WorldWideScience

Sample records for ballast water

  1. Infested ballast water; Spoekelser i ballasten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaland, Leif

    2001-07-01

    Ballast water discharged into harbours and coastal waters often brings unwanted organisms from distant regions (non-indigenous species). Some of the species that have come this way and that are now threatening Norwegian coasts and rivers are red algae, ghost shrimps (Caprella linearis) and the Japanese alga Sargassum muticum. Norway receives between 15 and 30 million tonnes of ballast water each year. International regulations about ballast water will not appear for many years, and in the meantime Norway is evaluating national immediate measures. Some ship owners in some countries are purifying the ballast water. However, harmful non-indigenous species may also come from mariculture.

  2. Assessment of didecyldimethylammonium chloride as a ballast water treatment method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Slooten, Cees; Buma, Anita; Peperzak, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Ballast water-mediated transfer of aquatic invasive species is considered a major threat to marine biodiversity, marine industry and human health. A ballast water treatment is needed to comply with International Maritime Organization (IMO) ballast water discharge regulations. Didecyldimethylammonium

  3. Modelling Ballast Water Transport

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, S.; Babu, M.T.; Vethamony, P.

    , pipelines, water intake, marine outfall and single point moorings associated with refineries. Some of the coastal areas are natural habitats for rich vegetation, especially mangroves. Fig. 1. Gulf of Kachchh: bathymetry and morphological features...

  4. 33 CFR 151.1510 - Ballast water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ballast water management. 151..., AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in the Great Lakes and Hudson River § 151.1510 Ballast water management. (a) The master of each vessel subject to this...

  5. Ballast Water Treatment Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides functionality for the full-scale testing and controlled simulation of ship ballasting operations for assessment of aquatic nuisance species (ANS)...

  6. Ballast water research in France : Current status

    OpenAIRE

    Masson, Daniel; Courtois, Olivier; Masson, Nadine; Guesdon, Stephane; Rocher, Gregory

    2000-01-01

    Due to important economic activities along the French oastline, the introduction of noxious organisms into French coastal waters, particularly by ship ballast water, may have serious consequences. After preliminary studies of ship movements in Charente Maritime, several samplings of ballast water and sediment were made. Samples were taken in five major harbours in France, along the Atlantic, Channel and Mediterranean coastlines. The main task of this first assessment was the research for exot...

  7. Ballast water research at the WFRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinson, Lyman

    2006-01-01

    Invasive aquatic species are considered to be one of the greatest threats to marine biodiversity, coastal economies, and even human health. Ballast water is a primary vector for these bioinvasions. One method of reducing risk of ballast water introductions is mid-ocean exchange of marine ballast water. However, it is widely recognized that this practice has many limitations, including serious ship safety concerns and variable biological effectiveness. International agencies and federal, state and local governments are attempting to tackle the problem by recommending or mandating the installation of ballast water treatment systems. The WFRC is working with others to develop new technologies to detect, prevent, and control aquatic invasive species impacts in Puget Sound and the Pacific Northwest.

  8. 33 CFR 151.2040 - What are the mandatory ballast water management requirements for vessels equipped with ballast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast... international laws or regulations. Ballast water carried in any tank containing a residue of oil, NLS, or any... water management requirements for vessels equipped with ballast tanks that operate in the waters of...

  9. Testing Ballast Water Treatment at a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Andrew N.

    2001-01-01

    The main goal of the project was to investigate the feasibility of treating ships' ballast water in existing municipal wastewater treatment plants (= publicly-owned treatment works or POTWs). The main objectives included identifying and characterizing the limiting factors that could restrict the volume of ballast water that can be treated at POTWs; and test, in a series of laboratory experiments, the effectiveness of standard municipal wastewater treatment in removing or killing ballast water...

  10. 33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ballast water and/or sediment that were taken onboard the vessel outside the EEZ shall: (1) Conduct a... safely taken onboard at one time. The master of the vessel is responsible for ensuring the safety of the vessel, crew, and passengers. Vessels reporting only residual ballast water onboard shall take...

  11. Feasibility studies in relation to the IMO Ballast Water Convention

    OpenAIRE

    Tamis, J.E.; Kaag, N.H.B.M.; Karman, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    This project is aimed to develop possibilities to overcome the difficulties which arise from the implementation of the Ballast Water Convention (IMO 2004). For this purpose, three feasibility studies have been conducted: assessment of the applicability of small scale test systems; development of protocols for testing active substance residues; risk assessment of ballast water discharge.

  12. WET-tests on UV-treated ballast water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaag, N.H.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    Damen Shipyards has developed a barge-based ballast water management system (BWMS) that enables direct treatment of ballast water during discharge in a receiving harbour. The treatment is based upon filtration and a once-through UV-treatment. As part of the Type Approval process, the Dutch Authoriti

  13. Inspection and in situ impedance measurements for ballast water tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Buter, S.; Ferrari, G.; Prent, C.S.W.

    2012-01-01

    The application of coatings in ballast water tanks is critical for the safety of cargo ships. International Maritime Organization (IMO) has delivered a standard for the protection of water ballast tanks in which new built cargo vessels have to comply with {resolution MSC.215(82)}. In case the proced

  14. Ballast water risk assessment in the North Sea. Evaluating ballast water management exemption in the North Sea region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer van der, Ruurd

    2012-01-01

    Summary Ships translocate organisms across the world via on-board ballast water. When a ship releases its ballast water these organism are released as well. They might have the advantage of not having any natural enemies in their new environment and they

  15. Emerging risks from ballast water treatment: The run-up to the International Ballast Water Management Convention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werschkun, B.; Banerji, S.; Basurko, O.C.; David, M.; Fuhr, F; Gollasch, S.; Grummt, T.; Haarich, M.; Jha, A.N.; Kacan, S.; Kehrer, A.; Linders, J.; Mesbahi, E.; Pughiuc, D.; Richardson, S.D.; Schwarz-Schulz, B.; Shah, A.; Theobald, N.; von Gunten, U.; Wieck, S.; Hofer, T.

    2014-01-01

    Uptake and discharge of ballast water by ocean-going ships contribute to the worldwide spread of aquatic invasive species, with negative impacts on the environment, economies, and public health. The International Ballast Water Management Convention aims at a global answer. The agreed standards for b

  16. Harmful aquatic organisms in ballast water: application for basic approval of the VARUNA ballast water treatment system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jak, R.G.; Jongbloed, R.H.; Sneekes, A.C.; Kaag, N.H.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    This document contains the non-confidential information related to the application for Basic Approval of the VARUNA Ballast Water Treatment System submitted in accordance with the Procedure for approval of ballast water management systems that make use of Active Substances (G9) adopted by resolution

  17. 33 CFR 151.1514 - Ballast water management alternatives under extraordinary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ballast water management... SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in the Great Lakes and Hudson River § 151.1514 Ballast water management alternatives...

  18. WET-tests on UV-treated ballast water

    OpenAIRE

    Kaag, N.H.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    Damen Shipyards has developed a barge-based ballast water management system (BWMS) that enables direct treatment of ballast water during discharge in a receiving harbour. The treatment is based upon filtration and a once-through UV-treatment. As part of the Type Approval process, the Dutch Authorities (IL&T) required an Environmental Acceptability document, based upon Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) testing on freshwater and marine water, in order to ensure that no harmful levels of dis-inf...

  19. Implications of heterogeneous distributions of organisms on ballast water sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Eliardo G; Lopes, Rubens M; Singer, Julio M

    2015-02-15

    Ballast water sampling is one of the problems still needing investigation in order to enforce the D-2 Regulation of the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ship Ballast Water and Sediments. Although statistical "representativeness" of the sample is an issue usually discussed in the literature, neither a definition nor a clear description of its implications are presented. In this context, we relate it to the heterogeneity of the distribution of organisms in ballast water and show how to specify compliance tests under different models based on the Poisson and negative binomial distributions. We provide algorithms to obtain minimum sample volumes required to satisfy fixed limits on the probabilities of Type I and II errors. We show that when the sample consists of a large number of aliquots, the Poisson model may be employed even under moderate heterogeneity of the distribution of the organisms in the ballast water tank. PMID:25510550

  20. 33 CFR 151.2035 - What are the required ballast water management practices for my vessel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... water management practices for my vessel? 151.2035 Section 151.2035 Navigation and Navigable Waters... SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2035 What are the required ballast water...

  1. 33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ballast water management. 151.1518 Section 151.1518 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of... water management. (a) A person who violates this subpart is liable for a civil penalty in an amount...

  2. Ballast water: a threat to the Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Newton Narciso; Botter, Rui Carlos; Folena, Rafael Dompieri; Pereira, José Pinheiro Fragoso Neto; da Cunha, Alan Cavalcanti

    2014-07-15

    Ballast water exchange (BWE) is the most efficient measure to control the invasion of exotic species from ships. This procedure is being used for merchant ships in national and international voyages. The ballast water (BW) salinity is the main parameter to evaluate the efficacy of the mid-ocean ballast water exchange. The vessels must report to the Port State Control (PSC), via ballast water report (BWR), where and how the mid-ocean BWE was performed. This measure allows the PSC to analyze this information before the ship arrives at the port, and to decide whether or not it should berth. Ship BW reporting forms were collected from the Captaincy of Santana and some ships were visited near the Port of Santana, located in Macapá (Amazon River), to evaluate the BW quality onboard. We evaluated data submitted in these BWR forms and concluded that the BWE efficacy might be compromised, because data contained in these BWR indicate that some ships did not change their BW. We found mistakes in filling the BWR forms and lack of information. Moreover, these ships had discharged BW with high level of salinity, Escherichia coli and total coliforms into the Amazon River. We concluded that the authorities of the Amazon Region need to develop more efficient proceedings to evaluate the ballast water reporting forms and BW quality, as there is potential risk of future invasion of exotic species in Brazilian ports.

  3. 33 CFR 157.33 - Water ballast in fuel oil tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water ballast in fuel oil tanks... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.33 Water ballast in fuel oil tanks. A new vessel may not carry ballast water in a fuel oil tank....

  4. Regrowth in ship's ballast water tanks: Think again!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Carolina; Pollet, Bruno G

    2016-08-15

    With the imminent ratification of the International Maritime Organisation's Ballast Water Management Convention, ship owners and operators will have to choose among a myriad of different Ballast Water Treatment Systems (BWTS) and technologies to comply with established discharge standards. However, it has come to our attention that decision-makers seem to be unaware of the problem of regrowth occurring in ballast water tanks after treatment. Furthermore, the information available on the subject in the literature is surprisingly and unfortunately very limited. Herein we summarise previous research findings that suggest that regrowth of bacteria and phytoplankton could occur 18h to 7days and 4 to 20days after treatment, respectively. By highlighting the problem of regrowth, we would like to encourage scientists and engineers to further investigate this issue and to urge ship owners and ship operators to inform themselves on the risks of regrowth associated with the implementation of different BWTS. PMID:27184126

  5. Regrowth in ship's ballast water tanks: Think again!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Carolina; Pollet, Bruno G

    2016-08-15

    With the imminent ratification of the International Maritime Organisation's Ballast Water Management Convention, ship owners and operators will have to choose among a myriad of different Ballast Water Treatment Systems (BWTS) and technologies to comply with established discharge standards. However, it has come to our attention that decision-makers seem to be unaware of the problem of regrowth occurring in ballast water tanks after treatment. Furthermore, the information available on the subject in the literature is surprisingly and unfortunately very limited. Herein we summarise previous research findings that suggest that regrowth of bacteria and phytoplankton could occur 18h to 7days and 4 to 20days after treatment, respectively. By highlighting the problem of regrowth, we would like to encourage scientists and engineers to further investigate this issue and to urge ship owners and ship operators to inform themselves on the risks of regrowth associated with the implementation of different BWTS.

  6. Microbial dynamics in acetate-enriched ballast water at different temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stehouwer, P.P.; van Slooten, C.; Peperzak, L.

    2013-01-01

    The spread of invasive species through ships' ballast water is considered as a major ecological threat to the world's oceans. For that reason, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has set performance standards for ballast water discharge. Ballast water treatment systems have been developed

  7. Chemical assessment of ballast water exchange compliance: Implementation in North America and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monaca eNoble

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence by naturally occurring dissolved organic matter (FDOM is a sensitive indicator of ballast water source, with high FDOM in coastal ballast water decreasing typically dramatically when replaced by oceanic seawater during ballast water exchange. In this study, FDOM was measured in 92 ships arriving at Pacific ports on the US west coast and in New Zealand, and used to assess their compliance with ballast water regulations that required 95% replacement of port water to minimize invasive species risks. Fluorescence in many ships that reported ballast water exchange was significantly higher than is usual for oceanic seawater, and in several cases, significantly higher than in other ships with similar provenance and ballast water management. Pre-exchange source port conditions represented the largest source of uncertainty in the analysis, because residual coastal FDOM when highly fluorescent can significantly influence the fluorescence signature of exchanged ballast water. A meta-analysis comparing the intensities of FDOM in un-exchanged ballast tanks with calculated pre-exchange intensities assuming that ships all correctly implemented and reported ballast water exchange revealed notable discrepancies. Thus, the incidence of high-FDOM port waters was seven times lower in reality than would be expected on the basis of these calculations. The results suggest that a significant rate of reporting errors occur due to a combination of factors that may include inadequate ballast water exchange and unintentional or deliberate misreporting of ballast water management.

  8. Eradication of algae in ships' ballast water by electrolyzing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DANG Kun; SUN Pei-ting; XIAO Jing-kun; SONG Yong-xin

    2006-01-01

    In order to verify the effectiveness of electrolytic treatment on ships' ballast water,experiments are carried out by a pilot system in laboratory. The raw seawater and seawater with different concentrations of different algae are simulated as ships' ballast water. The algae in the raw seawater can be killed if it is treated by electrolysis with an initial residual chlorine concentration of 5 mg/L. If the seawater with one kind of algae (Nitzschia closterum, Dicrateria spp., or Pyramidomonnas sp.105cells/mL) is treated by electrolysis with an initial residual chlorine concentration of 5 mg/L, the alga can be sterilized. If the seawater with one kind of algae (Dunaliella sp., Platymonas or Chlorella spp.)is directly treated by electrolyzing with an initial residual chlorine concentration of 4 mg/L, the instant mortality changes with the concentration of different algae. However, after 72 hours, in all treated samples, there are no live algal cells found.

  9. Characterization of ballasted flocs in water treatment using microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Mathieu; Barbeau, Benoit

    2016-03-01

    Ballasted flocculation is widely used in the water industry for drinking water, municipal wastewater, storm water and industrial water treatment. This gravity-based physicochemical separation process involves the injection of a ballasting agent, typically microsand, to increase the floc density and size. However, the physical characteristics of the final ballasted flocs are still ill-defined. A microscopic method was specifically developed to characterize floc 1) density, 2) size and 3) shape factor. Using this information, probability density functions (PDFs) of the floc settling velocity were calculated. The impacts of the mixing intensity, polymer dosage, microsand size and contact time during the floc maturation phase were assessed. No correlation was identified between the floc diameter, form and density PDFs. The floc equivalent diameter mainly controls the settling velocity (r = 0.94), with the floc density (r = 0.26) and shape factor (r = 0.25) having lower impacts. A velocity gradient of 165 s(-1) was optimal to maintain the microsand in suspension while simultaneously maximizing the floc diameter. An anionic high molecular weight polyacrylamide formed 1.5-fold larger aggregates compared with the starch-based polymer tested, but both polymers produced flocs of similar density (relative density = 1.53 ± 0.03). Generally, the floc mean settling velocity is a good predictor of the turbidity removal. An in-depth analysis of the floc characteristics indicates a correlation between the floc size and the largest microsand grain potentially embeddable in the floc structure. PMID:26724446

  10. Effects of various ballast water treatment methods on the survival of phytoplankton and bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stehouwer, P.P.

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species are among the worst threats to marine biodiversity. The main vector for the spread of these aquatic invasive species is ships’ ballast water. Because of this, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopted the Ballast Water Convention. Part of this convention is the D

  11. Ballast water treatment techniques: review and suggestions regarding use in the Arctic and Great Lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den A.M.; Kaag, N.H.B.M.; Sneekes, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    The retreating ice cover opens up the opportunity for new shipping routes, and consequently shipping traffic in the Arctic region is increasing and with this the risk of introducing non-indigenous species (NIS) via ballast water. Ballast water must therefore be treated to prevent the transport of NI

  12. Development and testing of a rapid, sensitive ATP assay to detect living organisms in ballast water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Slooten, C.; Wijers, T,; Buma, A.G.J.; Peperzak, L.

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the spread of aquatic invasive species, the discharge of ballast water by ships will soon be compulsorily regulated by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the United States Coast Guard (USCG). Compliance with their regulations will have to be achieved by onboard ballast water

  13. A unique aspect of ballast water management requirements – The same location concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under certain circumstances vessels do not need to meet ballast water management requirements as stated in the International Convention for the Management and Control of Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM Convention). Besides exceptions to ensure e.g., (a) the safety of a ship, (b) discharge of ballast water for the purpose of avoiding or minimizing pollution incidents, (c) uptake and discharge on high seas of the same ballast water, the same location concept comes into play as ballast water discharges from a ship at the same location where it was taken up is also excepted from BWM requirements. The term same location was not defined in this instrument, hence it is exposed to different interpretations (e.g., a terminal, a port, a larger area where two or more ports may be located). As the BWM Convention is an instrument with biological meaning, the authors recommend a biologically meaningful definition of the same location in this contribution.

  14. Ballast water regulations and the move toward concentration-based numeric discharge limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Ryan J; Lishman, John M; Saxena, Juhi R

    2013-03-01

    Ballast water from shipping is a principal source for the introduction of nonindigenous species. As a result, numerous government bodies have adopted various ballast water management practices and discharge standards to slow or eliminate the future introduction and dispersal of these nonindigenous species. For researchers studying ballast water issues, understanding the regulatory framework is helpful to define the scope of research needed by policy makers to develop effective regulations. However, for most scientists, this information is difficult to obtain because it is outside the standard scientific literature and often difficult to interpret. This paper provides a brief review of the regulatory framework directed toward scientists studying ballast water and aquatic invasive species issues. We describe different approaches to ballast water management in international, U.S. federal and state, and domestic ballast water regulation. Specifically, we discuss standards established by the International Maritime Organization (IMO), the U.S. Coast Guard and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and individual states in the United States including California, New York, and Minnesota. Additionally, outside the United States, countries such as Australia, Canada, and New Zealand have well-established domestic ballast water regulatory regimes. Different approaches to regulation have recently resulted in variations between numeric concentration-based ballast water discharge limits, particularly in the United States, as well as reliance on use of ballast water exchange pending development and adoption of rigorous science-based discharge standards. To date, numeric concentration-based discharge limits have not generally been based upon a thorough application of risk-assessment methodologies. Regulators, making decisions based on the available information and methodologies before them, have consequently established varying standards, or not established standards at all. The

  15. Simulation of gamma irradiation system for a ballast water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Invasion by different kinds of ballast the water microorganisms is one of the most important marine environment problems around the world therefore preventing the invasion of these unwanted and harmful stowaways is one of the main strategies of responsible agencies. Some of these methods such as ocean exchange, heating, filtration, hydro cyclones, UV irradiation and chemical treatment, have various problems such as technical deficiency, high costs, lack of safety and environmental side effects. Materials and Methods: A novel system of treatment by Gamma irradiation is designed to irradiate the blast water uniformly and effectively. To determine the dose distribution as a function of distance from the irradiation source, the MCNP code was used. The systems used for source implant in this simulation were Paterson-Parker, Paris and Network systems. In each system, Sivert-integral and inverse square law were used in MATLAB program to determine the dose distribution. Results: Results of initial laboratory tests on offshore water samples of Siri Island indicated that the appropriate dose for deactivation of organisms of water samples is approximately one kGy. It has been demonstrated that the dose can be provided by twenty five 100,000 Ci line sources of '60Co in a triangle implant arranged in a 1*1*1 m3 cubic shape water pipe. In order to increase efficiency and radiation safety, water passed from two other coaxial and bigger cubes, after passing from the first cube. A one meter thick wall of concrete around the cubes was adequate to shield the system completely. Conclusion: The main advantages of this system such as high efficiency, safety, reliability, minimum environmental adverse effects, proves that this novel method not only can be used for ballast water treatment, but is also effective for drinking water purification

  16. Comparison of SeaWiFS images with ballast water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozai, K.; Ishida, H.; Okamoto, K.; Fukuyo, Y.

    It has become a great concern among the international communities that the ship's ballast water causes marine environmental disturbances of coastal ecosystem. And the regulations and prohibitions of ballast water discharge have already been executed by some coastal countries and discussed by the International Maritime Organization. Since Japan is the one of the largest exporting countries of ballast water, it is important to investigate how the ballast water is exchanged at open seas and influences the surrounding waters. In collaboration with a LNG carrier of 110,000 gross tons onboard sampling and plankton analysis of the ballast water have been carried out during the six cruises between Japan and Qatar from May, 2002 to July, 2003. SeaWiFS images including the ballast water exchange areas along the ship's route were acquired and processsed by using SeaDAS. Based on the plankton analysis phytoplankton and zooplankton species were identified and their numbers of cell were counted for each ballast water exchange. Skeletonema costatum was identified as a species for most of the cruises. Prorocentrum minimum and Prorocentrum micans were also identified in one of the cruises. Furthermore it is found out that the observed cell density is highly correlated with the corresponding SeaWiFS-derived diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490nm.

  17. Numerical Investigation of a Liquid-Gas Ejector Used for Shipping Ballast Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueguan Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shipping ballast water can have significant ecological and economic impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Currently, water ejectors are widely used in marine applications for ballast water treatment owing to their high suction capability and reliability. In this communication, an improved ballast treatment system employing a liquid-gas ejector is introduced to clear the ballast water to reduce environmental risks. Commonly, the liquid-gas ejector uses ballast water as the primary fluid and chemical ozone as the secondary fluid. In this study, high-pressure water and air, instead of ballast water and ozone, are considered through extensive numerical and experimental research. The ejector is particularly studied by a steady three-dimensional multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD analysis with commercial software ANSYS-CFX 14.5. Different turbulence models (including standard k-ε, RNG k-ε, SST, and k-ω with different grid size and bubble size are compared extensively and the experiments are carried out to validate the numerical design and optimization. This study concludes that the RNG k-ε turbulence model is the most efficient and effective for the ballast water treatment system under consideration and simple change of nozzle shape can greatly improve the ejector performance under high back pressure conditions.

  18. Tests to evaluate the ecological impact of treated ballast water on three Chinese marine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanan; Wang, Zixi; Cai, Leiming; Cai, Xiang; Sun, Wenjun; Ma, Liqing

    2014-09-01

    Ballast water has been a topic of concern for some time because of its potential to introduce invasive species to new habitats. To comply with the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments, members of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) must equip their ships with on-board treatment systems to eliminate organism release with ballast water. There are many challenges associated with the implementation of this IMO guideline, one of which is the selection of species for testing the ecological impacts of the treated ballast water. In the United States, ballast water toxicity test methods have been defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. However, the test methods had not been finalized in China until the toxicity test methods for ballast water were established in 2008. The Chinese methods have been based on species from three trophic levels: Skeletonema costatum, Neomysis awatschensis, and Ctenogobius gymnauchen. All three species live in broad estuarine and open sea areas of China; they are sensitive to reference toxicants and acclimatize easily to different conditions. In this paper, the biological characteristics, test processes and statistical analysis methods are presented for the three species. Results indicate that the methods for evaluating these three organisms can be included in the ecological toxicity tests for treated ballast water in China.

  19. Treating ballast water with hydroxyl radical on introduced organisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With physical method of micro-gap gas discharge, a large amount of hydroxyl radical can be produced in 20t/h pilot-scale system using the ionization of O2 and H2O. In this paper, the effect of biochemistry of hydroxyl radicals on introduced organisms in ballast water was experimentally investigated. The results indicate that the contents of chlorophyl-a, chlorophyl-b, chlorophyl-c and carotenoid are decreased by 35%-64% within 8.0s and further to the lowest limit of test 5 minutes. In addition, the main reasons of cell death are the lipid peroxidation, the strong destruction to the monose, amylose, protein, DNA and RNA of cell, and damage in CAT, POD and SOD of antioxidant enzyme system.

  20. Characterization of Bacteria in Ballast Water Using MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Emami, K.; Askari, V.; Ullrich, M.; Mohinudeen, K.; Anil, A.C.; Khandeparker, L.; Burgess, J.G.; Mesbahi, E.

    and Methods Preparation of Artificial Ballast Water Seawater was collected from the Dove Marine Laboratory, Newcastle University, Cullercoats, North Tyneside (55u029000 N, 001u279000W) at low tide, from a depth of 2 m and also from Blyth harbour (55u089140N...:25 kV; Ion source 2:23.5 kV; Detection of Ballast Water Bacteria by MALDI-TOF PLoS ONE | www.plosone.org 2 June 2012 | Volume 7 | Issue 6 | e38515 Table 1. Identification of marine bacteria from artificial ballast water.*. IC Biotyper software ID BS 16S...

  1. Ballast water: a review of the impact on the world public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CK Takahashi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the nineteenth century ships have been using ballast water (BW for safety, stability, propulsion and maneuverability, as well as to redress loss of fuel weight and water consumption, and to maintain structural stress at acceptable levels. Ballast water has been spreading many non-native species around the globe, but little is known about the extent and potential significance of ship-mediated transfer of microorganisms. The global movements of ballast water by ships create a long-distance dispersal mechanism for human pathogens that may be important in the worldwide distribution of microorganisms, as well as for the epidemiology of waterborne diseases. Only a few studies have been carried out on this subject, most of them involving ballast water containing crustacean larvae and phytoplankton. Specialized microbiological studies on these waters are necessary to avoid a repeat of what happened in 1991, when epidemic cholera was reported in Peru and rapidly spread through Latin America and Mexico. In July of 1992, Vibrio cholerae was found in the USA and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA determined that it came from ballast water of ships whose last port of call was in South America. In Brazil, just a few studies about the subject have been performed. An exploratory study by the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária - ANVISA found in ballast water different microorganisms, such as fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Clostridium perfringens, coliphages, Vibrio cholerae O1 and Vibrio cholerae non-O1. Until now, Brazil has been focusing only on organisms transported to its territory from other countries by ballast water, to avoid their establishment and dissemination in Brazilian areas. Studies that can assess the probability that water ballast carries pathogenic microorganisms are extremely important, as is the examination of ships that arrive in the country

  2. All aboard! A biological survey of ballast water onboard vessels spanning the North Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steichen, Jamie L; Schulze, Anja; Brinkmeyer, Robin; Quigg, Antonietta

    2014-10-15

    Global movement of nonindigenous species, within ballast water tanks across natural barriers, threatens coastal and estuarine ecosystem biodiversity. In 2012, the Port of Houston ranked 10th largest in the world and 2nd in the US (waterborne tonnage). Ballast water was collected from 13 vessels to genetically examine the eukaryotic microorganism diversity being discharged into the Port of Houston, Texas (USA). Vessels took ballast water onboard in North Atlantic Ocean between the Port of Malabo, Africa and Port of New Orleans, Louisiana, (USA). Twenty genera of Protists, Fungi and Animalia were identified from at least 10 phyla. Dinoflagellates were the most diverse and dominant identified (Alexandrium, Exuviaella, Gyrodinium, Heterocapsa, Karlodinium, Pfiesteria and Scrippsiella). We are reporting the first detection of Picobiliphytes, Apusozoa (Amastigomonas) and Sarcinomyces within ballast water. This study supports that global commerce by shipping contributes to long-distance transportation of eukaryotic microorganisms, increasing propagule pressure and invasion supply on ecosystems.

  3. Diversity of bacteria in ships ballast water as revealed by next generation DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmeyer, Robin

    2016-06-15

    The bacterial diversity in ballast water from five general cargo ships calling at the Port of Houston was determined with ion semiconductor DNA sequencing (Ion Torrent PGM) of PCR amplified 16S rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the composition of bacteria in ballast water did not resemble that of typical marine habitats or even open ocean waters where BWEs occur. The predominant group of bacteria in ships conducting BWEs was the Roseobacter clade within the Alphaproteobacteria. In contrast, Gammaproteobacteria were predominant in the ship that did not conduct a BWE. All the ships contained human, fish, and terrestrial plant pathogens as well as bacteria indicative of fecal or activated sludge contamination. Most of the 60 pathogens had not been detected in ballast water previously. Among these were the human pathogens Corynebacterium diptheriae and several Legionella species and the fish pathogens Francisella piscicida and Piscirickettsia salmonis. PMID:27076378

  4. A Comparison of Microbial Water Quality and Diversity for Ballast and Tropical Harbor Waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmaine Ng

    Full Text Available Indicator organisms and antibiotic resistance were used as a proxy to measure microbial water quality of ballast tanks of ships, and surface waters in a tropical harbor. The survival of marine bacteria in ballast tanks appeared to diminish over longer water retention time, with a reduction of cell viability observed after a week based on heterotrophic plate counts. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes showed distinct differences in microbial composition of ballast and harbor waters. The harbor waters had a higher abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs assigned to Cyanobacteria (Synechococcus spp. and α-proteobacteria (SAR11 members, while marine hydrocarbon degraders such as γ-proteobacteria (Ocenspirillaes spp., Thiotrchales spp. and Bacteroidetes (Flavobacteriales spp. dominated the ballast water samples. Screening of indicator organisms found Escherichia coli (E. coli, Enterococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa in two or more of the ballast and harbor water samples tested. Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp. were detected exclusively in harbor water samples. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR, we screened for 13 antibiotic resistant gene (ARG targets and found higher abundances of sul1 (4.13-3.44 x 102 copies/mL, dfrA (0.77-1.80 x10 copies/mL and cfr (2.00-5.21 copies/mL genes compared to the other ARG targets selected for this survey. These genes encode for resistance to sulfonamides, trimethoprim and chloramphenicol-florfenicol antibiotics, which are also known to persist in sediments of aquaculture farms and coastal environments. Among the ARGs screened, we found significant correlations (P<0.05 between ereA, ermG, cfr and tetO genes to one or more of the indicator organisms detected in this study, which may suggest that these members contribute to the environmental resistome. This study provides a baseline water quality survey, quantitatively assessing indicators of antibiotic resistance, potentially pathogenic organisms and a

  5. Effects of Hydroxyl Radicals on Introduced Organisms of Ship's Ballast Water Based Micro-Gap Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Mindong; ZHANG Zhitao; BAI Mindi; YANG Bo; BAI Xiyao

    2007-01-01

    With the physical method of micro-gap gas discharge,OH.radicals were produced by the ionization of O2 in air and H2O in the gaseous state,in order to explore more effective method totreat the ship's ballast water.The surface morphology of A1203 dielectric layer was analysed using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM),where the size of A1203 particles was in the range of 2 μm to 5 μm.At the same time,the biochemical effect of hydroxyl radicals on the introduced organisms and the quality of ship's ballast water were studied.The results indicate that the main reasons of cell death are lipid peroxide and damage of the antioxidant enzyme system in Catalase (CAT),Peroxidase (POD) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD).In addition,the quality of the ballast water was greatly improved.

  6. Free living and plankton-associated vibrios: assessment in ballast water, harbor areas and coastal ecosystems in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Nelly G. Rivera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ballast water is a major transport vector of exotic aquatic species and pathogenic microorganisms. The wide-ranging spread of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 from harbor areas has been frequently ascribed to discharge of contaminated ballast water into eutrophic coastal environments, such as during the onset of the seventh cholera pandemic in South America in the early 1990s. To determine the microbiological hazards of ballast waters transported to Brazilian ports, we evaluated water and plankton samples taken from (i ballast water tanks of recently arrived ships, (ii port areas along the Brazilian coastline from ~1 to 32 oS and (iii three coastal areas in São Paulo State. Vibrio concentration and toxigenic V. cholerae O1 occurrence were analyzed. Plankton-associated vibrios were more abundant than free-living vibrios in all studied environments. Vibrio cholerae was found in 9.5% of ballast tanks and 24.2% of port samples, both as free-living and attached forms, and was absent off São Paulo State. Toxigenic V. cholerae O1 isolates (ctxA+, tcpA+, involved in cholera disease, were found in ballast water (2% and harbor (2% samples. These results confirm that ballast water is an important carrier of pathogenic organisms, and that monitoring of vibrios and other plankton-attached bacteria is of paramount importance in ballast water management programs.

  7. A comparison of six different ballast water treatment systems based on UV radiation, electrochlorination and chlorine dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehouwer, Peter Paul; Buma, Anita; Peperzak, Louis

    2015-01-01

    The spread of aquatic invasive species through ballast water is a major ecological and economical threat. Because of this, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) set limits to the concentrations of organisms allowed in ballast water. To meet these limits, ballast water treatment systems (BWTSs) were developed. The main techniques used for ballast water treatment are ultraviolet (UV) radiation and electrochlorination (EC). In this study, phytoplankton regrowth after treatment was followed for six BWTSs. Natural plankton communities were treated and incubated for 20 days. Growth, photosystem II efficiency and species composition were followed. The three UV systems all showed similar patterns of decrease in phytoplankton concentrations followed by regrowth. The two EC and the chlorine dioxide systems showed comparable results. However, UV- and chlorine-based treatment systems showed significantly different responses. Overall, all BWTSs reduced phytoplankton concentrations to below the IMO limits, which represents a reduced risk of aquatic invasions through ballast water. PMID:25704551

  8. 33 CFR 155.370 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of 10,000...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ships of 400 gross tons and above that carry ballast water in their fuel oil tanks. 155.370 Section 155... mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of 10,000 gross tons and above and oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above that carry ballast water in their fuel oil...

  9. Ballast Water Risk Assessment, Ports of Mumbai and Jawaharlal Nehru, India, October 2003: Final Report

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anil, A.C.; Clarke, C.; Hayes, T.; Hilliard, R.; Joshi, G.; Krishnamurthy, V.; Polglaze, J.; Sawant, S.S.; Raaymakers, S.

    , October 2003: Final Report vi Executive Summary The introduction of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens to new environments via ships? ballast water (BW) and other vectors has been identified as one of the four greatest threats to the world?s oceans.................................................................................................................................................v Executive Summary ...................................................................................................................................vi 1 Introduction and Background...

  10. Population attenuation in zooplankton communities during transoceanic transfer in ballast water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabooli, Sara; Zhan, Aibin; Paolucci, Esteban; Hernandez, Marco R; Briski, Elizabeta; Cristescu, Melania E; MacIsaac, Hugh J

    2016-09-01

    Successful biological invasion requires introduction of a viable population of a nonindigenous species (NIS). Rarely have ecologists assessed changes in populations while entrained in invasion pathways. Here, we investigate how zooplankton communities resident in ballast water change during transoceanic voyages. We used next-generation sequencing technology to sequence a nuclear small subunit ribosomal DNA fragment of zooplankton from ballast water during initial, middle, and final segments as a vessel transited between Canada and Brazil. Operational taxonomic unit (OTU) diversity decreased as voyage duration increased, indicating loss of community-based genetic diversity and development of bottlenecks for zooplankton taxa prior to discharge of ballast water. On average, we observed 47, 26, and 24 OTUs in initial, middle, and final samples, respectively. Moreover, a comparison of genetic diversity within taxa indicated likely attenuation of OTUs in final relative to initial samples. Abundance of the most common taxa (copepods) declined in all final relative to initial samples. Some taxa (e.g., Copepoda) were represented by a high number of OTUs throughout the voyage, and thus had a high level of intraspecific genetic variation. It is not clear whether genotypes that were most successful in surviving transit in ballast water will be the most successful upon introduction to novel environments. This study highlights that population bottlenecks may be common prior to introduction of NIS to new ecosystems. PMID:27648234

  11. Novel Electrokinetic Microfluidic Detector for Evaluating Effectiveness of Microalgae Disinfection in Ship Ballast Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myint Myint Maw

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ship ballast water treatment methods face many technical challenges. The effectiveness of every treatment method usually is evaluated by using large scale equipment and a large volume of samples, which involves time-consuming, laborious, and complex operations. This paper reports the development of a novel, simple and fast platform of methodology in evaluating the efficiency and the best parameters for ballast water treatment systems, particularly in chemical disinfection. In this study, a microfluidic chip with six sample wells and a waste well was designed, where sample transportation was controlled by electrokinetic flow. The performance of this microfluidic platform was evaluated by detecting the disinfection of Dunaliella salina (D. salina algae in ballast water treated by sodium hypochlorite (NaClO solution. Light-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (LICF intensity was used to determine the viability of microalgae cells in the system, which can be operated automatically with the dimension of the detector as small as 50 mm × 24 mm × 5 mm. The 40 µL volume of sample solution was used for each treatment condition test and the validity of detection can be accomplished within about five min. The results show that the viability of microalgae cells under different treatment conditions can be determined accurately and further optimal treatment conditions including concentrations of NaClO and treatment time can also be obtained. These results can provide accurate evaluation and optimal parameters for ballast water treatment methods.

  12. Efficacy and production of disinfection by-products of ozone treated ballast water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneekes, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    AirTree is preparing for land-based testing at the NIOZ/IMARES test facility. As the Ballast Water Management System (BWMS) developed by AirTree uses ozone as active substance, IMO Guideline G9 applies and Basic and Final Approval are also required. In preparing the Basic Approval dossier, it appear

  13. Comparisons of interdisciplinary ballast water treatment systems and operational experiences from ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalar, Goran

    2016-01-01

    There are high functioning and low functioning ballast water treatment systems on board ships. In this study, five systems were analysed so as to methodically examine the operational difficulties for ship crew members while giving important consideration to sustainable environment practices. Multi-criteria analysis, a questionnaire, survey and interviews were used as the research method so as to ascertain and corroborate existing problems on board ships, and the reliability of the systems was calculated. The co-insistency, maintenance and the efficiency of the systems, were shown as being the major problem as there are no systems for tracking ship ballast operations from land. The treatment system that used oxidants was, through multi criteria analysis, evaluated as being the best and was ranked first. However, the survey results showed that the ship's crew had serious problems with this system which difficult to solve during the ship's operations with cargo. The deoxygenation system was the most appropriate according to ballast water treatment criteria in the port or at sea. The treatment system which used electrolysis with oxidant was better in terms of efficacy and the treatment system electrolysis with ultra violet light was better in terms of the criterion environment pollution footprint. During further research, it was shown that 7 % of the surveyed crew members had major problems with operating ballast water treatment systems, including the system which was ranked first through multi criteria analysis. They by-passed these systems while continuing to ballast or de-ballast. It was calculated that of the total time needed for the ballast water treatment system operation, 9 % of this time was used for repairs or maintenance of the systems. Some examples are changing a used UV bulb, cleaning the filter or controlling the amount of oxidant which would be discharged into the sea. A conclusion was made and solution was suggested. The study results emphasised

  14. Disinfection by-products in ballast water treatment: an evaluation of regulatory data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werschkun, Barbara; Sommer, Yasmin; Banerji, Sangeeta

    2012-10-15

    To reduce the global spread of invasive aquatic species, international regulations will soon require reductions of the number of organisms in ballast water discharged by ships. For this purpose, ballast water treatment systems were developed and approved by an international procedure. These systems rely on established water treatment principles which, to different degrees, have been proven to generate disinfection by-products with hazardous properties but have only scarcely been investigated in marine environments. Our study evaluates the publicly available documentation about approved ballast water treatment systems with regard to by-product formation. The most commonly employed methods are chlorination, ozonation, and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Chlorination systems generate trihalomethanes, halogenated acetic acids, and bromate in substantially larger quantities than reported for other areas of application. Levels are highest in brackish water, and brominated species predominate, in particular bromoform and dibromoacetic acid. Ozonation, which is less frequently utilized, produces bromoform in lower concentrations but forms higher levels of bromate, both of which were effectively reduced by active carbon treatment. In systems based on UV radiation, medium pressure lamps are employed as well as UV-induced advanced oxidation. For all UV systems, by-product formation is reported only occasionally. The most notable observations were small increases in nitrite, hydrogen peroxide, halogenated methanes and acetic acids. The assessment of by-product formation during ballast water treatment is limited by the lacking completeness and quality of available information. This concerns the extent and statistical characterisation of chemical analysis as well as the documentation of the test water parameters.

  15. Efficacy of pH elevation as a bactericidal strategy for treating ballast water of freight carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Starliper, Clifford E.; Barnaby J. Watten; Iwanowicz, Deborah D.; Green, Phyllis A.; Bassett, Noel L.; Adams, Cynthia R

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of ship ballast water with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is one method currently being developed to minimize the risk to introduce aquatic invasive species. The bactericidal capability of sodium hydroxide was determined for 148 bacterial strains from ballast water collected in 2009 and 2010 from the M/V Indiana Harbor, a bulk-freight carrier plying the Laurentian Great Lakes, USA. Primary culture of bacteria was done using brain heart infusion agar and a developmental medium. Strains were...

  16. Assessing exemptions under the ballast water management convention: preclude the Trojan horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olenin, Sergej; Ojaveer, Henn; Minchin, Dan; Boelens, Rick

    2016-02-15

    The International Maritime Organization (IMO) Ballast Water Management Convention (BWMC) is a powerful instrument aimed at reducing spread of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens (HAOPs). As BWMC is expected to enter into force soon, shipping companies will start seeking exemptions for ballast water management in accordance with BWMC Regulation A-4. However, without scientifically robust risk assessment (RA) and consistent rules, the exemptions may introduce a new form of risk within a convention generally designed to reduce risks. This paper describes an adaptive system for granting exemptions, consisting of six major components: target species selection procedure, port-to-port RA, monitoring, information support, administrative decision and review process. The system is based on key principles defined in the IMO guidelines for RA and is designed to continuously accumulate evolving experience on granting exemptions. The ultimate goal is to contribute to the control of the spread of HAOPs, without placing an unnecessary burden on the shipping industry. PMID:26795122

  17. Detecting nuisance species using NGST: Methodology shortcomings and possible application in ballast water monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaiko, Anastasija; Martinez, Jose L; Ardura, Alba; Clusa, Laura; Borrell, Yaisel J; Samuiloviene, Aurelija; Roca, Agustín; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2015-12-01

    Detecting the presence of potential invasive species in ballast water is a priority for preventing their spread into new environments. Next generation sequencing technologies are being increasingly used for exploring and assessing biodiversity from environmental samples. Here we apply high throughput sequencing from DNA extracted from ballast water (BW) samples employing two different platforms, Ion Torrent and 454, and compare the putative species catalogues from the resulting Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU). Water samples were taken from the RV Polastern ballast tank in five different days between the second and the twentieth navigation day. Pronounced decrease of oxygen concentration and increase of temperature occurred in the BW during this time, coincident with a progressively higher proportion of unassigned OTU and short reads indicating DNA degradation. Discrepancy between platforms for species catalogues was consistent with previously published bias in AT-rich sequences for Ion Torrent platform. Some putative species detected from the two platforms increased in frequency during the Polarstern travel, which suggests they were alive and therefore tolerant to adverse conditions. OTU assigned to the highly invasive red alga Polysiphonia have been detected at low but increasing frequency from the two platforms. Although in this moment NGST could not replace current methods of sampling, sorting and individual taxonomic identification of BW biota, it has potential as an exploratory methodology especially for detecting scarce species.

  18. Testing the BIO-SEA ballast water management system; Filter efficiency tests with high levels of zooplankton

    OpenAIRE

    Kaag, N.H.B.M.; Sneekes, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    The BIO-SEA® Ballast Water Treatment System (BWTS) was tested at the IMARES land-based test facility. General goal of the tests was to compare two different brands of filter and to test the filter efficiency of finer mesh sizes of each brand. The filters were tested in combination with a ‘one-shot UVtreatment’ (ballasting and deballasting the same day) in order to evaluate the effect of the filters on the overall treatment efficacy.

  19. Inactivation of invasive marine species in the process of conveying ballast water using OH based on a strong ionization discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Mindong; Zheng, Qilin; Tian, Yiping; Zhang, Zhitao; Chen, Cao; Cheng, Chao; Meng, Xiangying

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, invasive marine species in medium-salinity ballast water were inactivated using OH generated from a strong ionization discharge. The OH is determined by the concentration of oxygen active species combined with the effects of water jet cavitation. The results indicated that the OH concentration reached 7.62 μM, within 1 s, which is faster and higher than in conventional AOP methods. In a pilot-scale OH ballast water system with a capacity of 10 m(3)/h, algae were inactivated when CT value was 0.1 mg min/L with a contact time only 6 s. The viable and nonviable cells were determined using SYTOX Green nucleic acid stain and Flow cytometry. As a result, the OH treatment could be completed during the process of conveying the ballast water. In addition, the concentrations of relevant disinfection by-products (DBPs), such as trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), and bromate, were less than that required by the World Health Organization's drinking water standards, which suggest that the discharged ballast water posed no risks to the oceanic environment. Nevertheless, for conventional ozonation and electrolysis methods, the ballast water should be treated only in the treated tanks during the ship's voyage and form higher level DBPs.

