatigue cracking and rupture of the protective coating barrier starting the corrosion. As a direct result of this, more problems in corrosion can be mitigated, vessels can have a better corrosion performance with less maintenance and repairs to coating systems in ballast tanks. Furthermore ships will be positively impacted operationally due to less frequent dry docking. There is a huge potential in the application of inert gas to combat the corrosion rate inside the ballast tanks, one of the most corrosive environments on earth. This application can have a direct impact on vessel structure

  2. Ballast Water Treatment Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides functionality for the full-scale testing and controlled simulation of ship ballasting operations for assessment of aquatic nuisance species (ANS)...

  3. Discrete/PWM Ballast-Resistor Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Roger J.

    1994-01-01

    Circuit offers low switching loss and automatic compensation for failure of ballast resistor. Discrete/PWM ballast-resistor controller improved shunt voltage-regulator circuit designed to supply power from high-resistance source to low-impedance bus. Provides both coarse discrete voltage levels (by switching of ballast resistors) and continuous fine control of voltage via pulse-width modulation.

  4. Assessment of didecyldimethylammonium chloride as a ballast water treatment method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Slooten, Cees; Buma, Anita; Peperzak, Louis

    Ballast water-mediated transfer of aquatic invasive species is considered a major threat to marine biodiversity, marine industry and human health. A ballast water treatment is needed to comply with International Maritime Organization (IMO) ballast water discharge regulations. Didecyldimethylammonium

  5. Assessment of didecyldimethylammonium chloride as a ballast water treatment method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Slooten, C.; Peperzak, L.; Buma, A.G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Ballast water-mediated transfer of aquatic invasive species is considered a major threat to marine biodiversity, marine industry and human health. A ballast water treatment is needed to comply with International Maritime Organization (IMO) ballast water discharge regulations. Didecyldimethylammonium

  6. Identification of ballast grading for rail track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei Sun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Grading has long been recognised to critically influence the mechanical behaviour of ballast. To identify the ballast grading for heavy-haul rail track, monotonic and cyclic triaxial tests are conducted to assess the performances of different gradings. Permanent deformations, aggregates degradation, resilience, shear resistance, maximum and minimum densities are recorded and analysed. The grading is found to affect the behaviour of ballast in that coarser gradings exhibit relatively better strength, resilience and therefore less permanent deformation. However, ballast degradation increases with the overall aggregate size. Therefore, to identify the grading for ballast with different performance objectives, a grey relational theory is used to convert the multi-objective into single-objective, i.e. grey relational grade. A relatively optimal grading that provides the highest grey relational grade is thus suggested for the improved ballast performance.

  7. Challenges in global ballast water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endresen, Oyvind; Lee Behrens, Hanna; Brynestad, Sigrid; Bjoern Andersen, Aage; Skjong, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    Ballast water management is a complex issue raising the challenge of merging international regulations, ship's specific configurations along with ecological conservation. This complexity is illustrated in this paper by considering ballast water volume, discharge frequency, ship safety and operational issues aligned with regional characteristics to address ecological risk for selected routes. A re-estimation of ballast water volumes gives a global annual level of 3500 Mton. Global ballast water volume discharged into open sea originating from ballast water exchange operations is estimated to approximately 2800 Mton. Risk based decision support systems coupled to databases for different ports and invasive species characteristics and distributions can allow for differentiated treatment levels while maintaining low risk levels. On certain routes, the risk is estimated to be unacceptable and some kind of ballast water treatment or management should be applied

  8. Improvement of railway ballast maintenance approach, incorporating ballast geometry and fouling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, J.; Motieyan-Najar, M. E.; Zakeri, J. A.; Yousefi, B.; Mollazadeh, M.

    2018-04-01

    Ballast plays an important role in the stability of railway track systems. The effectiveness of the ballast in maintaining the track stability is very much dependent on its mechanical conditions. The available ballast maintenance approaches are mainly based on only track geometry conditions (such as track profile) which do not sufficiently reflect the ballast mechanical behaviors. That is, the ballast potential of degradation (i.e., ballast long term behaviors) has been omitted. This makes the effectiveness of the current ballast maintenance approach questionable, indicating a need for a more comprehensive and effective ballast conditions assessment technique. In response to this need, two ballast condition indices based on ballast geometry degradation (BGI) and the level of ballast fouling (BFI) as the main indicators of ballast mechanical behavior were developed. The BGI is a function of the standard deviations of track alignment, unevenness and twist. The BFI was developed based on the data obtained from the ground penetration radar (GPR). Making use of the new indices, a more reliable maintenance algorithm was developed. Through illustrations of the applicability of the new maintenance algorithm in a railway line, it was shown that the new algorithm causes a considerable improvement in the maintenance effectiveness and an increase in the life cycle of railway tracks by making more effective allocation of resources and more accurate maintenance planning.

  9. 33 CFR 157.10b - Segregated ballast tanks, dedicated clean ballast tanks, and special ballast arrangements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10b Segregated ballast tanks... Continental Shelf oil. (a) Each tank vessel that is engaged in the transfer of crude oil from an offshore oil... this section may be designed to carry ballast water in cargo tanks, as allowed under § 157.35. [CGD 79...

  10. Ten years of Brazilian ballast water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Maria Cecilia Trindade; Hall-Spencer, Jason M.; Poggian, Cecília Fonseca; Fileman, Timothy W.

    2018-03-01

    In 2005, Brazil addressed the environmental challenges posed by ballast water through a unilateral regulation, called the Maritime Standard N° 20 (NORMAM-20), applied to all shipping in her waters. This world-leading decision was the culmination of a process that started during the 1990‧s. Here, we summarize how these ballast water regulations were brought in and adopted and present the findings of 10 years of enforcement (2005-2015) in 39 ports along the Brazilian coast. We show that compliance with the Brazilian standard has increased significantly since the regulations were implemented (p < 0.001). After five years of implementation, non-compliance decreased probably reflecting an increase in awareness of the Brazilian Standard and a shift in the shipping industry commitment to minimize and control the spread of invasive species through ballast water. The Brazilian experience shows that very high levels (97%) of compliance with ballast water management regulations can be made to work in a region of global importance to the maritime industry. In the last decade, the rules governing ballast water in Brazil have evolved to address the demands from the maritime community and to provide updates such as imminent requirements for the use of ballast water management systems on board ships. These regulations are rarely cited when ballast water regulations are discussed internationally, yet there is much to learn from the proactive approach taken by Brazil such as what is feasible and enforceable.

  11. Analysis of Soft Switched Electronic Ballast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Spanik

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available One of most perspective light sources are based on principle of electric discharge in gases. Feature of this phenomena is nonlinear impedance characteristic. Ballast interconnected between line and light source adapts requirements of light source to possibilities/requirements of the line. Today solution of modern ballast is based is based upon high frequency switch mode power supply, the cuts many disadvantages of standartd magnetic ballast off. The article describes development of high frequency electronic ballast for linear fluorescent tube in the frame of grant project 1/9025/02 with accent to soft switching. The most important advantages of this solutions are compactness, flicker-free lumen effeciency increase and reduced EMI interferencies.

  12. Macroalgal survival in ballast water tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flagella, Maria Monia; Verlaque, Marc; Soria, Alessio; Buia, Maria Cristina

    2007-09-01

    Despite a large amount of research into invasive species and their introductions, there have been no studies focused on macroalgal transport in ballast water. To address this, we collected replicate samples of ballast water from 12 ships in two Mediterranean harbours (Naples and Salerno). Filtered samples were kept in culture for a month at Mediterranean mean conditions (18 degrees C, 12:12h LD, 60micromol photons m(-2)s(-1)). Fifteen macroalgal taxa were cultured and differed according to the geographic origin of the ballast water. Most of the cultured algae were widely distributed species (e.g. Ulva spp. and Acinetospora-phase). However, Ulva ohnoi Hiraoka and Shimada, described from Japan, was hitherto unknown in the Mediterranean Sea. We show for the first time that ballast water can be an important vector for the transport of microscopic stages of macroalgae and that this can be a vector for the introduction of alien species.

  13. Modeling Ballasted Tracks for Runoff Coefficient C

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    In this study, the Regional Transportation District (RTD)s light rail tracks were modeled to determine the Rational Method : runoff coefficient, C, values corresponding to ballasted tracks. To accomplish this, a laboratory study utilizing a : rain...

  14. Ballast water research at the WFRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinson, Lyman

    2006-01-01

    Invasive aquatic species are considered to be one of the greatest threats to marine biodiversity, coastal economies, and even human health. Ballast water is a primary vector for these bioinvasions. One method of reducing risk of ballast water introductions is mid-ocean exchange of marine ballast water. However, it is widely recognized that this practice has many limitations, including serious ship safety concerns and variable biological effectiveness. International agencies and federal, state and local governments are attempting to tackle the problem by recommending or mandating the installation of ballast water treatment systems. The WFRC is working with others to develop new technologies to detect, prevent, and control aquatic invasive species impacts in Puget Sound and the Pacific Northwest.

  15. Macroalgal survival in ballast water tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagella, Maria Monia [Benthic Ecology Laboratory, Stazione Zoologica A. Dohrn, P.ta S.Pietro, 80077, Ischia, Naples (Italy)], E-mail: flagella@szn.it; Verlaque, Marc [UMR 6540 DIMAR, COM, Universite de la Mediterranee, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Soria, Alessio; Buia, Maria Cristina [Benthic Ecology Laboratory, Stazione Zoologica A. Dohrn, P.ta S.Pietro, 80077, Ischia, Naples (Italy)

    2007-09-15

    Despite a large amount of research into invasive species and their introductions, there have been no studies focused on macroalgal transport in ballast water. To address this, we collected replicate samples of ballast water from 12 ships in two Mediterranean harbours (Naples and Salerno). Filtered samples were kept in culture for a month at Mediterranean mean conditions (18 deg. C, 12:12 h LD, 60 {mu}mol photons m{sup -2} s{sup -1}). Fifteen macroalgal taxa were cultured and differed according to the geographic origin of the ballast water. Most of the cultured algae were widely distributed species (e.g. Ulva spp. and Acinetospora-phase). However, Ulva ohnoi Hiraoka and Shimada, described from Japan, was hitherto unknown in the Mediterranean Sea. We show for the first time that ballast water can be an important vector for the transport of microscopic stages of macroalgae and that this can be a vector for the introduction of alien species.

  16. Novel Electronic Ballast for Automotive HID Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakabe, Takahiro; Kinoshita, Hidehiko; Kawasaka, Taihei

    Simplifying the composition of the automotive HID lamp electronic ballast has been considered. This paper describes the novel electronic ballast that is composed of a DC/DC converter, a capacitor connected to a lamp in series, a switch (S3) connected to the capacitor in parallel, a switch (S2) placed between the output terminals of the DC/DC converter and also connected in parallel to the lamp and the capacitor in series, and an igniter. All MOSFETs (S1 in the DC/DC converter, S2 and S3) in the ballast are operated on the common voltage position (GND) of the circuit. The DC/DC converter is operated intermittently and the operation of S2 synchronizes with the operation of it to supply the lamp with an alternate square wave voltage. Operating an automotive HID lamp succeeded using the novel ballast and by setting some issues below. 1) The occurrence of the power loss when S2 is turned on. 2) The occurrence of extinction of gas discharge. This paper describes how the loss can be decreased if a part of the energy stored in the output capacitor of the DC/DC conveter is used to operate the lamp before S2 is turned on. It also describes how an inductor and a capacitor were added to the proposed electronic ballast to raise the lamp voltage in order to prevent the current from disappearing.

  17. 33 CFR 157.23 - Cargo and ballast system information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.23 Cargo and ballast system information. (a... automatic and manual operation of the cargo and ballast system in the vessel. (b) The format and information... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cargo and ballast system...

  18. 33 CFR 157.10a - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10a Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for certain new and existing vessels of 40,000... oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for certain new and existing vessels of 40,000...

  19. 33 CFR 157.10c - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10c Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for certain new and existing tankships of 20... oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for certain new and existing tankships of 20...

  20. Mechanics of Ballast Compaction. Volume 3 : Field Test Results for Ballast Physical State Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    The important mechanical processes which influence the ballast physical state in track are tamping, crib and shoulder compaction and train traffic. Three methods of assessing physical state were used at four railroad sites to obtain needed data on th...

  1. 75 FR 14287 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... Procedure Improvement Options 1. Resistor-Based Ballast Efficiency Correlated to Ballast Efficacy Factor 2..., and Results 7. Resistor Value Determination 8. Non-Operational Ballasts When Connected to a Resistor 9... Ballasts 4. Resistor-based Ballast Efficiency Test Method 5. Alternative Approaches to Amending the Test...

  2. Light Sources and Ballast Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Sakai, Makoto; Yasuda, Takeo; Maehara, Akiyoshi; Okada, Atsunori; Gouriki, Takeshi; Mannami, Tomoaki

    discharge models were reported. Further, studies on ultra high-pressure mercury lamps as light sources for projectors are becoming the mainstream of HID lamp related researches. For high-pressure sodium lamps, many studies on plant growing and pest control utilizing low insect attracting aspects were also reported in 2006. Additionally, for discharge lamps, the minimum sustaining electric power for arc tubes employed in electrode-less compact fluorescent lamps was investigated. For Hg-free rare-gas fluorescent lamps, a luminance of 10,000cd/m2 was attained by a 1 meter-long external duplex spiral electrode prototype using Xe/Ne barrier discharge. As to startup circuits, the commercialization of energy saving and high value added products mainly associated with fluorescent lamps and HID lamps are becoming common. Further, the miniaturization of startup circuits for self electronic-ballasted lamps has advanced. Speaking of the overall light sources and startup circuits in 2006 and with the enforcement of RoHS in Europe in July, the momentum toward hazardous substance-free and energy saving initiatives has been enhanced from the perspective of protecting the global environment. It is anticipated that similar restrictions will be globally enforced in the future.

  3. Laser cutting of concretes with various ballasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamasaki, Masanobu; Katsumura, Munehide; Utsumi, Hiroaki

    1985-01-01

    The biological shield concrete and the radiation shield concrete which construct a part of the atomic reactor must be demolished with the decommissioning of the atomic reactor plants. In a case, the demolition using a laser is expected as one of excellent method for the decommissioning of these radioactive concretes. The fundamental cuttings of a mortar, the concretes with andesite, lime stone and gray wacke as ballast and a concrete reinforced with mild steel rods were therefore carried out using a 5 kW output CO 2 laser. As the results of experiment, it was cleared that cutting results varied with ballasts, 100 mm thick reinforced concrete could be cut, safety was high because few dross and few fume were produced. (author)

  4. Fracture toughness estimation of ballast stone used in Iranian railway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ferestade

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ballast is a layer composed of crushed stone basically with diameters of 20–60 mm, on which sleepers and rails are set. Ballast is used to withstand vertical, horizontal and lateral forces applied on sleepers and to hold the line in operative conditions. Ballast deterioration induced by crashed stones is a major issue of track instability as the ballast layer quality depending on the materials used and their densities should be focused on. Therefore, ballast should be resistant against loads applied, and the fracture toughness of ballast stone is of great importance. For this purpose, the fracture toughness of two kinds of ballast stones used in Iranian railway, i.e. Gaduk (limestone and Anjylavnd (andesite, is investigated experimentally in this paper. The quality of ballast stone is evaluated in different weather conditions. Numerical results shown that the Anjylavnd stone is more appropriate for rainy and cold weather when there is a probability of fracturing due to frozen water captured in ballast.

  5. Identification of ballast water discharge profiles of a port to enable effective ballast water management and environmental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Matej; Gollasch, Stephan; Penko, Ludvik

    2018-03-01

    Information about the profile of ballast water discharges in a port is one of the basic elements of the decision making process in ballast water risk assessment and management, and supports the evaluation of dimensions and processes of aquatic species invasions with vessels ballast water. In the lack of ballast water reporting, ballast water discharge assessments need to be conducted. In this study we have assessed and compared ballast water discharge profiles of two ports with different maritime traffic and cargo profiles, the Port of Hamburg (Germany) and the Muuga Harbour, Port of Tallinn (Estonia). This study shows methods and approaches which can be used to assess volumes and donor ports of ballast water discharges for a port at the level of each vessel call. These methods and approaches can be applied to any port to support the implementation of feasible and efficient ballast water management measures and to enable environmental studies including long-term accumulation risks of disinfection by-products from ballast water management systems making use of active substances, as well as for discharges of other chemical compounds.

  6. Inspection and in situ impedance measurements for ballast water tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Buter, S.; Ferrari, G.; Prent, C.S.W.

    2012-01-01

    The application of coatings in ballast water tanks is critical for the safety of cargo ships. International Maritime Organization (IMO) has delivered a standard for the protection of water ballast tanks in which new built cargo vessels have to comply with {resolution MSC.215(82)}. In case the

  7. (AJST) SELECTION AND TESTING OF BALLAST STONES FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    ABSTRACT: Ballast is broken pieces of hard rocks such as sandstones, schist, etc. approximately 25-. 60 mm size, over which the railway tracks are laid. The function of the ballast is to transfer the applied load over a large surface, provide adequate elasticity, prevent creep and hold the sleepers in position. Also under wet ...

  8. Selection and testing of ballast stones for underground railway tracks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ballast is broken pieces of hard rocks such as sandstones, schist, etc. approximately 25- 60 mm size, over which the railway tracks are laid. The function of the ballast is to transfer the applied load over a large surface, provide adequate elasticity, prevent creep and hold the sleepers in position. Also under wet conditions, ...

  9. Single-stage unity power factor based electronic ballast

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper deals with the design, modeling, analysis and implementation of unity power factor (UPF) based electronic ballast for a fluorescent lamp (FL). The proposed electronic ballast uses a boost AC–DC converter as a power factor corrector (PFC) to improve the power quality at the input ac mains. In this singlestage ...

  10. WET-tests on UV-treated ballast water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaag, N.H.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    Damen Shipyards has developed a barge-based ballast water management system (BWMS) that enables direct treatment of ballast water during discharge in a receiving harbour. The treatment is based upon filtration and a once-through UV-treatment. As part of the Type Approval process, the Dutch

  11. 33 CFR 157.220 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Design and Equipment § 157.220 Dedicated... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks...

  12. Optimisation of bitumen emulsion properties for ballast stabilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D’Angelo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ballasted track, while providing economical and practical advantages, is associated with high costs and material consumption due to frequent maintenance. More sustainable alternatives to conventional ballasted trackbeds should therefore aim at extending its durability, particularly considering ongoing increases in traffic speed and loads. In this regard, the authors have investigated a solution consisting of bitumen stabilised ballast (BSB, designed to be used for new trackbeds as well as in reinforcing existing ones. This study presents the idea behind the technology and then focuses on a specific part of its development: the optimisation of bitumen emulsion properties and dosage in relation to ballast field conditions. Results showed that overall bitumen stabilisation improved ballast resistance to permanent deformation by enhancing stiffness and damping properties. Scenarios with higher dosage of bitumen emulsion, higher viscosity, quicker setting behaviour, and harder base bitumen seem to represent the most desirable conditions to achieve enhanced in-field performance.

  13. Optimisation of bitumen emulsion properties for ballast stabilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Angelo, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Thom, N.

    2017-01-01

    Ballasted track, while providing economical and practical advantages, is associated with high costs and material consumption due to frequent maintenance. More sustainable alternatives to conventional ballasted trackbeds should therefore aim at extending its durability, particularly considering ongoing increases in traffic speed and loads. In this regard, the authors have investigated a solution consisting of bitumen stabilised ballast (BSB), designed to be used for new trackbeds as well as in reinforcing existing ones. This study presents the idea behind the technology and then focuses on a specific part of its development: the optimisation of bitumen emulsion properties and dosage in relation to ballast field conditions. Results showed that overall bitumen stabilisation improved ballast resistance to permanent deformation by enhancing stiffness and damping properties. Scenarios with higher dosage of bitumen emulsion, higher viscosity, quicker setting behaviour, and harder base bitumen seem to represent the most desirable conditions to achieve enhanced in-field performance. [es

  14. Emerging risks from ballast water treatment: The run-up to the International Ballast Water Management Convention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werschkun, B.; Banerji, S.; Basurko, O.C.; David, M.; Fuhr, F; Gollasch, S.; Grummt, T.; Haarich, M.; Jha, A.N.; Kacan, S.; Kehrer, A.; Linders, J.; Mesbahi, E.; Pughiuc, D.; Richardson, S.D.; Schwarz-Schulz, B.; Shah, A.; Theobald, N.; von Gunten, U.; Wieck, S.; Hofer, T.

    2014-01-01

    Uptake and discharge of ballast water by ocean-going ships contribute to the worldwide spread of aquatic invasive species, with negative impacts on the environment, economies, and public health. The International Ballast Water Management Convention aims at a global answer. The agreed standards for

  15. Statistical analysis of cone penetration resistance of railway ballast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saussine, Gilles; Dhemaied, Amine; Delforge, Quentin; Benfeddoul, Selim

    2017-06-01

    Dynamic penetrometer tests are widely used in geotechnical studies for soils characterization but their implementation tends to be difficult. The light penetrometer test is able to give information about a cone resistance useful in the field of geotechnics and recently validated as a parameter for the case of coarse granular materials. In order to characterize directly the railway ballast on track and sublayers of ballast, a huge test campaign has been carried out for more than 5 years in order to build up a database composed of 19,000 penetration tests including endoscopic video record on the French railway network. The main objective of this work is to give a first statistical analysis of cone resistance in the coarse granular layer which represents a major component of railway track: the ballast. The results show that the cone resistance (qd) increases with depth and presents strong variations corresponding to layers of different natures identified using the endoscopic records. In the first zone corresponding to the top 30cm, (qd) increases linearly with a slope of around 1MPa/cm for fresh ballast and fouled ballast. In the second zone below 30cm deep, (qd) increases more slowly with a slope of around 0,3MPa/cm and decreases below 50cm. These results show that there is no clear difference between fresh and fouled ballast. Hence, the (qd) sensitivity is important and increases with depth. The (qd) distribution for a set of tests does not follow a normal distribution. In the upper 30cm layer of ballast of track, data statistical treatment shows that train load and speed do not have any significant impact on the (qd) distribution for clean ballast; they increase by 50% the average value of (qd) for fouled ballast and increase the thickness as well. Below the 30cm upper layer, train load and speed have a clear impact on the (qd) distribution.

  16. Statistical analysis of cone penetration resistance of railway ballast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saussine Gilles

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic penetrometer tests are widely used in geotechnical studies for soils characterization but their implementation tends to be difficult. The light penetrometer test is able to give information about a cone resistance useful in the field of geotechnics and recently validated as a parameter for the case of coarse granular materials. In order to characterize directly the railway ballast on track and sublayers of ballast, a huge test campaign has been carried out for more than 5 years in order to build up a database composed of 19,000 penetration tests including endoscopic video record on the French railway network. The main objective of this work is to give a first statistical analysis of cone resistance in the coarse granular layer which represents a major component of railway track: the ballast. The results show that the cone resistance (qd increases with depth and presents strong variations corresponding to layers of different natures identified using the endoscopic records. In the first zone corresponding to the top 30cm, (qd increases linearly with a slope of around 1MPa/cm for fresh ballast and fouled ballast. In the second zone below 30cm deep, (qd increases more slowly with a slope of around 0,3MPa/cm and decreases below 50cm. These results show that there is no clear difference between fresh and fouled ballast. Hence, the (qd sensitivity is important and increases with depth. The (qd distribution for a set of tests does not follow a normal distribution. In the upper 30cm layer of ballast of track, data statistical treatment shows that train load and speed do not have any significant impact on the (qd distribution for clean ballast; they increase by 50% the average value of (qd for fouled ballast and increase the thickness as well. Below the 30cm upper layer, train load and speed have a clear impact on the (qd distribution.

  17. Vibrations induced by HST passage on ballast and non-ballast tracks

    OpenAIRE

    Galvín, Pedro; Romero Ordóñez, Antonio; Domínguez Abascal, José

    2010-01-01

    Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Sept. 2010 - Special Issue in honour of Prof. Anestis Veletsos. Postprint The use of ballastless slab track is significantly increasing in HST line technology. This development is due to some structural and operational advantages over ballasted track. In addition, floating slab tracks can be used to control ground-borne vibrations generated by surface and underground rail transportation systems. In this paper, a general and fully three dimension...

  18. Dimmable Electronic Ballast for a Gas Discharge Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raducanu, Marius; Hennings, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is the most efficient photocatalyst for organic oxidative degradation. TiO2 is effective not only in aqueous solution, but also in nonaqueous solvents and in the gas phase. It is photostable, biologically and chemically inert, and non-toxic. Low-energy UV light (approximately 375 nm, UV-A) can be used to photoactivate TiO2. TiO2 photocatalysis has been used to mineralize most types of organic compounds. Also, TiO2 photocatalysis has been effectively used in sterilization. This effectiveness has been demonstrated by its aggressive destruction of microorganisms, and aggressive oxidation effects of toxins. It also has been used for the oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide, and ammonia to nitrogen. Despite having many attractive features, advanced photocatalytic oxidation processes have not been effectively used for air cleaning. One of the limitations of the traditional photocatalytic systems is the ballast that powers (lights) the bulbs. Almost all commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) ballasts are not dimmable and do not contain safety features. COTS ballasts light the UV lamp as bright as the bulb can be lit, and this results in shorter bulb lifetime and maximal power consumption. COTS magnetic ballasts are bulky, heavy, and inefficient. Several iterations of dimmable electronic ballasts have been developed. Some manifestations have safety features such as broken-bulb or over-temperature warnings, replace-bulb alert, logbulb operational hours, etc. Several electronic ballast boards capable of independently lighting and controlling (dimming) four fluorescent (UV light) bulbs were designed, fabricated, and tested. Because of the variation in the market bulb parameters, the ballast boards were designed with a very broad range output. The ballast boards can measure and control the current (power) for each channel.

  19. Application of hydrodynamic cavitation in ballast water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetković, Martina; Kompare, Boris; Klemenčič, Aleksandra Krivograd

    2015-05-01

    Ballast water is, together with hull fouling and aquaculture, considered the most important factor of the worldwide transfer of invasive non-indigenous organisms in aquatic ecosystems and the most important factor in European Union. With the aim of preventing and halting the spread of the transfer of invasive organisms in aquatic ecosystems and also in accordance with IMO's International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships Ballast Water and Sediments, the systems for ballast water treatment, whose work includes, e.g. chemical treatment, ozonation and filtration, are used. Although hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) is used in many different areas, such as science and engineering, implied acoustics, biomedicine, botany, chemistry and hydraulics, the application of HC in ballast water treatment area remains insufficiently researched. This paper presents the first literature review that studies lab- and large-scale setups for ballast water treatment together with the type-approved systems currently available on the market that use HC as a step in their operation. This paper deals with the possible advantages and disadvantages of such systems, as well as their influence on the crew and marine environment. It also analyses perspectives on the further development and application of HC in ballast water treatment.

  20. Difficulties in obtaining representative samples for compliance with the Ballast Water Management Convention

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Carney, K.J.; Basurko, O.C.; Pazouki, K.; Marsham, S.; Delany, J.E.; Desai, D.V.; Anil, A.C.; Mesbahi, E.

    As implementation of the Ballast Water Convention draws nearer a major challenge is the development of protocols which accurately assess compliance with the D-2 Standard. Many factors affect the accuracy of assessment: e.g. large volume of ballast...

  1. Effects of various ballast water treatment methods on the survival of phytoplankton and bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Stehouwer, P.P.

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species are among the worst threats to marine biodiversity. The main vector for the spread of these aquatic invasive species is ships’ ballast water. Because of this, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopted the Ballast Water Convention. Part of this convention is the D-2 ballast water performance standard, which sets limits to the amount of viable organisms allowed to be in ballast water upon discharge. The limits of the D-2 standard are: 1. less than 10 viable ...

  2. Availability and Efficacy of Ballast Water Treatment Technology: Background and Issue Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Technology, Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies (CleanBallast) System and Greenship Sedinox® Ballast Water Management System. Note that the only...Cape Town - 4 2000+ MEPC 53/2/16 RWO GmbH Marine Water Technology, Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies (CleanBallast!) Filtration...Availability and Efficacy of Ballast Water Treatment Technology: Background and Issue Paper June 2010 Ryan Albert1, Rich

  3. Ballast water compliance monitoring: A new application for ATP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Curto, A.; Stehouwer, P.; Gianoli, C.; Schneider, G.; Raymond, M.; Bonamin, V.

    2018-03-01

    The coming into force of the USCG ballast water regulations and the IMO ballast water management convention resulted in the development of several technologies approved for the treatment of ballast water. To ensure compliance of these technologies, the development of rapid and robust analysis methods was necessary. In collaboration with the SGS Group (Switzerland) and LuminUltra (Canada), Aqua-tools (France) has developed an innovative Ballast Water Treatment Monitoring (BWTM) kit for rapid onboard testing. The affordable kit provides results in less than 1 h, is easy to use and durable ensuring that the ballast water treatment system on the ship is fully compliant with the discharge standards upon arrival in port. The core of this method is a combination of high-quality reagents (lysis solution and ATP 2G Luminase™ enzyme) not inhibited by salinity and a patented fast homogenizing method for ATP extraction developed for a higher ATP recovery from zooplankton and phytoplankton. Compared to traditional analysis methods, the BWTM Kit provides fast and accurate results for all three fractions of microorganisms (≥ 50 μm, ≥ 10 ÷ treatment systems used. Compliance limits were established for all size fractions and a correlation between the standard methods (microscopy, plate count, MPN) and ATP was evaluated. The BWTM kit can provide a fast indication of compliance or gross exceedance. The rare borderline cases, when encountered, of course require additional confirmation.

  4. FREQUENCY OF PULSE AS MARKER BALLAST IN SPORTIVE RECREATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosta Goranović

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Every fisical activity requires immediatly adoption and respons cardio vascular sistem on applied ballast, then sanitary state of heart is most important for good shape, frequency of pulse (heart is the best indicator of state in wich is located heart's muscle,general state and of organism and his capability for brook fisical effort. Frequency of pulse in serenity ( Fc/mir, maximum frequency of pulse (Fc/max, as frequencu of pulse in revival ( Fc/opo represents parametar on basis wich observe doses ballast in sportive recreation, determines objective zone of ballast apropose ponderable grade of adoption CVS on applied effort. In practise very often uses formula for calculation pulse's zone of ballast. Monitoring freqvency of pulse recreative person or sportive tipe represents one of most racionality method attends effect sportive recreative activity or (sportive train on increasment adoption capabillity cardio-vascular sistem (CVS. Dynamic frequencu of pulse during fisical exercise in immutable and valuable phisiological parametar without which is impossible do planning, doses of ballast as operation program contens in current time we can't imagine.

  5. Effect of round particles on shear strength properties of railway ballast

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mvelase, GM

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available from a modern three-dimensional (3-D) laser scanning technique on the internal frictional angle of the ballast materials. The results indicated the effect of ballast shape on shear strength, as fresh ballast from the quarry provided higher internal...

  6. Microbial dynamics in acetate-enriched ballast water at different temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stehouwer, P.P.; van Slooten, C.; Peperzak, L.

    2013-01-01

    The spread of invasive species through ships' ballast water is considered as a major ecological threat to the world's oceans. For that reason, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has set performance standards for ballast water discharge. Ballast water treatment systems have been developed

  7. 33 CFR 157.226 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Procedures to be followed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....10b(a)(2), or § 157.10c(c)(2) that has the Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual approved... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels...

  8. 33 CFR 157.208 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....10b(a)(2), or § 157.10c(c)(2) desires a Coast Guard approved Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank...

  9. 33 CFR 151.2045 - What are the mandatory recordkeeping requirements for vessels equipped with ballast tanks that...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... facility. Include the following: (i) The origin of ballast water. This includes date(s), location(s), volume(s) and temperature(s) (If a tank has been exchanged, list the loading port of the ballast water... OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species...

  10. 33 CFR 157.43 - Discharges of clean and segregated ballast: Seagoing tank vessels of 150 gross tons or more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... discharge point for segregated ballast. (c) All discharges of clean ballast and segregated ballast must be... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discharges of clean and... Discharges of clean and segregated ballast: Seagoing tank vessels of 150 gross tons or more. (a) Clean...

  11. Emerging risks from ballast water treatment: the run-up to the International Ballast Water Management Convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werschkun, Barbara; Banerji, Sangeeta; Basurko, Oihane C; David, Matej; Fuhr, Frank; Gollasch, Stephan; Grummt, Tamara; Haarich, Michael; Jha, Awadhesh N; Kacan, Stefan; Kehrer, Anja; Linders, Jan; Mesbahi, Ehsan; Pughiuc, Dandu; Richardson, Susan D; Schwarz-Schulz, Beatrice; Shah, Amisha; Theobald, Norbert; von Gunten, Urs; Wieck, Stefanie; Höfer, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Uptake and discharge of ballast water by ocean-going ships contribute to the worldwide spread of aquatic invasive species, with negative impacts on the environment, economies, and public health. The International Ballast Water Management Convention aims at a global answer. The agreed standards for ballast water discharge will require ballast water treatment. Systems based on various physical and/or chemical methods were developed for on-board installation and approved by the International Maritime Organization. Most common are combinations of high-performance filters with oxidizing chemicals or UV radiation. A well-known problem of oxidative water treatment is the formation of disinfection by-products, many of which show genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, or other long-term toxicity. In natural biota, genetic damages can affect reproductive success and ultimately impact biodiversity. The future exposure towards chemicals from ballast water treatment can only be estimated, based on land-based testing of treatment systems, mathematical models, and exposure scenarios. Systematic studies on the chemistry of oxidants in seawater are lacking, as are data about the background levels of disinfection by-products in the oceans and strategies for monitoring future developments. The international approval procedure of ballast water treatment systems compares the estimated exposure levels of individual substances with their experimental toxicity. While well established in many substance regulations, this approach is also criticised for its simplification, which may disregard critical aspects such as multiple exposures and long-term sub-lethal effects. Moreover, a truly holistic sustainability assessment would need to take into account factors beyond chemical hazards, e.g. energy consumption, air pollution or waste generation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemical assessment of ballast water exchange compliance: Implementation in North America and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monaca eNoble

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence by naturally occurring dissolved organic matter (FDOM is a sensitive indicator of ballast water source, with high FDOM in coastal ballast water decreasing typically dramatically when replaced by oceanic seawater during ballast water exchange. In this study, FDOM was measured in 92 ships arriving at Pacific ports on the US west coast and in New Zealand, and used to assess their compliance with ballast water regulations that required 95% replacement of port water to minimize invasive species risks. Fluorescence in many ships that reported ballast water exchange was significantly higher than is usual for oceanic seawater, and in several cases, significantly higher than in other ships with similar provenance and ballast water management. Pre-exchange source port conditions represented the largest source of uncertainty in the analysis, because residual coastal FDOM when highly fluorescent can significantly influence the fluorescence signature of exchanged ballast water. A meta-analysis comparing the intensities of FDOM in un-exchanged ballast tanks with calculated pre-exchange intensities assuming that ships all correctly implemented and reported ballast water exchange revealed notable discrepancies. Thus, the incidence of high-FDOM port waters was seven times lower in reality than would be expected on the basis of these calculations. The results suggest that a significant rate of reporting errors occur due to a combination of factors that may include inadequate ballast water exchange and unintentional or deliberate misreporting of ballast water management.

  13. 33 CFR 151.1510 - Ballast water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE... an alternative environmentally sound method of ballast water management that has been submitted to... under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.). [CGD 91-066, 58 FR 18334, Apr. 8...

  14. Realistic approach to corrosion protection of ballast water tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, G.M.; Buter, S.J.; Zhang, X.; Prent, C.S.W.

    2012-01-01

    Corrosion protection of ballast water tanks is very precarious because of the aggressiveness of the environment and the difficult accessibility of the areas. Numerous accidents have led to regulation by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). Practical circumstances in yards are often not

  15. 33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...” of the Shipping Federation of Canada dated September 28, 2000, while operating anywhere within the... operated outside the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) every vessel that carries only residual amounts of ballast water and/or sediment that were taken onboard the vessel outside the EEZ shall: (1) Conduct a...

  16. Toxicity evaluation of ballast water discharged at The Onne Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The discharge of these ballast water poses a major environmental threat to the water quality and Port infrastructures at the Onne Port complex as contaminants may find their way into the food chain/food web and bioaccumulate in the tissues of indigenous biota (microorganisms, crabs, mangrove oysters and fin-fishes).

  17. Compact Fluorescent Plug-In Ballast-in-a-Socket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebecca Voelker

    2001-12-21

    The primary goal of this program was to develop a ballast system for plug-in CFLs (compact fluorescent lamps) that will directly replace standard metal shell, medium base incandescent lampholders (such as Levition No. 6098) for use with portable lamp fixtures, such as floor, table and desk lamps. A secondary goal was to identify a plug-in CFL that is optimized for use with this ballast. This Plug-in CFL Ballastin-a-Socket system will allow fixture manufacturers to easily manufacture CFL-based high-efficacy portable fixtures that provide residential and commercial consumers with attractive, cost-effective, and energy-efficient fixtures for use wherever portable incandescent fixtures are used today. The advantages of this proposed system over existing CFL solutions are that the fixtures can only be used with high-efficacy CFLs, and they will be more attractive and will have lower life-cycle costs than screw-in or adapter-based CFL retrofit solutions. These features should greatly increase the penetration of CFL's into the North American market. Our work has shown that using integrated circuits it is quite feasible to produce a lamp-fixture ballast of a size comparable to the current Edison-screw 3-way incandescent fixtures. As for price points for BIAS-based fixtures, end-users polled by the Lighting Research Institute at RPI indicated that they would pay as much as an additional $10 for a lamp containing such a ballast. The ballast has been optimized to run with a 26 W amalgam triple biax lamp in the base-down position, yet can accept non-amalgam versions of the lamp. With a few part alterations, the ballast can be produced to support 32 W lamps as well. The ballast uses GE's existing L-Comp[1] power topology in the circuit so that the integrated circuit design would be a design that could possibly be used by other CFL and EFL products with minor modifications. This gives added value by reducing cost and size of not only the BIAS, but also possibly other

  18. Assessment of didecyldimethylammonium chloride as a ballast water treatment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Slooten, Cees; Peperzak, Louis; Buma, Anita G J

    2015-01-01

    Ballast water-mediated transfer of aquatic invasive species is considered a major threat to marine biodiversity, marine industry and human health. A ballast water treatment is needed to comply with International Maritime Organization (IMO) ballast water discharge regulations. Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) was tested for its applicability as a ballast water treatment method. The treatment of the marine phytoplankton species Tetraselmis suecica, Isochrysis galbana and Chaetoceros calcitrans showed that at 2.5 µL L(-1) DDAC was able to inactivate photosystem II (PSII) efficiency and disintegrate the cells after 5 days of dark incubation. The treatment of natural marine plankton communities with 2.5 µL L(-1) DDAC did not sufficiently decrease zooplankton abundance to comply with the IMO D-2 standard. Bivalve larvae showed the highest resistance to DDAC. PSII efficiency was inactivated within 5 days but phytoplankton cells remained intact. Regrowth occurred within 2 days of incubation in the light. However, untreated phytoplankton exposed to residual DDAC showed delayed cell growth and reduced PSII efficiency, indicating residual DDAC toxicity. Natural marine plankton communities treated with 5 µL L(-1) DDAC showed sufficient disinfection of zooplankton and inactivation of PSII efficiency. Phytoplankton regrowth was not detected after 9 days of light incubation. Bacteria were initially reduced due to the DDAC treatment but regrowth was observed within 5 days of dark incubation. Residual DDAC remained too high after 5 days to be safely discharged. Two neutralization cycles of 50 mg L(-1) bentonite were needed to inactivate residual DDAC upon discharge. The inactivation of residual DDAC may seriously hamper the practical use of DDAC as a ballast water disinfectant.

  19. 33 CFR Appendix to Subpart D of... - Ballast Water Reporting Form and Instructions for Ballast Water Reporting Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... places within the waters of the United States after operating outside the EEZ (which includes the equivalent zone of Canada). Bound for You must submit your report as detailed below. The Great Lakes Fax the... that have not operated outside the EEZ, which are equipped with ballast water tanks and are bound for...

  20. Assessing the viability of microorganisms in the ballast water of vessels transiting the North Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steichen, Jamie L; Quigg, Antonietta

    2015-12-15

    Testing phytoplankton viability within ballast tanks and receiving waters of ballast water discharge remain understudied. Potentially harmful dinoflagellates and diatoms are transported via ballast water to Galveston Bay, Texas (USA), home to three major ports: Houston, Texas City and Galveston. Ballast water from vessels transiting the North Atlantic Ocean was inoculated into treatments representing low and high salinity conditions similar to the Ports of Houston and Galveston respectively. Phytoplankton in ballast water growout experiments were deemed viable and showed growth in low and mid salinities with nutrient enrichment. Molecular methods identified several genera: Dinophysis, Gymnodinium, Gyrodinium, Heterocapsa, Peridinium, Scrippsiella, Chaetoceros and Nitzschia. These phytoplankton genera were previously identified in Galveston Bay except Scrippsiella. Phytoplankton, including those capable of forming harmful algal blooms leading to fish and shellfish kills, are transported to Galveston Bay via ballast water, and are viable when introduced to similar salinity conditions found in Galveston Bay ports. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 33 CFR 157.225 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks operations: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 157.10a(b), § 157.10a(c)(2), § 157.10b(a)(2), or § 157.10c(c)(2) shall ensure that— (a) Before clean... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks...

  2. Vessel-Generated Ballast Water: Gray Water Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    is either heat treated, sandblasted to a specific surface profile , or coated with different materials, depending on the experiment being performed...multiple pools, restaurants , bathrooms and bars, all contribute to the quantity of gray water created. This wastewater coming from many different sources...Treatment Methods Ballast tanks are used by sea going vessels to increase stability. As vessels offload cargo or consume onboard stores, such as fuel and

  3. Strategy for Testing the Efficacy of Ballast Water Treatment Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    waterbome disease microbes, such as Vibrio cholera, enteric pathogens, Campylobacter spp., etc., into U.S. waters (e.g., McCarthy and Khambaty, 1994; Ruiz et...colonies Viruses Viable Plate Counts Dilution series and growth Phage Methods determined by plaque formation Cysts & Dormant Stages* Quantitative...53:175-183. McCarthy, S. A. and F. M. Khambaty (1994). "International dissemination of epidemic Vibrio cholerae by cargo ship ballast and other

  4. Ballast system for maintaining constant pressure in a glove box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlichta, Paul J.

    1989-09-01

    A ballast system is disclosed for a glove box including a fixed platform on which is mounted an inflatable bag on top of which resides a cover and a weight. The variable gas volume of the inflatable bag communicates with that of the glove box via a valved tube. The weight and the gas volume are selected to maintain a relatively constant pressure in the glove box despite variations in the glove box volume while avoiding the use of complicated valving apparatus.

  5. Intercomparison of U.S. Ballast Water Test Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Public | CG-926 R&DC | Drake et al. November 2012 documenting their various audits and addressing findings according to the ISO 9001 categories...Intercomparison of U.S. Ballast Water Test Facilities Final Report Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is...Timothy R. Girton Technical Director United States Coast Guard Research & Development Center 1 Chelsea Street New London, CT 06320

  6. Catch me if you can: Comparing ballast water sampling skids to traditional net sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradie, Johanna; Gianoli, Claudio; Linley, Robert Dallas; Schillak, Lothar; Schneider, Gerd; Stehouwer, Peter; Bailey, Sarah

    2018-03-01

    With the recent ratification of the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments, 2004, it will soon be necessary to assess ships for compliance with ballast water discharge standards. Sampling skids that allow the efficient collection of ballast water samples in a compact space have been developed for this purpose. We ran 22 trials on board the RV Meteor from June 4-15, 2015 to evaluate the performance of three ballast water sampling devices (traditional plankton net, Triton sampling skid, SGS sampling skid) for three organism size classes: ≥ 50 μm, ≥ 10 μm to performance.

  7. How to approach ballast water management in European seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Matej; Gollasch, Stephan

    2018-02-01

    The latest research continues to show that the ballast water issue is very complex, which makes it very challenging to manage. In 2004, the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM Convention) was adopted to globally harmonize action against the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens via ships' ballast water and related sediments. Analyses of the BWM Convention requirements, conducted through different research projects mainly aiming to provide support for the implementation of the BWM Convention, have shown that there are different steps countries need to take and that there are still some open issues which need to be solved. This paper presents some of the main issues identified and the core theoretical and applied measures required to solve these issues, with the aim to support more efficient and coordinated implementation of the BWM Convention requirements in EU seas. The approaches recommended here for the EU may be universally interesting for similar application in other areas of the world.

  8. Low-watt lamps seen bad in many retrofits: said to burn out pre-1978 standard ballasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, L.

    1982-06-21

    The standard ballasts used in early energy-efficient fluorescent lamps are vulnerable to premature burnout. Retrofitting expensive new ballasts will eliminate any savings from the lamps. GTE/Sylvania, Norelco, and Westinghouse acknowledged the problem, while General Electric had no comment. Ballasts made in the last four years have been made compatible with energy-efficient lamps. The vendors claim it is the ballast manufacturers' responsibility to inform users that their product risks early burnout. (DCK)

  9. 77 FR 35268 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ...-10486] RIN 1625-AA32 Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters... Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters''. The rulemaking triggered new information collection...' ballast water discharged in waters of the United States (77 FR 17254). The Coast Guard also established an...

  10. 77 FR 17082 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters: Final Programmatic Environmental Impact... entitled ``Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters'' (Docket No... concentration of living organisms in ships' ballast water discharged in waters of the United States. The...

  11. 10 CFR 431.324 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of metal halide ballasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... energy efficiency of metal halide ballasts. (b) Testing and Calculations. [Reserved] Energy Conservation... efficiency of metal halide ballasts. 431.324 Section 431.324 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Metal Halide Lamp Ballasts and...

