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Sample records for ballast tanks

  1. Inerting ballast tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, Gabriel L.; Bronneberg, Jos [SBM Offshore, AA Schiedam (Netherlands); Barros, Maria A.S.D. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This report expands upon the work conducted by SBM Offshore to develop a tank preservation treatment, which is intended to achieve a service life of 30 years. This work focuses on the corrosion problems, in the ballast tanks, based on new built hulls, both for the Gas Exploration Market, the FLNG - Floating Liquefied Natural Gas, and for the Oil Exploration market - FPSO's - Floating Production Storage and offloading Units. Herein, the corrosion rate input comes from the various references related to the process of nitrogen injection, which is expected to extend the vessel's time life. The essential elements of this solution comprise the deoxygenation process, corrosion models, coating effects, tests from laboratory, shipboard tests, corrosion institutes and regulations applicable to the operation. The best corrosion protection system for ballast tanks area combines a coating system and an inert gas system. The condition of the tanks will be dependent upon the level of protection applied to the steel structure, including, but not limited to coating, cathodic protection, etc. There is a need for products which extend the life time. It is not sufficient, only have good theoretical base for the corrosion and an excellent treatment system. In addition, the design of the ships structure must also eliminate the presence of local stress concentrations which can result in fatigue cracking and rupture of the protective coating barrier starting the corrosion. As a direct result of this, more problems in corrosion can be mitigated, vessels can have a better corrosion performance with less maintenance and repairs to coating systems in ballast tanks. Furthermore ships will be positively impacted operationally due to less frequent dry docking. There is a huge potential in the application of inert gas to combat the corrosion rate inside the ballast tanks, one of the most corrosive environments on earth. This application can have a direct impact on vessel structure

  2. Microbiologically influenced corrosion in ship ballast tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Heyer, A.

    2013-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is known to be a dangerous process in ship tanks due to its rapid and yet unpredictable occurrence, leading to extremely fast local corrosion, possibly jeopardizing the structural integrity, in a relatively short time. This project focuses on a fundamental understanding of MIC processes in ship ballast tanks (SBTs) as a basis for the development of effective counterstrategies that offer an appropriate protection against MIC attack. Local conditions...

  3. Inspection and in situ impedance measurements for ballast water tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Buter, S.; Ferrari, G.; Prent, C.S.W.

    2012-01-01

    The application of coatings in ballast water tanks is critical for the safety of cargo ships. International Maritime Organization (IMO) has delivered a standard for the protection of water ballast tanks in which new built cargo vessels have to comply with {resolution MSC.215(82)}. In case the proced

  4. Study on alternative approaches to corrosion protection of ballast tanks using an economic model

    OpenAIRE

    De Baere, Kris; Verstraelen, Helen; Rigo, Philippe; Van Passel, Steven; Lenaerts, Silvia; Potters, Geert

    2013-01-01

    One of the most relevant problems in ship construction and maintenance nowadays is corrosion in ballast tanks of modern merchant vessels. On the one hand, there is a general consensus that the economic lifespan of such a vessel depends, to a large degree, upon the corrosion state of its ballast tanks, while on the other hand these ballast tanks, located between the outer hull and the cargo tanks, makes routine inspection and maintenance a difficult task. Today, ship's ballast tanks are usuall...

  5. Macroalgal survival in ballast water tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite a large amount of research into invasive species and their introductions, there have been no studies focused on macroalgal transport in ballast water. To address this, we collected replicate samples of ballast water from 12 ships in two Mediterranean harbours (Naples and Salerno). Filtered samples were kept in culture for a month at Mediterranean mean conditions (18 deg. C, 12:12 h LD, 60 μmol photons m-2 s-1). Fifteen macroalgal taxa were cultured and differed according to the geographic origin of the ballast water. Most of the cultured algae were widely distributed species (e.g. Ulva spp. and Acinetospora-phase). However, Ulva ohnoi Hiraoka and Shimada, described from Japan, was hitherto unknown in the Mediterranean Sea. We show for the first time that ballast water can be an important vector for the transport of microscopic stages of macroalgae and that this can be a vector for the introduction of alien species