  20. Study on the killing of oceanic harmful micro-organisms in ship's ballast water using oxygen active particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global Environment Facility has identified that the spread of marine invasive alien species is one of the four major risk factors threatening the safety of global marine environments. Ballast water discharge is the main cause of biological invasion. With physical methods of strong electric field ionization discharge at atmospheric pressure, O2 and sea water (gaseous) were ionized, and then dissociated to a number of oxygen active particles (ROS) such as ·OH, O2+, H2O+, etc. ROS was injected into 0.6 t h−1 ballast water treatment system to form high concentration ROS solution in order to kill the harmful micro-organisms in ballast water. According to the land-based test standard of International Maritime Organization (IMO) Guidelines for Approval of Ballast Water Management Systems (G8), this paper concludes that single-cell algae of 3.0 × 104 cell ml−1 and bacteria of 2.0 × 104 cfu ml−1 were killed by ROS solution of 2.0 ppm. Death rate could reach almost 100%. The results meet the requirements of Regulation D-2 of International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments completely.

  1. Treatment of ships' ballast water by irradiation of pulsed, intense relativistic electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zooplankton contained in ships' ballast water has been successfully treated by irradiation of pulsed, intense relativistic electron beam (PIREB). A treatment chamber is filled up with solution of 3-wt% salt in water containing a larva of artemia as the zooplankton, and is irradiated by the PIREB (2 MeV, 0.4 kA, 140 ns). We have found that electric conductivity and pH of the salt solution does not change significantly within 10 shots of the PIREB irradiation. We have obtained that the artemia of 24% is inactivated by firing 10 shots of the PIREB irradiation. (author)

  2. Bromination of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter following Full Scale Electrochemical Ballast Water Disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsior, Michael; Mitchelmore, Carys; Heyes, Andrew; Harir, Mourad; Richardson, Susan D; Petty, William Tyler; Wright, David A; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    An extensively diverse array of brominated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) were generated following electrochemical disinfection of natural coastal/estuarine water, which is one of the main treatment methods currently under consideration for ballast water treatment. Ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry revealed 462 distinct brominated DBPs at a relative abundance in the mass spectra of more than 1%. A brominated DBP with a relative abundance of almost 22% was identified as 2,2,4-tribromo-5-hydroxy-4-cyclopentene-1,3-dione, which is an analogue to several previously described 2,2,4-trihalo-5-hydroxy-4-cyclopentene-1,3-diones in drinking water. Several other brominated molecular formulas matched those of other known brominated DBPs, such as dibromomethane, which could be generated by decarboxylation of dibromoacetic acid during ionization, dibromophenol, dibromopropanoic acid, dibromobutanoic acid, bromohydroxybenzoic acid, bromophenylacetic acid, bromooxopentenoic acid, and dibromopentenedioic acid. Via comparison to previously described chlorine-containing analogues, bromophenylacetic acid, dibromooxopentenoic acid, and dibromopentenedioic acid were also identified. A novel compound at a 4% relative abundance was identified as tribromoethenesulfonate. This compound has not been previously described as a DBP, and its core structure of tribromoethene has been demonstrated to show toxicological implications. Here we show that electrochemical disinfection, suggested as a candidate for successful ballast water treatment, caused considerable production of some previously characterized DBPs in addition to novel brominated DBPs, although several hundred compounds remain structurally uncharacterized. Our results clearly demonstrate that electrochemical and potentially direct chlorination of ballast water in estuarine and marine systems should be approached with caution and the concentrations, fate, and toxicity of DBP need to be further characterized.

  3. 33 CFR 155.440 - Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on new oceangoing ships of 4,000 gross tons and above...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Segregation of fuel oil and... PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.440 Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on... 150 gross tons and above, ballast water must not be carried in any fuel oil tank. (b) Where...

  4. Guidance for a harmonized emission scenario document (ESD) on ballast water discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zipperle, Andreas [BIS - Beratungszentrum fuer integriertes Sedimentmanagement, Hamburg (Germany); Gils, Jos van [DELTARES, Delft (Netherlands); Hattum, Bert van [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). IVM - Institute for Environmental Studies; Heise, Susanne [BIS - Beratungszentrum fuer integriertes Sedimentmanagement, Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    The present report provides guidance for a harmonized Emission Scenario Document (ESD) for the exposure assessment as part of the environmental risk assessment process which applicants seeking approval of a ballast water management system (BWMS) need to perform prior to notification and authorisation procedures. Despite the global variability of the marine environment, ballast water discharges and treatment methods, exposure assessments need to be comparable between different applications. In order to achieve this, this ESD points out the following aspects: - Applicants should use standardized scenarios in order to predict mean exposure. These should reflect generic situations, independent of region or port so that results are widely applicable. In addition to a harbour scenario, a standardized shipping lane scenario should be considered, - During or right after ballast water discharge, high concentrations may persist in a water body for a certain length of time until extensive mixing results in mean concentrations. Not taking exposure to peak concentrations within gradients into account could lead to an underestimation of risk, especially for rapidly degrading substances. Efforts have been made to approximate maximum exposure concentration with simple dilution factors. Their applicability was checked by near-field-evaluations. - Chemical properties determine the environmental fate of substances. If they are ambiguous, selection of a specific set of data strongly influences the result of an exposure assessment. Guidance is given on what to do about lacking data. - In order to harmonize the exposure assessments, reliable chemical model software should be used. A discussion on the requirements of suitable software and an evaluation of MAMPEC is given in this report. (orig.)

  5. Using MCDA methods THOR in an application for outranking the ballast water management options

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Francisco Simões Gomes

    2005-01-01

    The Multicriteria Analysis Methodology has been developed in order to support and guide decision-makers in the evaluation and selection of alternatives/solutions. In this case, it is used to compare alternatives for the management ballast water (BW) exchange systems and treatment methods.O Apoio Multicritério à Decisão (AMD) desenvolve metodologias que ajudam o tomador ou agente de decisão a avaliar e selecionar alternativas. Este trabalho apresenta uma aplicação real do AMD em uma situação d...

  6. Enhancing the efficacy of electrolytic chlorination for ballast water treatment by adding carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyung-Gon; Seo, Min-Ho; Lee, Heon-Young; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Sup; Shin, Kyoungsoon; Choi, Keun-Hyung

    2015-06-15

    We examined the synergistic effects of CO2 injection on electro-chlorination in disinfection of plankton and bacteria in simulated ballast water. Chlorination was performed at dosages of 4 and 6ppm with and without CO2 injection on electro-chlorination. Testing was performed in both seawater and brackish water quality as defined by IMO G8 guidelines. CO2 injection notably decreased from the control the number of Artemia franciscana, a brine shrimp, surviving during a 5-day post-treatment incubation (1.8 and 2.3 log10 reduction in seawater and brackish water, respectively at 6ppm TRO+CO2) compared with water electro-chlorinated only (1.2 and 1.3 log10 reduction in seawater and brackish water, respectively at 6ppm TRO). The phytoplankton Tetraselmis suecica, was completely disinfected with no live cell found at >4ppm TRO with and without CO2 addition. The effects of CO2 addition on heterotrophic bacterial growth was not different from electro-chlorination only. Total residual oxidant concentration (TRO) more rapidly declined in electro-chlorination of both marine and brackish waters compared to chlorine+CO2 treated waters, with significantly higher amount of TRO being left in waters treated with the CO2 addition. Total concentration of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) measured at day 0 in brackish water test were found to be 2- to 3-fold higher in 6ppm TRO+CO2-treated water than in 6ppm TRO treated water. The addition of CO2 to electro-chlorination may improve the efficiency of this sterilizing treatment of ballast water, yet the increased production of some disinfection byproducts needs further study. PMID:25841887

  7. Enhancing the efficacy of electrolytic chlorination for ballast water treatment by adding carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyung-Gon; Seo, Min-Ho; Lee, Heon-Young; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Sup; Shin, Kyoungsoon; Choi, Keun-Hyung

    2015-06-15

    We examined the synergistic effects of CO2 injection on electro-chlorination in disinfection of plankton and bacteria in simulated ballast water. Chlorination was performed at dosages of 4 and 6ppm with and without CO2 injection on electro-chlorination. Testing was performed in both seawater and brackish water quality as defined by IMO G8 guidelines. CO2 injection notably decreased from the control the number of Artemia franciscana, a brine shrimp, surviving during a 5-day post-treatment incubation (1.8 and 2.3 log10 reduction in seawater and brackish water, respectively at 6ppm TRO+CO2) compared with water electro-chlorinated only (1.2 and 1.3 log10 reduction in seawater and brackish water, respectively at 6ppm TRO). The phytoplankton Tetraselmis suecica, was completely disinfected with no live cell found at >4ppm TRO with and without CO2 addition. The effects of CO2 addition on heterotrophic bacterial growth was not different from electro-chlorination only. Total residual oxidant concentration (TRO) more rapidly declined in electro-chlorination of both marine and brackish waters compared to chlorine+CO2 treated waters, with significantly higher amount of TRO being left in waters treated with the CO2 addition. Total concentration of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) measured at day 0 in brackish water test were found to be 2- to 3-fold higher in 6ppm TRO+CO2-treated water than in 6ppm TRO treated water. The addition of CO2 to electro-chlorination may improve the efficiency of this sterilizing treatment of ballast water, yet the increased production of some disinfection byproducts needs further study.

  8. The ships' ballast water impact on the Black Sea marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acomi, Nicoleta; Acomi, Ovidiu

    2015-04-01

    Ships use ballast water to provide stability during voyages. This type of seawater loaded on board from one geographical area and discharged in very different port areas as ballasting practice, turned into a vector for spreading the non-native sea life species. The reduction and limitation of invasive species is a problem that the modern world addresses. Thus, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) developed the BWM 2004 Convention. Adopting international regulations influences the socio-economic sector and this is the reason why the ballast water, the subject of this paper, has been on the IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee's agenda for more than 10 years, while the Convention has not yet been ratified and enforced. Although the Black Sea was subject to incidents regarding the invasive species the Romanian Government, as member of the IMO, did not ratify the Convention. The Black Sea was the subject of four major incidents regarding the ships' ballast water. One of them refers to the North American Comb Jelly, native from the Eastern Seaboard of America, introduced in the Black, Azov and Caspian Seas and seriously affecting the Romanian coastal environment in the 1990's. This invasive species has negative impacts: it reproduces rapidly under favourable conditions, it feeds excessively on zooplankton, it depletes zooplankton stocks, altering the food web and the ecosystem functionality, and contributed significantly to the collapse of Black and Azov Sea fisheries in the 1990s, with massive economic and social impact. There are studies for identifying the invasive species for the Black sea, structured in a database for marine species - the Black Sea Red Data Book. For these invasive species, there have been identified and developed charts to emphasize their ways of migration into the Black Sea. This paper aims to analyse the marine traffic in Romanian ports, broken down according with seasons and types of vessels, and to assess its relationship with

  9. 33 CFR 155.350 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of less...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of less than 400 gross... mixtures from bilges or fuel oil tank ballast and discharges into the sea according to § 151.10 of this... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oily mixture (bilge...

  10. Does the survivorship of activated resting stages in toxic environments provide cues for ballast water treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, Victor; Makrushin, Andrey; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2010-01-01

    The toxic effects of three inorganic metals (Cu, Cr, Hg), three organic (phenol, formalin, ammonium) chemicals, ozone-enriched water and peroxides (H2O2) on embryonic development were tested in 8 species from the Porifera, Bryozoa and Crustacea. Toxicants with lower molecular weight showed stronger negative impacts on post-diapause embryos than chemicals with higher molecular weight if related to the toxicity of the chemicals to active adult stages. Only few embryos of the cladoceran Moina macrocopa and none of the cladoceran Wlassicsia pannonica treated with peroxides at concentration 0.3% developed further. Ozone-enriched water had no significant effect on post-diapause embryonic development in cladocerans. Ammonium (the product of NH4OH dissociation) in concentration 100 mg/l and higher killed all embryos of M. macrocopa inside protective membranes. Peroxides and ammonium are suggested for the purification of ship ballast waters as effective, non-expensive and non-persistent toxic chemicals. Resting stages of invertebrates including at least Crustaceans, Porifera and Bryozoa seem to allow not only dispersal among toxic industrial environments such as ship ballast compartments, but may also endure serious pollution events common in seaports and estuaries. Artemia cysts due to their strong protection against different toxic substances are recommended as a model for studies of toxic effects in diapausing stages in polluted estuaries and marine environments. PMID:20356608

  11. Added Resistance Acting on Hull of a Non Ballast Water Ship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ngo Van He; Yoshiho Ikeda

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, added resistances acting on a hull of non ballast water ship (NBS) in high waves is discussed. The non ballast water ships were developed at the laboratory of the authors at Osaka Prefecture University, Japan. In the present paper, the performances of three kinds of bow shapes developed for the NBS were theoretically and experimentally investigated to find the best one in high waves. In previous papers, an optimum bow shape for the NBS was developed in calm water and in moderated waves. For a 2 m model for experiments and computations, the wave height is 0.02 m. This means that the wave height is 15%of the draft of the ship in full load conditions. In this paper, added resistances in high waves up to 0.07 m for a 2 m model or 53%of the full load draft are investigated. In such high waves linear wave theories which have been used in the design stage of a ship for a long time may not work well anymore, and experiments are the only effective tool to predict the added resistance in high waves. With the computations for waves, the ship is in a fully captured condition because shorter waves,λ/Lpp<0.6, are assumed.

  12. Phytoplankton and Bacterial Assemblages in Ballast Water of U.S. Military Ships as a Function of Port of Origin, Voyage Time, and Ocean Exchange Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    We characterized the physical/chemical conditions and the algal and bacterial assemblages in ballast water from 62 ballast tanks aboard 28 ships operated by the U.S. Military Sealift Command and the Maritime Administration, sampled at 9 ports on the U.S. West Coast and 4 ports on the U.S. East Coast...

  13. The Brazilian dilution method for ballast water exchange; O metodo de diluicao brasileiro para troca de agua de lastro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauro, Celso Alleluia [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Avaliacao e Monitoramento Ambiental]. E-mail: celso@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Land, Claudio Goncalves [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Abastecimento, Logistica e Planejamento]. E-mail: cgland@petrobras.com.br; Pimenta, Jose Maria Hollanda Alvares; Barreto, Francisco Carlos Peixoto [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Engenharia; Brandao, Marcus Vinicius Lisboa; Marroig, Nilton Lemos [Transpetro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Frota Nacional de Petroleiros. Inspetoria Geral; Tristao, Maria Luiza Braganca [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Quimica; Fadel, Andre Luiz da Fonseca [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Financas Corporativa e Tesouraria; Villac, Maria Celia; Fernandes, Lohengrin; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Dias, Cristina; Bonecker, Sergio; Denise Tenenbaum [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia; Persich, Graziela; Garcia, Virginia; Odebrecht, Clarisse [Fundacao Universidade do Rio Grande, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Oceanografia

    2002-12-01

    In a precautionary approach and dealing with the coming International Maritime Organization (IMO) regulations on ballast water, PETROBRAS developed a new method for ballast water exchange in tankers. Differently from ordinary methods PETROBRAS method which have been called Brazilian Dilution Method (BDM) or Dilution Method involves ballast loading through the top with simultaneous unloading from the bottom of the tanks. The method proposal was firstly presented to IMO, which encouraged PETROBRAS to carry out a field trial. PETROBRAS in June 1998 carried out a trial in the product carrier M/V Lavras. A simulation study was useful to plan the trial assessing the theoretical efficiency of the method, establishing the best sampling points and comparing the BDM with the Tank Overfilling Method (TOM). Simulation showed that for the same tank shape, the water renewal in BDM is more effective than in TOM and that 90 % of water renewal could be obtained by BDM. A dye concentration variation monitoring and a biological assessment were performed and the results confirmed that over than 90 % of the ballast water was renewed after three exchanges. The method was proved safe, practical, economical and suitable to minimize the risk of exotic species transport between ports. (author)

  14. Testing the BIO-SEA ballast water management system; Filter efficiency tests with high levels of zooplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaag, N.H.B.M.; Sneekes, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    The BIO-SEA® Ballast Water Treatment System (BWTS) was tested at the IMARES land-based test facility. General goal of the tests was to compare two different brands of filter and to test the filter efficiency of finer mesh sizes of each brand. The filters were tested in combination with a ‘one-shot U

  15. Recolonization by heterotrophic bacteria after UV irradiation or ozonation of seawater; a simulation of ballast water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess-Erga, Ole-Kristian; Blomvågnes-Bakke, Bente; Vadstein, Olav

    2010-10-01

    Transport of ballast water with ships represents a risk for introduction of foreign species. If ballast water is treated during uptake, there will be a recolonization of the ballast water by heterotrophic bacteria during transport. We investigated survival and succession of heterotrophic bacteria after disinfection of seawater in the laboratory, representing a model system of ballast water treatment and transport. The seawater was exposed to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, ozone (2 doses) or no treatment, incubated for 16 days and examined with culture-dependent and -independent methods. The number of colony-forming units (CFU) was reduced below the detection level after disinfection with UV and high ozone dose (700 mV), and 1% of the initial level for the low ozone dose (400 mV). After less than 3 days, the CFU was back or above the starting point for the control, UV and low ozone treatment, whereas it took slightly more than 6 days for the high ozone treatment. Disinfection increased substrate availability and reduced cell densities. Lack of competition and predation induced the recolonization by opportunistic bacteria (r-strategists), with significant increase in bacterial numbers and a low diversity (based on DGGE band pattern). All cultures stabilized after the initial recolonization phase (except Oz700) where competition due to crowding and nutrient limitation favoured bacteria with high substrate affinity (K-strategists), resulting in higher species richness and diversity (based on DGGE band pattern). The bacterial community was significantly altered qualitatively and quantitatively and may have a higher potential as invaders in the recipient depending on disinfection method and the time of release. These results have implications for the treatment strategy used for ballast water.

  16. Using MCDA methods THOR in an application for outranking the ballast water management options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Francisco Simões Gomes

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The Multicriteria Analysis Methodology has been developed in order to support and guide decision-makers in the evaluation and selection of alternatives/solutions. In this case, it is used to compare alternatives for the management ballast water (BW exchange systems and treatment methods.O Apoio Multicritério à Decisão (AMD desenvolve metodologias que ajudam o tomador ou agente de decisão a avaliar e selecionar alternativas. Este trabalho apresenta uma aplicação real do AMD em uma situação de ordenação de alternativas para o gerenciamento do problema de água de lastro.

  17. Sample size for estimating the mean concentration of organisms in ballast water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Eliardo G; Lopes, Rubens M; Singer, Julio M

    2016-09-15

    We consider the computation of sample sizes for estimating the mean concentration of organisms in ballast water. Given the possible heterogeneity of their distribution in the tank, we adopt a negative binomial model to obtain confidence intervals for the mean concentration. We show that the results obtained by Chen and Chen (2012) in a different set-up hold for the proposed model and use them to develop algorithms to compute sample sizes both in cases where the mean concentration is known to lie in some bounded interval or where there is no information about its range. We also construct simple diagrams that may be easily employed to decide for compliance with the D-2 regulation of the International Maritime Organization (IMO). PMID:27266648

  18. 33 CFR 155.330 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on U.S. non-oceangoing ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on U.S. non-oceangoing ships. (a) No person may operate a U.S... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on U.S. non-oceangoing ships. 155.330 Section 155.330 Navigation...

  19. Evaluating efficacy of a ballast water filtration system for reducing spread of aquatic species in freshwater ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Briski, Elizabeta; Linley, R. D.; Adams, J.; Bailey, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Biological invasions by non-indigenous species are considered a leading threat to biodiversity, with prevention being a key management strategy. Consequently, numerous commercial ballast water treatment systems have been, or are being, developed to prevent future aquatic invasions. However, most treatment systems are being designed for the many vessels undertaking long transoceanic voyages in marine waters rather than the relatively few vessels operating on short voyages in freshwater, such a...

  20. Tiny Stowaways: Analyzing the Economic Benefits of a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Permit Regulating Ballast Water Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Sabrina J.; Drake, Lisa A.

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has proposed permitting ballast water discharges—a benefit of which would be to reduce the economic damages associated with the introduction and spread of aquatic invasive species. Research on ship-borne aquatic invasive species has been conducted in earnest for decades, but determining the economic damages they cause remains troublesome. Furthermore, with the exception of harmful algal blooms, the economic consequences of microscopic invaders have not been studied, despite their potentially great negative effects. In this paper, we show how to estimate the economic benefits of preventing the introduction and spread of harmful bacteria, microalgae, and viruses delivered in U.S. waters. Our calculations of net social welfare show the damages from a localized incident, cholera-causing bacteria found in shellfish in the Gulf of Mexico, to be approximately 706,000 (2006). On a larger scale, harmful algal species have the potential to be transported in ships’ ballast tanks, and their effects in the United States have been to reduce commercial fisheries landings and impair water quality. We examine the economic repercussions of one bloom-forming species. Finally, we consider the possible translocation within the Great Lakes of a virus that has the potential to harm commercial and recreational fisheries. These calculations illustrate an approach to quantifying the benefits of preventing invasive aquatic microorganisms from controls on ballast water discharges.

  1. Relative invasion risk for plankton across marine and freshwater systems: examining efficacy of proposed international ballast water discharge standards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Casas-Monroy

    Full Text Available Understanding the implications of different management strategies is necessary to identify best conservation trajectories for ecosystems exposed to anthropogenic stressors. For example, science-based risk assessments at large scales are needed to understand efficacy of different vector management approaches aimed at preventing biological invasions associated with commercial shipping. We conducted a landscape-scale analysis to examine the relative invasion risk of ballast water discharges among different shipping pathways (e.g., Transoceanic, Coastal or Domestic, ecosystems (e.g., freshwater, brackish and marine, and timescales (annual and per discharge event under current and future management regimes. The arrival and survival potential of nonindigenous species (NIS was estimated based on directional shipping networks and their associated propagule pressure, environmental similarity between donor-recipient ecosystems (based on salinity and temperature, and effects of current and future management strategies (i.e., ballast water exchange and treatment to meet proposed international biological discharge standards. Our findings show that current requirements for ballast water exchange effectively reduce invasion risk to freshwater ecosystems but are less protective of marine ecosystems because of greater environmental mismatch between source (oceanic and recipient (freshwater ecoregions. Future requirements for ballast water treatment are expected to reduce risk of zooplankton NIS introductions across ecosystem types but are expected to be less effective in reducing risk of phytoplankton NIS. This large-scale risk assessment across heterogeneous ecosystems represents a major step towards understanding the likelihood of invasion in relation to shipping networks, the relative efficacy of different invasion management regimes and seizing opportunities to reduce the ecological and economic implications of biological invasions.

  2. Pandemic serotypes of Vibrio cholerae isolated from ships' ballast tanks and coastal waters: assessment of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes (tcpA and ctxA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Fred C; Goodrich, Amanda L; Thomson, Frank K; Hynes, Wayne

    2013-05-01

    There is concern that ships' ballasting operations may disseminate Vibrio cholerae to ports throughout the world. Given evidence that the bacterium is indeed transported by ships, we isolated pandemic serotypes O1 and O139 from ballast tanks and characterized them with respect to antibiotic resistance and virulence genes ctxA and tcpA. We carried out concurrent studies with V. cholerae isolated from coastal waters. Of 284 isolates, 30 were serotype O1 and 59 were serotype O139. These serotypes were overrepresented in ballast tanks relative to the coastal waters sampled. All locations, whether coastal waters or ballast tanks, yielded samples from which serotype O1, O139, or both were isolated. There were three groups among the 62 isolates for which antibiotic characterization was conclusive: those exhibiting β-lactamase activity and resistance to at least one of the 12 antibiotics tested; those negative for β-lactamase but having antibiotic resistance; those negative for β-lactamase and registering no antibiotic resistance. When present, antibiotic resistance in nearly all cases was to ampicillin; resistance to multiple antibiotics was uncommon. PCR assays revealed that none of the isolates contained the ctxA gene and only two isolates, one O139 and one O1, contained the tcpA gene; both isolates originated from ballast water. These results support the bacteriological regulations proposed by the International Maritime Association for discharged ballast water.

  3. Comparison of the community structure of planktonic bacteria in ballast water from entry ships and local sea water in Xiamen Port

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Ma; Hejian Xiong; Senming Tang; Qingshuang Yang; Minjuan Li

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the bacterial community structures in samples of ballast water collected from a ship from Singapore and of local sea water collected from Xiamen Port were compared using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Except for dominant α-Proteobacteria that are common to both systems, the bacterial community structures of the two systems were quite different. Most of the clones derived from the different systems were grouped into different phylogenetic clusters, and the sys-tems share only one common RFLP pattern. The ballast water, which is likely from clean offshore waters, contains sequences specific to α- and γ-Proteobacteria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the ballast water contained sequences belonging to attached bacteria and bacteria commonly found in the open sea, as well as many novel sequences. In addition, no known pathogenic bacteria were detected in the ballast water samples. Conversely, water samples from Xiamen Port were apparently affected by the near shore environments.Specifically, in addition to α- and γ-Proteobacteria, water from Xiamen Port contained β- and δ-Proteobacteria, Synechococcus, Bacter-oidetes and Actinobacteria, which are common in coastal environments. Additionally, four pathogenic bacterial sequences and one plas-mid sequence of a potential red tide forming alga were detected in the water from Xiamen Port, which suggests that the local sea water is polluted. The results of this study can be used as background information to assess the risk associated with the introduction of non-indig-enous species to local systems and to establish ballast water management systems.

  4. Amplicon-Based Pyrosequencing Reveals High Diversity of Protistan Parasites in Ships' Ballast Water: Implications for Biogeography and Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagenkopp Lohan, K M; Fleischer, R C; Carney, K J; Holzer, K K; Ruiz, G M

    2016-04-01

    Ships' ballast water (BW) commonly moves macroorganisms and microorganisms across the world's oceans and along coasts; however, the majority of these microbial transfers have gone undetected. We applied high-throughput sequencing methods to identify microbial eukaryotes, specifically emphasizing the protistan parasites, in ships' BW collected from vessels calling to the Chesapeake Bay (Virginia and Maryland, USA) from European and Eastern Canadian ports. We utilized tagged-amplicon 454 pyrosequencing with two general primer sets, amplifying either the V4 or V9 domain of the small subunit (SSU) of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene complex, from total DNA extracted from water samples collected from the ballast tanks of bulk cargo vessels. We detected a diverse group of protistan taxa, with some known to contain important parasites in marine systems, including Apicomplexa (unidentified apicomplexans, unidentified gregarines, Cryptosporidium spp.), Dinophyta (Blastodinium spp., Euduboscquella sp., unidentified syndinids, Karlodinium spp., Syndinium spp.), Perkinsea (Parvilucifera sp.), Opisthokonta (Ichthyosporea sp., Pseudoperkinsidae, unidentified ichthyosporeans), and Stramenopiles (Labyrinthulomycetes). Further characterization of groups with parasitic taxa, consisting of phylogenetic analyses for four taxa (Cryptosporidium spp., Parvilucifera spp., Labyrinthulomycetes, and Ichthyosporea), revealed that sequences were obtained from both known and novel lineages. This study demonstrates that high-throughput sequencing is a viable and sensitive method for detecting parasitic protists when present and transported in the ballast water of ships. These data also underscore the potential importance of human-aided dispersal in the biogeography of these microbes and emerging diseases in the world's oceans. PMID:26476551

  5. Ballast water as a vector of coral pathogens in the Gulf of Mexico: the case of the Cayo Arcas coral reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Macedo, M Leopoldina; Vidal-Martinez, Victor M; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A; Valdés-Lozano, David S; Herrera-Rodríguez, Miguel; Olvera-Novoa, Miguel A

    2008-09-01

    The discharge of nutrients, phytoplankton and pathogenic bacteria through ballast water may threaten the Cayo Arcas reef system. To assess this threat, the quality of ballast water and presence of coral reef pathogenic bacteria in 30 oil tankers loaded at the PEMEX Cayo Arcas crude oil terminal were determined. The water transported in the ships originated from coastal, oceanic or riverine regions. Statistical associations among quality parameters and bacteria were tested using redundancy analysis (RDA). In contrast with coastal or oceanic water, the riverine water had high concentrations of coliforms, including Vibrio cholerae 01 and, Serratia marcescens and Sphingomona spp., which are frequently associated with "white pox" and "white plague type II" coral diseases. There were also high nutrient concentrations and low water quality index values (WQI and TRIX). The presence of V. cholerae 01 highlights the need for testing ballast water coming from endemic regions into Mexican ports. PMID:18639903

  6. Shipboard testing of the efficacy of SeaKleen as a ballast water treatment to eliminate non-indigenous species aboard a working tanker in Pacific waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D A; Dawson, R; Caceres, V; Orano-Dawson, C E; Kananen, G E; Cutler, S J; Cutler, H G

    2009-08-01

    Trials were conducted aboard the tanker Seabulk Mariner to test a natural product, SeaKleen, as a biocide controlling non-indigenous populations of plankton and bacteria in ballast water. SeaKleen was dosed into matched ballast tanks at two different concentrations, 0.8 mg L(-1) active ingredient (a.i.) and 1.6 mg L(-1) a.i. during ballasting off the Oregon coast during a three-day passage to Prince William Sound, Alaska. Live organism counts from treated ballast water were compared with those from untreated (control tank) water collected from the same source location. Shipboard chemical analyses were made to verify dose and quantify chemical degradation and residuals following dilution. Results indicated that both SeaKleen doses resulted in complete zooplankton and phytoplankton mortality and that the higher dose (1.6 mg L(-1) a.i.) caused a two-log removal of culturable bacteria over a 92 h grow-out period. Spectrophotometry confirmed initial dosing to within 5% of nominal values. Shipboard bioassays were conducted using larval fish (Cyprinodon variegatus), brine shrimp (Artemia salina) and the bioluminescent dinoflagellate Pyrocystis lunula. Exposure of the test organisms to water drawn from treated ballast tanks 48 h after SeaKleen was added to the tanks resulted in 100% mortalities in Cyprinodon and Pyrocystis at both doses. Corresponding mortalities for Artemia larvae were 100% and 60% for high and low SeaKleen doses, respectively. Toxicity testing of treated water, subjected to varying dilutions, indicated that residual toxicity to even the most sensitive organisms would be eliminated once the discharge had dispersed beyond 100 feet from the vessel.

  7. Efficacy of Coagulants and Ballast Compounds in Removal of Cyanobacteria (Microcystis) from Water of the Tropical Lagoon Jacarepaguá (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magalhães, de Leonardo; Noyma, Natália Pessoa; Furtado, Luciana Lima; Nunes Teixeira Mucci, Maira; Oosterhout, van Frank; Huszar, Vera L.M.; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi; Lurling, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Eutrophication is considered the most important water quality problem in freshwaters and coastal waters worldwide promoting frequent occurrence of blooms of potentially toxic cyanobacteria. Removal of cyanobacteria from the water column using a combination of coagulant and ballast is a promising

  8. 33 CFR 151.2037 - If my vessel cannot conduct ballast water management practices because of its voyage and/or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...? (a) A vessel that cannot practicably meet the requirements of § 151.2035(b)(1) because its voyage does not take it into waters 200 nautical miles or greater from any shore for a sufficient length of time and elects to retain ballast water on board, or because of the safety concerns contained in §...

  9. Alfa Laval to meet the ballast water challenge%阿法拉伐应对压载水的挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Alfa Laval, the market leader in separation, heat transfer and freshwater generation, is widening its offering of solutions for environmental protection. The company hereby announces that a potent technology for dealing with unwanted organisms in ballast water will be commercially available as early as 2006.

  10. Study on management and risk of ballast water%船舶压载水的风险与管理探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亮山; 周连志; 刘文正; 温智清; 曲鑫

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解船舶压载水的风险,以及国内外主管部门对船舶压载水的管理现状,并提出管理对策与建议.方法 收集国内外相关文献资料、相关法律法规和公约的规定,进行综合的分析与研究.结果 发现船舶压载水中带有的病原体和有害生物随压载水在全球范围内一起转移,造成经济损失,危害公众健康,我国压载水危害的现状严峻.结论船舶压载水存在传播病原体和外来有害生物的风险,需要进一步建立健全船舶压载水管理相关法律法规,加大执法和科研力度.%Objective To understand the management and risk of ship ballast water at domestic and abroad. Methods The collection and research of the relevant literature material, related laws and regulations and convention at domestic and foreign was done. Results The ship ballast water contained harmful biological and pathogens, and which transfered a-round the global scope cause a public health hazard, economic losses. The situation of risk of ballast water in our country was serious. The international maritime organization (IMO) and several major freight states took a strict management to the ballast water. Conclusion China needs further strengthening of ship ballast water management on legislation, enforcement and scientific research inputs.

  11. Ballast water management that adapts to climate changes and reduces harmful bio-invasions in marine eco-systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne

    2015-01-01

    food-webs and eco-systems. Economic impacts include reductions in fisheries production and algae blooms harmful for fish farms, tourism and human health. Due to the rising temperatures of the Oceans, organisms that prefer a warm climate may take roots in marine ecosystems that were previously too cold...... in marine ecosystem of changed factors in the shipping sector, for instance change of number, size, and design of vessels as well as treatment technologies of ballast water. New areas for shipping due to climate changes are also included. Our study would contribute to improve decision support tools, usable...... in shipping management and in development of international regulations for shipping with special focus on reducing the impacts in marine ecosystem. It can help to identify needs for change of regulations and shipping management procedures necessary to prevent even more harmful bio-invasions in the future....

  12. 33 CFR 157.23 - Cargo and ballast system information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.23 Cargo and ballast system information. (a... automatic and manual operation of the cargo and ballast system in the vessel. (b) The format and information... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cargo and ballast...

  13. 大型半潜船压载水系统设计%Ballast water system for a great semi-submersible vessel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志垒

    2014-01-01

    To realize the semi-submersible function safely and reliably, the ballast system of a certain semi-submersible self-propelled heavy lift vessel is designed by means of combining the air and pump ballast systems according to the characteristics of its numerous ballast tanks. The trail results show that the design of the water ballast system is able to realize the semi-submersible working function for a semi-submersible self-propelled heavy lift vessel at sea, which satisfies the requirements of the technical specification.%为安全可靠地实现半潜功能,根据某半潜式自航工程船压载舱众多的特点,采用空气压载系统与泵压载系统相结合进行设计。试航结果显示:压载水系统的设计能够安全实现该半潜式自航工程船海上半潜作业功能,达到技术规格书中的有关要求。

  14. Onboard ship evaluation of the effectiveness and the potential environmental effects of PERACLEAN Ocean for ballast water treatment in very cold conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lafontaine, Y; Despatie, S-P; Veilleux, E; Wiley, C

    2009-02-01

    This study verified the effectiveness and the potential toxic impact of PERACLEAN Ocean ballast water treatment for very cold freshwater (0.1-0.5 degrees C) in real ballast tank (750 m(3)) conditions aboard a ship and in large-volume (4.5 m(3)) polyethylene tanks. Concentrations of peracetic acid (PAA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) gradually dropped by 41-59% over 5 days. The treatment altered the quality of the treated waters by causing a pH drop of 0.9-1.3 units and a fourfold to sevenfold increase in dissolved organic carbon and organophosphates concentrations. More than 90% of the biomass of free-floating micro-organisms and viable phytoplankton were eliminated within 48 h after treatment. The treatment resulted in 100% mortality in caged fish exposed to treated waters but was totally ineffective against adult zebra mussels and some nematods living in tank sediments. Toxic response from ecotoxicological assays indicated that treated waters after 5 days should be diluted by a factor of 1:2 to 1:200 to reduce toxicity below selected endpoints of acute lethality tests. On the basis of PAA degradation rate, fresh waters treated with 100-ppm PERACLEAN Ocean should be kept in ballast tanks for 15-20 days after treatment to reduce toxicity. It is concluded that the treatment can be an effective biocide to rapidly eliminate organisms of the water column inside the ballast tanks over a wide range of environmental conditions, but that the discharge of the toxic treated waters should be properly managed to minimize potential environmental impact.

  15. UV spectrophotometry for monitoring the performance of a yeast-based deoxygenation process to treat ships' ballast water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Éloïse; de Lafontaine, Yves; Thomas, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    This study assessed the usefulness of UV spectrophotometry for the monitoring of a yeast-based deoxygenation process proposed for ships' ballast water treatment to prevent the transfer of aquatic invasive species. Ten-day laboratory experiments using three treatment concentrations and different water types were conducted and resulted in complete oxygen depletion of treated waters. The treatment performance and quality of treated waters were determined by measuring the UV-visible absorbance spectra of water samples taken over time. Samples were also used for laboratory analysis of water quality properties. The UV absorbance spectra values were strongly correlated (r = 0.96) to yeast cell density in treated waters. The second-order derivative (D (2)) of the spectra varied greatly over time, and the spectrum profiles could be divided into two groups corresponding to the oxygenated and anoxic phases of the treatment. The D (2) value at 215 nm was strongly correlated (r = 0.94) to ammonia levels, which increased over time. The D (2) value at 225 nm was strongly correlated (r > 0.97) to DO concentration. Our results showed that UV spectrophotometry may provide a rapid assessment of the behavior and performance of the yeast bioreactor over time by quantifying (1) the density of yeast cells, (2) the time at which anoxic conditions were reached, and (3) a water quality index of the treated water related to the production of ammonia. We conclude that the rapidity of the technique confers a solid advantage over standard methods used for water quality analysis in laboratory and would permit the direct monitoring of the treatment performance on-board ships. PMID:26944435

  16. 33 CFR 151.2045 - What are the mandatory recordkeeping requirements for vessels equipped with ballast tanks that...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species... following information (Note: Ballast tank is any tank or hold that carries ballast water regardless of design): (1) Vessel information. Include the— (i) Name; (ii) International Maritime Organization...

  17. Effect and mechanism of a High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) and Ultraviolet (UV) composite process on the inactivation of microbes in ballast water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhijun; Zhang, Lin; Shi, Yue; Leng, Xiaodong; Shao, Jingchao

    2016-07-15

    The patented technology of a High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS)-Ultraviolet (UV) composite process was used to treat ballast water. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was selected as the reference bacteria. After treatment by the HGMS-UV process, the concentration of S. aureus on the log 10 scale was lower than 2 at different flow rates, S. aureus suffered the most serious damage, and K(+) leakage of the bacteria was 1.73mg/L higher than separate 60min UV irradiation (1.17mg/L) and HGMS (0.12mg/L) processes. These results demonstrated that the HGMS-UV composite process was an effective approach to treat ballast water. Further, the HGMS process had synergistic action on the subsequent UV irradiation process and accelerated cell membrane damage. Meanwhile, the results of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities of bacteria and DNA band analyses indicated that the inactivation mechanisms were different for HGMS and UV irradiation. PMID:27126180

  18. Efficacy of pH elevation as a bactericidal strategy for treating ballast water of freight carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford E. Starliper

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of ship ballast water with sodium hydroxide (NaOH is one method currently being developed to minimize the risk to introduce aquatic invasive species. The bactericidal capability of sodium hydroxide was determined for 148 bacterial strains from ballast water collected in 2009 and 2010 from the M/V Indiana Harbor, a bulk-freight carrier plying the Laurentian Great Lakes, USA. Primary culture of bacteria was done using brain heart infusion agar and a developmental medium. Strains were characterized based on PCR amplification and sequencing of a portion of the 16S rRNA gene. Sequence similarities (99+ % were determined by comparison with the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI GenBank catalog. Flavobacterium spp. were the most prevalent bacteria characterized in 2009, comprising 51.1% (24/47 of the total, and Pseudomonas spp. (62/101; 61.4% and Brevundimonas spp. (22/101; 21.8% were the predominate bacteria recovered in 2010; together, comprising 83.2% (84/101 of the total. Testing was done in tryptic soy broth (TSB medium adjusted with 5 N NaOH. Growth of each strain was evaluated at pH 10.0, pH 11.0 and pH 12.0, and 4 h up to 72 h. The median cell count at 0 h for 148 cultures was 5.20 × 106 cfu/mL with a range 1.02 × 105–1.60 × 108 cfu/mL. The TSB adjusted to pH 10.0 and incubation for less than 24 h was bactericidal to 52 (35.1% strains. Growth in pH 11.0 TSB for less than 4 h was bactericidal to 131 (88.5% strains and pH 11.0 within 12 h was bactericidal to 141 (95.3%. One strain, Bacillus horikoshii, survived the harshest treatment, pH 12.0 for 72 h.

  19. Efficacy of pH elevation as a bactericidal strategy for treating ballast water of freight carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starliper, Clifford E; Watten, Barnaby J; Iwanowicz, Deborah D; Green, Phyllis A; Bassett, Noel L; Adams, Cynthia R

    2015-05-01

    Treatment of ship ballast water with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is one method currently being developed to minimize the risk to introduce aquatic invasive species. The bactericidal capability of sodium hydroxide was determined for 148 bacterial strains from ballast water collected in 2009 and 2010 from the M/V Indiana Harbor, a bulk-freight carrier plying the Laurentian Great Lakes, USA. Primary culture of bacteria was done using brain heart infusion agar and a developmental medium. Strains were characterized based on PCR amplification and sequencing of a portion of the 16S rRNA gene. Sequence similarities (99+ %) were determined by comparison with the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) GenBank catalog. Flavobacterium spp. were the most prevalent bacteria characterized in 2009, comprising 51.1% (24/47) of the total, and Pseudomonas spp. (62/101; 61.4%) and Brevundimonas spp. (22/101; 21.8%) were the predominate bacteria recovered in 2010; together, comprising 83.2% (84/101) of the total. Testing was done in tryptic soy broth (TSB) medium adjusted with 5 N NaOH. Growth of each strain was evaluated at pH 10.0, pH 11.0 and pH 12.0, and 4 h up to 72 h. The median cell count at 0 h for 148 cultures was 5.20 × 10(6) cfu/mL with a range 1.02 × 10(5)-1.60 × 10(8) cfu/mL. The TSB adjusted to pH 10.0 and incubation for less than 24 h was bactericidal to 52 (35.1%) strains. Growth in pH 11.0 TSB for less than 4 h was bactericidal to 131 (88.5%) strains and pH 11.0 within 12 h was bactericidal to 141 (95.3%). One strain, Bacillus horikoshii, survived the harshest treatment, pH 12.0 for 72 h. PMID:26257948

  20. Application of immobilized TiO2 photocatalysis to improve the inactivation of Heterosigma akashiwo in ballast water by intense pulsed light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Daolun; Xu, Shihong; Liu, Gang

    2015-04-01

    Ballast water exotic discharge has been identified as a leading vector for marine species invasion. Here immobilized TiO2 photocatalysis is introduced to improve the performance of intense pulsed light. For intense pulsed light/TiO2 photocatalysis, a typical inactivation of 99.89±0.46% can be achieved under treatment condition of 1.78 L min(-1) flow rate, 300 V pulse peak voltage, 15 Hz pulse frequency and 5 ms pulse width. Moreover, within tested 220-260 V peak voltage, 18.37-40.51% elevation in inactivation is observed in comparison with intense pulsed light treatment alone. The rough energy consumption of the tested intense pulsed light/TiO2 treatment system is about 1.51-2.51 times higher than that of the typical commercial UV ballast water treatment system. The stability of the photocatalytic reactivity and intactness of loaded TiO2 film is proved within 20-d's test, while local erosion on stainless steel support is observed after 30-d's test. The results indicate that intense pulsed light/TiO2 photocatalysis is likely to be a competitive ballast water treatment technique, while further measures is needed to reduce the energy consumption and ensure the performance of TiO2 film in a long run.