  12. A comparison of six different ballast water treatment systems based on UV radiation, electrochlorination and chlorine dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stehouwer, Peter Paul; Buma, Anita; Peperzak, Louis

    2015-01-01

    The spread of aquatic invasive species through ballast water is a major ecological and economical threat. Because of this, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) set limits to the concentrations of organisms allowed in ballast water. To meet these limits, ballast water treatment systems

  13. 76 FR 25211 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... resistor loads. If DOE determines that amendments to the fluorescent lamp ballast energy conservation... the ballast test load is a resistor. DOE also believed that the use of electrical measurements and the... DOE's observations and arguments regarding the drawbacks of the resistor-based test procedure and the...

  14. Practical Considerations Concerning the Interleaved Transition Mode Single-stage Ballast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Kjær, Søren Bækhøj; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a novel single-stage interleaved ballast focusing on practical design aspects like: key current expression, overall losses, harmonic analysis of the differential-mode EMI current and preheating ballast function. A new preheating method is also presented. A PSPI...

  15. KPI (KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS APPLICATION ON BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülçin Vural

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Every day, more than 7,000 different marine species are transferred to different ecosystems via ballast water in ships. The introduction of invasive species can cause problems for native species. After realizing the serious potential problems associated with the transport of organisms in ballast water, national and international regulations were developed. In 2004, the International Maritime Organization introduced the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments. With these regulations, the problems caused by ballast water have attracted attention and many companies have started to research and develop technologies for the management of ballast water. Today, there are hundreds of different systems for ballast-water treatment, and the selection of the most suitable system for a specific vessel is an increasingly important issue as the Convention nears enforcement on September 8, 2017. The goal of this study is to demonstrate that the application of key performance indicators (KPIs to the selection of a ballast-water treatment system (BWTS leads to a very useful tool with which shipyards can compare BWTSs. This allows them to make better choices and to designate the most suitable system for each of their ships. In this study, we examine two types of vessel from a shipyard in Istanbul, Turkey. They have different ballast-water capacities and equipment, and the most suitable system for each is selected by using the KPI method.

  16. Effects of various ballast water treatment methods on the survival of phytoplankton and bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stehouwer, P.P.

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species are among the worst threats to marine biodiversity. The main vector for the spread of these aquatic invasive species is ships’ ballast water. Because of this, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopted the Ballast Water Convention. Part of this convention is the

  17. 33 CFR 157.224 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Design and Equipment § 157.224... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks...

  18. The challenges and promises of genetic approaches for ballast water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Anaïs; Basurko, Oihane C.; Rodríguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara

    2018-03-01

    Ballast water is a main vector of introduction of Harmful Aquatic Organisms and Pathogens, which includes Non-Indigenous Species. Numerous and diversified organisms are transferred daily from a donor to a recipient port. Developed to prevent these introduction events, the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments will enter into force in 2017. This international convention is asking for the monitoring of Harmful Aquatic Organisms and Pathogens. In this review, we highlight the urgent need to develop cost-effective methods to: (1) perform the biological analyses required by the convention; and (2) assess the effectiveness of two main ballast water management strategies, i.e. the ballast water exchange and the use of ballast water treatment systems. We have compiled the biological analyses required by the convention, and performed a comprehensive evaluation of the potential and challenges of the use of genetic tools in this context. Following an overview of the studies applying genetic tools to ballast water related research, we present metabarcoding as a relevant approach for early detection of Harmful Aquatic Organisms and Pathogens in general and for ballast water monitoring and port risk assessment in particular. Nonetheless, before implementation of genetic tools in the context of the ballast water management convention, benchmarked tests against traditional methods should be performed, and standard, reproducible and easy to apply protocols should be developed.

  19. The temperature-ballast hypothesis explains carbon export efficiency observations in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britten, Gregory L.; Wakamatsu, Lael; Primeau, François W.

    2017-02-01

    Carbon export from the Southern Ocean exerts a strong control on the ocean carbon sink, yet recent observations from the region demonstrate poorly understood relationships in which carbon export efficiency is weakly related to temperature. These observations conflict with traditional theory where export efficiency increases in colder waters. A recently proposed "temperature-ballast hypothesis" suggests an explanatory mechanism where the effect of temperature-dependent respiration is masked by variation in particle-ballast as upwelling waters move northward from Antarctica. We use observations and statistical models to test this mechanism and find positive support for the hypothesized temperature-ballast interactions. Best fitting models indicate a significant relation between export efficiency and silica-ballast while simultaneously revealing the expected inverse effect of temperature once ballast is accounted for. These findings reconcile model predictions, metabolic theory, and carbon export observations in the Southern Ocean and have consequences for how the ocean carbon sink responds to climate change.

  20. Application of Hydrocyclone and UV Radiation as a Ballast Water Treatment Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kurtela

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The ballast water exchange methods in open sea are, for the time being, the prevailing procedures accepted by shipowners. However, such methods do not guarantee full efficacy in elimination of allochthonous organisms. Besides, in some navigation zones, in particular in the closed seas, not even the criteria prescribed by international regulations can be fulfilled, i.e. the position of a ship exchanging ballast must be farther than 200Nm from the shore (alternatively 50Nm at the sea depth exceeding 200m. Numerous research attempts on various treatment methods lead to the conclusion that there is still no scientific opinion on the final choice of methods for wide application on board. The treatment methods, such as hydrocyclone separation in the first stage and UV radiation in the second stage, stand a good chance for application on board. Advantages of such a combined method are in the very application of treatment that can be performed during all stages of ballast water treatment, i.e. loading ballast, voyage in ballast and discharging ballast. In closed seas and on shorter routes the operational advantages of hydrocyclone and UV radiation could be the prevailing factor for application. Within the research on the possible application of ballast water treatment by hydrocyclone and UV radiation, a pilot plant with hydrocyclone cluster and UV device was constructed. The research carried out on the pilot plant installed on board the m/v ‘’Naše more’’ proved the effectiveness of such ballast water treatment method and offered a new approach in using hydrocyclone for the inactivation of organisms by hydrodynamic forces. This approach has largely increased the efficacy of the device and a new method for utilization of hydrocyclone in ballast water treatment on board has been discovered. KEY WORDS: ballast water treatment, hydrocyclone, UV radiation, application of method, pilot plant, hydrodynamic forces

  1. Approaches to setting organism-based ballast water discharge standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Henry; Reusser, Deborah A.; Frazier, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    As a vector by which foreign species invade coastal and freshwater waterbodies, ballast water discharge from ships is recognized as a major environmental threat. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) drafted an international treaty establishing ballast water discharge standards based on the number of viable organisms per volume of ballast discharge for different organism size classes. Concerns that the IMO standards are not sufficiently protective have initiated several state and national efforts in the United States to develop more stringent standards. We evaluated seven approaches to establishing discharge standards for the >50-μm size class: (1) expert opinion/management consensus, (2) zero detectable living organisms, (3) natural invasion rates, (4) reaction–diffusion models, (5) population viability analysis (PVA) models, (6) per capita invasion probabilities (PCIP), and (7) experimental studies. Because of the difficulty in synthesizing scientific knowledge in an unbiased and transparent fashion, we recommend the use of quantitative models instead of expert opinion. The actual organism concentration associated with a “zero detectable organisms” standard is defined by the statistical rigor of its monitoring program; thus it is not clear whether such a standard is as stringent as other standards. For several reasons, the natural invasion rate, reaction–diffusion, and experimental approaches are not considered suitable for generating discharge standards. PVA models can be used to predict the likelihood of establishment of introduced species but are limited by a lack of population vital rates for species characteristic of ballast water discharges. Until such rates become available, PVA models are better suited to evaluate relative efficiency of proposed standards rather than predicting probabilities of invasion. The PCIP approach, which is based on historical invasion rates at a regional scale, appears to circumvent many of the indicated problems

  2. Asbestos quantification in track ballast, a complex analytical problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Track ballast forms the trackbeb upon which railroad ties are laid. It is used to bear the load from the railroad ties, to facilitate water drainage, and also to keep down vegetation. It is typically made of angular crushed stone, with a grain size between 30 and 60 mm, with good mechanical properties (high compressive strength, freeze - thaw resistance, resistance to fragmentation). The most common rock types are represented by basalts, porphyries, orthogneisses, some carbonatic rocks and "green stones" (serpentinites, prasinites, amphibolites, metagabbros). Especially "green stones" may contain traces, and sometimes appreciable amounts of asbestiform minerals (chrysotile and/or fibrous amphiboles, generally tremolite - actinolite). In Italy, the chrysotile asbestos mine in Balangero (Turin) produced over 5 Mt railroad ballast (crushed serpentinites), which was used for the railways in northern and central Italy, from 1930 up to 1990. In addition to Balangero, several other serpentinite and prasinite quarries (e.g. Emilia Romagna) provided the railways ballast up to the year 2000. The legal threshold for asbestos content in track ballast is established in 1000 ppm: if the value is below this threshold, the material can be reused, otherwise it must be disposed of as hazardous waste, with very high costs. The quantitative asbestos determination in rocks is a very complex analytical issue: although techniques like TEM-SAED and micro-Raman are very effective in the identification of asbestos minerals, a quantitative determination on bulk materials is almost impossible or really expensive and time consuming. Another problem is represented by the discrimination of asbestiform minerals (e.g. chrysotile, asbestiform amphiboles) from the common acicular - pseudo-fibrous varieties (lamellar serpentine minerals, prismatic/acicular amphiboles). In this work, more than 200 samples from the main Italian rail yards were characterized by a combined use of XRD and a special SEM

  3. The Usage of Crumb Rubber Filtration and UV Radiation for Ballast Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trika Pitana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to build ship’s ballast water treatment prototipe that used to inactivate microbial water patogen in ballast water to produce unpolluted ballast water that can be standardised by IMO Ballast Water Management Convention. A simple concept that used in the development of this prototype is by draining ballast water with capacity at 5 lpm, 10 lpm and 20 lpm into alternative filtration crumb rubber and UV reactor. In the filtration process using crumb rubber, ballast water will be filtered with the precision filtration up to 50 micron, while in the UV reactor ballast water will be illuminated by UV-C with maksimum dose 16,58 mW/cm2. Finally,the study shows the performance of alternative filtration of crumb rubber and UV-C irradiation on microbial water phatogen, and at what UV-C dose ballast water treatment prototipe can inactivate  microbial water phatogens, which are complying with IMO Ballast Water Management Convention ANNEX D. This research is aimed to build ship’s ballast water treatment prototipe that used to inactivate microbial water patogen in ballast water to produce unpolluted ballast water that can be standardised by IMO Ballast Water Management Convention. A simple concept that used in the development of this prototype is by draining ballast water with capacity at 5 lpm, 10 lpm and 20 lpm into alternative filtration crumb rubber and UV reactor. In the filtration process using crumb rubber, ballast water will be filtered with the precision filtration up to 50 micron, while in the UV reactor ballast water will be illuminated by UV-C with maksimum dose 16,58 mW/cm2. Finally,the study shows the performance of alternative filtration of crumb rubber and UV-C irradiation on microbial water phatogen, and at what UV-C dose ballast water treatment prototipe can inactivate  microbial water phatogens, which are complying with IMO Ballast Water Management Convention ANNEX D. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X

  4. Temporal modelling of ballast water discharge and ship-mediated invasion risk to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Robert C; Prowse, Thomas A A; Ross, Joshua V; Wittmann, Talia A; Cassey, Phillip

    2015-04-01

    Biological invasions have the potential to cause extensive ecological and economic damage. Maritime trade facilitates biological invasions by transferring species in ballast water, and on ships' hulls. With volumes of maritime trade increasing globally, efforts to prevent these biological invasions are of significant importance. Both the International Maritime Organization and the Australian government have developed policy seeking to reduce the risk of these invasions. In this study, we constructed models for the transfer of ballast water into Australian waters, based on historic ballast survey data. We used these models to hindcast ballast water discharge over all vessels that arrived in Australian waters between 1999 and 2012. We used models for propagule survival to compare the risk of ballast-mediated propagule transport between ecoregions. We found that total annual ballast discharge volume into Australia more than doubled over the study period, with the vast majority of ballast water discharge and propagule pressure associated with bulk carrier traffic. As such, the ecoregions suffering the greatest risk are those associated with the export of mining commodities. As global marine trade continues to increase, effective monitoring and biosecurity policy will remain necessary to combat the risk of future marine invasion events.

  5. Numerical Investigation of a Liquid-Gas Ejector Used for Shipping Ballast Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueguan Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shipping ballast water can have significant ecological and economic impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Currently, water ejectors are widely used in marine applications for ballast water treatment owing to their high suction capability and reliability. In this communication, an improved ballast treatment system employing a liquid-gas ejector is introduced to clear the ballast water to reduce environmental risks. Commonly, the liquid-gas ejector uses ballast water as the primary fluid and chemical ozone as the secondary fluid. In this study, high-pressure water and air, instead of ballast water and ozone, are considered through extensive numerical and experimental research. The ejector is particularly studied by a steady three-dimensional multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD analysis with commercial software ANSYS-CFX 14.5. Different turbulence models (including standard k-ε, RNG k-ε, SST, and k-ω with different grid size and bubble size are compared extensively and the experiments are carried out to validate the numerical design and optimization. This study concludes that the RNG k-ε turbulence model is the most efficient and effective for the ballast water treatment system under consideration and simple change of nozzle shape can greatly improve the ejector performance under high back pressure conditions.

  6. Obstacles and opportunities in the commercialization of the solid-state-electronic fluorescent-lighting ballast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.; Marcus, A.A.; Campbell, R.S.; Sommers, P.; Skumatz, L.; Berk, B.; Petty, P.; Eschbach, C.

    1981-10-01

    The Solid State Ballast (SSB) Program, aimed at improving the efficiency of fluorescent lights, is described. The first generation of solid state electronic ballasts has been developed and the technology has been transferred to the private sector. This report examines the opportunities for rapid dissemination of this technology into the marketplace. It includes a description of product characteristics and their influence on the commercialization of the SSB, a description of the technology delivery system presently used by the ballast industry, an analysis of the market for SSB, and identification of some high-leverage opportunities to accelerate the commercialization process. (MCW)

  7. Viability assessment of invasive microplankton in ship’s treated ballast water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgreen, Kim; Holbech, Henrik; Pedersen, Knud Ladegaard

    The spreading of aquatic invasive species in ship’s ballast water has huge environmental and health-related consequences and is causing socio-economic losses around the world in the order of US$100 billion per year. Regulations now require all large ships to have an approved ballast water treatment...... system (BWTS) on-board for cleaning of the ballast water to avoid further spreading of invasive species. To ensure BWTS compliance with discharge standards water samples need to be verified for the number of viable organisms in different size classes. The current standard method for assessing organism...... of more efficient BWMS to avoid any further spreading of invasive species....

  8. On-site demonstration procedure for solid-state fluorescent ballast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verderber, R.; Morse, O.

    1980-09-01

    The report was presented to plant engineers and managers who were involved in an on-site demonstration of EETech solid-state ballasts for two 40-watt T12 fluorescent lamps. The report includes a brief review of the operating principles of solid-state fluorescent ballasts and the status of development achieved during the LBL program. The remainder of the test describes the techniques of managing and instrumenting a test area for assessing the performance of solid-state fluorescent ballasts at an occupied site.

  9. The effects of ballast on the sound radiation from railway track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianying; Thompson, David; Jeong, Hongseok; Squicciarini, Giacomo

    2017-07-01

    In a conventional railway track, the rails are laid on sleepers, usually made of concrete, which are supported by a layer of coarse stones known as ballast. This paper focuses on quantifying the influence that the ballast has on the noise produced by the vibration of the track, particularly on the rail and sleeper radiation ratios. A one-fifth scale model of a railway track has been used to conduct acoustic and vibration measurements. This includes reduced-scale ballast that has been produced with stone sizes in the correct proportions. Two different scaling factors (1:√5 and 1:5) have been adopted for the stone sizes in an attempt to reproduce approximately the acoustic properties of full-scale ballast. It is shown that, although a scale factor of 1:√5 gives a better scaling of the acoustic properties, the stones scaled at 1:5 also give acceptable results. The flow resistivity and porosity of this ballast sample have been measured. These have been used in a local reaction model based on the Johnson-Allard formulation to predict the ballast absorption, showing good agreement with measurements of the absorption coefficient. The effects of the presence of the ballast on the noise radiation from a reduced-scale steel rail and concrete sleeper have been investigated experimentally with the ballast located on a rigid foundation. Comparisons are made with the corresponding numerical predictions obtained by using the boundary element method, in which the ballast is represented by a surface impedance. Additionally the finite element method has been used in which the porous medium is considered as an equivalent fluid. From these results it is shown that the extended reaction model gives better agreement with the measurements. Finally, the effects of the ballast vibration on the sleeper radiation have also been investigated for a case of three sleepers embedded in ballast. The ballast vibration is shown to increase the sound radiation by between 1 and 4.5 dB for

  10. Backfilling with mixtures of bentonite/ballast materials or natural smectitic clay?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    1998-10-01

    Comparison of the performance of backfills of mixed MX-80 and crushed rock ballast, and a natural smectitic clay, represented by the German Friedland clay, shows that the latter performs better than mixtures with up to 30 % MX-80. Considering cost, Friedland clay prepared to yield air-dry powder grains is cheaper than mixtures of 30 % MX-80 and crushed ballast. Both technically and economically it appears that the Friedland clay is a competitive alternative to mixtures of 30 % MX-80 and crushed ballast. However, it remains to be demonstrated on a full scale that Friedland clay ground to a suitable grain size distribution can be acceptably compacted on site

  11. Optimal Control of a Ballast-Stabilized Floating Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Søren; Knudsen, Torben; Bak, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Offshore wind energy capitalizes on the higher and less turbulent wind speeds at sea. The use of floating structures for deeper waters is being explored. The control objective is a tradeoff between power capture and fatigue, especially that produced by the oscillations caused by the reduced...... structural stiffness of a floating installation in combination with a coupling between the fore–aft motion of the tower and the blade pitch. To address this problem, the present paper models a ballast-stabilized floating wind turbine, and suggests a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) in combination with a wind...... estimator and a state observer. The results are simulated using aero elastic code and analysed in terms of damage equivalent loads. When compared to a baseline controller, this controller clearly demonstrates better generator speed and power tracking while reducing fatigue loads....

  12. Optimizing the hydrocyclone for ballast water treatment using computational fluid dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D McCluskey

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental concern related to the transfer of Invasive Aquatic Speciesby ships ballast water has given rise to the development of a vast array ofballast water treatment systems. The complex environmental challengesand tight operational characteristics of marine vessels limits the scope oftechnologies used for Ballast Water Treatment. As a result fewtechnologies have progressed beyond the Research and Developmentstage; however one of the most promising technologies for ship board useis the Cyclonic Separator, or Hydrocyclone. Despite the use ofhydrocyclones in a wide variety of engineering applications they have yet tobe successfully adapted towards the removal of suspended sediment andmarine organisms from large volumes of ballast water. This paper detailsthe operational characteristics of Ballast Water Hydrocyclones, employingempirical and experimental data to validate the use of a Detached EddySimulation (DES turbulence model with Computational Fluid Dynamicssimulations (CFD.

  13. Verification of mid-ocean ballast water exchange using naturally occurring coastal tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Kathleen; Boehme, Jennifer; Coble, Paula; Cullen, Jay; Field, Paul; Moore, Willard; Perry, Elgin; Sherrell, Robert; Ruiz, Gregory

    2004-01-01

    We examined methods for verifying whether or not ships have performed mid-ocean ballast water exchange (BWE) on four commercial vessels operating in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. During BWE, a ship replaces the coastal water in its ballast tanks with water drawn from the open ocean, which is considered to harbor fewer organisms capable of establishing in coastal environments. We measured concentrations of several naturally occurring chemical tracers (salinity, six trace elements, colored dissolved organic matter fluorescence and radium isotopes) along ocean transects and in ballast tanks subjected to varying degrees of BWE (0-99%). Many coastal tracers showed significant concentration changes due to BWE, and our ability to detect differences between exchanged and unexchanged ballast tanks was greatest under multivariate analysis. An expanded dataset, which includes additional geographic regions, is now needed to test the generality of our results

  14. 33 CFR 151.2035 - What are the required ballast water management practices for my vessel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ballast water in areas within or that may directly affect marine sanctuaries, marine preserves, marine... darkness when bottom-dwelling organisms may rise up in the water column. (vi) Where propellers may stir up...

  15. Modeling the distribution of colonial species to improve estimation of plankton concentration in ballast water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakaruna, Harshana; VandenByllaardt, Julie; Kydd, Jocelyn; Bailey, Sarah

    2018-03-01

    The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has set limits on allowable plankton concentrations in ballast water discharge to minimize aquatic invasions globally. Previous guidance on ballast water sampling and compliance decision thresholds was based on the assumption that probability distributions of plankton are Poisson when spatially homogenous, or negative binomial when heterogeneous. We propose a hierarchical probability model, which incorporates distributions at the level of particles (i.e., discrete individuals plus colonies per unit volume) and also within particles (i.e., individuals per particle) to estimate the average plankton concentration in ballast water. We examined the performance of the models using data for plankton in the size class ≥ 10 μm and test ballast water compliance using the above models.

  16. Characterization of Bacteria in Ballast Water Using MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Emami, K.; Askari, V.; Ullrich, M.; Mohinudeen, K.; Anil, A.C.; Khandeparker, L.; Burgess, J.G.; Mesbahi, E.

    To evaluate a rapid and cost-effective method for monitoring bacteria in ballast water, several marine bacterial isolates were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Since...

  17. 75 FR 71570 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... validity. In contrast, NEMA noted that for the ballast efficiency (BE) measurement proposed in the NOPR... measurement variation and testing burden compared to the existing test procedure. In contrast to BEF and RSE...

  18. Developing Molecular Methods to Identify and Quantify Ballast Water Organisms: A Test Case with Cnidarians

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kreiser, Brian R

    2004-01-01

    .... Furthermore, biological invasions mediated by ballast water transport have led to some rather severe economic and ecological consequences as seen in the examples of the zebra mussel and green crab...

  19. Algae viability over time in a ballast water sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollasch, Stephan; David, Matej

    2018-03-01

    The biology of vessels' ballast water needs to be analysed for several reasons, one of these being performance tests of ballast water management systems. This analysis includes a viability assessment of phytoplankton. To overcome logistical problems to get algae sample processing gear on board of a vessel to document algae viability, samples may be transported to land-based laboratories. Concerns were raised how the storage conditions of the sample may impact algae viability over time and what the most appropriate storage conditions were. Here we answer these questions with a long-term algae viability study with daily sample analysis using Pulse-Amplitude Modulated (PAM) fluorometry. The sample was analysed over 79 days. We tested different storage conditions: fridge and room temperature with and without light. It seems that during the first two weeks of the experiment the viability remains almost unchanged with a slight downwards trend. In the continuing period, before the sample was split, a slightly stronger downwards viability trend was observed, which occurred at a similar rate towards the end of the experiment. After the sample was split, the strongest viability reduction was measured for the sample stored without light at room temperature. We concluded that the storage conditions, especially regarding temperature and light exposure, have a stronger impact on algae viability compared to the storage duration and that inappropriate storage conditions reduce algal viability. A sample storage time of up to two weeks in a dark and cool environment has little influence on the organism viability. This indicates that a two week time duration between sample taking on board a vessel and the viability measurement in a land-based laboratory may not be very critical.

  20. Design and fabrication of carbon nanotube field-emission cathode with coaxial gate and ballast resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yonghai; Yeow, John T W; Jaffray, David A

    2013-10-25

    A low density vertically aligned carbon nanotube-based field-emission cathode with a ballast resistor and coaxial gate is designed and fabricated. The ballast resistor can overcome the non-uniformity of the local field-enhancement factor at the emitter apex. The self-aligned fabrication process of the coaxial gate can avoid the effects of emitter tip misalignment and height non-uniformity. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Development of a protocol for sampling and analysis of ballast water in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achsah A Mitchell

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The transfer of ballast by the international shipping industry has negatively impacted the environment. To design such a protocol for the area, the ballast water tanks of seven bulk cargo vessels entering a Jamaican port were sampled between January 28, 2010 and August 17, 2010. Vessels originated from five ports and used three main routes, some of which conducted ballast water exchange. Twenty-six preserved and 22 live replicate zooplankton samples were obtained. Abundance and richness were higher than at temperate ports. Exchange did not alter the biotic composition but reduced the abundance. Two of the live sample replicates, containing 31.67 and 16.75 viable individuals m-3, were non-compliant with the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments. Approximately 12% of the species identified in the ballast water were present in the waters nearest the port in 1995 and 11% were present in the entire bay in 2005. The protocol designed from this study can be used to aid the establishment of a ballast water management system in the Caribbean or used as a foundation for the development of further protocols.

  2. Model track studies on fouled ballast using ground penetrating radar and multichannel analysis of surface wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbazhagan, P.; Lijun, Su; Buddhima, Indraratna; Cholachat, Rujikiatkamjorn

    2011-08-01

    Ballast fouling is created by the breakdown of aggregates or outside contamination by coal dust from coal trains, or from soil intrusion beneath rail track. Due to ballast fouling, the conditions of rail track can be deteriorated considerably depending on the type of fouling material and the degree of fouling. So far there is no comprehensive guideline available to identify the critical degree of fouling for different types of fouling materials. This paper presents the identification of degree of fouling and types of fouling using non-destructive testing, namely seismic surface-wave and ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey. To understand this, a model rail track with different degree of fouling has been constructed in Civil engineering laboratory, University of Wollongong, Australia. Shear wave velocity obtained from seismic survey has been employed to identify the degree of fouling and types of fouling material. It is found that shear wave velocity of fouled ballast increases initially, reaches optimum fouling point (OFP), and decreases when the fouling increases. The degree of fouling corresponding after which the shear wave velocity of fouled ballast will be smaller than that of clean ballast is called the critical fouling point (CFP). Ground penetrating radar with four different ground coupled antennas (500 MHz, 800 MHz, 1.6 GHz and 2.3 GHz) was also used to identify the ballast fouling condition. It is found that the 800 MHz ground coupled antenna gives a better signal in assessing the ballast fouling condition. Seismic survey is relatively slow when compared to GPR survey however it gives quantifiable results. In contrast, GPR survey is faster and better in estimating the depth of fouling.

  3. Development of an ATP assay for rapid onboard testing to detect living microorganisms in ballast water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Bonggil; Cha, Hyung-Gon; Lee, Nayoung; Yum, Seungshic; Baek, Seung Ho; Shin, Kyoungsoon

    2018-03-01

    Ballast water is a principal pathway for the introduction of pathogens and non-indigenous species to ports worldwide. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the United States Coast Guard (USCG) have adopted ballast water management regulations that require, e.g., the installation of shipboard ballast water management systems (BWMS). Rapid and simple analytical methods are needed to monitor whether ballast water disinfection ensures compliance with the discharge standards. In this study laboratory and full scale land-based testing was used to investigate the suitability of an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) assay for quantifying living organisms (≥ 10 and < 50 μm minimum dimension) in ballast water. In laboratory experiments the ATP assay was highly sensitive, with a detection limit of < 5 cells 0.1 mL- 1. Diatom species (Chaetoceros simplex and Skeletonema costatum) had low ATP concentrations compared with dinoflagellate, Raphidophyceae, and Chrysophyceae species. This was because of differences in cell volume, as the ATP concentration increased exponentially with increasing cell volume. Using a regression model between ATP concentration and cell volume, an estimated the pass and fail ATP concentration in this study (788-98,610 pg mL- 1) was developed for the discharge of ballast water. In land-based testing the ATP assay also showed a good correlation with the presence of living natural plankton cells in control samples, but the ATP concentration (137 pg mL- 1) was much lower than the ATP guideline. The low ATP concentration in natural plankton cells may reflect a decline in their biological activity because of extended exposure to dark conditions. Although our results need further validation, the ATP assay is a suitable tool for monitoring compliance of ballast water treatment.

  4. Innovative Ballasted Flat Roof Solar PV Racking System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, Richard T. [Cascade Engineering, Grand Rapids, MI (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The objective of this project was to reduce the cost of racking for PV solar on flat commercial rooftops. Cost reductions would come from both labor savings and material savings related to the installation process. The rack would need to accommodate the majority of modules available on the market. Cascade Engineering has a long history of converting traditional metal type applications over to plastic. Injection molding of plastics have numerous advantages including selection of resin for the application, placing the material exactly where it is needed, designing in features that will speed up the installation process, and weight reduction of the array. A plastic rack would need to meet the requirements of UL2703, Mounting systems, mounting devices, clamping/retention devices, and ground lugs for use with flat-plate photovoltaic modules and panels. Comparing original data to the end of project racking design, racking material costs were reduced 50% and labor costs reduced 64%. The racking product accommodates all 60 and 72 cell panels on the market, meets UL2703 requirements, contributes only 1.3 pounds per square foot of weight to the array, requires little ballast to secure the array, automatically grounds the module when the module is secured, stacks/nests well for shipping/fewer lifts to the roof, provides integrated wire routing, allows water to drain on the roof, and accommodates various seismic roof connections. Project goals were achieved as noted in the original funding application.

  5. Semi-empirical model for the assessment of railway ballast using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulia Brancadoro, Maria; Benedetto, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Over time, railways have become a very competitive mean of transportation, especially for long distances. In order to ensure high level of safety, comfort and regularity of transportation, an efficient maintenance of the railway track-bed is crucial. In fact, the cyclic loads passing on the rails produce a progressive deterioration of railway ballast beneath the sleepers, and a breakdown of its particles that causes a general decrease of railway performances. This work aims at proposing a semi-empirical model for the characterisation of railway ballast grading, through the spectral analysis of Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) signal. To this effect, a theoretical study has been preliminary conducted to investigate the propagation and scattering phenomena of the electromagnetic waves within a ballast layer. To confirm the theoretical assumptions, high-frequency GPR signals have been both collected in laboratory and virtual environment. Concerning the latter, progressively more complex numerical domains have been designed and subjected to synthetic GPR test, by a Finite Different Time Domain (FTDT) procedure, run in GPR Max 2D simulator. As first simulation steps, ballast aggregates simplified through circles have been accounted for, with increasing values of radius. Subsequently, real-scale scenarios characterized by multi-size ballast particles, consistent with three different grain size distribution from railway network standards, have been reproduced by the employment of Random Sequential Adsorption - RSA algorithm. As far as the laboratory procedures, real GPR tests have been carried out on an experimental framework purposely set up, and composed of a methacrylate tank filled up with limestone-derived railway ballast. The ballast aggregates grading has been retrieved by means of an automatic image analysis algorithm, run on the lateral sight of the transparent tank. Through their spectral analysis, an empirical relationship between the position of the amplitude

  6. Pollution characteristics and ecological risk of heavy metals in ballast tank sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Daolun; Chen, Xiaofei; Tian, Wen; Qian, Qun; Shen, Hao; Liao, Dexiang; Lv, Baoyi

    2017-02-01

    This study was conducted to illustrate the contents and potential ecological risk of heavy metals in ballast tank sediment. Ballast sediment samples were collected from six ships during their stay in shipyard, and the heavy metals were determined by inductive coupled plasma emission spectrometer. Results showed that high concentrations of heavy metals were detected in all six sediment samples following the order: Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr > As > Cd > Hg. The geoaccumulation index explained the average pollution degree of heavy metals decreased as the following: Zn > Pb > Cu > As > Cr > Hg, and the environmental risk indices suggested that concentration found of Zn, Pb, and Cu might be highly toxic to aquatic organisms. Principal component and correlation analysis indicated the metal pollution in ballast tank sediment was affected by complex and different contamination mechanisms, and the corrosion of ballast tank played an important role in this process. In conclusion, this study is very useful for comprehensive consideration and efficient management of ballast tank sediment in order to protect the marine environment.

  7. A shipboard comparison of analytic methods for ballast water compliance monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradie, Johanna; Broeg, Katja; Gianoli, Claudio; He, Jianjun; Heitmüller, Susanne; Curto, Alberto Lo; Nakata, Akiko; Rolke, Manfred; Schillak, Lothar; Stehouwer, Peter; Vanden Byllaardt, Julie; Veldhuis, Marcel; Welschmeyer, Nick; Younan, Lawrence; Zaake, André; Bailey, Sarah

    2018-03-01

    Promising approaches for indicative analysis of ballast water samples have been developed that require study in the field to examine their utility for determining compliance with the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments. To address this gap, a voyage was undertaken on board the RV Meteor, sailing the North Atlantic Ocean from Mindelo (Cape Verde) to Hamburg (Germany) during June 4-15, 2015. Trials were conducted on local sea water taken up by the ship's ballast system at multiple locations along the trip, including open ocean, North Sea, and coastal water, to evaluate a number of analytic methods that measure the numeric concentration or biomass of viable organisms according to two size categories (≥ 50 μm in minimum dimension: 7 techniques, ≥ 10 μm and scientific approaches (e.g. flow cytometry). Several promising indicative methods were identified that showed high correlation with microscopy, but allow much quicker processing and require less expert knowledge. This study is the first to concurrently use a large number of analytic tools to examine a variety of ballast water samples on board an operational ship in the field. Results are useful to identify the merits of each method and can serve as a basis for further improvement and development of tools and methodologies for ballast water compliance monitoring.

  8. Free living and plankton-associated vibrios: assessment in ballast water, harbor areas and coastal ecosystems in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Nelly G. Rivera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ballast water is a major transport vector of exotic aquatic species and pathogenic microorganisms. The wide-ranging spread of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 from harbor areas has been frequently ascribed to discharge of contaminated ballast water into eutrophic coastal environments, such as during the onset of the seventh cholera pandemic in South America in the early 1990s. To determine the microbiological hazards of ballast waters transported to Brazilian ports, we evaluated water and plankton samples taken from (i ballast water tanks of recently arrived ships, (ii port areas along the Brazilian coastline from ~1 to 32 oS and (iii three coastal areas in São Paulo State. Vibrio concentration and toxigenic V. cholerae O1 occurrence were analyzed. Plankton-associated vibrios were more abundant than free-living vibrios in all studied environments. Vibrio cholerae was found in 9.5% of ballast tanks and 24.2% of port samples, both as free-living and attached forms, and was absent off São Paulo State. Toxigenic V. cholerae O1 isolates (ctxA+, tcpA+, involved in cholera disease, were found in ballast water (2% and harbor (2% samples. These results confirm that ballast water is an important carrier of pathogenic organisms, and that monitoring of vibrios and other plankton-attached bacteria is of paramount importance in ballast water management programs.

  9. 77 FR 33969 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ...-10486] RIN 1625-AA32 Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters... Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters.'' Six technical errors were.... Waters.'' Six technical errors were inadvertently published in the final rule that require correction...

  10. 49 CFR 1242.15 - Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... locomotive unit-hours in the common yards. (2) Way: Where the tracks at any one location are used in common..., ties, rails, other track material, ballast, track laying and surfacing, and road property damaged... culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast, track laying and surfacing, and road property damaged...

  11. Backfilling with mixtures of bentonite/ballast materials or natural smectitic clay?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, R. [Geodevelopment AB, (Sweden)

    1998-10-01

    Comparison of the performance of backfills of mixed MX-80 and crushed rock ballast, and a natural smectitic clay, represented by the German Friedland clay, shows that the latter performs better than mixtures with up to 30 % MX-80. Considering cost, Friedland clay prepared to yield air-dry powder grains is cheaper than mixtures of 30 % MX-80 and crushed ballast. Both technically and economically it appears that the Friedland clay is a competitive alternative to mixtures of 30 % MX-80 and crushed ballast. However, it remains to be demonstrated on a full scale that Friedland clay ground to a suitable grain size distribution can be acceptably compacted on site 14 refs, 32 figs, 6 tabs

  12. Inactivation of Amphidinium sp. in ballast waters using UV/Ag-TiO2+O3 advanced oxidation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Donghai; You, Hong; Zhang, Ran; Chen, Chuan; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2011-11-01

    Ballast water poses a biological threat to the world's waterways by transferring aquatic species from one body of water to another. This study investigates the use of combined ultraviolet (UV)/Ag-TiO(2)+ozone (O(3)) processes for treating ballast water using Amphidinium sp. as an indicator microorganism. Sufficient Amphidinium sp. cells in ballast waters can be inactivated using O(3) alone, UV irradiation alone (with or without an Ag-TiO(2) coating), and combined treatments. For the low inactivation ratio (treatment produced excess hydroxyl radicals and total residual oxidants (TROs), and readily damaged cell membranes to release intracellular substances. The comparison tests revealed that the combined treatments synergistically inactivate Escherichia coli in ballast waters. However, the combined process did not synergistically inactivate Amphidinium sp. cells. Inactivating different aqua species in ballast waters needs distinct treatment methods and dosages. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Technical Analysis Ballast Water Treatment By Using Economizer Utilizing Main Engines Exhaust Heat To Comply With International Ship Ballast Water Management At Mv. Leader Win

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Prastowo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the International Ballast Water Management regulations (IBWM, waste water ballast itself has the attention of some researchers to reduce the amount of waste species present in the ballast water with a variety of methods, as of biological, physical, mechanical, and chemical. The decision-making tools such as ballast water heater, flow-through system and others where possible these tools can minimize waste species in ballast water at a certain temperature or pressure of the flow according to the calculations. This study was aimed to calculate and analysis the effectiveness of the system treatment between Option 1 (Economizer & Bundle and Option 2 (Economizer & Heat Excharger then it will compare. First option is using economizer and bundles to transfer a heat from a source heat of exhaust gas then medium by thermal oil circulated. The second option is using economizer and heat excharger where a same heat source , but sea water from ballast tank sirculated to heat excharger. And from economizer to heat excharger is using thermal oil as a heat medium. For all calculation and anaalysis is using softwere HTRI. First option having a duty 2.503 MegaWatts at economizer and 1.9567 MegaWatts at bundles. Over design 2.01% at Economizer and 7.1%5 at bundles. Pessure drop 63.287 kPa at thermal oil after economizer and 68.196 kPa after bundles. Treatment time to this option is 44.424 hors. Second option having a duty 3.38 MegaWatts at economizer and 3.1227 MegaWatts at heat excharger. Over design 5.85% at Economizer and 3.49%5 at heat excharger. Pessure drop 38.697 kPa at thermal oil after economizer and 28.476 kPa after heat excharger. Treatment time to second option is 42.03 hours. Option 2 (Economizer & Heat Excharger is more optimum than option in analytical techniques. By analysis of treatment system, are expected this thesis can be applied to either the MV. Leader Win Vessel to comply with the operational needs according to standard

  14. 76 FR 70547 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ...-National Energy Savings and Net Present Value Analysis 1. Shipments 2. Site-to-Source Energy Conversion G... Manufacturers The industry net present value (INPV) is the sum of the discounted cash flows to the industry from... net present value (NPV) of total consumer costs and savings of today's ballast standards in 2010...

  15. Numerical modelling of the reinforcing effect of geosynthetic material used in a ballasted railway tracks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiroušek, Ondřej; Jíra, J.; Hrdlička, Ondřej; Kunecký, Jiří; Kytýř, Daniel; Vyčichl, J.; Doktor, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 224, č. 4 (2010), s. 259-267 ISSN 0954-4097 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : railway track bed * reinforcing geogrid * finite-element modelling * settlement reduction * contact analysis * ballast material Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering Impact factor: 0.389, year: 2010 http://journals.pepublishing.com/content/k561040632411117/

  16. Influence of surface preparation on the corrosion performance of epoxy coatings for ship ballast tank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Buter, S.J.; Ferrari, G.M.

    2011-01-01

    The surface preparation has influence on the adhesion for coatings and consequently affect the corrosion performance of the coatings. The international Maritime Organization (IMO) has adopted a Performance Standard for Protective Coatings (PSPC) on the surface preparation for ballast tanks. However,

  17. Ballast and Subgrade requirements study : railroad track substructure - design and performance evaluation practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-30

    Earth materials--i.e., soil and rock--form the substructure (ballast, subballast, and subgrade) of all railroad track. In this report, the most suitable technology and design criteria as related to design of the substructure are identified based on a...

  18. 10 CFR 431.322 - Definitions concerning metal halide lamp ballasts and fixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... lamp, and the capacitor when the capacitor is provided, shall constitute a nominal system in accordance... designed to be operated with a metal halide lamp and a ballast for a metal halide lamp. Probe-start metal... discharge and then power to sustain the discharge through the glow-to-arc transition. Test Procedures ...

  19. Efficacy and production of disinfection by-products of ozone treated ballast water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneekes, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    AirTree is preparing for land-based testing at the NIOZ/IMARES test facility. As the Ballast Water Management System (BWMS) developed by AirTree uses ozone as active substance, IMO Guideline G9 applies and Basic and Final Approval are also required. In preparing the Basic Approval dossier, it

  20. Coagulant plus ballast technique provides a rapid mitigation of cyanobacterial nuisance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia P Noyma

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria blooms are a risk to environmental health and public safety due to the potent toxins certain cyanobacteria can produce. These nuisance organisms can be removed from water bodies by biomass flocculation and sedimentation. Here, we studied the efficacy of combinations of a low dose coagulant (poly-aluminium chloride-PAC-or chitosan with different ballast compounds (red soil, bauxite, gravel, aluminium modified zeolite and lanthanum modified bentonite to remove cyanobacterial biomass from water collected in Funil Reservoir (Brazil. We tested the effect of different cyanobacterial biomass concentrations on removal efficiency. We also examined if zeta potential was altered by treatments. Addition of low doses of PAC and chitosan (1-8 mg Al L-1 to the cyanobacterial suspensions caused flock formation, but did not settle the cyanobacteria. When those low dose coagulants were combined with ballast, effective settling in a dose-dependent way up to 99.7% removal of the flocks could be achieved without any effect on the zeta potential and thus without potential membrane damage. Removal efficacy was influenced by the cyanobacterial biomass and at higher biomass more ballast was needed to achieve good removal. The combined coagulant-ballast technique provides a promising alternative to algaecides in lakes, ponds and reservoirs.

  1. Examination of an indicative tool for rapidly estimating viable organism abundance in ballast water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Byllaardt, Julie; Adams, Jennifer K.; Casas-Monroy, Oscar; Bailey, Sarah A.

    2018-03-01

    Regulatory discharge standards stipulating a maximum allowable number of viable organisms in ballast water have led to a need for rapid, easy and accurate compliance assessment tools and protocols. Some potential tools presume that organisms present in ballast water samples display the same characteristics of life as the native community (e.g. rates of fluorescence). This presumption may not prove true, particularly when ships' ballast tanks present a harsh environment and long transit times, negatively impacting organism health. Here, we test the accuracy of a handheld pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometer, the Hach BW680, for detecting photosynthetic protists at concentrations above or below the discharge standard (sources utilizing three preprocessing techniques to target organisms in the size range of ≥ 10 and life. This is the first study to conduct proof-of-concept testing for a rapid compliance detection tool using freshly collected harbour water concomitantly with in situ ballast water; our results demonstrate that it is important to challenge potential compliance tools with water samples spanning a range of biotic and abiotic conditions.

  2. Possible Ballast Water Transfer of Lionfish to the Eastern Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh J MacIsaac

    Full Text Available The Indo-Pacific Red Lionfish was first reported off the Florida coast in 1985, following which it has spread across much of the SE USA, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. Lionfish negatively impact fish and invertebrate assemblages and abundances, thus further spread is cause for concern. To date, the fish has not been reported on the Pacific coast of North or Central America. Here we examine the possibility of ballast water transfer of lionfish from colonized areas in the Atlantic Ocean to USA ports on the Pacific coast. Over an eight-year period, we documented 27 commercial vessel-trips in which ballast water was loaded in colonized sites and later discharged untreated into Pacific coast ports in the USA. California had the highest number of discharges including San Francisco Bay and Los Angeles-Long Beach. A species distribution model suggests that the probability of lionfish establishment is low for the western USA, Colombia and Panama, low to medium for Costa Rica, Nicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala, medium to high for mainland Ecuador, and very high for western Mexico, Peru and the Galapagos Islands. Given the species' intolerance of freshwater conditions, we propose that ballast water exchange be conducted in Gatún Lake, Panama for western-bound vessels carrying 'risky' ballast water to prevent invasion of the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  3. Comparisons of interdisciplinary ballast water treatment systems and operational experiences from ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalar, Goran

    2016-01-01

    There are high functioning and low functioning ballast water treatment systems on board ships. In this study, five systems were analysed so as to methodically examine the operational difficulties for ship crew members while giving important consideration to sustainable environment practices. Multi-criteria analysis, a questionnaire, survey and interviews were used as the research method so as to ascertain and corroborate existing problems on board ships, and the reliability of the systems was calculated. The co-insistency, maintenance and the efficiency of the systems, were shown as being the major problem as there are no systems for tracking ship ballast operations from land. The treatment system that used oxidants was, through multi criteria analysis, evaluated as being the best and was ranked first. However, the survey results showed that the ship's crew had serious problems with this system which difficult to solve during the ship's operations with cargo. The deoxygenation system was the most appropriate according to ballast water treatment criteria in the port or at sea. The treatment system which used electrolysis with oxidant was better in terms of efficacy and the treatment system electrolysis with ultra violet light was better in terms of the criterion environment pollution footprint. During further research, it was shown that 7 % of the surveyed crew members had major problems with operating ballast water treatment systems, including the system which was ranked first through multi criteria analysis. They by-passed these systems while continuing to ballast or de-ballast. It was calculated that of the total time needed for the ballast water treatment system operation, 9 % of this time was used for repairs or maintenance of the systems. Some examples are changing a used UV bulb, cleaning the filter or controlling the amount of oxidant which would be discharged into the sea. A conclusion was made and solution was suggested. The study results emphasised

  4. A Comparison of Microbial Water Quality and Diversity for Ballast and Tropical Harbor Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Charmaine; Le, Thai-Hoang; Goh, Shin Giek; Liang, Liang; Kim, Yiseul; Rose, Joan B; Yew-Hoong, Karina Gin

    2015-01-01

    Indicator organisms and antibiotic resistance were used as a proxy to measure microbial water quality of ballast tanks of ships, and surface waters in a tropical harbor. The survival of marine bacteria in ballast tanks appeared to diminish over longer water retention time, with a reduction of cell viability observed after a week based on heterotrophic plate counts. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes showed distinct differences in microbial composition of ballast and harbor waters. The harbor waters had a higher abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to Cyanobacteria (Synechococcus spp.) and α-proteobacteria (SAR11 members), while marine hydrocarbon degraders such as γ-proteobacteria (Ocenspirillaes spp., Thiotrchales spp.) and Bacteroidetes (Flavobacteriales spp.) dominated the ballast water samples. Screening of indicator organisms found Escherichia coli (E. coli), Enterococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) in two or more of the ballast and harbor water samples tested. Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp. were detected exclusively in harbor water samples. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR), we screened for 13 antibiotic resistant gene (ARG) targets and found higher abundances of sul1 (4.13-3.44 x 102 copies/mL), dfrA (0.77-1.80 x10 copies/mL) and cfr (2.00-5.21 copies/mL) genes compared to the other ARG targets selected for this survey. These genes encode for resistance to sulfonamides, trimethoprim and chloramphenicol-florfenicol antibiotics, which are also known to persist in sediments of aquaculture farms and coastal environments. Among the ARGs screened, we found significant correlations (Pwater quality survey, quantitatively assessing indicators of antibiotic resistance, potentially pathogenic organisms and a broad-brush description of difference in microbial composition and diversity between open oceans and tropical coastal environments through the use of next generation sequencing technology.