  6. Macroalgal survival in ballast water tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagella, Maria Monia [Benthic Ecology Laboratory, Stazione Zoologica A. Dohrn, P.ta S.Pietro, 80077, Ischia, Naples (Italy)], E-mail: flagella@szn.it; Verlaque, Marc [UMR 6540 DIMAR, COM, Universite de la Mediterranee, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Soria, Alessio; Buia, Maria Cristina [Benthic Ecology Laboratory, Stazione Zoologica A. Dohrn, P.ta S.Pietro, 80077, Ischia, Naples (Italy)

    2007-09-15

    Despite a large amount of research into invasive species and their introductions, there have been no studies focused on macroalgal transport in ballast water. To address this, we collected replicate samples of ballast water from 12 ships in two Mediterranean harbours (Naples and Salerno). Filtered samples were kept in culture for a month at Mediterranean mean conditions (18 deg. C, 12:12 h LD, 60 {mu}mol photons m{sup -2} s{sup -1}). Fifteen macroalgal taxa were cultured and differed according to the geographic origin of the ballast water. Most of the cultured algae were widely distributed species (e.g. Ulva spp. and Acinetospora-phase). However, Ulva ohnoi Hiraoka and Shimada, described from Japan, was hitherto unknown in the Mediterranean Sea. We show for the first time that ballast water can be an important vector for the transport of microscopic stages of macroalgae and that this can be a vector for the introduction of alien species.

  7. Regrowth in ship's ballast water tanks: Think again!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Carolina; Pollet, Bruno G

    2016-08-15

    With the imminent ratification of the International Maritime Organisation's Ballast Water Management Convention, ship owners and operators will have to choose among a myriad of different Ballast Water Treatment Systems (BWTS) and technologies to comply with established discharge standards. However, it has come to our attention that decision-makers seem to be unaware of the problem of regrowth occurring in ballast water tanks after treatment. Furthermore, the information available on the subject in the literature is surprisingly and unfortunately very limited. Herein we summarise previous research findings that suggest that regrowth of bacteria and phytoplankton could occur 18h to 7days and 4 to 20days after treatment, respectively. By highlighting the problem of regrowth, we would like to encourage scientists and engineers to further investigate this issue and to urge ship owners and ship operators to inform themselves on the risks of regrowth associated with the implementation of different BWTS. PMID:27184126

  8. Microbiologically influenced corrosion in ship ballast tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyer, A.

    2013-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is known to be a dangerous process in ship tanks due to its rapid and yet unpredictable occurrence, leading to extremely fast local corrosion, possibly jeopardizing the structural integrity, in a relatively short time. This project focuses on a fundamenta

  9. Reducing the cost of ballast tank corrosion: an economic modeling approach

    OpenAIRE

    De Baere, Kris; Verstraelen, Helen; Rigo, Philippe; Van Passel, Steven; Lenaerts, Silvia; Potters, Geert

    2013-01-01

    One of the most relevant problems in ship construction and maintenance nowadays concerns the corrosion in the double hull space ballast tanks of modern merchant vessels. On the one hand, there is a general consensus that the economic life span of such a vessel depends primarily upon the corrosion state of its ballast tanks, while on the other hand, the position of these tanks, squeezed between the outer hull and the loading tanks, makes routine inspection and maintenance almost impossible. To...

  10. 33 CFR 157.160 - Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... washing. 157.160 Section 157.160 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.160 Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing. (a) The owner, operator, and master of a tank vessel under §...

  11. A field study of the effectiveness of sacrificial anodes in ballast tanks of merchant ships

    OpenAIRE

    De Baere, K.; Verstraelen, H; Lemmens, L.; Lenaerts, S.; Dewil, R; Van Ingelgem, Y.; Potters, G.

    2014-01-01

    Sacrificial anodes have become a standard practice for the protection of ballast tanks of merchant vessels against corrosive damage. A well protected tank should extend the life span of a ship and consequently enhances its economic value. An in situ survey comprising more than 100 merchant vessels provided the opportunity to measure the impact of these anodes on the life expectancy of these vessels. Contrary to the general belief of these anodes' beneficial effect, no significant difference w...