  1. Inactivation of dinoflagellate Scrippsiella trochoidea in synthetic ballast water by reactive species generated from dielectric barrier discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Qiong; Jiang Wenju; Yang Zhishan [Institute of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Zhang Yi; Lim Tuti Mariana, E-mail: TMLim@ntu.edu.s [Institute of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technology University, Innovation Center, Block 2, Unit 237, 18 Nanyang Drive, 637723 Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-05-07

    The inactivation of dinoflagellate Scrippsiella trochoidea in synthetic ballast water by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) system was investigated. The OH{sup .} radical, ozone and hydrogen peroxide generated from the DBD system were measured. Before and after the treatment, the viability of dinoflagellate S. trochoidea was evaluated by analyzing chlorophyll a, protein and saccharide content and morphology of the cells, as well as the pH of the cell culture media. The results show OH{sup .} radical was the major reactive species when humid air was used. The inactivation of S. trochoidea was found to be dependent on the applied voltage and the gas flow rate, and was completed within 4 min at a gas flow rate of 7 L min{sup -1} and an applied voltage of 20 kV. The change of chlorophyll a, protein and saccharide concentrations of S. trochoidea and the morphology of the cells indicates that the reactive species generated from the DBD system can break up the cells via oxidation.

  2. Molecular detection of native and invasive marine invertebrate larvae present in ballast and open water environmental samples collected in Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J.B.J.; Hoy, M.S.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Non-native marine species have been and continue to be introduced into Puget Sound via several vectors including ship's ballast water. Some non-native species become invasive and negatively impact native species or near shore habitats. We present a new methodology for the development and testing of taxon specific PCR primers designed to assess environmental samples of ocean water for the presence of native and non-native bivalves, crustaceans and algae. The intergenic spacer regions (IGS; ITS1, ITS2 and 5.8S) of the ribosomal DNA were sequenced for adult samples of each taxon studied. We used these data along with those available in Genbank to design taxon and group specific primers and tested their stringency against artificial populations of plasmid constructs containing the entire IGS region for each of the 25 taxa in our study, respectively. Taxon and group specific primer sets were then used to detect the presence or absence of native and non-native planktonic life-history stages (propagules) from environmental samples of ballast water and plankton tow net samples collected in Puget Sound. This methodology provides an inexpensive and efficient way to test the discriminatory ability of taxon specific oligonucleotides (PCR primers) before creating molecular probes or beacons for use in molecular ecological applications such as probe hybridizations or microarray analyses. This work addresses the current need to develop molecular tools capable of diagnosing the presence of planktonic life-history stages from non-native marine species (potential invaders) in ballast water and other environmental samples. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  3. 船舶压载水处理设备及应用技术研究进展%Research on Ship' s Ballast Water Treatment Equipment and Technolgies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱力强; 张晓荣

    2012-01-01

    The indiscriminate discharge of ballast water and sediment in ships will bring other invasion biol- ogy which was harm to the globe ' s ocean environment. So, the IMO was highly regarded in the marine environ- ment problems caused by ship' s ballast wate, ((International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships Ballast Water and Sediments))was adopted in February 2004 ,which makes the treatment of ship's ballast wate becoming one of the most pressing issues for shipping enterprise. This paper introduced and analyzed the latest global ballast handlinz eauinments and technologies.%船舶压载水和沉积物的随意排放会造成生物入侵,严重威胁海洋环境。为此,船舶压栽水及其对海洋环境的危害问题受到了IMO越来越多的关注。特别是《船舶压栽水及沉积物控制和管理公约》于2004年2月通过后,使得远洋船舶压载水处理成为了各国航运企业亟待解决的现实技术问题。本文对近年来国际上船舶压载水处理设备及应用技术的最新研究进展进行介绍、分析。

  4. 盐田港船舶压载水致病微生物入侵风险分析%Analysis on invasion risk of pathogenic microorganisms in ship's ballast water at Yantian seaport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小洪; 刘文正; 杨燕秋; 赵爽

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解盐田港港区海水及船舶压载水致病微生物种类和数量,分析压载水致病微生物的入侵风险,为船舶压载水管理提供依据.方法 采用实验室技术对港区海水及船舶压载水水样进行检测分析,采用一般性统计描述、x2检验、秩和检验等对数据进行比较研究.结果 近处水域海水水质较远处水域海水水质差;船舶压载水水质明显较港区海水水质差;不同来源地压载水水质相差不大.港区海水共检出8种致病性弧菌,其中优势弧菌为溶藻弧菌(39.13%)、创伤弧菌(17.39%)、鲨鱼弧菌(13.04%).船舶压载水样本共检出12种致病弧菌,其中优势弧菌为溶藻弧菌(34.69%)、副溶血性弧菌(28.57%).结论 船舶压载水存在致病性微生物入侵性风险,必须采取预防性消毒处理后方可排放;港区海水日常监测主要采集浅层海水,增加对优势弧菌的监测内容.%Objective To understand species and quantity of pathogenic microorganisms in Yantian port seawater and ship's ballast water,and to analyze invasive risks of pathogenic microbes parasitizing in ballast water,and to provide identifiable basis for supervising ballast water.Methods Through laboratory technology,water samples in port seawater and ballast water was analyzed.Through statistic method,such as general statistical description,x2 test,rank-sum test,etc,the data was compared and investigated.Results Water quality in nearby water was worse compared to the distant water.Quality of ballast water was worse compared to the ports water,while the differences of ballast water loaded in different sources were little.Eight kinds of pathogenic vibrios were detected in port water,in which,the dominant vibrios were Vibrio alginolyticus (39.13%),Vibrio vulnificus (17.39%),and Vibrio carchariae (13.04%).Twelve kinds of pathogenic vibrios were detected in ballast water,in which,the dominant vibrios incluld Vibrio alginolyticus (34.69

  5. Development and evaluation of a DNA microarray assay for the simultaneous detection of nine harmful algal species in ship ballast and seaport waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianfeng; Zhou, Qianjin; Duan, Weijun; Zhou, Chengxu; Duan, Lijun; Zhang, Huili; Sun, Aili; Yan, Xiaojun; Chen, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    Rapid, high-throughput and reliable methods are urgently required to accurately detect and monitor harmful algae, which are responsible for algal blooms, such as red and green tides. In this study, we successfully developed a multiplex PCR-based DNA microarray method capable of detecting nine harmful algal species simultaneously, namely Alexandrium tamarense, Gyrodinium instriatum, Heterosigma akashiwo, Karenia mikimotoi, Prorocentrum donghaiense, Prorocentrum minimum, Ulva compressa, Ulva ohnoi and Ulva prolifera. This method achieved a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.5 ng of genomic DNA (orders of magnitude of the deci-nanogram range) in the tested algae cultures. Altogether, 230 field samples from ship ballast waters and seaport waters were used to evaluate the DNA microarray. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of the DNA microarray assay in detecting field samples were 96.4% and 90.9%, respectively, relative to conventional morphological methods. This indicated that this high-throughput, automatic, and specific method is well suited for the detection of algae in water samples.

  6. 船舶压载水UV处理装置的设计与仿真%Design and simulation of ship's ballast water UV treatment devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟梦; 包国治; 陈宁

    2015-01-01

    针对船舶压载水排放要求,结合当前船舶压载水处理技术,采用紫外技术设计处理量为200 m3/h的压载水装置。基于紫外线的工作原理,设计了新型UV压载水处理装置,其中包括灯管的选择、腔体结构的设计和紫外线辐照强度、剂量的计算等。采用Fluent软件分别对新型与原型UV装置内的流场分布、流体过流时间进行数值模拟;分别采用Fluent和Mat-lab软件对装置内的紫外辐照强度和辐照剂量进行仿真模拟,并将模拟结果进行对比分析。模拟结果显示,新型UV装置内的流体过流时间与辐射剂量较原型装置均有所增加;与Fluent软件相比较,Matlab软件能够精确计算装置内各点的UV强度与剂量,且模拟过程更加简便,对UV装置展开深入的研究提供了一种定量分析的新方法。%In view of the requirements for ship's ballast water discharging,combining with current technologies, ultraviolet technology is used in the design of ship's ballast water treatment devices. Based on the working princi-ple of the ultraviolet ray,a new UV ballast water treatment device is designed. The design includes selection of tubes,the calculation of ultraviolet doses and the design of cylinder bodies,etc. The flow field and residence time of the UV device are simulated by the Fluent software,and the UV intensity and dose are calculated by both Fluent and Matlab. The results show that compared with the prototype UV device,both the residence time and UV dose of the new UV device increase;compared with the Fluent software,UV intensity and dose of each point in the UV device can be calculated by Matlab accurately and it's process of simulation is easier,and it provides a new method for quantitative analysis of the further study of intensive UV device.

  7. Inerting ballast tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, Gabriel L.; Bronneberg, Jos [SBM Offshore, AA Schiedam (Netherlands); Barros, Maria A.S.D. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This report expands upon the work conducted by SBM Offshore to develop a tank preservation treatment, which is intended to achieve a service life of 30 years. This work focuses on the corrosion problems, in the ballast tanks, based on new built hulls, both for the Gas Exploration Market, the FLNG - Floating Liquefied Natural Gas, and for the Oil Exploration market - FPSO's - Floating Production Storage and offloading Units. Herein, the corrosion rate input comes from the various references related to the process of nitrogen injection, which is expected to extend the vessel's time life. The essential elements of this solution comprise the deoxygenation process, corrosion models, coating effects, tests from laboratory, shipboard tests, corrosion institutes and regulations applicable to the operation. The best corrosion protection system for ballast tanks area combines a coating system and an inert gas system. The condition of the tanks will be dependent upon the level of protection applied to the steel structure, including, but not limited to coating, cathodic protection, etc. There is a need for products which extend the life time. It is not sufficient, only have good theoretical base for the corrosion and an excellent treatment system. In addition, the design of the ships structure must also eliminate the presence of local stress concentrations which can result in fatigue cracking and rupture of the protective coating barrier starting the corrosion. As a direct result of this, more problems in corrosion can be mitigated, vessels can have a better corrosion performance with less maintenance and repairs to coating systems in ballast tanks. Furthermore ships will be positively impacted operationally due to less frequent dry docking. There is a huge potential in the application of inert gas to combat the corrosion rate inside the ballast tanks, one of the most corrosive environments on earth. This application can have a direct impact on vessel structure

  8. Installation technology and characteristics of steel- wood structure water ballast spaces in immersed tube element%沉管管节钢木结构压载水箱安装工艺及特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈聪; 李元庆

    2015-01-01

    The water ballast spaces are important as interim member when the immersed tube was floating and transporting. The structural design and installing efficiency of water ballast space impact the plan and cost of immersed tube's outfitting. Combining with a outfitting process of the Hongkong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge immersed tube element prefabrication, we expounded the installation technology and characteristics of steel-wood structure water ballast spaces, and will be used in the future similar projects.%在沉管浮运安装施工中,作为临时结构的压载水箱显得尤为重要,其结构设计、安装效率直接影响沉管舾装的进度及成本。结合港珠澳大桥沉管隧道管节预制一次舾装,详细介绍了钢木结构压载水箱的施工工艺及优点,可为同类工程借鉴。

  9. 船舶压载水中海洋微生物的羟基自由基致死特性研究%Treatment characteristics of marine microalgae hydroxyl radicals in ship's ballast water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛晓红; 张芝涛; 白敏冬; 张拿慧; 田一平

    2013-01-01

    Currently, there is no effective method to treat the introduced algaes and bacteria in the ship's ballast water. To solve this problem, the method of advanced oxidation technology producing high-concentration hydroxyl radical solution was used to treat marine microorganisms. With strong ionization discharge, O2 in air and H2O in seawater could be ionized and dissociated into a number of activate particles such as hydroxyl radicals ( ·OH) , which can dissolve into seawater (a part of ballast water) to form the high concentration ·OH solution. With the high reaction rate and broad - spectrum lethal characteristic, · OH radicals could kill the introduced microorganisms through dissociative radical reactions in the course of both discharging and inputting the ballast water, without the pollution by medicament. In this study, Isochrysis zhanjiangensis, Chaetoceros muelleri and Escherichia coli in ballast water were killed by ·OH radicals. Results indicated that the threshold lethal concentration of ·OH radicals for microorganisms in ballast water was 0.6 mg·L-1. A-chlorophyll was damaged by ·OH radicals during the treatment, which resulted in the death of algaes.%鉴于当前尚无一种有效治理压载水中外来有害生物入侵的方法,为解决这一难题,本文采用高级氧化技术,即生成高浓度羟基溶液的方法治理船舶压载水中的海洋微生物.研究主要是利用介质阻挡强电离放电的方法,将空气中的O2和海水中H2O电离离解成·OH等氧化自由基,溶于海水中形成高浓度羟基溶液.同时,实验以羟基致死压载水中的湛江等鞭金藻、牟氏角毛藻和大肠杆菌为例进行了研究.结果表明:羟基致死微生物的阈值为0.6 mg·L-1,主要是破坏了藻类体内的叶绿素,进而导致藻类的死亡.

  10. 46 CFR 182.540 - Ballast systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ballast systems. 182.540 Section 182.540 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.540 Ballast systems. (a) Ballast piping must not be installed in any compartment integral...

  11. Ground reaction forces during human locomotion on railroad ballast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Chip; Redfern, Mark S

    2007-11-01

    Locomotion over ballast surfaces provides a unique situation for investigating the biomechanics of gait. Although much research has focused on level and sloped walking on a smooth, firm surface in order to understand the common kinematic and kinetic variables associated with human locomotion, the literature currently provides few if any discussions regarding the dynamics of locomotion on surfaces that are either rocky or uneven. The purpose of this study was to investigate a method for using force plates to measure the ground reaction forces (GRFs) during gait on ballast. Ballast is a construction aggregate of unsymmetrical rock used in industry for the purpose of forming track bed on which railway ties are laid or in yards where railroad cars are stored. It is used to facilitate the drainage of water and to create even running surfaces. To construct the experimental ballast surfaces, 31.75 mm (1 1/4 in.) marble ballast at depths of approximately 63.5 mm (2.5 in.) or 101.6 mm (4 in.) were spread over a carpeted vinyl tile walkway specially designed for gait studies. GRF magnitudes and time histories from a force plate were collected under normal smooth surface and under both ballast surface conditions for five subjects. GRF magnitudes and time histories during smooth surface walking were similar to GRF magnitudes and time histories from the two ballast surface conditions. The data presented here demonstrate the feasibility of using a force plate system to expand the scope of biomechanical analyses of locomotion on ballast surfaces. PMID:18089931

  12. 协调版共同结构规范下的压载水交换工况对船体结构安全影响探讨%Impact of ballast water exchange condition on hull structure safety by harmonised common structural rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴嘉蒙; 张帆

    2015-01-01

    Ballast water management is important for the environmental protection of ships. Different methods for the ballast water management have the different inlfuence on the hull structure safety, resulting in the different overpressure of ballast tank and different minimum slamming draught. Within the framework of CSR-H, it discusses the impact of still water bending moment and the design load sets under the water ballast exchange condition on the hull structural members according to the new requirements for the ballast water exchange condition. It also provides the relevant suggestions based on the assessment results.%压载水管理是船舶环保要求的重要内容。不同的压载水管理方式对船体结构安全的影响不同,主要体现在压载舱的附加压头、最小砰击吃水等。基于协调版共同结构规范对压载水交换工况的新要求,论述在CSR-H规范框架体系下,压载水交换工况下的静水弯矩和设计载荷组对船体结构构件的影响,并提出基于结果评估的相关建议。

  13. Research of Railway Aggregate Sub-ballast Mixture Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deividas Navikas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Railway sub-ballast layer is a connecting layer between the ballast and other track layers. This layer must ensure even load distribution into the subgrade, drainage surface water, prevent materials of layers mixing. Ensuring these properties allows to extend the explotation of all railway road construction and geometrical parameter of road maintenance. This article analyzes investigated railway sub-ballast mixture properties from large sample sizes (n = 49: gradation, water permeability and density statistical parameters. The regression equation showing the relationship between the fully percent passing through sieves averages and standard deviations is presented. Her coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.909. The minimum number of representative samples of these three properties research is determined. Irregularity in most cases of water permeability (ν = 88,3%, depending on the laboratory tests methodology errors, is indicated.

  14. 上海港外来船舶压舱水中浮游植物的调查及风险分析%Investigation and risk analysis of Phytoplankton in ballast water of entry ships on Shanghai seaport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周淑辉; 吴俊; 孟庆松; 秦玉涛; 顾雪峰; 黄锳钢; 曹国佩; 陈家正; 陆春飞

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解上海港外来船舶压舱水中浮游植物的种类及入侵风险.方法 对2007-2011年上海港的60艘外来船舶压舱水样本进行和分析.结果 外来船舶压舱水中发现浮游植物共8门63属152种(包括62种赤潮生物).其中,常见种主要有菱形海线藻(Thalassionema nitzschioides)、圆海链藻(Thalassiosira rotula)、长菱形藻(Nitzschia longissima)、中肋骨条藻(Skelrtonema costatum)、丹麦细柱藻(Leptocylindrus danicus)、尖刺拟菱形藻(Pseudo-nitzschia pungens).结论 进入上海港的外来船舶压舱水中浮游植物物种丰富度较高,初步评估显示外来船舶压舱水的排放对上海港生态影响具有一定风险.%Objective To understand the species and invasion risk of the phytoplankton from ballast water samples from entry ships. Methods The phytoplankton from ballast water samples collected from 60 entry ships on Shanghai seaport between 2007 and 2011 were investigated and analyzed. Results A total of 152 taxa belonging 63 genera of 8 phytoplankton phyla (including 60 red tide species) were found. In which, the conunen species were Thalassionema nitzschioides, Thalassiosira rotula, Nitzschia longissima, Skelrtonema ctntatum, Leptocytindrus danicus ., Pseudo-nitzschia pungent. Conclusion Obvious is the wide range of phytoplankton species in ballast water of entry vessels on Shanghai seaport. The preliminary results of the assessment is discharge of ballast water from entry ship can pose serious threats to the ecological enoironment of Shanghai port.

  15. Quantifying non-indigenous species in accumulated ballast slurry residuals (swish) arriving at Vancouver, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, T. F.; Levings, C. D.

    2013-08-01

    Ballast tank “swish” samples were collected from ships following their arrival at Vancouver (British Columbia, Canada) after undergoing either a trans-oceanic or a Pacific-coastal voyage. The ballast swish consisted of a residual slurry mixture of sediment and water that remained trapped in ballast tanks following water discharge at port. The ballast tanks of 27 ships were sampled and ballast swish was found on 19 of the 27 ships. These ships were categorized according to ballast water management type: (1) Trans-oceanic = 7 trans-oceanic ships undergoing ballast water exchange (BWE) > 200 nm from shore; (2) Coastal-exchange = 7 Pacific-coastal ships traveling from ports south of Cape Blanco, Oregon undergoing coastal exchange > 50 nm from shore south of Cape Blanco; and (3) Coastal-no-exchange = 5 Pacific-coastal ships traveling from ports north of Cape Blanco, Oregon, without undergoing BWE. Invertebrate abundance and taxa richness were directly correlated with ballast-swish turbidity suggesting that highly-productive coastal source waters and ballast tank retention processes contributed to this trend. In turn, invertebrate taxa diversity increased with increasing invertebrate abundance. A Principal Component Analysis of the trans-oceanic data revealed that length of voyage showed a strong inverse relationship with invertebrate abundance for this category. Within the coastal-exchange voyage category, voyage length and ballast water age tended to be of the same magnitude and were directly correlated with both crustacean and nematode taxa. Finally, the coastal-no-exchange PCA results revealed that voyage length and salinity were inversely related due to the high number of river ports located at the southern border of the regulatory BWE exemption zone. Coastal voyages not undergoing BWE and undertaking a direct river-to-river route should be considered risky for the introduction of non-indigenous species, if the source waters contain potentially invasive species

  16. Biomass-Derived Hydrogen from a Thermally Ballasted Gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Robert C

    2007-04-06

    The goal of this project is to develop an indirectly heated gasification system that converts switchgrass into hydrogen-rich gas suitable for powering fuel cells. The project includes investigations of the indirectly-heated gasifier, development of particulate removal equipment, evaluation of catalytic methods for upgrading producer gas, development of contaminant measurement and control techniques, modeling of the thermal performance of the ballasted gasifier, and estimation of the cost of hydrogen from the proposed gasification system. Specific technologies investigated include a thermally ballasted gasifier, a moving bed granular filter, and catalytic reactors for steam reforming and water-gas shift reaction. The approach to this project was to employ a pilot-scale (5 ton per day) gasifier to evaluate the thermally ballasted gasifier as a means for producing hydrogen from switchgrass. A slipstream from the gasifier was used to evaluate gas cleaning and upgrading options. Other tests were conducted with laboratory-scale equipment using simulated producer gas. The ballasted gasifier operated in conjunction with a steam reformer and two-stage water-gas shift reactor produced gas streams containing 54.5 vol-% H2. If purge gas to the feeder system could be substantially eliminated, hydrogen concentration would reach 61 vol-%, which closely approaches the theoretical maximum of 66 vol-%. Tests with a combined catalyst/sorbent system demonstrated that steam reforming and water-gas shift reaction could be substantially performed in a single reactor and achieve hydrogen concentrations exceeding 90 vol-%. Cold flow trials with a laboratory-scale moving bed granular filter achieved particle removal efficiencies exceeding 99%. Two metal-based sorbents were tested for their ability to remove H2S from biomass-derived producer gas. The ZnO sorbent, tested at 450° C, was effective in reducing H2S from 200 ppm to less than 2 ppm (>99% reduction) while tests with the MnO sorbent

  17. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  18. 船舶压载水系统UV模块的优化设计及实验验证%UV ballast water system optimal design and experimental verification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡明

    2014-01-01

    Ballast water system using the method of UV sterilization, is already a very mature technology. By adding baffles, this article is to improve the original UV chamber, and through numerical simulation and the experimental of biological approaches to solve the problems in practical application, such as the radiation dose not reaching the standard and consuming too much power.%压载水系统利用紫外线进行杀菌处理的方法,已经是一套很成熟的技术。本文通过增加导流板来改进原有的UV腔体,并通过数值模拟和生物实验的方法来解决实际应用中出现的问题,如辐射剂量不达标,消耗的功率太大等。

  19. EFFECT OF ELECTROLYTIC TREATMENT OF BALLAST WATER ON THE CORROSION BEHAVIOR OF 316L STAINLESS STEEL%电解法处理压载水对316L不锈钢腐蚀行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘光洲; 王建明; 张鉴清; 曹楚南

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of invasive marine species into new environments by the ballast water of ships has been identified as one of the four greatest threats to the world's oceans. Many technologies have been developed for ballast water treatment among which electrolytic treatment method has been taken as the most promising one. However, the corrosion problem of metals in treated seawater was seriously concerned by international maritime organization (IMO) and ship owners, especially the corrosion of 316L stainless steel which is widely used in the monitoring equipments of the ballast system of ships. In this study, the variation of environmental parameters of the seawater before and after electrolytic treatment was monitored. The corrosion behaviors of 316L stainless steel in both natural and treated seawater were investigated by electrochemical methods such as open-circuit potential (Eocp) measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization. The results showed that the pH value of the seawater increased and the dissolved oxygen content decreased slightly after electrolytic treatment, and the contents of dissolved organic carbon and particulate organic carbon decreased significantly in treated seawater. The corrosion test results showed that the resistance of 316L stainless steel to pitting corrosion was enhanced in treated seawater. Compared to the system in natural seawater, the open-circuit potential of the steel in treated seawater shifted about 0.4 V positively, and charge transfer resistance of the steel greatly increased. The breakdown potential of passivation films in treated seawater positively shifted more than 0.37 V. Our experimental results suggested that the corrosion resistance of 316L stainless steel in treated seawater was improved, which was ascribed to the thickening and compactness of the passivation film formed in treated seawater. It is safe for 316L stainless steel to be used in treated ballast water with

  20. Ballasted photovoltaic module and module arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Danning, Matt

    2011-11-29

    A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module and a ballast tray. The PV module includes a PV device and a frame. A PV laminate is assembled to the frame, and the frame includes an arm. The ballast tray is adapted for containing ballast and is removably associated with the PV module in a ballasting state where the tray is vertically under the PV laminate and vertically over the arm to impede overt displacement of the PV module. The PV module assembly can be installed to a flat commercial rooftop, with the PV module and the ballast tray both resting upon the rooftop. In some embodiments, the ballasting state includes corresponding surfaces of the arm and the tray being spaced from one another under normal (low or no wind) conditions, such that the frame is not continuously subjected to a weight of the tray.

  1. Optical ballast and adaptive dynamic stable resonator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Guang-Yin; Jiao Zhi-Yong; Guo Shu-Guang; Zhang Xiao-Hua; Gu Xue-Wen; Yan Cai-Fan; Wu Ding-Er; Song Feng

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a new concept of ‘optical ballast' is put forward. Optical ballast is a kind of device that can be used to decrease the variation and fluctuation of the propagation characteristics of light beams caused by the disturbance of refractive index of the medium. To illustrate the idea clearly and concretely, a fully adaptive dynamic stable solid-state laser resonator is presented as application example of optical ballast.

  2. Asbestos quantification in track ballast, a complex analytical problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Track ballast forms the trackbeb upon which railroad ties are laid. It is used to bear the load from the railroad ties, to facilitate water drainage, and also to keep down vegetation. It is typically made of angular crushed stone, with a grain size between 30 and 60 mm, with good mechanical properties (high compressive strength, freeze - thaw resistance, resistance to fragmentation). The most common rock types are represented by basalts, porphyries, orthogneisses, some carbonatic rocks and "green stones" (serpentinites, prasinites, amphibolites, metagabbros). Especially "green stones" may contain traces, and sometimes appreciable amounts of asbestiform minerals (chrysotile and/or fibrous amphiboles, generally tremolite - actinolite). In Italy, the chrysotile asbestos mine in Balangero (Turin) produced over 5 Mt railroad ballast (crushed serpentinites), which was used for the railways in northern and central Italy, from 1930 up to 1990. In addition to Balangero, several other serpentinite and prasinite quarries (e.g. Emilia Romagna) provided the railways ballast up to the year 2000. The legal threshold for asbestos content in track ballast is established in 1000 ppm: if the value is below this threshold, the material can be reused, otherwise it must be disposed of as hazardous waste, with very high costs. The quantitative asbestos determination in rocks is a very complex analytical issue: although techniques like TEM-SAED and micro-Raman are very effective in the identification of asbestos minerals, a quantitative determination on bulk materials is almost impossible or really expensive and time consuming. Another problem is represented by the discrimination of asbestiform minerals (e.g. chrysotile, asbestiform amphiboles) from the common acicular - pseudo-fibrous varieties (lamellar serpentine minerals, prismatic/acicular amphiboles). In this work, more than 200 samples from the main Italian rail yards were characterized by a combined use of XRD and a special SEM

  3. Analysis of Soft Switched Electronic Ballast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Spanik

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available One of most perspective light sources are based on principle of electric discharge in gases. Feature of this phenomena is nonlinear impedance characteristic. Ballast interconnected between line and light source adapts requirements of light source to possibilities/requirements of the line. Today solution of modern ballast is based is based upon high frequency switch mode power supply, the cuts many disadvantages of standartd magnetic ballast off. The article describes development of high frequency electronic ballast for linear fluorescent tube in the frame of grant project 1/9025/02 with accent to soft switching. The most important advantages of this solutions are compactness, flicker-free lumen effeciency increase and reduced EMI interferencies.

  4. Dynamic characteristics analysis of mats of ballasted track on bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Kaiwei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A complete vehicle-ballasted track-bridge coupling dynamic model is established. A program to analyze dynamic characteristics is also invented, which is the first time to systematically analyze the dynamic characteristics of vehicles, tracks and bridges when using mats under ballast on the rigid foundation of bridge, in China. The results show that:(1 The mats under ballast are able to reduce vibration of the train and the wheel-rail forces by a certain extent, which increase the comforts of passengers.(2 The mats under ballast are able to reduce the stress of ballast, which has a great practical significance on avoiding ballast powdering and reducing maintenance work of ballast. (3 The mats under ballast are able to reduce the vibration of bridges. It has a great significance on avoiding the lateral flow deformation of ballast under dynamic loads, keeping good track geometry to ensure the safety of operation.

  5. Railway Ballast Characteristics, Selection Criteria and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Nålsund, Roar

    2014-01-01

    This work is a comprehensive investigation to find to what extent simple laboratory tests e.g. Los Angeles abrasion and micro-Deval might be suitable for predicting real railway ballast performance with respect to deformation and degradation. A number of tests to measure essential properties of ballast aggregate have been performed in addition to advanced material testing. Large cyclic triaxial loading test and full scale railway track model test were employed to simulate the effects of train...

  6. An Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Testing of a Ballast Exchange Assurance Meter (BEAM) 100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mid-ocean ballast water exchange (BWE) is mandatory for all vessels entering U.S. waters from outside the 200-mile exclusive economic zone. To support such regulation, accurate and portable verification tools are needed for determining that BWE has taken place. One parameter pr...

  7. Investigation of the hydro-mechanical behaviour of fouled ballast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-jun CUI; Trong Vinh DUONG; Anh Minh TANG; Jean-Claude DUPLA; Nicolas CALON; Alain ROBINET

    2013-01-01

    In this study,a fouled ballast taken from the site of Sénissiat,France,was investigated.For the hydraulic behaviour,a large-scale cell was developed allowing drainage and evaporation tests to be carried out with monitoring of both suction and volumetric water content at various positions of the sample.It was observed that the hydraulic conductivity of fouled ballast is decreasing with suction increase,as for common unsaturated soils.The effect of fines content was found to be negligible.For the mechanical behaviour,both monotonic and cyclic triaxial tests were carried out using a large-scale triaxial cell.Various water contents were considered.The results were interpreted in terms of shear strength and permanent axial strain.It appeared that the water content is an important factor to be accounted for since any increase of water content or degree of saturation significantly decreases the shear strength and increases the permanent strain.Constitutive modelling has been attempted based on the experimental results.The model in its current state is capable of describing the effects of stress level,cycle number and water content.

  8. IBECS network/ballast interface: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, Francis; Pettler, Pete

    2001-11-15

    This report describes the work performed to design, develop, and demonstrate an IBECS network/ballast interface that is useful for economically dimming controllable ballasts in commercial buildings. The first section of the report provides the general background of the IBECS (Integrated Building Environmental Communications System) research and development work as well as the context for the development of the network/ballast interface. The research and development effort that went into producing the first proof-of-concept circuit and the physical prototype of that concept is detailed in the second section. In the third section of the report, we describe the lessons learned from the first demonstration of the network/ballast interface at an office at LBNL. The fourth section describes how electrical noise interference encountered with the first generation of interface led to design changes for a refined prototype that hardened the interface from electrical noise generated by the ballast. The final section of the report discusses the performance of refined prototype after we replaced the proof-of-concept prototype with the refined prototypes in the demonstration office at LBNL.

  9. 33 CFR 157.160 - Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... washing. 157.160 Section 157.160 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.160 Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing. (a) The owner, operator, and master of a tank vessel under §...

  10. 46 CFR 119.540 - Ballast systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ballast systems. 119.540 Section 119.540 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge...

  11. Light Sources and Ballast Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Sakai, Makoto; Yasuda, Takeo; Maehara, Akiyoshi; Okada, Atsunori; Gouriki, Takeshi; Mannami, Tomoaki

    discharge models were reported. Further, studies on ultra high-pressure mercury lamps as light sources for projectors are becoming the mainstream of HID lamp related researches. For high-pressure sodium lamps, many studies on plant growing and pest control utilizing low insect attracting aspects were also reported in 2006. Additionally, for discharge lamps, the minimum sustaining electric power for arc tubes employed in electrode-less compact fluorescent lamps was investigated. For Hg-free rare-gas fluorescent lamps, a luminance of 10,000cd/m2 was attained by a 1 meter-long external duplex spiral electrode prototype using Xe/Ne barrier discharge. As to startup circuits, the commercialization of energy saving and high value added products mainly associated with fluorescent lamps and HID lamps are becoming common. Further, the miniaturization of startup circuits for self electronic-ballasted lamps has advanced. Speaking of the overall light sources and startup circuits in 2006 and with the enforcement of RoHS in Europe in July, the momentum toward hazardous substance-free and energy saving initiatives has been enhanced from the perspective of protecting the global environment. It is anticipated that similar restrictions will be globally enforced in the future.

  12. Abundance of pollution indicator and pathogenic bacteria in Mumbai waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Kolhe, V.; Sadhasivan, A.

    As a part of environmental assessment in the Mumbai Harbour region, where large numbers of ships either take in ballast from- or discharge their ballast, many groups of indicator and human pathogenic bacteria were quantified. Samples (water...

  13. Hydroxide stabilization as a new tool for ballast disinfection: efficacy of treatment on zooplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Christine M.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Barenburg, Amber; Henquinet, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Effective and economical tools are needed for treating ship ballast to meet new regulatory requirements designed to reduce the introduction of invasive aquatic species from ship traffic. We tested the efficacy of hydroxide stabilization as a ballast disinfection tool in replicated, sequential field trials on board the M/V Ranger III in waters of Lake Superior. Ballast water was introduced into each of four identical 1,320 L stainless steel tanks during a simulated ballasting operation. Two tanks were treated with NaOH to elevate the pH to 11.7 and the remaining two tanks were held as controls without pH alteration. After retention on board for 14–18 h, CO2-rich gas recovered from one of two diesel propulsion engines was sparged into tanks treated with NaOH for 2 h to force conversion of NaOH ultimately to sodium bicarbonate, thereby lowering pH to about 7.1. Prior to gas sparging, the engine exhaust was treated by a unique catalytic converter/wet scrubber process train to remove unwanted combustion byproducts and to provide cooling. The contents of each tank were then drained and filtered through 35-µm mesh plankton nets to collect all zooplankton. The composition and relative survival of zooplankton in each tank were evaluated by microscopy. Zooplankton populations were dominated by rotifers, but copepods and cladocerans were also observed. Hydroxide stabilization was 100% effective in killing all zooplankton present at the start of the tests. Our results suggest hydroxide stabilization has potential to be an effective and practical tool to disinfect ship ballast. Further, using CO2 released from the ship engine reduces emissions and the neutralized by product, sodium bicarbonate, can have beneficial impacts on the aquatic environment.

  14. Microbiologically influenced corrosion in ship ballast tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Heyer, A.

    2013-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is known to be a dangerous process in ship tanks due to its rapid and yet unpredictable occurrence, leading to extremely fast local corrosion, possibly jeopardizing the structural integrity, in a relatively short time. This project focuses on a fundamental understanding of MIC processes in ship ballast tanks (SBTs) as a basis for the development of effective counterstrategies that offer an appropriate protection against MIC attack. Local conditions...

  15. Assessing ballast treatment standards for effect on rate of establishment using a stochastic model of the green crab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Cooper

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a stochastic model used to characterize the probability/risk of NIS establishment from ships' ballast water discharges. Establishment is defined as the existence of a sufficient number of individuals of a species to provide for a sustained population of the organism. The inherent variability in population dynamics of organisms in their native or established environments is generally difficult to quantify. Muchqualitative information is known about organism life cycles and biotic and abiotic environmental pressures on the population, but generally little quantitative data exist to develop a mechanistic model of populations in such complex environments. Moreover, there is little quantitative data to characterize the stochastic fluctuations of population size over time even without accounting for systematic responses to biotic and abiotic pressures. This research applies an approach using life-stage density and fecundity measures reported in research to determine a stochastic model of an organism's population dynamics. The model is illustrated withdata from research studies on the green crab that span a range of habitats of the established organism and were collected over some years to represent a range of time-varying biotic and abiotic conditions that are expected to exist in many receiving environments. This model is applied to introductions of NIS at the IMO D-2 and the U.S. ballast water discharge standard levels designated as Phase Two in the United States Coast Guard'sNotice of Proposed Rulemaking. Under a representative range of ballast volumes discharged at U.S. ports, the average rate of establishment of green crabs for ballast waters treated to the IMO-D2 concentration standard (less than 10 organisms/m3 is predicted to be reduced to about a third the average rate from untreated ballast water discharge. The longevity of populations from the untreated ballast water discharges is expected to be reducedby about 90% by

  16. Electronic screw-in ballast and improved circline lamp phase I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, T.P.

    1980-09-01

    A solid state ballast has been designed for the efficient operation of a 10 in circline fluorescent lamp. The circuit can be manufactured using power hybrid technology. Eight discrete component versions of the ballasts have been delivered to LBL for testing. The results show the solid state fluorescent ballast system is more efficient than the core-coil ballasted systems on the market.

  17. Novel Design of HID Lamp Electronic Ballast for Automotive Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Ye-qiang; WANG Jin-hai; ZHENG Yu; ZHANG Cheng

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a high intensity discharge(HID) lamp for automotive illumination.A novel type of ballast for HID is proposed without an acoustic resonance.The system consists of high frequency DC/DC converter,DC/AC inverter(SLA2403M), high voltage igniter and a microcontroller unit(MCU).The proposed ballast controls the complex start-up process and constant power process by programming on the microcontroller. It is verified that experimental results agree well with the calculated ones. The ballast features such functions as failure protection, line under-voltage, line over-voltage, output short circuit and disconnection protections.

  18. HPS Electronic Ballast Based on CIC-CPPFC Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫; 苏勤; 高国安

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the application of CIC-CPPFC techniques to high-pressure sodium(HPS) lamp electronic ballast. In order to ensure a unity power factor, different power electronic ballasts are studied by PSpice simulation. A dynamic model of HPS lamp with simple and accurate features is proposed for further study of characteristics. Experimental results verify the feasibility of HPS lamp operating at high frequency. It is shown that the presented electronic ballast has 0.99 power factor and 9% total harmonic distortion(THD).

  19. Survey on germination and species composition of dinoflagellates from ballast tanks and recent sediments in ports on the South Coast of Finland, North-Eastern Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pertola, Sari [Finnish Institute of Marine Research, Department of Biological Research, P.O. Box 2, FI-00561 Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail sari.pertola@fimr.fi; Faust, Maria A. [Department of Botany, US National Herbarium, Smithsonian Institution, 4210 Silver Hill Road, Suitland, Maryland 20746 (United States); Kuosa, Harri [Tvaerminne Zoological Station, University of Helsinki, FI-10900 Hanko (Finland)

    2006-08-15

    Cyst beds in ships and ports in Finland have previously been unstudied. Therefore, sediments from ships' ballast water tanks and four Finnish ports were sampled for dinoflagellate cysts and other phytoplankton. Untreated sediments were incubated at 10 {sup o}C and 20 {sup o}C in the local 6 psu salinity for 1, 4 and 7 days, and vegetative cells were examined with light and scanning electron microscope. Sediments were inhabited by various dinoflagellates, diatoms, chlorophytes, cyanophytes and small flagellates. Germinated dinoflagellates were found in 90% of ballast tanks and in all ports. Gymnodiniales spp. and Heterocapsa rotundata formed a major proportion of the proliferating dinoflagellate cells. One species, Peridinium quinquecorne, not previously reported from the Baltic Sea, was identified with SEM. The study emphasises that ships are potential transport vehicles for dinoflagellate cysts even in the low salinity Finnish waters, and small-sized dinoflagellates should be focused upon in ballast water studies.

  20. Dimmable Electronic Ballast for a Gas Discharge Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raducanu, Marius; Hennings, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is the most efficient photocatalyst for organic oxidative degradation. TiO2 is effective not only in aqueous solution, but also in nonaqueous solvents and in the gas phase. It is photostable, biologically and chemically inert, and non-toxic. Low-energy UV light (approximately 375 nm, UV-A) can be used to photoactivate TiO2. TiO2 photocatalysis has been used to mineralize most types of organic compounds. Also, TiO2 photocatalysis has been effectively used in sterilization. This effectiveness has been demonstrated by its aggressive destruction of microorganisms, and aggressive oxidation effects of toxins. It also has been used for the oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide, and ammonia to nitrogen. Despite having many attractive features, advanced photocatalytic oxidation processes have not been effectively used for air cleaning. One of the limitations of the traditional photocatalytic systems is the ballast that powers (lights) the bulbs. Almost all commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) ballasts are not dimmable and do not contain safety features. COTS ballasts light the UV lamp as bright as the bulb can be lit, and this results in shorter bulb lifetime and maximal power consumption. COTS magnetic ballasts are bulky, heavy, and inefficient. Several iterations of dimmable electronic ballasts have been developed. Some manifestations have safety features such as broken-bulb or over-temperature warnings, replace-bulb alert, logbulb operational hours, etc. Several electronic ballast boards capable of independently lighting and controlling (dimming) four fluorescent (UV light) bulbs were designed, fabricated, and tested. Because of the variation in the market bulb parameters, the ballast boards were designed with a very broad range output. The ballast boards can measure and control the current (power) for each channel.

  1. Implementation of Energy Saving Controller for Electromagnetic Ballast Fluorescent Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhi; Barsoum, Cheong; Barsoum, N. N.

    2010-06-01

    Fluorescent lamps have proven to be the most efficient lighting device. However, energy losses have been found in electromagnetic ballast due to high harmonic distortion and low power factor so energy is consumed unnecessarily. In today's energy demanding environment, energy efficiency of fluorescent lamps can be improved by introducing an energy saving controller in the electromagnetic ballast. The energy saving controller limits the supply voltage to an optimum level which tends to reduce the power losses in electromagnetic ballasts and fluorescent lamps. It is also anticipated that the energy saving controller has desirable characteristics of high power factor with dimmable illuminance level control. In comparison to electronic dimmable ballast, integration an energy saving controller with electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps results in less power consumption, dimmable illuminance control and longer life span at a much lower installation cost. Furthermore, there is no replacement cost for integrating the energy saving controller with existing electromagnetic fluorescent lamps system. In this paper, experimental works have been performed to investigate hardware implementation of the system which further supported by simulation on MATLAB Simulink. Experimental results based on the proposed energy saving controller showed that electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps can be dimmed without any problems down to 50% illuminance level output. In addition, experimental results show that 37.5% power consumption can be saved by reducing 15% of the supply voltage.

  2.  Analysis of the ballast system of WindFlip

    OpenAIRE

    Alvheim, Atle

    2010-01-01

     The thesis firstly includes a study of the structure and requirements of a general ballast system. Based on this knowledge a ballast system suiting the needs of the WindFlip concept was designed through using the risk-based design methodology (RBD).The presented ballast system has one sub-system for ballasting during rotation of WindFlip from horizontal to vertical position and back again (called main ballast system). Another sub-system (called the secondary ballast system) is used during tr...

  3. Innovative Ballasted Flat Roof Solar PV Racking System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, Richard T.

    2015-01-23

    The objective of this project was to reduce the cost of racking for PV solar on flat commercial rooftops. Cost reductions would come from both labor savings and material savings related to the installation process. The rack would need to accommodate the majority of modules available on the market. Cascade Engineering has a long history of converting traditional metal type applications over to plastic. Injection molding of plastics have numerous advantages including selection of resin for the application, placing the material exactly where it is needed, designing in features that will speed up the installation process, and weight reduction of the array. A plastic rack would need to meet the requirements of UL2703, Mounting systems, mounting devices, clamping/retention devices, and ground lugs for use with flat-plate photovoltaic modules and panels. Comparing original data to the end of project racking design, racking material costs were reduced 50% and labor costs reduced 64%. The racking product accommodates all 60 and 72 cell panels on the market, meets UL2703 requirements, contributes only 1.3 pounds per square foot of weight to the array, requires little ballast to secure the array, automatically grounds the module when the module is secured, stacks/nests well for shipping/fewer lifts to the roof, provides integrated wire routing, allows water to drain on the roof, and accommodates various seismic roof connections. Project goals were achieved as noted in the original funding application.

  4. Study on alternative approaches to corrosion protection of ballast tanks using an economic model

    OpenAIRE

    De Baere, Kris; Verstraelen, Helen; Rigo, Philippe; Van Passel, Steven; Lenaerts, Silvia; Potters, Geert

    2013-01-01

    One of the most relevant problems in ship construction and maintenance nowadays is corrosion in ballast tanks of modern merchant vessels. On the one hand, there is a general consensus that the economic lifespan of such a vessel depends, to a large degree, upon the corrosion state of its ballast tanks, while on the other hand these ballast tanks, located between the outer hull and the cargo tanks, makes routine inspection and maintenance a difficult task. Today, ship's ballast tanks are usuall...