  5. Evaluating efficacy of filtration + UV-C radiation for ballast water treatment at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Monroy, Oscar; Linley, Robert D.; Chan, Po-Shun; Kydd, Jocelyn; Vanden Byllaardt, Julie; Bailey, Sarah

    2018-03-01

    To prevent new ballast water-mediated introductions of aquatic nonindigenous species (NIS), many ships will soon use approved Ballast Water Management Systems (BWMS) to meet discharge standards for the maximum number of viable organisms in ballast water. Type approval testing of BWMS is typically conducted during warmer seasons when plankton concentrations are highest, despite the fact that ships operate globally year-round. Low temperatures encountered in polar and cool temperate climates, particularly during the winter season, may impact treatment efficacy through changes in plankton community composition, biological metabolic rates or chemical reaction rates. Filtration + UV irradiance is one of the most common ballast water treatment methods, but its effectiveness at low temperatures has not been assessed. The objective in this study was to examine the efficacy of filtration + UV-C irradiation treatment at low temperatures for removal or inactivation of phytoplankton and zooplankton populations during simulated ballast water treatment. Organisms from two size classes (≥ 10 to < 50 μm and ≥ 50 μm) were identified and enumerated using microscope and culture techniques. The response of organisms in both size categories to UV-C irradiation was evident across a range of temperatures (18 °C, 12 °C and 2 °C) as a significant decrease in concentration between controls and treated samples. Results indicate that filtration + UV-C irradiation will be effective at low temperatures, with few viable organisms ≥ 10 to < 50 μm recorded even 21 days following UV exposure (significantly lower than in the control treatment).

  6. Applied for a Patent of Super First Grade, 'Electronic Ballast': fresh breeze to the related business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Editor [Korea Energy Management Corporation, Yongin (Korea)

    2002-01-01

    The features of electronic ballast developed in FINE DNC Co., Ltd are to save 30% of electricity consumption and have a high power factor of more than 98%. This product is applying for a patent now. With adopting a new method - a fixed current preheating method -, the ballast preheats at the fixed preheating time and the fixed preheating current. Since the ballast makes a lamp light up after preheating enough regardless of lamp manufacturer's features, therefore, the durability of a lamp can be guaranteed. Major features are as follows: The durability of a lamp is prolonged to 2-3 times as long as the original; because the light on lighting slowly changes into high brightness, dazzling is not caused and neighboring electronic appliances are not influenced; the stable out wave by using the ballast prolongs the durability of a lamp; the protecting circuit for over current and over voltage is built-in.

  7. Ship traffic and the introduction of diatoms and dinoflagellates via ballast water in the port of Annaba, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheniti, Radhia; Rochon, André; Frihi, Hocine

    2018-03-01

    We present here the first study on the role of ship traffic in the introduction of potentially harmful and/or non-indigenous species in the port of Annaba (Algeria). A total of 25 ships of two different types (general cargo and bulk carriers) were sampled and separated into two categories: oceanic and Mediterranean ships. We estimated propagule pressure of high-risk coastal phytoplankton delivered in ballast water to the port of Annaba. We identified 40 diatom and 38 dinoflagellate taxa, among which, 11 harmful/toxic taxa: Pseudo-nitzschia spp., Alexandrium tamarense, Alexandrium sp., Dinophysis acuminata, Dinophysis rotundata, Dinophysis sp., Gonyaulax spinifera, Gymnodinium catenatum, Lingulodinium polyedrum, Protoceratium reticulatum and cyst of Alexandrium sp. In addition, 8 taxa (5 diatoms, 1 dinoflagellate and 2 dinoflagellate cysts) never observed in the Annaba region were considered as potentially non-indigenous: Actinoptychus splendens, Coscinodiscus asteromphalus, Coscinodiscus lineatus, Odentella granulata, Thalassiosira cf. decipiens, Prorocentrum scutellum, cyst of Polykrikos kofoidii and Islandinium minutum. Several factors were examined, including ship routes, ballast water age and the volume of ballast water discharged. Our analyses revealed that diatom and dinoflagellate abundances decreased with ballast water age, possibly as a result of mortality of species due to voyage length and lack of light in ballast tanks. Estimates of actual propagule pressure, diatoms and dinoflagellates abundances varied from 1 to 4 × 108 cells/ship. The results of this study could serve as the baseline for the development and implementation of monitoring and ballast water management programs in ports of Algeria.

  8. Application of Ion Torrent Sequencing to the Assessment of the Effect of Alkali Ballast Water Treatment on Microbial Community Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Masanori; Moyerbrailean, Gregory A.; Noman, Sifat; Gizicki, Jason P.; Ram, Michal L.; Green, Phyllis A.; Ram, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of NaOH as a ballast water treatment (BWT) on microbial community diversity was assessed using the 16S rRNA gene based Ion Torrent sequencing with its new 400 base chemistry. Ballast water samples from a Great Lakes ship were collected from the intake and discharge of both control and NaOH (pH 12) treated tanks and were analyzed in duplicates. One set of duplicates was treated with the membrane-impermeable DNA cross-linking reagent propidium mono-azide (PMA) prior to PCR amplification to differentiate between live and dead microorganisms. Ion Torrent sequencing generated nearly 580,000 reads for 31 bar-coded samples and revealed alterations of the microbial community structure in ballast water that had been treated with NaOH. Rarefaction analysis of the Ion Torrent sequencing data showed that BWT using NaOH significantly decreased microbial community diversity relative to control discharge (pbased principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) plots and UPGMA tree analysis revealed that NaOH-treated ballast water microbial communities differed from both intake communities and control discharge communities. After NaOH treatment, bacteria from the genus Alishewanella became dominant in the NaOH-treated samples, accounting for alkali ballast water treatment in reducing ballast water microbial diversity and demonstrated the application of new Ion Torrent sequencing techniques to microbial community studies. PMID:25222021

  9. Discrete simulation of railway ballast shear test: spherical and polyhedral grain shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubina, Radek; Eliáš, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Dynamical behaviour of railway ballast is important in design and maintenance of railroads. Various modelling approaches are available. The least phenomenological but also the most computational demanding approach is direct representation of every ballast grain and its interaction with other grains in the model. The computational complexity is partially reduced by assuming non-deformable bodies with simplified shapes. Two different shapes of the bodies are considered: spherical and polyhedral. Spherical shapes are advantageous because of their great computational simplicity; however, missing shape information must be compensated by adding phenomenological rolling resistance. These two model variants are used to simulate different shear test. Results of the models are compared to each other and also to the experimental data from the literature.

  10. Randomly-fluctuating heterogeneous continuum model of a ballasted railway track

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu Corrêa, Lucio; Quezada, Juan Carlos; Cottereau, Régis; d'Aguiar, Sofia Costa; Voivret, Charles

    2017-11-01

    This paper proposes a description of a granular medium as a stochastic heterogeneous continuum medium. The heterogeneity of the material properties field recreates the heterogeneous stress field in a granular medium. The stochastic approach means that only statistical information, easily available, is required to construct the model. The heterogeneous continuum model is Calibrated with respect to discrete simulations of a set of railway ballast samples. As they are continuum-based, the equilibrium equations can be solved on a large scale using a parallel implementation of an explicit time discretization scheme for the Finite Element Method. Simulations representative of the influence on the environment of the passage of a train on a ballasted railway track clearly show the influence of the heterogeneity. These simulations seem to correlate well with previously unexplained overly damped measurements in the free field.

  11. Transverse strength of railway tracks: part 2. Test system for ballast resistance in line measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio De Iorio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, testing methods currently adopted to measure the in service ballast resistance are synthetically reviewed to identify the main sources of uncertainty influencing the test loads and to define an experimental methodology allowing the optimal control of the testing parameters without the introduction of spurious or parasitic actions on the track sample. An alternative testing system, which allows applying on a fullscale sample of a railway track testing loads very close the real ones, is presented. Of the new system, both the ways of use for measuring the transversal and axial ballast strength, the general procedure to carry out the experimentation and its application to a real scenario are described, highlighting its main advantages in terms both of modalities for applying the loads and of testing parameter control.

  12. Dynamic comparison of different types of slab tracks and ballasted track using a flexible track model

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco-Lorenzo, Julio; Santamaría Manrique, Javier; García Vadillo, Ernesto; Oyarzabal de Celis, Olatz

    2011-01-01

    The dynamic performance of a ballasted track and three types of slab tracks is analysed and compared by means of a comprehensive dynamic model of the train-track system, generated using two commercial analysis software packages: the commercial Multibody System (MBS) analysis software SIMPACK and the Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis software NASTRAN. The use of a commercial MBS software makes it possible to include in a reliable way models of advanced non-linear wheel-rail contact, as well...

  13. Efficacy of Ballast Water Treatment Systems: A Report by the EPA Science Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    tests. For example, the protist size class (≥ 10 µm to < 50 µm) includes many species ( microalgae , heterotrophic protists, metazoans) that form...Limnology and Oceanography 37:974-988. Burkholder, J.M. 1998. Implications of harmful marine microalgae and heterotrophic dinoflagellates in management of...Efficacy of three commercially available ballast water biocides against vegetative microalgae , dinoflagellate cysts and bacteria. Harmful Algae 6

  14. A method for handlebars ballast calculation in order to reduce vibrations transmissibility in walk behind tractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Fabbri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Walk behind tractors have some advantages over other agricultural machines, such as the cheapness and the easy to use, however the driver is exposed to high level of vibrations transmitted from handles to hand-arm system and to shoulders. The vibrations induce discomfort and early fatigue to the operator. In order to control the vibration transmissibility, a ballast mass may be added to the handles. Even if the determination of the appropriate ballast mass is a critical point in the handle design. The aim of this research was to study the influence of the handle mass modification, on the dynamic structure behaviour. Modal frequencies and subsequent transmissibility calculated by using an analytical approach and a finite elements model, were compared. A good agreement between the results obtained by the two methods was found (average percentage difference calculated on natural frequencies equal to 5.8±3.8%. Power tillers are made generally by small or medium-small size manufacturers that have difficulties in dealing with finite element codes or modal analysis techniques. As a consequence, the proposed analytical method could be used to find the optimal ballast mass in a simple and economic way, without experimental tests or complex finite element codes. A specific and very simple software or spreadsheet, developed on the base of the analytical method here discussed, could effectively to help the manufacturers in the handlebar design phase. The choice of the correct elastic mount, the dimensioning of the guide members and the ballast mass could be considerably simplified.

  15. Bitumen stabilized ballast: a potential solution for railway track-bed

    OpenAIRE

    D'Angelo, Giacomo; Thom, Nicholas; Lo Presti, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Railway ballast degradation under dynamic loads progressively leads to loss of mechanical performance and geometry of the track, so that maintenance interventions are frequently needed. In order to systematically avoid this issue, recently solutions have been proposed to reinforce track-bed by using polyurethane and/or resins as well as asphalt layers among others. Nonetheless, their main limitations are related to the high initial cost and low productivity.\\ud To cope with these limitations,...

  16. Developing and testing an Early Warning System for Non Indigenous Species and Ballast Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaletti, Erika; Garaventa, Francesca; David, Matej; Castriota, Luca; Kraus, Romina; Luna, Gian Marco; Silvestri, Cecilia; Forte, Cosmo; Bastianini, Mauro; Falautano, Manuela; Maggio, Teresa; Rak, Giulietta; Gollasch, Stephan

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes the methodological approach used for the development of an Early Warning System (EWS) for Non Indigenous Species (NIS) and ballast water management and summarizes the results obtained. The specific goals of the EWS are firstly to warn vessels to prevent loading of ballast water when critical biological conditions occur in ports and surrounding areas i.e. mass development or blooms of Harmful Aquatic Organisms and Pathogens (HAOP). Secondly, to warn environmental and health authorities when NIS or pathogens are present in ports or surrounding areas to enable an early response and an implementation of remediation measures. The EWS is designed to be used for implementing various parallel obligations, by taking into consideration different legal scopes, associated information and decision-making needs. The EWS was elaborated, tested in the Adriatic Sea and illustrated by two case studies. Although the EWS was developed with an Adriatic Sea focus, it is presented in a format so that it may be used as a model when establishing similar systems in other locations. The role of the various actors is discussed and recommendations on further developments of the EWS are presented. It was concluded that the EWS is a suitable tool to reduce the spread of potentially harmful and ballast water mediated species.

  17. Assessment of variable fluorescence fluorometry as an approach for rapidly detecting living photoautotrophs in ballast water

    Science.gov (United States)

    First, Matthew R.; Robbins-Wamsley, Stephanie H.; Riley, Scott C.; Drake, Lisa A.

    2018-03-01

    Variable fluorescence fluorometry, an analytical approach that estimates the fluorescence yield of chlorophyll a (F0, a proximal measure of algal concentration) and photochemical yield (FV/FM, an indicator of the physiological status of algae) was evaluated as a means to rapidly assess photoautotrophs. Specifically, it was used to gauge the efficacy of ballast water treatment designed to reduce the transport and delivery of potentially invasive organisms. A phytoflagellate, Tetraselmis spp. (10-12 μm) and mixed communities of ambient protists were examined in both laboratory experiments and large-scale field trials simulating 5-d hold times in mock ballast tanks. In laboratory incubations, ambient organisms held in the dark exhibited declining F0 and FV/FM measurements relative to organisms held under lighted conditions. In field experiments, increases and decreases in F0 and FV/FM over the tank hold time corresponded to those of microscope counts of organisms in two of three trials. In the third trial, concentrations of organisms ≥ 10 and light-limited ballast tanks, would not be detected via variable fluorescence fluorometry, however.

  18. Monitoring of Radionuclides in Ship Ballast Water Following the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Kadir Ishak; Wo, Y.M.; Muhamat Omar

    2011-01-01

    Ballast water is the waters taken into the ship compartment to provide stability. It is taken on board at the port before the voyage begins and discharged at the port of call (arrival) while loading cargoes. Ballast is primarily composed of water and is full of stones, sediment, and thousands of living species. The quantity of water taken depends on the size of the ship and it can reach up to 10,000 tonnes. As a well known fact, Daiichi nuclear plant in Fukushima had released radioactive contaminated water into its surrounding sea and being dispersed by currents and tides. Therefore, ships travel between Malaysia and Japan in particular those from the affected regions and travel to Malaysia without cargoes will have a risk of transporting back radioactive contaminated water from Japan and released it at local ports. Malaysian Marine Department with the cooperation of Malaysian Nuclear Agency have been analysing the concentrations of several radionuclides in the ship's ballast water and sediment. This is to ensure the effective dosage is safe to the crews and general public as well to fulfill the permissible limit of 1 mSv/yr gazetted by the authorities. It is also to monitor that the contaminated water is not discharged into our marine environment. (author)

  19. Chamber study of PCB emissions from caulking materials and light ballasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Guo, Zhishi; Krebs, Kenneth A; Stinson, Rayford A; Nardin, Joshua A; Pope, Robert H; Roache, Nancy F

    2015-10-01

    The emissions of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners from thirteen caulk samples were tested in a micro-chamber system. Twelve samples were from PCB-contaminated buildings and one was prepared in the laboratory. Nineteen light ballasts collected from buildings that represent 13 different models from five manufacturers were tested in 53-L environmental chambers. The rates of PCB congener emissions from caulking materials and light ballasts were determined. Several factors that may have affected the emission rates were evaluated. The experimentally determined emission factors showed that, for a given PCB congener, there is a linear correlation between the emission factor and the concentration of the PCB congener in the source. Furthermore, the test results showed that an excellent log-linear correlation exists between the normalized emission factor and the vapor pressure (coefficient of determination, r(2)⩾0.8846). The PCB congener emissions from ballasts at or near room temperature were relatively low with or without electrical load. However, the PCB congener emission rates increased significantly as the temperature increased. The results of this research provide new data and models for ranking the primary sources of PCBs and supports the development and refinement of exposure assessment models for PCBs. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Sunlight-induced photochemical decay of oxidants in natural waters: implications in ballast water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, William J; Jones, Adam C; Whitehead, Robert F; Zika, Rod G

    2007-05-15

    The transport and discharge of ship ballast water has been recognized as a major vector for the introduction of invasive species. Chemical oxidants, long used in drinking water and wastewater treatment, are alternative treatment methods for the control of invasive species currently being tested for use on ships. One concern when a ballasted vessel arrives in port is the adverse effects of residual oxidant in the treated water. The most common oxidants include chlorine (HOCl/OCl-), bromine (HOBr/OBr-), ozone (03), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), chlorine dioxide (ClO2), and monochloramine (NH2Cl). The present study was undertaken to evaluate the sunlight-mediated photochemical decomposition of these oxidants. Sunlight photodecomposition was measured at various pH using either distilled water or oligotrophic Gulf Stream water for specific oxidants. For selected oxidants, quantum yields at specific wavelengths were obtained. An environmental photochemical model, GCSOLAR, also provided predictions of the fate (sunlight photolysis half-lives) of HOCI/OCl-, HOBr/OBr-, ClO2, and NH2Cl for two different seasons at latitude 40 degrees and in water with two different concentrations of chromophoric dissolved organic matter. These data are useful in assessing the environmental fate of ballast water treatment oxidants if they were to be discharged in port.

  1. Potential use of an ultrasound antifouling technology as a ballast water treatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez-Calvar, Noelia; Gambardella, Chiara; Miraglia, Francesco; Pavanello, Giovanni; Greco, Giuliano; Faimali, Marco; Garaventa, Francesca

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, at a laboratory scale, the potentialities of an ultrasound-based treatment initially designed to eliminate fouling, as a ballast water treatment system. Therefore, early life stages of three different zooplanktonic species (Amphibalanus amphitrite, Brachionus plicatilis and Artemia salina) were exposed to ultrasound waves (20-22 kHz). The experimental set up included static assays with variations of time exposure (30 s, 60 s and 30 s on/60 s off/30 s on), material of tanks (stainless steel, galvanized steel and plastic) and position of the ultrasound source. Results showed that the treatment efficacy increased from 30 to 60 s and no differences were registered between 60 s-continuous exposure and pulse exposure. The highest efficacy was observed in Experiment I (metal-to-metal contact assay) with a mortality value of 93-95% for B. plicatilis and A. salina. It consisted of organisms located inside stainless steel tubes that were located in direct contact with the ultrasound source and treated for 60 s. Further, we found that, generally, A. amphitrite and B. plicatilis were the most resistant species to the ultrasound treatment whereas A. salina was the most sensitive. We further discuss that US may unlikely be used for commercial vessels, but may be used to treat ballast water in smaller ballast tanks as on board of mega yachts.

  2. Chemical and mineralogical characterization of silicon manganese iron slag as railway ballast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Ralph Werner Heringer; Barreto, Rairane Aparecida, E-mail: ralph@em.ufop.br, E-mail: rairanebarreto@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil); Fernandes, Gilberto, E-mail: gilberto@unicerp.edu.br [Centro Universitário do Cerrado Patrocínio (UNICERP), Patrocínio, MG (Brazil); Sousa, Fabiano Carvalho, E-mail: fabiano.carvalho.sousa@vale.com [Vale, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-10-15

    In nature, metal ores such as iron, lead, aluminum and others are found in an impure state, sometimes oxidized and mixed with silicates of other metals. During casting, when the ore is exposed to high temperatures, these impurities are separated from the molten metal and can be removed. The mass formed by these compounds is slag. Slag is the co-product of the smelting of ore to purify metals. It may be considered a mixture of metal oxides, but may also contain metal sulphites and metal atoms in their elemental form. After it is reprocessed to separate the metals contained, the co-products of this process can be used in cement, rail ballast, road paving and various other purposes. The objective of this research work is the presentation of the chemical and mineralogical characterization tests of the silicon-manganese iron slag with the purpose of reusing the coproduct as rail ballast. X-ray diffraction tests, quantitative chemical analyzes, scanning electron microscopy and free lime content were prepared for these characterizations. The results of these tests showed the technical feasibility of using slag as rail ballast. (author)

  3. INVESTIGATION OF INNER SHEAR RESISTANCE OF GEOGRIDS BUILT UNDER GRANULAR PROTECTION LAYERS AND RAILWAY BALLAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sz. Fischer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Using adequate granular materials and layer structures in the railway super- and substructure is able to stabilise railway track geometry. For this purpose special behaviour of above materials has to be determined, e.g. inner shear resistance. Inner shear resistance of granular media with and without geogrid reinforcement in different depths is not known yet. Methodology. The author developed a special laboratory method to measure and define inner shear resistance of granular materials, it is called «multi-level shear box test». This method is adequate to determine inner shear resistance (pushing force vs. depth (distance from the «zero» surface. Two different granular materials: andesite railway ballast (31.5/63 mm and andesite railway protection layer material (0/56 mm, and seven different types of geogrids (GG1…GG7 were used during the tests. Findings. Values of inner shear resistance functions of andesite railway ballast without geogrid reinforcement and reinforced with different types of geogrids and andesite granular protection layer in function of the vertical distance from the geogrid plane were determined with multi-layer shear box tests when the material aggregation is uncompacted and compacted. Only the compacted sample was tested in case of the 0/56 mm protection layer. Cubic polynomial regression functions fitted on the mean values of the measurements are described graphically. Determination coefficients with values of R2>0.97 were resulted in all the cases of regression functions. Based on the polynomial regression functions fitted on the mean values of the test results, three increasing factors were determined in function of the distance measured from the geogrid. Increasing factor «A», «B» and «D». Originality. Multi-level shear box test, developed by the author, is certified unequivocally adequate for determining inner shear resistance of reinforced and unreinforced granular materials, e.g. railway ballast

  4. Nucleic acids-based tools for ballast water surveillance, monitoring, and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, John A.; Frederick, Raymond M.

    2018-03-01

    Understanding the risks of biological invasion posed by ballast water-whether in the context of compliance testing, routine monitoring, or basic research-is fundamentally an exercise in biodiversity assessment, and as such should take advantage of the best tools available for tackling that problem. The past several decades have seen growing application of genetic methods for the study of biodiversity, driven in large part by dramatic technological advances in nucleic acids analysis. Monitoring approaches based on such methods have the potential to increase dramatically sampling throughput for biodiversity assessments, and to improve on the sensitivity, specificity, and taxonomic accuracy of traditional approaches. The application of targeted detection tools (largely focused on PCR but increasingly incorporating novel probe-based methodologies) has led to a paradigm shift in rare species monitoring, and such tools have already been applied for early detection in the context of ballast water surveillance. Rapid improvements in community profiling approaches based on high throughput sequencing (HTS) could similarly impact broader efforts to catalogue biodiversity present in ballast tanks, and could provide novel opportunities to better understand the risks of biotic exchange posed by ballast water transport-and the effectiveness of attempts to mitigate those risks. These various approaches still face considerable challenges to effective implementation, depending on particular management or research needs. Compliance testing, for instance, remains dependent on accurate quantification of viable target organisms; while tools based on RNA detection show promise in this context, the demands of such testing require considerable additional investment in methods development. In general surveillance and research contexts, both targeted and community-based approaches are still limited by various factors: quantification remains a challenge (especially for taxa in larger size

  5. A Comparison of Microbial Water Quality and Diversity for Ballast and Tropical Harbor Waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmaine Ng

    Full Text Available Indicator organisms and antibiotic resistance were used as a proxy to measure microbial water quality of ballast tanks of ships, and surface waters in a tropical harbor. The survival of marine bacteria in ballast tanks appeared to diminish over longer water retention time, with a reduction of cell viability observed after a week based on heterotrophic plate counts. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes showed distinct differences in microbial composition of ballast and harbor waters. The harbor waters had a higher abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs assigned to Cyanobacteria (Synechococcus spp. and α-proteobacteria (SAR11 members, while marine hydrocarbon degraders such as γ-proteobacteria (Ocenspirillaes spp., Thiotrchales spp. and Bacteroidetes (Flavobacteriales spp. dominated the ballast water samples. Screening of indicator organisms found Escherichia coli (E. coli, Enterococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa in two or more of the ballast and harbor water samples tested. Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp. were detected exclusively in harbor water samples. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR, we screened for 13 antibiotic resistant gene (ARG targets and found higher abundances of sul1 (4.13-3.44 x 102 copies/mL, dfrA (0.77-1.80 x10 copies/mL and cfr (2.00-5.21 copies/mL genes compared to the other ARG targets selected for this survey. These genes encode for resistance to sulfonamides, trimethoprim and chloramphenicol-florfenicol antibiotics, which are also known to persist in sediments of aquaculture farms and coastal environments. Among the ARGs screened, we found significant correlations (P<0.05 between ereA, ermG, cfr and tetO genes to one or more of the indicator organisms detected in this study, which may suggest that these members contribute to the environmental resistome. This study provides a baseline water quality survey, quantitatively assessing indicators of antibiotic resistance, potentially pathogenic organisms and a

  6. 33 CFR 155.440 - Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on new oceangoing ships of 4,000 gross tons and above...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on new oceangoing ships of 4,000 gross tons and above, other than oil tankers, and on new... PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.440 Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on...

  7. 33 CFR 155.370 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of 10,000...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... receive the oil residue that cannot be dealt with otherwise. (1) In new ships such tanks shall be designed... oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of 10,000 gross tons and above and oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above that carry ballast water in their fuel oil tanks. 155.370 Section 155...

  8. Flocculation kinetics mechanism and floc formation prepared by poly aluminum chloride coupled with polyacrylamide for ship ballast water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhimin; Liu, Sha; Jia, Linan

    2016-01-01

    The performance of flocculants prepared by poly aluminum chloride (PAC) and polyacrylamide (PAM) on treating ballast water collected at the Dalian new port area, the evaluation depending on the values of reaction parameters, and kinetics mechanism of flocculation were investigated in this study. Accordingly, the flocculants of 0.1 g·L(-1), prepared by mixing PAC of 10% with PAM of 2.0‰, enabled the removal rate of zooplankton and phytoplankton to reach 91% in ballast water at 20 °C. Based on flocculation kinetics mechanism analysis, the efficient vortex size during stirring should be larger than the floc particles, and gradient of fluctuating velocity provide the impetus for turbulence flocculation. The results of this study could be relevant to understanding particle-floc interactions during developmental flocculation, and during application of ballast water treatment.

  9. A New Cross-Shaped Graphite Furnace with Ballast Body for Reduction of Interferences in Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Asweisi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new crossed graphite furnace for atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS was designed and installed in heated graphite atomizer (HGA500 combined with Perkin-Elmer spectrometer (AAS1100. The Tungsten ballast body was inserted inside one part of the crossed furnace in a way perpendicular to light path. The analyzed sample was injected manually on the ballast body inside the cross and pushed into the measuring zone using the original inner and additional purge gas. The sample was adsorbed strongly on the ballast and evaporated and transferred with different rates at different temperatures during the temperature program allowing the separation of analyte and matrix signals. Analysis of middle volatile element such as copper and manganese in standard urine sample (seronorm 2525 showed complete separation of analyte and background signals with good sensitivity and repeatability.

  10. Guidance for a harmonized emission scenario document (ESD) on ballast water discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zipperle, Andreas [BIS - Beratungszentrum fuer integriertes Sedimentmanagement, Hamburg (Germany); Gils, Jos van [DELTARES, Delft (Netherlands); Hattum, Bert van [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). IVM - Institute for Environmental Studies; Heise, Susanne [BIS - Beratungszentrum fuer integriertes Sedimentmanagement, Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    The present report provides guidance for a harmonized Emission Scenario Document (ESD) for the exposure assessment as part of the environmental risk assessment process which applicants seeking approval of a ballast water management system (BWMS) need to perform prior to notification and authorisation procedures. Despite the global variability of the marine environment, ballast water discharges and treatment methods, exposure assessments need to be comparable between different applications. In order to achieve this, this ESD points out the following aspects: - Applicants should use standardized scenarios in order to predict mean exposure. These should reflect generic situations, independent of region or port so that results are widely applicable. In addition to a harbour scenario, a standardized shipping lane scenario should be considered, - During or right after ballast water discharge, high concentrations may persist in a water body for a certain length of time until extensive mixing results in mean concentrations. Not taking exposure to peak concentrations within gradients into account could lead to an underestimation of risk, especially for rapidly degrading substances. Efforts have been made to approximate maximum exposure concentration with simple dilution factors. Their applicability was checked by near-field-evaluations. - Chemical properties determine the environmental fate of substances. If they are ambiguous, selection of a specific set of data strongly influences the result of an exposure assessment. Guidance is given on what to do about lacking data. - In order to harmonize the exposure assessments, reliable chemical model software should be used. A discussion on the requirements of suitable software and an evaluation of MAMPEC is given in this report. (orig.)

  11. Assessing ballast treatment standards for effect on rate of establishment using a stochastic model of the green crab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Cooper

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a stochastic model used to characterize the probability/risk of NIS establishment from ships' ballast water discharges. Establishment is defined as the existence of a sufficient number of individuals of a species to provide for a sustained population of the organism. The inherent variability in population dynamics of organisms in their native or established environments is generally difficult to quantify. Muchqualitative information is known about organism life cycles and biotic and abiotic environmental pressures on the population, but generally little quantitative data exist to develop a mechanistic model of populations in such complex environments. Moreover, there is little quantitative data to characterize the stochastic fluctuations of population size over time even without accounting for systematic responses to biotic and abiotic pressures. This research applies an approach using life-stage density and fecundity measures reported in research to determine a stochastic model of an organism's population dynamics. The model is illustrated withdata from research studies on the green crab that span a range of habitats of the established organism and were collected over some years to represent a range of time-varying biotic and abiotic conditions that are expected to exist in many receiving environments. This model is applied to introductions of NIS at the IMO D-2 and the U.S. ballast water discharge standard levels designated as Phase Two in the United States Coast Guard'sNotice of Proposed Rulemaking. Under a representative range of ballast volumes discharged at U.S. ports, the average rate of establishment of green crabs for ballast waters treated to the IMO-D2 concentration standard (less than 10 organisms/m3 is predicted to be reduced to about a third the average rate from untreated ballast water discharge. The longevity of populations from the untreated ballast water discharges is expected to be reducedby about 90% by

  12. Parametrisation of a DEM model for railway ballast under different load cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhr, Bettina; Six, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    The prediction quality of discrete element method (DEM) models for railway ballast can be expected to depend on three points: the geometry representation of the single particles, the used contact models and the parametrisation using principal experiments. This works aims at a balanced approach, where none of the points is addressed with excessive depth. In a first step, a simple geometry representation is chosen and the simplified Hertz-Mindlin contact model is used. When experimental data of cyclic compression tests and monotonic direct shear tests are considered, the model can be parametrised to fit either one of the two tests, but not both with the same set of parameters. Similar problems can be found in literature for monotonic and cyclic triaxial tests of railway ballast. In this work, the comparison between experiment and simulation is conducted using the entire data of the test, e.g. shear force over shear path curve from the direct shear test. In addition to a visual comparison of the results also quantitative errors based on the sum of squares are defined. To improve the fit of the DEM model to both types of experiments, an extension on the Hertz-Mindlin contact law is used, which introduces additional physical effects (e.g. breakage of edges or yielding). This model introduces two extra material parameters and is successfully parametrised. Using only one set of parameters, the results of the DEM simulation are in good accordance with both experimental cyclic compression test and monotonic directs shear test.

  13. There are Many Kinds and Brands of TL Lamp and Ballast Transformer in the Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koes-Indrakoesoema; Yayan-Andryanto

    2006-01-01

    However, there is still a problem of how to determining the power factor (cos φ) for one of brand of lamp. Lamps with low power factor will consume relatively high reactive power, hence the active power that can be utilized decreases. One of the effort that can be done to improve the level of the lamp's power factor is to install a suitable capacitor with the lamp. The values of the lamp's power factor of a certain brand of lamp will be different if the lamp is connected with different brand of ballast transformer. Therefore, the value of the capacitor that have to be installed to the lamp also must be different depend on the brand of the transformer. This experiment using 2 (two) TL lamp i.e Chiyoda 40 Watt and Philip 36 Watt which has been installed with capacitor 3.6 μF and combination of ballast transformer Philips, National and Siemens and shows that increase the power factor until 0.95. (author)

  14. Dynamic modelling of high speed ballasted railway trakcs: Analysis of the behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, I.; Rivas, A.; Sanchez-Cambronero, S.; Lajara, J.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the paper is to present a numerical model for a ballasted railway track that includes the dynamic effect of a moving train load and predicts the values of the vertical stiffness of the infrastructure. This model is therefore deemed to be a tool for the evaluation of the state of the track during service situations as well as a predictive model of the behaviour of the system. Consequently, it will be very useful when sizing the cross section of a new railway line is required.The main modelling tool is the finite element method. In regard to this, the application of damping elements to avoid the elastic wave reflection on the boundaries of the numerical domain will be studied. The proposed dynamic analysis consider the change in time of the value of the train load, but not the change in position along the tracks.In the end, a set of suggestions for the numerical model with moving loads will be summarize aiming for the mitigation of the unusual behaviour of the contact surface between the ballast and the sleepers. (Author)

  15. Rapid molecular detection of invasive species in ballast and harbor water by integrating environmental DNA and light transmission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Scott P; Grey, Erin; Olds, Brett; Feder, Jeffery L; Ruggiero, Steven T; Tanner, Carol E; Lodge, David M

    2015-04-07

    Invasive species introduced via the ballast water of commercial ships cause enormous environmental and economic damage worldwide. Accurate monitoring for these often microscopic and morphologically indistinguishable species is challenging but critical for mitigating damages. We apply eDNA sampling, which involves the filtering and subsequent DNA extraction of microscopic bits of tissue suspended in water, to ballast and harbor water sampled during a commercial ship's 1400 km voyage through the North American Great Lakes. Using a lab-based gel electrophoresis assay and a rapid, field-ready light transmission spectroscopy (LTS) assay, we test for the presence of two invasive species: quagga (Dreissena bugensis) and zebra (D. polymorpha) mussels. Furthermore, we spiked a set of uninfested ballast and harbor samples with zebra mussel tissue to further test each assay's detection capabilities. In unmanipulated samples, zebra mussel was not detected, while quagga mussel was detected in all samples at a rate of 85% for the gel assay and 100% for the LTS assay. In the spiked experimental samples, both assays detected zebra mussel in 94% of spiked samples and 0% of negative controls. Overall, these results demonstrate that eDNA sampling is effective for monitoring ballast-mediated invasions and that LTS has the potential for rapid, field-based detection.

  16. A New Treatment Strategy for Inactivating Algae in Ballast Water Based on Multi-Trial Injections of Chlorine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyang Sun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ships’ ballast water can carry aquatic organisms into foreign ecosystems. In our previous studies, a concept using ion exchange membrane electrolysis to treat ballast water has been proven. In addition to other substantial approaches, a new strategy for inactivating algae is proposed based on the developed ballast water treatment system. In the new strategy, the means of multi-trial injection with small doses of electrolytic products is applied for inactivating algae. To demonstrate the performance of the new strategy, contrast experiments between new strategies and routine processes were conducted. Four algae species including Chlorella vulgaris, Platymonas subcordiformis, Prorocentrum micans and Karenia mikimotoi were chosen as samples. The different experimental parameters are studied including the injection times and doses of electrolytic products. Compared with the conventional one trial injection method, mortality rate time (MRT and available chlorine concentration can be saved up to about 84% and 40%, respectively, under the application of the new strategy. The proposed new approach has great potential in practical ballast water treatment. Furthermore, the strategy is also helpful for deep insight of mechanism of algal tolerance.

  17. Effect of type and concentration of ballasting particles on sinking rate of marine snow produced by the Appendicularian Oikopleura dioica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombard, Fabien; Guidi, L.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Ballast material (organic, opal, calcite, lithogenic) is suggested to affect sinking speed of aggregates in the ocean. Here, we tested this hypothesis by incubating appendicularians in suspensions of different algae or Saharan dust, and observing the sinking speed of the marine snow formed by the...

  18. 77 FR 17253 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    .... Waters; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 57 / Friday, March 23, 2012 / Rules and... Discharged in U.S. Waters AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is amending... of living organisms in ships' ballast water discharged in waters of the United States. The Coast...

  19. 77 FR 55417 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 151 46 CFR Part 162 [Docket No. USCG-2001-10486] RIN 1625-AA32 Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters... Discharged in U.S. Waters (BWDS) Final Rule (77 FR 35268). The rulemaking triggered new information...

  20. 33 CFR Appendix D to Part 157 - Example of a Procedure for Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Example of a Procedure for... ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Pt. 157, App. D Appendix D to Part 157—Example of a Procedure for Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations 1. Source. The example procedure for dedicated clean...

  1. Railway track geometry degradation due to differential settlement of ballast/subgrade - Numerical prediction by an iterative procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jens C. O.; Li, Xin

    2018-01-01

    An iterative procedure for numerical prediction of long-term degradation of railway track geometry (longitudinal level) due to accumulated differential settlement of ballast/subgrade is presented. The procedure is based on a time-domain model of dynamic vehicle-track interaction to calculate the contact loads between sleepers and ballast in the short-term, which are then used in an empirical model to determine the settlement of ballast/subgrade below each sleeper in the long-term. The number of load cycles (wheel passages) accounted for in each iteration step is determined by an adaptive step length given by a maximum settlement increment. To reduce the computational effort for the simulations of dynamic vehicle-track interaction, complex-valued modal synthesis with a truncated modal set is applied for the linear subset of the discretely supported track model with non-proportional spatial distribution of viscous damping. Gravity loads and state-dependent vehicle, track and wheel-rail contact conditions are accounted for as external loads on the modal model, including situations involving loss of (and recovered) wheel-rail contact, impact between hanging sleeper and ballast, and/or a prescribed variation of non-linear track support stiffness properties along the track model. The procedure is demonstrated by calculating the degradation of longitudinal level over time as initiated by a prescribed initial local rail irregularity (dipped welded rail joint).

  2. Assessment of design tools and criteria for urban rail track structures : volume 1. at-grade tie-ballast track.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-04-30

    The report presents the results of a critical review of the technical factors which govern the design and performance of at-grade tie-ballast track for urban rail systems. The assessment of current design practice is based on a review of the literatu...

  3. 33 CFR 157.10 - Segregated ballast tanks and crude oil washing systems for certain new vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10 Segregated ballast tanks and crude oil washing systems for certain new vessels. (a) This...) Each tank vessel under this section of 20,000 DWT or more that carries crude oil must have a crude oil...

  4. A New Treatment Strategy for Inactivating Algae in Ballast Water Based on Multi-Trial Injections of Chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jinyang; Wang, Junsheng; Pan, Xinxiang; Yuan, Haichao

    2015-06-09

    Ships' ballast water can carry aquatic organisms into foreign ecosystems. In our previous studies, a concept using ion exchange membrane electrolysis to treat ballast water has been proven. In addition to other substantial approaches, a new strategy for inactivating algae is proposed based on the developed ballast water treatment system. In the new strategy, the means of multi-trial injection with small doses of electrolytic products is applied for inactivating algae. To demonstrate the performance of the new strategy, contrast experiments between new strategies and routine processes were conducted. Four algae species including Chlorella vulgaris, Platymonas subcordiformis, Prorocentrum micans and Karenia mikimotoi were chosen as samples. The different experimental parameters are studied including the injection times and doses of electrolytic products. Compared with the conventional one trial injection method, mortality rate time (MRT) and available chlorine concentration can be saved up to about 84% and 40%, respectively, under the application of the new strategy. The proposed new approach has great potential in practical ballast water treatment. Furthermore, the strategy is also helpful for deep insight of mechanism of algal tolerance.

  5. The Brazilian dilution method for ballast water exchange; O metodo de diluicao brasileiro para troca de agua de lastro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauro, Celso Alleluia [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Avaliacao e Monitoramento Ambiental]. E-mail: celso@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Land, Claudio Goncalves [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Abastecimento, Logistica e Planejamento]. E-mail: cgland@petrobras.com.br; Pimenta, Jose Maria Hollanda Alvares; Barreto, Francisco Carlos Peixoto [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Engenharia; Brandao, Marcus Vinicius Lisboa; Marroig, Nilton Lemos [Transpetro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Frota Nacional de Petroleiros. Inspetoria Geral; Tristao, Maria Luiza Braganca [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Quimica; Fadel, Andre Luiz da Fonseca [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Financas Corporativa e Tesouraria; Villac, Maria Celia; Fernandes, Lohengrin; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Dias, Cristina; Bonecker, Sergio; Denise Tenenbaum [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia; Persich, Graziela; Garcia, Virginia; Odebrecht, Clarisse [Fundacao Universidade do Rio Grande, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Oceanografia

    2002-12-01

    In a precautionary approach and dealing with the coming International Maritime Organization (IMO) regulations on ballast water, PETROBRAS developed a new method for ballast water exchange in tankers. Differently from ordinary methods PETROBRAS method which have been called Brazilian Dilution Method (BDM) or Dilution Method involves ballast loading through the top with simultaneous unloading from the bottom of the tanks. The method proposal was firstly presented to IMO, which encouraged PETROBRAS to carry out a field trial. PETROBRAS in June 1998 carried out a trial in the product carrier M/V Lavras. A simulation study was useful to plan the trial assessing the theoretical efficiency of the method, establishing the best sampling points and comparing the BDM with the Tank Overfilling Method (TOM). Simulation showed that for the same tank shape, the water renewal in BDM is more effective than in TOM and that 90 % of water renewal could be obtained by BDM. A dye concentration variation monitoring and a biological assessment were performed and the results confirmed that over than 90 % of the ballast water was renewed after three exchanges. The method was proved safe, practical, economical and suitable to minimize the risk of exotic species transport between ports. (author)

  6. Consequences of using crushed crystalline rock as ballast in KBS-3 tunnels instead of rounded quartz particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Push, R. [Clay Technology AB (Sweden)

    1995-02-01

    The basic question has been whether such replacement alters the hydraulic conductivity and compressibility as well as expandability and also if the physical and chemical stabilities are altered. The key factor is the microstructural constitution of the bentonite/ballast mixtures, which is primarily controlled by the grain size distribution of the ballast. The compact ability of backfills with quartz sand (SB) is higher than that of backfills with crushed rock as ballast (RB). The physical stability of RB backfills in terms of piping and erosion resistance will be somewhat lower than that of SB backfills. The chemical stability is practically independent of whether the ballast is pure quartz or rock with K-bearing minerals because the temperature in the backfill will be too low to yield significant smectite to illite conversion in the short heating period. In order to reach the same densities of SB and RB backfills, which turn out to give fairly similar physical properties, the latter backfills need more effective compaction or, alternatively, a higher bentonite content. It is estimated that if the bentonite content in RB backfills is not increased while the density is enhanced to what is achievable, these backfills will serve equally well as SB backfills with the densities implied by the basic KBS-3 concept. 23 refs, 27 figs, 7 tabs.

  7. Ballast minerals and the sinking carbon flux in the ocean: carbon-specific respiration rates and sinking velocity of marine snow aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Iversen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations have shown that fluxes of ballast minerals (calcium carbonate, opal, and lithogenic material and organic carbon fluxes are closely correlated in the bathypelagic zones of the ocean. Hence it has been hypothesized that incorporation of biogenic minerals within marine aggregates could either protect the organic matter from decomposition and/or increase the sinking velocity via ballasting of the aggregates. Here we present the first combined data on size, sinking velocity, carbon-specific respiration rate, and composition measured directly in three aggregate types; Emiliania huxleyi aggregates (carbonate ballasted, Skeletonema costatum aggregates (opal ballasted, and aggregates made from a mix of both E. huxleyi and S. costatum (carbonate and opal ballasted. Overall average carbon-specific respiration rate was ~0.13 d−1 and did not vary with aggregate type and size. Ballasting from carbonate resulted in 2- to 2.5-fold higher sinking velocities than those of aggregates ballasted by opal. We compiled literature data on carbon-specific respiration rate and sinking velocity measured in aggregates of different composition and sources. Compiled carbon-specific respiration rates (including this study vary between 0.08 d−1 and 0.20 d−1. Sinking velocity increases with increasing aggregate size within homogeneous sources of aggregates. When compared across different particle and aggregate sources, however, sinking velocity appeared to be independent of particle or aggregate size. The carbon-specific respiration rate per meter settled varied between 0.0002 m−1 and 0.0030 m−1, and decreased with increasing aggregate size. It was lower for calcite ballasted aggregates as compared to that of similar sized opal ballasted aggregates.

  8. DETAIL DESIGN OF A BALLAST CONTROL ROOM FOR AN UNDERWATER TIDAL ENERGY CONVERTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amable López

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to design, precisely and fully detailed, the Control Room of a Ballast Actuation System of a marine Tidal Energy Converter. The design would respond to the detail design stage of any shipyard for its subsequent manufacture. During the following lines, the authors have analysed the Ballast Actuation System, not only from a conceptual way, but also from the detailed design point of view, so it has been considered necessary to complete it, with a study of a technological nature, in which industrial (reducing the cost and increasing reliability solutions have been developed for measuring and driving systems. To elaborate the 3D detail design of the pump room, a topological design has been introduced for allowing a quicker evaluation of different design alternatives. All the machinery, piping, supports and auxiliary structures have been modelled in order to evaluate the quality of the conceptual and initial design. The primary structure, as well as the location of the equipment, have been carefully studied and analysed. The P&ID (Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams and access drawings have been followed in order to model the 3D pipe routing, supports and auxiliary structure. The 3D components have been defined from its main features (element ID, supplier, description, weight and centre of gravity and its geometry (library or geometric macro model, provided by the supplier. All this work has been carried out with the intention of not only assess different alternatives, but also to generate at any time the information for manufacturing and mounting.

  9. Application of ion torrent sequencing to the assessment of the effect of alkali ballast water treatment on microbial community diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Fujimoto

    Full Text Available The impact of NaOH as a ballast water treatment (BWT on microbial community diversity was assessed using the 16S rRNA gene based Ion Torrent sequencing with its new 400 base chemistry. Ballast water samples from a Great Lakes ship were collected from the intake and discharge of both control and NaOH (pH 12 treated tanks and were analyzed in duplicates. One set of duplicates was treated with the membrane-impermeable DNA cross-linking reagent propidium mono-azide (PMA prior to PCR amplification to differentiate between live and dead microorganisms. Ion Torrent sequencing generated nearly 580,000 reads for 31 bar-coded samples and revealed alterations of the microbial community structure in ballast water that had been treated with NaOH. Rarefaction analysis of the Ion Torrent sequencing data showed that BWT using NaOH significantly decreased microbial community diversity relative to control discharge (p<0.001. UniFrac distance based principal coordinate analysis (PCoA plots and UPGMA tree analysis revealed that NaOH-treated ballast water microbial communities differed from both intake communities and control discharge communities. After NaOH treatment, bacteria from the genus Alishewanella became dominant in the NaOH-treated samples, accounting for <0.5% of the total reads in intake samples but more than 50% of the reads in the treated discharge samples. The only apparent difference in microbial community structure between PMA-processed and non-PMA samples occurred in intake water samples, which exhibited a significantly higher amount of PMA-sensitive cyanobacteria/chloroplast 16S rRNA than their corresponding non-PMA total DNA samples. The community assembly obtained using Ion Torrent sequencing was comparable to that obtained from a subset of samples that were also subjected to 454 pyrosequencing. This study showed the efficacy of alkali ballast water treatment in reducing ballast water microbial diversity and demonstrated the application of new

  10. Optimization of hydrocyclone geometry for ballast water treatment of crude oil ships; Otimizacao da geometria de hidrociclones para o tratamento de aguas de lastro de navios petroleiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Andre G.; Medronho, Ricardo A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2004-07-01

    An oil ship when discharge its load, pumps water of the sea for its ballast tanks. This water has the function of maintaining balance, stability and the structural integrity, especially when the oil tank is empty of cargo. Thus, organisms and sediments presents in the water are pumped for the interior of the ballast tanks, being transferred from its natural habitat to another one. This may cause serious ecological unbalances. Hydrocyclone are very efficient and, as they produce high capacities, they seem to be appropriated for ballast water treatment. In this work, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to optimize the geometry of a hydrocyclone, aiming to maximize the separation of the suspended solids present in seawater. A oil ship of 150,000 tons of gross cargo was used as a model. This ship has a ballast capacity of 45,000 m{sup 3} and requires 10 h for filling its ballast tanks. To ballast this ship it would be necessary a battery of 795 hydrocyclones in parallel, having each hydrocyclone a diameter of 8,5 cm. The simulation produced an total efficiency of 99% when treating suspended solids with sizes ranging from 10 to 2500 {mu}m, with a 1.06 g cm-3 density. (author)

  11. Pandemic serotypes of Vibrio cholerae isolated from ships' ballast tanks and coastal waters: assessment of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes (tcpA and ctxA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Fred C; Goodrich, Amanda L; Thomson, Frank K; Hynes, Wayne

    2013-05-01

    There is concern that ships' ballasting operations may disseminate Vibrio cholerae to ports throughout the world. Given evidence that the bacterium is indeed transported by ships, we isolated pandemic serotypes O1 and O139 from ballast tanks and characterized them with respect to antibiotic resistance and virulence genes ctxA and tcpA. We carried out concurrent studies with V. cholerae isolated from coastal waters. Of 284 isolates, 30 were serotype O1 and 59 were serotype O139. These serotypes were overrepresented in ballast tanks relative to the coastal waters sampled. All locations, whether coastal waters or ballast tanks, yielded samples from which serotype O1, O139, or both were isolated. There were three groups among the 62 isolates for which antibiotic characterization was conclusive: those exhibiting β-lactamase activity and resistance to at least one of the 12 antibiotics tested; those negative for β-lactamase but having antibiotic resistance; those negative for β-lactamase and registering no antibiotic resistance. When present, antibiotic resistance in nearly all cases was to ampicillin; resistance to multiple antibiotics was uncommon. PCR assays revealed that none of the isolates contained the ctxA gene and only two isolates, one O139 and one O1, contained the tcpA gene; both isolates originated from ballast water. These results support the bacteriological regulations proposed by the International Maritime Association for discharged ballast water.

  12. Ballast Water Treatment, U.S. Great Lakes Bulk Carrier Engineering and Cost Study. Volume 2: Analysis of On-Board Treatment Methods, Alternative Ballast Water Management Practices, and Implementation Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    tunnel, between the conveyor belts ; see Appendix C, Figure C-1. The two number nine ballast tanks are reduced in size, and the BWT systems are...the conveyor belts , and resemble the raised “bumps” or folds on a hog’s back.) From the gates, the cargo flows onto longitudinal, port and...starboard conveyor belts . These conveyor belts feed the off-loading conveyor belt and unloader. For loading the vessel, the main deck has 36 hatches with

  13. Inactivation characteristics of ozone and electrolysis process for ballast water treatment using B. subtilis spores as a probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Youmi; Yoon, Yeojoon; Hong, Eunkyung; Kwon, Minhwan; Kang, Joon-Wun

    2013-07-15

    Since ballast water affects the ocean ecosystem, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) sets a standard for ballast water management and might impose much tighter regulations in the future. The aim of this study is to evaluate the inactivation efficiency of ozonation, electrolysis, and an ozonation-electrolysis combined process, using B. subtilis spores. In seawater ozonation, HOBr is the key active substance for inactivation, because of rapid reactivity of ozone with Br(-) in seawater. In seawater electrolysis, it is also HOBr, but not HOCl, because of the rapid reaction of HOCl with Br(-), which has not been recognized carefully, even though many electrolysis technologies have been approved by the IMO. Inactivation pattern was different in ozonation and electrolysis, which has some limitations with the tailing or lag-phase, respectively. However, each deficiency can be overcome with a combined process, which is most effective as a sequential application of ozonation followed by electrolysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ballast water management that adapts to climate changes and reduces harmful bio-invasions in marine eco-systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne

    2015-01-01

    food-webs and eco-systems. Economic impacts include reductions in fisheries production and algae blooms harmful for fish farms, tourism and human health. Due to the rising temperatures of the Oceans, organisms that prefer a warm climate may take roots in marine ecosystems that were previously too cold...... in marine ecosystem of changed factors in the shipping sector, for instance change of number, size, and design of vessels as well as treatment technologies of ballast water. New areas for shipping due to climate changes are also included. Our study would contribute to improve decision support tools, usable...... for them. In addition, future changes of temperature, storm patterns and sea-currents may also change shipping routes and ballast water management practices. Based on methods like stock taking, trend tracking and scenario modeling the paper aims to evaluate possible ecological and economic impacts...

  15. Use of rubber shreds to enhance attenuation of railway sub-ballast layers made of unbound aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hidalgo-Signes

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the approaches for solving the problem of induced vibrations in railways is by slightly modifying the materials that form the track. A study is presented of the attenuation capacity of mixes composed of granular soil and rubber shreds when used as sub-ballast (the layer located immediately below the ballast layer. Rubber shreds are obtained from scrap tyres, a troublesome waste material whose reuse and recycling is necessary. A series of mixes of granular soil and rubber shreds with rubber contents of between 1% and 10% are submitted to hammer impact tests to study their response to dynamic excitation. Results reveal that mixing rubber shreds with granular soil increases damping ratios, thus demonstrating the potential of the proposed mixes for attenuating vibration.

  16. Use of rubber shreds to enhance attenuation of railway sub-ballast layers made of unbound aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo-Signes, C.; Garzón-Roca, J.; Grima-Palop, J.M.; Insa-Franco, R.

    2017-01-01

    One of the approaches for solving the problem of induced vibrations in railways is by slightly modifying the materials that form the track. A study is presented of the attenuation capacity of mixes composed of granular soil and rubber shreds when used as sub-ballast (the layer located immediately below the ballast layer). Rubber shreds are obtained from scrap tyres, a troublesome waste material whose reuse and recycling is necessary. A series of mixes of granular soil and rubber shreds with rubber contents of between 1% and 10% are submitted to hammer impact tests to study their response to dynamic excitation. Results reveal that mixing rubber shreds with granular soil increases damping ratios, thus demonstrating the potential of the proposed mixes for attenuating vibration. [es

  17. Development of Viscoelastic Multi-Body Simulation and Impact Response Analysis of a Ballasted Railway Track under Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Nishiura

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Simulation of a large number of deformable bodies is often difficult because complex high-level modeling is required to address both multi-body contact and viscoelastic deformation. This necessitates the combined use of a discrete element method (DEM and a finite element method (FEM. In this study, a quadruple discrete element method (QDEM was developed for dynamic analysis of viscoelastic materials using a simpler algorithm compared to the standard FEM. QDEM easily incorporates the contact algorithm used in DEM. As the first step toward multi-body simulation, the fundamental performance of QDEM was investigated for viscoelastic analysis. The amplitude and frequency of cantilever elastic vibration were nearly equal to those obtained by the standard FEM. A comparison of creep recovery tests with an analytical solution showed good agreement between them. In addition, good correlation between the attenuation degree and the real physical viscosity was confirmed for viscoelastic vibration analysis. Therefore, the high accuracy of QDEM in the fundamental analysis of infinitesimal viscoelastic deformations was verified. Finally, the impact response of a ballast and sleeper under cyclic loading on a railway track was analyzed using QDEM as an application of deformable multi-body dynamics. The results showed that the vibration of the ballasted track was qualitatively in good agreement with the actual measurements. Moreover, the ballast layer with high friction reduced the ballasted track deterioration. This study suggests that QDEM, as an alternative to DEM and FEM, can provide deeper insights into the contact dynamics of a large number of deformable bodies.

  18. The effects of chemical additives on the production of disinfection byproducts and ecotoxicity in simulated ballast water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul; Cha, Hyung-Gon; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Choi, Tae Seop; Lee, Jungsuk; Kim, Young-Hee; Bae, Minjung; Shin, Kyoungsoon; Choi, Keun-Hyung

    2017-11-01

    The management of ship ballast water is essential to stemming the introduction of non-indigenous species. Approval for onboard installation of a system to treat ballast water requires rigorous land-based testing as dictated in the G8 guideline by the International Maritime Organization. However, this testing lacks standardization-most notably augmentation of organic carbon for influent water by adding chemical additives. Electrochlorination is a popular treatment method for ballast water, in which chlorinated oxidants react with organisms and organic matter in water. The additives could thus affect the treatment efficacy of the ballast water. Here, we examined the effects of several candidates of organic carbon additives on the consumption of total residual oxidant (TRO), the production of disinfection byproducts (DBPs), plankton survival, and ecotoxicity. The TRO consumption over five days of storage was higher in electrochlorinated seawater amended with lignin and Metamucil when compared with seawaters with other organic carbon compounds. DBP production varied by almost two orders of magnitude as a function of the various additives. This was largely attributed to the production of tribromomethane and dibromoacetic acid. The survival of Artemia franciscana was significantly different across waters of different organic carbon additives. Algal toxicity testing with the marine haptophyte Isochrysis galbana significantly reduced growth in lignin- and Metamucil-treated seawaters, but not with other organic carbon compounds. Bioluminescence in Vibrio fischeri sharply declined in electrochlorinated seawaters with all types of organic carbon compounds, but no toxicity was manifested once the electrochlorinated seawaters were neutralized with sodium thiosulfate. The varying degrees of outcome suggest that it might be better to eliminate the requirements of adding organic carbon to test water as long as natural water was used for land-based testing of BWMS. If needed, the

  19. A Feasibility Study on the Application of Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF Steel Slag for Railway Ballast Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehoon Koh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Railway ballast, for which natural crushed stone aggregates have been generally used, is an essential track component for the distribution of train loads along the rails and sleepers to the roadbed. However, the use of natural crushed stone aggregate causes environmental destruction as well as dust production in train service. This paper evaluates the feasibility of using the basic oxygen furnace (BOF steel slag as railway ballast material. A series of physical and chemical quality tests are performed to investigate the characteristics of the materials associated with the effect of aging period due to the remaining free CaO and MgO in the BOF steel slag. Three different aging periods (i.e., 0, 3, and 6 months are used to compare with various standards and the properties of the crushed stone aggregates. It is demonstrated that the physical and chemical properties of the BOF steel slag with different aging periods satisfy all requirements of standards sufficiently. Especially, the BOF steel slag without aging (i.e., 0 month provides the similar physical and chemical properties, when compared to the BOF steel slag with aging (i.e., 3 and 6 months. Thus, it is possible to apply the BOF steel slag regardless of aging periods to the railway ballast materials instead of natural crushed stone aggregates.

  20. Detection of UV-treatment effects on plankton by rapid analytic tools for ballast water compliance monitoring immediately following treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradie, Johanna; Gianoli, Claudio; He, Jianjun; Lo Curto, Alberto; Stehouwer, Peter; Veldhuis, Marcel; Welschmeyer, Nick; Younan, Lawrence; Zaake, André; Bailey, Sarah

    2018-03-01

    Non-indigenous species seriously threaten native biodiversity. To reduce establishments, the International Maritime Organization established the Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments which limits organism concentrations at discharge under regulation D-2. Most ships will comply by using on-board treatment systems to disinfect their ballast water. Port state control officers will need simple, rapid methods to detect compliance. Appropriate monitoring methods may be dependent on treatment type, since different treatments will affect organisms by a variety of mechanisms. Many indicative tools have been developed, but must be examined to ensure the measured variable is an appropriate signal for the response of the organisms to the applied treatment. We assessed the abilities of multiple analytic tools to rapidly detect the effects of a ballast water treatment system based on UV disinfection. All devices detected a large decrease in the concentrations of vital organisms ≥ 50 μm and organisms organisms, as examined herein for UV-C treatment systems.

  1. Nonlinear Finite Element Modelling of Railway Turnout System considering Bearer/Sleeper-Ballast Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sae Siew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rail turnouts are built to enable flexibility in the rail network as they allow for vehicles to switch between various tracks, therefore maximizing the utilisation of existing rail infrastructure. In general, railway turnouts are a safety-critical and expensive feature to a rail system as they suffer aggressive operational loads, in comparison to a plain rail track, and thus require frequent monitoring and maintenance. In practice, great consideration is given to the dynamic interaction between the turnouts components as a failed component may have adverse effects on the performance of neighbouring components. This paper presents a nonlinear 3D finite element (FE model, taking into account the nonlinearities of materials, in order to evaluate the interaction and behaviour of turnout components. Using ABAQUS, the finite element model was developed to simulate standard concrete bearers with 60 kg/m rail and with a tangential turnout radius of 250 m. The turnout structure is supported by a ballast layer, which is represented by a nonlinearly deformable tensionless solid. The numerical studies firstly demonstrate the importance of load transfer mechanisms in the failure modes of the turnout components. The outcome will lead to a better design and maintenance of railway turnouts, improving public safety and operational reliability.

  2. Jet-Suspended, Calcite-Ballasted Cyanobacterial Waterwarts in a Desert Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichel-Garcia, Ferran; Wade, Bman D.; Farmer, Jack D.

    2002-01-01

    We describe a population of colonial cyanobacteria (waterwarts) that develops as the dominant primary producer in a bottom-fed, warm spring in the Cuatro Cienegas karstic region of the Mexican Chihuahuan Desert. The centimeter-sized waterwarts were suspended within a central, conically shaped, 6-m deep well by upwelling waters. Waterwarts were built by an unicellular cyanobacterium and supported a community of epiphytic filamentous cyanobacteria and diatoms but were free of heterotrophic bacteria inside. Sequence analysis of genes revealed that this cyanobacterium is only distantly related to several strains of other unicellular teria Cyanothece, Waterwarts contained orderly arrangements of mineral made up of microcrystalline low-magnesium calcite with high levels of strontium and sulfur. Waterwarts were 95.9% (v/v) glycan, 2.8% cells, and 1.3% mineral grains and had a buoyant density of 1.034 kg/L. An analysis of the hydrological properties of the spring well and the waterwarts demonstrated that both large colony size and the presence of controlled amounts of mineral ballast are required to prevent the population from being washed out of the well. The unique hydrological characteristics of the spring have likely selected for both traits. The mechanisms by which controlled nucleation of extracellular calcite is achieved remain to be explored.

  3. Quantifying energy savings in daylight responsive systems: The role of dimming electronic ballasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doulos, L.; Topalis, F. [Laboratory of Photometry, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Politexniou 9, 157 80 Zografou (Greece); Tsangrassoulis, A. [Department of Architecture, University of Thessaly, Pedion Areos, 383 34 Volos (Greece)

    2008-07-01

    The application of lighting control technologies with photosensors has led to an increase in public interest. Although these technologies have been promoted during the last years their successful use in buildings has been accomplished in a small percentage of new projects. One reason is the difficulty in quantifying the energy savings and thus the subsequent payback period. Daylight responsive dimming systems consist of three basic components: photosensor, controller, and dimming unit. Electronic dimming ballast (EDB) is one substantial component of these lighting control systems which can adjust the light output due to the transferred signal from the photosensor and lighting controller. The aim of this study is to quantify energy savings among different EDBs. Eighteen commercial EDBs were selected and various sets of electrical and illuminance measurements were taken for different dimming levels, in order to develop polynomial functions between light output and consumed power. Using the measured data, a set of simulations were performed for a photosensor with an ideal cosine spatial sensitivity distribution installed in a typical office room using two control algorithms, closed loop and integral reset, trying to quantify the relative differences in energy savings. (author)

  4. Ergonomics evaluation of work posture in OWAS method in Ballast mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasl Seraji J

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, musculoskeletal disorders incidents have been found through NMQ. Then, with the OWAS method the results have been analysed. In this thesis, we have studied the case in two different workshops of Ballast Production Company. The jobs were classified according to static load caused by poor work posture and recommendations for reducing the hurmful load were made. The study of the questionnaire showe that there is meaningful relation between work experience and Low Back Pain (LBP (P<3%. Meanwhile BMI (Body Mass Index is closely related to LBP (P<2%. However a relation was found between low back and back and shoulder pain complaints during recent one year and last one week with that of the existence of the pains, respectively P<2% and P<5%. Jobs related with repair and maintenance rates the first as regards static load on the muscloskeletal system. Cooking, digging operations, driving bullodozer, operation of stone crushing device, loaders and lorries rank respectively in order.

  5. An evaluation of the residual toxicity and chemistry of a sodium hydroxide-based ballast water treatment system for freshwater ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elskus, Adria; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kemble, Nile E.; Echols, Kathy R.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Henquinet, Jeffrey; Watten, Barnaby J.

    2015-01-01

    Nonnative organisms in the ballast water of freshwater ships must be killed to prevent the spread of invasive species. The ideal ballast water treatment system (BWTS) would kill 100% of ballast water organisms with minimal residual toxicity to organisms in receiving waters. In the present study, the residual toxicity and chemistry of a BWTS was evaluated. Sodium hydroxide was added to elevate pH to >11.5 to kill ballast water organisms, then reduced to pH water under an air atmosphere (pH drifted to ≥9) or a 2.5% CO2 atmosphere (pH 7.5–8.2), then transferred to control water for 5 d to assess potential delayed toxicity. Chemical concentrations in the BWTS water met vessel discharge guidelines with the exception of concentrations of copper. There was little to no residual toxicity to cladocerans or fish, but the BWTS water was toxic to amphipods. Maintaining a neutral pH and diluting BWTS water by 50% eliminated toxicity to the amphipods. The toxicity of BWTS water would likely be minimal because of rapid dilution in the receiving water, with subsurface release likely preventing pH rise. This BWTS has the potential to become a viable method for treating ballast water released into freshwater systems.

  6. An evaluation of the residual toxicity and chemistry of a sodium hydroxide-based ballast water treatment system for freshwater ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elskus, Adria A; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Kemble, Nile E; Echols, Kathy R; Brumbaugh, William G; Henquinet, Jeffrey W; Watten, Barnaby J

    2015-06-01

    Nonnative organisms in the ballast water of freshwater ships must be killed to prevent the spread of invasive species. The ideal ballast water treatment system (BWTS) would kill 100% of ballast water organisms with minimal residual toxicity to organisms in receiving waters. In the present study, the residual toxicity and chemistry of a BWTS was evaluated. Sodium hydroxide was added to elevate pH to >11.5 to kill ballast water organisms, then reduced to pH pH drifted to ≥9) or a 2.5% CO2 atmosphere (pH 7.5-8.2), then transferred to control water for 5 d to assess potential delayed toxicity. Chemical concentrations in the BWTS water met vessel discharge guidelines with the exception of concentrations of copper. There was little to no residual toxicity to cladocerans or fish, but the BWTS water was toxic to amphipods. Maintaining a neutral pH and diluting BWTS water by 50% eliminated toxicity to the amphipods. The toxicity of BWTS water would likely be minimal because of rapid dilution in the receiving water, with subsurface release likely preventing pH rise. This BWTS has the potential to become a viable method for treating ballast water released into freshwater systems. © 2015 SETAC.

  7. A low-energy intensive electrochemical system for the eradication of Escherichia coli from ballast water: Process development, disinfection chemistry, and kinetics modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeeshani Nanayakkara, K.G.; Khorshed Alam, A.K.M.; Zheng Yuming; Paul Chen, J.

    2012-01-01

    The invasion of biological organisms via ballast water has created threats to the environment and human health. In this study, a cost-effective electrochemical disinfection reactor was developed to inactivate Escherichia coli, one of the IMO-regulated indicator microbes, in simulated ballast water. The complete inactivation of E. coli could be achieved within a very short time (150, 120, or 60 s) with an energy consumption as low as 0.0090, 0.0074 or 0.0035 kWh/m 3 for ballast water containing E. coli at concentrations of 10 8 , 10 7 and 10 6 CFU/100 mL, respectively. Electrochemical chlorination was the major disinfection mechanism in chloride-abundant electrolytes, whereas oxidants such as ozone and free radicals contributed to 20% of the disinfection efficiency in chloride-free electrolytes. Moreover, a disinfection kinetics model was successfully developed to describe the inactivation of E. coli.

  8. Ballast water as a vector of coral pathogens in the Gulf of Mexico: the case of the Cayo Arcas coral reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Macedo, M Leopoldina; Vidal-Martinez, Victor M; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A; Valdés-Lozano, David S; Herrera-Rodríguez, Miguel; Olvera-Novoa, Miguel A

    2008-09-01

    The discharge of nutrients, phytoplankton and pathogenic bacteria through ballast water may threaten the Cayo Arcas reef system. To assess this threat, the quality of ballast water and presence of coral reef pathogenic bacteria in 30 oil tankers loaded at the PEMEX Cayo Arcas crude oil terminal were determined. The water transported in the ships originated from coastal, oceanic or riverine regions. Statistical associations among quality parameters and bacteria were tested using redundancy analysis (RDA). In contrast with coastal or oceanic water, the riverine water had high concentrations of coliforms, including Vibrio cholerae 01 and, Serratia marcescens and Sphingomona spp., which are frequently associated with "white pox" and "white plague type II" coral diseases. There were also high nutrient concentrations and low water quality index values (WQI and TRIX). The presence of V. cholerae 01 highlights the need for testing ballast water coming from endemic regions into Mexican ports.

  9. Survey on germination and species composition of dinoflagellates from ballast tanks and recent sediments in ports on the South Coast of Finland, North-Eastern Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pertola, Sari [Finnish Institute of Marine Research, Department of Biological Research, P.O. Box 2, FI-00561 Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail sari.pertola@fimr.fi; Faust, Maria A. [Department of Botany, US National Herbarium, Smithsonian Institution, 4210 Silver Hill Road, Suitland, Maryland 20746 (United States); Kuosa, Harri [Tvaerminne Zoological Station, University of Helsinki, FI-10900 Hanko (Finland)

    2006-08-15

    Cyst beds in ships and ports in Finland have previously been unstudied. Therefore, sediments from ships' ballast water tanks and four Finnish ports were sampled for dinoflagellate cysts and other phytoplankton. Untreated sediments were incubated at 10 {sup o}C and 20 {sup o}C in the local 6 psu salinity for 1, 4 and 7 days, and vegetative cells were examined with light and scanning electron microscope. Sediments were inhabited by various dinoflagellates, diatoms, chlorophytes, cyanophytes and small flagellates. Germinated dinoflagellates were found in 90% of ballast tanks and in all ports. Gymnodiniales spp. and Heterocapsa rotundata formed a major proportion of the proliferating dinoflagellate cells. One species, Peridinium quinquecorne, not previously reported from the Baltic Sea, was identified with SEM. The study emphasises that ships are potential transport vehicles for dinoflagellate cysts even in the low salinity Finnish waters, and small-sized dinoflagellates should be focused upon in ballast water studies.

  10. Survey on germination and species composition of dinoflagellates from ballast tanks and recent sediments in ports on the South Coast of Finland, North-Eastern Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertola, Sari . E-mail sari.pertola@fimr.fi; Faust, Maria A.; Kuosa, Harri

    2006-01-01

    Cyst beds in ships and ports in Finland have previously been unstudied. Therefore, sediments from ships' ballast water tanks and four Finnish ports were sampled for dinoflagellate cysts and other phytoplankton. Untreated sediments were incubated at 10 o C and 20 o C in the local 6 psu salinity for 1, 4 and 7 days, and vegetative cells were examined with light and scanning electron microscope. Sediments were inhabited by various dinoflagellates, diatoms, chlorophytes, cyanophytes and small flagellates. Germinated dinoflagellates were found in 90% of ballast tanks and in all ports. Gymnodiniales spp. and Heterocapsa rotundata formed a major proportion of the proliferating dinoflagellate cells. One species, Peridinium quinquecorne, not previously reported from the Baltic Sea, was identified with SEM. The study emphasises that ships are potential transport vehicles for dinoflagellate cysts even in the low salinity Finnish waters, and small-sized dinoflagellates should be focused upon in ballast water studies

  11. Validation of Engine Performance for Tests on Ballast Water Heat Treatment Using Engine Waste Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajoo Balaji

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment has been considered as a suitable option for treatment of ballast water. Utilising the waste heat from the diesel engine fresh water and exhaust gases would be an economic option. For recovering the heat from the exhaust gases, heat exchangers are required to be placed in their flow path. The sea water coolant after recovering heat from fresh water has to be directed to this heat exchanger for sterilisation. For testing the effectiveness of these heat recoveries on species’ mortalities, a mini-scale system was arranged and tests were carried out. The engine output and other flow rates were maintained to achieve a temperature range of 55 to 80oC. Data was obtained from the sensors and probes fitted at relevant points. The engine performance was monitored with computerised control equipment. Operational data from five test runs were analysed and verified by two approaches. In the first approach, the heat recovered by the water was compared with the heat lost by the exhaust gases and the maximum variation was observed to be 3.4%. In the second approach, the input energies were computed using two different methods using data values of brake power, thermal efficiency, mass flows, calorific value and specific fuel consumption. A maximum variation of -11% was seen for only one test run, while for other tests the variation was between -0.7% to -1.7%. The values obtained from the connected probes and the computed results were thus validated and further tests on species were carried out.

  12. Modulation of upper limb joint work and power during sculling while ballasted with varying loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Jessy; Rouard, Annie Hélène; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo

    2017-05-01

    The human musculoskeletal system must modulate work and power output in response to substantial alterations in mechanical demands associated with different tasks. In particular, in water, upper limb muscles must perform net positive work to replace the energy lost against the dissipative fluid load. Where in the upper limb are work and power developed? Is mechanical output modulated similarly at all joints, or are certain muscle groups favored? This study examined, for the first time, how work and power per stroke are distributed at the upper limb joints in seven male participants sculling while ballasted with 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 kg. Upper limb kinematics was captured and used to animate body virtual geometry. Net wrist, elbow and shoulder joint work and power were subsequently computed through a novel approach integrating unsteady numerical fluid flow simulations and inverse dynamics modeling. Across a threefold increase in load, total work and power significantly increased from 0.38±0.09 to 0.67±0.13 J kg -1 , and 0.47±0.06 to 1.14±0.16 W kg -1 , respectively. Shoulder and elbow equally supplied >97% of the upper limb total work and power, coherent with the proximo-distal gradient of work performance in the limbs of terrestrial animals. Individual joint relative contributions remained constant, as observed on land during tasks necessitating no net work. The apportionment of higher work and power simultaneously at all joints in water suggests a general motor strategy of power modulation consistent across physical environments, limbs and tasks, regardless of whether or not they demand positive net work. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Free-living and plankton-associated vibrios: assessment in ballast water, harbor areas, and coastal ecosystems in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Irma N G; Souza, Keili M C; Souza, Claudiana P; Lopes, Rubens M

    2012-01-01

    Ballast water (BW) is a major transport vector of exotic aquatic species and pathogenic microorganisms. The wide-ranging spread of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 from harbor areas has been frequently ascribed to discharge of contaminated BW into eutrophic coastal environments, such as during the onset of the seventh cholera pandemic in South America in the early 1990s. To determine the microbiological hazards of BWs transported to Brazilian ports, we evaluated water and plankton samples taken from (i) BW tanks of recently arrived ships, (ii) port areas along the Brazilian coastline from ∼1 to 32°S and (iii) three coastal areas in São Paulo State. Vibrio concentration and toxigenic V. cholerae O1 occurrence were analyzed. Plankton-associated vibrios were more abundant than free-living vibrios in all studied environments. V. cholerae was found in 9.5% of ballast tanks and 24.2% of port samples, both as free-living and attached forms and, apart from the Santos harbor, was absent off São Paulo State. Toxigenic V. cholerae O1 isolates (ctxA(+), tcpA(+)), involved in cholera disease, were found in BW (2%) and harbor (2%) samples. These results confirm that BW is an important carrier of pathogenic organisms, and that monitoring of vibrios and other plankton-attached bacteria is of paramount importance in BW management programs.

  14. A physical based equivalent circuit modeling approach for ballasted InP DHBT multi-finger devices at millimeter-wave frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midili, Virginio; Squartecchia, Michele; Johansen, Tom Keinicke

    2016-01-01

    Multifinger InP DHBTs can be designed with a ballasting resistor to improve power capability. However accurate modeling is needed to predict high frequency behavior of the device. This paper presents two distinct modeling approaches: one based on EM simulations and one based on a physical...

  15. Evaluation of bituminous sub-ballast manufactured at low temperatures as an alternative for the construction of more sustainable railway structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pirozzolo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hot bituminous mixtures are becoming widely used in modern railway tracks in the sub-ballast layer. The reason is that these materials allow for both an increase in bearing capacity and greater protection of the substructure respect the traditional granular sub-ballast. Despite these advantages, the fact that these materials are manufactured at a temperature of 160°C means that their application can lead to an important increase in construction costs, pollution and energy consumption. This paper aims to study the possibility of using WMA manufactured at lower temperatures, as bituminous sub-ballast, in order to save energy and reduce emissions throughout the production process, as well as diminish the global costs of this layer. To this end, this study focuses on a comparison of the mechanical behaviour of warm and hot bituminous mixtures as sub-ballast under various loading conditions. The results indicate that WMA offers mechanical behaviour that is comparable to conventional HMA.

  16. Evaluating the combined effects of ballast water management and trade dynamics on transfers of marine organisms by ships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine J Carney

    Full Text Available Global trade by merchant ships is a leading mechanism for the unintentional transfer of marine organisms, including non-indigenous species, to bays and estuaries worldwide. To reduce the likelihood of new invasions, ships are increasingly being required to manage their ballast water (BW prior to discharge in coastal waters. In the United States, most overseas arrivals have been required to manage BW discharge since 2004, primarily through ballast water exchange (BWE, which flushes out ballast tanks in the open ocean (>200 miles from shore. Studies have found BWE to generally reduce the abundance of organisms, and the amount of water exchanged has been estimated at 96-100%. Despite its widespread use, the overall effect of this management strategy on net propagule supply through time has not been explored. Here, temporal changes in zooplankton concentrations and the volume of BW discharged in Chesapeake Bay, U.S. were evaluated, comparing pre-management era and post-management era time periods. Chesapeake Bay is a large port system that receives extensive BW discharge, especially from bulk cargo vessels (bulkers that export coal overseas. For bulkers arriving from overseas, mean zooplankton concentrations of total and coastal indicator taxa in BW did not decline between pre- (1993-2000 and post management (2012-2013 eras, when controlling for season and sampling method. Moreover, bulkers discharged 21 million tonnes (82% of total for Chesapeake Bay of overseas BW in 2013, representing a 374% increase in volume when compared to 2005. The combination of BW discharge volume and zooplankton concentration data indicates that (a net propagule supply by bulkers has increased since BWE began in Chesapeake Bay; and (b changes in vessel behaviour and trade have contributed strongly to this outcome. Specifically, the coal-driven increase in BW discharge volume from 2005-2013, concurrent with the onset of BWE regulations, worked to counteract intended

  17. The Maritime Environment - International Conference and Exhibition on Ballast Water, Waste Water and Sewage Treatment on Ships and in Ports Held in Bremerhaven, Germany on 12-14 September 2001. Conference Proceedings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    The Maritime International Conference on Ballast Water, Waste Water and Sewage Treatment on Ships and in Ports held in Bremerhaven, Germany on 12-14 September 2001 was cosponsored by Deerberg-Systems...

  18. Abundances and profiles of antibiotic resistance genes as well as co-occurrences with human bacterial pathogens in ship ballast tank sediments from a shipyard in Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Baoyi; Cui, Yuxue; Tian, Wen; Li, Jing; Xie, Bing; Yin, Fang

    2018-04-02

    Ship ballasting operations may transfer harmful aquatic organisms across global ocean. This study aims to reveal the occurrences and abundances of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and human bacterial pathogens (HBPs) in ballast tank sediments. Nine samples were collected and respectively analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR and high-throughput sequencing technologies. Ten ARGs (aadA1, blaCTX-M, blaTEM, ermB, mefA, strB, sul1, sul2, tetM, and tetQ) and the Class-I integron gene (intI1) were highly prevalent (10 5 -10 9 gene copies/g) in ballast tank sediments. The sul1 was the most abundant ARG with the concentration of 10 8 -10 9 copies/g and intI1 was much more abundant than the ARGs in ballast tank sediments. The strong positive correlations between intI1 and ARGs (blaCTX-M, sul1, sul2 and tetM) indicated the potential spread of ARGs via horizontal gene transfer. In ballast tank sediments, 44 bacterial species were identified as HBPs and accounted for 0.13-21.46% of the total bacterial population although the three indicator pathogenic microbes (Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, and Enterococci) proposed by the International Maritime Organization were not detected. Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, Enterococcus hirae, Shigella sonnei and Bacillus anthracis were the dominant pathogens in ballast tank sediments. Zn and P in sediments had positive effects on the ARGs. Network analysis results indicated that sul1 and sul2 genes existed in several bacterial pathogens. Ballast tank sediments could be regarded as a carrier for the migration of ARGs. It is important to manage ballast tank sediments reasonably in order to prevent the dissemination of ARGs and bacterial pathogens. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Weathering Processes on Mineralogical and Mechanical Properties of Volcanic Rocks Used as Ballast Material for Railway Between Sabuncupinar and Kütahya in Western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiddin Erguler, Zeynal; Adıgüzel, Ömer; Derman, Mustafa

    2015-04-01

    Geomaterials used in engineering projects and man-made structures such as railway ballasts, buildings, historical structures, monuments and tombstones naturally weather as a result of various physico-chemical factors. Due to being long-term exposure to the anthroposphere, geomaterials used for these purposes provides important information to the researchers for understanding the effect of weathering processes on their time dependent physical, mineralogical and mechanical changes. Thus, researchers frequently can take advantage of available engineering time of man-made structures to assess weathering properties of the geomaterials used in their construction in terms of time dependent durability and stability of these structures. Considering the fact that railway ballasts produced from natural deposits of limestone, dolomite, granite, basalt etc., supply an important contribution for evaluation weathering processes, a research was carried out to determine the effect of weathering as a function of time on physical, mineralogical and mechanical properties of ballasts used for railway between Kütahya and Sabuncupınar in western Turkey. For this purpose, fresh and weathered rock samples exposed to physical and chemical weathering processes at different times were collected from quarry located in Sabuncupınar and nearby railway. This volcanic rock was previously classified as basalt based on the detailed mineralogical and geochemical analyses performed at the laboratories of the Mineral Research & Exploration General Directorate located in Ankara (Turkey). In-situ characteristics of sampling site were also investigated at different locations of quarry site by line surveying technique to describe the influence of discontinuity conditions on the weathering rate of selected rocks. Several techniques were utilized to determine time dependent deterioration in mineralogical and chemical composition of these samples for understanding their weathering rate. The porosity, water

  20. Numerical investigation of the behavior of approach slabs in transition zone of ballasted track to box culvert in high-speed railway lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Esmaeili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues in operation of high-speed railway tracks is avoiding to sudden variation of the track stiffness. Culverts and bridges are common areas which this problem is occurred along the railway lines. One of the method for applying the gradual variation of the track stiffness in these areas is using the approach slabs in transition zone. Therefore, in this research it has attempted to study this problem using numerical simulation. In this regard, a typical culvert of Tehran-Qom-Esfahan high-speed railway line with 6.6 m length was simulated. Then for studying the effect of transition zones, an approach slab includes of three parts with 6m length and various thicknesses simulated by FE model. In this model the ballasted track and its components such as railpads, sleepers, ballast and subgrade were modeled as lumped mass-dashpot-spring systems and the rails, approach slabs and culvert were modeled by Euler-Bernoulli beam elements. Then the dynamic behavior of the transition zone investigated under the passing of the moving loads same as the axle loads of the ICE high speed train. In this matter a series of sensitivity analyses were carried out on some parameters such as vehicle speed, approach slab thickness as well as damping and stiffness of track. Consequently, the achieved results show that the increasing of damping and stiffness of the track cause to the ballast forces increased and in other side it causes to the acceleration and settlement of the ballasted track and the approach slabs decreased. These aforementioned effects are more obvious in damping values higher than 200 kN.sec/m and the track stiffness values in the range of 120 MN/m to 180 MN/m. Moreover, it was understood that increasing the approach slabs thickness has remarkable effect on improving the dynamic behavior of the transition zone especially in speeds more than 340 km/hr.

  1. Onboard ship evaluation of the effectiveness and the potential environmental effects of PERACLEAN Ocean for ballast water treatment in very cold conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lafontaine, Y; Despatie, S-P; Veilleux, E; Wiley, C

    2009-02-01

    This study verified the effectiveness and the potential toxic impact of PERACLEAN Ocean ballast water treatment for very cold freshwater (0.1-0.5 degrees C) in real ballast tank (750 m(3)) conditions aboard a ship and in large-volume (4.5 m(3)) polyethylene tanks. Concentrations of peracetic acid (PAA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) gradually dropped by 41-59% over 5 days. The treatment altered the quality of the treated waters by causing a pH drop of 0.9-1.3 units and a fourfold to sevenfold increase in dissolved organic carbon and organophosphates concentrations. More than 90% of the biomass of free-floating micro-organisms and viable phytoplankton were eliminated within 48 h after treatment. The treatment resulted in 100% mortality in caged fish exposed to treated waters but was totally ineffective against adult zebra mussels and some nematods living in tank sediments. Toxic response from ecotoxicological assays indicated that treated waters after 5 days should be diluted by a factor of 1:2 to 1:200 to reduce toxicity below selected endpoints of acute lethality tests. On the basis of PAA degradation rate, fresh waters treated with 100-ppm PERACLEAN Ocean should be kept in ballast tanks for 15-20 days after treatment to reduce toxicity. It is concluded that the treatment can be an effective biocide to rapidly eliminate organisms of the water column inside the ballast tanks over a wide range of environmental conditions, but that the discharge of the toxic treated waters should be properly managed to minimize potential environmental impact.

  2. UV spectrophotometry for monitoring the performance of a yeast-based deoxygenation process to treat ships' ballast water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Éloïse; de Lafontaine, Yves; Thomas, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    This study assessed the usefulness of UV spectrophotometry for the monitoring of a yeast-based deoxygenation process proposed for ships' ballast water treatment to prevent the transfer of aquatic invasive species. Ten-day laboratory experiments using three treatment concentrations and different water types were conducted and resulted in complete oxygen depletion of treated waters. The treatment performance and quality of treated waters were determined by measuring the UV-visible absorbance spectra of water samples taken over time. Samples were also used for laboratory analysis of water quality properties. The UV absorbance spectra values were strongly correlated (r = 0.96) to yeast cell density in treated waters. The second-order derivative (D (2)) of the spectra varied greatly over time, and the spectrum profiles could be divided into two groups corresponding to the oxygenated and anoxic phases of the treatment. The D (2) value at 215 nm was strongly correlated (r = 0.94) to ammonia levels, which increased over time. The D (2) value at 225 nm was strongly correlated (r > 0.97) to DO concentration. Our results showed that UV spectrophotometry may provide a rapid assessment of the behavior and performance of the yeast bioreactor over time by quantifying (1) the density of yeast cells, (2) the time at which anoxic conditions were reached, and (3) a water quality index of the treated water related to the production of ammonia. We conclude that the rapidity of the technique confers a solid advantage over standard methods used for water quality analysis in laboratory and would permit the direct monitoring of the treatment performance on-board ships.

  3. Preventing maritime transport of pathogens: the remarkable antimicrobial properties of silver-supported catalysts for ship ballast water disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theologides, C P; Theofilou, S P; Anayiotos, A; Costa, C N

    2017-07-01

    Ship ballast water (SBW) antimicrobial treatment is considered as a priority issue for the shipping industry. The present work investigates the possibility of utilizing antimicrobial catalysis as an effective method for the treatment of SBW. Taking into account the well-known antimicrobial properties of ionic silver (Ag + ), five silver-supported catalysts (Ag/γ-Al 2 O 3 ) with various loadings (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1 wt%) were prepared and examined for the antimicrobial treatment of SBW. The bactericidal activity of the aforementioned catalysts was investigated towards the inhibition of Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Escherichia faecalis (Gram-positive) bacteria. Catalytic experiments were conducted in a three-phase continuous flow stirred tank reactor, used in a semi-batch mode. It was found that using the catalyst with the lowest metal loading, the inhibition of E. coli reached 95.8% after 30 minutes of treatment of an E. coli bacterial solution, while the inhibition obtained for E. faecalis was 76.2% after 60 minutes of treatment of an E. faecalis bacterial solution. Even better results (100% inhibition after 5 min of reaction) were obtained using the catalysts with higher Ag loadings. The results of the present work indicate that the prepared monometallic catalysts exert their antimicrobial activity within a short period of time, revealing, for the first time ever, that the field of antimicrobial heterogeneous catalysis using deposited ionic silver on a solid support may prove decisive for the disinfection of SBW.

  4. Application of Polyurethane Polymer and Assistant Rails to Settling the Abnormal Vehicle-Track Dynamic Effects in Transition Zone between Ballastless and Ballasted Track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiyou Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes tests on a transition section between ballasted and ballastless tracks in the Liupanshui-Zhanyi railway in China. The originally unsettled transition zone is exposed to sudden car shaking and a series of track transition problems during train passage. As an example, the influences of polyurethane polymer and a combination of polyurethane and assistant rails to increase track stiffness distribution and track transition decay rates on the dynamic vehicle and track behaviour were investigated. The measured results indicate using only polyurethane and using both polyurethane and assistant rails not only effectively makes the track stiffness change more even but also increases the track decay rate at the target frequencies. These positive effects further reduce the wheel-rail interaction forces and vehicle and rail vertical acceleration, which decreases more when combining polyurethane and assistant rails than when using only polyurethane because the former outperforms the latter for smoothing the track stiffness distribution and increasing the track decay rate. Based on abating wheel-rail impact during the transition from ballasted to ballastless track and improving traffic operation and passenger comfort, combining polyurethane and assistant rails had the greatest effect and may be an effective remedy.

  5. Tie-ballast interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Improvements in railroad efficiency in the future may likely require higher passenger train speeds and heavier freight axle loads. As the demand for more efficient rail transportation grows, so does the need for higher performance and lower maintenan...

  6. Ballast Water Self Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    the default column header. ** “Lakers” are vessels which generally voyage exclusively in the Great Lakes. a Indicator microbes specified by State... Biodiversity Management. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Carlton, J.T., Reid, D.M., and van Leeuwen, H. (1995). Shipping Study: The Role of Shipping in

  7. Modelling Ballast Water Transport

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, S.; Babu, M.T.; Vethamony, P.

    water in the marine environment. The bathymetry of the region has been taken from the CMAP data and augmented by data from hydrographic charts and bathymetry data available at NIO Data Center, Goa. Tides along the open boundary were generated...

  8. Ballast Load Control of Turbine-Generator Sets in the Micro-Hydro Range with a Turbine that has no Flow Regulating Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Nedelea

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the effects of voltage and frequency variation on users load supplies from electrical supply system generated from small micro-hydro plants. Induction generators operate as stand-alone self excited by capacitors and turbine has no flow regulating valve. Many conventional and non conventional approaches are described to govern turbine-generator set to ensure a steady frequency and voltage level. A load controller increases or decreases a ballast load connected across the generator as the user load varies, to keep frequency and voltage variation in standard limits. To design a controller for self excited induction generator, researches were performed on asynchronous generator with double winding stator to analyse steady state open loop behaviour. The results on the behaviour of the unregulated turbine (DC motor – generator system was presented.