  5. 75 FR 14319 - Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts: Public Meeting and Availability of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... cycle to amend energy conservation standards for fluorescent lamp ballasts. 65 FR 56740, 56740-56749... Ballast Rule''). 65 FR 56740 (September 19, 2000). This rulemaking established a consensus standard... Regulations at 10 CFR 430.32(m). 70 FR 60407. These standards established ballast efficacy requirements...

  6. On-board Trial of Ballast Water Treatment System Based on Hydroxyl Radicals Produced by Strong Electric-field Discharge%强电场放电制备羟基自由基处理压载水实船试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张拿慧; 白敏冬; 薛晓红; 杨宪立; 范丹; 钟华仓; 华六三

    2011-01-01

    The prevention of marine biological invasion is a major demand of our country, and the ballast water treatment system of ships, based on hydroxyl radicals, has been developed. According to the advanced oxidation process principle, a novel method was proposed for OH radical generation by using strong electric-field discharge under atmospheric pressure, and a non-equilibrium plasma generator was built. Oxygen and gas phase water were I-onized by high energy electron, and then dissociated into free active radicals or ions. These active radicals or ions were mixed well with water, followed by serious plasma chemical reaction to form OH radicals. The on-board trial was carried out on " Yulong" ship with the treatment capacity of 250 mVh. The biological efficacy and relevant chemicals analysis were investigated. The test results indicate that the application of hydroxyl radicals is found to be an effective method to kill algae and bacteria; the results meet the standards set by regulation D-2 of the Convention; the concentration of tribromomethane as the main disinfection by-products is 88. 14 μg/L; no significant differences are obtained from water qualities, except dissolve organic carbon ( DOC) , particle organic carbon (POC) and total suspended solid (TSS) ; the DOC increases over time; on the contrary, POC decreases; TSS decreases over time. The OH ballast water treatment system provides a successful example during voyage and technical support for the development of global shipping market.%针对防治海洋外来生物入侵性传播这一国家重大需求,利用大气压强电场放电的极端物理手段高效制备羟基自由基这一技术治理船舶压载水.实船试验在大连港“育龙号”上进行,羟基自由基压载水处理系统的处理量为250 m3/h,试验从生物有效性、相关化学物质分析以及水质指标变化3个方面对系统性能进行考察.试验结果表明,处理后压载水生物有效性可

  7. Effects of proposed physical ballast tank treatments on aquatic invertebrate resting eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikow, David F; Reid, David F; Blatchley, Ernest R; Jacobs, Gregory; Landrum, Peter F

    2007-04-01

    Adaptations in aquatic invertebrate resting eggs that confer protection from natural catastrophic events also could confer protection from treatments applied to ballast water for biological invasion vector management. To evaluate the potential efficacy of physical ballast water treatment methods, the present study examined the acute toxicity of heat (flash and holding methods), ultraviolet (UV) radiation (254 nm), and deoxygenation (acute and chronic) on resting eggs of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia mendotae and the marine brine shrimp Artemia sp. Both D. mendotae and Artemia sp. were similarly sensitive to flash exposures of heat (100% mortality at 70 degrees C), but D. mendotae were much more sensitive to prolonged exposures. Exposure to 4,000 mJ/cm2 of UV radiation resulted in mortality rates of 59% in Artemia sp. and 91% in D. mendotae. Deoxygenation to an oxygen concentration of 1 mg/L was maximally toxic to both species. Deoxygenation suppressed hatching of D. mendotae resting eggs at oxygen concentrations of less than 5.5 mg/L and of Artemia sp. resting eggs at concentrations of less than 1 mg/L. Results suggest that UV radiation and deoxygenation are not viable treatment methods with respect to invertebrate resting eggs because of the impracticality of producing sufficient UV doses and the suppression of hatching at low oxygen concentrations. Results also suggest that the treatment temperatures required to kill resting eggs are much higher than those reported to be effective against other invertebrate life stages and species. The results, however, do not preclude the effectiveness of these treatments against other organisms or life stages. Nevertheless, if ballast tank treatment systems employing the tested methods are intended to include mitigation of viable resting eggs, then physical removal of large resting eggs and ephippia via filtration would be a necessary initial step. PMID:17447556

  8. Study of chemical and microbial factors affecting the corrosion in ballast tanks on board of merchant navy vessels

    OpenAIRE

    De Baere, K.; Verstraelen, H.; Schillemans, W.; Dewil, R.; Potters, G.

    2008-01-01

    Corrosion in double hull ballast tanks is a very specific issue, influenced by numerous circumstances such as high humidity, presence of sea water, alternation between wet and dry, high temperature, dissolved oxygen, microbial influenced corrosion, complex constructions with a lot of welding, flexibility of constructions, pollution of the ballastwater, marine fouling, use of inferior steel from recycling, insufficient maintenance and coating.As a consequence, many different types of corrosion...

  9. A New-Style Two-Staged Dimmable Electronic Ballast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红颖; 石季英; 陈宝瓷

    2004-01-01

    A two-staged electronic ballast with wide dimming range, high power factor(PF) and low electromagnetic interference(EMI) is presented. It changes the input voltage of the stage of power inverter for dimming control, so it overcomes some limitations of traditional electronic ballasts that use frequency variation. At the same time, the stage of power inverter runs under the soft-switching at the fixed switching frequency and reduces EMI greatly. Its principle and characteristic are analyzed in detail,and experimental and simulated results are obtained on a 40 W fluorescent lamp.

  10. Compact Fluorescent Plug-In Ballast-in-a-Socket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebecca Voelker

    2001-12-21

    The primary goal of this program was to develop a ballast system for plug-in CFLs (compact fluorescent lamps) that will directly replace standard metal shell, medium base incandescent lampholders (such as Levition No. 6098) for use with portable lamp fixtures, such as floor, table and desk lamps. A secondary goal was to identify a plug-in CFL that is optimized for use with this ballast. This Plug-in CFL Ballastin-a-Socket system will allow fixture manufacturers to easily manufacture CFL-based high-efficacy portable fixtures that provide residential and commercial consumers with attractive, cost-effective, and energy-efficient fixtures for use wherever portable incandescent fixtures are used today. The advantages of this proposed system over existing CFL solutions are that the fixtures can only be used with high-efficacy CFLs, and they will be more attractive and will have lower life-cycle costs than screw-in or adapter-based CFL retrofit solutions. These features should greatly increase the penetration of CFL's into the North American market. Our work has shown that using integrated circuits it is quite feasible to produce a lamp-fixture ballast of a size comparable to the current Edison-screw 3-way incandescent fixtures. As for price points for BIAS-based fixtures, end-users polled by the Lighting Research Institute at RPI indicated that they would pay as much as an additional $10 for a lamp containing such a ballast. The ballast has been optimized to run with a 26 W amalgam triple biax lamp in the base-down position, yet can accept non-amalgam versions of the lamp. With a few part alterations, the ballast can be produced to support 32 W lamps as well. The ballast uses GE's existing L-Comp[1] power topology in the circuit so that the integrated circuit design would be a design that could possibly be used by other CFL and EFL products with minor modifications. This gives added value by reducing cost and size of not only the BIAS, but also possibly other

  11. Cooling effect of ballast revetment on the roadbed of Qinghai-Tibetan Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zeyong; CHENG Guodong; QIAN Zeyu; WANG Jiemin; WEI Guoan; HOU Xuhong; GU Lianglei; YAN Yuping

    2004-01-01

    The data obtained through the roadbed surface thermal regime experiment (ROBSTREX), which was carried out at Beiluhe test section of Qinghai-Tibetan Railway from October to December in 2002, were used to estimate the cooling effect of ballast revetment on the roadbed. The results show that both riprap rock ballast revetment and crushed stone ballast revetment can reduce the temperature of the roadbed. But the cooling effect of riprap rock ballast revetment is better than that of crushed stone ballast revetment when the temperature of roadbed is higher. The cooling effect of crushed stone ballast revetment is better than that of riprap rock ballast revetment when the temperature of the roadbed is lower, especially at deeper roadbed layers. In the frozen season, the heat release from the roadbed also shows that the cooling effect of ballast revetment on the roadbed is obvious, and the cooling effect of crushed stone-ballast revetment on the roadbed is much evident than that of riprap rock ballast revetment.

  12. Design and research on a variable ballast system for deep-sea manned submersibles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Zhong-liang

    2008-01-01

    Variable ballast systems are necessary for manned submersibles to adjust their buoyancy. In this paper,the design of a variable ballast system for a manned submersible is described. The variable ballast system uses a super high pressure hydraulic seawater system. A super high pressure seawater pump and a deep-sea brushless DC motor are used to pump seawater into or from the variable ballast tank,increasing or decreasing the weight of the manned submersible. A magnetostrictive linear displacement transducer can detect the seawater level in the variable ballast tank. Some seawater valves are used to control pumping direction and control on-off states. The design and testing procedure for the valves is described. Finally,the future development of variable ballast systems and seawater hydraulic systems is projected.

  13. Ballasted and electrically steerable carbon nanotube field emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, M. T.; Li, C.; Qu, K.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, B.; Pribat, D.; Milne, W. I.

    2012-09-01

    Here we present our on-going efforts toward the development of stable ballasted carbon nanotube-based field emitters employing hydrothermally synthesized zinc oxide nanowires and thin film silicon-on-insulator substrates. The semiconducting channel in each controllably limits the emission current thereby preventing detrimental burn-out of individual emitters that occurs due to unavoidable statistical variability in emitter characteristics, particularly in their length. Fabrication details and emitter characterization are discussed in addition to their field emission performance. The development of a beam steerable triode electron emitter formed from hexagonal carbon nanotube arrays with central focusing nanotube electrodes, is also described. Numerical ab-initio simulations are presented to account for the empirical emission characteristics. Our engineered ballasted emitters have shown some of the lowest reported lifetime variations (sources.

  14. Discrete element modelling of geogrid-reinforced railway ballast and track transition zones

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Track deterioration has a serious influence on the safety and efficiency (speed restriction) of train operations. Many expensive, disruptive and frequent repair operations are often required to maintain the ballast characteristics due to the problem of settlement. Because of this, a geogrid solution that has proved to be a simple and economical method of reinforcing track ballast is widely used. This project presents an evaluation of the behaviour of geogrid-reinforced railway ballast. E...

  15. Finite Element-Discrete Element Coupling Strategies for the Modelling of Ballast-Soil Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Taforel, Paul; Renouf, Mathieu; Dubois, Frédéric; Voivret, Jean-Charles

    2015-01-01

    International audience Numerous modelling strategies have been used over the last decade to improve the understanding of the physical behaviour of the railway track system thanks to numerical simulation. In this context, discrete element (DE) methods are traditionally used to describe the granular behaviour of the ballast layer of the railway track whereas finite element (FE) methods are used to model the whole track system (soil and ballast) in which ballast is modelled as a continuous me...

  16. Track behaviour: the importance of the sleeper to ballast interface

    OpenAIRE

    Le Pen, Louis

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research is to develop a fuller understanding of the mechanical behaviour of the sleeper/ballast interface, related in particular, to the forces applied by high speed tilting trains on low radius curves. The research has used literature review, field measurements, and laboratory experiments on a single sleeper bay of track. Theoretical calculations are also presented. Field measurements are carried out using geophones to record time/deflection for sleepers duri...

  17. Optimization of Ballast Design: A Case Study of the Physics Entrepreneurship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jun; Cheng, Norman; Lamouri, Abbas; Sulcs, Juris; Brown, Robert; Taylor, Cyrus

    2001-10-01

    This talk presents a typical internship project for students in the Physics Entrepreneurship Program at Case Western Reserve University. As part of their overall strategy, Advanced Lighting International (ADLT) is involved in the production of magnetic ballasts for metal halide lamps. The systems in which these ballasts function is undergoing rapid evolution, leading to the question of how the design of the ballasts can be optimized in order to deliver superior performance for lower cost. Addressing this question requires a full understanding of a variety of issues ranging from the basic modeling of the physics of the magnetic ballasts to questions of overall market strategy, manufacturing considerations, and the competitive environment.

  18. Enhanced rates of particulate organic matter remineralization by microzooplankton are diminished by added ballast minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. C. Le Moigne

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To examine the potentially competing influences of microzooplankton and calcite mineral ballast on organic matter remineralization, we incubated diatoms in darkness in rolling tanks with and without added calcite minerals (coccoliths and microzooplankton (rotifers. Concentrations of particulate organic matter (POM, suspended or in aggregates, of dissolved organic matter (DOM, and of dissolved inorganic nutrients were monitored over 8 days. The presence of rotifers enhanced the remineralization of ammonium and phosphate, but not dissolved silicon, from the biogenic material, up to 40% of which became incorporated into aggregates early in the experiment. Added calcite resulted in rates of excretion of ammonium and phosphate by rotifers that were depressed by 67% and 36%, respectively, demonstrating the potential for minerals to inhibit the destruction of POM in the water column by zooplankton. Lastly, the presence of the rotifers and added calcite minerals resulted in more rapid kinetics of aggregation, although not a greater overall amount of aggregation during the experiment.

  19. 76 FR 70547 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... with the new and amended standards established for fluorescent lamp ballasts in today's final rule is... Significant Alternatives to Today's Final Rule Were Rejected. C. Review Under the Paperwork Reduction Act D... presents DOE's evaluation of the economic impacts of today's standards on consumers of ballasts for...

  20. Biodegradation of ballast tank coating investigated by impedance spectroscopy and microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyer, A.; D'Souza, F.; Zhang, X.; Ferrari, G.M.; Mol, J.M.C.; Wit, J.H.W. de

    2014-01-01

    This research paper addresses the biodegradation process for ballast tank coatings in marine environments. As part of this new approach, a commercially available ballast tank coating was exposed to bacteria obtained from a culture collection and to a natural bacterial community isolated from a real

  1. 76 FR 25211 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... public rulemaking (NOPR) for the fluorescent lamp ballast standards rulemaking. 76 FR 20090. For the test... supplemental notice of proposed rulemaking (SNOPR). 75 FR 71570. All comments on the fluorescent lamp ballast... rulemaking''). DOE initiated that rulemaking by publishing a Federal Register (FR) notice announcing a...

  2. 75 FR 71570 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Availability of the Framework Document for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts'') on January 22, 2008. 73 FR 3653. On...) for the fluorescent lamp ballast standards rulemaking. 75 FR 14319. DOE also published a test... initiated that rulemaking by publishing a Federal Register (FR) notice announcing a public meeting...

  3. 78 FR 33774 - Ballast Water Management Reporting and Recordkeeping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... proposed rule, call or email LCDR Rodney Wert, Environmental Standards Division, U.S. Coast Guard (CG-OES-3..., Environmental Standards Division, U.S. Coast Guard (CG-OES-3); telephone 202-372-1434, email, rodney.wert@uscg... FR 3316). D. Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. You may submit a request...

  4. Towards a prototype Decision Support Tool for ballast water risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, F. T.; Andersen, Jesper; Uhrenholdt, T.

    , pelagic larvae of benthic invertebrates or juvenile fish) connectivity is primarily determined by the sea currents and secondarily by species specific life histories and motional behaviour. We have developed a prototype methodology for mapping the connectivity of marine areas of the North Sea region...

  5. Ballast water risk assessment in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, Ruurd van der

    2012-01-01

    Auteur: Ruurd van der Meer Centrum voor Energie en Milieukunde, IVEM Bèta 2012-03 EES-2012-134T ISBN (boek): 978-90-367-5528-3 ISBN (digitaal): 978-90-367-5529-0 Bèta Wetenschapswinkel Rijksuniversiteit Groningen Nijenborgh 4 9747 AG Groningen T: 050-363 41 32 E: c.m.ree@rug.nl W: www.rug.nl/wewi Be

  6. A Novel Single-Switch Single-Stage Electronic Ballast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu-Hua Zhu; Xing-Bi Chen; Hong-Sheng Zhong

    2009-01-01

    A single-stage single-switch high- frequency electronic ballast topology is presented. The circuit topology is the integration of a buck power- factor-correction (PFC) converter and a class E resonant inverter with only one active power switch. The buck converter is operated in discontinuous conduction mode and at a fixed switching frequency, and constant duty cycle to achieve high power factor and it can be controlled easily. Detailed analysis of the operation and characteristics of the circuit is provided. Simulation results satisfy present standard require- ments.

  7. Optimal Control of a Ballast-Stabilized Floating Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Søren; Knudsen, Torben; Bak, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    structural stiffness of a floating installation in combination with a coupling between the fore–aft motion of the tower and the blade pitch. To address this problem, the present paper models a ballast-stabilized floating wind turbine, and suggests a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) in combination with a wind...... estimator and a state observer. The results are simulated using aero elastic code and analysed in terms of damage equivalent loads. When compared to a baseline controller, this controller clearly demonstrates better generator speed and power tracking while reducing fatigue loads....

  8. DYNAMIC MODELING FOR AIRSHIP EQUIPPED WITH BALLONETS AND BALLAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Zi-li; QU Wei-dong; XI Yu-geng

    2005-01-01

    Total dynamics of an airship is modeled. The body of an airship is taken as a submerged rigid body with neutral buoyancy, i. e. , buoyancy with value equal to that of gravity, and the coupled dynamics between the body with ballonets and ballast is considered. The total dynamics of the airship is firstly derived by Newton-Euler laws and Kirchhoff's equations. Furthermore, by using Hamiltonian and Lagrangian semidirect product reduction theories, the dynamics is formulated as a Lie-Poisson system,control design using energy-based methods for Hamiltonian or Lagrangian system.

  9. Obstacles and opportunities in the commercialization of the solid-state-electronic fluorescent-lighting ballast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.; Marcus, A.A.; Campbell, R.S.; Sommers, P.; Skumatz, L.; Berk, B.; Petty, P.; Eschbach, C.

    1981-10-01

    The Solid State Ballast (SSB) Program, aimed at improving the efficiency of fluorescent lights, is described. The first generation of solid state electronic ballasts has been developed and the technology has been transferred to the private sector. This report examines the opportunities for rapid dissemination of this technology into the marketplace. It includes a description of product characteristics and their influence on the commercialization of the SSB, a description of the technology delivery system presently used by the ballast industry, an analysis of the market for SSB, and identification of some high-leverage opportunities to accelerate the commercialization process. (MCW)

  10. Analysis of the class E amplifier used as electronic ballast with dimming capability for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponce, M.; Arau, J. [CENIDET-Electro' , Cuernavaca (Mexico); Alonso, J.M.; Rico-Secades, M. [ATE, Universidad de Oviedo, Campus de Viesques s/n Gijon (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    The analysis and design of a dimmable electronic ballast based on the class E amplifier and fed from solar cells with 12V backup batteries is described. The class E amplifier uses a capacitive impedance inverter as resonant tank and one diode antiparallel with the switch; these elements allow implementation of a dimming feature for the ballast and ignition of the lamp while maintaining zero voltage commutations in the switch. The designed electronic ballast drives a 21W lamp and operates at a switching frequency of 370kHz. Dimming is implemented using an SG3524 in a voltage-controlled oscillator fashion. (Author)

  11. Study on the Elasticity-Plasticity-Stickiness of the Railway Crushed Stone Ballast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Liang

    2004-01-01

    This paper is mainly aimed at the mechanics characteristic elas of ticity-plasticitystickiness existed in the CWR (continuously welded rails) track plane of the railway crushed stone ballast. As an important mechanics parameter of the CWR track plane, the ballast resistance is mainly influenced by this mechanics characteristic. Through the systematic experimental research and the theoretical analysis, this mechanics characteristic of the ballast resistance is revealed and a reasonable theoretical model is built for it. This study set a sound foundation for further studying the CWR track deformation property. It will be beneficial to the development of high-speed railway in China.

  12. An Investigation on the Energy Saving Potential of Electromagnetic Ballast Fluorescent Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Z. X.; Barsoum, N. N.

    2009-08-01

    Energy saving issue is a matter of great concern for industry and electrical utilities. Energy saving from fluorescent lamp system can be achieved by means of optimizing lighting level, reducing power consumption and improving the efficiency of fluorescent lamps. This paper presents an alternative energy saving control method for electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps. Non-linearity characteristics of fluorescent lamps and the effect of energy saving controller are taken into account in the proposed energy saving controller. The proposed energy saving controller provides energy saving feature and dimmable illuminance level control for electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps. In comparison to electronic ballast, integration of an energy saving controller with electromagnetic ballast results in less power consumption, less green house gas emission and longer lifespan at a much lower installation cost. Experiment results based on the proposed controller showed that 37.5% energy can be saved by reducing 15% of the AC line voltage.

  13. Application of polyurethane geocomposites to help maintain track geometry for high-speed ballasted railway tracks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Keith WOODWARD; Abdellah EL KACIMI; Omar LAGHROUCHE; Gabriela MEDERO; Meysam BANIMAHD

    2012-01-01

    There are many issues surrounding the performance of critical assets on high-speed ballasted railway lines.At assets like switch & crossings and bridge transitions high track forces can be produced resulting in higher ballast settlements and hence track misalignments.The latter result in higher track forces and hence more settlement,leading to the need for increased track maintenance to ensure comfort and safety.Current technologies for solving issues like ballast movement under high-speed loading regimes are limited.However,a technique that has been well used across the UK and now increasingly overseas to stabilise and reinforce ballasted railway tracks is the application of in-situ polyurethane polymers,termed XiTRACK.This paper discusses how this technique can be used to solve these types of long-standing issues and presents actual polymer application profiles at two typical critical sites,namely a junction and a transition onto concrete slab-track.

  14. Reducing the cost of ballast tank corrosion: an economic modeling approach

    OpenAIRE

    De Baere, Kris; Verstraelen, Helen; Rigo, Philippe; Van Passel, Steven; Lenaerts, Silvia; Potters, Geert

    2013-01-01

    One of the most relevant problems in ship construction and maintenance nowadays concerns the corrosion in the double hull space ballast tanks of modern merchant vessels. On the one hand, there is a general consensus that the economic life span of such a vessel depends primarily upon the corrosion state of its ballast tanks, while on the other hand, the position of these tanks, squeezed between the outer hull and the loading tanks, makes routine inspection and maintenance almost impossible. To...

  15. Evaluation of the Strength of Railway Ballast Using Point Load Test for Various Size Fractions and Particle Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohmishi, Mehdi; Palassi, Massoud

    2016-07-01

    The ballast layer is one of the most important components of the railway track superstructure in which angular aggregates of high strength rocks are used. Ballast degradation is one of the main sources of railway problems in which the ballast aggregates are gradually degraded due to the abrasion of the sharp corners of the angular particles and splitting each individual particle into two or several small pieces under loading. In this paper, the effects of rock type, aggregate size and particle shape on the strength of the single ballast particles are investigated. For this purpose, point load test is carried out on ballast aggregates of four rock types including basalt, marl, dolomite and trachyte. According to the obtained results, as the size of the aggregates increases, the point load strength index decreases. The influence of size on the strength is more noticeable for ballasts obtained from higher strength rocks. It is also found that the shape of ballast particles has no major effect on its strength. Furthermore, our findings show that the failure pattern for ballasts of higher strength is so that each particle commonly splits into three pieces; while the dominant failure pattern for ballast particles with less strength is breaking the particle into two pieces.

  16. Enhanced rates of particulate organic matter remineralization by microzooplankton are diminished by added ballast minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. C. Le Moigne

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To examine the potentially competing influences of microzooplankton and calcite mineral ballast on organic matter remineralization, we incubated diatoms in darkness in rolling tanks with and without added calcite minerals (coccoliths and microzooplankton (rotifers. Concentrations of particulate organic matter (POM in suspension or in aggregates, of dissolved organic matter (DOM, and of dissolved inorganic nutrients were monitored over 8 days. The presence of rotifers enhanced the remineralization of ammonium and phosphate, but not dissolved silicon, from the biogenic particulate matter, up to 40% of which became incorporated into aggregates early in the experiment. Added calcite resulted in rates of excretion of ammonium and phosphate by rotifers that were depressed by 67% and 36%, respectively, demonstrating the potential for minerals to inhibit the destruction of POM by zooplankton in the water column. Lastly, the presence of the rotifers and added calcite minerals resulted in a more rapid initial rate of aggregation, although not a greater overall amount of aggregation during the experiment.

  17. IMPROVING THE STABILITY OF TONAL TRACK CIRCUITS UNDER FLUCTUATIONS OF BALLAST RESISTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Honcharov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.The purpose of investigation is the development of method for improving the stability of tonal track circuits that takes into account the actual insulation resistance (ballast resistance of rail line.Methodology. To achieve the research purpose it was proposed to automatically determine the insulation resistance of rail line, and depending on this value to adjust the output voltage of track generator. Ballast resistance is determined by the value of input resistance the rail line, which at high frequencies practically is equal to the wave impedance. To implement the proposed method it is necessary to connect to the track circuit additional high-frequency generators, high-frequency filters, unit for finding the ballast resistance and adjusting the output voltage of track generator. Findings. As a result of research it was found that at low values (less than 2 Ohms*km the change of ballast resistance causes significant change of voltage at the track receiver input, which may cause malfunction of the track circuit. Increasing the length of rail line leads to the reducing of its input resistance, raising the measuring frequency causes increasing the input resistance. In both cases, the input resistance tends to the value of the wave impedance. The measuring frequency should be chosen taking into account the length of rail line and the upper limit of ballast resistance, the value 5 Ohms*km can be taken as that limit. At higher values of ballast resistance its changes insignificantly influence the input voltage of track receiver. In this case, the adaptive adjustment of voltage at the track generator output is not performed. Originality. The method for measuring the insulation resistance of rail line has been improved that allows one to determine the ballast resistance automatically. The dependence between measuring frequency, length of rail line and ballast resistance have been determined. Practical value. The proposed method allows one to

  18. 10 CFR 431.324 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of metal halide ballasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of metal halide ballasts. 431.324 Section 431.324 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Metal Halide Lamp Ballasts...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts Q Appendix Q to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Appendix Q to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent... fluorescent lamp ballast. 1.4DC control signal means a direct current (DC) signal that is supplied to...

  20. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 3, Water heaters, pool heaters, direct heating equipment, and mobile home furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This is Volume 3 in a series of documents on energy efficiency of consumer products. This volume discusses energy efficiency of water heaters. Water heaters are defined by NAECA as products that utilize oil, gas, or electricity to heat potable water for use outside the heater upon demand. These are major appliances, which use a large portion (18% on average) of total energy consumed per household (1). They differ from most other appliances in that they are usually installed in obscure locations as part of the plumbing and are ignored until they fail. Residential water heaters are capable of heating water up to 180{degrees}F, although the setpoints are usually set lower.

  1. Effect of particle breakage on cyclic densification of ballast: A DEM approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of particle breakage on densification behaviour of ballast under cyclic loading using Discrete Element Method (DEM). Numerical simulations using PFC2D have been carried out on an assembly of angular particles with and without incorporation of particle breakage. Two-dimensional projection of angular ballast particles were simulated using clusters of bonded circular particles. Degradation of the bonds within a cluster was considered to represent particle breakage. Clump logic was used to make the cluster of particles unbreakable. DEM simulation results highlight that the particle breakage has a profound influence on the cyclic densification behaviour of ballast. The deformation behaviour exhibited by the assembly with breakage is in good agreement with the laboratory experiments. In addition, the evolution of particle displacement vectors clearly explains the breakage mechanism and associated deformations during cyclic loading.

  2. Effect of particle breakage on cyclic densification of ballast: A DEM approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, P. K.; Vinod, J. S.; Indraratna, B.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of particle breakage on densification behaviour of ballast under cyclic loading using Discrete Element Method (DEM). Numerical simulations using PFC2D have been carried out on an assembly of angular particles with and without incorporation of particle breakage. Two-dimensional projection of angular ballast particles were simulated using clusters of bonded circular particles. Degradation of the bonds within a cluster was considered to represent particle breakage. Clump logic was used to make the cluster of particles unbreakable. DEM simulation results highlight that the particle breakage has a profound influence on the cyclic densification behaviour of ballast. The deformation behaviour exhibited by the assembly with breakage is in good agreement with the laboratory experiments. In addition, the evolution of particle displacement vectors clearly explains the breakage mechanism and associated deformations during cyclic loading.

  3. Lamp-Ballast Compatibility Index for Efficient Ceramic Metal Halide Lamp Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourish Chatterjee

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of energy efficient products and exploration of energy saving potential are major challenges for present day’s technology. Ceramic Metal Halide lamp is the latest improved version of metal halide lamp that finds its wide applications in indoor commercial lighting especially in retail shop lighting. This lamp shows better performance in terms of higher lumen per watt and colour constancy in comparison to conventional metal halide lamp. The inherent negative incremental impedance of CMH lamp demands the use of current control device in the lamp circuit and perfect matching of lamp ballast combination is required for efficient lamp operation. The electrical and photometric performance of two sets of commercial 70 watt CMH lamp and intregated ballast units were measured to investigate their compatibility for optimum lamp operation. The measured data were utilized to develop an electrical model for lamp ballast combination. Using this model a compatibility index is proposed which can be used for assessment of lamp performance.

  4. Backfilling with mixtures of bentonite/ballast materials or natural smectitic clay?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, R. [Geodevelopment AB, (Sweden)

    1998-10-01

    Comparison of the performance of backfills of mixed MX-80 and crushed rock ballast, and a natural smectitic clay, represented by the German Friedland clay, shows that the latter performs better than mixtures with up to 30 % MX-80. Considering cost, Friedland clay prepared to yield air-dry powder grains is cheaper than mixtures of 30 % MX-80 and crushed ballast. Both technically and economically it appears that the Friedland clay is a competitive alternative to mixtures of 30 % MX-80 and crushed ballast. However, it remains to be demonstrated on a full scale that Friedland clay ground to a suitable grain size distribution can be acceptably compacted on site 14 refs, 32 figs, 6 tabs

  5. Boundary layer stability acts to ballast the mass of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkelhammer, M. B.; Noone, D. C.; Steen-Larsen, H. C.; O'Neill, M.; Raudzens Bailey, A.; Cox, C.; Schneider, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The mass of the Greenland Ice Sheet has been reduced over recent decades as a consequence of warming, the impact of which is already detectable on global sea level. However, temperature projections suggest that at interior high-altitude sites on the ice it could be decades or more before warming forces these regions to transition from a dry to wet snow facies. Shifts in boundary layer dynamics, including atmosphere-ice sheet hydrological exchange and cloud radiative forcing could expedite or delay this transition. These processes are important with respect to future ice sheet stability, yet they remain difficult to constrain. Using continuous in situ measurements of vertical profiles of the isotopic composition of water vapor at Summit Camp, the highest observatory on the ice sheet, we document the presence of a hydrologic balance between surface sublimation and condensation fluxes. This exists because of a nearly persistent temperature inversion, which hinders the efficiency with which surface water vapor mixes into the free atmosphere. In the presence of a strong temperature inversion, fog and ice particles form near the ice-atmosphere interface from surface moisture fluxes. When this condensate precipitates on or settles to the surface, it ballasts the ice sheet's mass. A decade-long trend towards lower annual accumulation at Summit may therefore reflect continuous replacement of the near surface atmosphere due to reduced atmospheric stability. If this tendency toward destabilization continues, it could accelerate mass loss at interior sites on the ice sheet. The role of boundary layer stability in ice sheet hydrological budgets discussed here is applicable beyond the accumulation zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  6. Research on V Shape Ballast-Free Ship Based on FREESHIP%基于FREESHIP的V型无压载水船研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琳; 解德

    2013-01-01

    Based on V-shape hull theory the non ballast water ship is researched with the ship design software FREESHIP. A method determining the bottom inclination angle is proposed for the first time and a new method for line conversion at non-parallel part of the body is addressed. A bulk carrier is taken as the mother ship and converted into a non-ballast water ship. From a comparative study on floating state, stability and sea keeping between the design ship and the mother ship, it is found that performance of the design ship is better than that of the mother ship with few exceptions.%基于V型船体理论,通过船舶设计软件FREESHIP进行无压载水船设计,以一艘散货船为母型船进行实例变换。首次提出了确定船底倾角的方法和非平行中体部分型线变换新方法。分别对设计船与母型船的浮态、稳性、耐波性进行对比研究,发现除个别情况外,设计船的各项性能均比母型船好。

  7. 75 FR 14287 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... test procedure (appendix Q) can be shown to have a measurement uncertainty on the order of 5 percent... appearing on page 2. DOE understands NEMA's concerns regarding the measurement uncertainty related to the... impacted by measurement ] uncertainty because much of the T8 ballast market is high-frequency...

  8. Effect of type and concentration of ballasting particles on sinking rate of marine snow produced by the appendicularian Oikopleura dioica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Lombard

    Full Text Available Ballast material (organic, opal, calcite, lithogenic is suggested to affect sinking speed of aggregates in the ocean. Here, we tested this hypothesis by incubating appendicularians in suspensions of different algae or Saharan dust, and observing the sinking speed of the marine snow formed by their discarded houses. We show that calcite increases the sinking speeds of aggregates by ~100% and lithogenic material by ~150% while opal only has a minor effect. Furthermore the effect of ballast particle concentration was causing a 33 m d(-1 increase in sinking speed for a 5×10(5 µm(3 ml(-1 increase in particle concentration, near independent on ballast type. We finally compare our observations to the literature and stress the need to generate aggregates similar to those in nature in order to get realistic estimates of the impact of ballast particles on sinking speeds.

  9. Effect of type and concentration of ballasting particles on sinking rate of marine snow produced by the appendicularian Oikopleura dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Fabien; Guidi, Lionel; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Ballast material (organic, opal, calcite, lithogenic) is suggested to affect sinking speed of aggregates in the ocean. Here, we tested this hypothesis by incubating appendicularians in suspensions of different algae or Saharan dust, and observing the sinking speed of the marine snow formed by their discarded houses. We show that calcite increases the sinking speeds of aggregates by ~100% and lithogenic material by ~150% while opal only has a minor effect. Furthermore the effect of ballast particle concentration was causing a 33 m d(-1) increase in sinking speed for a 5×10(5) µm(3) ml(-1) increase in particle concentration, near independent on ballast type. We finally compare our observations to the literature and stress the need to generate aggregates similar to those in nature in order to get realistic estimates of the impact of ballast particles on sinking speeds. PMID:24086610

  10. First record of the freshwater puffer Tetraodon fluviatilis fluviatilis from the coastal waters of Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Padate, V.P.; Rivonker, C.U.; Anil, A.C.; Sawant, S.S.; Venkat, K.

    Authors are grateful to the Ballast Water Management Programme, India executed by the National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa for Directorate General of Shipping, Government of India and is a joint contribution of the Goa University...

  11. A field study of the effectiveness of sacrificial anodes in ballast tanks of merchant ships

    OpenAIRE

    De Baere, K.; Verstraelen, H; Lemmens, L.; Lenaerts, S.; Dewil, R; Van Ingelgem, Y.; Potters, G.

    2014-01-01

    Sacrificial anodes have become a standard practice for the protection of ballast tanks of merchant vessels against corrosive damage. A well protected tank should extend the life span of a ship and consequently enhances its economic value. An in situ survey comprising more than 100 merchant vessels provided the opportunity to measure the impact of these anodes on the life expectancy of these vessels. Contrary to the general belief of these anodes' beneficial effect, no significant difference w...

  12. Enhanced rates of particulate organic matter remineralization by microzooplankton are diminished by added ballast minerals

    OpenAIRE

    Moigne, F. A. C.; Gallinari, M.; Laurenceau, E.; Rocha, C L

    2013-01-01

    International audience; To examine the potentially competing influences of microzooplankton and calcite mineral ballast on organic matter remineralization, we incubated diatoms in darkness in rolling tanks with and without added calcite minerals (coccoliths) and microzooplankton (rotifers). Concentrations of particulate organic matter (POM in suspension or in aggregates), of dissolved organic matter (DOM), and of dissolved inorganic nutrients were monitored over 8 days. The presence of rotife...

  13. A GPR-based simulation approach for the analysis of railway ballast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Andrea; Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; Tosti, Fabio; Pajewski, Lara; Alani, Amir M.; Loizos, Andreas; Umiliaco, Andrea; Giulia Brancadoro, Maria; Pirrone, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    This study aims at proposing a model capable to assess the physical conditions of railway ballast, in terms of percentage of fouling within the material, by analyzing its electromagnetic response. For the calibration of such a model, a laboratory set-up was implemented in order to reproduce a real-scale railway environment. In more details, a 1.47 m long × 1.47 m wide × 0.48 m high plexiglass formwork was laid over a metal sheet, to define a proper domain of investigation. The formwork was then filled up with railway ballast, progressively fouled with a fine-grained pollutant material, namely, an A4 soil type according to the ASSHTO soil classification. At each step of fouling percentage, electromagnetic surveys were carried out by employing several ground-penetrating radar (GPR) systems, in both ground-coupled and air-coupled configurations. On the other hand, the validation of the model was performed through a simulation-based approach. In particular, the main physical and geometrical properties of each ballast-pollutant configuration were reproduced by means of a random sequence absorption (RSA) approach. For the representation of the shape of the solid matrix of the ballast, a relatively complex geometry was here adopted. Finally, the developed geometries were processed by the GprMax 2D numerical simulator, employing a finite-difference time domain (FDTD) model capable of generating a synthetic GPR response for the several configurations analysed in laboratory environment. As result, the potential of the combined use of RSA and FDTD approaches is demonstrated, and a model for characterizing such a complex coarse-grained heterogeneous material is finally proposed. Acknowledgement The Authors thank COST, for funding the Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar."

  14. INVESTIGATION OF INNER SHEAR RESISTANCE OF GEOGRIDS BUILT UNDER GRANULAR PROTECTION LAYERS AND RAILWAY BALLAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sz. Fischer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Using adequate granular materials and layer structures in the railway super- and substructure is able to stabilise railway track geometry. For this purpose special behaviour of above materials has to be determined, e.g. inner shear resistance. Inner shear resistance of granular media with and without geogrid reinforcement in different depths is not known yet. Methodology. The author developed a special laboratory method to measure and define inner shear resistance of granular materials, it is called «multi-level shear box test». This method is adequate to determine inner shear resistance (pushing force vs. depth (distance from the «zero» surface. Two different granular materials: andesite railway ballast (31.5/63 mm and andesite railway protection layer material (0/56 mm, and seven different types of geogrids (GG1…GG7 were used during the tests. Findings. Values of inner shear resistance functions of andesite railway ballast without geogrid reinforcement and reinforced with different types of geogrids and andesite granular protection layer in function of the vertical distance from the geogrid plane were determined with multi-layer shear box tests when the material aggregation is uncompacted and compacted. Only the compacted sample was tested in case of the 0/56 mm protection layer. Cubic polynomial regression functions fitted on the mean values of the measurements are described graphically. Determination coefficients with values of R2>0.97 were resulted in all the cases of regression functions. Based on the polynomial regression functions fitted on the mean values of the test results, three increasing factors were determined in function of the distance measured from the geogrid. Increasing factor «A», «B» and «D». Originality. Multi-level shear box test, developed by the author, is certified unequivocally adequate for determining inner shear resistance of reinforced and unreinforced granular materials, e.g. railway ballast

  15. Analysis and performance of novel and highly efficient electronic ballast operating at unity-power-factor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V B Borghate; H M Suryawanshi; G A Dhomane

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents the electronic ballast, in which the coupling inductors are used to inject the current to the dc-bus capacitors, to boost the dc-bus voltage and to filter out the ripples from input line current. The current injection coupling inductor injects its stored energy to the dc-bus capacitors in every switching half cycle. Whereas, the boost coupling inductor keeps the dc-bus voltage always above the peak of ac input voltage. Therefore, the proposed ballast maintains unity-power-factor and high efficiency with ripple-free input current over wide range of input line voltage in case of worst regulation. A symmetrical half-bridge inverter is used to drive the fluorescent lamps. The experimental results of the laboratory prototype ballast for 2 × 36 W fluorescent lamps operating at 50 kHz are presented.

  16. 潜艇高压气吹除主压载水舱过程的数值模拟%Numerical simulation on compressed gas blowing ballast tank of submarine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建华; 胡坤; 刘常波

    2015-01-01

    采用结构化六面体网格对主压载水舱内部流场进行离散化,基于FLUENT流体计算软件,应用VOF两相流模型,对10 m及20 m水深时高压气吹除主压载水舱过程进行了数值模拟,研究了气液两相界面的形成及生长过程,深入分析了水舱排水速率的变化规律,并针对压载水的残留现象提出了实际操艇过程中需要注意的问题。仿真结果与现有文献中实体模型的实验结果吻合较好,均揭示了吹除过程中水舱内部压力及排水速率的波动现象,验证了数值模拟方法的准确性和有效性。为与实际情况相符,还提出了针对入口及出口边界条件的改进方案。%The inner fluid domain of the ballast tank for computing was dispersed and meshed by applying the structured hexahedral grid, and by using the VOF two-phase flow model, the process of high compressed gas blowing ballast tank while at 10 m and 20 m depth under water was numerically simulated based on computational fluid dynamics package FLUENT. The research studied the forming and developing process of the gas-water two-phase interface was studied, the draining rule of the ballast tank was analysed, and the attention issues in the process of practically steering submarine aiming at the remanet ballast water were indicated. The simulation results match the model experiment results of the existing literatures very well, and for both the results indicating the undulation phenomenon of the interior pressure of the tank and the draining velocity in the process of blowing, the veracity and validity of the numerical simulation is validat-ed. For matching the actual situation, the amelioration schemes of the inlet and outlet boundary conditions were given.

  17. Consequences of using crushed crystalline rock as ballast in KBS-3 tunnels instead of rounded quartz particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic question has been whether such replacement alters the hydraulic conductivity and compressibility as well as expandability and also if the physical and chemical stabilities are altered. The key factor is the microstructural constitution of the bentonite/ballast mixtures, which is primarily controlled by the grain size distribution of the ballast. The compact ability of backfills with quartz sand (SB) is higher than that of backfills with crushed rock as ballast (RB). The physical stability of RB backfills in terms of piping and erosion resistance will be somewhat lower than that of SB backfills. The chemical stability is practically independent of whether the ballast is pure quartz or rock with K-bearing minerals because the temperature in the backfill will be too low to yield significant smectite to illite conversion in the short heating period. In order to reach the same densities of SB and RB backfills, which turn out to give fairly similar physical properties, the latter backfills need more effective compaction or, alternatively, a higher bentonite content. It is estimated that if the bentonite content in RB backfills is not increased while the density is enhanced to what is achievable, these backfills will serve equally well as SB backfills with the densities implied by the basic KBS-3 concept. 23 refs, 27 figs, 7 tabs

  18. Production, oxygen respiration rates, and sinking velocity of copepod fecal pellets: Direct measurements of ballasting by opal and calcite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, H.; Iversen, M.H.; Koski, Marja;

    2008-01-01

    sp., T. weissflogii, and E. huxleyi, respectively. The average carbon-specific respiration rate was 0.15 d(-1) independent on diet (range: 0.08-0.21 d(-1)). Because of ballasting of opal and calcite, sinking velocities were significantly higher for pellets produced on T. weissflogii (322 +/- 169 m d...

  19. Effect of type and concentration of ballasting particles on sinking rate of marine snow produced by the Appendicularian Oikopleura dioica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombard, Fabien; Guidi, L.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Ballast material (organic, opal, calcite, lithogenic) is suggested to affect sinking speed of aggregates in the ocean. Here, we tested this hypothesis by incubating appendicularians in suspensions of different algae or Saharan dust, and observing the sinking speed of the marine snow formed by the...

  20. Ballast minerals and the sinking carbon flux in the ocean: carbon-specific respiration rates and sinking velocity of marine snow aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Iversen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations have shown that fluxes of ballast minerals (calcium carbonate, opal, and lithogenic material and organic carbon fluxes are closely correlated in the bathypelagic zones of the ocean. Hence it has been hypothesized that incorporation of biogenic minerals within marine aggregates could either protect the organic matter from decomposition and/or increase the sinking velocity via ballasting of the aggregates. Here we present the first combined data on size, sinking velocity, carbon-specific respiration rate, and composition measured directly in three aggregate types; Emiliania huxleyi aggregates (carbonate ballasted, Skeletonema costatum aggregates (opal ballasted, and aggregates made from a mix of both E. huxleyi and S. costatum (carbonate and opal ballasted. Overall average carbon-specific respiration rate was ~0.13 d−1 and did not vary with aggregate type and size. Ballasting from carbonate resulted in 2- to 2.5-fold higher sinking velocities than those of aggregates ballasted by opal. We compiled literature data on carbon-specific respiration rate and sinking velocity measured in aggregates of different composition and sources. Compiled carbon-specific respiration rates (including this study vary between 0.08 d−1 and 0.20 d−1. Sinking velocity increases with increasing aggregate size within homogeneous sources of aggregates. When compared across different particle and aggregate sources, however, sinking velocity appeared to be independent of particle or aggregate size. The carbon-specific respiration rate per meter settled varied between 0.0002 m−1 and 0.0030 m−1, and decreased with increasing aggregate size. It was lower for calcite ballasted aggregates as compared to that of similar sized opal ballasted aggregates.