  9. Natural gas ballast requirement to allow participation of thermal plants in the new energy auctions: analysis and proposals; Requisito de lastro de gas natural para viabilizar a participacao de termeletricas nos leiloes de energia nova: analise e propostas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Pedro Luis de; Bezerra, Bernardo Vieira; Barroso, Luiz Augusto Nobrega; Pereira, Mario Veiga; Rosenblatt, Jose [PSR, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Since the first New Energy Auction (LEN), held in December 2005, there has been a continuous process of improving the auction rules and mechanism. For the specific case of gas-fired plants, a significant change was observed between the LEN A-3/2011 and LEN A-5/2011, and refers to the need of natural gas ballast for candidate projects in the auction. This rule was introduced by ANP Resolution No. 52, which establishes that the gas supply agreements must be backed up by proven reserves (analogous to the requirement in the power sector contracts of physical guarantee backup), and Ordinance MME No. 21/2008, which deals with power plants qualification for the new energy auctions. The latter was amended by MME Ordinance No. 514, which requires proven natural gas reserves to support the GSA of all candidate projects in a LEN. In other words, the gas supplier now has to prove that there are sufficient gas reserves to meet requirements of all candidate project in an auction, regardless of the plausibility of their engagement in the auction. In this context, the present study discusses these issues and has as main contributions: (I) a review of current regulations on contract ballast in the Brazilian natural gas sector, (II) a proposal to conciliate the need of fuel supply contract ballast to the dynamics of the natural gas sector, and (III) a proposal to conciliate the need for fuel contract ballast to the contracting process of the thermoelectric power in the new energy auctions. These contributions aim at a better integration between the sectors of natural gas and electricity in Brazil, leading to a more efficient use of resources and infrastructure development. (author)

  10. Fondations d'une station de traitement d'eau potable par colonnes ballastées injectées. Le cas de la station de traitement de Dourd'hal

    OpenAIRE

    Dellinger, N.; Mathieu, G.

    2001-01-01

    This article underlines the importance and the interest of high quality geotechnical studies prior to drinkable water treatment station, the ground foundation nature, the special deep-grouted foundations choice, consisting in injected ballasted columns, the soundings, controls and tests realised on these foundations. We describe the recorded anomalies and pathologies, the arisen questions, investigation complementary tests, the projected reinforcement solutions and the planned mode of repair...

  11. Optimisation of bitumen emulsion properties for ballast stabilisation; Optimización de las propiedades de emulsión de betún para la estabilización de balasto.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Angelo, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Thom, N.

    2017-07-01

    Ballasted track, while providing economical and practical advantages, is associated with high costs and material consumption due to frequent maintenance. More sustainable alternatives to conventional ballasted trackbeds should therefore aim at extending its durability, particularly considering ongoing increases in traffic speed and loads. In this regard, the authors have investigated a solution consisting of bitumen stabilised ballast (BSB), designed to be used for new trackbeds as well as in reinforcing existing ones. This study presents the idea behind the technology and then focuses on a specific part of its development: the optimisation of bitumen emulsion properties and dosage in relation to ballast field conditions. Results showed that overall bitumen stabilisation improved ballast resistance to permanent deformation by enhancing stiffness and damping properties. Scenarios with higher dosage of bitumen emulsion, higher viscosity, quicker setting behaviour, and harder base bitumen seem to represent the most desirable conditions to achieve enhanced in-field performance. [Spanish] El balasto proporciona ventajas económicas y prácticas, sin embargo se asocia con altos costos y consumo de materiales. Las alternativas más sostenibles deben tener como objetivo extender la durabilidad del balasto, sobre todo teniendo en cuenta los actuales incrementos en la velocidad y las cargas del tráfico. Los autores presentan una solución que consiste en estabilizar el balasto con betún. Este estudio describe la tecnología y se centra en la optimización de las propiedades de la emulsión bituminosa y su dosis en función de las condiciones del balasto. Los resultados muestran que la stabilización con betún mejora la resistencia a la deformación permanente mediante la modificación de la rigidez y las propiedades de amortiguación. Pruebas con mayor dosis de emulsión bituminosa, mayor viscosidad, fraguado rápido y betún base más duro, representan las condiciones m

  12. Development and evaluation of a DNA microarray assay for the simultaneous detection of nine harmful algal species in ship ballast and seaport waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianfeng; Zhou, Qianjin; Duan, Weijun; Zhou, Chengxu; Duan, Lijun; Zhang, Huili; Sun, Aili; Yan, Xiaojun; Chen, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    Rapid, high-throughput and reliable methods are urgently required to accurately detect and monitor harmful algae, which are responsible for algal blooms, such as red and green tides. In this study, we successfully developed a multiplex PCR-based DNA microarray method capable of detecting nine harmful algal species simultaneously, namely Alexandrium tamarense, Gyrodinium instriatum, Heterosigma akashiwo, Karenia mikimotoi, Prorocentrum donghaiense, Prorocentrum minimum, Ulva compressa, Ulva ohnoi and Ulva prolifera. This method achieved a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.5 ng of genomic DNA (orders of magnitude of the deci-nanogram range) in the tested algae cultures. Altogether, 230 field samples from ship ballast waters and seaport waters were used to evaluate the DNA microarray. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of the DNA microarray assay in detecting field samples were 96.4% and 90.9%, respectively, relative to conventional morphological methods. This indicated that this high-throughput, automatic, and specific method is well suited for the detection of algae in water samples.

  13. Levantamento florístico das macroalgas da baía de Sepetiba e adjacências, RJ: ponto de partida para o Programa GloBallast no Brasil Floristic survey of the macroalgae from Sepetiba bay and surrounding area, Rio de Janeiro State: starting point for the GloBallast Programme in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Menezes de Széchy

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O Porto de Sepetiba, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, foi escolhido, no Brasil, como área-piloto do projeto "Remoção de barreiras para a implementação efetiva do controle de água de lastro e medidas de gestão em países em desenvolvimento" (Programa GloBallast. Para possibilitar comparações, os seis países participantes do Programa GloBallast foram orientados a adotar a mesma metodologia para o levantamento preliminar da biota das áreas-pilotos valorizando a identificação em nível de espécie. O presente estudo teve como objetivo aplicar metodologia estabelecida pelo Centro para Pesquisa sobre Espécies Marinhas Introduzidas, da Austrália (Procedimento CRIMP, com algumas adaptações, no levantamento florístico das macroalgas de substratos consolidados naturais da área-piloto do Porto de Sepetiba. Coletas de macroalgas foram realizadas em novembro/2001, em nove locais da baía de Sepetiba e adjacências, desde a franja da região sublitorânea até cerca de -4 m de profundidade. Em cada local, seis quadrados de 0,1 m² de área foram raspados. O material foi depositado no Herbário do Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro (RB. Das 96 espécies identificadas (20 Chlorophyta, 16 Phaeophyta, 60 Rhodophyta, 12 não haviam sido citadas anteriormente para a área de estudo. Cladophora pellucidoidea C. Hoek, Coelothrix irregularis (Harv. Boergesen e Acrochaetium savianum (Menegh. Nägeli são ocorrências novas para o Estado. Não há indícios de que as novas ocorrências equivalem a espécies recentemente introduzidas por meio das atividades portuárias. O procedimento metodológico adotado mostrou-se eficiente, resultando em listagem de espécies comparável às de levantamentos florísticos com maior esforço amostral e complementando os dados pretéritos existentes para a baía de Sepetiba e adjacências. No entanto, ressalta-se a importância de uma reavaliação das escalas temporal e espacial da estratégia de

  14. On the use of the serial dilution culture method to enumerate viable phytoplankton in natural communities of plankton subjected to ballast water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, John J; MacIntyre, Hugh L

    2016-01-01

    Discharge standards for ballast water treatment (BWT) systems are based on concentrations of living cells, for example, as determined with vital stains. Ultraviolet radiation (UV) stops the reproduction of microorganisms without killing them outright; they are living, but not viable, and ecologically as good as dead. Consequently, UV-treated discharge can be compliant with the intent of regulation while failing a live/dead test. An alternative evaluation of BWT can be proposed based on the assessment of viable, rather than living, cells in discharge water. In principle, the serial dilution culture-most probable number (SDC-MPN) method provides the appropriate measure for phytoplankton. But, the method has been criticized, particularly because it is thought that many phytoplankton species cannot be cultured. A review of the literature shows that although SDC-MPN has been used for more than 50 years-generally to identify and count phytoplankton species that cannot be preserved-its application to enumerate total viable phytoplankton seems to be new, putting past criticisms of the method in a different light. Importantly, viable cells need to grow only enough to be detected, not to be brought into sustained culture, and competition between species in a dilution tube is irrelevant as long as the winner is detectable. Thorough consideration of sources of error leads to recommendations for minimizing and quantifying uncertainties by optimizing growth conditions and conducting systematic comparisons. We conclude that with careful evaluation, SDC-MPN is potentially an effective method for assessing the viability of phytoplankton after BWT.

  15. Development of an electronic ballast with high power factor, using cd/cd conversion techniques for fluorescent lamps; Desarrollo de un balastro electronico con alto factor de potencia, utilizando tecnicas de conversion cd/cd para lamparas fluorescentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Raul Antonio

    1995-02-01

    The recent advances and improvements in fluorescent lamps and ballasts technologies have resulted in substantial gain in efficiency, in illumination (lm/w), in the useful life of the lamp, in ballasts (electric characteristics), and consequently, an increase in energy saving in the fluorescent illumination systems. This thesis work was for the development of an electronic ballast that incorporates active correction of the PF for the handling of fluorescent lamps of the fast start type F4OW T-12. The prototype was implemented in two stages. In the first stage, for the Power Factor Correction (PFC) a converter CD/CD of the boost type in Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM) was chosen. The control technique that was used for this converter was the Average Current Mode (ACM) control. This thesis work comprised part of a collaboration project between the Electronics Department of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and the Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico (National Center of Investigation and Technological Development (CENIDET)) named Technology Assimilation of the Power Factor Correction in the Electronic Equipment Design. In chapter 1 of this thesis the advantages of fluorescent illumination systems (IS) are mentioned, with respect to the traditional incandescent illumination systems. Also the most important characteristics of the fluorescent lamps and the operation (physical) principle will be presented, as well as the design aspects of electronic ballasts and their evolution. The proposal of the development of an experimental electronic prototype of ballast will be set forth. Chapter 2 mentions the evolution of the different schemes of fluorescent lamps ballasts, of electromagnetic, as well as electronic. Also some of the specifications that were taken into consideration for the design of the electronic prototype of the ballast presented in this thesis are mentioned. In chapter 3 the specifications of the electronic prototype of

  16. Study and implementation of a non-resonant inverter as electronic ballast for discharge lamps; Estudio e implementacion de un inversor no resonante como balastro electronico para lamparas de descarga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Garcia, Efren

    2003-02-15

    Implementation of an electronic ballast with integrated ignition circuit that feeds a high density discharge lamp and that limits the current through it without closing the control loop under the technique of current square waves to eliminate the acoustic resonances characteristic of these high pressure lamps. In chapter 1 the basic concepts are presented of high intensity discharge lamps, showing their classification and describing their operation. In addition, the phenomenon of acoustic resonances is mentioned, emphasizing the square wave shape use for its elimination and presenting the state-of-the-art around the use of this technique for the elimination of acoustic resonances. In chapter 2 the different techniques are presented to stabilize the current in a discharge lamp. In addition, a topology of converter DC-DC is proposed that stabilizes the discharge in presenting a resistance in series with the lamp and it does not use a control loop for this, presenting its analysis and raising the necessary characteristics for its correct operation. In chapter 3 the analysis of each one of the stages that conforms the ballast is presented, simultaneously two igniter topologies are presented, that on the basis of an analysis one of them is selected for its implementation. In addition, the simulation results of the ballast performed in the PSpice simulator are presented. In chapter 4 is shown the form in which the implementation of the ballast was carried out, presenting the experimental results and verifying that the ballast operates according to the originally proposed specifications. Finally, in chapter 5 the conclusions of the work and the recommendations for future works are presented. [Spanish] Implementacion de un balastro electronico con circuito de encendido integrado que alimenta a una lampara de alta densidad de descarga y que limita la corriente a traves de ella sin cerrar el lazo de control bajo la tecnica de ondas cuadradas de corriente para eliminar las

  17. Sinking rates and ballast composition of particles in the Atlantic Ocean: implications for the organic carbon fluxes to the deep ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, G.; Karakaş, G.

    2009-01-01

    The flux of materials to the deep sea is dominated by larger, organic-rich particles with sinking rates varying between a few meters and several hundred meters per day. Mineral ballast may regulate the transfer of organic matter and other components by determining the sinking rates, e.g. via particle density. We calculated particle sinking rates from mass flux patterns and alkenone measurements applying the results of sediment trap experiments from the Atlantic Ocean. We have indication for higher particle sinking rates in carbonate-dominated production systems when considering both regional and seasonal data. During a summer coccolithophorid bloom in the Cape Blanc coastal upwelling off Mauritania, particle sinking rates reached almost 570 m per day, most probably due the fast sedimentation of densely packed zooplankton fecal pellets, which transport high amounts of organic carbon associated with coccoliths to the deep ocean despite rather low production. During the recurring winter-spring blooms off NW Africa and in opal-rich production systems of the Southern Ocean, sinking rates of larger particles, most probably diatom aggregates, showed a tendency to lower values. However, there is no straightforward relationship between carbonate content and particle sinking rates. This could be due to the unknown composition of carbonate and/or the influence of particle size and shape on sinking rates. It also remains noticeable that the highest sinking rates occurred in dust-rich ocean regions off NW Africa, but this issue deserves further detailed field and laboratory investigations. We obtained increasing sinking rates with depth. By using a seven-compartment biogeochemical model, it was shown that the deep ocean organic carbon flux at a mesotrophic sediment trap site off Cape Blanc can be captured fairly well using seasonal variable particle sinking rates. Our model provides a total organic carbon flux of 0.29 Tg per year down to 3000 m off the NW African upwelling

  18. Strategies for the correction of the power factor in electronic ballasts with low crest factor; Estrategias para la correccion del factor de potencia en balastros electronicos con bajo factor de cresta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Mata, Arturo Javier

    2002-07-15

    The goal in this work is to develop electronic ballast for fluorescent lamps with high power factor with the smaller number of components. With this aim it is looked for 1) to study the impact of the value of the filtrating capacitor used in a conventional rectifier on the harmonic content of the line current and the crest factor in the lamp, 2) to study resonant tanks commonly used in electronic ballasts with the purpose of observing the feasibility of implementing a control in frequency to vary the gain of the resonant tank and 3) to propose a strategy of frequency modulation that allows to reach low harmonic distortion of the line current maintaining a low crest factor. In chapter one the used theoretical concepts in illumination systems are presented, the justification for the use of electronic ballasts in fluorescent lamps, a revision of the state-of-the-art in the correction of the power factor in electronic ballasts and two strategies for the correction of this factor. In the next chapter the conventional resonant topologies used in the literature are presented, together with the analysis of resonant structures with high gain in steady state to compensate the variations of the instantaneous voltage of the DC bus that feeds the resonant inverter. Also simulations in PSpice are included to know the behavior of each one of the resonant structures and to be able to select, in that way, the most adequate resonant topology for this work. In the third chapter the strategy is presented for the correction of the power factor, eliminating the filtering capacitor. The effects of this elimination as far as the line current and the lamp current are shown. The characterization of the resonant tank in open loop and closed loop is presented. The method is described to control the gain of the resonant investor and its implementation. Experimental results obtained when reducing the filtering capacitor are included and the implementation of the proposed control loop to reduce

  19. Modeling Ballasted Tracks for Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    In this study, the Regional Transportation Districts (RTDs) light rail operations were examined for pollutant production and runoff. To : accomplish this, a laboratory study utilizing a rainfall-runoff facility was conducted. Input to this labo...

  20. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  1. Desempenho de um trator em função do tipo de pneu, da lastragem e da velocidade de trabalho Performance of an tractor as a function of tire type, ballasting and forward speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Lopes

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho comparou o desempenho de um trator agrícola 4x2 TDA de 89 kW (121cv em função do tipo de pneus (radial, diagonal e de baixa pressão, a condição de lastragem (com e sem água nos pneus e quatro velocidades [V1 (1,84km h-1, V2 (3,18km h-1, V3 (4,57km h-1, V4 (5,04km h-1]. O experimento foi realizado na UNESP-Jaboticabal-SP, em condição de preparo do solo com escarificador de sete hastes a 30cm de profundidade. Os pneus foram do tipo R1, com as seguintes características: [radial (dianteiros-14.9 R 26; traseiros-620/75 R 30 diagonal (dianteiros-14.9-26, traseiros-23.1-30 e BPAF (dianteiros-500/60-26.5; traseiros-700/55-34]. O delineamento experimental foi blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 3x2x4, com 24 tratamentos e três repetições. Os resultados evidenciaram vantagens para o trator equipado com pneus radiais.The objective of this study was to compare the performance of the FWD agricultural tractor, equipped with three types of tires (bias ply, radial and low pressure, with and without tire water ballasting, operating in four forward speed. The research was carried out at UNESP, SP, Brazil, with the tractor pulling a chisel plow. A tractor with 89kW (121cv engine power equipped with FWD, was used in the experiment, and the tires used had the following characteristics: radial (front: 14.9R26 and rear: 620/75R30, bias ply (front: 14.9-26 and rear: 23.1-30 and low pressure (front: 500/60-26.5 and rear: 700/55-34. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block, design (3x2x4, with 24 treatments and three replications. The results evidenced advantages for the tractor equipped with radial tires.

  2. Microbiologically influenced corrosion in ship ballast tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyer, A.

    2013-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is known to be a dangerous process in ship tanks due to its rapid and yet unpredictable occurrence, leading to extremely fast local corrosion, possibly jeopardizing the structural integrity, in a relatively short time. This project focuses on a

  3. 33 CFR 157.09 - Segregated ballast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK... draft and trim requirements in paragraph (b) of this section without recourse to the use of oil tanks..., within the cargo tank length. When the vessel design configuration does not provide for the spaces to be...

  4. Ballast Water Treatment Corrosion Scoping Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    C71500 (Cu-Ni 70/30) 5 5 16 N06625 ( Inconel 625 ) 1 3 6 N04400 (Monel 400) 27 7 24 N05500 (Monel 500) 6 5 18 R50400 (Ti CP-2) 0 0 0 R56400 (Ti 6...conditions. Cu-Ni 90/10 and Inconel 625 experienced increased corrosion rate with increased chlorination levels. The authors described the exposure to 1...authors concluded it was independent of halogenation. Uniform etching was observed on Inconel 625 coupons at 4 mg L-1. The Monel 400 and 500 coupons

  5. Fuel consumption of a tractor in function of wear, of ballasting and tire inflation pressure Consumo de combustível de um trator em função do desgaste, da lastragem e pressão de inflação dos pneus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger T. Spagnolo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available When using appropriate inflation pressures and load capacity (ballast, it may obtain a higher yield and prolongation of the life of the tire, besides it may minimize the problems of loss of traction, increased slippage and fuel consumption. This study aimed to evaluate the fuel consumption of a tractor operating with new and worn tires in three conditions of ballasting and three inflation pressures, when driving on compacted soil with vegetation cover. The experiment was conducted at the experimental unit from the Department of Animal Science, Federal University of Lavras, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in an agricultural soil compacted by cattle trampling and with vegetation cover. It was used a tractor 4x2 with front wheel assist, of a 65.62 kW engine power. The tires were of R1 type, diagonal (front: 12.4 to 24; and rear: 18.4 to 30, the average height of the clutches of the new tires were 0.3 and 0.35 m for front and rear tires, respectively, and for the worn tires were 0.018 and 0.0045 m, for the front and the rear tires, respectively. The results showed advantages for the tractor equipped with new tires.Ao se utilizar pressão de inflação e a capacidade de carga (lastro adequadas, pode-se obter um rendimento maior e um prolongamento da vida útil do pneu; além disso, minimizam-se os problemas de perda de tração, aumento de patinhagem e consumo de combustível. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o consumo de combustível de um trator agrícola operando com pneus novos e desgastados, em três condições de lastragem e três pressões de inflação, ao trafegar sobre solo compactado com cobertura vegetal. O experimento foi realizado na unidade experimental do Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras-MG, em um solo compactado pelo pisoteio de bovinos e com cobertura vegetal. Utilizou-se um trator 4x2 TDA, com potência de 65,62 kW no motor. Os pneus foram do tipo R1, diagonal (dianteiros: 12

  6. High-speed passenger rail tie-ballast interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This Research Results Report presents : evidence of poor tie support and increased : applied loads that were used to determine the : root cause of transient and permanent vertical : displacements at two Amtrak bridge transitions. : These result...

  7. Mechanical behavior of fouled polyurethane stabilized ballast (PSB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The United State (US) Department of Transportation (DOT) estimates that the demand for rail freight transportation (tonnage) will : increase 88% by 2035, North American railroads spend about $3.4 billion every year on track substructure maintenance a...

  8. Disinfection of Water by Ultrasound: Application to Ballast Water Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brizzolara, Robert A; Holm, Eric R; Stamper, David M

    2006-01-01

    .... A contact time for one log kill of an E. coli pure culture of 0.6 minutes was measured when using higher average intensities resulting from reduced treatment cell diameters, a substantial improvement over previous work...

  9. Stress-based Variable-inductor for Electronic Ballasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lihui; Xia, Yongming; Lu, Kaiyuan

    2015-01-01

    presents a new stress-based variable inductor to control inductance using the inverse magnetostrictive effect of a magnetostrictive material. The stress can be applied by a piezoelectrical material, and thus a voltage-controlled variable inductor can be realized with zero-power consumption. The new stress...

  10. 46 CFR 56.50-50 - Bilge and ballast piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... permitted by paragraph (c)(4) of this section for a vessel employing a common-rail bilge system, each bilge...)(1) of this section, provided it satisfies all of the following criteria: (i) The common-rail main... simultaneously. (vii) For each cargo vessel in Great Lakes service, each common-rail piping for the bilge and...

  11. Jettisoning ballast en route to the next millennium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esveld, C.

    2000-01-01

    Railway engineering has been a traditional discipline for over hundred years. Most developments were based upon experience and progressed thus very slowly. Recent proposed new railway structures and new applications make the traditional empirical approach ineffective. To support the new developments

  12. Desempenho de um trator agrícola equipado com pneus radiais e diagonais com três níveis de lastros líquidos Performance of an agricultural tractor equipped with radial and bias ply tires on three levels of liquid ballast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de A. Monteiro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização correta de pneus em tratores, tanto em relação ao seu tipo quanto à calibração de sua pressão interna, e a lastragem ideal para cada condição de carga são fatores que influem significativamente no desempenho do trator. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo comparar o desempenho de um trator equipado com pneus radiais e com pneus diagonais, para três condições de lastragem líquida (0%, 40% e 75% de água, em três condições superficiais de um Nitossolo Vermelho distrófico (superfície firme, preparada e com cobertura vegetal de resto de milho e em três velocidades teóricas de deslocamento (4 km h-1, 5 km h-1 e 7 km h-1, informadas no painel do trator, correspondendo às marchas B1, B2 e C1. O melhor desempenho do trator, equipado com pneu diagonal, ocorreu na condição de 75% de água nos pneus, apresentando maior velocidade de deslocamento, menor patinhagem do trator, menor consumo horário de combustível e gerando maior potência na barra de tração. Com pneus radiais, o melhor desempenho do trator ocorreu na condição de 40% de água nos pneus, proporcionando maiores velocidades de deslocamento do trator, menores patinhagens, menores consumos, horário e específico de combustível, e maiores potência e rendimento na barra de tração.The correct use of tires, as for its construction type as for internal pressure calibration and the optimal weighting for each load condition are factors that impact significantly on their performance. This study aimed to compare the performance of a tractor equipped with radial tires and bias ply tires in three conditions of liquid ballast (0%, 40% and 75% water, three surface conditions of a Dystrophic Red Alfisol (firm surface, tillage surface and surface with corn residues coverage and three theoretical traveling speeds (4 km h-1, 5 km h-1 and 7 km h-1, as indicated at the tractor display, related to the gear boxes B1, B2 and C1. The best tractor's performance, equipped with

  13. 33 CFR 151.2041 - What are the mandatory ballast water reporting requirements for all vessels equipped with ballast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... regardless of whether a vessel operated outside of the EEZ (which includes the equivalent zone of Canada... appropriate COTP as follows: (1) For any vessel bound for the Great Lakes from outside the EEZ (which includes the equivalent zone of Canada). (i) You must fax the required information at least 24 hours before the...

  14. 33 CFR 151.2040 - What are the mandatory ballast water management requirements for vessels equipped with ballast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vessel bound for the Great Lakes or Hudson River, which has operated beyond the EEZ (which includes the equivalent zone of Canada) during any part of its voyage regardless of intermediate ports of call within the waters of the United States or Canada, must comply with §§ 151.2041 and 151.2045 of this subpart, as well...

  15. Stratification of Living Organisms in Ballast Tanks: How Do Organism Concentrations Vary as Ballast Water is Discharged

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    generally motile and includes microinvertebrates, animal larvae, heterotrophic protists, and some microalgae (e.g., diatoms). Indeed, certain planktonic...1309−1318. (25) Stoecker, D. K. Particle production by planktonic ciliates. Limnol. Oceanogr. 1984, 29, 930−940. (26) Wörner, U.; Zimmerman-Timm, H

  16. Ethical codes. Fig leaf argument, ballast or cultural element for radiation protection?; Ethik-Codes. Feigenblatt, Ballast oder Kulturelement fuer den Strahlenschutz?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gellermann, Rainer [Nuclear Control and Consulting GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The international association for radiation protection (IRPA) adopted in May 2004 a Code of Ethics in order to allow their members to hold an adequate professional level of ethical line of action. Based on this code of ethics the professional body of radiation protection (Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz) has developed its own ethical code and adopted in 2005.

  17. Evaluation of Deoxygenation as a Corrosion Control Measure for Ballast Tanks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Jason S; Ray, Richard I; Lemieux, Edward; Little, Brenda J

    2005-01-01

    .... When gaskets and seals failed oxygen was inadvertently introduced. The impact on corrosion depended on the amount of dissolved oxygen in the system at the time of the inadvertent oxygen introduction...

  18. 76 FR 20089 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... Events G. National Impact Analysis--National Energy Savings and Net Present Value Analysis 1. Annual.... The cumulative national net present value (NPV) of total consumer costs and savings of the proposed... costs, discounted to 2011. The industry net present value (INPV) is the sum of the discounted cash flows...

  19. 75 FR 14319 - Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts: Public Meeting and Availability of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ...) national impact. The preliminary TSD presents the methodology and results of each analysis. The analyses... and puts the LCC in present-value terms. The PBP represents the number of years needed to recover the... for these products; the results of preliminary analyses DOE performed for these products; and...

  20. Costs and benefits to European shipping of ballast-water and hull-fouling treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes, Jose A.; Santos, Lionel; Vance, Thomas; Fileman, Tim; Smith, David; Bishop, John D.D.; Viard, Frédérique; Queirós, Ana M.; Merino, Gorka; Buisman, Erik; Austen, Melanie C.

    2016-01-01

    Maritime transport and shipping are impacted negatively by biofouling, which can result in increased fuel consumption. Thus, costs for fouling reduction can be considered an investment to reduce fuel consumption. Anti-fouling measures also reduce the rate of introduction of non-indigenous species

  1. Evaluation of Deoxygenation as a Corrosion Control Measure for Ballast Tanks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Jason S; Ray, Richard I; Lemieux, Edward; Little, Brenda J

    2005-01-01

    .... Using a gas mixture it was possible to displace dissolved oxygen in natural seawater. However, aerobic respiration and corrosion reactions consumed oxygen and produced totally anaerobic conditions within the first days of hypoxia...

  2. Evaluation of Deoxygenation as a Corrosion Control Measure for Ballast Tanks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Jason S; Ray, Richard I; Little, Brenda J; Lemieux, Edward

    2006-01-01

    .... Using a gas mixture it was possible to displace dissolved oxygen. However, aerobic respiration and corrosion reactions consumed oxygen and produced totally anaerobic conditions within the first days of hypoxia...

  3. Ethical codes. Fig leaf argument, ballast or cultural element for radiation protection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellermann, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    The international association for radiation protection (IRPA) adopted in May 2004 a Code of Ethics in order to allow their members to hold an adequate professional level of ethical line of action. Based on this code of ethics the professional body of radiation protection (Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz) has developed its own ethical code and adopted in 2005.

  4. 76 FR 52892 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... data DOE used in support of the NOPR and DOE's approach to accounting for measurement variation and... averaging all tested values of that particular model. NEMA then calculated the maximum measurement variation... considering accounting for measurement (specifically lab-to-lab) variation as a separate adjustment to...

  5. Study of MIC impact in a full-scale ship ballast tank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyer, A.; Mol, J.M.C.; D'Souza, F.; Wit, J.H.W. de; Ferrari, G.

    2012-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of steel is a serious problem in the marine environment and many industries, such as the shipping industry. While electrochemical measurements such as impedance have been used in corrosion monitoring for several years, the true capabilities of the

  6. Ship ballast tanks a review from microbial corrosion and electrochemical point of view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyer, A.; D'Souza, F.; Morales, C.F.L.; Ferrari, G.; Mol, J.M.C.; Wit, J.H.W. de

    2013-01-01

    Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) is the term used for the phenomenon in which corrosion is initiated and/or accelerated by the activities of microorganisms. MIC is a very serious problem for the ship industry as it reduces structural lifetime in combination with safety risks for

  7. The use of laser technology to investigate the effect of railway ballast roundness on shear strength

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mvelase, GM

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available of roundness. Triaxial tests were conducted to determine the effect of the roundness on the shear strength properties of the materials. A Mohr-Coulomb failure model was successfully developed from the results to represent individual materials tested...

  8. Recommendations for Evaluating Multiple Filters in Ballast Water Management Systems for US Type Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli,  cfu of intestinal enterococci, and ə cfu of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae). To meet these stringent discharge standards, most...Four standard methods have been developed to evaluate particle removal efficiency in air filters: (1) Weight arrestance test, (2) Atmospheric dust

  9. Global concerns of ship`s ballast water mediated translocation of bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, L.; Anil, A.C.

    scientists working in diverse fields have used flow cytometry (FCM), a technique that allows rapid and accurate counting of bacteria. A matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) using mass spectral libraries...

  10. Ballast Water Risk Assessment, Ports of Mumbai and Jawaharlal Nehru, India, October 2003: Final Report

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anil, A.C.; Clarke, C.; Hayes, T.; Hilliard, R.; Joshi, G.; Krishnamurthy, V.; Polglaze, J.; Sawant, S.S.; Raaymakers, S.

    with their counterparts in a project team co-managed by URS and the Country Focal Point Assistant (CFPA) for completing all required tasks. These tasks required two incountry visits by the consultants (in March and October 2002) to install the BWRA software and provide...

  11. Association of bacteria with marine invertebrates: Implications for ballast water management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, L.; Anil, A.C.

    septicemia accompanied with liver and lung abscesses (Richard 1993). A recent study (Carney et al. 2011) addressed the effect of prolonged darkness on marine phytoplankton and reported that plankton water samples showed high nutrient levels after the dark...

  12. Coagulant plus ballast technique provides a rapid mitigation of cyanobacterial nuisance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noyma, Natalia Pessoa; Magalhães, De Leonardo; Miranda, Marcela; Nunes Teixeira Mucci, Maira; Oosterhout, van Frank; Moraes Huszar, de Vera Lúcia; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi; Lima, Eduardo R.A.; Lurling, Miquel

    2017-01-01

    Cyanobacteria blooms are a risk to environmental health and public safety due to the potent toxins certain cyanobacteria can produce. These nuisance organisms can be removed from water bodies by biomass flocculation and sedimentation. Here, we studied the efficacy of combinations of a low dose

  13. Coagulant plus ballast technique provides a rapid mitigation of cyanobacterial nuisance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noyma, Natalia P.; de Magalhães, Leonardo; Miranda, Marcela; Mucci, Maíra; van Oosterhout, Frank; Huszar, Vera L. M.; Marinho, Marcelo M.; Lima, Eduardo R. A.; Lürling, Miquel

    2017-01-01

    Cyanobacteria blooms are a risk to environmental health and public safety due to the potent toxins certain cyanobacteria can produce. These nuisance organisms can be removed from water bodies by biomass flocculation and sedimentation. Here, we studied the efficacy of combinations of a low dose

  14. Results of Shipboard Approval Tests of Ballast Water Treatment Systems in Freshwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    standard. Concentrations of regulated organisms < 10 µm in minimum dimension (E. coli and Enterococcus spp.) were already below the discharge limit... enterococcus spp. *Tanks 3P and 4P were treated during Test Cycles 2 and 3... Enterococcus spp. (TCs 1 – 3 only) Core Time integrated from 19 L carboy 3 900 to 1000 mL Core (matrix blank) Time integrated from 19 L carboy 1

  15. Generic Protocol for the Verification of Ballast Water Treatment Technology. Version 5.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    analytical measurements, vital stains and dyes , and molecular probes. The inclusion or substitution of these techniques to those described above is acceptable...freshwater at various times using a Hach DREL/ 2010 spectrophotometer with Ozone Accuvac ampoules that measure the formation of indigo (US EPA Method

  16. Three-dimensional laser scanning technique to quantify aggregate and ballast shape properties

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available using the “Properties Tree” tool in the software. The software allows users to merge scans for increased quality, change the shape around curved surfaces, sharpen edges, extend shapes, add thicknesses and perform Boolean operations on polygon surfaces......VVVVV   321 1 (5) In the 3-D laser scanning system, the surface area of a particle is determined using triangulation method from the matrix of mesh points of triangular elements. The laser scanning software divides the surface mesh of modelled aggregate...

  17. Finite Element Modeling of Prestressed Concrete Crossties with Ballast and Subgrade Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    With the first major installation in North American : railroads during the 1960s, concrete ties were believed to last : longer than timber ties and have the potential for reduced life : cycle costs. However, their characteristic response to initia...

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon migration from creosote-treated railway ties into ballast and adjacent wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth M. Brooks

    2004-01-01

    Occasionally, creosote-treated railroad ties need to be replaced, sometimes in sensitive environments such as wetlands. To help determine if this is detrimental to the surrounding environment, more information is needed on the extent and pattern of creosote, or more specifically polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), migration from railroad ties and what effects this...

  19. Model-based control of a ballast-stabilized floating wind turbine exposed to wind and waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, Soeren

    2013-01-15

    The wind turbine is a commercial product which is competing against other sources of energy, such as coal and gas. This competition drives a constant development to reduce costs and improve efficiency in order to reduce the total cost of the energy. The latest offshore development is the floating wind turbine, for water depths beyond 50 meters where winds are stronger and less turbulent. A floating wind turbine is subject to not only aerodynamics and wind induced loads, but also to hydrodynamics and wave induced loads. In contrast to a bottom fixed wind turbine, the floating structure, the hydrodynamics and the loads change the dynamic behavior of a floating wind turbine. Consequently, conventional wind turbine control cause instabilities on floating wind turbines. This work addresses the control of a floating spar buoy wind turbine, and focuses on the impact of the additional platform dynamics. A time varying control model is presented based on the wind speed and wave frequency. Estimates of the wind speed and wave frequency are used as scheduling variables in a gain scheduled linear quadratic controller to improve the electrical power production while reducing fatigue. To address the problem of negative damped fore-aft tower motion, additional control loops are suggested which stabilize the response of the onshore controller and reduce the impact of the wave induced loads. This research is then extended to model predictive control, to further address wave disturbances. In the context of control engineering, the dynamics and disturbances of a floating wind turbine have been identified and modeled. The objectives of maximizing the production of electrical power and minimizing fatigue have been reached by using advanced methods of estimation and control. (Author)

  20. Fabrication of high-power piezoelectric transformers using lead-free ceramics for application in electronic ballasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song-Ling; Chen, Shih-Ming; Tsai, Cheng-Che; Hong, Cheng-Shong; Chu, Sheng-Yuan

    2013-02-01

    CuO is doped into (Na(0.5)K(0.5))NbO(3) (NKN) ceramics to improve the piezoelectric properties and thus obtain a piezoelectric transformer (PT) with high output power. In X-ray diffraction patterns, the diffraction angles of the CuO-doped NKN ceramics shift to lower values because of an expansion of the lattice volume, thus inducing oxygen vacancies and enhancing the mechanical quality factor. A homogeneous microstructure is obtained when NKN is subjected to CuO doping, leading to improved electrical properties. PTs with different electrode areas are fabricated using the CuO-doped NKN ceramics. Considering the efficiency, voltage gain, and temperature rise of PTs at a load resistance of 1 kΩ, PTs with an electrode with an inner diameter of 15 mm are combined with the circuit design for driving a 13-W T5 fluorescent lamp. A temperature rise of 6°C and a total efficiency of 82.4% (PT and circuit) are obtained using the present PTs.

  1. Ballast Water Treatment, U.S. Great Lakes Bulk Carrier Engineering and Cost Study. Volume 1: Present Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    the cargo flows onto a conveyor belt (one port and one starboard, that carry the cargo aft) dropping onto a single transverse belt , feeding the...transverse slopes feeding gravity-type cargo gates, where the cargo flows onto a single conveyor belt feeding the loop conveyor and the boom conveyor ...133.0 Ventilation System 72.2 72.2 72.2 72.2 Deck Equipment 40.0 16.0 16.0 Bow Thruster Auxiliary 0.75 3.6 0.75 0.75 Conveyor System Auxiliary 57.2

  2. The effects of prolonged darkness on temperate and tropical marine phytoplankton, and their implications for ballast water risk management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Carney, K.J.; Delany, J.E.; Sawant, S.S.; Mesbahi, E.

    CAM. Samples were run in AutoImage mode using a 100µm depth flow cell and 10X objective and a 5ml aliquot was assessed. 3.2 Statistics: Two and three way ANOVA tests were used to assess for significant differences between Control and Dark treated samples... the risk of organisms being successfully transported. Management policy will thus be based on effective treatment systems capable of meeting the D-2 discharge standard (IMO, 2004) and complemented by risk analysis. A tool to aid more effective risk...

  3. Fate of Enteromorpha flexuosa (Wulfen) J. Agardh and its spores in darkness: Implications for ballast water management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kolwalkar, J.P.; Sawant, S.S.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    Effects of darkness on the filaments and spores of a marine alga, Enteromorpha flexuosa (Wulfen) J. Agardh was evaluated through incubation experiments. Sporulation in the algal filaments was observed even after dark exposure of 108 days...

  4. Model-Based Control of a Ballast-Stabilized Floating Wind Turbine Exposed to Wind and Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Søren

    2013-01-01

    wind turbine, for water depths beyond 50 meters where winds are stronger and less turbulent. A floating wind turbine is subject to not only aerodynamics and wind induced loads, but also to hy-drodynamics and wave induced loads. In contrast to a bottom fixed wind turbine, the floating structure....... A time varying control model is presented based on the wind speed and wave frequency. Estimates of the wind speed and wave frequency are used as scheduling variables in a gain scheduled linear quadratic controller to improve the electrical power production while reducing fatigue. To address the problem...... of negative damped fore--aft tower motion, addi-tional control loops are suggested which stabilize the response of the onshore controller and reduce the impact of the wave induced loads. This research is then extended to model predictive control, to further address wave disturbances. In the context of control...

  5. Quantitative analyses of pollution-indicator and pathogenic bacteria in Mumbai waters from ballast water exchange perspective

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Kolhe, V.; Sadhasivan, A.

    with this main aim, a selected set of general and pathogenic bacterial groups and their seasonal variations were studied from the Mumbai Harbor area Sampling was carried out during postmonsoon (November 2001), pre-monsoon (April 2002) and monsoon (October 2002...

  6. 76 FR 30149 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Chartered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... of ballast water treatment systems; A Report by the EPA Science Advisory Board (May 2011 Draft... quality review of a draft report entitled Efficacy of ballast water treatment systems; a report by the EPA... of ballast water tanks that are empty or contain only un-pumpable residual ballast water. While...

  7. Conference on Ballast Water and Waste Water Treatment Aboard Ships and in Ports. Held in Bremerhaven, Germany on 11-13 June 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-13

    Cii CD CD 3 =TC --3 C/O 0)0 U 110 01 Mel A: 0I M W CD [In ee wd lwe 0C ow felJ- bee . ouo M (9D 00 emi CD CL oI DCA 1 0 L 0o CD N) 0 * 00 + CC, 0 o CCD...Sea Research 42: 105-116. 5. Morillo, E., T. Unadeytia, and C. Maqueda. 1997. Adsorption of glyphosate on claymineral montmorillonite: effect of Cu(II

  8. An investigation of fabric and of particle shape in railway ballast using X-ray CT and the discrete element method

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, S.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanical behaviour of uncemented granular matter is influenced by the grain shape (i.e. form, angularity and concavity) and the material’s fabric (i.e. the spatial arrangement of particles and contacts). Discrete element modelling has been used in the past to compare different shaped particles (e.g. spheres, ellipsoids, etc.) but without any clear quantitative link to the shape of real materials. Existing methods of direct observation of fabric are restricted to sands (i.e. in the sub-m...

  9. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 2, Fluorescent lamp ballasts, television sets, room air conditioners, and kitchen ranges and ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This document is divided into ``volumes`` B through E, dealing with individual classes of consumer products. Chapters in each present engineering analysis, base case forecasts, projected national impacts of standards, life-cycle costs and payback periods, impacts on manufacturers, impacts of standards on electric utilities, and environmental effects. Supporting appendices are included.

  10. 76 FR 11245 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of Two Public Teleconferences of the Science...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... questions about the effectiveness and reliability of ballast water treatment technologies and ways to improve future assessments of ballast water treatment systems in order to protect waters from the risk of... treatment processes and ways to improve future assessments of ballast water treatment systems to minimize...

  11. Comparing the sensitivity of four bioassays for acrolein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneekes, A.C.; Kaag, N.H.B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction of non-indigenous species is a risk associated with discharge of ballast water from ships transporting cargo between regions. The IMO has set out a mandatory framework for ballast water management on board ships. EnvioMar GmbH has developed a Ballast Water Treatment System (BWTS) using

  12. 75 FR 37793 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... tanks that are empty or contain only un-pumpable residual ballast water. While useful in reducing the... efficacy of ballast water treatment technologies, and data collected on the efficacy of certain systems is... the efficacy of ballast water treatment systems and advice on improving the performance of such...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 564 - Information To Be Submitted for Long Life Replaceable Light Sources of Limited Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...—Information To Be Submitted for Long Life Replaceable Light Sources of Limited Definition I. Filament or... Source that Operates With a Ballast and Rated Life of the Light Source/Ballast Combination. A. Maximum power (in watts). B. Luminous Flux (in lumens). C. Rated laboratory life of the light source/ballast...

  14. The Maritime Environment - International Conference and Exhibition on Ballast Water, Waste Water and Sewage Treatment on Ships and in Ports Held in Bremerhaven, Germany on 12-14 September 2001. Conference Proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    the near future, as more states and nations develop marine desalination operations to provide citizens with a high quality drinking water from the...through the treatment system was recorded. Ø Cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia sp. were removed at an efficiency of 13.7% in the hydro cyclone, and...Dr.-Ing. (Ph.D.) thesis: desalination of sea water with reverse osmosis, University of Erlangen- Nürnberg. - 1980 to 1986: head of the department

  15. Energy optimised lighting in buildings with simultaneous improvement of quality of life by daylight utilisation and innovative lamps and ballast techniques; Energieoptimierte Beleuchtung bei gleichzeitiger Verbesserung der Lebensqualitaet durch Nutzung von Tageslicht und neuer Lampen- und Vorschalttechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaase, Heinrich; Aydinli, Sirri; Gramm, Stefan; Thiel, Stefan [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Fakultaet IV Elektrotechnik und Informatik, FG Lichttechnik, Berlin (Germany); De Boer, Jan; Erhorn, Hans [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Bauphysik, Stuttgart (Germany); Kuhn, Tilman; Wienold, Jan [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany); Hillmann, Gustav; Korolkow, Margarethe [IBUS GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Piazena, Helmut [Universitaetsklinikum Charite, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    The scientific and technical goals of this project were developed in five parts. The individual topics arising from current issues, they still have a generally applicable nature. The consortium has worked on the following subprojects: (1) Development of a measurement technique to determine energy and photometric key figures of daylight components with a round robin test with three institutes. (2) Implementation of a detailed evaluation and documentation process for daylighting of interior spaces in different climate zones. (3) For lighting control in private living areas a ''Power Line Carrier Communication'' system has been evaluated and the advantages of a wireless transmission system were identified. (4) In a home for elderly quantitative studies on the well-being, for the fulfillment of visual tasks and the capability of melatonin suppression at different scenarios of general lighting with two different color temperatures of lamps (''warm white'' with TCP = 3000 K and ''cold white daylight'' with TCP = 6500 K) and vertical illuminance at the eyes of the subjects between 100 lx and 700 lx were performed. (5) For two school buildings in Berlin, the final energy consumption of the existing lighting system, the reference building and a re-planning were determined. It became clear in both examples that the existing lighting system exceeds the permitted value (EnEV 2009) by far. A good redesign, however, can be significantly less than the maximum allowed value. These studies were accompanied by a one-year monitoring of energy consumption. A cross-sectional analysis of 48 schools with a total of 86 buildings shows a substantial need for renovation of school buildings that were built before 1990.

  16. Instrumentation by accelerometers and distributed optical fiber sensors of a real ballastless track structure

    OpenAIRE

    CHAPELEAU, Xavier; COTTINEAU, Louis-Marie; SEDRAN, Thierry; CAILLIAU, Joël; GUEGUEN, Ivan; DUMOULIN, Jean

    2015-01-01

    While relatively expensive to build, ballastless track structures are presently seen as an attractive alternative to conventional ballast. Firstly, they are built quickly since the slabs can be cast in place in an automated fashion by a slipform paver. Secondly, with its service life of at least 60 years, they requires little maintenance and hence they offers great availability. Other reasons for using ballastless tracks instead of ballasted tracks are the lack of suitable ballast material an...

  17. Oil spill off Goa coast - News

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fondekar, S.P.

    water management project enters new phase The Global Ballast Water Management Programme (GloBallast), aimed at assisting developing countries in implementing measures to minimize the adverse impacts of aquatic invasive species transferred by ships... in ballast water, has begun a new phase, following the initial, successful, execution of the five-year $10.2 million pro- ject by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The main objective of the new phase is to assist particularly vulnerable countries...

  18. Changes in the abundance and composition of zooplankton from the ports of Mumbai, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaonkar, C.; Venkat, K.; Anil, A.C.

    are also due to Mr. S. Chakrabarthy and Mr. A. Chatterjee former and present country focal point respectively for Global Ballast Water Management Program in India. Logistic support provided by Dr. G. Joshi (BWMP) and Capt. Karkare (MPT) during the field... in the water quality parameters will directly affect the abundance and composition of zooplankton population. During the Port Biological Baseline Surveys of the Global Ballast Water Management Program (GloBallast), a GEF/UNDP/IMO initiative, we had...

  19. 33 CFR 151.01 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER... implements the Antarctic Science, Tourism, and Conservation Act of 1996, and the Protocol on Environmental...

  20. 46 CFR 116.202 - Plans and information required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... communication panelboards with number of circuits and rating of energy consuming devices; (vii) Type and... systems including: bilge, ballast, hydraulic, sanitary, compressed air, combustible and flammable liquids...

  1. 75 FR 22031 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... lamp-and-ballast and fixture replacement as economic issues in the LCC analysis, which considers the... analyses conducted. Generally, the LCC of a high- efficiency lamp and ballast replacement is higher than... Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Proposed Determination...

  2. 76 FR 76716 - Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permits for Discharges...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... Advisory Board (SAB) and evaluated the status of ballast water treatment technologies. EPA designed the SAB... and disinfection regime is identified, such technology might be a potentially useful treatment... January 1, 2009, however, would be required to meet ballast water treatment numeric technology-based...

  3. Impact of increasing freight loads on rail substructure from fracking sand transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    In this report the effect of surface infiltration of frac sand and heavy axle loads (HALs) were studied for their impact on the ballast layer. : Different combinations of ballast and fracking sand were constructed to observe long term trends of defor...

  4. Quality of Slab Track Construction – Track Alignment Design and Track Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šestáková Janka

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The slab track superstructure design (without ballast is a perspective construction especially for building tunnels and bridges in the modernized sections of railway tracks in Slovakia. Monitoring of the structure described in this article is focused on the transition areas between standard structure with ballast and slab track construction.

  5. Quality of Slab Track Construction – Track Alignment Design and Track Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Šestáková Janka

    2015-01-01

    The slab track superstructure design (without ballast) is a perspective construction especially for building tunnels and bridges in the modernized sections of railway tracks in Slovakia. Monitoring of the structure described in this article is focused on the transition areas between standard structure with ballast and slab track construction.

  6. 33 CFR 157.222 - Pump and piping arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Design and Equipment § 157.222 Pump and... ballast and cargo must be designed to be flushed to the slop tank with water. (c) The piping system of...

  7. 33 CFR 157.24a - Submission of calculations, plans, and specifications for existing vessels installing segregated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design..., and specifications for existing vessels installing segregated ballast tanks. 157.24a Section 157.24a... vessels installing segregated ballast tanks. (a) Before modifications are made to a U.S. tank vessel to...

  8. Systematic life-cycle analysis and performance of enhanced trackbed support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-21

    The first objective of this project is to develop a method to measure the pressure distribution and magnitude as well as contact area at the ballast-tie interface under heavy haul, Class I type loading. Ballast degradation at this interface has been ...

  9. Impact analyses for negative flexural responses (hogging) in railway prestressed concrete sleepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewunruen, S.; Ishida, T.; Remennikov, AM

    2016-09-01

    By nature, ballast interacts with railway concrete sleepers in order to provide bearing support to track system. Most train-track dynamic models do not consider the degradation of ballast over time. In fact, the ballast degradation causes differential settlement and impact forces acting on partial and unsupported tracks. Furthermore, localised ballast breakages underneath railseat increase the likelihood of centrebound cracks in concrete sleepers due to the unbalanced support under sleepers. This paper presents a dynamic finite element model of a standard-gauge concrete sleeper in a track system, taking into account the tensionless nature of ballast support. The finite element model was calibrated using static and dynamic responses in the past. In this paper, the effects of centre-bound ballast support on the impact behaviours of sleepers are highlighted. In addition, it is the first to demonstrate the dynamic effects of sleeper length on the dynamic design deficiency in concrete sleepers. The outcome of this study will benefit the rail maintenance criteria of track resurfacing in order to restore ballast profile and appropriate sleeper/ballast interaction.

  10. 75 FR 23194 - Airworthiness Directives; GROB-WERKE GMBH & CO KG Models G102 ASTIR CS and G102 STANDARD ASTIR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... describes the unsafe condition as: During an annual inspection, a water ballast hose connector was found... MCAI states: ] During an annual inspection, a water ballast hose connector was found disconnected from... found it necessary to use different words from those in the MCAI to ensure the AD is clear for U.S...

  11. 75 FR 47182 - Airworthiness Directives; GROB-WERKE GMBH & CO KG Models G102 ASTIR CS and G102 STANDARD ASTIR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... inspection, a water ballast hose connector was found disconnected from the fuselage wall of an Astir CS. The... states: During an annual inspection, a water ballast hose connector was found disconnected from the... have found it necessary to use different words from those in the MCAI to ensure the AD is clear for U.S...

  12. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper deals with the design, modeling, analysis and implementation of unity power factor (UPF) based electronic ballast for a fluorescent lamp (FL). The proposed electronic ballast uses a boost AC–DC converter as a power factor corrector (PFC) to improve the power quality at the input ac mains. In this singlestage ...

  13. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Therefore, the proposed ballast maintains unity-power-factor and high efficiency with ripple-free input current over wide range of input line voltage in case of worst regulation. A symmetrical half-bridge inverter is used to drive the fluorescent lamps. The experimental results of the laboratory prototype ballast for 2 × 36 W ...

  14. Flicker licker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, T.

    1988-02-24

    Discusses the use of high frequency (h.f.) electronic ballasts to control fluorescent lighting. H.F. ballasts consume about 25% less power than conventional, switch-start control gear to produce the same light intensity. They eliminate stuttering starts and, according to a recent report, halve the number of headaches caused by lamps operating on a conventional 50Hz supply. H.F. ballasts are also smaller, lighter and have fewer parts than conventional ballasts, but they are more expensive. The high power factor in h.f. lighting gives two further advantages - one is lower demand on the building's ventilation system because the lamps produce less heat. Another benefit from low power consumption is an increase in a lamp's useful life. It is estimated that 2 years is a realistic payback on h.f. lighting in offices where lights are on about 12 hours per day. Sales in h.f. ballasts are now beginning to accelerate. There is a consensus between manufacturers to make their ballasts compatible with a range of fluorescent lamps. The exception is Phillips, who have chosen an argon lamp specially designed for use with its h.f. ballast. Their strategy is based on dimmer control - argon lamps are easier to dim smoothly than krypton lamps. Dimming allows adjustment of light levels to suit a given job and can also be used as part of an energy management system to dim or raise the lighting levels according to conditions.

  15. Offices, schools, trades, industries. A better lighting with mastered costs; Bureaux, ecoles, commerces, industries. Mieux s'eclairer a couts maitrises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Lighting costs in houses of offices represent 10 to 50% of the power consumption bill. This brochure presents some technical solutions for the reduction of lighting costs in office, public, commercial and industrial buildings. These solutions are based on the use of high performance fluorescent lamps and electronic ballasts for a 25% reduction of energy consumption and a 50% increase of lamps lifetime. High frequency ballasts eliminate the tiring blinking effect of classical 50 Hz ferromagnetic ballasts for a better visual comfort. Some elements for the calculation of lighting costs and savings are given. (J.S.)

  16. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 3, Water heaters, pool heaters, direct heating equipment, and mobile home furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This is Volume 3 in a series of documents on energy efficiency of consumer products. This volume discusses energy efficiency of water heaters. Water heaters are defined by NAECA as products that utilize oil, gas, or electricity to heat potable water for use outside the heater upon demand. These are major appliances, which use a large portion (18% on average) of total energy consumed per household (1). They differ from most other appliances in that they are usually installed in obscure locations as part of the plumbing and are ignored until they fail. Residential water heaters are capable of heating water up to 180{degrees}F, although the setpoints are usually set lower.

  17. 78 FR 23574 - Public Workshop on Marine Technology and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... Material Bilgewater Monitoring Using Advanced Light Scattering Technology Vortex Induced Vibration Design... Verification of Energy Efficiency Design Index Testing and Approval of Ballast Water Treatment Systems... Technology and Standards AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The American Society of...

  18. 76 FR 78253 - New York State Prohibition of Discharges of Vessel Sewage; Final Affirmative Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... State boundary, stretching from the Niagara River (including the Niagara River up to Niagara Falls) in... salt. The other 30 ships consist of passenger ships, tugs and barges. During the 2010 survey, ballast...

  19. 49 CFR 214.505 - Required environmental control and protection systems for new on-track roadway maintenance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... equipped with enclosed cabs with operative heating systems, operative air conditioning systems, and operative positive pressurized ventilation systems: (1) Ballast regulators; (2) Tampers; (3) Mechanical... functionally equivalent thereto, shall be equipped with operative heating and ventilation systems. (h) When new...

  20. Track Loading Vehicle - TLV

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The TLV is designed to apply forces close to the strength limits of the rails and other track structure components, such as ties, rail fasteners, and ballast, while...

  1. Ground penetrating radar evaluation and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Six commercial ground penetrating radar (GPR) : systems were evaluated to determine the state-of-the-art of GPR technologies for railroad track : substructure inspection. : Phase 1 evaluated GPR ballast inspection : techniques by performing testing a...

  2. IC-BASED CONTROLS FOR ENERGY-EFFICIENT LIGHTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Zhang

    2005-03-01

    A new approach for driving high frequency energy saving ballasts is developed and documented in this report. The developed approach utilizes an IC-based platform that provides the benefits of reduced system cost, reduced ballast size, and universal application to a wide range of lamp technologies, such as linear fluorescent lamps (LFL), compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) and high intensity discharge lamps (HID). The control IC chip set developed for the platform includes dual low voltage (LV) IC gate drive that provides gate drive for high and low side power switches in typical ballast circuits, and ballast controller IC that provides control functionalities optimal for different lamps and digital interface for future extension to more sophisticated control and communication.

  3. A perspective of marine bioinvasion

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anil, A.C.

    alien species. Translocation of organisms through ships' ballast water is considered to be one of the important issues threatening the naturally evolved biodiversity, and consequences of such invasions are being realized increasingly in the recent years...

  4. Zmetky na export? K domnělým laténským mlýnským kamenům z Loubí u Děčína

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Salač, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2017), s. 335-345 ISSN 1214-3553 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : La Tène period * rejected millstones * ship's ballast Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology

  5. Effect of enhanced trackbed support on railway/highway at-grade crossing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This report documents the long-term performance of 89 railway/highway at-grade crossings in : Kentucky and adjacent states that contain asphalt underlayment underneath the ballast. Asphalt : underlayment increases load carrying capacity for trains an...

  6. 75 FR 29359 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ..., opportunities for green jobs creation within invasive species efforts, ballast water related issues, and the..., 2010. ADDRESSES: The Argonaut Hotel, 495 Jefferson Street at Hyde, San Francisco, California 94109-1314...

  7. A solution to the inherent list on Nimitz class aircraft carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfson, Dianna

    2004-01-01

    CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document Approved for public release, distribution unlimited Nimitz class aircraft carriers possess an inherent list to starboard that their list control systems (LCS) are typically unable to correct while under Combat Load Conditions. As a result, it has become necessary to use fresh water ballast in a number of inner bottom voids and damage control voids to augment the LCS. Maintaining liquid ballast in damage conrol voids in unacceptable, as it...

  8. Detection of damaged supports under railway track based on frequency shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Longqi; Zhang, Yao; Lie, Seng Tjhen

    2017-03-01

    In railway transportation systems, the tracks are usually fastened on sleepers which are supported by the ballast. A lot of research has been conducted to guarantee the safety of railway track because of its importance, and more concern is expressed about monitoring of track itself such as railway level and alignment. The ballast and fasteners which provide strong support to the railway track are important as well whereas the detection of loose or missing fasteners and damaged ballast mainly relies on visual inspection. Although it is reliable when the fastener is missing and the damaged ballast is on the surface, it provides less help if the fastener is only loose and the damaged ballast is under the sleepers, which are however frequently observed in practice. This paper proposes an approach based on frequency shift to identify the damaged supports including the loose or missing fasteners and damaged ballast. In this study, the rail-sleeper-ballast system is modeled as an Euler beam evenly supported by a series of springs, the stiffness of which are reduced when the fastener is loose or missing and the ballast under the sleepers is damaged. An auxiliary mass is utilized herein and when it is mounted on the beam, the natural frequencies of the whole system will change with respect to the location of the auxiliary mass. The auxiliary mass induced frequency shift is analyzed and it is found the natural frequencies change periodically when the supports are undamaged, whereas the periodicity will be broken due to damaged supports. In fact, the natural frequencies drop clearly when the auxiliary mass moves over the damaged support. A special damage index only using the information of the damaged states is proposed and both numerical and experimental examples are carried out to validate the proposed method.

  9. Recent changes in federal PCB regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, H.

    1995-01-01

    An overview of the federal regulations dealing with PCBs, the draft PCB Transformer Decontamination Standards and Protocols, and the Practice of Ballast Splitting was given. Answers were provided to practical questions concerning the regulations, specifically, responsibility for storage, labelling requirements, waste export regulations, treatment and destruction standards, transformer decontamination, decontamination standards, and the practice of ballast splitting into PCB and non-PCB materials. Details of sampling procedures and sample handling were also described

  10. Measuring dynamic effects on underpasses of high-speed railway lines

    OpenAIRE

    Vega Domínguez, Jaime; Hermanns, Lutz Karl Heinz; Alarcón Álvarez, Enrique; Fraile de Lerma, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Underpasses are common in modern railway lines. Wildlife corridors and drainage conduits often fall into this category of partially buried structures. Their dynamic behaviour has received far less attention than that of other structures such as bridges, but their large number makes their study an interesting challenge in order to achieve safe and cost-effective structures. As ballast operations are a key life cycle cost, and excessive vibrations increase the need of ballast regulation in orde...

  11. A numerical study on the fatigue life design of concrete slabs for railway

    OpenAIRE

    Poveda Bautista, Elisa; Rena C., Yu; Lancha Fernández, Juan Carlos; Ruiz López, Gonzalo Francisco

    2015-01-01

    With the growing use of high-speed trains, non-ballasted tracks have become more popular compared to ballasted ones. However, the study on fatigue evaluation in concrete slabs under train load has been rather limited. This work presents a numerical study on the fatigue life design of concrete slabs for railway tracks. A finite element model for a three-slab track system is established for extracting the principal vibration modes and transient analysis under time-dependent loads. T...

  12. Guidance on Port Biological Baseline Surveys (PBBS)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Awad, A.; Haag, F.; Anil, A.C.; Abdulla, A.

    Environment Facility (GEF), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the International Maritime Organization (IMO) to assist developing countries to reduce the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens in ships’ ballast water... and sediments and to assist the countries in implementing the International Convention on Ballast Water Management. For more information, please visit http://globallast.imo.org. The International Ocean Institute (IOI) was founded in 1972 by Professor Elisabeth...

  13. Marine bioinvasion: Concern for ecology and shipping

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anil, A.C.; Venkat, K.; Sawant, S.S.; DileepKumar, M.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Ramaiah, N.; Harkantra, S.N.; Ansari, Z.A.

    are generally caused by build - up of toxins in the food chain caused by Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB) (Figure 1). HAB is popularly referred to as ?Red Tides? and their incidences have been rising the world over. Ballast water has been considered one... of Andaman, Nicobar and Lakshadweep is lands is a distinct possibility. In light of this, it is essential to monitor all the ports simul taneously and adopt suitable ballast water - management protocols, first to delineate the already invaded species...

  14. Remediation plan for fluorescent light fixtures containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-04-30

    This report describes the remedial action to achieve compliance with 29 CFR 1910 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements of fluorescent light fixtures containing PCBs at K-25 site. This remedial action is called the Remediation Plan for Fluorescent Light Fixtures Containing PCBs at the K-25 Site (The Plan). The Plan specifically discusses (1) conditions of non-compliance, (2) alternative solutions, (3) recommended solution, (4) remediation plan costs, (5) corrective action, (6) disposal of PCB waste, (7) training, and (8) plan conclusions. The results from inspections by Energy Systems personnel in 2 buildings at K-25 site and statistical extension of this data to 91 selected buildings at the K-25 site indicates that there are approximately 28,000 fluorescent light fixtures containing 47,036 ballasts. Approximately 38,531 contain PCBs and 2,799 of the 38,531 ballasts are leaking PCBs. Review of reportable occurrences at K-25 for the 12 month period of September 1990 through August 1991 shows that Energy Systems personnel reported 69 ballasts leaking PCBs. Each leaking ballast is in non-compliance with 29 CFR 1910 - Table Z-1-A. The age of the K-25 facilities indicate a continued and potential increase in ballasts leaking PCBs. This report considers 4 alternative solutions for dealing with the ballasts leaking PCBs. The advantages and disadvantages of each alternative solution are discussed and ranked using cost of remediation, reduction of health risks, and compliance with OSHA as criteria.

  15. Analyzing the Energy Performance, Wind Loading, and Costs of Photovoltaic Slat Modules on Commercial Rooftops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Geet, Otto D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, Kelsey A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); MacAlpine, Sara M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Silverman, Timothy J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    NREL studied a new type of photovoltaic (PV) module configuration wherein multiple narrow, tilted slats are mounted in a single frame. Each slat of the PV slat module contains a single row of cells and is made using ordinary crystalline silicon PV module materials and processes, including a glass front sheet and weatherproof polymer encapsulation. Compared to a conventional ballasted system, a system using slat modules offer higher energy production and lower weight at lower LCOE. The key benefits of slat modules are reduced wind loading, improved capacity factor and reduced installation cost. First, the individual slats allow air to flow through, which reduce wind loading. Using PV performance modeling software, we compared the performance of an optimized installation of slats modules to a typical installation of conventional modules in a ballasted rack mounting system. Based on the results of the performance modeling two different row tilt and spacing were tested in a wind tunnel. Scaled models of the PV Slat modules were wind tunnel tested to quantify the wind loading of a slat module system on a commercial rooftop, comparing the results to conventional ballasted rack mounted PV modules. Some commercial roofs do not have sufficient reserve dead load capacity to accommodate a ballasted system. A reduced ballast system design could make PV system installation on these roofs feasible for the first time without accepting the disadvantages of penetrating mounts. Finally, technoeconomic analysis was conducted to enable an economic comparison between a conventional commercial rooftop system and a reduced-ballast slat module installation.

  16. Effects of Battery Voltage in Fluorescent Lamps for Use in Photovoltaic Systems; Efectos de la Tension de Bateria en Lamparas Fluorescentes para Uso en Instalaciones Fotovoltaicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Rosillo, F.; Egido Aguilera, M. A.

    2008-07-01

    It is known the importance of lighting systems with fluorescent lamps and electronic ballast in isolated photo-voltaic systems. The positive characteristics of the fluorescent lamps sometimes are not developed in full, due to the incorrect choice of ballast The failure of a lamp in the photovoltaic system can have great significance in the subjective perception of the user for the complete system. The purpose of this study is to analyze the behavior of two very similar fluorescent lamps, fed with different electronic ballasts, showing the great influence of the electronic ballast topology in the operation of the fluorescent lamp. In particular, this work aims to analyze the effect of variations of the input voltage to the ballast in the electrical and luminous characteristics of the lamp, as well as to understand the influence of electrical parameters in the life time of the fluorescent lamp. It is also analyzed the operating temperature of the electrode and the time necessary for electrode cooling after switching off the lamp. (Author) 23 refs.

  17. Transporting Ocean Viromes: Invasion of the Aquatic Biosphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiseul Kim

    Full Text Available Studies of marine viromes (viral metagenomes have revealed that DNA viruses are highly diverse and exhibit biogeographic patterns. However, little is known about the diversity of RNA viruses, which are mostly composed of eukaryotic viruses, and their biogeographic patterns in the oceans. A growth in global commerce and maritime traffic may accelerate spread of diverse and non-cosmopolitan DNA viruses and potentially RNA viruses from one part of the world to another. Here, we demonstrated through metagenomic analyses that failure to comply with mid-ocean ballast water exchange regulation could result in movement of viromes including both DNA viruses and RNA viruses (including potential viral pathogens unique to geographic and environmental niches. Furthermore, our results showed that virus richness (known and unknown viruses in ballast water is associated with distance between ballast water exchange location and its nearest shoreline as well as length of water storage time in ballast tanks (voyage duration. However, richness of only known viruses is governed by local environmental conditions and different viral groups have different responses to environmental variation. Overall, these results identified ballast water as a factor contributing to ocean virome transport and potentially increased exposure of the aquatic bioshpere to viral invasion.

  18. Proposal of an intelligent wayside monitoring system for detection of critical ice accumulations on railway vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelberger, Frank; Wagner, Adrian; Ostermann, Michael; Maly, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    At railway lines with ballasted tracks, under unfavourable conditions, the so-called flying ballast can occur predominantly for trains driving at high speeds. Especially in wintertime, it is highly likely that the causes are adhered snow or ice deposits, which are falling off the vehicle. Due to the high kinetic energy, the impact can lead to the removal of ballast stones from the structure of the ballasted track. If the stones reach the height of vehicles underside, they may be accelerated significantly due to the collision with the vehicle or may detach further ice blocks. In the worst case, a reinforcing effect occurs, which can lead to considerable damage to railway vehicles (under-floor-area, vehicle exteriors, etc.) and infrastructure (signal masts, noise barriers, etc.). Additionally the flying gravel is a significant danger to people in the nearby area of the tracks. With this feasibility study the applicability and meaningfulness of an intelligent monitoring system for identification of the critical ice accumulation to prevent the ballast fly induced by ice dropping was examined. The key findings of the research are that the detection of ice on railway vehicles and the development of an intelligent monitoring seem to be possible with existing technologies, but a proof of concept in terms of field tests is necessary.

  19. Spectrally Enhanced Lighting Program Implementation for Energy Savings: Field Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Kelly L.; Sullivan, Gregory P.; Armstrong, Peter R.; Richman, Eric E.; Matzke, Brett D.

    2006-08-22

    This report provides results from an evaluation PNNL conducted of a spectrally enhanced lighting demonstration project. PNNL performed field measurements and occupant surveys at three office buildings in California before and after lighting retrofits were made in August and December 2005. PNNL measured the following Overhead lighting electricity demand and consumption, Light levels in the workspace, Task lighting use, and Occupant ratings of satisfaction with the lighting. Existing lighting, which varied in each building, was replaced with lamps with correlated color temperature (CCT) of 5000 Kelvin, color rendering index (CRI) of 85, of varying wattages, and lower ballast factor electronic ballasts. The demonstrations were designed to decrease lighting power loads in the three buildings by 22-50 percent, depending on the existing installed lamps and ballasts. The project designers hypothesized that this reduction in electrical loads could be achieved by the change to higher CCT lamps without decreasing occupant satisfaction with the lighting.

  20. Experimental study on a pendulum wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shou-qiang; Ye, Jia-wei; Wang, Dong-jiao; Liang, Fu-lin

    2013-06-01

    Many of the existing wave energy converters (WEC) are of oscillating water column (OWC) and point absorber (PA) types. Fewer references have been published in public on the pendulum type WEC. A series of experimental tests on a bottom-hinged pendulum WEC model are carried out and some results are revealed in the present study. The purpose of this paper is to present a detailed description of the tests. It is found that wave energy conversion efficiency varies with the applied damping and wave conditions. In addition, special attention is given to the effect of the water ballast on the efficiency of the wave energy converter. It is demonstrated that the ballast plays an important role in energy extraction. Better understanding on how the performance of the device is influenced by damping, wave height, wave period and ballast is shown.

  1. Influence of Surface Abrasion on Creep and Shrinkage of Railway Prestressed Concrete Sleepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Ngamkhanong, Chayut; Kaewunruen, Sakdirat

    2017-10-01

    Ballasted railway track is very suitable for heavy-rail networks because of its many superior advantages in design, construction, short- and long-term maintenance, sustainability, and life-cycle cost. The sleeper, which supports rail and distributes loads from rail to ballast, is a very important component of rail track system. Prestressed concrete is very popular used in manufacturing sleepers. Therefore, improved knowledge about design techniques for prestressed concrete (PC) sleepers has been developed. However, the ballast angularity causes differential abrasions on the soffit or bottom surface of sleepers. Furthermore, in sharp curves and rapid gradient change, longitudinal and lateral dynamics of rails increase the likelihood of abrasions in concrete sleepers. This paper presents a comparative investigation using a variety of methods to evaluate creep and shrinkage effects in railway prestressed concrete sleepers. The outcome of this study will improve the material design, which is very critical to the durability of railway track components.

  2. ECDIS Possibilities for BWE Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdjan ŽuŁkin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS development and implementation have been linked primarily to the safety of navigation. Further development allows the implementation from other aspects of navigation. This primarily pertains to the Harmful Aquatic Organisms and Pathogens (HAOP from Ballast Water Exchange (BWE and the use of ECDIS system for improving environmental protection. The paper contains an overview of important legal aspects of sea environment protection related to the Ballast Water Management (BWM Convention on global as well as on local scale. Apart from enhancing the safety of navigation, integration of the proposed tool for sea environment protection in the ECDIS with onboard ballast water system can significantly contribute to sea and sea environment protection from harmful substances. In this paper, the architecture of such system is suggested. This approach also ensures a reduction of possible consequences on ecological incidents and human errors.

  3. Hybrid Discrete Element - Finite Element Simulation for Railway Bridge-Track Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewunruen, S.; Mirza, O.

    2017-10-01

    At the transition zone or sometimes called ‘bridge end’ or ‘bridge approach’, the stiffness difference between plain track and track over bridge often causes aggravated impact loading due to uneven train movement onto the area. The differential track settlement over the transition has been a classical problem in railway networks, especially for the aging rail infrastructures around the world. This problem is also additionally worsened by the fact that the construction practice over the area is difficult, resulting in a poor compaction of formation and subgrade. This paper presents an advanced hybrid simulation using coupled discrete elements and finite elements to investigate dynamic interaction at the transition zone. The goal is to evaluate the dynamic stresses and to better understand the impact dynamics redistribution at the bridge end. An existing bridge ‘Salt Pan Creek Railway Bridge’, located between Revesby and Kingsgrove, has been chosen for detailed investigation. The Salt Pan Bridge currently demonstrates crushing of the ballast causing significant deformation and damage. Thus, it’s imperative to assess the behaviours of the ballast under dynamic loads. This can be achieved by modelling the nonlinear interactions between the steel rail and sleeper, and sleeper to ballast. The continuum solid elements of track components have been modelled using finite element approach, while the granular media (i.e. ballast) have been simulated by discrete element method. The hybrid DE/FE model demonstrates that ballast experiences significant stresses at the contacts between the sleeper and concrete section. These overburden stress exists in the regions below the outer rails, identify fouling and permanent deformation of the ballast.

  4. NAFTA and member country strategies for maritime trade and marine invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Linda

    2008-12-01

    Maritime shipping has two vectors of spreading marine invasive species: ballast water inside the ship and biofouling on the hulls outside the ship. While some attention has focused on ballast water, virtually none is focused on biofouling. This paper offers a quantitative analysis of economic incentives for shippers and regulating ports to address both pollution vectors. The strategies to address the vectors are induced by incentive mechanisms involving liability, subsidies and taxes. Results show these offer ample incentives in order to truly foster abatement of both vectors. Data from North America's Pacific coast is included in the analysis.

  5. Logistic Conditions of Container Transportation on the Oder Waterway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kulczyk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains the analysis of the possibility of container transportation on the Oder Waterway (the Gliwice Canal, the canalized stretch of the Oder River, and the regulated stretch of the Oder River, on the assumption that the waterway complies with conditions of class III European waterway. The analysis is based on the concept of modern motor cargo vessel, adjusted to hydraulic parameters of waterway. The vessel is designed for ballasting when passing under bridges. The amount of ballast water that enables transportation of two tiers of containers is given. The costs of waterborne transportation are compared to the costs of rail transportation of containers on selected shipping routes.

  6. Distribution and status of marine invasive species in and bordering the West Coast National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B. Robinson

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available On a global scale, species are constantly being moved from their areas of origin to new locales. Such range extensions can occur naturally, but are frequently aided (intentionally or non-intentionally by humans (Mack et al. 2000. As a result, the marked world-wide increase in animal, plant, and microbial immigrations, has been found to roughly track the increase in human commerce (Mack et al. 2000. The principal vectors of human-mediated marine invasions are ballast water (Williams et al. 1988, mariculture (Minchin 1996, sediment held in ballast tanks (Carlton 1985, and ship hull fouling (Minchin 1996.

  7. The Buffer and Backfill Handbook. Part 2: Materials and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Roland [Geodevelopment AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2001-12-01

    Improved technology and prospection yielding more pure and homogeneous raw materials for preparing buffers and backfills will ultimately outdate the clays and ballast materials described in the present part of the Handbook. It describes experimentally investigated materials of potential use in repositories but other, more suitable materials will replace them in the future. The Handbook will hence have to be reviewed regularly, making room for superior materials in future, upgraded Handbook versions. Buffer is the term for dense clay used for embedment of canisters with highly radioactive waste, while backfill is soil used for filling tunnels and shafts in repositories. Examples of soil materials of potential use as buffers and backfills in repositories of KBS-3 type are described in this part of the Handbook. They are: smectitic clay materials intended for preparation of buffers (canister-embedding clay) and used as clay component in artificially prepared tunnel and shaft backfills consisting of mixtures of clay and ballast. Ballast materials intended for backfilling of tunnels and shafts and used as components of artificially prepared backfills. Smectitic natural clay soils intended for use as buffers and backfills. Very fine-grained smectite clay used as grout for sealing rock fractures. In this part of the Handbook for Buffers and Backfills, description of various candidate materials will be made with respect to their mineral composition and physical properties, with respect to the groundwater chemistry that can be expected in a deep repository in Swedish bedrock. Chapter 3 deals with smectitic clay materials intended for embedment of heat-producing canisters with highly radioactive waste. Focus is on the nature of the buffer constituents, i. e. the smectite content, the non-expanding clay minerals colloidal and the accessory non-clay minerals as well as amorphous matter and organic substances. The dominant part of the chapter describes the occurrence and origin

  8. The Buffer and Backfill Handbook. Part 2: Materials and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, Roland

    2001-12-01

    Improved technology and prospection yielding more pure and homogeneous raw materials for preparing buffers and backfills will ultimately outdate the clays and ballast materials described in the present part of the Handbook. It describes experimentally investigated materials of potential use in repositories but other, more suitable materials will replace them in the future. The Handbook will hence have to be reviewed regularly, making room for superior materials in future, upgraded Handbook versions. Buffer is the term for dense clay used for embedment of canisters with highly radioactive waste, while backfill is soil used for filling tunnels and shafts in repositories. Examples of soil materials of potential use as buffers and backfills in repositories of KBS-3 type are described in this part of the Handbook. They are: smectitic clay materials intended for preparation of buffers (canister-embedding clay) and used as clay component in artificially prepared tunnel and shaft backfills consisting of mixtures of clay and ballast. Ballast materials intended for backfilling of tunnels and shafts and used as components of artificially prepared backfills. Smectitic natural clay soils intended for use as buffers and backfills. Very fine-grained smectite clay used as grout for sealing rock fractures. In this part of the Handbook for Buffers and Backfills, description of various candidate materials will be made with respect to their mineral composition and physical properties, with respect to the groundwater chemistry that can be expected in a deep repository in Swedish bedrock. Chapter 3 deals with smectitic clay materials intended for embedment of heat-producing canisters with highly radioactive waste. Focus is on the nature of the buffer constituents, i. e. the smectite content, the non-expanding clay minerals colloidal and the accessory non-clay minerals as well as amorphous matter and organic substances. The dominant part of the chapter describes the occurrence and origin

  9. 16 CFR 305.20 - Paper catalogs and websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Paper catalogs and websites. 305.20 Section... Disclosures § 305.20 Paper catalogs and websites. (a) Any manufacturer, distributor, retailer, or private labeler who advertises in a catalog, a covered product (except ceiling fan, fluorescent lamp ballasts...

  10. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ZVS DC-DC converters · Shubhendu Bhardwaj Mangesh Borage Sunil Tiwari ... pp 523-535. Analysis and performance of novel and highly efficient electronic ballast operating at unity-power-factor · V B Borghate H M Suryawanshi G A Dhomane.

  11. Impact of the Voltage Dips in Shipboard Microgrid Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wenzhao; Guerrero, Josep M.; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Voltage and frequency transient variations are the most common power quality issues in a ship microgrid system. In this paper, the impacts of the voltage dips induced by the sudden-load of ballast pump are analyzed in detail for the ship power systems. Several relevant ship power quality standards...

  12. The Status of Benthos in Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benthic community of Lake Ontario was dominated by an amphipod (Diporeia spp.) prior to the 1990’s. Two dreissenid mussel species D. polymorpha (zebra) and D. bugensis (quagga) were introduced in 1989 and 1991 via ballast water exchange. D. bugensis was observed as deep as 85...

  13. Kinematic Design Method for Rail-Guided Robotic Arms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgerink, Dian; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Stegenga, Jan; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    For special purpose robotic arms, such as a rail mounted ballast-water tank inspection arm, specific needs require special designs. Currently, there is no method to efficiently design robotic arms that can handle not quantifiable requirements. In this paper, an efficient method for the design and

  14. 33 CFR 151.69 - Operating requirements: Discharge of garbage outside special areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of garbage outside special areas. 151.69 Section 151.69 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Garbage...

  15. 33 CFR 151.71 - Operating requirements: Discharge of garbage within special areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of garbage within special areas. 151.71 Section 151.71 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Garbage...

  16. 33 CFR 151.73 - Operating requirements: Discharge of garbage from fixed or floating platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of garbage from fixed or floating platforms. 151.73 Section 151.73 Navigation and Navigable Waters... SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Garbage...

  17. 16 CFR 305.8 - Submission of data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... energy consumption (for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes washers, dishwashers, and...) and number of lamp or lamps with which the fluorescent lamp ballast is designed to be used. (3) Each... wattages) with which the metal halide lamp fixture is designed to be used. (b)(1) All data required by...

  18. Biogeochemical significance of transport exopolymer particles in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Ramaiah, N.; Gauns, M.; DeSousa, S.N.

    sub-oxic layers in the Arabian Sea. Results support the mineral ballast theory in the Bay of Bengal and also reveal the hitherto not noticed organic matter reservoir, which seems to be in surplus, to meet the higher carbon demand by bacteria...

  19. Critical assessment of chitosan as coagulant to remove cyanobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lurling, Miguel; Noyma, Natalia Pessoa; Magalhães, de Leonardo; Miranda, Marcela; Mucci, Maíra; Oosterhout, van F.; Huszar, Vera L.M.; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi

    2017-01-01

    Removal of cyanobacteria from the water column using a coagulant and a ballast compound is a promising technique to mitigate nuisance. As coagulant the organic, biodegradable polymer chitosan has been promoted. Results in this study show that elevated pH, as may be common during cyanobacterial

  20. Development of a Facility Management and Improvement Manual for Army Service Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    drainage In ballast cribs; splits, fissures , and breaks in rails; loose joints and inoperable mechanisms are common. C-3. Deteriorated rails are poorly...batteries. Stall urinals need a trap beneath the floor level. If the floor- slab thickness will not accommo- date the indicated average dimension of the

  1. 49 CFR 213.119 - Continuous welded rail (CWR); plan contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and subsequent removal of any speed restriction based on the restoration of the ballast, along with... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Continuous welded rail (CWR); plan contents. 213... Continuous welded rail (CWR); plan contents. The track owner shall comply with the contents of the CWR plan...

  2. 75 FR 8176 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... --Formal safety assessment --Noise from commercial shipping and its adverse impacts on marine life --Work... is to prepare for the sixtieth Session of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) Marine... ballast water --Recycling of ships --Prevention of air pollution from ships --Consideration and adoption...

  3. 29 CFR 1919.15 - Periodic tests, examinations and inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... crane is mounted on a barge hull, and ballast tanks within the hull are used to facilitate use of the... examination, as required, shall include, among other things, examination of the following: (1) Derrick heel attachment points. Heel pins may, if possible, be examined by nondestructive examination. (2) Shrouds and...

  4. 33 CFR 277.8 - Procedures for apportionment of costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... finish of masonry surfaces. (iv) Steel or concrete spans instead of timber trestle. (v) Ballasted deck... bridges, is usually limited by obsolescence as well as structural deficiency and deterioration... considered to have a service life of 50 years. Masonry substructure which could be reused in the renovation...

  5. Experimental study of the effect of high porewater salinity on the physical properties of a natural smectitic clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, Roland

    2001-03-01

    Natural smectitic clays for backfilling tunnels and shafts in deep repositories may be an alternative to mixtures of bentonite and ballast. Very salt groundwater is known to raise the hydraulic conductivity and reduce the expandability of clay materials in general and of bentonite/ballast mixtures in particular and the present study aimed at determining the impact of salt water on the major physical properties of natural smectitic clays, represented by the German Friedland Ton. The investigation showed that the compactability of the investigated clay is not significantly affected by the water content in contrast to bentonite/ballast fills, and that the conductivity and expandability are acceptable even at salt contents of up to 20 % if the bulk density at saturation is slightly higher than 2000 kg/m 3 . For salt contents up to 3. 5 % the corresponding density is around 1900 kg/m 3 . In general, the investigated clay offers better physical properties than mixtures of bentonite/ballast mixtures with up to 30 % bentonite content

  6. 33 CFR 401.76 - In-transit cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In-transit cargo. 401.76 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Toll Assessment and Payment § 401.76 In-transit cargo... the Seaway Transit Declaration Form, but is deemed to be ballast and not subject to toll assessment. ...

  7. 76 FR 65723 - Proposed Reissuance of the NPDES General Permit for Facilities Related to Oil and Gas Extraction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... for minimizing fish/shellfish impingement mortality and entrainment caused by cooling water intake... proposed for miscellaneous discharges, such as non-contact cooling water and ballast water, and on deck... section 7 consultations in accordance with the Endangered Species Act with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  8. Exotic harmful algae in marine ecosystems: an integrated biological-economic-legal analysis of impacts and policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Nunes, P.A.L.D.; Dottinga, H.M.; Kooistra, W.H.C.F.; Vrieling, E.G.; Peperzak, L.

    2002-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are the cause of important damages to marine living resources and human beings. HABs are generated by micro-algae. These marine species are primarily introduced through ballast water of ships and, to a lesser extent, through import of living fish, in particular shellfish.

  9. 78 FR 42929 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 41-Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ..., electric motors for exhaust/ ventilation, electric motors for downdraft range hoods, parts used on electric motors, light ballasts, transformers, magnets for range hoods, portable heaters and fans, heating.../heater units, relays, motor starters, wall switches, various switch types, lamp sockets, other electrical...

  10. 46 CFR 46.15-5 - Engineering requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engineering requirements. 46.15-5 Section 46.15-5... Lakes Voyages § 46.15-5 Engineering requirements. (a) Bilge and ballast systems, piping, inlets and... subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. ...

  11. The Pivotal Role of Education in the Association between Ability and Social Class Attainment: A Look across Three Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendy; Brett, Caroline E.; Deary, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have established that family social background and individual mental ability and educational attainment contribute to adult social class attainment. We propose that social class of origin acts as ballast, restraining otherwise meritocratic social class movement, and that education is the primary means through which social class…

  12. Editorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peperzak, Louis; Gollasch, Stephan

    2018-03-01

    September 2017 is a special month for both shipping and nature conservation. Thirteen years have passed since the International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopted the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM Convention). Obviously important for shipping, but why so for nature conservation?

  13. 46 CFR 281.3 - Method of commencing and terminating voyages and of determining idle status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... foreign articles, or the completion of final discharge of cargo or ballast at the last U.S. port of... applicable voyage number. A separate accounting period shall be created to cover each idle status period, and... operating costs for said period were reduced to a minimum in accordance with sound commercial practice. [G.O...

  14. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. BHIM SINGH. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 41 Issue 10 October 2016 pp 1111-1122. Single-stage unity power factor based electronic ballast · ASHISH SHRIVASTAVA BHIM SINGH · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. This paper deals with the design, modeling, analysis and ...

  15. 46 CFR 119.520 - Bilge pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge pumps. 119.520 Section 119.520 Shipping COAST... Ballast Systems § 119.520 Bilge pumps. (a) Each vessel must be provided with bilge pumps in accordance... have a portable hand bilge pump that must be: (1) Capable of pumping water, but not necessarily...

  16. 78 FR 21938 - Final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Discharges...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... economic impacts of revised VGP requirements on the water transportation, fishing, and mining industries.... Summary of the VGP and Significant Changes from the Proposed VGP IV. Analysis of Economic Impacts of VGP V... produce the best possible scientific compendium of ballast water information relevant to the development...

  17. Indications of marine bioinvasion from network theory. An analysis of the global cargo ship network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kölzsch, A.; Blasius, B.

    2011-01-01

    The transport of huge amounts of small aquatic organisms in the ballast tanks and at the hull of large cargo ships leads to ever increasing rates of marine bioinvasion. In this study, we apply a network theoretic approach to examine the introduction of invasive species into new ports by global

  18. Feasibility of an appliance energy testing and labeling program for Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermayer, Peter; Busch, John; Hakim, Sajid; Turiel, Issac; du Pont, Peter; Stone, Chris

    2000-04-01

    A feasibility study evaluated the costs and benefits of establishing a program for testing, labeling and setting minimum efficiency standards for appliances and lighting in Sri Lanka. The feasibility study included: refrigerators, air-conditioners, flourescent lighting (ballasts & CFls), ceiling fans, motors, and televisions.

  19. The effect of low temperatures on the toxicity of PERACLEAN Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaag, N.H.B.M.; Sneekes, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Ballast water treatment systems are routinely tested for efficacy and residual toxicity at spring and summer temperatures in temperate areas, as that is the period when biological production is sufficiently high to match IMO testing requirements (guideline G8). Shipping, however, continues

  20. Effects of Secondary Structure on the Stress and Stability of Submarine Pressure Hulls,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    which might have significant impact on the global stress pattern of -’ the submarine section. The stress pattern for the ballast tank and pressure hull...Specific rapwtrttg perois SCVWIIsL DREA Report &SPONSORING ACTIVITY (%A qam" of a. Oepiuntgni ogM offtice W tuifso SI10-10~ WIG OeseNCRta 41 8tel

  1. 14 CFR 23.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... gravity. 23.29 Section 23.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Flight General § 23.29 Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must be determined by weighing the airplane with— (1) Fixed ballast; (2...

  2. A mechanically compensated sapphire oscillator optimized for operation at 40 Kelvin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, G. J.; Wang, R. T.

    2000-01-01

    We present features for a second-generation thermomechanically compensated sapphire resonator. The new design shares the short thermal time constants characteristic of previously developed 10K and 77K CSO resonators. This, together with a thermal ballast methodology, allows effective compensation of temperature fluctuations over a wide range of time scales.

  3. Sustainability assessment criteria for projects and technologies : judgements of industry managers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, C

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available for sustainable development criteria. Environment and Development Economics, 10(5), pp 631-649. [23] Gomes, C.F.S. 2005. Using MCDA methods THOR in an application for outranking the ballast water management options. Pesquisa Operacional, 25(1), pp 11-28. [24...

  4. A new view on falling aprons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.; Van der Hoeven, M.; Thiel, B.

    2003-01-01

    In a flume of BallastHam Dredging a falling apron model has been constructed and loaded by current. The tests have been done with different rock sizes, different layer thickness of the top storage of the apron and two different gradings. In summary it was found that for both the narrow graded rock

  5. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1244. pp 1111-1122. Single-stage unity power factor based electronic ballast · ASHISH SHRIVASTAVA BHIM ... pp 1135-1154. Trust-based hexagonal clustering for efficient certificate management scheme in mobile ad hoc networks · V S JANANI ...

  6. 76 FR 6493 - Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed K Road/Moapa Band...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... phase, photovoltaic panels will be affixed to the earth using concrete posts, concrete ballast, or other... electricity. Water will periodically be used for cleaning the photovoltaic panels during routine maintenance... Impact Statement for the Proposed K Road/Moapa Band of Paiute Indians Photovoltaic Solar Facility, Clark...

  7. 77 FR 74452 - Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ...-0015] RIN 2132-AB01 Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight AGENCY...) bus testing regulation to increase the assumed average passenger weight value used for ballasting test buses from the current value of 150 pounds to a new value of 175 pounds. This increase was proposed to...

  8. Diagnostics of Track Quality of Ballastless Track and Transition Areas in Vicinity of Portals of Tunnel Turecky vrch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šmalo Michal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the partial results of diagnostics of experimental sections of ballastless track Rheda 2000® and transition areas between ballastless and ballasted track structure around portals of tunnel Turecky vrch after six measurement cycles. The paper presents differences between each operational measurement and the measurement before putting sections into operation, which indicates a development of track geometry quality.

  9. 33 CFR 157.49 - Instruction manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Instruction manual. 157.49... Vessel Operation § 157.49 Instruction manual. The master of a tank vessel shall ensure that the instruction manual under § 157.23 is available and used when the cargo or ballast systems are operated. ...

  10. Exotic harmful algae in marine ecosystems : an integrated biological-economic-legal analysis of impacts and policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, JCJM; Nunes, PALD; Dotinga, HM; Kooistra, WHCF; Vrieling, EG; Peperzak, L

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are the cause of important damages to marine living resources and human beings. HABs are generated by micro-algae. These marine species are primarily introduced through ballast water of ships and, to a lesser extent, through import of living fish, in particular shellfish.