  1. Ballast minerals and the sinking carbon flux in the ocean: carbon-specific respiration rates and sinking velocities of macroscopic organic aggregates (marine snow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Iversen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations have shown that fluxes of ballast minerals (calcium carbonate, opal, and lithogenic material and organic carbon fluxes are closely correlated in the bathypelagic zones of the ocean. Hence it has been hypothesized that incorporation of biogenic minerals within marine aggregates could either protect the organic matter from decomposition and/or increase the sinking velocity via ballasting of the aggregates. Here we present the first combined data on size, sinking velocity, carbon-specific respiration rate, and composition measured directly in three aggregate types; Emiliania huxleyi aggregates (carbonate ballasted, Skeletonema costatum aggregates (opal ballasted, and aggregates made from a mix of both E. huxleyi and S. costatum (carbonate and opal ballasted. Overall average carbon-specific respiration rate was ~0.13 d−1 and did not vary with aggregate type and size. Ballasting from carbonate resulted in 2- to 2.5-fold higher sinking velocities than aggregates ballasted by opal. We compiled literature data on carbon-specific respiration rate and sinking velocity measured in aggregate of different composition and sources. Compiled carbon-specific respiration rates (including this study vary between 0.08 d−1 and 0.20 d−1. Sinking velocity increases with increasing aggregate size within homogeneous sources of aggregates. When compared across different particle and aggregate sources, however, sinking velocity appeared to be independent of particle or aggregate size. The calculated carbon remineralization length scale due to microbial respiration and sinking velocity of mm-large marine aggregates was higher for calcite ballasted aggregates as compared to opal-ballasted aggregates. It varied between 0.0002 m−1 and 0.0030 m−1, and decreased with increasing aggregate size.

  2. Ballast minerals and the sinking carbon flux in the ocean: carbon-specific respiration rates and sinking velocity of marine snow aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, M. H.; Ploug, H.

    2010-09-01

    Recent observations have shown that fluxes of ballast minerals (calcium carbonate, opal, and lithogenic material) and organic carbon fluxes are closely correlated in the bathypelagic zones of the ocean. Hence it has been hypothesized that incorporation of biogenic minerals within marine aggregates could either protect the organic matter from decomposition and/or increase the sinking velocity via ballasting of the aggregates. Here we present the first combined data on size, sinking velocity, carbon-specific respiration rate, and composition measured directly in three aggregate types; Emiliania huxleyi aggregates (carbonate ballasted), Skeletonema costatum aggregates (opal ballasted), and aggregates made from a mix of both E. huxleyi and S. costatum (carbonate and opal ballasted). Overall average carbon-specific respiration rate was ~0.13 d-1 and did not vary with aggregate type and size. Ballasting from carbonate resulted in 2- to 2.5-fold higher sinking velocities than those of aggregates ballasted by opal. We compiled literature data on carbon-specific respiration rate and sinking velocity measured in aggregates of different composition and sources. Compiled carbon-specific respiration rates (including this study) vary between 0.08 d-1 and 0.20 d-1. Sinking velocity increases with increasing aggregate size within homogeneous sources of aggregates. When compared across different particle and aggregate sources, however, sinking velocity appeared to be independent of particle or aggregate size. The carbon-specific respiration rate per meter settled varied between 0.0002 m-1 and 0.0030 m-1, and decreased with increasing aggregate size. It was lower for calcite ballasted aggregates as compared to that of similar sized opal ballasted aggregates.

  3. Ballast minerals and the sinking carbon flux in the ocean: carbon-specific respiration rates and sinking velocities of macroscopic organic aggregates (marine snow)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, M. H.; Ploug, H.

    2010-05-01

    Recent observations have shown that fluxes of ballast minerals (calcium carbonate, opal, and lithogenic material) and organic carbon fluxes are closely correlated in the bathypelagic zones of the ocean. Hence it has been hypothesized that incorporation of biogenic minerals within marine aggregates could either protect the organic matter from decomposition and/or increase the sinking velocity via ballasting of the aggregates. Here we present the first combined data on size, sinking velocity, carbon-specific respiration rate, and composition measured directly in three aggregate types; Emiliania huxleyi aggregates (carbonate ballasted), Skeletonema costatum aggregates (opal ballasted), and aggregates made from a mix of both E. huxleyi and S. costatum (carbonate and opal ballasted). Overall average carbon-specific respiration rate was ~0.13 d-1 and did not vary with aggregate type and size. Ballasting from carbonate resulted in 2- to 2.5-fold higher sinking velocities than aggregates ballasted by opal. We compiled literature data on carbon-specific respiration rate and sinking velocity measured in aggregate of different composition and sources. Compiled carbon-specific respiration rates (including this study) vary between 0.08 d-1 and 0.20 d-1. Sinking velocity increases with increasing aggregate size within homogeneous sources of aggregates. When compared across different particle and aggregate sources, however, sinking velocity appeared to be independent of particle or aggregate size. The calculated carbon remineralization length scale due to microbial respiration and sinking velocity of mm-large marine aggregates was higher for calcite ballasted aggregates as compared to opal-ballasted aggregates. It varied between 0.0002 m-1 and 0.0030 m-1, and decreased with increasing aggregate size.

  4. Application of floating ballast concrete floor slab at diversion tunnel of Baoxing Hydropower Project%浮碴混凝土底板在宝兴水电站引水隧洞中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹坤; 胡嘉航

    2014-01-01

    For the diversion tunnel of Baoxing Hydropower Project,field floating ballast concrete floor slab lifting test against external water pressure was conducted during construction. With reference to the testing results and the experience of similar projects,the original plain concrete floor slab construction scheme was optimized and floating ballast concrete floor slab scheme was adopted for the tunnel sections with II~III category surrounding rock ,which had played an active role in cost control and accelerating construction progress due to simplified floor slab cleaning procedures,reduced concrete slab thickness,increased drainage holes on base slab and walls.%在宝兴水电站引水隧洞底板施工过程中,通过现场浮碴混凝土底板抗外水抬动试验,并参考类似工程经验,对原素混凝土底板施工方案进行了优化,在部分Ⅱ-Ⅲ类围岩洞段采用浮碴混凝土底板,简化了底板清理的施工工序,降低了底板混凝土厚度,增加了混凝土底板及边墙排水孔,对控制投资、加快施工进度起到了积极作用。

  5. A semi-empirical model for the prediction of fouling in railway ballast using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; Tosti, Fabio; Benedetto, Andrea; Alani, Amir M.; Loizos, Andreas; D'Amico, Fabrizio; Calvi, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    The first step in the planning for a renewal of a railway network consists in gathering information, as effectively as possible, about the state of the railway tracks. Nowadays, this activity is mostly carried out by digging trenches at regular intervals along the whole network, to evaluate both geometrical and geotechnical properties of the railway track bed. This involves issues, mainly concerning the invasiveness of the operations, the impacts on the rail traffic, the high costs, and the low levels of significance concerning such discrete data set. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can represent a useful technique for overstepping these issues, as it can be directly mounted onto a train crossing the railway, and collect continuous information along the network. This study is aimed at defining an empirical model for the prediction of fouling in railway ballast, by using GPR. With this purpose, a thorough laboratory campaign was implemented within the facilities of Roma Tre University. In more details, a 1.47 m long × 1.47 m wide × 0.48 m height plexiglass framework, accounting for the domain of investigation, was laid over a perfect electric conductor, and filled up with several configuration of railway ballast and fouling material (clayey sand), thereby representing different levels of fouling. Then, the set of fouling configurations was surveyed with several GPR systems. In particular, a ground-coupled multi-channel radar (600 MHz and 1600 MHz center frequency antennas) and three air-launched radar systems (1000 MHz and 2000 MHz center frequency antennas) were employed for surveying the materials. By observing the results both in terms of time and frequency domains, interesting insights are highlighted and an empirical model, relating in particular the shape of the frequency spectrum of the signal and the percentage of fouling characterizing the surveyed material, is finally proposed. Acknowledgement The Authors thank COST, for funding the Action TU1208 "Civil

  6. Association of bacteria with marine invertebrates: Implications for ballast water management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, L.; Anil, A.C.

    >. Computation of bacterial contribution based on biovolume indicated that despite being the smallest zooplankton tested, veliger larvae harbored the highest number of bacteria, while barnacle nauplii, the largest of the zooplankton, tested in terms of volume...

  7. Difficulties in obtaining representative samples for compliance with the Ballast Water Management Convention

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Carney, K.J.; Basurko, O.C.; Pazouki, K.; Marsham, S.; Delany, J.E.; Desai, D.V.; Anil, A.C.; Mesbahi, E.

    of Tetraselmis suecica was added to a storage tank and sampled at discharge. The factors holding period, initial cell density and sampling interval affected representativeness. Most samples underestimated cell density, and some tanks with an initial cell density...

  8. Richness-abundance relationships for zooplankton in ballast water: temperate versus Arctic comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, F T; Briski, Elizabeta; S. A. Bailey; MacIsaac, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    Species richness and abundance are two commonly measured parameters used to characterize invasion risk associated with transport vectors, especially those capable of transferring large species assemblages. Understanding the relationship between these two variables can further improve our ability to predict future invasions by identifying conditions where high-risk (i.e. species-rich or high abundance or both) and low-risk (i.e. species-poor and low abundance) introduction events are expected....

  9. Ergonomics evaluation of work posture in OWAS method in Ballast mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasl Seraji J

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, musculoskeletal disorders incidents have been found through NMQ. Then, with the OWAS method the results have been analysed. In this thesis, we have studied the case in two different workshops of Ballast Production Company. The jobs were classified according to static load caused by poor work posture and recommendations for reducing the hurmful load were made. The study of the questionnaire showe that there is meaningful relation between work experience and Low Back Pain (LBP (P<3%. Meanwhile BMI (Body Mass Index is closely related to LBP (P<2%. However a relation was found between low back and back and shoulder pain complaints during recent one year and last one week with that of the existence of the pains, respectively P<2% and P<5%. Jobs related with repair and maintenance rates the first as regards static load on the muscloskeletal system. Cooking, digging operations, driving bullodozer, operation of stone crushing device, loaders and lorries rank respectively in order.

  10. Nonlinear Finite Element Modelling of Railway Turnout System considering Bearer/Sleeper-Ballast Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sae Siew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rail turnouts are built to enable flexibility in the rail network as they allow for vehicles to switch between various tracks, therefore maximizing the utilisation of existing rail infrastructure. In general, railway turnouts are a safety-critical and expensive feature to a rail system as they suffer aggressive operational loads, in comparison to a plain rail track, and thus require frequent monitoring and maintenance. In practice, great consideration is given to the dynamic interaction between the turnouts components as a failed component may have adverse effects on the performance of neighbouring components. This paper presents a nonlinear 3D finite element (FE model, taking into account the nonlinearities of materials, in order to evaluate the interaction and behaviour of turnout components. Using ABAQUS, the finite element model was developed to simulate standard concrete bearers with 60 kg/m rail and with a tangential turnout radius of 250 m. The turnout structure is supported by a ballast layer, which is represented by a nonlinearly deformable tensionless solid. The numerical studies firstly demonstrate the importance of load transfer mechanisms in the failure modes of the turnout components. The outcome will lead to a better design and maintenance of railway turnouts, improving public safety and operational reliability.

  11. Not all calcite ballast is created equal: differing effects of foraminiferan and coccolith calcite on the formation and sinking of aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schmidt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Correlation between particulate organic carbon (POC and calcium carbonate sinking through the deep ocean has led to the idea that ballast provided by calcium carbonate is important for the export of POC from the surface ocean. While this idea is certainly to some extent true, it is worth considering in more nuance, for example, examining the different effects on the aggregation and sinking of POC of small, non-sinking calcite particles like coccoliths and large, rapidly sinking calcite like planktonic foraminiferan tests. We have done that here in a simple experiment carried out in roller tanks that allow particles to sink continuously without being impeded by container walls. Coccoliths were efficiently incorporated into aggregates that formed during the experiment, increasing their sinking speed compared to similarly sized aggregates lacking added calcite ballast. The foraminiferan tests, which sank as fast as 700 m d−1, became associated with only very minor amounts of POC. In addition, when they collided with other, larger, foraminferan-less aggregates, they fragmented them into two smaller, more slowly sinking aggregates. While these effects were certainly exaggerated within the confines of the roller tanks, they clearly demonstrate that calcium carbonate ballast is not just calcium carbonate ballast- different forms of calcium carbonate ballast have notably different effects on POC aggregation, sinking, and export.

  12. Levantamento florístico das macroalgas da baía de Sepetiba e adjacências, RJ: ponto de partida para o Programa GloBallast no Brasil Floristic survey of the macroalgae from Sepetiba bay and surrounding area, Rio de Janeiro State: starting point for the GloBallast Programme in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Menezes de Széchy

    2005-09-01

    amostragem, em estudos futuros. Recomenda-se a padronização metodológica para o levantamento florístico de áreas portuárias como a baía de Sepetiba, e de outras áreas do litoral brasileiro sujeitas à interferência do homem, tomando por base o procedimento CRIMP.The Port of Sepetiba, State of Rio de Janeiro, was chosen as the Brazilian pilot area for the project "Global Ballast Water Management Programme" (GloBallast Programme. For comparative purposes, six countries were guided by the GloBallast Programme to follow the same methodology, emphasizing identification of organisms to the specific level during the preliminary biota survey. This study aimed to apply the methodology established by the Australian Centre for Research on Introduced Marine Pests (CRIMP procedures for the floristic survey of macroalgae of natural hard substrate of the area of Port of Sepetiba. Macroalgal samplings were carried out in November 2001 at nine sites situated in Sepetiba Bay and adjacent area, from the sublittoral fringe to ca. - 4 m deep. At each site, six 0.1 m² quadrates were scraped. Specimens were sent to the Herbarium of the "Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro" (RB. Ninety six species were identified (20 Chlorophyta, 16 Phaeophyta, and 60 Rhodophyta; 12 species have not been cited to the study area by the preceding studies. Cladophora pellucidoidea C. Hoek, Coelothrix irregularis (Harv. Boergesen, and Acrochaetium savianum (Menegh. Nägeli are recorded for the first time to the state of Rio de Janeiro. There are no evidences to conclude that the new records correspond to recently introduced species through the port activities. The methodological procedures proved to be efficient because they produced a species list to be comparable to those of taxonomic surveys with higher sampling effort. They also enlarged the existing information about the phycological flora of Sepetiba Bay. Nevertheless, for future studies, we point out the importance of a re

  13. Formation of a spark discharge in an inhomogeneous electric field with current limitation by a large ballast Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldanov, B. B., E-mail: baibat@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physical Material Science, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Results of studies of a spark discharge initiated in argon in a point–plane electrode gap with limitation of the discharge current by a large ballast resistance are presented. It is shown that the current flowing through the plasma channel of such a low-current spark has the form of periodic pulses. It is experimentally demonstrated that, when a low-current spark transforms into a constricted glow discharge, current pulses disappear, the spatial structure of the cathode glow changes abruptly, and a brightly glowing positive plasma column forms in the gap.

  14. A Response to Warren's Review of Five Thousand Years of Maritime Subsistence at CA-SDI-48, on Ballast Point, San Diego County, California

    OpenAIRE

    Gallegos, Dennis R.

    2008-01-01

    The Ballast Point report (Five Thousand Years of Maritime Subsistence at CA-SDI-48, on Ballast Point, San Diego County, California) was the first such report to document the complexity of maritime subsistence in San Diego County from circa 6,600 B.P. to 1,300 B.P. It was completed in 1988, and later published by Coyote Press in 1998, "with very minor editing and corrections." CRM reports by their very nature are usually not structured for publication; however, the Coyote Press publishers felt...

  15. 77 FR 15298 - Rule Concerning Disclosures Regarding Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ..., 1987) (central air conditioners and heat pumps); 54 FR 28031 (Jul. 5, 1989) (fluorescent lamp ballasts..., refrigerators, and refrigerator- freezers), room air conditioners, and water heaters. The examination did not... leave labels unattached when shipping units. \\26\\ 72 FR 49948 (Aug. 27, 2007). C. Room Air...

  16. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  17. Effect of the finite size of an asteroid on its deflection using a tether-ballast system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashayekhi, Mohammad J.; Misra, Arun K.

    2016-07-01

    Potentially hazardous near-Earth objects which can impose a significant threat on life on the planet have generated a lot of interest in the study of various asteroid deflection strategies. There are numerous asteroid deflection techniques suggested and discussed in the literature. This paper is focused on one of the non-destructive asteroid deflection strategies by attaching a long tether-ballast system to the asteroid. In the existing literature on this technique, very simplified models of the asteroid-tether-ballast system including a point mass model of the asteroid have been used. In this paper, the dynamical effect of using a finite size asteroid model on the asteroid deflection achieved is analyzed in detail. It has been shown that considering the finite size of the asteroid, instead of the point mass approximation, can have significant influence on the deflection predicted. Furthermore the effect of the tether-deployment stage, which is an essential part of any realistic asteroid deflection mission, on the predicted deflection is studied in this paper. Finally the effect of cutting the tether on the deflection achieved is analyzed and it has been shown that depending on the orbital properties of the asteroid as well as its size and rotational rate, cutting the tether at an appropriate time can increase the deflection achieved. Several numerical examples have been used in this paper to elaborate on the proposed technique and to quantitatively analyze the effect of different parameters on the asteroid deflection.

  18. The Influence of Water Quality on Arsenic Sorption and Treatment Process Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Sheryl Dianna

    2001-01-01

    A new regulation has been proposed that would lower the acceptable level of arsenic in drinking water from the current standard of 50 ppb. Therefore, research into effective arsenic removal treatment is important, especially for hard to treat waters with high concentrations of silica. The first phase of research was designed to determine if sand ballasted coagulation is a viable means of removing arsenic from drinking water, and if so, to identify the water qualities in which the t...

  19. Gallegos and Kyle: Five Thousand Years of Maritime Subsistence at CA-SDI-48, on Ballast Point, San Diego County, California

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Claude N.

    2007-01-01

    Five Thousand Years of Maritime Subsistence at CA-SDI-48, on Ballast Point, San Diego County, California. Dennis Gallegos and Carolyn Kyle. Salinas: Coyote Press, 1998. [Archives of California Prehistory No. 40.] Xiv + 224 pp., 32 figs., 86 tables, 1 appendix. $23.00, (paper).

  20. A Novel Low Cost Single Stage Electronic Ballast%一种新颖的低价单级电子镇流器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周成虎; 瓮嘉民; 李松涛

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a single-stage electronic ballast based on the integration of self-excited oscillation converter and Buck-Boost power factor correction circuit.Controlling signals of Power MOSFET is obtained from the resonance circuit of the combination of saturated transformer.The iron core is saturated to control two Power MOSFET control signal dead time.Since no special integrated circuit control ballast,and compared with typical two stages of electronic ballast,the ballast is low cost and the experiments show that the circuit is feasible.%给出了一个基于集成自激振荡变换器与Buck-Boost功率因数校正电路的单级电子镇流器.功率开关管的控制信号是通过谐振电路中串接的饱和变压器获得的,用铁芯饱和来控制两个开关管控制信号之间的死区时间.由于没有专用集成电路控制镇流器,所以这种镇流器和典型的两级电子镇流器相比成本较低,实验证明其电路可行.

  1. Eco-geomorphic processes that maintain a small coral reef island: Ballast Island in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayanne, Hajime; Aoki, Kenji; Suzuki, Takuya; Hongo, Chuki; Yamano, Hiroya; Ide, Yoichi; Iwatsuka, Yuudai; Takahashi, Kenya; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Sekimoto, Tsunehiro; Isobe, Masahiko

    2016-10-01

    Landform changes in Ballast Island, a small coral reef island in the Ryukyu Islands, were investigated by remote sensing analysis and a field survey. The area of the island almost doubled after a mass coral bleaching event in 1998. Coral branches generated by the mass mortality and broken by waves were delivered and stocked on a reef flat and accumulated to expand the area of the island. In 2012 high waves generated by typhoons also changed the island's topography. Overall, the island moved in the downdrift direction of the higher waves. Waves impacting both sides of the island piled up a large volume of coral gravels above the high-tide level. Eco-geomorphic processes, including a supply of calcareous materials from the corals on the same reef especially during stormy wave conditions, were key factors in maintaining the dynamic topographic features of this small coral reef island.

  2. 改性环氧压载舱涂料的研制%Development of Modified Epoxy Ballast Tank Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马胜军; 王秀娟; 沈海鹰; 李敏; 潘煜怡; 刘宝成

    2012-01-01

    The blended curing agent of polyamide and phenolic amine was featured by its fast dry and good overall performance in ballast tank coatings. The pigments and fillers in coatings could improve the corrosion resintance, mechanical properties and adhesion. The P/B ratio was determined at 1. 5 ~ 2. 0 based on the test result of relationship between P/B ratio and film performance. The thixotropic agent, organic benton-ite G -1958, fumed silica 202/805 were evaluated by thixotropic index and sag resistance. Defoamer Efa-ka2722 showed strong anti — foaming with foam suppression, leveling and appearance improvement. The modified epoxy - resin coatings was prepared by using liquid epoxy resin, modification resin R, polyamide/ phenolic amine blended curing agent, thixotropic agents, efficient defoamers and fillers, which provided the modified epoxy ballast tank coatings excellent corrosion resistance, good flexibility, cathodic disbondment resistance , good wetting and adhesion on shop - primer. Test of simulated ballast tank condition & condensation chanber test have showed that performance of the modified epoxy — resin ballast tank coatings could meet technical requirements of PSPC appendix 1.%聚酰胺与酚醛胺的复配,所得固化剂固化速度快,综合性能好.颜料、填料能够提高涂料的防腐性、机械性能、附着力等,通过考察颜基比对涂层性能的影响,得出压载舱涂料的颜基比在1.5~2.0之间比较合适.由触变指数来评价触变剂的防沉抗流挂性能,筛选出G-1958有机喷润土和202/805气相二氧化硅.从破泡抑泡性、流平性和涂膜外观的效果来看,Efka2722消泡效果比较好,而且有一定的流平作用.以液体环氧树脂、改性树脂R为基料,聚酰胺和酚醛胺为固化剂,合理选用触变剂、消泡剂以及颜填料,所制得的改性环氧压载舱涂料柔韧性好,抗阴极剥离、附着能力好,防腐性能强.模拟压载舱和冷凝舱的试验表明,其性能

  3. Exploring the depths of Kraken Mare - Power, thermal analysis, and ballast control for the Saturn Titan submarine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, J. W.; Colozza, A.; Lorenz, R. D.; Oleson, S.; Landis, G.; Schmitz, P.; Paul, M.; Walsh, J.

    2016-03-01

    To explore the depths of the hydrocarbon rich seas on the Saturn moon Titan, a conceptual design of an unmanned submarine concept was recently developed for a Phase I NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) study. Data from Cassini Huygens indicates that the Titan polar environment sustains stable seas of variable concentrations of ethane, methane, and nitrogen, with a surface temperature around 93 K. To meet science exploration objectives, the submarine must operate autonomously, study atmosphere/sea exchange, interact with the seabed at pressures up to 10 atm, traverse large distances with limited energy, hover at the surface and at any depth within the sea, and be capable of tolerating multiple different concentration levels of hydrocarbons. Therefore Titan presents many cryogenic design challenges. This paper presents the trade studies with emphasis on the preliminary design of the power, thermal, and ballast control subsystems for the Saturn Titan submarine.

  4. Raging water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, J.

    2014-01-01

    At TU Delft neighbour Deltares, the Ballast construction company is putting the finishing touches on the world’s largest wave channel. Last month, a group of science journalists were invited to take a peek.

  5. Application of Polyurethane Polymer and Assistant Rails to Settling the Abnormal Vehicle-Track Dynamic Effects in Transition Zone between Ballastless and Ballasted Track

    OpenAIRE

    Caiyou Zhao; Ping Wang; Qiang Yi; Duo Meng

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes tests on a transition section between ballasted and ballastless tracks in the Liupanshui-Zhanyi railway in China. The originally unsettled transition zone is exposed to sudden car shaking and a series of track transition problems during train passage. As an example, the influences of polyurethane polymer and a combination of polyurethane and assistant rails to increase track stiffness distribution and track transition decay rates on the dynamic vehicle and track behaviour...

  6. Fate of Enteromorpha flexuosa (Wulfen) J. Agardh and its spores in darkness: Implications for ballast water management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kolwalkar, J.P.; Sawant, S.S.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    Effects of darkness on the filaments and spores of a marine alga, Enteromorpha flexuosa (Wulfen) J. Agardh was evaluated through incubation experiments. Sporulation in the algal filaments was observed even after dark exposure of 108 days...

  7. The effects of prolonged darkness on temperate and tropical marine phytoplankton, and their implications for ballast water risk management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Carney, K.J.; Delany, J.E.; Sawant, S.S.; Mesbahi, E.

    Phytoplankton assemblages from tropical (Goa) and temperate (UK) locations were exposed to a 28 day dark period, followed by a period of re-exposure to light. During this time phytoplankton survival and changes in nutrient concentrations were mapped...

  8. Non-chemical water purification a Westinghouse/Wallenius product for nuclear power plant needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing demand for ecologically effective water treatment technologies has resulted in the development of several new oxidation methods. These technologies are generally labelled Advanced Oxidation Technologies (AOT) or Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP) and currently represent the most widely recognized alternative for ecologically sound, high-tech water purification. Many years of intensive research have culminated in the innovative Wallenius-AOT technology, a patented method that is remarkable in several ways. It imitates nature's own water purification method. This means no chemical additives are needed. The technology utilizes the ability of light, together with photo-catalytic semiconductor surfaces, to produce free radicals, like nature does. These reactive radicals create an environment in which organic and inorganic substances oxidize, whereby a broad spectrum of organisms is rendered harmless more effectively than with conventional UV technology. The entire process takes just a few micro-seconds. A major advantage of the technology is that it can be adjusted according to the desired degree of purification. By altering the dynamics of the process, the purification can be designed for specific applications. In this way, AOT tackles precise problems, regardless of flow and whether the problem is chemical or biological. The product was originally introduced for ballast treatment in the shipping industry. Ballast water has created severe damages to the biology at many locations. By moving an organism from one ocean to another we have introduced a possible threat to the local ecosystem. This has been prevented by using the AOT water treatment units. During ballasting and de-ballasting, the units create radicals with the help of a catalyst and a light source. These radicals then destroy the cell membrane of microorganisms. The radicals, which never leave the unit, have a lifetime of only a few milliseconds and pose no risk to the environment or crew

  9. 基于CFD的潜艇高压气吹除主压载水舱系统模拟%The simulation research of high Pressure air blowing the main ballast tank based on CFD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李其修; 刘辉; 吴向君

    2012-01-01

    高压气吹除主压载水舱是潜艇舱室进水情况下最有效的应急挽回手段之一.由于高压气吹除时压载水舱中剧烈的气液混合流动,导致建立的理论模型有一定局限性.本文通过CFD中两相流VOF模型对高压气吹除压载水舱的动态过程进行仿真,分析吹除过程中压载水舱中气-液混合现象、压力变化情况及压载水舱排水速率等特点,以验证高压气吹除压载水舱的理论模型.%The high pressure air blowing ballast tanks are the most effective means of emergency to restore under flooded submarine. As the process of blowing, there will bring the flow of exquisite gas-liquid mixture in the ballast compartment. This led to the theoretical models that have certain limitations. The paper simulates the dynamic process of high-pressure air blowing ballast tanks by VOF two-phase flow model to analyze gas-liquid mixture phenomena, pressure changes, the ballast tank drainage rate during the process of blowing ballast tank, which provides the basis to theoretical models for the establishment of the high pressure air blowing ballast tanks.

  10. The design and application of ballast valve groups remote-control system for Ro-Ro ship%滚装船压载阀组遥控系统的设计与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万会雄; 明仁雄; 章琅浩

    2001-01-01

    了实现对滚装船压载舱压载阀的开闭实行有效的控 制,文章介绍了压载阀组遥控系统的组成、工作原理以及该系统的设计特点与应用。%To realize the effective control to starting an d shutting of ballast valve groups,this paper introduces the composition,working principle,designing features and application of ballast valve groups remote-co ntrol system for Ro-Ro ship.

  11. Application of Polyurethane Polymer and Assistant Rails to Settling the Abnormal Vehicle-Track Dynamic Effects in Transition Zone between Ballastless and Ballasted Track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiyou Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes tests on a transition section between ballasted and ballastless tracks in the Liupanshui-Zhanyi railway in China. The originally unsettled transition zone is exposed to sudden car shaking and a series of track transition problems during train passage. As an example, the influences of polyurethane polymer and a combination of polyurethane and assistant rails to increase track stiffness distribution and track transition decay rates on the dynamic vehicle and track behaviour were investigated. The measured results indicate using only polyurethane and using both polyurethane and assistant rails not only effectively makes the track stiffness change more even but also increases the track decay rate at the target frequencies. These positive effects further reduce the wheel-rail interaction forces and vehicle and rail vertical acceleration, which decreases more when combining polyurethane and assistant rails than when using only polyurethane because the former outperforms the latter for smoothing the track stiffness distribution and increasing the track decay rate. Based on abating wheel-rail impact during the transition from ballasted to ballastless track and improving traffic operation and passenger comfort, combining polyurethane and assistant rails had the greatest effect and may be an effective remedy.

  12. Modeling and Analysis of a Buoyancy-Ballast Driven Airship%一类“浮力-压块”驱动飞艇建模与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬依林; 刘屿

    2012-01-01

    In view of a new kind of buoyancy-ballast driven airship, the model and dynamics of a kind of buoyancy-ballast driven airship are studied. Based on Kirchhoff equations and Newton-Euler laws, we developed the six degree of freedom nonlinear dynamic model for an airship equipped with independent ballonets and moveable ballast by analysis its movement and stress. On the condition of little perturbation, the nonlinear dynamic model is divided into three group equations by restricting airship motion in longitudinal, lateral and e2-e3 planes respectively. Then the characteristics of mode and respond to input of airship are studied using linearization model and its related parameter. The results of simulation verify the correctness of established model and rationality of theoretical analysis on this kind of stratospheric airship, thus making itself a theoretical basis for the design of its control strategy.%针对一类新型“浮力-压块”驱动的自治飞艇,研究了该类飞艇的动力学建模和动力学特性.在Kirchhoff方程和Newton-Euler理论基础上,通过对飞艇运动及受力分析,建立了包括独立气囊和可运动压块的飞艇六自由度非线性动力学模型,并采用小扰动线性化方法,将飞艇运动分别限制在纵向、横侧向和e2-e3平面内,得到与之对应的三组飞艇线性化方程,其后基于飞艇相关参数和线性化模型,利用Matlab软件平台对飞艇运动模态和输入响应特性进行了分析研究.仿真结果验证了谊类飞艇模型的正确性和理论分析的合理性,为其后控制策略设计提供理论依据.

  13. Consumo de combustível de um trator em função do tipo de pneu, da lastragem e da velocidade de trabalho Fuel consumption of a tractor as a function of the tyre type, ballasting and forward speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Lopes

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o presente trabalho, teve-se como objetivo comparar o consumo de combustível de um trator agrícola operando com pneus (radial, diagonal e de baixa pressão em duas condições de lastragem (com e sem água nos pneus e quatro velocidades de deslocamento. O experimento foi realizado na FCAV-UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP, em condição de preparo do solo com escarificador. Utilizou-se um trator 4x2 TDA, com potência de 89 kW (121 CV no motor. Os pneus foram do tipo R1, com as seguintes características: radial (dianteiros: 14.9 R 26; traseiros: 620/75 R 30 diagonal (dianteiros: 14.9-26, traseiros: 23.1-30 e BPAF (dianteiros: 500/60-26.5; traseiros: 700/55-34. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 3x2x4, com 24 tratamentos e 3 repetições. Os resultados evidenciaram vantagens para o trator quando equipado com pneus radiais. A condição de lastragem com água nos pneus ofereceu menor consumo específico. Observou-se também que o aumento da velocidade de deslocamento reduziu o consumo específico.The objective of this study was to compare the consumption of fuel of the FWD agricultural tractor, equipped with three types of tyres (bias ply, radial and low pressure, with and without tyre water ballasting, operating in four forward speeds. The research was carried out at FCAV/UNESP, SP, Brazil, The soil was tilled using a chisel plow. A tractor with 89 kW (121 HP engine power equipped with FWD was used in the experiment, and the tyres used had the following characteristics: radial (front: 14.9R26 and rear: 620/75R30, bias ply (front: 14.9-26 and rear: 23.1-30 and low pressure (front: 500/60-26.5 and rear: 700/55-34. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design (3x2x4, with a total of 24 treatments and three replications. The results evidenced advantages for the tractor equipped with radial tyres. The ballasting condition with water in the tyres showed lower specific consumption. It was

  14. 高山发射台照明用电子镇流器的防雷改进%The Anti-thunder Improvement of High Mountain Transmitting Stations Lighting Electronic Ballasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建平

    2012-01-01

    This article analysis the commonly used electronic ballasts, combine the factor of more electronic equipments in radio transmitting station are damaged by impact of thunder in high mountains, targeted to improve the anti-thunder performance of electronic ballasts, to reduce the losses after thunder.%分析常用电子镇流器的工作原理,结合高山发射台雷电影响较大、电子设备损坏较多的实际,有针对性地改进电子镇流器的防雷性能,以达到减少雷击损失的目的。

  15. Natural gas ballast requirement to allow participation of thermal plants in the new energy auctions: analysis and proposals; Requisito de lastro de gas natural para viabilizar a participacao de termeletricas nos leiloes de energia nova: analise e propostas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Pedro Luis de; Bezerra, Bernardo Vieira; Barroso, Luiz Augusto Nobrega; Pereira, Mario Veiga; Rosenblatt, Jose [PSR, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Since the first New Energy Auction (LEN), held in December 2005, there has been a continuous process of improving the auction rules and mechanism. For the specific case of gas-fired plants, a significant change was observed between the LEN A-3/2011 and LEN A-5/2011, and refers to the need of natural gas ballast for candidate projects in the auction. This rule was introduced by ANP Resolution No. 52, which establishes that the gas supply agreements must be backed up by proven reserves (analogous to the requirement in the power sector contracts of physical guarantee backup), and Ordinance MME No. 21/2008, which deals with power plants qualification for the new energy auctions. The latter was amended by MME Ordinance No. 514, which requires proven natural gas reserves to support the GSA of all candidate projects in a LEN. In other words, the gas supplier now has to prove that there are sufficient gas reserves to meet requirements of all candidate project in an auction, regardless of the plausibility of their engagement in the auction. In this context, the present study discusses these issues and has as main contributions: (I) a review of current regulations on contract ballast in the Brazilian natural gas sector, (II) a proposal to conciliate the need of fuel supply contract ballast to the dynamics of the natural gas sector, and (III) a proposal to conciliate the need for fuel contract ballast to the contracting process of the thermoelectric power in the new energy auctions. These contributions aim at a better integration between the sectors of natural gas and electricity in Brazil, leading to a more efficient use of resources and infrastructure development. (author)

  16. Desempenho de um trator em função do tipo de pneu, da lastragem e da velocidade de trabalho Performance of an tractor as a function of tire type, ballasting and forward speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Lopes

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho comparou o desempenho de um trator agrícola 4x2 TDA de 89 kW (121cv em função do tipo de pneus (radial, diagonal e de baixa pressão, a condição de lastragem (com e sem água nos pneus e quatro velocidades [V1 (1,84km h-1, V2 (3,18km h-1, V3 (4,57km h-1, V4 (5,04km h-1]. O experimento foi realizado na UNESP-Jaboticabal-SP, em condição de preparo do solo com escarificador de sete hastes a 30cm de profundidade. Os pneus foram do tipo R1, com as seguintes características: [radial (dianteiros-14.9 R 26; traseiros-620/75 R 30 diagonal (dianteiros-14.9-26, traseiros-23.1-30 e BPAF (dianteiros-500/60-26.5; traseiros-700/55-34]. O delineamento experimental foi blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 3x2x4, com 24 tratamentos e três repetições. Os resultados evidenciaram vantagens para o trator equipado com pneus radiais.The objective of this study was to compare the performance of the FWD agricultural tractor, equipped with three types of tires (bias ply, radial and low pressure, with and without tire water ballasting, operating in four forward speed. The research was carried out at UNESP, SP, Brazil, with the tractor pulling a chisel plow. A tractor with 89kW (121cv engine power equipped with FWD, was used in the experiment, and the tires used had the following characteristics: radial (front: 14.9R26 and rear: 620/75R30, bias ply (front: 14.9-26 and rear: 23.1-30 and low pressure (front: 500/60-26.5 and rear: 700/55-34. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block, design (3x2x4, with 24 treatments and three replications. The results evidenced advantages for the tractor equipped with radial tires.

  17. Analysis of the population structure of dinoflagellate cysts in the sediment of ballast tank of four cargo boats at Zhoushan Port%舟山港4艘商船压舱箱沉积物中甲藻孢囊种群结构的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴鑫烽; 陆斗定; 王春生; 夏平; 黄雷; 王采典; 王红霞; 黄海燕; 何飘霞

    2012-01-01

    为了解商船压舱箱沉积物在海洋水生生物入侵过程中扮演的潜在媒介作用,本文利用光学显微镜观察法,研究了停泊于我国舟山港4艘商船压舱箱沉积物中甲藻孢囊的种类组成、孢囊密度、香农-威纳指数(H')和PSP原因种,并对甲藻孢囊种群结构进行了相关性分析.结果表明,鉴定出的甲藻孢囊隶属于5大类,共24种,4份样品中甲藻孢囊的种群结构各有差异,但均检测出能产生麻痹性贝毒(Paralytic Shellfish Poisons,PSP)的甲藻孢囊,如亚历山大藻Alexandrium spp.和链状裸甲藻Gymnodium catenatum.在4艘商船的压舱箱沉积物中均检测出有硅藻分布,其中在富成轮压舱箱沉积物中还检测出3种未知种孢囊.通过相关性分析可知,甲藻孢囊H'值与PSP甲藻孢囊密度占总甲藻孢囊密度的比率呈负相关.甲藻可以通过商船压舱箱沉积物为传播媒介,以孢囊形式来扩大其生物地理分布,提高甲藻物种多样性可有助于降低PSP甲藻的破坏风险.因此,有效处理船只压舱箱沉积物、积极保护当地海洋生物物种多样性,对于降低外来甲藻物种(特别是一些有毒有害种)的赤潮风险和保持当地海洋生态系统的平衡,具有十分重要的意义.%Ballast water of the merchant vessel plays an important role in the invasion of alien marine species which may damage the local marine ecosystem. However, the potential role of the ballast tank sediment in the transmission of the alien species is always underestimated. Using optical microscopic viewing method, the species composition, cyst density, Shannon-Weiner index(H'), Paralytic Shellfish Poisons (PSP) causative species and their relationships of the dinoflagellate cysts from the sediment of four cargo boats at Zhoushan Port were studied, and 24 types of dinoflagellate cysts of 5 groups were identified including some toxic species such as Alexandrium spp. And Gymnodium catenatum which could produce PSP

  18. Analysis of Injection Molding For the Electronic Ballast Pan on Moldflow%基于Moldflow的电子镇流器底壳注射成型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    萧时诚; 杨文浩

    2012-01-01

    Analysis was made on (he optimal gate location and flow behavior in insertion molding of electronic ballast pan was simulated by Moldflow and the optimal gak- location was determined. Some possible defects in the products were predicted based on the numerical simulation of the filling time, the location of air pockets, weld line, clamping force curve and front temperature. It was shown that the Moldflow technology in the mold development process for optimizing plastic mold design and optimization of plastic mold injection process parameters, etc. played a significant role.%利用Moldflow软件对电子镇流器底壳注射成型过程中最佳浇口位置和流动情况进行分析,确定了最佳浇口位置.通过对填充时间、气穴、熔接痕、锁模力曲线和流动前沿温度等数值模拟,预测塑件可能出现的缺陷,显示了Moldflow技术在模具开发过程中对于优化塑料注射模设计和优化注射工艺参数等方面所起到的显著作用.

  19. Oil-water separators for use in ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, G.; Nuttall, P.J.

    1978-11-04

    After ratification by the United Nations Assembly of the 15 ppm limit for the oil content in water discharges from ships, as recommended by the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization, all oil separating systems used to treat cargo tank washings, oil-contaminated ballast water from double-bottom tanks, engineroom bilge water, or oily sludge from self-cleaning fuel oil purifiers, will be subjected to a stringent test procedure specified by IMCO. This specification requires the use of centrifugal supply pumps capable of discharging at 1.5 times the separator capacity and operating at over 1000 rpm. To meet the 15 ppm standards, filtration or coalescence equipment must be added to conventional single-stage static separators. Tests by Alexander Esplen and Co. Ltd. showed that a two-stage Comyn coagulator incorporating elements specially designed by Vokes Ltd. meets the IMCO requirements. Separator system control and maintenance problems are discussed.

  20. 应用GDI+和C#开发船舶压载水监控系统控件%Development of Custom Ballast Tank Controls by Applying the GDI + and C#

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李顺亮; 王新辉; 钟碧良

    2012-01-01

    This article mainly introduces the core technique of programming ballast tank controls based on C/S with the GDI + and Visual C# NET. The method involved can be applied to the other controls.%应用最新的GDI+技术和VisualC#.net编程语言,开发基于C/S结构模式的船舶压载水监控系统控件,阐述了其中的核心技术;其有关技术在某一类控件制作中具有通用的应用价值.

  1. Development of an electronic ballast with high power factor, using cd/cd conversion techniques for fluorescent lamps; Desarrollo de un balastro electronico con alto factor de potencia, utilizando tecnicas de conversion cd/cd para lamparas fluorescentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Raul Antonio

    1995-02-01

    The recent advances and improvements in fluorescent lamps and ballasts technologies have resulted in substantial gain in efficiency, in illumination (lm/w), in the useful life of the lamp, in ballasts (electric characteristics), and consequently, an increase in energy saving in the fluorescent illumination systems. This thesis work was for the development of an electronic ballast that incorporates active correction of the PF for the handling of fluorescent lamps of the fast start type F4OW T-12. The prototype was implemented in two stages. In the first stage, for the Power Factor Correction (PFC) a converter CD/CD of the boost type in Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM) was chosen. The control technique that was used for this converter was the Average Current Mode (ACM) control. This thesis work comprised part of a collaboration project between the Electronics Department of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and the Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico (National Center of Investigation and Technological Development (CENIDET)) named Technology Assimilation of the Power Factor Correction in the Electronic Equipment Design. In chapter 1 of this thesis the advantages of fluorescent illumination systems (IS) are mentioned, with respect to the traditional incandescent illumination systems. Also the most important characteristics of the fluorescent lamps and the operation (physical) principle will be presented, as well as the design aspects of electronic ballasts and their evolution. The proposal of the development of an experimental electronic prototype of ballast will be set forth. Chapter 2 mentions the evolution of the different schemes of fluorescent lamps ballasts, of electromagnetic, as well as electronic. Also some of the specifications that were taken into consideration for the design of the electronic prototype of the ballast presented in this thesis are mentioned. In chapter 3 the specifications of the electronic prototype of

  2. Model-Based Control of a Ballast-Stabilized Floating Wind Turbine Exposed to Wind and Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Søren

    2013-01-01

    The wind turbine is a commercial product which is competing against other sources of energy, such as coal and gas. This competition drives a constant development to reduce costs and improve effi-ciency in order to reduce the total cost of the energy. The latest offshore development is the floating...... wind turbine, for water depths beyond 50 meters where winds are stronger and less turbulent. A floating wind turbine is subject to not only aerodynamics and wind induced loads, but also to hy-drodynamics and wave induced loads. In contrast to a bottom fixed wind turbine, the floating structure......, the hydrodynamics and the loads change the dynamic behavior of a floating wind turbine. Consequently, conventional wind turbine control cause instabilities on floating wind turbines. This work addresses the control of a floating spar buoy wind turbine, and focuses on the impact of the additional platform dynamics...