  11. 75 FR 42698 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Installation of Meteorological Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW81 Takes of...), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; proposed incidental... operational waste generated from vessels includes bilge and ballast waters, trash and debris, and sanitary and...

  12. 75 FR 61426 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Installation of Meteorological Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW81 Takes of...), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; issuance of incidental... impacts from operational waste generated from vessels includes bilge and ballast waters, trash and debris...

  13. Analysis and performance of novel and highly efficient electronic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents the electronic ballast, in which the coupling inductors are used to inject the current to the dc-bus capacitors, to boost the dc-bus voltage and to filter out the ripples from input line current. The current injection coupling inductor injects its stored energy to the dc-bus capacitors in every switching half cycle.

  14. Assessment and Evaluation of Volcanic Rocks Used as Construction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tesfaye

    aggregate and building stone for various civil structures. Volcanic rocks are used extensively as engineering material throughout the world as aggregates in cement concrete, asphalt concrete, rock fill dams, railway ballast and high way base courses (Goodman, 1992). However, for each type of application, assessment of ...

  15. Level I Energy and Water Survey, ERDC-CERL, Champaign, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-12

    opportunity to upgrade the lighting technology and delamp overlit areas as part of regular lighting maintenance procedures. 7.1.2 Influence human...upgrade the lighting technology and delamp overlit areas. When replacing lamps, ballasts, and fixtures, the most energy efficient and cost effective

  16. 75 FR 80048 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of an Upcoming Meeting of the Science Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... processes and ways to improve future assessments of ballast water treatment systems to minimize the impacts... 3 p.m. (Eastern Time). ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at The Madison Hotel, 1177 15th Street... about the effectiveness and reliability of treatment technologies and systems to meet discharge standard...

  17. Self Righting Life Raft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The Givens Buoy Raft was designed and manufactured for inventor Jim Givens of Givens Marine Survival Co. Inc., by RPR Industries, Inc. The Raft consists of a canopied topside and an underwater hemispheric ballast chamber. It has a heavy ballast stabilization system, adopted from NASA technology, which negates the capsizing problem. A "flapper valve" admits large amounts of water to the hemisphere chamber providing ballast to keep the center of gravity constant; stabilization system compensates for changes in wave angle and weight shifting of raft occupants. Mr. Givens has an exclusive patent license for use of the NASA technology. Produced in various sizes, capacities range from six to 20 persons. Raft is housed in a canister, available in several configurations. A pull on a line triggers the automatic inflation process, which takes 12 seconds. The raft has been credited with saving 230 lives in the last five years. It has found wide acceptance with operators of fishing boats, pleasure craft and other vessels. The Coast Guard is purchasing the rafts for use on its rescue helicopters and the Navy has a development program to adapt the system. The Coast Guard last year announced a proposed amendment of its regulations that would require large ballast chambers on inflatable life rafts.

  18. environmental impact of aggregate mining by crush rock industries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-02

    Jul 2, 2012 ... aggregate in highways or concrete construction; in bi- tuminous mixture and railroad ballast [4]. ... methods of mining, waste materials generated and the site characteristics. The effect is manifest in air, land, ... breaking of solid rock through the use of explosives to sizes that require a minimum of secondary ...

  19. Plankton And Heavy Metal Correlation From Commercial Vessels In Port Of Tanjung Emas Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjahjono Agus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The commercial vessels activity have a big role to increase the flow of number of cargoes from a port to another port. However, the impact of these activities are the disposal of ballast water from port area to the destination port. The purpose of this research was to analyze the correlation of phytoplankton, zooplankton, and heavy metal which were contained inside the ballast water of commercial vessel towards in waters of the port of Tanjung Emas Semarang. The concentration of heavy metal either from commercial vessels or the waters in port area analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS. The result showed that the correlation of zooplankton and phytoplankton in the water ballast at commercial vessels have a medium correlation to zooplankton and phytoplankton in waters of Port of Tanjung Emas Semarang (PTES were 48.9% and 58.3%. Correlation of heavy metal Cd, Zn, Cu, Zn and Pb in ballast water of commercial vessel toward each metal in waters of PTES area has a strong correlation in contribution were 76.7%, 75.6%, 71.4% and 73.8%. It showed us that the loading activity of commercial vessels in port are contributed towards the pollution in waters.

  20. Plankton And Heavy Metal Correlation From Commercial Vessels In Port Of Tanjung Emas Semarang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjahjono, Agus; Bambang, Aziz Nur; Anggoro, Sutrisno

    2018-02-01

    The commercial vessels activity have a big role to increase the flow of number of cargoes from a port to another port. However, the impact of these activities are the disposal of ballast water from port area to the destination port. The purpose of this research was to analyze the correlation of phytoplankton, zooplankton, and heavy metal which were contained inside the ballast water of commercial vessel towards in waters of the port of Tanjung Emas Semarang. The concentration of heavy metal either from commercial vessels or the waters in port area analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The result showed that the correlation of zooplankton and phytoplankton in the water ballast at commercial vessels have a medium correlation to zooplankton and phytoplankton in waters of Port of Tanjung Emas Semarang (PTES) were 48.9% and 58.3%. Correlation of heavy metal Cd, Zn, Cu, Zn and Pb in ballast water of commercial vessel toward each metal in waters of PTES area has a strong correlation in contribution were 76.7%, 75.6%, 71.4% and 73.8%. It showed us that the loading activity of commercial vessels in port are contributed towards the pollution in waters.

  1. 46 CFR 56.01-10 - Plan approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... safety valves and safety relief valves covered in part 162 of subchapter Q (Specifications) of this.... (ii) Boiler feed and blowoff piping. (iii) Safety valve escape piping. (iv) Fuel oil service, transfer... ballast piping. (vii) Tank cleaning piping. (viii) Condenser circulating water piping. (ix) Vent, sound...

  2. Union members receive better redundancy terms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünell, M.

    2003-01-01

    In July 2003, a trade union affiliated to the Dutch Christian Trade Union Federation (CNV) negotiated extra benefits for its own members in a redundancy agreement with the Getronics IT company. A similar deal was reached in 2002 by an affiliate of the Dutch Trade Union Federation (FNV) at Ballast

  3. 33 CFR 157.12d - Technical specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... must be designed so a discharge of dirty-ballast or other oil-contaminated water from the cargo tank...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.12d Technical specifications. (a) Oil discharge monitoring and...

  4. 33 CFR 157.10d - Double hulls on tank vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10d Double hulls on tank vessels. (a) With the... accordance with this section; and (2) If § 157.10 applies, segregated ballast tanks and a crude oil washing... within the cargo tank length that carry any oil must be protected by double sides and a double bottom as...

  5. Vessel-sourced pollution: a security threat in Malaysian waters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vessel-sourced pollution is one of the major sources of marine pollution and it encompasses accidental discharge of oil, intentional discharge of oil (like discharge from ballast tanks), chemicals, dumping, etc. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), 1982 and some other conventions make ...

  6. Chitosan as coagulant on cyanobacteria in lake restoration management may cause rapid cell lysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mucci, Maira; Noyma, Natalia Pessoa; de Magalhaes, Leonardo; Miranda, Marcela; van Oosterhout, Frank; Guedes, Iame Alves; Huszar, Vera L. M.; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi; Lürling, Miquel

    2017-01-01

    Combining coagulant and ballast to remove cyanobacteria from the water column is a promising restoration technique to mitigate cyanobacterial nuisance in surface waters. The organic, biodegradable polymer chitosan has been promoted as a coagulant and is viewed as non-toxic. In this study, we show

  7. Chitosan as coagulant on cyanobacteria in lake restoration management may cause rapid cell lysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes Teixeira Mucci, Maira; Noyma, Natalia Pessoa; Magalhães, de Leonardo; Miranda, Marcela; Oosterhout, van Frank; Guedes, Iamê Alves; Huszar, Vera L.M.; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi; Lürling, Miquel

    2017-01-01

    Combining coagulant and ballast to remove cyanobacteria from the water column is a promising restoration technique to mitigate cyanobacterial nuisance in surface waters. The organic, biodegradable polymer chitosan has been promoted as a coagulant and is viewed as non-toxic. In this study, we show

  8. Critical assessment of chitosan as coagulant to remove cyanobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lürling, Miquel; Noyma, Natalia Pessoa; Magalhães, Leonardo de; Miranda, Marcela; Mucci, Maíra; Oosterhout, Frank van; Huszar, Vera L.M.; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi

    2017-01-01

    Removal of cyanobacteria from the water column using a coagulant and a ballast compound is a promising technique to mitigate nuisance. As coagulant the organic, biodegradable polymer chitosan has been promoted. Results in this study show that elevated pH, as may be common during cyanobacterial

  9. Queer eller manden som ideal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjørup, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Forestillingen om barnet som den i kønslig forstand renvaskede tavle er fejlagtig og selvmodsigende. I stedet bør forældre og samfund give børn ballast til at begive sig ud i livet uden for mange normative direktiver....

  10. 76 FR 68772 - Information Collection Requests to Office of Management and Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... Information Collection Requests (ICRs) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), Office of Information and... CONTACT: Contact Ms. Kenlinishia Tyler, Office of Information Management, telephone (202) 475-3652, or fax... vessel to provide information that details the vessel operator's ballast water management efforts. Need...

  11. 33 CFR 402.3 - Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or the tare weight of loaded containers; (2) Ships' fuel, ballast or stores; (3) The personal effects... a cargo between an origin and a destination. Closing date means in respect of a year, the first date... export cargo designated at the point of origin for transshipment by water at a point in Canada or in the...

  12. 78 FR 13463 - Editorial Corrections to the Export Administration Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... requirements for deep water ballast exchange'' and inserts the language ``Sec. 754.2(j)(2), Recordkeeping... and the Web site address: telephone (202) 663- 2700, facsimile (202) 261-8695, and Web site http://www... maintained by part 762 are contained in Sec. 762.7. To correct this error, this rule modifies the language of...

  13. Caissons voor het dichten van dijken in Zeeland 1953

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    1953-01-01

    Foto's van caissons voor het dichten van dijken in Zeeland in 1953. Geleverd werden 493 caissons en 203 manchetten door een combinatie van: • N.V. Amsterdamsche Ballast maatschappij, Amsterdam • Christiani en Nielsen N.V., ’s Gravenhage • N.V. van Hattum en Blankevoort, Beverwijk • Hollandsche Beton

  14. 76 FR 48745 - Energy Conservation Program: Compliance Date Regarding the Test Procedures for Walk-In Coolers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... Procedures for Walk-In Coolers and Freezers and the Certification for Metal Halide Lamp Ballasts and Fixtures... rule) when certifying walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers. This document also proposes regulatory text changes to reflect U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) intent that only manufacturers of components of walk...

  15. 76 FR 65362 - Energy Conservation Program: Compliance Date Regarding the Test Procedures for Walk-In Coolers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... Procedures for Walk-In Coolers and Freezers and the Certification for Metal Halide Lamp Ballasts and Fixtures... a recently promulgated test procedure (i.e., the April 15, 2011 final rule) when certifying walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers. This document also adopts regulatory text changes to reflect the U.S...

  16. 76 FR 57796 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... service, with or without cars such as work trains, wreck trains, ballast cleaners to and from work, and engines and rail diesel cars moving to and from shops, in the following locations with all movements at restricted speeds not exceeding 15 mph. 1. Operations on the Pittsburgh Line, Harrisburg Division, from CP...

  17. A Monte Carlo approach to competition strategy. [for maximum lift and airspeed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, M. P.

    1979-01-01

    Variables taken into account in glider flight strategy decisions are modeled. These include height of clouds, distance between thermals, time of day, water ballast, present altitude, weather changes, lift organization, and distance to goal, as well as the strength of the next thermal. Results of the Monte Carlo atmospheric model are discussed.

  18. 33 CFR 151.1504 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....1504 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION... Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in the Great Lakes and Hudson River § 151... adverse impacts to the structure and function of an ecosystem, minimize adverse effects on non-target...

  19. Bivalve aquaculture transfers in Atlantic Europe. Part B: Environmental impacts of transfer activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenner, M.; Fraser, D.; Nieuwenhove, van K.; Kamermans, P.

    2014-01-01

    For centuries human populations have moved live shellfish around the world for consumption or aquaculture purposes; being relayed from their area of origin for growout or sale. This is in contrast to the inadvertent anthropogenic spreading of species via e.g. ballast waters. There are inherent risks

  20. Influence of abrasive waterjet cutting on the magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoppa, A.; Louis, H.; Pude, F.; Rad, Ch. von

    2003-01-01

    The laminations for magnetic cores used in electric motors, generators, ballasts are manufactured by punching, mechanical cutting or cutting by laser of coils of electrical steels. The magnetic material close to the cutting edge is essentially influenced by these processes. Compared with these methods the deterioration of the magnetic properties after the waterjet cutting of electrical steels is very low

  1. Influence of abrasive waterjet cutting on the magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoppa, A. E-mail: schoppa.andreas@ebg.thyssen.com; Louis, H.; Pude, F.; Rad, Ch. von

    2003-01-01

    The laminations for magnetic cores used in electric motors, generators, ballasts are manufactured by punching, mechanical cutting or cutting by laser of coils of electrical steels. The magnetic material close to the cutting edge is essentially influenced by these processes. Compared with these methods the deterioration of the magnetic properties after the waterjet cutting of electrical steels is very low.

  2. Latest developments of a tire-derived aggregate underlayment to reduce groundborne vibration from light rail transit track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Steven

    2005-09-01

    Groundborne vibration reduction for light rail transit (LRT) tracks usually takes the form of some type of soft or special track fastener, or a type of isolation system built under or incorporated as part of the track structure. Two well-known types of track isolation systems are the ballast mat and the floating slab trackbed. A more recent and less-expensive type of track isolation system involves tire-derived aggregate (TDA or shredded scrap tires) used as an underlayment beneath ballast and tie tracks. Field tests have been performed to determine the vibration attenuation and damping properties of TDA for use beneath rail lines and other possible applications. The most recent tests were conducted at an existing LRT system with the trains operating at speed on several sections of revenue ballast and tie track, and where the TDA was installed under ballast and tie rail transit track. Details of the field tests are presented with a focus on the most recent test results, which indicate the performance of the TDA underlayment in comparison with other track isolation methods.

  3. GPR Laboratory Tests For Railways Materials Dielectric Properties Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca De Chiara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In railways Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR studies, the evaluation of materials dielectric properties is critical as they are sensitive to water content, to petrographic type of aggregates and to fouling condition of the ballast. Under the load traffic, maintenance actions and climatic effects, ballast condition change due to aggregate breakdown and to subgrade soils pumping, mainly on existing lines with no sub ballast layer. The main purpose of this study was to validate, under controlled conditions, the dielectric values of materials used in Portuguese railways, in order to improve the GPR interpretation using commercial software and consequently the management maintenance planning. Different materials were tested and a broad range of in situ conditions were simulated in laboratory, in physical models. GPR tests were performed with five antennas with frequencies between 400 and 1800 MHz. The variation of the dielectric properties was measured, and the range of values that can be obtained for different material condition was defined. Additionally, in situ GPR measurements and test pits were performed for validation of the dielectric constant of clean ballast. The results obtained are analyzed and the main conclusions are presented herein.

  4. Measures for improving the zeppelin airships for long distance transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, L. F.

    1980-01-01

    Factors to be considered in the construction of dirigibles include the design and weight of support structures, static and aerodynamic loads on the main ring, the annealing of support materials, and the dynamic gas pressure. Adaptations made for using helium as the lifting gas, and a method for extracting ballast are described.

  5. Comparison of Passive and Active Air Sampling (PAAS) Methods for PCBs – A Pilot Study in New York City Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    PCBs were used extensively in school building materials (caulk and lighting fixture ballasts) during the approximate period of 1950-1978. Most of the schools built nationwide during this period have not had indoor air sampling conducted for PCBs. Passive air sampling holds promi...

  6. Collision loads on bridge piers : phase 2, report of guidelines for designing bridge piers and abutments for vehicle collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    An instrumented, simulated bridge pier was constructed, and two full-scale collisions with an : 80,000-lb van-type tractor-trailer were performed on it. The trailer was ballasted with bags of sand on : pallets. The simulated pier was 36 inches in dia...

  7. First record of Lagocephalus laevigatus (Tetraodontiformes, Tetraodontidae) from Galician waters (north-west Spain), a northernmost occurrence in the north-east Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañón, R; Santás, V

    2011-05-01

    The first record of the smooth puffer Lagocephalus laevigatus from Galician waters (north-west Spain) is reported. Three possible mechanisms of introduction of the specimen are considered: natural displacement, the aquarist trade and transport in ballast water. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. Experimental monitoring of geotechnical response of railway track systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsabhan, Abdullah H.

    An important issue that compromises rail track operations and safety is ballast fouling. Ballast fouling may lead to track deformation, reduction of track load capacity and train speed, and ultimately train derailment. This problem is quite costly for the railway industry thus, assessing and controlling ballast fouling and then preventing train derailment while optimizing maintenance operation is very important for reducing the overall cost of freight and passenger transportation. This study presents a proposed holistic methodology that extends assessing fouling while monitoring rail track deformation. The techniques uses deformation monitoring instruments (e.g., fiber optic (FO) sensors and LVDTs) coupled with Electromagnetic (EM) surveying: Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and a time domain reflectometry (TDR). The methodology aims at gathering data to create an early warning system that would allow railway engineers to develop a symptomatic approach to ballast maintenance procedures. This proposed methodology was tested on a full scale track model (FSTM). This model comprises 2.45 m rail supported by five ties embedded in ballast layer that was fouled under controlled conditions. The testing program considered three common types of fouling: mineral fouling, clay fouling, and silica sand fouling. A comparison between rail settlement measurements measured by LVDTs and rail bending strain measurement measured by FO sensors showed that FO sensors do not provide an indication of track deterioration due to cyclic loading, moisture content, and fouling depth. In addition, results showed a high correlation between rate of plastic settlement and amount of fouling detected by EM survey. Experimental results also showed that EM survey results can be used to determine depth and type of fouling.

  9. Quality and economic feasibility of T5 lamp adapters; Qualitaet und Wirtschaftlichkeit von T5-Lampenadaptern - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blattner, P.; Lehmann, H.; Dudli, H.

    2008-02-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with lamp adapters that can be used to modify existing lighting systems in order to allow the use of lamps with lower electrical consumption. In addition, the conventional ballast of such light fittings is replaced with an electronic ballast. This report summarises the results of a study on the quality of lamp adapters, mainly with respect to their photometrical parameters. The measurement equipment used and numerical simulations made are described and discussed. Based on the results of measurements made, various conclusions are drawn on the luminous flux and efficiency of the lamps and the influence of reflectors. Recommendations are made and the performance of two lamp adapter products is commented on. Recommendations for the manufacturers of such adapters are made.

  10. Winnebago Tribe Solar Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieman, Autumn [Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska Solar Project (United States)

    2016-02-26

    The strategy of the Solar Project was to reduce fuel use within two years by a roof mounted photovoltaic system. The police/fire building is completely powered by electricity. The renewable energy system we have selected has a power capacity of 23kW and the ability to export 44.3 MWh. We anticipate 32.55% kWh energy savings, an excess of the required 30% reduction, in the building’s total fuel use based on the most current 12 months of data (2012). The solar electric system is a grid-tie, ballast mounted on a flat roof over the police/fire station. The solar electric system includes 280 Watt modules for a nominal total of 22.80 kW. Approximately 84 modules are ballast mounted to the flat roof facing south.

  11. Vessel traffic patterns in the Port of Kaohsiung and the management implications for preventing the introduction of non-indigenous aquatic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ta-Kang; Tsai, Tzung-Kuen

    2011-03-01

    Data on shipping traffic in one of the busiest seaports in the world, the Port of Kaohsiung, were analyzed to evaluate the implications for ballast water management. Results show that 67% of the arriving vessels were registered to a flag of convenience, which typically have a lower degree of environmental records. The top five donor countries historically suffer from harmful algal bloom problems. The short journey and busy trading between these countries and Taiwan lead to a higher risk of inoculation. In addition, only 1.4% of all vessels visited more than once every year during the 9-year span, indicating that the port authority encounters many new vessels each year. These findings could influence the design and application of ballast water management strategies as well as highlight the challenges in their implementation. We suggest that an analysis of vessel traffic patterns should be coupled with other useful vessel information to make risk assessment successful. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Collapsible Photovoltaic Module for a Large-Scale Solar Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    An elongate photovoltaic (PV) module for use in a solar energy conversion plant for the production of electricity from incident light, the PV-module comprising a top portion with a support panel (G) carrying on a front side a plurality of electrically connected PV cells (D), and a transparent...... protective layer (A) sealed to the support panel (G) so as to encapsulate the PV-cells (D) between the support panel (G) and the protective layer (A), wherein prior to installation of the PV-module at the deployment site a collapsible portion of the PV-module is configured to be collapsible in a longitudinal...... direction by folding and/or rolling, wherein the collapsible portion includes at least the top portion, wherein the PV-module further comprises one or more integrated ballast chambers (I) in a bottom portion of the PV-module arranged on a rear side of the support panel (G), wherein said integrated ballast...

  13. Innovation in product and services in the shipping retrofit industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Köhler, Jonathan; Scheepens, Arno

    2015-01-01

    Eco-innovation research pays increasing attention to business models and their contribution to the diffusion of environmental technology into socio-technological systems. The extent to which a business model hampers or promotes certain types of eco-innovations remains an open question. In order...... models are being used to develop, install and service the ballast water treatment technology? And, How can these business models add value to the ballast water treatment systems in the market? The case shows that different business models are applied depending on whether the installation is on new...... to shed light on this issue, the authors develop a conceptual framework to show how a specific type of business model (Product-Service Systems) could be applied to the context of the maritime industry. With a focus on the Danish maritime industry, the case study addresses two questions: Which business...

  14. First year's operation experience of the deepest SPM (Single Point Mooring) in the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, J.L.; Hughes, H.; Dyer, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    The British National Oil Corp. had a Single Anchor Leg Mooring (SALM) installed at the Thistle Field in Apr. 1977 for export loading of tankers pending completion of the Brent System 36 in. pipeline to Sullom-Voe, which became operational in Dec. 1978; the SALM will continue to be maintained in good condition as a standby alternative export outlet. Modification of the original three 80,000 dwt tankers during 1977 provided the original design capacity of an 80,000 dwt tanker, but with added clean ballast capacity to eliminate tank cleaning and treatment of dirty ballast water. A fully integrated tanker/SALM/platform instrumentation system monitors mooring loads, buoy and riser angles, and tanker status; the latter being radio telemetered to the nearby block platform. Operation of the system and necessary modifications are described.

  15. Certain aspects of purifying the Novorossiysk Bay of oil pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarkhova, E.P.; Afanasyev, V.Yu.

    1982-01-01

    In determining the effectiveness of biological after purification of ballast waters of oil tankers, the qualitative and quantitative composition of the microflora of the purification structures, the biochemical properties of the cultures of microorganisms and their oxidational capability were studied. It is established that the dominating oil oxidational microorganisms are representatives of the Pseudomonas genus (65 percent of all cultures of the oil oxidizing microbes). It is noted that the oil oxidizing microrganisms may oxidize different hydrocarbons and may use more complex sources of Carbon and energy than typical heterotrophic microorganisms. Romashkinsk oil is the most accessible to microbic oxidation and solar oil the least. No precise association is traced between the population of the oil oxidizing microorganisms and the content of oil by stage of purification. With the passage of ballast water through an experimental installation, the concentration of the oil products is reduced by more than two times.

  16. Environmental comparison of a railway bridge with alternative designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Karoumi, Raid

    2012-01-01

    Railway bridges are complex structures that remain for a long life span and consume large amount of material and energy throughout the life span. All of those lead to considerable resource depletion and environmental burdens. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has proved to be a comprehensive tool...... for quantifying and assessing the environmental impacts of the products through its whole life cycle. This paper presents a comparative case study between two alternative designs of Banafjäl Bridge: ballast track design and fixed slab track design. The methodology of LCA is utilized as a supporting tool....... The assessment considers the key environmental category of global warming potential from 'cradle to gate', which covers the material production and distribution process. The result shows that the fixed-slab design indicates a better environmental performance than the ballast track design....

  17. Oil-tanker waste-disposal practices: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In the spring of 1991, the Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10 (EPA), launched an investigation into tanker waste disposal practices for vessels discharging ballast water at the Alyeska Pipeline Services Company's Ballast Water Treatment (BWT) facility and marine terminal in Valdez, Alaska. It had been alleged that the Exxon Shipping Company was transferring 'toxic wastes originating in California' to Valdez. In response, EPA decided to examine all waste streams generated on board and determine what the fate of these wastes were in addition to investigating the Exxon specific charges. An extensive Information Request was generated and sent to the shipping companies that operate vessels transporting Alaska North Slope Crude. Findings included information on cargo and fuel tank washings, cleaning agents, and engine room waste

  18. Automatic lighting controls demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, F.; Verderber, R.

    1990-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to demonstrate, in a real building situation, the energy and peak demand reduction capabilities of an electronically ballasted lighting control system that can utilize all types of control strategies to efficiently manage lighting. The project has demonstrated that a state-of-the-art electronically ballasted dimmable lighting system can reduce energy and lighting demand by as least 50% using various combinations of control strategies. By reducing light levels over circulation areas (tuning) and reducing after hours light levels to accommodate the less stringent lighting demands of the cleaning crew (scheduling), lighting energy consumption on weekdays was reduced an average of 54% relative to the initial condition. 10 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Process for enriching uranium from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitkamp, D.; Inden, P.

    1982-01-01

    In selective elutriation of uranium deposited on titanium oxide hydrate by carbonate solution, only uranium should be dissolved from the absorption material forming carbonate compounds, without the deposited ballast ions, above all of magnesium, calcium and sodium being elutriated. The uranium elutriation according to the invention is therefore carried out in the presence of these ballast ions in the same concentrations as those in seawater. The carbonate concentration can only be raised as far as the solubility product of the basic magnesium carbonate permits, so that magnesium remains in the solution, as well as carbonate, in the concentration present in seawater. One must accept the absence of calcium ions in the elutriation solution, as their solubility product with carbonate is considerably less than that for magnesium. (orig./PW) [de

  20. Final Environmental Assessment for Proposed Additional Development, Testing Use, and Associated Training at the Technical Evaluation Assessment Monitor Site (TEAMS) at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    equipment (e.g., transformers and capacitors), hydraulic systems , and fluorescent light ballasts. The oldest existing on-site structure at the...construction usually involves several pieces of equipment (e.g., backhoe and dump truck ) that can be used simultaneously. Under the Proposed Action...manage storm water during and after construction. During construction, heavy equipment (e.g., bulldozers, backhoes, dump trucks , concrete mixers

  1. Mafia Business: economic performances of the organised crime and the role of the public policies

    OpenAIRE

    Suppa, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The Tenth Annual Report published by "Sos Impresa", an Antiracket Association, notices that the organized crime is ah heavy "ballast" in the Southern Italian Economy: "Mafia Business makes annual revenues for 90 mln €, about the 6% ofItalian GDP". This work presents a reading of the organized crime under two perspectives: on one hand, the Becker's theory suggests an important role of the public security expending in the battle between the State and organized crime; on the other hand, the trus...

  2. L'impresa mafiosa: i risultati economici della criminalità organizzata e il ruolo delle politiche pubbliche

    OpenAIRE

    Suppa, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The Tenth Annual Report published by "Sos Impresa", an Antiracket Association, notices that the organized crime is ah heavy "ballast" in the Southern Italian Economy: "Mafia Business makes annual revenues for 90 mln €, about the 6% ofItalian GDP". This work presents a reading of the organized crime under two perspectives: on one hand, the Becker's theory suggests an important role of the public security expending in the battle between the State and organized crime; on the other hand, the t...

  3. Music, youth, hegemony ending adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Semán

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This text discerning ballasts and crystallization that occur in the landscape of music research, youth and power. In this context we are interested especially discuss the uses of the concept of hegemony its possibilities and limits in the field of sociological analysis of music. From this we discern some of the challenges esrtán present in this field of study.

  4. Slab track systems for high-speed railways.

    OpenAIRE

    Michas, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    In the last 40 years an increase in train speed and axle load around the world and other challenges in the conventional ballasted track system gave birth to ballastless railway track system. This study examines in depth the various slab track systems that are being used today. Their design characteristics as well as the various requirements for efficient use are thoroughly explained. At least 34 different ballastless systems have been recorded in many railway networks throughout the world. Th...

  5. MX Siting Investigation. Geotechnical Evaluation. Aggregate Resources Study, Lake Valley, Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-27

    use of aggregate material for asphaltic concrete, base course in road construction, or ballast material. However, many of the suitability tests for...ranged from 5 to 14 feet (1.5 to 4.3 m). While the Verification stud - ies are not specifically designed- to generate aggregate data, the sampling...AGGREGATE CHARACTERISTIC’LSI CASU CASI ABRASION RESISTANCE. PERCENT WEAR 2 អ អ >50 No S04 12 --12 --12 COARSE AGGREGATE SOUNDNESS, M O 1 1

  6. Analisis Harmonisa Electronic Load Control (Elc) Pada Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Mikro Hidro (Pltmh)

    OpenAIRE

    Mashar, Ali; Sodiq, Dja’far

    2011-01-01

    Electronic Load Control (ELC) is a common unit used in Micro Hydro Power Plants with synchronous generator to keep network frequency at its nominal. The ELC regulates the power of dummy load as the power flowing to load (consumers) varies. Maintaining frequency is just the same as maintaining the output active power of the plant (generator). If there is change on the load the ELC regulates the power flowing to the ballast (dummy load) by chopping the voltage electronically. Such operation wil...

  7. Function integrated track system

    OpenAIRE

    Hohnecker, Eberhard

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses a function integrated track system that focuses on the reduction of acoustic emissions from railway lines. It is shown that the combination of an embedded rail system (ERS), a sound absorbing track surface, and an integrated mini sound barrier has significant acoustic advantages compared to a standard ballast superstructure. The acoustic advantages of an embedded rail system are particularly pronounced in the case of railway bridges. Finally, it is shown that a...

  8. IMPROVING THE POSITIONING ACCURACY OF TRAIN ON THE APPROACH SECTION TO THE RAILWAY CROSSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Havryliuk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the paper it is necessary to analyze possibility of improving the positioning accuracy of train on the approach section to crossing for traffic safety control at railway crossings. Methodology. Researches were performed using developed mathematical model, describing dependence of the input impedance of the coded and audio frequency track circuits on a train coordinate at various values of ballast isolation resistances and for all usable frequencies. Findings. The paper presents the developed mathematical model, describing dependence of the input impedance of the coded and audio-frequency track circuits on the train coordinate at various values of ballast isolation resistances and for all frequencies used in track circuits. The relative error determination of train coordinate by input impedance caused by variation of the ballast isolation resistance for the coded track circuits was investigated. The values of relative error determination of train coordinate can achieve up to 40-50 % and these facts do not allow using this method directly for coded track circuits. For short audio frequency track circuits on frequencies of continuous cab signaling (25, 50 Hz the relative error does not exceed acceptable values, this allow using the examined method for determination of train location on the approach section to railway crossing. Originality. The developed mathematical model allowed determination of the error dependence of train coordinate by using input impedance of the track circuit for coded and audio-frequency track circuits at various frequencies of the signal current and at different ballast isolation resistances. Practical value. The authors proposethe method for train location determination on approach section to the crossing, equipped with audio-frequency track circuits, which is a combination of discrete and continuous monitoring of the train location.

  9. Passive Autonomous Acoustic Monitoring of Marine Mammals: System Development Using Seaglider (Trademark)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-30

    same sensor on a Slocum glider from Teledyne Webb Research, work that has been reported separately. Hardware and software modifications were made to...adapts instruments and glider behavior to support specific Navy mission requirements. This group is informally called the Applied Seaglider Group...axis carries various scales, but for the red curve, which is glider depth, each tick mark is 20 meters. Seaglider S/N 178 was ballasted light for

  10. NOC RRS Discovery Cruise D376. Glider operations report, June - July 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Balfour, C.

    2012-01-01

    This document summarises the four Slocum Electric glider deployments during the RRS Discovery Based D376 research cruise for the FASTNEt project. The deployments occurred at or close to the Celtic Sea shelf edge. The lack of small boat support for the cruise resulted in a series of procedures for glider ballasting testing, deployment and recovery being developed during the cruise. Towards the end of a cruise a glider that had been deployed with a turbulence sensor was recovered after a nine d...

  11. 46 CFR 42.15-50 - Air pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air pipes. 42.15-50 Section 42.15-50 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Conditions of Assignment of Freeboard § 42.15-50 Air pipes. (a) Where air pipes to ballast and other tanks extend above the freeboard or superstructure...

  12. Mineralogical influence on leaching behaviour of steelmaking slags:a laboratory investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Engström, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    The Swedish steelmaking industry produces large amounts of by-products. In 2008, the total amount of slag produced reached approximately 1,300,000 metric tons, of which 20% was deposited. Due to its strength, durability and chemistry, steel slag is of interest in the field of construction, since it has similar or better qualities than ordinary ballast stone, which makes it a competitive construction material. However, some steel slags face an array of quality concerns that might hinder their ...

  13. INFLUENCE OF LOADING IS FROM A ROLLING STOCK ON THE DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF MULTI-STOREY BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Luk’yanchenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the rolling stock load influence on the multi-storey building being under construction in the close to the railroad area has been conducted. FEM calculation models of the ballast prism and the building in the interaction with the base soil were created. The acceleration of the soil at the depth of the foundation laying was obtained and, as the result, its influence on the dynamic behavior of building was evaluated.

  14. An Experimental Approach to Determine the Flight Dynamics of NASA’s Mars Science Lab Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    multimaterial structure was required. The model has an AISI 12L14 hot-rolled steel outer body that includes four WMiCu class 1 tungsten alloy ballasts...in section 2, was used to shift the CG off the axis of symmetry. The 304 stainless steel midsection houses the MIDAS TM and locates two tungsten...pins of the pressure board. A 304 stainless steel retaining ring threads down onto the shoulder of the MIDAS and keeps it securely pressed up

  15. An Annotated Bibliography of Patents Related to Coastal Engineering. Volume II. 1971-1973. Appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    3760518 ROTARY DREDGE CUTTER-HEAD HAVING SPACED GUARD MEMBERS 376075u MODULAR UNIT FOR A FLOATING DOCK SYSTEM 3760761 UNDERWATER KITE DEVICE 3762078...frame having port and starboard pontoon runners with a box frame Z operable to bridge the pontoon runners over a pipeline to be . - ... - entrenched...pontoons which include a self-adjusting water ballast feature. 3.760,761 UNDER WATER KITE DEVICE Kousuke Umasume. 13-5. 2-chome, Shimorenjaku. Mitaka

  16. Using Wireless Sensor Networks and Trains as Data Mules to Monitor Slab Track Infrastructures

    OpenAIRE

    Cañete, Eduardo; Chen, Jaime; Díaz, Manuel; Llopis, Luis; Reyna, Ana; Rubio, Bartolomé

    2015-01-01

    Recently, slab track systems have arisen as a safer and more sustainable option for high speed railway infrastructures, compared to traditional ballasted tracks. Integrating Wireless Sensor Networks within these infrastructures can provide structural health related data that can be used to evaluate their degradation and to not only detect failures but also to predict them. The design of such systems has to deal with a scenario of large areas with inaccessible zones, where neither Internet cov...

  17. Calibration and Validation of Inertial Measurement Unit for Wave Resolving Drifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    materials used in the creation of the WRD-B (i.e., acrylic, Delrin, 316 stainless steel hardware, rubber, silicone gel, adhesive sealant , foam...with six bolts. Between the rings of the hemispheres is placed a 0.003m (1/8”) thick rubber gasket that is lightly coated with a silicone gel to...with the terminating end of the ballast weight eyebolt and adhesive sealant around the edge. Below the smaller plate the hemisphere is filled with

  18. Slab track

    OpenAIRE

    Golob, Tina

    2014-01-01

    The last 160 years has been mostly used conventional track with ballasted bed, sleepers and steel rail. Ensuring the high speed rail traffic, increasing railway track capacities, providing comfortable and safe ride as well as high reliability and availability railway track, has led to development of innovative systems for railway track. The so-called slab track was first built in 1972 and since then, they have developed many different slab track systems around the world. Slab track was also b...

  19. The need and benefit of slab track: case of Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Gailienė, Inesa; Laurinavičius, Alfredas

    2017-01-01

    Slab track structures have been used in the world for several decades now. However, the ballasted track is still much more popular compared to slab track structures, which is primarily due to its lower price. This article reviews and analyses development of slab tracks, with their advantages and disadvantages. Based on conditions prevailing on Lithuanian railways, the paper also distinguishes cases in which slab track structures could be of benefit, both economically and technologically. The ...

  20. Design and implementation of PV-based three-phase four-wire ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lighting ballasts, switched mode power supply, motor drive applications, etc. ... The PV array is used to drive the DC–DC boost converter to step-up the voltage ..... IEE Electric. Power Appl. 151(4):. 467–476. Vodyakho O and Mi C C 2009 Three-Level Inverter-Based Shunt Active Power Filter in Three-Phase Three-. Wire and ...

  1. EN TOTALKOSTNADSJÄMFÖRELSE MELLAN CELL-, SKUM- OCH LECA-BETONG

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Mattias; Åslew Andersson, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This report provides a comparison between the products cellular concrete, foam concrete and LECA concrete. The questions to be answered during the work is how the cellular concrete stands up in cost terms to the existing competitors on the market, how the concrete products differ in design work, and in which situations the concrete varieties are preferred to use. Cellular concrete is a variant of ordinary concrete, with the difference that the ballast is exchanged from stone materials to expa...

  2. Basic principles of classifying waste products of coal mining and conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spirt, M.Ya.; Itkin, Yu.V.

    1980-03-01

    Suggests a method of classifying solid waste from coal mining, preparation and conversion. Classification parameters are: source of by-product; iron compound content; carbon content; degree of carbonization of organic material; sulfur content. Tables are presented showing types of waste and above stated parameters, and projected industrial use (combustion, gasification, ceramics, building materials, ballast for road surfacing, fire-proof materials, binders etc.). The project was carried out by the Institute of Fossil Fuels. (8 refs.) (In Russian)

  3. Changes in the soft-bottom macrobenthic diversity and community structure from the ports of Mumbai, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.; Harkantra, S.N.

    present in harbour areas for proper management, from the marine bio-invasion risk perspective; and this strategic move needs to be preceded by a thorough and synergic study of the biological components of that ecosystem. Without having a baseline... dataset on native biota, it is virtually impossible to imply management protocol stringently and identify alien species. So, keeping this point in mind, under the Port Biological Baseline Surveys of the Global ballast water management Program (Glo...

  4. Analysis of Toxic and Non-Toxic Alexandrium (Dinophyceae) Species Using Ribosomal RNA Gene Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Therriault, J.-C. (1988). Cladistic analysis of electrophoretic variants within the toxic dinoflagellate genus Protogonyaulax. Botanica Marina 31: 39- 51. 8... Botanica Marina 34: 575-587. Halegraeff, G. M., and Bolch, C.J. (1992). Transport of toxic dinoflagellate cysts via ship’s ballast water: implications...analysis of electrophoretic variants within the toxic dinoflagellate genus Protogonv-u.!a,. Botanica Marina 31: 39-51. Curran, J., Baillie, D.L

  5. Void Double Hull Space Type VLCC

    OpenAIRE

    Takehiko, Akiba; Kimio, Kitano; Yutaka, Yamauchi; Hisashi, Ito; Hiroyuki, Tsukuda; Hirohiko, Emi; Atsushi, Kumano; NKK Corporation; NKK Corporation; NKK Corporation; NKK Corporation; NKK Corporation; Research Institute; Research Institute

    1996-01-01

    Double hull structures for tankers became obligatory in 1993 in response to the ever present problem of oil spills. Use of the double hull space as ballast water tanks has resulted in new problems-an increased area of hull requiring maintenance, and the need for inspections and maintenance work in the cramped and unfavorable environment of the double hull spaces. As a solution to these problems, the authors have developed a new concept for double hulled tankers which involves the double hull ...

  6. Parim tudengifilm tuli nimekast Poola koolist / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    Pimedate Ööde filmifestivali tudengi- ja lühifilmide alafestival Sleepwalkers, mis toimus 15.-18. novembrini, jagas eile auhindu. Parimaks tunnistati Poola tudengi Jan Wagneri lühimängufilm "Porno". Eesti võistluse võitis Madli Lääne dokfilm "Tähelepanu, start!", 2. koha sai Mihkel Ulgi mängufilm "Südameasjad" ja 3. koha Julia Sokolova mängufilm "Ballast"

  7. BUBBLE-NET - System to catch fish and the respective method of use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Margarida Mouga

    2014-06-01

    Tests carried out under controlled conditions in aquaculture show success indicators regarding the behavior of the bubbles relatively shoal. Pilot scale prototype is currently being developed to validate the results obtained in real sea conditions. The device includes a compressor, an air-lung, two sets of hoses, floaters and ballast. Finally, further tests are required for the implementation and optimization of this new gear on commercial vessels.

  8. Stability Information for the Master

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-25

    the hydrostatic properties change rapidly with mean draft and the longitudinal center of flotation is not near amidships, which occurs with barge...for the vessel. Fixed ballast of the U.S. Steel " QCM " Concentrate capped with concrete layer was installed, for the total 2085 Long Tons and is...Architecture II 646, Stability and Trim Ship stability and trim. Define terms related to the flotation properties of a ship. Study of forces and

  9. Sediment Quality Characterization Naval Station San Diego

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    of contaminated sites slated for bioremediation cleanup by the Environmental Protection Agency listed creosote - derived PAH as one, if not the only...came from creosote pier pil- ings while the remainder came from stormwater runoff, oil spills, compensating fuel-ballast systems, atmospheric deposition...I with plastic or untreated wood. Currently, the loading to the region has been reduced by al- most half, and total elimination of the creosote pier

  10. Upper ocean ecosystem dynamics and iron cycling in a global three-dimensional model

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, J. Keith; Doney, Scott C; Lindsay, Keith

    2004-01-01

    A global three-dimensional marine ecosystem model with several key phytoplankton functional groups, multiple limiting nutrients, explicit iron cycling, and a mineral ballast/organic matter parameterization is run within a global ocean circulation model. The coupled biogeochemistry/ecosystem/circulation (BEC) model reproduces known basin-scale patterns of primary and export production, biogenic silica production, calcification, chlorophyll, macronutrient and dissolved iron concentrations. The ...

  11. The Use of Deconstructed Tires as Elastic Elements in Railway Tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Sol-Sánchez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Elastic elements such as rail pads, under sleeper pads and under ballast mats are railway components that allow for a reduction in track deterioration and vibrations. And they are furthermore commonly used to obtain an optimal vertical stiffness of the infrastructure. However, the use of elastomeric materials can increase construction costs and the consumption of raw materials. Thus, the utilization of used tire layers offers an alternative to reuse an abundant waste reducing the cost of elastic elements. In addition, an innovator technique allows deconstructing tire layers without grinding up the material, reducing production costs at the same time that tire properties are remained. This research is focused on the study of the viability of developing elastic components from used tire layers by evaluating the influence of thickness, the resistance capacity of the elements and their behavior in a ballast box. Results indicate the ability of tire pads to manufacture elastic elements (rail pads, under sleeper pads and under ballast mats to be used in railway tracks.

  12. Investigation of hydroelastic ship responses of an ULOC in head seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-liang; Temarel, Pandeli; Hu, Jia-jun; Gu, Xue-kang

    2016-10-01

    Investigation of hydroelastic ship responses has been brought to the attention of the scientific and engineering world for several decades. There are two kinds of high-frequency vibrations in general ship responses to a large ocean-going ship in its shipping line, so-called springing and whipping, which are important for the determination of design wave load and fatigue damage as well. Because of the huge scale of an ultra large ore carrier (ULOC), it will suffer seldom slamming events in the ocean. The resonance vibration with high frequency is springing, which is caused by continuous wave excitation. In this paper, the wave-induced vibrations of the ULOC are addressed by experimental and numerical methods according to 2D and 3D hydroelasticity theories and an elastic model under full-load and ballast conditions. The influence of loading conditions on high-frequency vibration is studied both by numerical and experimental results. Wave-induced vibrations are higher under ballast condition including the wave frequency part, the multiple frequencies part, the 2-node and the 3-node vertical bending parts of the hydroelastic responses. The predicted results from the 2D method have less accuracy than the 3D method especially under ballast condition because of the slender-body assumption in the former method. The applicability of the 2D method and the further development of nonlinear effects to 3D method in the prediction of hydroelastic responses of the ULOC are discussed.

  13. Invasive species in the Northeastern and Southwestern Atlantic Ocean: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Maria Cecilia T de; Fileman, Timothy W; Hall-Spencer, Jason M

    2017-03-15

    The spread of non-native species has been a subject of increasing concern since the 1980s when human-mediated transportation, mainly related to ships' ballast water, was recognized as a major vector for species transportation and spread, although records of non-native species go back as far as 16th Century. Ever increasing world trade and the resulting rise in shipping have highlighted the issue, demanding a response from the international community to the threat of non-native marine species. In the present study, we searched for available literature and databases on shipping and invasive species in the North-eastern (NE) and South-western (SW) Atlantic Ocean and assess the risk represented by the shipping trade between these two regions. There are reports of 44 species associated with high impacts for the NE Atlantic and 15 for the SW Atlantic, although this may be an underestimate. Vectors most cited are ballast water and biofouling for both regions while aquaculture has also been a very significant pathway of introduction and spread of invasive species in the NE Atlantic. Although the two regions have significant shipping traffic, no exchange of invasive species could be directly associated to the shipping between the two regions. However, it seems prudent to bring the exchange of ballast water between the two regions under control as soon as possible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The mathematical model structural-parametric synthesis of working processes in an oxygen-methane steam generator with flow swirl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoshinova, T. S.; Shmatov, D. P.; Kretinin, A. V.; Drozdov, I. G.