  3. Model-based control of a ballast-stabilized floating wind turbine exposed to wind and waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, Soeren

    2013-01-15

    The wind turbine is a commercial product which is competing against other sources of energy, such as coal and gas. This competition drives a constant development to reduce costs and improve efficiency in order to reduce the total cost of the energy. The latest offshore development is the floating wind turbine, for water depths beyond 50 meters where winds are stronger and less turbulent. A floating wind turbine is subject to not only aerodynamics and wind induced loads, but also to hydrodynamics and wave induced loads. In contrast to a bottom fixed wind turbine, the floating structure, the hydrodynamics and the loads change the dynamic behavior of a floating wind turbine. Consequently, conventional wind turbine control cause instabilities on floating wind turbines. This work addresses the control of a floating spar buoy wind turbine, and focuses on the impact of the additional platform dynamics. A time varying control model is presented based on the wind speed and wave frequency. Estimates of the wind speed and wave frequency are used as scheduling variables in a gain scheduled linear quadratic controller to improve the electrical power production while reducing fatigue. To address the problem of negative damped fore-aft tower motion, additional control loops are suggested which stabilize the response of the onshore controller and reduce the impact of the wave induced loads. This research is then extended to model predictive control, to further address wave disturbances. In the context of control engineering, the dynamics and disturbances of a floating wind turbine have been identified and modeled. The objectives of maximizing the production of electrical power and minimizing fatigue have been reached by using advanced methods of estimation and control. (Author)

  4. Study and implementation of a non-resonant inverter as electronic ballast for discharge lamps; Estudio e implementacion de un inversor no resonante como balastro electronico para lamparas de descarga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Garcia, Efren

    2003-02-15

    Implementation of an electronic ballast with integrated ignition circuit that feeds a high density discharge lamp and that limits the current through it without closing the control loop under the technique of current square waves to eliminate the acoustic resonances characteristic of these high pressure lamps. In chapter 1 the basic concepts are presented of high intensity discharge lamps, showing their classification and describing their operation. In addition, the phenomenon of acoustic resonances is mentioned, emphasizing the square wave shape use for its elimination and presenting the state-of-the-art around the use of this technique for the elimination of acoustic resonances. In chapter 2 the different techniques are presented to stabilize the current in a discharge lamp. In addition, a topology of converter DC-DC is proposed that stabilizes the discharge in presenting a resistance in series with the lamp and it does not use a control loop for this, presenting its analysis and raising the necessary characteristics for its correct operation. In chapter 3 the analysis of each one of the stages that conforms the ballast is presented, simultaneously two igniter topologies are presented, that on the basis of an analysis one of them is selected for its implementation. In addition, the simulation results of the ballast performed in the PSpice simulator are presented. In chapter 4 is shown the form in which the implementation of the ballast was carried out, presenting the experimental results and verifying that the ballast operates according to the originally proposed specifications. Finally, in chapter 5 the conclusions of the work and the recommendations for future works are presented. [Spanish] Implementacion de un balastro electronico con circuito de encendido integrado que alimenta a una lampara de alta densidad de descarga y que limita la corriente a traves de ella sin cerrar el lazo de control bajo la tecnica de ondas cuadradas de corriente para eliminar las

  5. Power Efficient Plasma Technique for Rapid Water Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2015-11-01

    Water especially good quality drinking water is a dwindling resource for significant segments of the world population. The BBC quoted this article (http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/8e42bdc8-0838-11e4-9afc-00144feab7de.html) for a claim that water shortage is a bigger problem than climate change. One option for increasing the water supply is to recycle waste and polluted water by inexpensive, environmentally friendly methods. First steps involve filtrations while the last step is water disinfection. Presently disinfection is done chemically and/or UV radiation. Some chemicals cannot be used in large quantity due to residual toxicity, while UV disinfection systems consume a great deal electricity. Plasmas in water are very attractive for water sterilization due to UV radiation, ozone, etc. generation inside the water volume. Commercially available devices like NK-03 Blue Ballast System are used aboard ships for water purification. But, presently utilized plasmas: glow, pulsed arcs are not power efficient. Vortex stabilized plasmas, which are power efficient, can even degrade medications (antibiotics) advancing the state-of-the-art by orders of magnitude, especially when combined with electron beams. Disinfection scheme will be presented. Work supported by Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH1-886 with the US DOE.

  6. Strategies for the correction of the power factor in electronic ballasts with low crest factor; Estrategias para la correccion del factor de potencia en balastros electronicos con bajo factor de cresta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Mata, Arturo Javier

    2002-07-15

    The goal in this work is to develop electronic ballast for fluorescent lamps with high power factor with the smaller number of components. With this aim it is looked for 1) to study the impact of the value of the filtrating capacitor used in a conventional rectifier on the harmonic content of the line current and the crest factor in the lamp, 2) to study resonant tanks commonly used in electronic ballasts with the purpose of observing the feasibility of implementing a control in frequency to vary the gain of the resonant tank and 3) to propose a strategy of frequency modulation that allows to reach low harmonic distortion of the line current maintaining a low crest factor. In chapter one the used theoretical concepts in illumination systems are presented, the justification for the use of electronic ballasts in fluorescent lamps, a revision of the state-of-the-art in the correction of the power factor in electronic ballasts and two strategies for the correction of this factor. In the next chapter the conventional resonant topologies used in the literature are presented, together with the analysis of resonant structures with high gain in steady state to compensate the variations of the instantaneous voltage of the DC bus that feeds the resonant inverter. Also simulations in PSpice are included to know the behavior of each one of the resonant structures and to be able to select, in that way, the most adequate resonant topology for this work. In the third chapter the strategy is presented for the correction of the power factor, eliminating the filtering capacitor. The effects of this elimination as far as the line current and the lamp current are shown. The characterization of the resonant tank in open loop and closed loop is presented. The method is described to control the gain of the resonant investor and its implementation. Experimental results obtained when reducing the filtering capacitor are included and the implementation of the proposed control loop to reduce

  7. "Sõputshii ballast" stabilnosti / Vassili Kononenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kononenko, Vassili

    2005-01-01

    Avaliku arvamuse uurimise ülevenemaalise keskuse läbiviidud küsitluste andmeil on Venemaal kasvanud muutuste pooldajate hulk, ühiskonna tähelepanu keskmesse on tõusnud varasemaga võrreldes teised probleemid

  8. 环氧压载舱涂料在PSPC新规范下的涂装过程控制%Coating Process Control of Epoxy Ballast Tank Coatings against PSPC New Specification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李松; 金晓鸿

    2012-01-01

    With the painting of 82 000 DWT bulk carrier ballast tank as an example, the solution of various problems encountered in the implementation of process specification of PSPC is introduced, involving coating inspector, inspection equipment requirements, closed sandblasting room, closed paiting room,and steel surface preparation, coating process control.%本文结合82 000t散货船压载舱的涂装,介绍了在PSPC规范的执行过程中遇到的各种问题及解决办法,包括涂层检查员、检测仪器的配备,全封闭喷砂房、涂装房的建立,以及钢材表面处理、涂装过程控制等.

  9. Security Risk Assessment of Ultraviolet Radiation for Self-ballasted Fluorescent Lamps for General Lighting Service%普通照明用自镇流荧光灯产品紫外辐射安全风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋松林

    2015-01-01

    Self-ballasted fluorescent lamps for general lighting service (energy saving lamp for short), is the lighting equipment which combining the fluorescent lamps and ballast together. Energy saving lamp will transmit ultraviolet radiation through glass tube to environment with working condition, and the nearer the object to the lamp, the stronger the ultraviolet radiation will be. This paper provides the analysis of main problems, and the suggestion and safeguard procedures for risk treatment by carding the risk source and the risk case for ultraviolet radiation of energy saving lamp, combining the risk monitoring and assessment result of this project.%普通照明用自镇流荧光灯,又称紧凑型荧光灯或一体式荧光灯(下文中简称节能灯),是指将荧光灯与镇流器组合成一个整体的照明设备.节能灯在使用过程中灯管内的紫外线会有部分透过玻璃管辐射到环境中,加之荧光粉的脱落等因素,节能灯会产生一定的紫外辐射.而且灯与被照物的距离越近,紫外线辐射强度越高.本文通过对节能灯紫外辐射的风险源和风险案例进行梳理,结合针对该项目的风险监测和评估结果,详细分析了目前存在的主要问题,最后提出了风险处理的意见和防护措施.

  10. Analysis of the Common Problems in the Safety Specification Testing of Self-ballasted LED Bulb for General Lighting Services%普通照明用自镇流LED球泡灯安规检测中常见问题解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许巧云; 林祥灿

    2014-01-01

    本文根据GB 24906-2010《普通照明用50V以上自镇流LED灯安全要求》标准要求,结合实际安规检测中的常见问题进行解析,并提出改进方法,旨在为照明产品生产企业及其他检测机构测试人员提供借鉴和参考。%This paper analyzes the common problems that appeared in the actual safety specifications testing for the self-ballasted LED lamps for general linghting services.According to the standard of GB 24906-2010 Self-ballasted LEDlampsforgenerallinghtingservices>50V-safetyspecifications,it provides the improvement methods for the lighting products manufacturer and other testing institute testers.

  11. Deep water challenges for drilling rig design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, M. [Transocean Sedco Forex, Houston, TX (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Drilling rigs designed for deep water must meet specific design considerations for harsh environments. The early lessons for rig design came from experiences in the North Sea. Rig efficiency and safety considerations must include structural integrity, isolated/redundant ballast controls, triple redundant DP systems, enclosed heated work spaces, and automated equipment such as bridge cranes, pipe handling gear, offline capabilities, subsea tree handling, and computerized drill floors. All components must be designed to harmonize man and machine. Some challenges which are unique to Eastern Canada include frequent storms and fog, cold temperature, icebergs, rig ice, and difficult logistics. This power point presentation described station keeping and mooring issues in terms of dynamic positioning issues. The environmental influence on riser management during forced disconnects was also described. Design issues for connected deep water risers must insure elastic stability, and control deflected shape. The design must also keep stresses within acceptable limits. Codes and standards for stress limits, flex joints and tension were also presented. tabs., figs.

  12. Research and Design of Whole Section Ballast Screening Machine of PLC Control System%全断面道砟清筛机PLC控制系统研究与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙电锋; 杨亚罗

    2012-01-01

    During twenty-first century,railroad of our country has gotten speed-raising. Railway repairing entered the era of mechanization,but the digging machine applied to the ballast,screening of the QS-650 ballast screen scarifier digging device operation is still manual control,so the cleaning machine driver operation is not convenient and flexible. Using PLC to control the excavation device for the regular processing movements can not only save the energy of operating staff,but also enhance the working efficiency and safety of working processing. This paper introduced the application of PLC in hydraulic control for the excavation device of screen scarifier and all the PLC program design was shown in details. The research method of this paper is very good,the manual control problem solution provides a good tool for railway maintenance machinery, and improves that the degree of automation is important.%进入21世纪,我国铁路大面积提速,铁路维修也进入了机械化时代,而应用于道砟挖出、筛分的QS-650道砟清筛机的挖掘装置操作还是手动控制,清筛机驾驶员操作不方便,不灵活.应用PLC控制挖掘装置实现各种规定的动作,可以减轻操作人员劳动强度,提高劳动生产率,保证工作区间安全.通过PLC在清筛机挖掘装置控制中的应用,给出了详细的PLC程序设计过程,对于解决清筛机控制问题进行了有益的尝试,对提高铁路养护机械自动化程度有重要意义.

  13. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 2, Fluorescent lamp ballasts, television sets, room air conditioners, and kitchen ranges and ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This document is divided into ``volumes`` B through E, dealing with individual classes of consumer products. Chapters in each present engineering analysis, base case forecasts, projected national impacts of standards, life-cycle costs and payback periods, impacts on manufacturers, impacts of standards on electric utilities, and environmental effects. Supporting appendices are included.

  14. Water, Water Everywhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Rusty

    2009-01-01

    Everybody knows that children love water and how great water play is for children. The author discusses ways to add water to one's playscape that fully comply with health and safety regulations and are still fun for children. He stresses the importance of creating water play that provides children with the opportunity to interact with water.

  15. Desempenho de um trator agrícola equipado com pneus radiais e diagonais com três níveis de lastros líquidos Performance of an agricultural tractor equipped with radial and bias ply tires on three levels of liquid ballast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de A. Monteiro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização correta de pneus em tratores, tanto em relação ao seu tipo quanto à calibração de sua pressão interna, e a lastragem ideal para cada condição de carga são fatores que influem significativamente no desempenho do trator. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo comparar o desempenho de um trator equipado com pneus radiais e com pneus diagonais, para três condições de lastragem líquida (0%, 40% e 75% de água, em três condições superficiais de um Nitossolo Vermelho distrófico (superfície firme, preparada e com cobertura vegetal de resto de milho e em três velocidades teóricas de deslocamento (4 km h-1, 5 km h-1 e 7 km h-1, informadas no painel do trator, correspondendo às marchas B1, B2 e C1. O melhor desempenho do trator, equipado com pneu diagonal, ocorreu na condição de 75% de água nos pneus, apresentando maior velocidade de deslocamento, menor patinhagem do trator, menor consumo horário de combustível e gerando maior potência na barra de tração. Com pneus radiais, o melhor desempenho do trator ocorreu na condição de 40% de água nos pneus, proporcionando maiores velocidades de deslocamento do trator, menores patinhagens, menores consumos, horário e específico de combustível, e maiores potência e rendimento na barra de tração.The correct use of tires, as for its construction type as for internal pressure calibration and the optimal weighting for each load condition are factors that impact significantly on their performance. This study aimed to compare the performance of a tractor equipped with radial tires and bias ply tires in three conditions of liquid ballast (0%, 40% and 75% water, three surface conditions of a Dystrophic Red Alfisol (firm surface, tillage surface and surface with corn residues coverage and three theoretical traveling speeds (4 km h-1, 5 km h-1 and 7 km h-1, as indicated at the tractor display, related to the gear boxes B1, B2 and C1. The best tractor's performance, equipped with

  16. Preventing Maritime Transfer of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaten, Douglas D.; Marano, Nina; Tappero, Jordan W.; Wellman, Michael; Albert, Ryan J.; Hill, Vincent R.; Espey, David; Handzel, Thomas; Henry, Ariel; Tauxe, Robert V.

    2012-01-01

    Organisms, including Vibrio cholerae, can be transferred between harbors in the ballast water of ships. Zones in the Caribbean region where distance from shore and water depth meet International Maritime Organization guidelines for ballast water exchange are extremely limited. Use of ballast water treatment systems could mitigate the risk for organism transfer. PMID:23017338

  17. 带有基极镇流电阻的SiGe HBT射频功率放大器%SiGe HBT RF Power Amplifier with Base Ballast Resistor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡锦; 刘安玲; 陶可欣; 郝明丽

    2012-01-01

    A RF power amplifier applied to WLAN, WIFI, Bluetooth and other application was designed based on 0-13 μm SiGe HBT process. The power amplifier works in class AB, which consists of three circuits, and uses base ballast resistor to enhance the thermal stability and AC stability. The test for the power amplifier on PCB was conducted, the S parameter results are as follows: at 2-4 GHz, S21 = 24. 3 dB, S11 = —10. 79 dB, S22=—13. 8 dB and S12=-45. 5 dB; The output power at 1 dB compression point is 20. 3 dBm, and the maximum output power is 23 dBm.%基于0.13 μm SiGe HBT工艺,设计了一款应用于WLAN、WIFI以及蓝牙等应用领域的射频功率放大器.该功率放大器带有基极镇流电阻,增强了热稳定性和交流稳定性,工作在AB类状态,由三级电路级联构成.完成了功率放大器芯片的PCB板级测试,测试结果如下:在2.4 GHz工作频率处,S参数S21为24.3 dB,S11为—10.79 dB,S22为-13.8 dB,S12为-45.5 dB;1 dB压缩点输出功率为20.3 dBm,最大输出功率可达23 dBm.

  18. Research on frequency tracking technology of electronic ballasts for electrodeless lamp%无极灯电子镇流器频率跟踪控制技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈豫; 林国庆; 唐建山

    2013-01-01

    Due to the excellent features of high efficiency, high color rendering, no flash and long life, electrode-less lamp becomes a new gas-discharge light source with a good development prospect. Electrodeless lamp has a negative resistance property, so that a reliable electronic ballast assorted is needed for the lamp. Based on the analysis of the electrical model of electrodeless lamp, a novel control strategy suitable for load characteristics of electrodeless lamp is presented in the paper. The resonant frequency is searched to get the trigger high voltage by frequency sweeping. In order to achieve the maximum output power and best load matching, the phase difference between inverter output voltage and resonant capacitor voltage is adopted as the phase loop control variable to track resonant frequency automatically in normal operation. Finally, the simulation and experiment results have proved the feasibility of the proposed strategy.%基于无极灯电气模型的分析,提出一种适合于无极灯负载特性的控制策略.通过扫频控制寻找谐振频率以产生点灯所需的高压脉冲,正常运行时以半桥逆变器中点电压与谐振电容电压的相位差作为闭环控制变量实现对谐振频率的自动跟踪控制,以获得最大的功率输出和最佳的负载匹配.电路仿真和实验结果验证了所提出的方案是可行的.

  19. Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It ... water supplier must give you annual reports on drinking water. The reports include where your water came from ...

  20. Design and Experimental Analysis of Experimental Device of Ballast Water Sterilizer of UV & US%UV+US的压载水杀菌器实验装置设计与实验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘建国; 孟宪振; 陈宁; 柯林华

    2013-01-01

    针对压载水携带有害微生物所造成的危害日益严重,在分析了紫外线协同超声波杀菌技术的可行性的基础上,对杀菌装置进行了设计,其中包括灯管的选型、紫外线照射剂量的计算、简体的设计、超声波功率和频率的设计、超声波换能器的选型等.通过灭活藻类实验、分析杀菌效果,验证了该技术在处理压载水方面的可行性.

  1. 压载水处理UV模块的CFD数值模拟及实验研究%Ballast water system of the UV sterilizer CFD numerical simulation and experimental research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宁; 焦晨; 陈刚

    2014-01-01

    针对船舶压载水系统对紫外(UV)杀菌器腔体设计技术水平要求高的特点,应用计算流体动力学(CFD)方法对UV杀菌器中压载水的杀菌过程建立数值模拟模型,并以300 m3/h处理量的UV杀菌器为对象,对其内部流场进行了模拟计算,重点对水力、辐射、剂量进行了模拟分析,获得了腔体内辐射剂量分布情况,并通过生物实验来检测实验装置是否满足IMO标准。%Ultraviolet light disinfection is an important kind of sewage depth processing method.By using compu-tational fluid dynamics (CFD)methods,the internal flow field in the uv tube is simulated and computaed,using Fluent software for hydraulic,radiation,dose of simulation analysis to obtain the distribution of radiation in the cylinder.And biological experiments were done to test whether it meet the standard of IMO.

  2. Water, Water, Everywhere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, John A.

    2000-01-01

    The brain needs energy, oxygen, and water to operate. Access to the bathroom pass can become a major conflict between teachers and students and has great potential for disrupting classes. The classroom can be humanized by granting more bathroom passes and allowing water bottles. (MLH)

  3. On-line measurement of oil contaminants in water by filter-based infrared analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of a dedicated infrared analyzer for on-line measurement of the oil content of water, the Oili analyzer, are evaluated theoretically and with laboratory measurements. The analyzer was originally developed for controlling the discharge of ballast and bilge water from oil tankers and more than 200 such instruments have now been supplied for that purpose, representing about 10 % of the total market. Some technical improvements are suggested, and the improved instrument is shown to be capable of measuring oil in water to an accuracy of +- 20 % down to a detection limit of +5-10 ppm in the presence of high concentrations of interfering components and under varying environmental conditions. This opens up new potential applications for the instrument, e.g. the monitoring of water discharges from oil and gas production platforms. The infrared analyzer responds only to the dispersed oil fraction, and if the dissolved fraction is of interest as well, the instrument must be equipped with a UV option, as suggested here

  4. Characterization and Analysis of Ionic Zinc Alloy Running a Potential Dynamic Polarization in Sea Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc is an active metal. The reactive nature of zinc allows it to be used for sacrificial anode in cathodic protection systems by electrically coupled to the protected metal. Zinc is especially well suited for cathodic protection on ships that move between salt water and harbors in brackish rivers or estuaries (1). Zinc anodes also are used to protect ballast tank, heat exchangers, and many mechanical components on ships, coastal power plants, and similar structures. Cathodic protective by zinc is used in sea water, brackish water, fresh water, and in some soil. The relative reactivity of zinc and its ability to attract oxidation to itself makes it an efficient sacrificial anode in cathodic protection (2). For example, cathodic protection of a buried pipeline can be achieved by connecting anodes made from zinc to the pipe. Zinc acts as the anode (negative terminus) by slowly corroding away as it passes electric current to the steel pipeline. When exposed to environment containing halide ions, of which the chloride (Cl-) is the most frequently encountered in service, the oxide film breaks down at specific points leading to the formation of pits on the zinc surface (3). (author)

  5. Selection of the surface water treatment technology - a full-scale technological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruss, Alina

    2015-01-01

    A technological investigation was carried out over a period of 2 years to evaluate surface water treatment technology. The study was performed in Poland, in three stages. From November 2011 to July 2012, for the first stage, flow tests with a capacity of 0.1-1.5 m³/h were performed simultaneously in three types of technical installations differing by coagulation modules. The outcome of the first stage was the choice of the technology for further investigation. The second stage was performed between September 2012 and March 2013 on a full-scale water treatment plant. Three large technical installations, operated in parallel, were analysed: coagulation with sludge flotation, micro-sand ballasted coagulation with sedimentation, coagulation with sedimentation and sludge recirculation. The capacity of the installations ranged from 10 to 40 m³/h. The third stage was also performed in a full-scale water treatment plant and was aimed at optimising the selected technology. This article presents the results of the second stage of the full-scale investigation. The critical treatment process, for the analysed water, was the coagulation in an acidic environment (6.5 flocculation chamber, preliminary separation of coagulation products, and removal of residual suspended solids through filtration. PMID:25746658

  6. Microbiologically influenced corrosion in ship ballast tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyer, A.

    2013-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is known to be a dangerous process in ship tanks due to its rapid and yet unpredictable occurrence, leading to extremely fast local corrosion, possibly jeopardizing the structural integrity, in a relatively short time. This project focuses on a fundamenta

  7. Large scale northward expansion of warm water species Skeletonema tropicum (Bacillariophyceae) in China seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dongyan; JIANG Jinjie; WANG Yan; ZHANG Yong; DI Baoping

    2012-01-01

    Skeletonema tropicum is regarded as a species with an affinity to warm waters and it has never been reported in seas where temperatures drop below 11 ℃ in winter.Previous studies in China reported that S.tropicum was restricted to subtropical and warm temperate seas (East and South China Seas),but the species was recently found during August cruises of 2009 and 2010 in Jiaozhou Bay,Yellow Sea,located several hundred kilometers to the north.Here,winter water temperatures often drop below 5℃.Identification of S.tropicum was confirmed under light and scanning electronic microscopes and maximum cell abundance in Jiaozhou Bay was estimated as 1.73×104cell/L.This record of S.tropicum in Jiaozhou Bay represents a significant northward expansion in the geographic range of the species.Ship ballast water was identified as a possible carrier of S.tropicum from southern places along Chinese coastline,and in addition,thermal pollution from local power stations and seawater desalination plants may provide suitable conditions for species over-wintering.

  8. Emergent Toxins in North Atlantic Temperate Waters: A Challenge for Monitoring Programs and Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB are complex to manage due to their intermittent nature and their severe impact on the economy and human health. The conditions which promote HAB have not yet been fully explained, though climate change and anthropogenic intervention are pointed as significant factors. The rise of water temperature, the opening of new sea canals and the introduction of ship ballast waters all contribute to the dispersion and establishment of toxin-producing invasive species that promote the settling of emergent toxins in the food-chain. Tetrodotoxin, ciguatoxin, palytoxin and cyclic imines are commonly reported in warm waters but have also caused poisoning incidents in temperate zones. There is evidence that monitoring for these toxins exclusively in bivalves is simplistic and underestimates the risk to public health, since new vectors have been reported for these toxins and as well for regulated toxins such as PSTs and DSTs. In order to avoid public health impacts, there is a need for adequate monitoring programs, a need for establishing appropriate legislation, and a need for optimizing effective methods of analysis. In this review, we will compile evidence concerning emergent marine toxins and provide data that may indicate the need to restructure the current monitoring programs of HAB.

  9. Water citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paerregaard, Karsten; Stensrud, Astrid Bredholt; Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the implementation of Peru’s new water law and discusses how it produces new forms of water citizenship. Inspired by the global paradigm of “integrated water resources management,” the law aims to include all citizens in the management of the country’s water resources...... by embracing a “new water culture.” We ask what forms of water citizenship emerge from the new water law and how they engage with local water practices and affect existing relations of inequality. We answer these questions ethnographically by comparing previous water legislation and how the new law currently...... is negotiated and contested in three localities in Peru’s southern highlands. We argue that the law creates a new water culture that views water as a substance that is measurable, quantifiable, and taxable, but that it neglects other ways of valuing water. We conclude that water citizenship emerges from...

  10. Water pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Students will learn about what causes water pollution and how to be environmentally aware. *Note: Students should understand the concept of the water cycle before moving onto water pollution (see Lesson Plan “Oceans all Around Us”).

  11. Fluoridated Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Fluoridated Water On This Page What is fluoride, and where is it found? What is water fluoridation? When did water fluoridation begin in the ...

  12. Parasites: Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Water Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Parasites can live in natural water sources. When outdoors, treat your water before drinking ...

  13. Coconut Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agua de Coco, Asian Coconut Water, Coconut Drink, Coconut Fruit Water, Coconut H2O, Coconut Juice, Coconut Palm Water, Coconut Rehydration Solution, Cocos nucifera, Eau de Coco, Eau de Coco Verte, ...

  14. Water, mineral waters and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraccia, Luisa; Liberati, Giovanna; Masciullo, Stefano Giuseppe; Grassi, Marcello; Fraioli, Antonio

    2006-06-01

    The authors focus on water resources and the use of mineral waters in human nutrition, especially in the different stages of life, in physical activity and in the presence of some morbid conditions. Mineral water is characterized by its purity at source, its content in minerals, trace elements and other constituents, its conservation and its healing properties recognized by the Ministry of Health after clinical and pharmacological trials. Based on total salt content in grams after evaporation of 1l mineral water dried at 180 degrees C (dry residues), mineral waters can be classified as: waters with a very low mineral content, waters low in mineral content, waters with a medium mineral content, and strongly mineralized waters. Based on ion composition mineral waters can be classified as: bicarbonate waters, sulfate waters, sodium chloride or saltwater, sulfuric waters. Based on biological activity mineral waters can be classified as: diuretic waters, cathartic waters, waters with antiphlogistic properties. Instructions for use, doses, and current regulations are included.

  15. Water Reuse: Using Reclaimed Water For Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Haering, Kathryn C.; Evanylo, Gregory K.; Benham, Brian Leslie, 1960-; Goatley, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Describes water reuse and reclaimed water, explains how reclaimed water is produced, options for water reuse, water reuse regulations, and agronomic concerns with water reuse, and provides several case studies of water reuse.

  16. Branding water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2014-06-15

    Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water - specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks - are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources.

  17. Branding water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2014-06-15

    Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water - specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks - are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources. PMID:24742528

  18. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  19. Water world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Lynda

    2011-03-15

    Water is an important element in oilsands operations: three barrels of water are required to produce one barrel of oil; therefore, companies have to implement technologies to reduce their use of water and increase reuse. To do so, several technologies are available: the use of both heavy to light (HTL) and steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) eliminates the need for sour water disposal facilities; chemistry optimization enhances the phase separation of water and oil; and steam blowdown reduces the need for makeup water. Then to dispose of this water, companies can use disposal wells, landfills or salt caverns. Oilsand operators are implementing different processes in order to reduce their water use and their footprint at the same time.

  20. Water Ways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahrling, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In many communities, schools are among the largest facilities and house the highest concentrations of daytime population. They create a huge demand for water. Even in regions with abundant water supplies, an increase in demand stresses local capacity, and water becomes more expensive. However, with the help of innovative products that reduce water…

  1. Application of non-contact obstacle-detection in obstacle-avoiding for ballast-clearing coach operating in pollution soil zone%非接触障碍检测技术在清筛机污土带避障中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡传亮; 高春雷; 王发灯; 周佳亮

    2013-01-01

    According to the safety problem in domestic ballast cleaning machine operation,which is dirty-soil conveyer belt frequently knocking down the catenary system post,this paper introduced a kind of automatic obstacle avoidance system used for dirty-soil conveyer belt of ballast cleaning machine. This system applied two kinds of non-contact detection technology which are laser and ultrasonic in order to detect the obstacles,adopted self-developed goniometer to measure the angel of dirty soil conveyor belt, used DSPIC30F6012 single chip as the core control device,presented the reliable algorithm for automatic obstacle avoidance,and designed the system software. Meanwhile,this system also used digital image monitoring technology in order to help the driver avoid the obstacle and improve the system interactivity, which would solve the problem of automatic obstacle avoidance for dirty-soil conveyor belt in safety production and bring good social and economic benefits.%  针对国内清筛机作业时,污土带经常发生碰倒接触网支柱的问题,本文介绍了一种清筛机污土传送带自动避障系统。该系统用激光和超声波两种非接触式检测技术对障碍物进行检测,采用自主研发的污土带转角传感器对污土带位置进行测量,用 DSPIC30F6012单片机作为控制器,提出了避障算法,通过设计的相关软件,结合数字图像监控技术,辅助清筛机驾驶员实现避障操作,提高了系统的交互性,此系统解决了清筛机污土带安全生产避障问题,使用后产生了良好的社会和经济效益。

  2. Effects of water depth and spectral bandwidth on Stokes drift estimation based on short-term variation of wave conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrhaug, Dag; Wang, Hong; Holmedal, Lars Erik

    2016-04-01

    The Stokes drift represents an important transport component of ocean circulation models. Locally it is responsible for transport of e.g. contaminated ballast water from ships, oil spills, plankton and larvae. It also plays an important role in mixing processes across the interphase between the atmosphere and the ocean. The Stokes drift is the mean Lagrangian velocity obtained from the water particle trajectory in the wave propagation direction; it is maximum at the surface, decreasing rapidly with the depth below the surface. The total mean mass transport is obtained by integrating the Stokes drift over the water depth; this is also referred to as the volume Stokes transport. The paper provides a simple analytical method which can be used to give estimates of the Stokes drift in moderate intermediate water depth based on short-term variation of wave conditions. This is achieved by using a joint distribution of individual wave heights and wave periods together with an explicit solution of the wave dispersion equation. The mean values of the surface Stokes drift and the volume Stokes transport for individual random waves within a sea state are presented, and the effects of water depth and spectral bandwidth parameter are discussed. Furthermore, example of results corresponding to typical field conditions are presented to demonstrate the application of the method, including the Stokes drift profile in the water column beneath the surface. Thus, the present analytical method can be used to estimate the Stokes drift in moderate intermediate water depth for random waves within a sea state based on available wave statistics.

  3. Water Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water sterilizer available through Ambassador Marketing, generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in water flow system. The silver ions serve as an effective bactericide/deodorizer. Tap water passes through filtering element of silver that has been chemically plated onto activated carbon. The silver inhibits bacterial growth and the activated carbon removes objectionable tastes and odors caused by addition of chlorine and other chemicals in municipal water supply. The three models available are a kitchen unit, a "Tourister" unit for portable use while traveling and a refrigerator unit that attaches to the ice cube water line. A filter will treat 5,000 to 10,000 gallons of water.

  4. Fast Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Beijing’s Water Cube tailor made for swimming success The water in the Water Cube pool is tranquil now. The predatory power of American Michael Phelps churning his way to an unprecedented eighth gold medal in the men’s 4x100 meters medley relay, took swimming to new heights. And there is no doubt that Beijing’s bubbleshaped aquatics center helped in the process of the 21 new world swimming records.

  5. 有砟轨道长轨直铺技术在太原西南环铁路施工中的应用%Application of Straight Laying of Long Trails on Ballast Tracks in the Construction of the Southwest-ring Railways in Taiyuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王四虎

    2016-01-01

    In construction of railway lines, how to select track laying method is the key to the success of the entire project, it directly determines the duration and cost of two important goals. This paper described the construction process of YZ500⁃TY track⁃laying machine with straight laying of long trails on ballast tracks, and introduced in detail the construction method applied to the construction of Southwest⁃ring Railways in Taiyuan. For short circuit or temporary land acquisition difficulty in laying base⁃building project, this construction method has a great advantage.%在铁路线路工程施工中,铺轨方法的选择,是整个项目成败的关键,它直接决定了工期、成本两个重要的目标。本文阐述了YZ500⁃TY铺轨机组进行有砟轨道长轨直铺法的施工过程,详细介绍了该施工方法在太原西南环铁路施工中的应用。该方法对于短距离线路或临时征地困难无法建设铺轨基地的工程项目,有着较大的施工优势。

  6. Improvement of the Construction Technique of Jointless Track Replacement Track-laying Method of Newly Built Double-track Railway Ballast Track%新建双线铁路有砟轨道无缝线路换铺法施工技术改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高娃

    2016-01-01

    Based on in-depth knowledge of replacement track-laying method and combined with the construction characteristics and project case of the present newly built double-track ballast jointless line, this paper introduces the improvement idea of the current replacement track-laying method and the independently developed practical device, obtaining significant comprehensive benefit in improving working efficiency, reducing safety risk, reducing labor intensity and saving cost. This paper can provide reference for similar projects.%本文在对换铺法深入了解的基础上,结合目前新建双线有砟无缝线路的施工特点和工程实例,介绍了对现有换铺技术提出的改进思路,和自主开发的实用性装置,在提高工效、降低安全风险、降低劳动强度、节省成本等方面取得了显著的综合效益,谨供同类工程参考。

  7. Water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper describes the coolant chemistry and its consequences for 1300 MWsub(e) KWU PWR plants. Some selected systems, i.e. primary heat transport system, steam water cycle and cooling water arrangements, are chosen for this description. Various aspects of coolant chemistry regarding general corrosion, selective types of corrosion and deposits on heat transfer surfaces have been discussed. The water supply systems necessary to fulfill the requirements of the coolant chemistry are discussed as well. It has been concluded that a good operating performance can only be achieved when - beside other factors - the water chemistry has been given sufficient consideration. (orig./RW)

  8. Water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper describes the coolant chemistry and its consequences for 1300 MWsub(e) KWU PWR plants. Some selected systems, i.e. primary heat transport system, steam water cycle and cooling water arrangements, are chosen for this description. Various aspects of coolant chemistry regarding general corrosion, selective types of corrosion and deposits on heat transfer surface have been discussed. The water supply systems necessary to fulfill the requirements of the coolant chemistry are discussed as well. It has been concluded that a good operating performance can only be achieved when - beside other factors - the water chemistry has been given sufficient consideration. (orig./RW)

  9. Supercritical water

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Yizhak

    2012-01-01

    Discover the many new and emerging applications of supercritical water as a green solvent Drawing from thousands of original research articles, this book reviews and summarizes what is currently known about the properties and uses of supercritical water. In particular, it focuses on new and emerging applications of supercritical water as a green solvent, including the catalytic conversion of biomass into fuels and the oxidation of hazardous materials. Supercritical Water begins with an introduction that defines supercritical fluids in general. It then defines supercritical wa

  10. Water Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Aquaspace H2OME Guardian Water Filter, available through Western Water International, Inc., reduces lead in water supplies. The filter is mounted on the faucet and the filter cartridge is placed in the "dead space" between sink and wall. This filter is one of several new filtration devices using the Aquaspace compound filter media, which combines company developed and NASA technology. Aquaspace filters are used in industrial, commercial, residential, and recreational environments as well as by developing nations where water is highly contaminated.

  11. WATER WARNINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    As the country's water supply goes down the drain, conservation and wastewater recycling have become urgent tasks for China At a news briefing ahead of the World Water Congress and Exhibition in Beijing, scheduled to begin September 10, Acting Chairman of the Organizing Committee and Vice Minister of Construction Qiu Baoxing delivered a statement that cut to the heart of the problem:

  12. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  13. Water tower

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    The water tower, being built on the highest point of the site, 460.5 m above the sea level. The tank will hold 750 m3 of water, and the tower will be topped by a knob which can serve as a geological survey reference mark.

  14. Groundwater Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Llamas

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The groundwaters released through springs constituted a basic element for the survival and progressive development of human beings. Man came to learn how to take better advantage of these waters by digging wells, irrigation channels, and galleries. Nevertheless, these activities do not require cooperation nor the collective agreement of relatively large groups of people, as in the case of creating the necessary structures to take advantage of the resources of surfacewaters. The construction and operation of these structures was a powerful factor in the birth of an urban or civil society – the designated water civilizations. The difference between people taking advantage of groundwater, quasi-individually, and those of surface water, where people work in a group, has continued to the present day. Whereas earlier, this difference did not bring about any special problems, the technological advances of this century, especially theturbine pump, have led to a spectacular increase in the use of roundwater. This advance has significantly contributed to reducing hunger in the world and has provided potable water in developing countries. However, the almost generalized lack of planning and control in the exploitation of these groundwaters reflects that they are little or badly understood by the managers of water policy in almost every country. As such, problems have occurred which have often become exaggerated, giving rise to water-myths. These problems, though, should be addressed if the aim is the sustainable usage of surface water as well as groundwater. To counter any misconceptions and to seek solutions to the problems, distinct plans of action can be highlighted: educating the public; fomenting a system of participative management and decisive support for the communities of users of subterranean waters; integrating a sufficient number of experts in hydrology in the various water management organizations;and assuring transparency of the data on

  15. 33 CFR 151.07 - Delegations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER... Office, is delegated the authority to— (a) Issue International Oil Pollution Prevention...

  16. Water Pressure. Water in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Carly Sporer

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water Pressure,"…

  17. Water Fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Douvidzon, Mark L; Martin, Leopoldo L; Carmon, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Fibers constitute the backbone of modern communication and are used in laser surgeries; fibers also genarate coherent X-ray, guided-sound and supercontinuum. In contrast, fibers for capillary oscillations, which are unique to liquids, were rarely considered in optofluidics. Here we fabricate fibers by water bridging an optical tapered-coupler to a microlensed coupler. Our water fibers are held in air and their length can be longer than a millimeter. These hybrid fibers co-confine two important oscillations in nature: capillary- and electromagnetic-. We optically record vibrations in the water fiber, including an audio-rate fundamental and its 3 overtones in a harmonic series, that one can hear in soundtracks attached. Transforming Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems [MEMS] to Micro-Electro-Capillary-Systems [MECS], boosts the device softness by a million to accordingly improve its response to minute forces. Furthermore, MECS are compatible with water, which is a most important liquid in our world.

  18. Fuel consumption of a tractor in function of wear, of ballasting and tire inflation pressure Consumo de combustível de um trator em função do desgaste, da lastragem e pressão de inflação dos pneus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger T. Spagnolo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available When using appropriate inflation pressures and load capacity (ballast, it may obtain a higher yield and prolongation of the life of the tire, besides it may minimize the problems of loss of traction, increased slippage and fuel consumption. This study aimed to evaluate the fuel consumption of a tractor operating with new and worn tires in three conditions of ballasting and three inflation pressures, when driving on compacted soil with vegetation cover. The experiment was conducted at the experimental unit from the Department of Animal Science, Federal University of Lavras, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in an agricultural soil compacted by cattle trampling and with vegetation cover. It was used a tractor 4x2 with front wheel assist, of a 65.62 kW engine power. The tires were of R1 type, diagonal (front: 12.4 to 24; and rear: 18.4 to 30, the average height of the clutches of the new tires were 0.3 and 0.35 m for front and rear tires, respectively, and for the worn tires were 0.018 and 0.0045 m, for the front and the rear tires, respectively. The results showed advantages for the tractor equipped with new tires.Ao se utilizar pressão de inflação e a capacidade de carga (lastro adequadas, pode-se obter um rendimento maior e um prolongamento da vida útil do pneu; além disso, minimizam-se os problemas de perda de tração, aumento de patinhagem e consumo de combustível. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o consumo de combustível de um trator agrícola operando com pneus novos e desgastados, em três condições de lastragem e três pressões de inflação, ao trafegar sobre solo compactado com cobertura vegetal. O experimento foi realizado na unidade experimental do Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras-MG, em um solo compactado pelo pisoteio de bovinos e com cobertura vegetal. Utilizou-se um trator 4x2 TDA, com potência de 65,62 kW no motor. Os pneus foram do tipo R1, diagonal (dianteiros: 12

  19. Total Water Management - slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total Water Management (TWM) examines urban water systems in an interconnected manner. It encompasses reducing water demands, increasing water recycling and reuse, creating water supply assets from stormwater management, matching water quality to end-use needs, and achieving envi...

  20. Water availability, water quality water governance: the future ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundisi, J. G.; Matsumura-Tundisi, T.; Ciminelli, V. S.; Barbosa, F. A.

    2015-04-01

    The major challenge for achieving a sustainable future for water resources and water security is the integration of water availability, water quality and water governance. Water is unevenly distributed on Planet Earth and these disparities are cause of several economic, ecological and social differences in the societies of many countries and regions. As a consequence of human misuse, growth of urbanization and soil degradation, water quality is deteriorating continuously. Key components for the maintenance of water quantity and water quality are the vegetation cover of watersheds, reduction of the demand and new water governance that includes integrated management, predictive evaluation of impacts, and ecosystem services. Future research needs are discussed.

  1. Water Condensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper Risgaard; Fojan, Peter; Jensen, Rasmus Lund;

    2014-01-01

    The condensation of water is a phenomenon occurring in multiple situations in everyday life, e.g., when fog is formed or when dew forms on the grass or on windows. This means that this phenomenon plays an important role within the different fields of science including meteorology, building physics......, and chemistry. In this review we address condensation models and simulations with the main focus on heterogeneous condensation of water. The condensation process is, at first, described from a thermodynamic viewpoint where the nucleation step is described by the classical nucleation theory. Further, we address...

  2. Water Balance.

    OpenAIRE

    Okongu, J.; Sewagudde, S.; Mngodo, R.; Sangale, F.; Mwanuzi, F.; Hecky, R

    2005-01-01

    One of the principal objectives of the Water Quality and Ecosystem Management Components is to find the reasons for the changes observed in the lake water quality and quantity in order to establish causes of change in the lake ecosystem and to identify remedial measures. To identify the reasons for the changes one requires a knowledge of the changes in the pollution loadings to the lake, which, in turn, depends on the discharges into the lake from the catchments and the atmosphere and the out...

  3. Water Conservation and Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water storage can be a viable part of the solution to water conservation. This means that we should include reservoirs. Regardless, one should evaluate all aspects of water conservation principles. Recent drought in California indicates that there is an urgent need to re-visit the techniques used to maintain the water supply-chain mechanism in the entire state. We all recognize the fact that fish and wildlife depend on the streams, rivers and wetlands for survival. It is a well-known fact that there is an immediate need to provide solid protection to all these resources. Laws and regulations should help meet the needs of natural systems. Farmers may be forced to drilling wells deeper than ever. But, they will be eventually depleting groundwater reserves. Needless to say that birds, fish and wildlife cannot access these groundwater table. California is talking a lot about conservation. Unfortunately, the conservation efforts have not established a strong visible hold. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN (Narayanan, 2012). It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The author has previously reported these in detail at the 2012 AGU fall meeting. References: Ziegler, Jay (15 JUNE 2014). The Conversation: Water conservation efforts aren't taking hold, but there are encouraging signs. THE SACRAMENTO BEE. California. Narayanan, Mysore. (2012). The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century. 72nd AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 92, No. 56, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2012. H31I - 1255.http://www.sacbee.com/2014/06/15/6479862/jay-ziegler-water-conservation.html#storylink=cpy

  4. Water availability, water quality water governance: the future ahead

    OpenAIRE

    Tundisi, J.G.; T Matsumura-Tundisi; Ciminelli, V. S.; F.A. Barbosa

    2015-01-01

    The major challenge for achieving a sustainable future for water resources and water security is the integration of water availability, water quality and water governance. Water is unevenly distributed on Planet Earth and these disparities are cause of several economic, ecological and social differences in the societies of many countries and regions. As a consequence of human misuse, growth of urbanization and soil degradation, water quality is deteriorating continuously. Key components for t...