    2017-11-01

    While formulating a mathematical model of the flow and interaction between oxygen-methane fuel combustion products with tangentially swirled ballast water injected in the end of the combustion chamber in CAE product Fluent, which integrated into the ANSYS Workbench platform, the problem of structural-parametric synthesis is solved for structure optimization of the model. Equations are selected from the catalogue of Fluent physical models. Also optimization helps to find “regime” model parameters that determine the specific implementation of the model inside the synthesized structure. As a result, such solutions which were developed during creation of a numerical algorithm, as the choice of a turbulence model and the state equation, the methods for determining the thermodynamic thermophysical characteristics of combustion products, the choice of the radiation model, the choice of the resistance law for drops, the choice of the expression which allows to evaluate swirling flows lateral force, determination of the turbulent dispersion strength, choice of the mass exchange law, etc. Fields of temperature, pressure, velocity and volume fraction of phases were obtained at different ballast water mass flows. Dependence of wall temperature from mass flow of ballast water is constructed, that allows us to compare results of the experiment and mathematical modeling.

  15. NASTRAN Modeling of Flight Test Components for UH-60A Airloads Program Test Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idosor, Florentino R.; Seible, Frieder

    1993-01-01

    Based upon the recommendations of the UH-60A Airloads Program Review Committee, work towards a NASTRAN remodeling effort has been conducted. This effort modeled and added the necessary structural/mass components to the existing UH-60A baseline NASTRAN model to reflect the addition of flight test components currently in place on the UH-60A Airloads Program Test Configuration used in NASA-Ames Research Center's Modern Technology Rotor Airloads Program. These components include necessary flight hardware such as instrument booms, movable ballast cart, equipment mounting racks, etc. Recent modeling revisions have also been included in the analyses to reflect the inclusion of new and updated primary and secondary structural components (i.e., tail rotor shaft service cover, tail rotor pylon) and improvements to the existing finite element mesh (i.e., revisions of material property estimates). Mode frequency and shape results have shown that components such as the Trimmable Ballast System baseplate and its respective payload ballast have caused a significant frequency change in a limited number of modes while only small percent changes in mode frequency are brought about with the addition of the other MTRAP flight components. With the addition of the MTRAP flight components, update of the primary and secondary structural model, and imposition of the final MTRAP weight distribution, modal results are computed representative of the 'best' model presently available.

  16. Three-dimensional dynamic analyses of track-embankment-ground system subjected to high speed train loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Zheng, Changjie

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite element model was developed to investigate dynamic response of track-embankment-ground system subjected to moving loads caused by high speed trains. The track-embankment-ground systems such as the sleepers, the ballast, the embankment, and the ground are represented by 8-noded solid elements. The infinite elements are used to represent the infinite boundary condition to absorb vibration waves induced by the passing of train load at the boundary. The loads were applied on the rails directly to simulate the real moving loads of trains. The effects of train speed on dynamic response of the system are considered. The effect of material parameters, especially the modulus changes of ballast and embankment, is taken into account to demonstrate the effectiveness of strengthening the ballast, embankment, and ground for mitigating system vibration in detail. The numerical results show that the model is reliable for predicting the amplitude of vibrations produced in the track-embankment-ground system by high-speed trains. Stiffening of fill under the embankment can reduce the vibration level, on the other hand, it can be realized by installing a concrete slab under the embankment. The influence of axle load on the vibration of the system is obviously lower than that of train speed.

  17. Investigating the Influence of Auxiliary Rails on Dynamic Behavior of Railway Transition Zone by a 3D Train-Track Interaction Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Heydari-Noghabi

    Full Text Available Abstract Abrupt track vertical stiffness variations along railway tracks can lead to increased dynamic loads, asymmetric deformations, damaged track components, and consequently, increased maintenance costs. The junction of slab track and ballasted track is one of the existing areas where vertical track stiffness can suddenly change, therefore requiring a transition zone that smoothes the track stiffness change. One of the methods for constructing the transition zone at the junction of slab and ballasted tracks is to install auxiliary rails along the transition zone. In the present study, the dynamic behavior of this type of transition zone was evaluated by a train-track interaction model. For this purpose, a 3D model of the railway track was made, representing the slab track, the transition zone, and the ballasted track. Then, the modeling results were validated by the results of field tests. Afterwards, in order to study the dynamic behavior of the transition zone with auxiliary rails, different sensitive analyses, such as vehicle speed, vehicle load, number of auxiliary rails and railpad stiffness, were performed with the model. The obtained results showed that the use of auxiliary rails reduced the rail deflection variations along the transition zone from 35% to 28% for low and medium speeds (120, 160, 200 km/h, and from 40% to 33% for high speeds (250, 300 km/h.

  18. Three-Dimensional Dynamic Analyses of Track-Embankment-Ground System Subjected to High Speed Train Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional finite element model was developed to investigate dynamic response of track-embankment-ground system subjected to moving loads caused by high speed trains. The track-embankment-ground systems such as the sleepers, the ballast, the embankment, and the ground are represented by 8-noded solid elements. The infinite elements are used to represent the infinite boundary condition to absorb vibration waves induced by the passing of train load at the boundary. The loads were applied on the rails directly to simulate the real moving loads of trains. The effects of train speed on dynamic response of the system are considered. The effect of material parameters, especially the modulus changes of ballast and embankment, is taken into account to demonstrate the effectiveness of strengthening the ballast, embankment, and ground for mitigating system vibration in detail. The numerical results show that the model is reliable for predicting the amplitude of vibrations produced in the track-embankment-ground system by high-speed trains. Stiffening of fill under the embankment can reduce the vibration level, on the other hand, it can be realized by installing a concrete slab under the embankment. The influence of axle load on the vibration of the system is obviously lower than that of train speed.

  19. The Use of Deconstructed Tires as Elastic Elements in Railway Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sol-Sánchez, Miguel; Moreno-Navarro, Fernando; Rubio-Gámez, Mª Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Elastic elements such as rail pads, under sleeper pads and under ballast mats are railway components that allow for a reduction in track deterioration and vibrations. And they are furthermore commonly used to obtain an optimal vertical stiffness of the infrastructure. However, the use of elastomeric materials can increase construction costs and the consumption of raw materials. Thus, the utilization of used tire layers offers an alternative to reuse an abundant waste reducing the cost of elastic elements. In addition, an innovator technique allows deconstructing tire layers without grinding up the material, reducing production costs at the same time that tire properties are remained. This research is focused on the study of the viability of developing elastic components from used tire layers by evaluating the influence of thickness, the resistance capacity of the elements and their behavior in a ballast box. Results indicate the ability of tire pads to manufacture elastic elements (rail pads, under sleeper pads and under ballast mats) to be used in railway tracks. PMID:28788168

  20. Importance of the harmonics in the lighting systems for the electric energy saving; Importancia de las armonicas en el sistema de iluminacion para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garibay Mendoza, V. [Lumisistemas, departamento de aseguramineto de calidad, Naucalpan (Mexico); Hernandez Bernal, J. M. [UNICORP, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    In a lighting system the discharge lamps (fluorescent and high intensity discharge (HID)), ballast and controls are generating elements of harmonics. As a consequence of the tendency of saving energy, the use of electronic ballasts and controls that integrate dimmers, daylight and present sensors has increased in order to optimize the energy use. This paper presents the harmonics generation resulting from the fluorescent lamps operating different electronic ballasts as well as their electronic controls. Likewise, are also shown the effects caused by generation of harmonics components by the lighting system in the electric system that go from the voltage and current distortion, the presence of currents in the neutral conductor in balanced systems to the repercussions in the metering equipment such as watthour meters and the effects the lighting equipment suffer due to the presence of harmonics, such as the power factor decrease in ballasts that are of high power factor and the temperature increment in the magnetic type ballasts. [Espanol] Dentro de un sistema de iluminacion, las lamparas de descarga (fluorescentes y alta intensidad de descarga {sup H}ID{sup )}, balastros y los controles son elementos generadores de armonicas. A consecuencia de la tendencia al ahorro de energia se ha incrementado el uso de balastros electronicos y controles que integran atenuadores de luz (dimmers), sensores de luz natural y de presencia con el fin de optimizar el uso de la energia. Este trabajo presenta los resultados de generacion de armonicas para lamparas fluorescentes, operando diferentes balastros electronicos asi como con controles electronicos. Asi mismo son presentados los efectos causados por la generacion de componentes armonicas por el sistema de iluminacion dentro del sistema electrico que van desde la distorsion en voltaje y corriente, la presencia de corrientes dentro del conductor neutro en sistemas balanceados, asi como la repercusion en los equipos de medicion tales

  1. MODELING OF RAILWAY TRACK OPERATION AS A SYSTEM OF QUASI-ELASTIC ORTHOTROPIC LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sychev Vyacheslav Petrovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give a solution to the problem of the impact of a rolling stock on the rail track on the basis of modeling a railway track as a multi-layered space, introducing each of the layers is a quasi-elastic orthotropic layer with cylindrical anisotropy in the polar coordinate system. The article describes wave equations, taking into account the rotational inertia of cross sectional and transverse shear strains. From the point of view of classical structural mechanics train path can be represented as a multilayer system comprising separate layers with different stiffness, lying on the foundation being the elastic-isotropic space. Winkler model provides that the basis is linearly deformable space, there are loads influencing its surface. These loads are transferred through a layered deformable half-space. This representation is used in this study as an initial approximation. For more accurate results of the deformation of a railway track because of rolling dynamic loads it is proposed to present a railway track in the form of a layered structure, where each element (assembled rails and sleepers, ballast section, the soil in the embankment, basement soils is modeled as a planar quasi-elastic orthotropic layer with cylindrical anisotropy. The equations describing the dynamic behaviour of flat element in a polar coordinate system are hyperbolic in nature and take into account the rotational inertia of the cross sectional and the transverse shear strains. This allows identifying the impact on the final characteristics of the blade wave effects, and oscillatory processes. In order to determine the unknown functions included in the constitutive equations it is proposed to use decomposition in power series in spatial coordinate and time. In order to determine the coefficients of ray series for the required functions, it is necessary to differentiate the defining wave equations k times on time, to take their difference on the different

  2. A novel optical investigation technique for railroad track inspection and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabato, Alessandro; Beale, Christopher H.; Niezrecki, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    Track failures due to cross tie degradation or loss in ballast support may result in a number of problems ranging from simple service interruptions to derailments. Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of railway track is important for safety reasons and to reduce downtime and maintenance costs. For this reason, novel and cost-effective track inspection technologies for assessing tracks' health are currently insufficient and needed. Advancements achieved in recent years in cameras technology, optical sensors, and image-processing algorithms have made machine vision, Structure from Motion (SfM), and three-dimensional (3D) Digital Image Correlation (DIC) systems extremely appealing techniques for extracting structural deformations and geometry profiles. Therefore, optically based, non-contact measurement techniques may be used for assessing surface defects, rail and tie deflection profiles, and ballast condition. In this study, the design of two camera-based measurement systems is proposed for crossties-ballast condition assessment and track examination purposes. The first one consists of four pairs of cameras installed on the underside of a rail car to detect the induced deformation and displacement on the whole length of the track's cross tie using 3D DIC measurement techniques. The second consists of another set of cameras using SfM techniques for obtaining a 3D rendering of the infrastructure from a series of two-dimensional (2D) images to evaluate the state of the track qualitatively. The feasibility of the proposed optical systems is evaluated through extensive laboratory tests, demonstrating their ability to measure parameters of interest (e.g. crosstie's full-field displacement, vertical deflection, shape, etc.) for assessment and SHM of railroad track.

  3. A study of modelling simplifications in ground vibration predictions for railway traffic at grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germonpré, M.; Degrande, G.; Lombaert, G.

    2017-10-01

    Accurate computational models are required to predict ground-borne vibration due to railway traffic. Such models generally require a substantial computational effort. Therefore, much research has focused on developing computationally efficient methods, by either exploiting the regularity of the problem geometry in the direction along the track or assuming a simplified track structure. This paper investigates the modelling errors caused by commonly made simplifications of the track geometry. A case study is presented investigating a ballasted track in an excavation. The soil underneath the ballast is stiffened by a lime treatment. First, periodic track models with different cross sections are analyzed, revealing that a prediction of the rail receptance only requires an accurate representation of the soil layering directly underneath the ballast. A much more detailed representation of the cross sectional geometry is required, however, to calculate vibration transfer from track to free field. Second, simplifications in the longitudinal track direction are investigated by comparing 2.5D and periodic track models. This comparison shows that the 2.5D model slightly overestimates the track stiffness, while the transfer functions between track and free field are well predicted. Using a 2.5D model to predict the response during a train passage leads to an overestimation of both train-track interaction forces and free field vibrations. A combined periodic/2.5D approach is therefore proposed in this paper. First, the dynamic axle loads are computed by solving the train-track interaction problem with a periodic model. Next, the vibration transfer to the free field is computed with a 2.5D model. This combined periodic/2.5D approach only introduces small modelling errors compared to an approach in which a periodic model is used in both steps, while significantly reducing the computational cost.

  4. Impact Capacity Reduction in Railway Prestressed Concrete Sleepers with Surface Abrasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamkhanong, Chayut; Li, Dan; Kaewunruen, Sakdirat

    2017-10-01

    Railway sleepers (also called ‘railroad tie’ in North America) embedded in ballasted railway tracks are a main part of railway track structures. Its important role is to transfer the loads evenly from the rails to a wider area of ballast bed and to secure rail gauge and enable safe passages of rolling stocks. By nature, railway infrastructure is nonlinear, evidenced by its behaviours, geometry and alignment, wheel-rail contact and operational parameters such as tractive efforts. Based on our critical review, the dynamic behaviour of railway sleepers has not been fully investigated, especially when the sleepers are deteriorated by excessive wears. In fact, the ballast angularity causes differential abrasions on the soffit or bottom surface of sleepers (especially at railseat zone). Furthermore, in sharp curves and rapid gradient change, longitudinal and lateral dynamics of rails increase the likelihood of railseat abrasions in concrete sleepers due to the unbalanced loading conditions. This paper presents a structural capacity of concrete sleepers under dynamic transient loading. The modified compression field theory for ultimate strength design of concrete sleepers under impact loading will be highlighted in this study. The influences of surface abrasions, including surface abrasion and soffit abrasion, on the dynamic behaviour of prestressed concrete sleepers, are firstly highlighted. The outcome of this study will improve the rail maintenance and inspection criteria in order to establish appropriate and sensible remote track condition monitoring network in practice. Moreover, this study will also improve the understanding of the fundamental dynamic behaviour of prestressed concrete sleepers with surface abrasions. The insight into these behaviours will not only improve safety and reliability of railway infrastructure but will enhance the structural safety of other concrete structures.

  5. Electrical performance characteristics of high power converters for space power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Thomas A.; King, Roger J.

    1989-01-01

    The first goal of this project was to investigate various converters that would be suitable for processing electric power derived from a nuclear reactor. The implementation is indicated of a 20 kHz system that includes a source converter, a ballast converter, and a fixed frequency converter for generating the 20 kHz output. This system can be converted to dc simply by removing the fixed frequency converter. This present study emphasized the design and testing of the source and ballast converters. A push-pull current-fed (PPCF) design was selected for the source converter, and a 2.7 kW version of this was implemented using three 900 watt modules in parallel. The characteristic equation for two converters in parallel was derived, but this analysis did not yield any experimental methods for measuring relative stability. The three source modules were first tested individually and then in parallel as a 2.7 kW system. All tests proved to be satisfactory; the system was stable; efficiency and regulation were acceptable; and the system was fault tolerant. The design of a ballast-load converter, which was operated as a shunt regulator, was investigated. The proposed power circuit is suitable for use with BJTs because proportional base drive is easily implemented. A control circuit which minimizes switching frequency ripple and automatically bypasses a faulty shunt section was developed. A nonlinear state-space-averaged model of the shunt regulator was developed and shown to produce an accurate incremental (small-signal) dynamic model, even though the usual state-space-averaging assumptions were not met. The nonlinear model was also shown to be useful for large-signal dynamic simulation using PSpice.

  6. The utilization of coal mining wastes as filling materials in reinforced earth structures. III. Construction of a full scale experimental structure; Utilizacion de los esteriles del carbon como material de relleno en estructuras de tierra reforzada. II. Construccion de una estructura experimental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CaNibano Gonzalez, J.; Martinez, C.; Gonzalez, M.R. [HUNOSA. Programa Desarrollo Esteriles. Oviedo (Spain); Pardo, F.; SopeNa, L. [CEDEX. Laboratorio Geotecnia, Madrid (Spain); Torres, M. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas, Oviedo (Spain); Perez, J.J. [MOPTMA. Demarcacion Carreteras del Estado, Oviedo (Spain)

    1997-06-01

    This article describes the construction of a full scale experimental structure in which coal mining wastes (mine stones) were utilized as a filling material. In such structure, which was 20 m long and 2 high coal mining wastes from two different tips were tested together with different types of reinforcing frames such as metal bands, geomeshes and Paraweb (Freyssisol) bands. Also, thermocouples were placed at different heights. On the other hand, the said structure was subjected to 3.085 passes of a truck having a ballast of 10.5 tons on its rear axle. The performance of the coal mining wastes was completely satisfactory. (Author) 3 refs.

  7. Research on Goods and the Ship Interaction Based on ADAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Fangzhen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The equivalent method of the relative movement goods on board is discussed in details. This method is to establish dynamic model based on moving trajectory of gravity-center for goods and to take rigid body geometric model with the trajectory as constraints in ADAMS. The difference of simulation methods for the different goods in carrier rolling is compared. The interact of relative moving objects with bulk carrier is discussed by using the ADAMS model. It is verified that the ballast water can maintain the ship’s stability by means of the ADAMS model.

  8. Occurrence of Diopatra marocensis (Annelida, Onuphidae in the eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melih ÇINAR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the presence of Diopatra marocensis in the eastern Mediterranean. This species is small-sized and inhabited muddy bottom near the opening of rivers or lagoons [salinity range: 33−39‰] in the Aegean and Levantine Seas, and reached a maximum density of 90 ind.m-2 in Mersin Bay. This species might be an alien species that was introduced from the East Atlantic (near Gibraltar to the eastern Mediterranean via ballast water of ships, as it has never been reported from the western Mediterranean Sea.

  9. Simplified Analysis Tool for Ship-Ship Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a simplified ship collision analysis tool in order to rapidly estimate the structural damage and energy absorption of both striking and struck ships as well as prediction of rupture of cargo oil tanks of struck tankers. The present tool calculates external...... to the collision scenario thatwhere a VLCC in ballast condition collides perpendicularly with the mid part of another D/H VLCC in fully loaded condition. The results obtained from the present tool are compared with those obtained by large scale FEA, and fairy good agreements are achieved. The applicability...

  10. Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila

    2007-01-03

    The objective of this scoping study is: (1) to identify current market drivers and technology trends that can improve the demand responsiveness of commercial building lighting systems and (2) to quantify the energy, demand and environmental benefits of implementing lighting demand response and energy-saving controls strategies Statewide. Lighting systems in California commercial buildings consume 30 GWh. Lighting systems in commercial buildings often waste energy and unnecessarily stress the electrical grid because lighting controls, especially dimming, are not widely used. But dimmable lighting equipment, especially the dimming ballast, costs more than non-dimming lighting and is expensive to retrofit into existing buildings because of the cost of adding control wiring. Advances in lighting industry capabilities coupled with the pervasiveness of the Internet and wireless technologies have led to new opportunities to realize significant energy saving and reliable demand reduction using intelligent lighting controls. Manufacturers are starting to produce electronic equipment--lighting-application specific controllers (LAS controllers)--that are wirelessly accessible and can control dimmable or multilevel lighting systems obeying different industry-accepted protocols. Some companies make controllers that are inexpensive to install in existing buildings and allow the power consumed by bi-level lighting circuits to be selectively reduced during demand response curtailments. By intelligently limiting the demand from bi-level lighting in California commercial buildings, the utilities would now have an enormous 1 GW demand shed capability at hand. By adding occupancy and light sensors to the remotely controllable lighting circuits, automatic controls could harvest an additional 1 BkWh/yr savings above and beyond the savings that have already been achieved. The lighting industry's adoption of DALI as the principal wired digital control protocol for dimming ballasts

  11. The Earned Value Management - A Measurement Technique of the Performance of the Costs and Labor in the Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gasparotti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the planned projects have problems due to the cost and time overruns from different reasons. Earned value management (EVM is a project performance evaluation technique that has been used in many projects from several fields, but which has been adapted to be used in project management to objectively track the physical accomplishment of certain work. The earned value analysis offers the possibility to manage the project performances in early stages of the project to point out the need of the eventual corrective action. This paper aims to present the main parameters involved in the calculation of the Earned Value Analysis (EVA for a ballast plant on shipboard.

  12. Methods of making bainitic steel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakas, Michael Paul; Chu, Henry Shiu-Hung; Zagula, Thomas Andrew; Langhorst, Benjamin Robert

    2018-01-16

    Methods of making bainitic steels may involve austenitizing a quantity of steel by exposing the quantity of steel to a first temperature. A composition of the quantity of steel may be configured to impede formation of non-bainite ferrite, pearlite, and Widmanstatten ferrite. The quantity of steel may be heat-treated to form bainite by exposing the quantity of steel to a second, lower temperature. The second, lower temperature may be stabilized by exposing the quantity of steel to the second, lower temperature in the presence of a thermal ballast.

  13. Alien species of fish parasites in the coastal lakes and lagoons of the southern Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Morozińska-Gogol

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Alien species are now found all over the world. New fish parasites have been unintentionally introduced with infected alien fish imported for aquaculture or have sometimes spread with their intermediate invertebrate hosts transported in the ballast waters of ships. Four alien fish parasites have been recorded in Polish coastal lakes and lagoons, all parasitising eels. Three were introduced with the final host - the Japanese eel - introduced for aquaculture (Anguillicola crassus, Pseudodactylogyrus anguillae and Pseudodactylogyrus bini and one (Paratenuisentis ambiguus with its sole intermediate host (Gammarus tigrinus.

  14. A survey of RFD pumping systems used in nuclear industry by INET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Cong

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, power fluidic technology was investigated extensively in INET, Tsinghua University, including RFD pumping system, vortex diode pumping system, pulsed jet mixer (gas ballast), pulsed jet sampling system, and fluidic flowmeter. Due to potential applications most attentions were paid to the RFD pumping system consisting of three key components: jet pump pair (JPP), level control/measurement system inside displacement vessel, and reverse flow diverter (RFD). Some important results by INET were summarized in this paper, relating to RFD geometrical con- figurations and optimal dimensions, dimensionless performances and RFD design guidelines, CFD simulation, and demonstrations of RFD pumping systems. (author)

  15. The invasion of five alien species in the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Loebmann

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine biological invasions have been regarded as one of the major causes of native biodiversity loss, with shipping and aquaculture being the leading contributors for the introductions of alien species in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, five aquatic alien species (one mollusk, three crustaceans and one fish species were detected during dives, shore searches and from the fisheries on the coast of the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, in the States of Piauí and Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil. The species were the bicolor purse-oyster Isognomon bicolor, the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the Indo-Pacific swimming crab Charybdis hellerii and, the muzzled blenny Omobranchus punctatus. Ballast water (I. bicolor, C. hellerii, and O. punctatus and aquaculture activities (L. vannamei and M. rosenbergii in adjacent areas are the most likely vectors of introduction. All exotic species found have potential impact risks to the environment because they are able to compete against native species for resources (food and habitat. Isognomon bicolor share the same habitat and food items with the native bivalve species of mussels and barnacles. Litopenaeus vannamei share the same habitat and food items with the native penaeids such as the pinkspot shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, the Southern brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus subtilis, and the Southern white shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti, and in the past few years L. vannamei was responsible for a viral epidemics in the cultivation tanks that could be transmitted to native penaeid shrimps. Charybdis hellerii is also able to cause impacts on the local fisheries as the species can decrease the populations of native portunid crabs which are commercialized in the studied region. Macrobrachium rosenbergii may be sharing natural resources with the Amazon River prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum. Omobranchus punctatus shares habit with the native

  16. Image processing for safety assessment in civil engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Belen; Pomares, Juan C; Irles, Ramon; Espinosa, Julian; Mas, David

    2013-06-20

    Behavior analysis of construction safety systems is of fundamental importance to avoid accidental injuries. Traditionally, measurements of dynamic actions in civil engineering have been done through accelerometers, but high-speed cameras and image processing techniques can play an important role in this area. Here, we propose using morphological image filtering and Hough transform on high-speed video sequence as tools for dynamic measurements on that field. The presented method is applied to obtain the trajectory and acceleration of a cylindrical ballast falling from a building and trapped by a thread net. Results show that safety recommendations given in construction codes can be potentially dangerous for workers.

  17. Occurrence of Acartia tonsa Dana in the Black Sea. Was it introduced from the Mediterranean?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. GUBANOVA

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available It was reported for the first time that Acartia tonsa was present in the Black Sea as early as in 1976. A.tonsa was found in the Mediterranean Sea in 1985. So, this copepod was initially introduced to the Black Sea and did not invade here from the Mediterranean. Probably A.tonsa was transferred to the Black Sea with ship's ballast water from some other region of the World Ocean. Differences in seasonal dynamics and size structure of A.clausi and A.tonsa in the Bay of Sevastopol in 1976 are discussed.

  18. Theoretical Examination Of The Longitudinal Behaviour Of Embedded Rails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Zoltán

    2015-09-01

    The longitudinal behaviour of embedded rails significantly differs from that of ballasted or slab tracks with direct rail fastenings. As the ambient temperature rises and falls, rails expand and contract, thereby imposing stress on the channel and embedding compound. In the article the author presents the creation of a method that makes the calculation and the inspection of embedded rails simpler and closer to the everyday engineering mentality. The design process includes an analysis of the displacement and normal forces along a rail axis.

  19. Positrons do not like voltage drops; Les positons n`aiment pas les creux de tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bitoux, M.

    1995-12-31

    The positron storage rings at Orsay University are disturbed several times a year due to voltage drops on the EDF grid which induce malfunctions on electromagnets. In order to immunize the system, Electricite de France has developed two methods, involving an increase in the ballast voltage and, for low drops, a modification of regulation loop gains, while, for high drops, a substitution of the diode bridge by a thyristor bridge (based on the principles of EDF`s Declic algorithm) or by a PWM controlled transistor bridge

  20. Sectional property tabulations for computer solution of accelerations caused by collision. Volume II. Final report January-May 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    Using the main scantlings for a 600,000 ton nuclear tanker and curves of weight per foot including steel outfit machinery and deadweight items developed by Newport News Shipbuilding, the vessel was divided into 20 sections with half stations at the ends. Cross sectional area, mass, moment of inertia and virtual mass were calculated at each section. Additional properties required for the vertical, horizontal and combined torsional-horizontal bending modes of vibration were calculated. These properties were calculated for both the ballast and full load conditions, and are used as input data to the General Bending Response Program as described in Volume I

  1. Time-series measurements of settling particulate matter in Alfonso Basin, La Paz Bay, southwestern Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Norman; Aguirre-Bahena, Fernando; Mucci, Alfonso

    2014-08-01

    More than 200 sediment trap samples were collected at 310 or 360 m depth during 2002-2009 from the center of the 410 m-deep Alfonso Basin in La Paz Bay, an arid, subtropical embayment of the southern Gulf of California. Sample splits were analyzed for total mass flux (TMF), particulate organic carbon (POC), inorganic carbon (CaCO3) and opal (biogenic silica BioSi). The lithogenic (Litho) and biogenic fluxes (Biogen), but especially the particulate organic matter (POM) and CaCO3, fluxes are relatively high compared with those recorded in a number of other coastal basins at depths less than ~500 m. The average yearly Litho fluxes (mean of 133±158 g m-2 yr-1) are well correlated with the frequency of strong wind gusts and reflect the relative proximity of the mooring to shore and the importance of eolian transport. The sedimentation patterns are influenced by monsoonal shifts-cool temperatures and strong northerly winds in late fall and winter sustain a well-mixed deep surface layer and high lithogenic fluxes, whereas progressive heating and relatively weak southerlies in summer and fall lead to a shallower, more-stratified surface layer with lower nutrient levels, limited productivity and generally low particulate fluxes. There is considerable interannual variability in the size of the various fluxes. This is likely related to a number of regional and internal factors whose timing, intensity and interactions remain to be resolved. Although there is an inverse relationship between SST and satellite-derived net primary production (NPP) estimates, no correlation was found between NPP and the POC, CaCO3 and BioSi fluxes (r20.05). Significant correlations (p<0.001) do exist, however, between the POC flux and the total mineral flux as well as with the CaCO3, Litho and BioSi fluxes (r=0.86, 0.82, 0.79 and 0.69, respectively). As suggested by the ballast ratio hypothesis, the strength of these correlations follows the relative density of the individual ballast components

  2. Prototype Testing of the Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2006-01-01

    from 1998 to 2001 extensive wave tank testing on a scale model was carried at Aalborg University. Then, a 57!27 m wide and 237 tonnes heavy (incl. ballast) prototype of the Wave Dragon, placed in Nissum Bredning, Denmark, was grid connected in May 2003 as the world’s first offshore wave energy...... converter. The prototype is fully equipped with hydro turbines and automatic control systems, and is instrumented in order to monitor power production, wave climate, forces in mooring lines, stresses in the structure and movements of the Wave Dragon. In the period May 2003 to January 2005 an extensive...

  3. Prototype Testing of the Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter Bak; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2004-01-01

    from 1998 to 2001 extensive wave tank testing on a scale model was carried at Aalborg University. Then, a 57 x 27 m wide and 237 tonnes heavy (incl. ballast) prototype of the Wave Dragon, placed in Nissum Bredning, Denmark, was grid connected in May 2003 as the world's first offshore wave energy...... converter. The prototype is fully equipped with hydro turbines and automatic control systems, and is instrumented in order to monitor power production, wave climate, forces in mooring lines, stresses in the structure and movements of the Wave Dragon. During the last months, extensive testing has started...

  4. Modelling of Non-Linear Pilot Disinfection Water System: A Bond Graph Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Naoufel ZITOUNI; Ridha ANDOULSI; Anis SELAMI; Abdelkader MAMI; Hssen ABDENNASSEUR

    2012-01-01

    The ultraviolet (UV) irradiations are used to solve the bacteriological problem of the drinking water quality. A discharge-gas lamp is used to produce this type of irradiation. The UV lamp is fed by photovoltaic (PV) energy via electronic ballast composed by an inverter, a transformer and resonant circuit (RLC). The aim of this work is to give a useful global model of the system. In particular, we introduce the complicated UV lamp model and the water disinfection kinetics, where the radiant e...

  5. Report of the EMI Testing of the Johnson Noise Thermometry System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton Jr., Charles L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roberts, Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report summarizes the Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) testing of the Johnson Noise Thermometry System developed at ORNL. The EMI performance is very important for Johnson Noise Thermometry because it requires accurate measurement of a very small noise signal that is amplified 10,000 times. Any interference in the form on pickup from external signal sources from such as fluorescent lighting ballasts, motors, etc. can skew the measurement. Testing is therefore very important in determining the effects of these external noise sources. Results from testing in several environments with various sources of EMI are presented here.

  6. Theoretical thermal-hydraulic investigations of the operational and safety features of the cold D2-moderator for SINQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skala, K.; Spitzer, H.; Bauer, G.S.

    1991-01-01

    In order to be able to investigate the behaviour of the gas-liquid mixture in the rather complex vessel and pipe system of the cold D 2 -moderator with heat exchanger and ballast volume, a computational model of the system has been set up. The model was first benchmarked against experimental data from the cold moderator mockup for the second cold source at the ILL Grenoble. It was then used to predict operational parameters such as pressure, velocity, moisture content and others of the system under normal conditions with the anticipated distribution of heat influx. Finally, the case of total loss of insulating vacuum was investigated. (author)

  7. The invasion of five alien species in the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebmann, Daniel; Mai, Ana Cecília G; Lee, James T

    2010-09-01

    Marine biological invasions have been regarded as one of the major causes of native biodiversity loss, with shipping and aquaculture being the leading contributors for the introductions of alien species in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, five aquatic alien species (one mollusk, three crustaceans and one fish species) were detected during dives, shore searches and from the fisheries on the coast of the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, in the States of Piauí and Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil. The species were the bicolor purse-oyster Isognomon bicolor, the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the Indo-Pacific swimming crab Charybdis hellerii and, the muzzled blenny Omobranchus punctatus. Ballast water (I. bicolor, C. hellerii, and O. punctatus) and aquaculture activities (L. vannamei and M. rosenbergii) in adjacent areas are the most likely vectors of introduction. All exotic species found have potential impact risks to the environment because they are able to compete against native species for resources (food and habitat). Isognomon bicolor share the same habitat and food items with the native bivalve species of mussels and barnacles. Litopenaeus vannamei share the same habitat and food items with the native penaeids such as the pinkspot shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, the Southern brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus subtilis, and the Southern white shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti, and in the past few years L. vannamei was responsible for a viral epidemics in the cultivation tanks that could be transmitted to native penaeid shrimps. Charybdis hellerii is also able to cause impacts on the local fisheries as the species can decrease the populations of native portunid crabs which are commercialized in the studied region. Macrobrachium rosenbergii may be sharing natural resources with the Amazon River prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum. Omobranchus punctatus shares habit with the native redlip blenny

  8. Open Architecture Framework for Improved Early Stage Submarine Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Figure 12 Data Structure Example – VPH ..................................................................................... 41 Figure 13 SUBSTART Data...in the MIT SMM (e.g. – VPH -VB, pressure hull volume without volume of the in-hull variable ballast). Tables 4 and 5 list the variables by module...MUD1frac FFsurf θ(x,t) V(t) VPH ∆ff VCGLEADs BTf MUDfwd GMt R(x) Vambt VPHguess ∆mbt VCGnsc BTops OBambt ηa tenvsurf Vaux VPH -VB ∆nsc VCGVL

  9. Alien invasive species and biological pollution of the Great Lakes Basin ecosystem[Great Lakes Water Quality Board : Report to the International Joint Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    The displacement of important native species in the Great Lakes is a result of an invasion by a succession of non indigenous aquatic species. These invasion also resulted in interference with the proper human water uses and cost billions of dollars. The problem was considered serious enough that the International Joint Commission asked the Great Lakes Water Quality Board in 1999 to review the regulations in place and make recommendations, if necessary, for the implementation of additional measures that could be considered to keep control over the introduction of alien invasive species. Escapes from aquaria, aquaculture, research and educational facilities, canal and diversion water flows, and release of live bait are all sources of this invasion. The effectiveness of alternative technologies to control the invasion was to be examined by the Board. Other efforts taking place to address the situation in the basin are being complemented by the publication of this report. It is considered that the most important source of alien invasive species (AIS) to the Great Lakes is the discharge of ballast water from shipping vessels coming from outside the United States and Canada. A major concern is the role played by vessels reporting no ballast on board (NOBOB) upon entering the basin. A number of recommendations were made concerning: (1) implementation and enforcement of the ballast water discharge standards agreed upon by both countries, (2) the evaluation of the effectiveness of alternative technologies to achieve ballast water discharge standards over the long term, combined with the use of chemical treatment while the evaluation is being performed, (3) the implementation of optimal management practices to control sediments in shipping vessels, (4) modifications to the design of shipping vessels, and (5) the monitoring and contingency plans in the event of a repeat scenario in the future. Composed of an equal number representatives from the United States and Canada, at

  10. Využití hydrofóbních materiálů na bázi oxidu zirkoničitého pro úpravu vzorku

    OpenAIRE

    Nezvedová, Markéta

    2015-01-01

    - 1 - Abstract Application of hydrophobic materials based on zirconium dioxide for sample pre-treatment Rigorous thesis Mgr. Markéta Nezvedová Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Drug Analysis Heyrovského 1203, Hradec Králové. In case of an analysis of a biological sample it is necessary to pre-treat the sample before the HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) analysis. The aim is to remove ballast components, ...

  11. CISM course on mechanical behaviour of soils under environmentally induced cyclic loads

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, David; Mechanical Behaviour of Soils Under Environmentally Induced Cyclic Loads

    2012-01-01

    The book gives a comprehensive description of the mechanical response of soils (granular and cohesive materials) under cyclic loading. It provides the geotechnical engineer with the theoretical and analytical tools necessary for the evaluation of settlements developng with time under cyclic, einvironmentally idncued loads (such as wave motion, wind actions, water table level variation) and their consequences for the serviceability and durability of structures such as the shallow or deep foundations used in offshore engineering, caisson beakwaters, ballast and airport pavements and also to interpret monitoring data, obtained from both natural and artificial slopes and earth embankments, for the purposes of risk assessment and mitigation.

  12. Innovative signal processing for Johnson Noise thermometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezell, N. Dianne Bull [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Britton, Jr, Charles L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roberts, Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This report summarizes the newly developed algorithm that subtracted the Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). The EMI performance is very important to this measurement because any interference in the form on pickup from external signal sources from such as fluorescent lighting ballasts, motors, etc. can skew the measurement. Two methods of removing EMI were developed and tested at various locations. This report also summarizes the testing performed at different facilities outside Oak Ridge National Laboratory using both EMI removal techniques. The first EMI removal technique reviewed in previous milestone reports and therefore this report will detail the second method.

  13. Lifecycle Assessments of Railway Bridge Transitions Exposed to Extreme Climate Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadudee Setsobhonkul

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Railway track components located at bridge transition zones or approach areas suffer from impact load and vibrations caused by abrupt changes in track stiffness on the bridge and the subgrade. The numerous strategies that can be used to mitigate these abrupt track stiffness changes rely on one of two concepts. The first concept is that of providing a gradual stiffness change, and the second is that of equalizing the track stiffness. A number of such mitigation methods have been developed and implemented over recent decades. Construction activities associated with these methods require various materials, processes, and uses of time, costs, and carbon emissions. In this study, eight of the most common techniques for railway bridge transition mitigation, including under ballast mats (UBMs, soft baseplates, under sleeper pads (USPs, rail pads, embankment treatments, transition slabs, ballast bonding, and wide sleepers, are compared. This study benchmarks the costs and carbon emissions of these eight mitigation techniques over the 50-year lifespan of a railway system subject to identical probabilities of four environmental scenarios: a control case, extremely high temperatures, extremely low temperatures, and flash flooding. This unprecedented study systemically investigates the effectiveness of the mitigation methods while considering the effects of 30 and 100 m bridge span lengths. Our results indicate that railway engineers should adopt different mitigation methods for different scenarios. The soft baseplate is the most appropriate method for a short-span bridge in the control case and the case of flash flooding, while ballast bonding is better for long-span railway bridges. Embankment treatment is recommended for both high- and low-extreme temperatures. However, its applicability is limited when the differential track stiffness is extremely high. Hence, alternatives that are 5–25% more expensive are proposed in parallel. The alternative

  14. Buildings sector demand-side efficiency technology summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koomey, J.G.; Johnson, F.X.; Schuman, J. [and others

    1994-03-01

    This report provides descriptions of the following energy efficiency technologies: energy management systems; electronic fluorescent ballasts; compact fluorescent lamps; lighting controls; room air conditioners; high albedo materials, coatings and paints; solar domestic water heaters; heat pump water heaters; energy-efficient motors; adjustable-speed drives; energy-efficient refrigerators; daylight control glazing; insulating glazing; solar control glazing; switchable glazing; tree planting; and advanced insulation. For each technology, the report provides a description of performance characteristics, consumer utility, development status, technology standards, equipment cost, installation, maintenance, conservation programs, and environmental impacts.

  15. Airships for transporting highly volatile commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonstegaard, M.

    1975-01-01

    Large airships may prove feasible as carriers of commodities that move as gases or cryogenic liquids; buoyant gaseous cargo could be ballasted with liquid cargo. Airships are compact in shape, operate in a rarified medium, and hence can be fast and perhaps economic carriers of costly cryogenic tanks. The high-pressure gas pipeline has excessive surface area when carrying hydrogen and excessive fluid density when carrying natural gas, while the cryogenic ocean tanker runs in a dense medium and makes gravity waves. But the airship, despite its fluid dynamic advantages, faces problems of safety, weather, and altitude control.

  16. Double hull oil tankers - how effective are they?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, V.F.

    1993-01-01

    The groundings of the Exxon Valdez on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, spilling more than 10 million gallons of Alaska North Slope crude, and the American Trader off Huntington Beach, spilling almost 400,000 gallons of Alaska North Slope crude, suggest that the construction of oil tankers be re-examined with respect to a design which could reduce both the number and magnitude of oil spills. This paper discusses state-of-the-art tanker technology with respect to spill prevention, effectiveness, and cost. The design features include double hulls, centralized bunker tankers, vacuum-retaining valves, cargo control systems, auxiliary thrusters, electronic charting, and the retransmission of the ship's position. Double hulls provide the highest probability of surviving damage, either from a collision or grounding, with no loss of cargo. Use of double hulls can reduce oil spill incidence by 90 percent in grounding situations and by 75 percent in collisions. The oil spill from the AmericanTrader could have been completely avoided by double hull construction. The arrangement provides spaces below the cargo tanks and on the vessel's sides solely for the carriage of ballast water when the tanker is in ballast condition. These tanks are empty when the tanker is loaded and then also act as the first line of defense in the event of structural damage to the cargo tanks. Tanker design is integrated with port safety measures, including vessel monitoring systems, in this total spill prevention analysis. All aspects of the tanker transportation system are considered

  17. Drawbar Pull and Its Effect on the Weight Distribution of a Tractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Polcar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to experimentally determine how the tractor’s weight distribution changes during loading by drawbar pull, and how the tractor’s weight affects its drawbar pull properties. Drive wheel ballasting has a significant effect on the drawbar pull and wheel slip of the tractor - travelling gear losses. To achieve these objectives, we conducted experimental measurements on the tractor Case IH Magnum 370 CVX. The results show that higher drawbar pull is achieved in tractors with a higher weight. The measured increase of drawbar pull was 15,8 kN between maximal and minimal weight (∆ 2320 kg. All variants show an equal percentage increase in the weight on the rear axle of the tractor (+ 6 %. Increasing the tractor’s weight affected the drawbar pull as well as the wheel slip. As the tractor’s weight increases, there is a smaller increase in wheel slip as the drawbar pull increases. The results confirmed that tractor ballasting is important in order to achieve optimum drawbar pull properties, but it is necessary to keep in mind that the higher the weight of the machine or equipment, the larger the effect on the soil.

  18. Marine oxygen holes as a consequence of oceanic acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, M.; Schellnhuber, H.-J.

    2009-04-01

    An increase of atmospheric CO2 levels will not only drive future global mean temperatures towards values unprecedented during the whole Quaternary, but will also lead to an acidification of sea water which could harm the marine biota. Here we assess possible impacts of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations on the marine biological carbon pump by utilizing a business-as-usual emission scenario of anthropogenic CO2. A corresponding release of 4075 Petagrams of Carbon in total has been applied to simulate the current millennium by employing an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity (EMIC). This work is focused on studying the implications of reduced biogenic calcification caused by an increasing degree of oceanic acidification on the marine biological carbon pump. The attenuation of biogenic calcification imposes a small negative feedback on rising atmospheric pCO2 levels, tending to stabilize the Earth's climate. Since mineral ballast, notably particulate CaCO3, plays a dominant role in carrying organic matter through the water column, a reduction of its export fluxes weakens the strength of the biological carbon pump. There is, however, a dramatic effect discovered in our model world with severe consequences: since organic matter is oxidized in shallow waters when mineral-ballast fluxes weaken, oxygen holes (hypoxic zones) start to expand considerably in the oceans with potentially harmful impacts on a variety of marine ecosystems. Our study indicates that unbridled ocean acidification would exacerbate the observed hypoxia trends due to various environmental factors as reported in recent empirical studies.

  19. Backfilling of deposition tunnels, in situ alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keto, P.

    2007-04-01

    The backfilling process described in this report is based on in situ compaction of a mixture of bentonite and ballast (30:70) into the deposition tunnel. This method has been tested in practice in various field tests by SKB, most recently in the Prototype repository test performed at Aespoe HRL. The backfill mixture is prepared above ground and transported to the repository level with a tank truck. The material is compacted into layers with an inclination of 35 deg C and a thickness of approximately 20 cm. The compaction is performed with a vibratory plate attached to a boom of an excavator. In order to keep up with the required canister installation rate determined for the Finnish repository, at least 13 layers need to be compacted daily. This means working in 2-3 shifts on the working days that are available for backfilling operations. The dry densities achieved in field tests for the wall/roof section of the backfill have been insufficient compared with the dry density criteria set for the backfill. In theory, it may be possible to reach dry densities that fulfil the criteria, although with a relatively small safety margin. Another open issue is whether the mixture of bentonite and ballast has sufficient self-healing ability to seal-off erosion channels after the tunnels have been closed and the backfill has reached full saturation. (orig.)

  20. Laser damage to marine plankton and its application to checking biofouling and invasion by aquatic species: a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandakumar, Kanavillil; Obika, Hideki; Sreekumari, Kurissery; Utsumi, Akihiro; Ooie, Toshihiko; Yano, Tetsuo

    2009-01-01

    In this laboratory study, the ability of low-power pulsed laser irradiation to kill planktonic organisms in a flowing water system was examined, thus, to test the possibility of using this technique as a water treatment strategy to reduce biofouling growth in condenser tubes of power plants and to reduce bioinvasion via the ballast water of ships. Two flow rates (4.6 and 9.0 l h(-1)) were tested on three planktonic organisms: two marine centric diatoms viz. Skeletonema costatum and Chaetoceros gracilis and a dinoflagellate, Heterocapsa circularisquama. A low-power pulsed laser irradiation at 532 nm with a fluence of 0.1 J cm(-2) from a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser was used as the irradiation source. The laser irradiation resulted in a heavy mortality of the test cells. The mortality observed was >90% for S. costatum and H. circularisqama and >70% for C. gracilis. The results suggest that laser irradiation has the potential to act as a water treatment strategy to reduce biofouling of condenser tubes in power plants as well as to reduce species invasion via the ballast water of ships.