  5. WATER MARKETS AND DECENTRALIZED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    K. William Easter; Robert HEARNE

    1994-01-01

    Because of its importance and the perceived inability of private sector sources to meet water demands, many countries have depended on the public sector to provide water services for their populations. Yet this has resulted in many inefficient public water projects and in inadequate supplies of good quality and reliable water. Decentralization of water management, including the use of water markets, cannot solve all of the water problems, but it can improve the efficiency of water allocation....

  6. Water Spout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    During the AAPT summer meeting at Creighton University in 2011, Vacek Miglus and I took pictures of early apparatus at the Creighton physics department. The apparatus in the left-hand picture, shown with the spigot closed, appeared to be a liquid-level device: the water level was the same in both the narrow tube and the flaring glass vase.…

  7. Drinking water

    OpenAIRE

    Kostik, Vesna

    2012-01-01

    Centre of reference laboratories as a part of Institute of Public Health- Skopje is consisted of following laboratories: - Laboratory of Sanitary Microbiology - Laboratory for Food Quality Control - Laboratory for Water Quality Control - Laboratory for Contaminants and Eco - toxicology - Laboratory for Testing of Metals - Laboratory for Radioecology - Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation - Laboratory for Testing common use items Lab...

  8. Groundwater Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón Llamas; Emilio Custodio

    1999-01-01

    The groundwaters released through springs constituted a basic element for the survival and progressive development of human beings. Man came to learn how to take better advantage of these waters by digging wells, irrigation channels, and galleries. Nevertheless, these activities do not require cooperation nor the collective agreement of relatively large groups of people, as in the case of creating the necessary structures to take advantage of the resources of surfacewaters. The construction a...

  9. Troubled Waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG CHONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ The diplomatic row between China and Japan over the latter's illegal detention of a Chinese fishing boat was initially resolved on September 24 when Japanese authorities released the boat's captain.But its repercussions have yet to be fully addressed. The Chinese Government and public protested strongly after Japanese coast guards captured the boat in waters off the Diaoyu Islands on September 7.Six days later,Japan freed all other crew members while keeping the captain in custody.

  10. Bottled Water and Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fluoridation Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Bottled Water Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Consumers drink ... questions about bottled water and fluoride. Does bottled water contain fluoride? Bottled water products may contain fluoride, ...

  11. Water Scarcity - Consumption of Water in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Sůva, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Summary In this bachelor thesis, on the topic of Water Scarcity- Water Consumption in Europe, the consumption of water is analysed for three fundamental, and for water consumption, major sectors. In the first section, consumption of water by European households is researched. In order to compare water consumption across Europe, an indicator of consumption of water per capita in selected European countries in the course of three years is created. Also, a comparison of median and...

  12. Water markets between Mexican water user associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloezen, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    Internationally, introducing water markets is regarded as a strong alternative institutional arrangement for managing irrigation water more effectively. Also in Mexico, the National Water Law of 1992 allows individual farmers as well as water user associations (WUA) to trade water. Although farmer t

  13. Study on Treating Halobios Pollution by Hydroxyl Radical

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The high ratio concentration hydroxyl solution is produced by strong discharge, and applied to the prevention of invasive species in ship ballast water and red tide. This paper introduces the plasma process of hydroxyl radical production, the production process of high ratio hydroxyl solution, and the application to treating ballast water and red tide.

  14. Global monthly water stress: I. Water balance and water availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, L.P.H. van; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Surface fresh water (i.e., blue water) is a vital and indispensable resource for human water use in the agricultural, industrial, and domestic sectors. In this paper, global water availability is calculated by forcing the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB with daily global meteorological fields f

  15. Healing Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátedra Tomás, María

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on fieldwork in four different spas —two in Spain and two in Portugal— this paper shows the mutiple social mediations operating in water therapies in different contexts: from the local use inscribed in popular knowledge, including playful elements inserted in therapeutic practices under the illusion of a return to nature when nature itself has stopped being «natural», to others in which leisure time is an expression of an exclusive life style including a reevaluation of landscape as part of a time-bound aesthetics and as a refuge from urban stress. These different uses of water allow us to understand spas both as nature sanatoriums as well as a form of business where medical power bends to the interests of turistic enterpreneurs transformed into health advisors, linked to different conceptions not only of water but also of society itself.

    Focalizando la reflexión en cuatro balnearios diferentes —dos en España y dos en Portugal—, el artículo muestra las múltiples mediaciones sociales que operan en la terapéutica del agua en diferentes contextos: desde el uso local inserto en saberes populares, incluyendo lo lúdico en lo terapéutico que puede conectarse con la ilusión de un regreso a la naturaleza cuando ésta ya ha dejado de ser “natural”, a otros en los que el ocio es expresión de un estilo de vida exclusivo que incluye un acercamiento al paisaje como parte de la estética de una época y como refugio ante el stress urbano. Se observa así cómo estos usos del agua, que permiten concebir los balnearios bien como sanatorios de la naturaleza bien como negocios en los que el poder médico se pliega al de promotores turísticos convertidos en asesores de salud, se vinculan a concepciones diferentes no sólo del agua, sino de la sociedad misma y sus diferentes grupos.

  16. Lead and tap water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water contaminated with lead ... The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) monitors drinking water in the United States. It requires water suppliers to produce annual water quality reports. These reports include information about lead amounts, and they ...

  17. About Body Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Insulin Delivery Additional Content Medical News About Body Water By James L. Lewis, III, MD NOTE: This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Water Balance About Body Water Dehydration Overhydration Water accounts ...

  18. Why Do Eyes Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? Print ... out of your nose. continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  19. Primer on Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fish-eating wildlife such as birds. How do natural processes affect water quality? Natural water quality varies ... streams and ground water. After decades of use, pesticides are now widespread in streams and ground water, ...

  20. Virtual water trade and world water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, T; Kanae, S

    2004-01-01

    Global virtual water trade was quantitatively estimated and evaluated. The basic idea of how to estimate unit requirement of water resources to produce each commodity is introduced and values for major agricultural and stock products are presented. The concept of virtual water and the quantitative estimates can help in assessing a more realistic water scarcity index in each country, projecting future water demand for food supply, increasing public awareness on water, and identifying the processes wasting water in the production. Really required water in exporting countries is generally smaller than virtually required water in importing countries, reflecting the comparative advantage of water use efficiency, and it is estimated to be 680 km3/y for 2000. On the contrary the virtually required water for the same year is estimated to be 1,130 km3/y, and the difference of 450 km3/y is virtually saved by global trade. However, solely virtual water should not be used for any decision making since the idea of virtual water implies only the usage and influence of water and no concerns on social, cultural, and environmental implications. Virtual water trade also does not consider other limiting factors than water. PMID:15195440

  1. Water chemistry and poultry processing water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the influences of water chemistry on the quality of process water used in immersion chillers. During commercial poultry processing the bird carcasses come in direct contact with process water during washing and chilling operations. Contamination of the process water with bacteria...

  2. Everyone into the Water!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Christina L.

    2007-01-01

    As the days grow longer and warmer with the approach of summer, everyone's thoughts turn to the outdoors and the clear blue of water sports. While recreational choices range from in-the-water activities like water polo to under-the-water sports like free diving, and on-the-water diversions like water skiing, this article focuses on print, video,…

  3. Shallow Discussion on Waste Water Treatment of Oil Reservoir%浅谈油库污水处理工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲可为

    2011-01-01

    There are many ports along the coast in our country,and it is necessary to clean oil tanks and discharge the oily waste water separated from blow down tanks on a regular basis in many oil reservoir.Besides, the oil tanks should discharge ballast water,in which the oil content can reach 20%,while the oil content is quite complicated.Oil content in oily waste water usually varies from dozens to several thousands of mg/L,and even tens of thousands of mg/L at maximum.According to the occurrence type,the oily waste water is normally sorted as floating oil,dispersed oil,emulsified oil and dissolved oil.The principle of waste water treatment is such that,first to consider recovering oil from the oily waste water to maximum extent,and the treated water should meet the requirement of Regeneration and recycling of municipal waste water and water quality of municipal domestic water GBfF 18920-2002.%我国沿海港口众多,很多油库每天需要清洗油罐并且定期排放罐内分离出来的含油污水,而油轮需要清理压舱水,其压舱水的含油量最大可达20%,而且油质复杂。含油废水中的含油量,一般为几十至几千mg/L,最高可达数万mg/L。而国家规定的允许排放标准仅为10mg/L。根据含油废水中油类存在形式的不同,通常分为浮油、分散油、乳化油和溶解油四种。含油废水的治理原则:首先应该考虑尽可能多的回收含油废水中的油,对治理过的水,应达到国家《城市污水再生利用城市杂用水水质》GB/T18920—2002标准的要求。

  4. 46 CFR 56.50-50 - Bilge and ballast piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... drainage of small pockets or spaces in which case 11/2-inch diameter may be used. For vessels less than 150... commercial size not more than one-fourth inch under the required diameter may be used. Bilge suction pipes...=Length of compartment, in feet. d=Required internal diameter of suction pipe, in inches. Note 1. For...

  5. Jettisoning ballast en route to the next millennium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esveld, C.

    2000-01-01

    Railway engineering has been a traditional discipline for over hundred years. Most developments were based upon experience and progressed thus very slowly. Recent proposed new railway structures and new applications make the traditional empirical approach ineffective. To support the new developments

  6. Stress-based Variable-inductor for Electronic Ballasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lihui; Xia, Yongming; Lu, Kaiyuan;

    2015-01-01

    Current-controlled variable inductors adjust the inductance of an alternating current (ac) coil by applying a controlled dc current to saturate the iron cores of the ac coil. The controlled dc current has to be maintained during operation, which results in increased power losses. This paper prese...

  7. Urban water recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, T

    2005-01-01

    Increasing urbanization has resulted in an uneven distribution of population, industries, and water in urban areas; thus, imposing unprecedented pressures on water supplies and water pollution control. These pressures are exacerbated during the periods of drought and climatic uncertainties. The purpose of this paper is to summarize emergence of water reclamation, recycling and reuse as a vital component of sustainable water resources in the context of integrated water resources management in urban and rural areas. Water quality requirements and health and public acceptance issues related to water reuse are also discussed. Reclaimed water is a locally controllable water resource that exists right at the doorstep of the urban environment, where water is needed the most and priced the highest. Closing the water cycle loop not only is technically feasible in agriculture, industries, and municipalities but also makes economic sense. Society no longer has the luxury of using water only once.

  8. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  9. Water Swollen Natural Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sureurg KHONGTONG

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Modification of natural rubber by grafting of maleic anhydride yielded a water absorbable substrate. It was found that water contact angles of treated samples declined as the concentrations of maleic anhydride increased reflecting higher water compatibility in grafted samples. Submergence in water of these samples caused dramatic swelling with the water content up to about 60 wt %.

  10. Water Swollen Natural Rubber

    OpenAIRE

    Sureurg KHONGTONG; Narong FUNGCHONLAJIT

    2008-01-01

    Modification of natural rubber by grafting of maleic anhydride yielded a water absorbable substrate. It was found that water contact angles of treated samples declined as the concentrations of maleic anhydride increased reflecting higher water compatibility in grafted samples. Submergence in water of these samples caused dramatic swelling with the water content up to about 60 wt %.

  11. Global water governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Although (fresh) water challenges are primarily local in nature, globalization has led to feedback effects that make many water challenges global in nature. This chapter examines global water governance. It discusses four phases of water governance, argues that water governance is dispersed and inco

  12. Water Scarcity and Water Policy in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This thesis addresses the possible solutions to control demand and supply of water for a sustainable environment in Mexico, along with a detailed analyses of economic implications related to the water sector. At the same time it focuses on the opportunities and constraints to improve the use of water and the allocation in the agricultural sector, by a system of transferable water-use permits. Actual examples are provided nationwide to the current situation in Mexico, focusing on problems rela...

  13. Hydrography - Water Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A Water Resource is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Use Planning Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Resources that are included are:...

  14. Water safety and drowning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... among people of all ages. Learning and practicing water safety is important to prevent drowning accidents. ... Water safety tips for all ages include: Learn CPR Never swim alone Never dive into water unless ...

  15. The Water Diversion Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    One of the basic characteristics of water distribution in China is that there is a deluge of water in the south and a deficiency in the north. To ease the water shortage in the north, the Chinese Government

  16. Water in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the weight of the human body. Without water, humans would die in a few days. All the ... the water is made during the process of metabolism . You also get water through liquid foods and beverages, such as soup, ...

  17. Alles is water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der A.

    2013-01-01

    Inaugurele rede bij de aanvaarding van buitengewoon hoogleraarschap in Electrochemical Water Treatment. De aandachtsgebieden in zijn professoraat richten zich achtereenvolgens op: a) energiezuinige ontzouting van water, b) selectieve verwijdering van ionen uit water, c) terugwinning van waardevolle

  18. Tsunamis: Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Tsunamis: Water Quality Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... about testing should be directed to local authorities. Water for Drinking, Cooking, and Personal Hygiene Safe water ...

  19. Public Waters Inventory Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme is a scanned and rectified version of the Minnesota DNR - Division of Waters "Public Waters Inventory" (PWI) maps. DNR Waters utilizes a small scale...

  20. Water Policies of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Istanbulluoglu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Water is one of our most critical resources. Civilization has historically flourished around major waterways. The most important uses of water are; agricultural, industrial and domestic use. This critical resource is under threat around the world. In the next 20 years, the quantity of water available to everyone is predicted to decrease by 30%. 40% of the world\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s inhabitants currently have insufficient fresh water for minimal hygiene. In 2000 more than 2.2 million people died from waterborne diseases. Water politics is politics affected by water and water resources. There are connections between water resources, water systems, and international security and conflict. Today, water is a strategic resource in the globe and an important element in many political conflicts. Turkey can be faced severe water-stress in the near future. Therefore Turkey has to develop realistic and feasible water policy for future generations. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 327-338

  1. Tsunamis: Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Planning Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Tsunamis: Water Quality Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... about testing should be directed to local authorities. Water for Drinking, Cooking, and Personal Hygiene Safe water ...

  2. Vulnerability of Water Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Znaor, Darko

    2009-01-01

    Water is a critical natural resource. It is used for drinking water, agriculture, wetlands services, and the production of hydroelectric energy, amongst others. Croatian fresh-water resources are abundant - indeed they are among the richest in Europe. Therefore, water resources are not considered a limiting factor for development in Croatia. However, while there is no shortage of water per se for use in Croatia, problems do exist. - First, a large amount of pumped water is wasted, which...

  3. Water Treatment Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This team researches and designs desalination, water treatment, and wastewater treatment systems. These systems remediate water containing hazardous c hemicals and...

  4. Water Quality of Hills Water, Supply Water and RO Water Machine at Ulu Yam Selangor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngadiman, N.; ‘I Bahari, N.; Kaamin, M.; Hamid, N. B.; Mokhtar, M.; Sahat, S.

    2016-07-01

    The rapid development resulted in the deterioration of the quality of drinking water in Malaysia. Recognizing the importance of water quality, new alternatives for drinking water such as mineral water processing from reverse osmosis (RO) machine become more popular. Hence, the demand for mineral water, natural spring water or water from the hills or mountains rose lately. More consumers believed the quality of these spring water better than other source of drinking water. However, the quality of all the drinking water sources is to meet the required quality standard. Therefore, this paper aims to measure the quality of the waters from hills, from RO machine and the water supply in Ulu Yam, Selangor Batang Kali, Malaysia. The water quality was determined based on following parameters: ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3), iron (Fe), turbidity (NTU) and pH. The results show that the water from hills has better quality compared to water supply and water from RO machine. The value of NH3 ranged from 0.03 mg/L- 0.67 mg/L; Fe was from 0.03mg/L - 0.12 mg/L, turbidity at 0.42 NTU - 0.88 NTU and pH is at 6.60 - 0.71. Based on the studied parameters, all three types of water are fit for drinking and have met the required national drinking water quality standard.

  5. Klaipėda sea port contaminated oily water management analysis Analysis of Polluted Oily Water Management in Klaipėda Sea Port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goda Zobėlaitė

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available While exploiting ships and their mechanisms a particular type of waste is made – water which contains oil and its products. Such water is called oily-bilge water otherwise ballast waters, because of the accidental spillage during carrying out various technological processes sea water is polluted and thus a danger is caused to the environment.Oily-bilge water is particular water which contains different carbohydrates, fuel oil, lubricating oil, light benzene fractions etc. thus the cleaning of such water to a certain degree is hardly possible using traditional technologies.According to the previous scientific researches it was determined that oily water cleaning needs absorbing substances. There comes up a purpose to choose available sorbents, which are applicable widely in different technological processes.In the article investigation results were received with five absorbing substances (granular absorbent carbon, friable absorbent carbon, wood dust, wood sawdust and clay.The object of the research comprises the determinant of oily water cleaning degree and sorption effectiveness by using chosen methods. Lithuania is one of the countries that have ratified the Marpol 73/78 Convention which foresees the tools of reduction and prevention of sea pollution with bilge water and other substances. The Directive of the European Parliament and Council 2000/59/EB is addressed to the reduction of waste on board of ships and its wash overboard..Analysis of the ships entering Klaipėda Sea Port has estimated that oil waste comprises about 74 % of the whole collected waste amount. The analysis of technological flows and documents has indicated problematic points in the following processes:1. collection of oily and engine bilge water from ships;2. collection of spilled overboard oil products;3. exploitation of intermediate accumulative reservoirs in the port;4. regular transportation of accumulated oily water engine bilge water to the oil-polluted water

  6. 2010 Water & Aqueous Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dor Ben-Amotz

    2010-08-13

    Water covers more than two thirds of the surface of the Earth and about the same fraction of water forms the total mass of a human body. Since the early days of our civilization water has also been in the focus of technological developments, starting from converting it to wine to more modern achievements. The meeting will focus on recent advances in experimental, theoretical, and computational understanding of the behavior of the most important and fascinating liquid in a variety of situations and applications. The emphasis will be less on water properties per se than on water as a medium in which fundamental dynamic and reactive processes take place. In the following sessions, speakers will discuss the latest breakthroughs in unraveling these processes at the molecular level: Water in Solutions; Water in Motion I and II; Water in Biology I and II; Water in the Environment I and II; Water in Confined Geometries and Water in Discussion (keynote lecture and poster winners presentations).

  7. Water Footprints and Sustainable Water Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen Y. Hoekstra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Water Footprint Assessment (WFA is a quickly growing research field. This Special Issue contains a selection of papers advancing the field or showing innovative applications. The first seven papers are geographic WFA studies, from an urban to a continental scale; the next five papers have a global scope; the final five papers focus on water sustainability from the business point of view. The collection of papers shows that the historical picture of a town relying on its hinterland for its supply of water and food is no longer true: the water footprint of urban consumers is global. It has become clear that wise water governance is no longer the exclusive domain of government, even though water is and will remain a public resource with government in a primary role. With most water being used for producing our food and other consumer goods, and with product supply chains becoming increasingly complex and global, there is a growing awareness that consumers, companies and investors also have a key role. The interest in sustainable water use grows quickly, in both civil society and business communities, but the poor state of transparency of companies regarding their direct and indirect water use implies that there is still a long way to go before we can expect that companies effectively contribute to making water footprints more sustainable at a relevant scale.

  8. No Watered Down Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Droughts and floods have plagued the Chinese people for the entire summer. Along with alarming news of toxic spills in rivers and polluted water, the current situation of China's water resources is extremely worrying. Threatened by global warming, water pollution and soil erosion, sustainable development in China is becoming more difficult to maintain as the precious water resources are threatened.

  9. Water footprints of nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, A.K.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2004-01-01

    The water footprint concept has been developed in order to have an indicator of water use in relation to consumption of people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country. Closely l

  10. Salt, Water, and Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan J.

    Good nutrition for athletes demands plenty of water, since water is essential to such vital functions as muscle reactions. Dehydration can result from jet travel as well as from exercise and heat, making it a danger to traveling athletic teams. To avoid dehydration, water needs should be monitored by frequent weighing, and a clean water supply…

  11. Biological pretreatment sewages water

    OpenAIRE

    Veselý, Václav

    2009-01-01

    Bachelor's thesis deals with waste water purification at the stage of pre-inflow of water into the biological waste water treatment plants. It is divided into two parts, a theoretical and calculation. The theoretical part deals about sewage water and the method of biological treatment. Design proposal is part of the activation tank for quantity EO.

  12. Be Water Wise

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    This 45-page book contains activities for grades six through 12 on water conservation, water in the environment, and water and wastewater treatment. Accompanied by Instructor's guide to Be water-wise, written by Alvin M. Pettus and edited by Sandra K. Birch. Reprinted in 1985 and 1988.

  13. Potable water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, R. L.; Calley, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    The history and evolution of the Apollo potable water system is reviewed. Its operation in the space environment and in the spacecraft is described. Its performance is evaluated. The Apollo potable water system satisfied the dual purpose of providing metabolic water for the crewmen and water for spacecraft cooling.

  14. Water quality and MTBE water pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research project, here presented, was defined with the aim of evaluating the eventual presence of MTBE and the possible relative impact in water destined to human use; the territorial valence of the project was extended to the competence region n. 4 of the Tuscany water authority (AATO n. 4). University of Florence, ARPAT, AATO n. 4 and Nuove Acque SpA, in this role of manager for the integrated water cycle in the country, have productively contributed to the project

  15. Water Management in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Majewski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the current situation in Polish water resources management. Discussed here are measures taken by the Ministry of Environment to introduce a new water law, as well as reforms of water management in Poland. The state of water resources in Poland are described, and the actions needed to improve this situation, taking into account possible climate changes and their impact on the use of water resources. Critically referred to is the introduction by the Ministry of Environment of charges for water abstraction by hydro power plants, and adverse effects for the energy and water management sectors are discussed.

  16. Accounting for California Water

    OpenAIRE

    Escriva-Bou, Alvar; McCann, Henry; Hanak, Ellen; Lund, Jay; Gray, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Understanding California’s water balance sheet—how much there is, who has claims to it, and what is actually being “spent”—is key to effectively managing the state’s limited water supply in support of a healthy economy and environment. The latest drought has spotlighted serious gaps in California’s water accounting system. California is a large, geographically diverse state, and its water systems are physically interconnected and institutionally fragmented. Water infrastructure connects the s...

  17. Water Homeostasis: Evolutionary Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Zeidel, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    As a major component of homeostasis, all organisms regulate the water composition of various compartments. Through the selective use of barrier membranes and surface glycoproteins, as well as aquaporin water channels, organisms ranging from Archaebacteria to humans can vary water permeabilities across their cell membranes by 4 to 5 orders of magnitude. In barrier epithelia the outer, or exofacial, leaflet acts as the main resistor to water flow; this leaflet restricts water flow by minimizing...

  18. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  19. Water microbiology. Bacterial pathogens and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, João P S

    2010-10-01

    Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water-cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery-is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases' characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment) and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers). Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters.

  20. Paying for water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, J; Saunders, P

    1997-03-01

    Water has been taken for granted as an essential public health need since the Victorian sanitary revolution. Water has come back on to the public health agenda in the United Kingdom because of recent policy changes and their untoward environmental and social impacts; along with water privatization and tough new environmental directives, there have been serious water pollution incidents, water shortages, water debt and disconnection. Along with concern about protecting individual rights to a clean safe water supply, there is concern about the ability of national water resources to meet all our communities' needs, without unacceptable environmental damage. A national plan is needed for the conservation of water and protection of water resources and the environment; adequate central funds are needed to see that this happens. There should be greater emphasis on local water management and a key role for local authorities; there should be fair pricing, protection of water supplies for the poorest and most vulnerable, and a ban on water disconnection to domestic users, on public health grounds. More research is needed into the potential adverse health impact of people on prepayment meters disconnecting themselves. There is a place for water metering as the most rapidly deliverable means of controlling peak demand, reducing overall consumption and avoiding a large-scale environmentally damaging solution to supply more water. However, control of leakage offers the largest potential saving and is the most cost-effective means to protect existing water supply. We question whether private water companies, geared to maximizing profit and share dividends, can deliver a national plan for the protection and management of water resources, for the good of the environment and future generations. The public health lobby must become more actively engaged in the debate about the supply, protection and price of our most precious public health asset-water. PMID:9138226

  1. Paying for water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, J; Saunders, P

    1997-03-01

    Water has been taken for granted as an essential public health need since the Victorian sanitary revolution. Water has come back on to the public health agenda in the United Kingdom because of recent policy changes and their untoward environmental and social impacts; along with water privatization and tough new environmental directives, there have been serious water pollution incidents, water shortages, water debt and disconnection. Along with concern about protecting individual rights to a clean safe water supply, there is concern about the ability of national water resources to meet all our communities' needs, without unacceptable environmental damage. A national plan is needed for the conservation of water and protection of water resources and the environment; adequate central funds are needed to see that this happens. There should be greater emphasis on local water management and a key role for local authorities; there should be fair pricing, protection of water supplies for the poorest and most vulnerable, and a ban on water disconnection to domestic users, on public health grounds. More research is needed into the potential adverse health impact of people on prepayment meters disconnecting themselves. There is a place for water metering as the most rapidly deliverable means of controlling peak demand, reducing overall consumption and avoiding a large-scale environmentally damaging solution to supply more water. However, control of leakage offers the largest potential saving and is the most cost-effective means to protect existing water supply. We question whether private water companies, geared to maximizing profit and share dividends, can deliver a national plan for the protection and management of water resources, for the good of the environment and future generations. The public health lobby must become more actively engaged in the debate about the supply, protection and price of our most precious public health asset-water.

  2. PREFACE: Water at interfaces Water at interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, P.; Rovere, M.

    2010-07-01

    This special issue is devoted to illustrating important aspects and significant results in the field of modeling and simulation of water at interfaces with solutes or with confining substrates, focusing on a range of temperatures from ambient to supercooled. Understanding the behavior of water, in contact with different substrates and/or in solutions, is of pivotal importance for a wide range of applications in physics, chemistry and biochemistry. Simulations of confined and/or interfacial water are also relevant for testing how different its behavior is with respect to bulk water. Simulations and modeling in this field are of particular importance when studying supercooled regions where water shows anomalous properties. These considerations motivated the organization of a workshop at CECAM in the summer of 2009 which aimed to bring together scientists working with computer simulations on the properties of water in various environments with different methodologies. In this special issue, we collected a variety of interesting contributions from some of the speakers of the workshop. We have roughly classified the contributions into four groups. The papers of the first group address the properties of interfacial and confined water upon supercooling in an effort to understand the relation with anomalous behavior of supercooled bulk water. The second group deals with the specific problem of solvation. The next group deals with water in different environments by considering problems of great importance in technological and biological applications. Finally, the last group deals with quantum mechanical calculations related to the role of water in chemical processes. The first group of papers is introduced by the general paper of Stanley et al. The authors discuss recent progress in understanding the anomalies of water in bulk, nanoconfined, and biological environments. They present evidence that liquid water may display 'polymorphism', a property that can be present in

  3. Ionic behavior of treated water at a water purification plant

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagida, Kazumi; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    [Abstract] Water at each processing stage in a water purification plant was extracted and analyzed to investigate changes of water quality. Investigations of water at each processing stage at the water purification plant are discussed herein.

  4. Water-Borne Illnesses. Water in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Carly Sporer

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water-Borne…

  5. Drainage water management for water quality protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land drainage has been central to the development of North America since colonial times. Increasingly, agricultural drainage is being targeted as a conduit for pollution, particularly nutrient pollution. The export of agricultural drainage water and associated pollutants to surface water can be mana...

  6. Water resources data, Kentucky. Water year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClain, D.L.; Byrd, F.D.; Brown, A.C.

    1991-12-31

    Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water-levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 115 stream-gaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for 38 stations sampled at regular intervals. Also published are 13 daily temperature and 8 specific conductance records, and 85 miscellaneous temperature and specific conductance determinations for the gaging stations. Suspended-sediment data for 12 stations (of which 5 are daily) are also published. Ground-water levels are published for 23 recording and 117 partial sites. Precipitation data at a regular interval is published for 1 site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the US Geological Survey and cooperation State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

  7. Measuring domestic water use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamason, Charlotte C.; Bessias, Sophia; Villada, Adriana;

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To present a systematic review of methods for measuring domestic water use in settings where water meters cannot be used. Methods: We systematically searched EMBASE, PubMed, Water Intelligence Online, Water Engineering and Development Center, IEEExplore, Scielo, and Science Direct...... databases for articles that reported methodologies for measuring water use at the household level where water metering infrastructure was absent or incomplete. A narrative review explored similarities and differences between the included studies and provide recommendations for future research in water use....... Results: A total of 21 studies were included in the review. Methods ranged from single-day to 14-consecutive-day visits, and water use recall ranged from 12 h to 7 days. Data were collected using questionnaires, observations or both. Many studies only collected information on water that was carried...

  8. Water Entrainment in Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben

    This report gives a survey of different techniques for incorporation of designed, water-filled cavities in concrete: Water entrainment. Also an estimate of the optimum size of the water inclusions is given. Water entrainment can be used to avoid self-desiccation and self-desiccation shrinkage...... during hydration [1,26]. What is needed is some sort of container which retains the shape of the water when mixed into the concrete. The container may function based on several different physical or chemical principles. Cells and gels are examples of containers found in nature. A cell membrane provides...... a boundary to water, whereas a polymer network incorporates water in its intersticious space with its affinity due to interaction energy and polymer entropy. Such containers allow water to be stored as an entity. In relation to concrete the water encapsulation may be accomplished either before or after start...

  9. Water recovery in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamponnet, C; Savage, C J; Amblard, P; Lasserre, J C; Personne, J C; Germain, J C

    1999-03-01

    In the absence of recycling, water represents over 90% of the life-support consumables for a manned spacecraft. In addition, over 90% of the waste water generated can be classified as moderately or slightly contaminated (e.g. shower water, condensate from the air-conditioning system, etc.). The ability to recover potable water from moderately contaminated waste water hence enables significant savings to be made in resupply costs. A development model of such a water-recovery system, based on membrane technology has been produced and tested using "real waste water" based on used shower water Results indicate some 95% recovery of potable water meeting ESA standards, with total elimination of microbial contaminants such as bacteria, spores and viruses. PMID:11725802

  10. Ground Water in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Oki, Delwyn S.

    2000-01-01

    Ground water is one of Hawaii's most important natural resources. It is used for drinking water, irrigation, and domestic, commercial, and industrial needs. Ground water provides about 99 percent of Hawaii's domestic water and about 50 percent of all freshwater used in the State. Total ground water pumped in Hawaii was about 500 million gallons per day during 1995, which is less than 3 percent of the average total rainfall (about 21 billion gallons per day) in Hawaii. From this perspective, the ground-water resource appears ample; however, much of the rainfall runs off to the ocean in streams or returns to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration. Furthermore, ground-water resources can be limited because of water-quality, environmental, or economic concerns. Water beneath the ground surface occurs in two principal zones: the unsaturated zone and the saturated zone. In the unsaturated zone, the pore spaces in rocks contain both air and water, whereas in the saturated zone, the pore spaces are filled with water. The upper surface of the saturated zone is referred to as the water table. Water below the water table is referred to as ground water. Ground-water salinity can range from freshwater to that of seawater. Freshwater is commonly considered to be water with a chloride concentration less than 250 mg/L, and this concentration represents about 1.3 percent of the chloride concentration of seawater (19,500 mg/L). Brackish water has a chloride concentration between that of freshwater (250 mg/L) and saltwater (19,500 mg/L).

  11. Water Microbiology. Bacterial Pathogens and Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P. S. Cabral

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water—cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery—is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases’ characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers. Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters.

  12. Molecular water oxidation catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Llobet, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Photocatalytic water splitting is a promising strategy for capturing energy from the sun by coupling light harvesting and the oxidation of water, in order to create clean hydrogen fuel. Thus a deep knowledge of the water oxidation catalysis field is essential to be able to come up with useful energy conversion devices based on sunlight and water splitting. Molecular Water Oxidation Catalysis: A Key Topic for New Sustainable Energy Conversion Schemes presents a comprehensive and state-of-the-art overview of water oxidation catalysis in homogeneous phase, describing in detail the most importan

  13. Water: Too Precious to Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Geographic World, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Provides background information on many topics related to water. These include the water cycle, groundwater, fresh water, chemical wastes, water purification, river pollution, acid rain, and water conservation. Information is presented at an elementary level. (JM)

  14. Urban water interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, M. O.; Hinkelmann, R.; Nützmann, G.; Jekel, M.; Singer, G.; Lewandowski, J.; Nehls, T.; Barjenbruch, M.

    2014-06-01

    Urban water systems consist of large-scale technical systems and both natural and man-made water bodies. The technical systems are essential components of urban infrastructure for water collection, treatment, storage and distribution, as well as for wastewater and runoff collection and subsequent treatment. Urban aquatic ecosystems are typically subject to strong human influences, which impair the quality of surface and ground waters, often with far-reaching impacts on downstream aquatic ecosystems and water users. The various surface and subsurface water bodies in urban environments can be viewed as interconnected compartments that are also extensively intertwined with a range of technical compartments of the urban water system. As a result, urban water systems are characterized by fluxes of water, solutes, gases and energy between contrasting compartments of a technical, natural or hybrid nature. Referred to as urban water interfaces, boundaries between and within these compartments are often specific to urban water systems. Urban water interfaces are generally characterized by steep physical and biogeochemical gradients, which promote high reaction rates. We hypothesize that they act as key sites of processes and fluxes with notable effects on overall system behaviour. By their very nature, urban water interfaces are heterogeneous and dynamic. Therefore, they increase spatial heterogeneity in urban areas and are also expected to contribute notably to the temporal dynamics of urban water systems, which often involve non-linear interactions and feedback mechanisms. Processes at and fluxes across urban water interfaces are complex and less well understood than within well-defined, homogeneous compartments, requiring both empirical investigations and new modelling approaches at both the process and system level. We advocate an integrative conceptual framework of the urban water system that considers interfaces as a key component to improve our fundamental

  15. Low water FGD technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-15

    Conventional flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) systems require large supplies of water. Technologies which reduce water usage are becoming more important with the large number of FGD systems being installed in response to ever tightening emission regulations. Reducing water loss is particularly important in arid regions of the world. This report reviews commercial and near commercial low water FGD processes for coal-fired power plants, including dry, semi-dry and multi-pollutant technologies. Wet scrubbers, the most widely deployed FGD technology, account for around 10–15% of the water losses in power plants with water cooling systems. This figure is considerably higher when dry/air cooling systems are employed. The evaporative water losses can be reduced by some 40–50% when the flue gas is cooled before it enters the wet scrubber, a common practice in Europe and Japan. Technologies are under development to capture over 20% of the water in the flue gas exiting the wet scrubber, enabling the power plant to become a water supplier instead of a consumer. The semi-dry spray dry scrubbers and circulating dry scrubbers consume some 60% less water than conventional wet scrubbers. The commercial dry sorbent injection processes have the lowest water consumption, consuming no water, or a minimal amount if the sorbent needs hydrating or the flue gas is humidified to improve performance. Commercial multi-pollutant systems are available that consume no water.

  16. Water-transporting proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeuthen, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    Transport through lipids and aquaporins is osmotic and entirely driven by the difference in osmotic pressure. Water transport in cotransporters and uniporters is different: Water can be cotransported, energized by coupling to the substrate flux by a mechanism closely associated with protein. In the K(+)/Cl(-) and the Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporters, water is entirely cotransported, while water transport in glucose uniporters and Na(+)-coupled transporters of nutrients and neurotransmitters takes place by both osmosis and cotransport. The molecular mechanism behind cotransport of water is not clear. It is associated with the substrate movements in aqueous pathways within the protein; a conventional unstirred layer mechanism can be ruled out, due to high rates of diffusion in the cytoplasm. The physiological roles of the various modes of water transport are reviewed in relation to epithelial transport. Epithelial water transport is energized by the movements of ions, but how the coupling takes place is uncertain. All epithelia can transport water uphill against an osmotic gradient, which is hard to explain by simple osmosis. Furthermore, genetic removal of aquaporins has not given support to osmosis as the exclusive mode of transport. Water cotransport can explain the coupling between ion and water transport, a major fraction of transepithelial water transport and uphill water transport. Aquaporins enhance water transport by utilizing osmotic gradients and cause the osmolarity of the transportate to approach isotonicity. PMID:20091162

  17. Technology for Water Treatment (National Water Management)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The buildup of scale and corrosion is the most costly maintenance problem in cooling tower operation. Jet Propulsion Laboratory successfully developed a non-chemical system that not only curbed scale and corrosion, but also offered advantages in water conservation, cost savings and the elimination of toxic chemical discharge. In the system, ozone is produced by an on-site generator and introduced to the cooling tower water. Organic impurities are oxidized, and the dissolved ozone removes bacteria and scale. National Water Management, a NASA licensee, has installed its ozone advantage systems at some 200 cooling towers. Customers have saved money and eliminated chemical storage and discharge.

  18. Water Resources Research supports water economics submissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Ronald C.

    2012-09-01

    AGU's international interdisciplinary journal Water Resources Research (WRR) publishes original contributions in hydrology; the physical, chemical, and biological sciences; and the social and policy sciences, including economics, systems analysis, sociology, and law. With the rising relevance of water economics and related social sciences, the editors of WRR continue to encourage submissions on economics and policy. WRR was originally founded in the mid 1960s by Walter Langbein and economist Allen Kneese. Several former WRR editors have been economists—including David Brookshire, Ron Cummings, and Chuck Howe—and many landmark articles in water economics have been published in WRR.

  19. Private Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Private Water District boundaries are areas where private contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  20. Water Quality Analysis Simulation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality analysis simulation Program, an enhancement of the original WASP. This model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural...

  1. Water Safety (Recreational)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Playing in the water - whether swimming, boating or diving - can be fun. It can also be dangerous, especially for children. Being safe can ... injuries and drowning. To stay safe in the water Avoid alcohol when swimming or boating Wear a ...

  2. SDWISFED Drinking Water Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — SDWIS/FED is EPA's national regulatory compliance database for the drinking water program. It includes information on the nation's 160,000 public water systems and...

  3. WaterHydro_LKBSPRE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The WaterHydro_LKBSPRE layer consists of drainage basins for water bodies of approximately five or more acres. The data was digitized from 1:24,000 (or 1:25,000)...

  4. Altimetry for inland water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina; Stenseng, Lars; Andersen, Ole Baltazar;

    With the globally decreasing amount of in-situ stations, satellite altimetry based water levels are an important supplement to obtain continuous time series of the worlds inland water. In this presentation we demonstrate two new services, that are related to inland water and altimetry. The first...... is Altimetry for inland water (AltWater), which is a new open service, that provides altimetry based time series for inland water. Currently, the service includes data from cryoSat-2, but we intend to add other missions in future versions.The service is developed under the FP7 project Land and Ocean Take Up...... from Sentinel-3 (LOTUS) and is available at www.altwater.dtu.space. The web page contains a google map with the available inland water bodies and the user can access the data by clicking on the specific target of interest. For each target the user can download both the along-track water levels...

  5. Disinfection of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some methods for disinfecting drinking water are described, e.g. UV irradiation (optimal wavelength 210-250mm) with the advantage of constant water composition and the resulting danger of re-infection. (AJ)

  6. Water exercise in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, V L

    1996-08-01

    Exercise in the water offers several physiological advantages to the pregnant woman. The hydrostatic force of water pushes extravascular fluid into the vascular spaces, producing an increase in central blood volume that may lead to increased uterine blood flow. This force is proportional to the depth of immersion. The increase in blood volume is proportional to the woman's edema. A marked diuresis and natriuresis accompanies the fluid shifts. The buoyancy of water supports the pregnant women. Water is thermoregulating. Studies of pregnant women exercising in the water have shown less fetal heart rate changes in the water than on land in response to exertion. Pregnant women's heart rates and blood pressures during water exercise are lower than on land exercise, reflecting the immersion-induced increase in circulating blood volume. The physiology of water exercise offers some compensation for the physiological changes of exercise on land that may beneficially affect pregnancy.

  7. Drink Water, Stay Slimmer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159832.html Drink Water, Stay Slimmer? Well-hydrated adults weigh less, study ... 12, 2016 TUESDAY, July 12, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Water might be a secret weapon for dieters, research ...

  8. Alternative disinfectant water treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative disinfestant water treatments are disinfestants not as commonly used by the horticultural industry. Chlorine products that produce hypochlorous acid are the main disinfestants used for treating irrigation water. Chlorine dioxide will be the primary disinfestant discussed as an alternativ...

  9. A Simple Water Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A. S.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a simple water channel, for use with an overhead projector. It is run from a water tap and may be used for flow visualization experiments, including the effect of streamlining and elementary building aerodynamics. (MLH)

  10. State Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — State Water Project District boundaries are areas where state contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  11. Water Quality Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Our water quality sampling program is to determine the quality of Moosehorn's lakes and a limited number of streams. Water quality is a measure of the body of...

  12. Drinking Water FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your well Who should test your well Drinking Water FAQ Frequently Asked Questions General Where does my ... CDC's Private Wells page. Top of Page Public Water Systems What type of health issues can be ...

  13. Clean Water Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Clean Water Act (CWA) establishes the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into U.S. waters and regulating quality standards for surface...

  14. Virginia Water Central

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Water Resources Research Center

    2006-01-01

    This newsletter features articles on water-related science, policy, and law. Distributed to state agency representatives, faculty, students and interested citizens, it aims to provide current information, statistics, news, and notices related to water resources in Virginia.

  15. Virginia Water Central

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Water Resources Research Center

    2005-01-01

    This newsletter features articles on water-related science, policy, and law. Distributed to state agency representatives, faculty, students and interested citizens, it aims to provide current information, statistics, news, and notices related to water resources in Virginia.

  16. Virginia Water Central

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Water Resources Research Center

    2012-01-01

    This newsletter features articles on water-related science, policy, and law. Distributed to state agency representatives, faculty, students and interested citizens, it aims to provide current information, statistics, news, and notices related to water resources in Virginia.

  17. Virginia Water Central

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Water Resources Research Center

    1999-01-01

    This newsletter features articles on water-related science, policy, and law. Distributed to state agency representatives, faculty, students and interested citizens, it aims to provide current information, statistics, news, and notices related to water resources in Virginia.

  18. Virginia Water Central

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Water Resources Research Center

    2001-01-01

    This newsletter features articles on water-related science, policy, and law. Distributed to state agency representatives, faculty, students and interested citizens, it aims to provide current information, statistics, news, and notices related to water resources in Virginia.

  19. Virginia Water Central

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Water Resources Research Center

    2000-01-01

    This newsletter features articles on water-related science, policy, and law. Distributed to state agency representatives, faculty, students and interested citizens, it aims to provide current information, statistics, news, and notices related to water resources in Virginia.

  20. Virginia Water Central

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Water Resources Research Center

    1998-01-01

    This newsletter features articles on water-related science, policy, and law. Distributed to state agency representatives, faculty, students and interested citizens, it aims to provide current information, statistics, news, and notices related to water resources in Virginia.

  1. Virginia Water Central

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Water Resources Research Center

    2003-01-01

    This newsletter features articles on water-related science, policy, and law. Distributed to state agency representatives, faculty, students and interested citizens, it aims to provide current information, statistics, news, and notices related to water resources in Virginia.

  2. Virginia Water Central

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Water Resources Research Center

    2007-01-01

    This newsletter features articles on water-related science, policy, and law. Distributed to state agency representatives, faculty, students and interested citizens, it aims to provide current information, statistics, news, and notices related to water resources in Virginia.

  3. Virginia Water Central

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Water Resources Research Center

    2010-01-01

    This newsletter features articles on water-related science, policy, and law. Distributed to state agency representatives, faculty, students and interested citizens, it aims to provide current information, statistics, news, and notices related to water resources in Virginia.

  4. Virginia Water Central

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Water Resources Research Center

    2009-01-01

    This newsletter features articles on water-related science, policy, and law. Distributed to state agency representatives, faculty, students and interested citizens, it aims to provide current information, statistics, news, and notices related to water resources in Virginia.

  5. Virginia Water Central

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Water Resources Research Center

    2011-01-01

    This newsletter features articles on water-related science, policy, and law. Distributed to state agency representatives, faculty, students and interested citizens, it aims to provide current information, statistics, news, and notices related to water resources in Virginia.

  6. Virginia Water Central

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Water Resources Research Center

    2008-01-01

    This newsletter features articles on water-related science, policy, and law. Distributed to state agency representatives, faculty, students and interested citizens, it aims to provide current information, statistics, news, and notices related to water resources in Virginia.

  7. Virginia Water Central

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Water Resources Research Center

    2004-01-01

    This newsletter features articles on water-related science, policy, and law. Distributed to state agency representatives, faculty, students and interested citizens, it aims to provide current information, statistics, news, and notices related to water resources in Virginia.

  8. Virginia Water Central

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Water Resources Research Center

    2013-01-01

    This newsletter features articles on water-related science, policy, and law. Distributed to state agency representatives, faculty, students and interested citizens, it aims to provide current information, statistics, news, and notices related to water resources in Virginia.

  9. Virginia Water Central

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Water Resources Research Center

    2002-01-01

    This newsletter features articles on water-related science, policy, and law. Distributed to state agency representatives, faculty, students and interested citizens, it aims to provide current information, statistics, news, and notices related to water resources in Virginia.

  10. Virginia Water Central

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Water Resources Research Center

    2014-01-01

    This newsletter features articles on water-related science, policy, and law. Distributed to state agency representatives, faculty, students and interested citizens, it aims to provide current information, statistics, news, and notices related to water resources in Virginia.

  11. Analyzing water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report on water resources discusses problems in water measurement demand, use, and availability. Also discussed are sensing accuracies, parameter monitoring, and status of forecasting, modeling, and future measurement techniques.

  12. Water Saving for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Ierotheos

    2013-04-01

    The project "Water Saving for Development (WaS4D)" is financed by European Territorial Cooperational Programme, Greece-Italy 2007-2013, and aims at developing issues on water saving related to improvement of individual behaviors and implementing innovative actions and facilities in order to harmonize policies and start concrete actions for a sustainable water management, making also people and stakeholders awake to water as a vital resource, strategic for quality of life and territory competitiveness. Drinkable water saving culture & behavior, limited water resources, water supply optimization, water resources and demand management, water e-service & educational e-tools are the key words of WaS4D. In this frame the project objectives are: • Definition of water need for domestic and other than domestic purposes: regional and territorial hydro-balance; • promotion of locally available resources not currently being used - water recycling or reuse and rainwater harvesting; • scientific data implementation into Informative Territorial System and publication of geo-referred maps into the institutional web sites, to share information for water protection; • participated review of the regulatory framework for the promotion of water-efficient devices and practices by means of the definition of Action Plans, with defined targets up to brief (2015) and medium (2020) term; • building up water e-services, front-office for all the water issues in building agricultural, industrial and touristic sectors, to share information, procedures and instruments for the water management; • creation and publication of a user friendly software, a game, to promote sustainability for houses also addressed to young people; • creation of water info point into physical spaces called "Water House" to promote education, training, events and new advisory services to assist professionals involved in water uses and consumers; • implementation of participatory approach & networking for a

  13. Saving Water Saves Energy

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Hot water use in households, for showers and baths as well as for washing clothes and dishes, is a major driver of household energy consumption. Other household uses of water (such as irrigating landscaping) require additional energy in other sectors to transport and treat the water before use, and to treat wastewater. In California, 19 percent of total electricity for all sectors combined and 32 percent of natural gas consumption is related to water. There is a critical interdependence ...

  14. Save water, save money

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Fairfax County, VA

    1977-01-01

    The United States uses huge quantities of water. In 1976, for example, it was estimated that for each person in the U.S., about 2,000 gallons of water were used daily in homes, offices, farms, and factories. This means that roughly 420 billion gallons of water were pumped, piped, or diverted each day—about 15 percent more than in 1970. By the year 2000, our daily water needs will probably exceed 800 billion gallons.

  15. Water, health, and income

    OpenAIRE

    Hoddinott, John

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of improved water access on health and incomes in the developing world, drawing on contributions from public health, economics, and anthropology. It argues that the "biological" pathways are reasonably well understood, with the effectiveness of interventions being ordered in the following way: improved household sanitation and hygiene practices; improvements in both quality and quantity of water supplies; increased quantity of water consumed and better water qua...

  16. Exploding Water Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Water has the unusual property that it expands on freezing, so that ice has a specific gravity of 0.92 compared to 1.0 for liquid water. The most familiar demonstration of this property is ice cubes floating in a glass of water. A more dramatic demonstration is the ice bomb shown in Fig. 1. Here a cast iron flask is filled with water and tightly…

  17. Ghana : Water and Sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan, P. C.

    2001-01-01

    The First Community Water and Sanitation Project (CWSP-I), 1994-2000, was the World Bank's first stand-alone rural water and sanitation project in Ghana. It was designed to help achieve the objectives of the National Community Water and Sanitation Program by: a) providing basic water and sanitation services to communities that will contribute toward the capital costs and pay the normal ope...

  18. Water Policies of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Istanbulluoglu; Tayfun Kir

    2011-01-01

    Water is one of our most critical resources. Civilization has historically flourished around major waterways. The most important uses of water are; agricultural, industrial and domestic use. This critical resource is under threat around the world. In the next 20 years, the quantity of water available to everyone is predicted to decrease by 30%. 40% of the world\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s inhabitants currently have insufficient fresh water for minimal hygiene. In 2000 more than 2.2 million people died from wate...

  19. Virtual water: Virtuous impact? : the unsteady state of virtual water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, D.; Warner, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    “Virtual water,” water needed for crop production, is now being mainstreamed in the water policy world. Relying on virtual water in the form of food imports is increasingly recommended as good policy for water-scarce areas. Virtual water globalizes discussions on water scarcity, ecological sustainab

  20. PROPERTIES OF SWIMMING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfun KIR

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Swimming waters may be hazardous on human health. So, The physicians who work in the facilities, which include swimming areas, are responsible to prevent risks. To ensure hygiene of swimming water, European Swimming Water Directive offers microbiological, physical, and chemical criteria. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(5.000: 103-104

  1. PROPERTIES OF SWIMMING WATER

    OpenAIRE

    Tayfun KIR; Zakir COBANOÐLU

    2004-01-01

    Swimming waters may be hazardous on human health. So, The physicians who work in the facilities, which include swimming areas, are responsible to prevent risks. To ensure hygiene of swimming water, European Swimming Water Directive offers microbiological, physical, and chemical criteria. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(5.000): 103-104

  2. Growing Water Pearls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner-Bolotin, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Science teachers can find lesson ideas almost anywhere. For example, during a recent visit to a local dollar store, the author stumbled upon a flower vase filled with water pearls, also known as water beads and jelly beans. She bought several of the bags (search the web to find numerous online sources), and soon began experimenting. Water pearls…

  3. Water beheren en communiceren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijklema, S.

    2001-01-01

    Nowadays, information and communication with the public are self-evident for water authorities. Its aim is often formulated as 'creating or strengthening public support' for water management or for the water authorities. A lot of time and money is being spent on this, while the necessity of having p

  4. Quality of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  5. Grey water biodegradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu Ghunmi, L.; Zeeman, G.; Fayyad, M.; Van Lier, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Knowing the biodegradability characteristics of grey water constituents is imperative for a proper design and operation of a biological treatment system of grey water. This study characterizes the different COD fractions of dormitory grey water and investigates the effect of applying different condi

  6. Energy-Water Nexus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, W.

    2010-07-26

    Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) energy and water are interconnected; (2) new energy sources will place increased demands on water supplies; (3) existing energy sources will be subjected to increasing restrictions on their water use; and (4) integrated decision support tools will need to be developed to help policy makers decide which policies and advanced technologies can address these issues.

  7. Electrically excited liquid water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wexler, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential to a healthy and secure world. Developing new technologies which can take full advantage of the unique attributes of water is important for meeting the ever increasing global demand while reducing the production footprint. Water exhibits unexpected departures in more than 70 physi

  8. Irrigation water quality assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing demands on fresh water supplies by municipal and industrial users means decreased fresh water availability for irrigated agriculture in semi arid and arid regions. There is potential for agricultural use of treated wastewaters and low quality waters for irrigation but this will require co...

  9. Water Conservation Resource List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NJEA Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

  10. Virginia Water Central

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Water Resources Research Center

    1999-01-01

    This newsletter features articles on water-related science, policy, and law. Distributed to state agency representatives, faculty, students and interested citizens, it aims to provide current information, statistics, news, and notices related to water resources in Virginia. Special Issue on Water Research

  11. The floating water bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When high voltage is applied to distilled water filled in two glass beakers which are in contact, a stable water connection forms spontaneously, giving the impression of a floating water bridge. A detailed experimental analysis reveals static and dynamic structures as well as heat and mass transfer through this bridge

  12. NASA Water Resources Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, David L.

    2011-01-01

    With increasing population pressure and water usage coupled with climate variability and change, water issues are being reported by numerous groups as the most critical environmental problems facing us in the 21st century. Competitive uses and the prevalence of river basins and aquifers that extend across boundaries engender political tensions between communities, stakeholders and countries. In addition to the numerous water availability issues, water quality related problems are seriously affecting human health and our environment. The potential crises and conflicts especially arise when water is competed among multiple uses. For example, urban areas, environmental and recreational uses, agriculture, and energy production compete for scarce resources, not only in the Western U.S. but throughout much of the U.S. and also in numerous parts of the world. Mitigating these conflicts and meeting water demands and needs requires using existing water resources more efficiently. The NASA Water Resources Program Element works to use NASA products and technology to address these critical water issues. The primary goal of the Water Resources is to facilitate application of NASA Earth science products as a routine use in integrated water resources management for the sustainable use of water. This also includes the extreme events of drought and floods and the adaptation to the impacts from climate change. NASA satellite and Earth system observations of water and related data provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years about the Earth's land surface conditions such as precipitation, snow, soil moisture, water levels, land cover type, vegetation type, and health. NASA Water Resources Program works closely to use NASA and Earth science data with other U.S. government agencies, universities, and non-profit and private sector organizations both domestically and internationally. The NASA Water Resources Program organizes its

  13. Par Pond water balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs

  14. Nitrate in drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schullehner, Jörg; Hansen, Birgitte; Sigsgaard, Torben

    Annual nationwide exposure maps for nitrate in drinking water in Denmark from the 1970s until today will be presented based on the findings in Schullehner & Hansen (2014) and additional work on addressing the issue of private well users and estimating missing data. Drinking water supply in Denmark...... is highly decentralized and fully relying on simple treated groundwater. At the same time, Denmark has an intensive agriculture, making groundwater resources prone to nitrate pollution. Drinking water quality data covering the entire country for over 35 years are registered in the public database Jupiter....... In order to create annual maps of drinking water quality, these data had to be linked to 2,852 water supply areas, which were for the first time digitized, collected in one dataset and connected to the Jupiter database. Analyses of the drinking water quality maps showed that public water supplies...

  15. Wood–water interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang

    2011-01-01

    Predicting the performance of wood for decades ahead is important when using the material for structural purposes. The performance is closely related to the hierarchical material structure of wood and the dependent interaction with water in the structure. Accurately predicting wood performance...... therefore requires an understanding of material structure from molecular to macroscopic level as well as of the impact of water molecules. The objective of this work is to investigate the performance of wood in terms of mechanical response of the material and effect of water. To understand the latter, one...... must first know in which parts of the wood structure, water is located. If parts of the water in wood are held in capillaries in the wood structure, these water molecules interact with the material differently than those held within wood cell walls. In this study, the occurrence of capillary water in...

  16. The Mars water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, D. W.

    1981-01-01

    A model has been developed to test the hypothesis that the observed seasonal and latitudinal distribution of water on Mars is controlled by the sublimation and condensation of surface ice deposits in the Arctic and Antarctic, and the meridional transport of water vapor. Besides reproducing the observed water vapor distribution, the model correctly reproduces the presence of a large permanent ice cap in the Arctic and not in the Antarctic. No permanent ice reservoirs are predicted in the temperate or equatorial zones. Wintertime ice deposits in the Arctic are shown to be the source of the large water vapor abundances observed in the Arctic summertime, and the moderate water vapor abundances in the northern temperate region. Model calculations suggest that a year without dust storms results in very little change in the water vapor distribution. The current water distribution appears to be the equilibrium distribution for present atmospheric conditions.

  17. Dying for water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeboah-afari, A

    1993-01-01

    In Danchira village in Ghana for the last 5 years, women and children rise before dawn every day to fetch water from a tributary or the River Densu, which is 5 miles from the village. Diminished rainfall has dried the village's 3 ponds and bore-hole where the women and children used to fetch water. To exacerbate the water problem, the Ghana Water and Sewerage Corporation no longer comes to fill the huge water tank it brought to Danchira when water scarcity first occurred. The villagers could not afford to pay for the water. A 55-year-old mother of 5, Dede Aryehteye, takes her morning bath at the river. When she has dirty laundry, she cleans it in the river. She returns to the village around 8 am. She uses the next hour to filter the dark water 2 times with a device provided free of charge by the national Guinea Worm Eradication Programme to keep the larvae out of the water. Next she sort the water for 3 uses: drinking, household use, and evening bath. Dede then does other domestic chores. She would rather go to her cassava farm in the early morning when it is cool but has to fetch water instead. When she is not too tired and after finishing domestic chores, she goes to the farm. Water-fetching also exhausts the children and gets them to school rather late. Children make up the majority of the 500 people living in Danchira. Water scarcity forced most of the young villagers to flee to the cities. For example, Dede's 4 older children now live in Accra. The water scarcity keeps the farmers from growing maize, cassava, and vegetables.

  18. Waste water discharges into natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aqueous discharges into natural waters is a very technical solution expecially for surface buoyant discharges. It is not only convenient to limit the concentration levels of the discharges, but also to improve the turbolent processes that diluite the discharge. Mostly these processes depend by some geometric parameters of the discharge and by some physical parameters of the effluent and of the receiving water body. An appropriate choice of some parameters, using also suitable mathematical models, allows to design discharges with a very high dilution; so the decreasing of the pollutant levels is improved and the environmental impact can be reduced versus a not diluted effluent. The simulations of a mathematical model, here described, prove that in some circumstances, expecially in case of discharges of fresh water into saline water bodies with a low velocity of the current, the dilution is poor; the effluent can be trapped in a narrow water surface layer where the pollutant concentrations remain high. also far away from the discharge point

  19. Water Recycling in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Young

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth and, more importantly, experiences the most variable rainfall of all the continents on our planet. The vast majority of Australians live in large cities on the coast. Because wastewater treatments plants were all located near the coast, it was thought that large scale recycling would be problematic given the cost of infrastructure and pumping required to establish recycled water schemes. This all changed when Australia experienced a decade of record low rainfall and water utilities were given aggressive targets to increase the volume of water recycled. This resulted in recycled water being accepted as a legitimate source of water for non-drinking purposes in a diversified portfolio of water sources to mitigate climate risk. To ensure community support for recycled water, Australia lead the world in developing national guidelines for the various uses of recycled water to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. Australia now provides a great case study of the developments in maximizing water recycling opportunities from policy, regulatory and technological perspectives. This paper explores the evolution in thinking and how approaches to wastewater reuse has changed over the past 40 years from an effluent disposal issue to one of recognizing wastewater as a legitimate and valuable resource. Despite recycled water being a popular choice and being broadly embraced, the concept of indirect potable reuse schemes have lacked community and political support across Australia to date.

  20. Water en Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J.E.M. van Dam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Water and Dry LandWater management has always been a major concern. Dutch pragmatism certainly has roots in water management, but it is also rooted in the culture of meetings of the Dutch cities and in the attitude of the peasant who produced for the market very early on. Water control reached its height when we introduced reinforced concrete for hydraulic engineering. Around 1970, the ecological turning point caused a change in focus. Water managers became concerned about the quality of water, the creation of ‘new nature’ and the adaptation to water. In this way, we did not discard the assets of the Industrial Revolution, but rather put them into a new framework: more green in the blue. Water is by definition international. The Netherlands co-parented the international cooperation of the Rhine countries. Is this history part of our national consciousness? Can the water history of the South- and Eastern Netherlands also join in the national water history of the twentieth century?

  1. Energy and water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents data and other information for those who desire an understanding of the relationship between water and energy development. The book is not a tract for a grand plan. It does not present solutions. Many of the issues, especially regarding conflict over water allocations and use, are controlled and reconciled at the state level. This report draws together some of the physical and institutional data useful for identifying and understanding water issues which rise in regard to the various aspects of energy development. Three basic water-energy areas are considered in this report: water quality, water supply, and their institutional framework. Water consumption by energy was three percent of the nation's total consumption in 1975, not a large proportion. It is projected to increase to six percent by 2000. Water consumption rates by the energy technologies addressed in this document are tabulated. Water pollutant loadings expected from these technologies are summarized. Finally, a summary of water-related legislation which have particular ramifications in regard to the production of energy is presented

  2. Water demand and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major international conferences have dealt with the growing concern over the ever increasing use of limited fresh water resources on the planet, including the United Nations Water Conference held in Mar del Plata (1977), the Dublin Conference (1992) and the UN Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro (1992). In April 1997, the UN Commission on Sustainable Development was presented with a report on a Comprehensive Assessment of the Freshwater Resources of the World, in which all UN agencies concerned with water participated. Matching the ever growing demands with the limited supply of a finite resource has led to tremendous stress on natural fresh water. This starts with low water stress, when about 10% of the available fresh water is being used. Use of more than 40% of the available water indicates serious scarcity, and usually increasing dependence on desalination and overexploitation of aquifers. On the basis of population increase projections for the year 2025, and extrapolating current trends, as much as two-thirds of the world's population may be living in moderate or high water stress situations. With increasing water stress and scarcity, drastic changes in the way water business is being done will have to be introduced, particularly in low income countries. Agricultural practices, in particular, have to be introduced that reduce losses. Improved strategies have to make use of rigorously enforced demand management, better resource management, waste water reuse to the extent possible, and finally desalination of sea water and brackish groundwaters. Some of the current water intensive patterns of development may even have to be abandoned. (author)

  3. Study of Water Jet Impulse in Water-Jet Looms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ke-rang; MA Wei-wei; CHEN Ming

    2005-01-01

    The water jet impulse is brought forward to study the traction force of the water jet to the flying weft in water-jet looms. The distribution of the water jet impulse in the shed is tested by a sensor, and the influence of water jet parameters on the water jet impulse is analyzed.

  4. What's in Your Water? An Educator's Guide to Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constabile, Kerry, Comp.; Craig, Heidi, Comp.; O'Laughlin, Laura, Comp.; Reiss, Anne Bei, Comp.; Spencer, Liz, Comp.

    This guide provides basic information on the Clean Water Act, watersheds, and testing for water quality, and presents four science lesson plans on water quality. Activities include: (1) "Introduction to Water Quality"; (2) "Chemical Water Quality Testing"; (3) "Biological Water Quality Testing"; and (4) "What Can We Do?" (YDS)

  5. Quantifying Water Stress Using Total Water Volumes and GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, A. S.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Druffel-Rodriguez, R.

    2011-12-01

    Water will follow oil as the next critical resource leading to unrest and uprisings globally. To better manage this threat, an improved understanding of the distribution of water stress is required today. This study builds upon previous efforts to characterize water stress by improving both the quantification of human water use and the definition of water availability. Current statistics on human water use are often outdated or inaccurately reported nationally, especially for groundwater. This study improves these estimates by defining human water use in two ways. First, we use NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to isolate the anthropogenic signal in water storage anomalies, which we equate to water use. Second, we quantify an ideal water demand by using average water requirements for the domestic, industrial, and agricultural water use sectors. Water availability has traditionally been limited to "renewable" water, which ignores large, stored water sources that humans use. We compare water stress estimates derived using either renewable water or the total volume of water globally. We use the best-available data to quantify total aquifer and surface water volumes, as compared to groundwater recharge and surface water runoff from land-surface models. The work presented here should provide a more realistic image of water stress by explicitly quantifying groundwater, defining water availability as total water supply, and using GRACE to more accurately quantify water use.

  6. Water transport in brain:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacAulay, Nanna; Hamann, Steffan; Zeuthen, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    It is generally accepted that cotransporters transport water in addition to their normal substrates, although the precise mechanism is debated; both active and passive modes of transport have been suggested. The magnitude of the water flux mediated by cotransporters may well be significant: both...... the number of cotransporters per cell and the unit water permeability are high. For example, the Na(+)-glutamate cotransporter (EAAT1) has a unit water permeability one tenth of that of aquaporin (AQP) 1. Cotransporters are widely distributed in the brain and participate in several vital functions: inorganic......(+)-lactate cotransporters. We have previously determined water transport capacities for these cotransporters in model systems (Xenopus oocytes, cell cultures, and in vitro preparations), and will discuss their role in water homeostasis of the astroglial cell under both normo- and pathophysiologal situations. Astroglia...

  7. Great Zimbabwe's water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pikirayi, Innocent; Sulas, Federica; Musindo, Tendai Treddah;

    2016-01-01

    in the region's well-watered granite hills and valleys, and culminating in a vast urban and trading society. Later, c.1550 AD, it is argued, drying climate, land overexploitation, and changing regional trading patterns would lead to the decline of Great Zimbabwe. A review of this model is necessary since Great...... Zimbabwe and communities living around it survive in a region constantly threatened by water crises. However, we still know very little on the forms and uses of water and how these have influenced its development and demise. This article offers a multilayered review of available information on water......, including new records on environmental sequences, modern water sources, and provisioning models from in and around Great Zimbabwe. The integration of both old and new datasets allows us to follow the history of people-water interaction from early times to the present. We argue that understanding...

  8. Arsenic removal from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robert C.; Anderson, D. Richard

    2007-07-24

    Methods for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical methods for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A method for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a method for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  9. Water and wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, Peter H.

    In “Challenging the Rhetoric of Water Wars” (Eos, In Brief, September 5, 2000, p. 410) Randy Showstack reported on the speech given by Minister Kader Asmal upon receiving the 2000 Stockholm Water Prize. This prize was well deserved for the tremendous progress South Africa has made under Minister Asmal's leadership in addressing basic water needs after apartheid. Indeed, I was one of his nominators for this prize and am an ardent fan of his bold programs. But his remarks about water-related conflicts need to be qualified. In his speech, Minister Asmal noted that water scarcity is a “crisis of biblical proportion,” but also suggested “there is not a shred of evidence” to back up arguments that there are water “wars.”

  10. Water's Hydrogen Bond Strength

    CERN Document Server

    Chaplin, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Water is necessary both for the evolution of life and its continuance. It possesses particular properties that cannot be found in other materials and that are required for life-giving processes. These properties are brought about by the hydrogen bonded environment particularly evident in liquid water. Each liquid water molecule is involved in about four hydrogen bonds with strengths considerably less than covalent bonds but considerably greater than the natural thermal energy. These hydrogen bonds are roughly tetrahedrally arranged such that when strongly formed the local clustering expands, decreasing the density. Such low density structuring naturally occurs at low and supercooled temperatures and gives rise to many physical and chemical properties that evidence the particular uniqueness of liquid water. If aqueous hydrogen bonds were actually somewhat stronger then water would behave similar to a glass, whereas if they were weaker then water would be a gas and only exist as a liquid at sub-zero temperature...

  11. Stratospheric water vapor feedback

    OpenAIRE

    A. E. Dessler; Schoeberl, M. R.; Wang, T.; S. M. Davis; K. H. Rosenlof

    2013-01-01

    We show observational evidence for a stratospheric water vapor feedback—a warmer climate increases stratospheric water vapor, and because stratospheric water vapor is itself a greenhouse gas, this leads to further warming. An estimate of its magnitude from a climate model yields a value of +0.3 W/(m2⋅K), suggesting that this feedback plays an important role in our climate system.

  12. Nickel in tap water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Nielsen, G D; Flyvholm, Morten;

    1983-01-01

    Nickel analyses of tap water from several sources in Copenhagen gave up to 490 X 10(-6) g X 1(-1) in the first 250 ml portions. Hot water gave higher values than cold water. After flushing for 5 min, low values were found. Considerable variation from time to time and from tap to tap was found....... Drinking of only the first portion in the morning might have an influence on nickel hand eczema....

  13. Water beheren en communiceren

    OpenAIRE

    Lijklema, S.

    2001-01-01

    Nowadays, information and communication with the public are self-evident for water authorities. Its aim is often formulated as 'creating or strengthening public support' for water management or for the water authorities. A lot of time and money is being spent on this, while the necessity of having public support is not always made clear. The problem this thesis adresses is: "Why is public support necessary, how does public support develop, and what factors influence public support?".Central q...

  14. Viruses and drinking water

    OpenAIRE

    Cartwright, R Y

    1997-01-01

    There is no evidence to indicate that there is a risk of acquiring a virus infection through the consumption of properly treated drinking water, provided the integrity of the distribution system is maintained and there is no post-treatment contamination. The consumption of inadequately treated, untreated or post-treatment contaminated water is, however, associated with a risk of hepatitis A, hepatitis E and viral gastroenteritis. The use of the standard bacterial indicators for water monitori...

  15. Electrically excited liquid water

    OpenAIRE

    A.D. Wexler

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential to a healthy and secure world. Developing new technologies which can take full advantage of the unique attributes of water is important for meeting the ever increasing global demand while reducing the production footprint. Water exhibits unexpected departures in more than 70 physical and chemical properties compared to other molecular species of similar chemical composition. The principal cause for this behavior is ascribed to the large number of hydrogen bonds which form b...

  16. Water and the Mafa

    OpenAIRE

    Kosack, G.

    1997-01-01

    The Mafa are, with more than a 100,000 individuals, the largest ethnic group in the Mandara mountains. They live mainly along the northern inner slopes, where they cultivate their terraced fields, mainly with guinea corn. Water is an essential good for the Mafa. This is reflected in their conception of the world, the spirit world as well as in the world of traditional political power. Water has a very strong spiritual dimension which reflects its crucial economic importance. The water spirits...

  17. Integrated Solar Water Heater

    OpenAIRE

    Yassien, Husam Naufal Saleh

    2012-01-01

    ABSTARCT: Nowadays, water heating by using the solar energy has been spread all over the world. The studies on solar water heating system were stimulated the researchers due to the scarcity of natural energy resources, like fossil fuel and natural gas as well as the rising and rapidly fluctuating prices for these resources. The purpose of this study is to design and manufacture a new storage domestic electric water heater with solar collector in North Cyprus. In this project, the normal cyli...

  18. Swimming hall water treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Valtonen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to see how ultraviolet light-treatment can improve water disinfection at Pori central swimming hall. The swimming hall has already an option for ultraviolet disinfection system, but there hasn’t been any immediate need for it to be utilized in combination with more conventional water treatment methods. Nevertheless, growing visitor numbers are already straining the swimming hall’s water treatment systems and some improvement was h...

  19. Purified water quality study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinka, H.; Jackowski, P.

    2000-04-03

    Argonne National Laboratory (HEP) is examining the use of purified water for the detection medium in cosmic ray sensors. These sensors are to be deployed in a remote location in Argentina. The purpose of this study is to provide information and preliminary analysis of available water treatment options and associated costs. This information, along with the technical requirements of the sensors, will allow the project team to determine the required water quality to meet the overall project goals.

  20. Methodology for Evaluating Water Losses

    OpenAIRE

    Mindaugas Rimeika; Anželika Jurkienė

    2013-01-01

    A reduction in water losses is significant for improving the efficiency of water supply systems and sustainable water use. The major part of water supply companies does not have enough experience in reducing water losses; therefore, a lack of information about practically applied measures for reducing water losses can be noticed. The article presents a method for determining water losses implemented under real conditions. The conducted research defines minimum night-time water consumption for...

  1. Lithium content in potable water, surface water, ground water, and mineral water on the territory of Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Kostik; Biljana Bauer; Zoran Kavrakovski

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine lithium concentration in potable water, surface water, ground, and mineral water on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. Water samples were collected from water bodies such as multiple public water supply systems located in 13 cities, wells boreholes located in 12 areas, lakes and rivers located in three different areas. Determination of lithium concentration in potable water, surface water was performed by the technique of inductively coupl...

  2. Ghana - Water and Sanitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — The Ghana Community Services Activity was designed to complement the Agriculture Project by providing educational, water and sanitation and rural electrification...

  3. Lithium mineral waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Constantin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological surveys showed that Romania basement contains a variety of balneary resources located within on the surface crust. Mineral waters are spread over more than 20% of the country at different depths, with a wide range of physical, chemical and therapeutic properties depending on their genesis.Balneary resources are represented mainly by therapeutic minerals that the physicochemical properties answer the needs of medical and prophylactic maintenance, enhancement and restoration of health, work capacity and physical and mental comfort of the individual.The surface waters arising from a natural source or updated by drilling and whose physical and chemical characteristics that may exert dynamic pharmaco-therapeutic are considered therapeutic mineral waters. Mineral waters are waters that have a variable content of salts, gas, minerals, radioactive elements, which gives them therapeutic properties. In the past, name of mineral water was attributed to all shallow or groundwater mineral water that could be used for therapeutic purposes. In recent years, mineral water that could be used for therapeutic purposes have been given the name of curative water.Lithium arouses a great scientific interest because, although his structure is so simple, easy to analyze, with chemical and physical properties well established the myriad of the effects on biological systems by influencing many cellular processes and molecular and the mechanism of action are still unclear generates a mystery that modern science attempting to decipher.

  4. Global water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Franklin; Goodman, Steven J.; Christy, John R.; Fitzjarrald, Daniel E.; Chou, Shi-Hung; Crosson, William; Wang, Shouping; Ramirez, Jorge

    1993-01-01

    This research is the MSFC component of a joint MSFC/Pennsylvania State University Eos Interdisciplinary Investigation on the global water cycle extension across the earth sciences. The primary long-term objective of this investigation is to determine the scope and interactions of the global water cycle with all components of the Earth system and to understand how it stimulates and regulates change on both global and regional scales. Significant accomplishments in the past year are presented and include the following: (1) water vapor variability; (2) multi-phase water analysis; (3) global modeling; and (4) optimal precipitation and stream flow analysis and hydrologic processes.

  5. Water and Tie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    小诗

    1999-01-01

    A tourist got separated from his tour group in the Sahara. He begged apassing nomad (游牧部落的人) for water." Sorry," said the tribesman (部落男子), "I have no water, but I do have some lovely neckties I’ll sell you." "Youmust be crazy," the tourist mumbled (喃喃而语). Nearly dead from thirst, hespied (发现) another man." Water!" the tourist gasped. "Please, give mewater. ""I have no water," came the reply, "only these handsome ties, which Iwill happily sell you."

  6. Energy—Water Interdependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, E. H.; Tindall, J. A.; Campbell, A. A.

    2010-12-01

    ABSTRACT Energy and water security and sustainability have become a national and global priority. The continued security and economic health of any country depends on a sustainable supply of both energy and water because these two critical natural resources are inexorably linked. The production of energy requires large volumes of water while the treatment and distribution of water is equally dependent upon readily available, low-cost energy. In the U.S. and other countries, irrigated agriculture and thermoelectric generation withdrawals of fresh water are approximately equal however; they are growing due to increasing population. Within the U.S. electricity production requires about 190,000 million gallons of freshwater per day, accounting for over 40 percent of all daily freshwater withdrawals in the U.S. The indirect use of water (home lighting and electric appliances) is approximately equal to its direct use (watering lawns and taking showers). Current trends of water use and availability suggest that meeting future water and energy demands to support continued economic global development will require improved utilization and management of both energy and water resources. Primary concerns include: (1) Increasing populations require more food and energy; this may cause direct competition between the two largest water users for limited water resources (energy and agriculture); (2) Population growth and economic expansion projections indicate the U.S. alone will require an additional 393,000 MW of new generating capacity (equivalent to about 1,000 new 400 MW plants) by the year 2020 - other countries particularly India and China have similar trends; and (3) Potential environmental and ecological restrictions on the use of water for power generation such as the restrictions on cooling water withdrawals and cooling water use for nuclear power plants to protect aquatic species and habitat and the environment may reduce usable supplies. The U.S. and other Nation

  7. Light water reactor safety

    CERN Document Server

    Pershagen, B

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the principles and practices of reactor safety as applied to the design, regulation and operation of light water reactors, combining a historical approach with an up-to-date account of the safety, technology and operating experience of both pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. The introductory chapters set out the basic facts upon which the safety of light water reactors depend. The central section is devoted to the methods and results of safety analysis. The accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl are reviewed and their implications for light wate

  8. Water - an inexhaustible resource?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Divenah, C.; Esperou, E.

    2012-04-01

    We have chosen to present the topic "Water", by illustrating problems that will give better opportunities for interdisciplinary work between Natural Science (Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Geology) teachers at first, but also English teachers and maybe others. Water is considered in general, in all its shapes and states. The question is not only about drinking water, but we would like to demonstrate that water can both be a fragile and short-lived resource in some ways, and an unlimited energy resource in others. Water exists on Earth in three states. It participates in a large number of chemical and physical processes (dissolution, dilution, biogeochemical cycles, repartition of heat in the oceans and the atmosphere, etc.), helping to maintain the homeostasis of the entire planet. It is linked to living beings, for which water is the major compound. The living beings essentially organized themselves into or around water, and this fact is also valid for human kind (energy, drinking, trade…). Water can also be a destroying agent for living beings (tsunamis, mud flows, collapse of electrical dams, pollution...) and for the solid earth (erosion, dissolution, fusion). I) Water, an essential resource for the human kind After having highlighted the disparities and geopolitical problems, the pupils will study the chemistry of water with its components and their origins (isotopes, water trip). Then the ways to make it drinkable will be presented (filtration, decantation, iceberg carrying…) II) From the origin of water... We could manage an activity where different groups put several hypotheses to the test, with the goal to understand the origin(s?) of water on Earth. Example: Isotopic signature of water showing its extraterrestrial origin.. Once done, we'll try to determine the origin of drinking water, as a fossil resource. Another use of isotopes will allow them to evaluate the drinking water age, to realize how precious it can be. III) Water as a sustainable energy

  9. Water footprint as a tool for integrated water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaya, Maite; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2010-05-01

    In a context where water resources are unevenly distributed and, in some regions precipitation and drought conditions are increasing, enhanced water management is a major challenge to final consumers, businesses, water resource users, water managers and policymakers in general. By linking a large range of sectors and issues, virtual water trade and water footprint analyses provide an appropriate framework to find potential solutions and contribute to a better management of water resources. The water footprint is an indicator of freshwater use that looks not only at direct water use of a consumer or producer, but also at the indirect water use. The water footprint of a product is the volume of freshwater used to produce the product, measured over the full supply chain. It is a multi-dimensional indicator, showing water consumption volumes by source and polluted volumes by type of pollution; all components of a total water footprint are specified geographically and temporally. The water footprint breaks down into three components: the blue (volume of freshwater evaporated from surface or groundwater systems), green (water volume evaporated from rainwater stored in the soil as soil moisture) and grey water footprint (the volume of polluted water associated with the production of goods and services). Closely linked to the concept of water footprint is that of virtual water trade, which represents the amount of water embedded in traded products. Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. Virtual water trade between nations and even continents could thus be used as an instrument to improve global water use efficiency and to achieve water security in water-poor regions of the world. The virtual water trade

  10. A Sense of Water. Water in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernathy-Tabor, Michelle

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  11. WaterWatch -- Current Water Resources Conditions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — WaterWatch (http://waterwatch.usgs.gov) is a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) World Wide Web site that displays maps, graphs, and tables describing real-time, recent,...

  12. The impact of Saharan dust on the particulate export in the water column of the North Western Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ternon

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric deposition and of sinking particles at 200 m depth, were performed in the Ligurian Sea (North-Western Mediterranean between 2003 and 2007 along with the historical time records of phytoplanktonic activity from satellite images. Atmospheric deposition of Saharan dust particles was very irregular and confirmed the importance of sporadic high magnitude events over the annual average (11.4 g m−2 yr−1 for the 4 yr. The average marine total mass flux was 31 g m−2 yr−1, the larger fraction being the lithogenic one (~37%. The marine total mass flux displayed a seasonal pattern with a maximum in winter occurring before the onset of the spring bloom. The highest POC fluxes did not occur during the spring bloom nor could they be related to any noticeable increase in the surface phytoplanktonic activity. Over the 4 yr of the study, the strongest POC fluxes were concomitant with large increases of the lithogenic marine flux, which had originated from either recent Saharan fallout events (February 2004, August 2005, or from ''old'' Saharan dust ''stored'' in the upper water column layer (March 2003, February 2005, or alternatively from lithogenic material originating from Ligurian riverine flooding (December 2003, Arno, Roya and Var rivers. These ''lithogenic events'' are believed to result from a combination of physical processes (winter mixing, the aggregation of faecal pellets resulting from zooplankton activity, and also organic-mineral aggregation inducing a ballast effect. However, such an event also occurred in August 2005 without any physical mixing, and was attributed to Saharan dust-induced biological enhancement. POC export provoked by the simultaneous occurrence of winter mixing and an extreme dust event (February 2004, 22 g m−2 deposition was shown to represent 50% of the total annual POC export at 200 m in the water column that year, as

  13. Efficient Water Management in Water Cooled Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property.' The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in Member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia, and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. Water scarcity is becoming one of the most pressing crises affecting the planet. A reliable supply of water and energy is an important prerequisite for sustainable development. A large number of nuclear power reactors are being planned in many developing countries to address these countries' increasing energy demands and their limited fossil resources. New construction is expected in the USA, Europe and Asia, as well. Reducing water use and consumption by nuclear power plants is likely to help developing countries in introducing nuclear power into their energy supply mix. A large

  14. रोग्जनक सूक्ष्मजीवों का गिट्टी पानी व्दारा स्थानांतरण

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, L.; Gaonkar, C.C.; Vengurlekar, A.A.; Nayak, S.; Ranjeet, E.

    RR (2000) Global spread of microorganisms by ships. Nature 408:49-50 9.� Subba Rao DV, Sprules WG, Locke , Carlton JT (1994) Exotic phytoplankton from ships' ballast waters: risk of potential spread to mariculture sites on Canada's East...

  15. 33 CFR 151.75 - Grinders or comminuters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Garbage Pollution and Sewage § 151.75 Grinders...

  16. 33 CFR 151.04 - Penalties for violation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships General § 151.04 Penalties for violation. (a) A person...

  17. 33 CFR 151.25 - Oil Record Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Oil Pollution § 151.25 Oil Record Book. (a) Each oil...

  18. 33 CFR 151.57 - Waste management plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Garbage Pollution and Sewage § 151.57 Waste...

  19. 33 CFR 151.28 - Plan review and revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Oil Pollution § 151.28 Plan review and revision. (a)...

  20. 16 CFR 305.4 - Prohibited acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conditioners, pulse combustion and condensing furnaces, fluorescent lamp ballasts, showerheads, faucets, water... central air conditioner or any pulse combustion or condensing furnace if its manufacture was completed... printed material pertaining to any central air conditioners or pulse combustion or condensing...

  1. Water Label to Improve Water Billing in Spanish Households

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Castillo-Martinez; Alberto Gutierrez-Escolar; Jose-Maria Gutierrez-Martinez; Jose M. Gomez-Pulido; Eva Garcia-Lopez

    2014-01-01

    A significant decrease in water consumption has been achieved in recent years thanks to different campaigns run by different institutions in Spain. However, most citizens do not have a very clear idea about whether or not they are efficiently using water. To solve this situation, this paper aims is to develop two water labels in order to improve the current water billing. These water labels evaluate the total water consumption and the domestic hot water consumption. To make the tags, several ...

  2. Simulating Residential Water Demand and Water Pricing Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Phoebe Koundouri; Mavra Stithou; Philippos Melissourgos

    2013-01-01

    This chapter aims to simulate residential water demand in order to explore the importance of water for residential use. In addition, data on the water cost of supplying water in the residents of Asopos area from local distributors were collected. In order to capture the importance of water use specific parameters are examined and are used as indexes of water use. Some of these indexes are the population of the catchment, the number of households connected to the public water distribution syst...

  3. Water Scarcity Footprints by Considering the Differences in Water Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Shinjiro Yano; Naota Hanasaki; Norihiro Itsubo; Taikan Oki

    2015-01-01

    Water resources have uneven distributions over time, space, and source; thus, potential impacts related to water use should be evaluated by determining the differences in water resources rather than by simply summing water use. We propose a model for weighting renewable water resources and present a case study assessing water scarcity footprints as indicators of the potential impacts of water use based on a life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). We assumed that the potential impact of a unit am...

  4. Assessment of Drinking Water Quality from Bottled Water Coolers.

    OpenAIRE

    Marzieh Farhadkhani; Mahnaz Nikaeen; Behrouz Akbari Adergani; Maryam Hatamzadeh; Bibi Fatemeh Nabavi; Akbar Hassanzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Drinking water quality can be deteriorated by microbial and toxic chemicals during transport, storage and handling before using by the consumer. This study was conducted to evaluate the microbial and physicochemical quality of drinking water from bottled water coolers. Methods A total of 64 water samples, over a 5-month period in 2012-2013, were collected from free standing bottled water coolers and water taps in Isfahan. Water samples were analyzed for heterotrophic plate...

  5. Canadian heavy water production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews Canadian experience in the production of heavy water, presents a long-term supply projection, relates this projection to the anticipated long-term electrical energy demand, and highlights principal areas for further improvement that form the bulk of our research and development program on heavy water processes

  6. The Other Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution, water pollution not released at one specific identifiable point, now accounts for 50 percent of the nation's water pollution problem. Runoff is the primary culprit and includes the following sources: agriculture, mining, hydrologic modifications, and urban runoff. Economics, legislation, practices, and management of this…

  7. Water Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; And Others

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on water pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of water pollution and involves students in processes of…

  8. Ground Water Awareness

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-03-06

    Protecting our water resources from contamination is a major concern. This podcast emphasizes the importance of private well maintenance and water testing.  Created: 3/6/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH); ATSDR; Division of Parasitic Diseases; Division of Foodborne, Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases; and the Office of Global Health.   Date Released: 3/10/2008.

  9. Water Reclamation and Reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of water reclamation and reuse. This review covers: (1) water resources planning; (2) agriculture and irrigation; (3) ground recharge; (4) industrial reuse; (5) health considerations; and (6) technology developments. A list of 217 references is also presented. (HM)

  10. Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Better hygiene and access to drinking water and sanitation will accelerate progress toward two millennium development goals (MDGs): 'reduce under-five child mortality rate by 2/3 between 1990 and 2015' and "by 2015 halve the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation". Meeting the latter goal will require infrastructure investments of about ...

  11. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  12. Water at Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björneholm, Olle; Hansen, Martin Hangaard; Hodgson, Andrew;

    2016-01-01

    The interfaces of neat water and aqueous solutions play a prominent role in many technological processes and in the environment. Examples of aqueous interfaces are ultrathin water films that cover most hydrophilic surfaces under ambient relative humidities, the liquid/solid interface which drives...

  13. Water changed the cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas...

  14. Deficiencies in Water Conservancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Recent droughts and floods show the fragility of China’s water conservancy capabilities Be it extreme flooding or severe droughts,China has yet to find a stable middle ground concerning its water supply.These disasters,primarily in the Yangtze

  15. Water for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Human civilization has always rested on access to water, and, more specifically, on its utilization. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the critical linkages between water and energy and the impact on both of climate change. It identifies areas of opportunity where investment and new regulations are needed, to ensure sustainable global development.

  16. Water oxidation: Intermediate identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Alexander J.

    2016-08-01

    The slow kinetics of light-driven water oxidation on haematite is an important factor limiting the material's efficiency. Now, an intermediate of the water-splitting reaction has been identified offering hope that the full mechanism will soon be resolved.

  17. Values of water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, N.; Dicke, W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Water is essential for human life. However, due to its scarcity, the management of water is a topic of great concern. Inadequate management may lead to famines, food insecurity, ecological destruction, and resource-based conflicts, and eventually to human suffering and the loss of millions of human

  18. Drinking Water and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    In response to a provision of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 which called for a study that would serve as a scientific basis for revising the primary drinking water regulations that were promulgated under the Act, a study of the scientific literature was undertaken in order to assess the implications for human health of the constituents of…

  19. Supramolecular Chemistry in Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oshovsky, Gennady V.; Reinhoudt, David N.; Verboom, Willem

    2007-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry in water is a constantly growing research area because noncovalent interactions in aqueous media are important for obtaining a better understanding and control of the major processes in nature. This Review offers an overview of recent advances in the area of water-soluble sy

  20. Water Treatment Technology - Springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on springs provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on spring basin construction and spring protection. For each competency, student…