  12. Effects of proposed physical ballast tank treatments on aquatic invertebrate resting eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikow, David F; Reid, David F; Blatchley, Ernest R; Jacobs, Gregory; Landrum, Peter F

    2007-04-01

    Adaptations in aquatic invertebrate resting eggs that confer protection from natural catastrophic events also could confer protection from treatments applied to ballast water for biological invasion vector management. To evaluate the potential efficacy of physical ballast water treatment methods, the present study examined the acute toxicity of heat (flash and holding methods), ultraviolet (UV) radiation (254 nm), and deoxygenation (acute and chronic) on resting eggs of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia mendotae and the marine brine shrimp Artemia sp. Both D. mendotae and Artemia sp. were similarly sensitive to flash exposures of heat (100% mortality at 70 degrees C), but D. mendotae were much more sensitive to prolonged exposures. Exposure to 4,000 mJ/cm2 of UV radiation resulted in mortality rates of 59% in Artemia sp. and 91% in D. mendotae. Deoxygenation to an oxygen concentration of 1 mg/L was maximally toxic to both species. Deoxygenation suppressed hatching of D. mendotae resting eggs at oxygen concentrations of less than 5.5 mg/L and of Artemia sp. resting eggs at concentrations of less than 1 mg/L. Results suggest that UV radiation and deoxygenation are not viable treatment methods with respect to invertebrate resting eggs because of the impracticality of producing sufficient UV doses and the suppression of hatching at low oxygen concentrations. Results also suggest that the treatment temperatures required to kill resting eggs are much higher than those reported to be effective against other invertebrate life stages and species. The results, however, do not preclude the effectiveness of these treatments against other organisms or life stages. Nevertheless, if ballast tank treatment systems employing the tested methods are intended to include mitigation of viable resting eggs, then physical removal of large resting eggs and ephippia via filtration would be a necessary initial step. PMID:17447556

  13. Tar-free epoxy/amine curing system for corrosion protection of ballast tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preservation of seawater ballast tanks is one of the biggest maintenance burdens. It is well known that coal tar is one of the best materials to protect steel substrates against marine corrosion and is also prevalently widely used in ship tanks so far. However if tar-containing paint is applied, it is harmful to health and especially dark color (black or brown) is only available, which makes uneasy to detect the defects of painting and rust. We have studied and developed a light color, modified amine cured epoxy coating system, which reveals perfect protection performance even though without tar for long-term service period. The coating system is less harmful to health as it does not contain coal tar materials and meets the stringent VOC regulation in view of its low content of organic solvent (SVR>80%). Experiments have been carried out on three kinds of substrates, shop-primed panels, blast-cleaned panels and pre-rusted panels. All test specimens were compared with commercialized tar containing epoxy coating on equivalently treated steel substrates. We will report the test results in laboratory, general anti-corrosion properties, adhesion properties and cathodic protection data from seawater cycle test and wave tank simulation device. And also the results being reported will include the survey for field applications

  14. Study of chemical and microbial factors affecting the corrosion in ballast tanks on board of merchant navy vessels

    OpenAIRE

    De Baere, K.; Verstraelen, H.; Schillemans, W.; Dewil, R.; Potters, G.

    2008-01-01

    Corrosion in double hull ballast tanks is a very specific issue, influenced by numerous circumstances such as high humidity, presence of sea water, alternation between wet and dry, high temperature, dissolved oxygen, microbial influenced corrosion, complex constructions with a lot of welding, flexibility of constructions, pollution of the ballastwater, marine fouling, use of inferior steel from recycling, insufficient maintenance and coating.As a consequence, many different types of corrosion...

  15. Survey on germination and species composition of dinoflagellates from ballast tanks and recent sediments in ports on the South Coast of Finland, North-Eastern Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pertola, Sari [Finnish Institute of Marine Research, Department of Biological Research, P.O. Box 2, FI-00561 Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail sari.pertola@fimr.fi; Faust, Maria A. [Department of Botany, US National Herbarium, Smithsonian Institution, 4210 Silver Hill Road, Suitland, Maryland 20746 (United States); Kuosa, Harri [Tvaerminne Zoological Station, University of Helsinki, FI-10900 Hanko (Finland)

    2006-08-15

    Cyst beds in ships and ports in Finland have previously been unstudied. Therefore, sediments from ships' ballast water tanks and four Finnish ports were sampled for dinoflagellate cysts and other phytoplankton. Untreated sediments were incubated at 10 {sup o}C and 20 {sup o}C in the local 6 psu salinity for 1, 4 and 7 days, and vegetative cells were examined with light and scanning electron microscope. Sediments were inhabited by various dinoflagellates, diatoms, chlorophytes, cyanophytes and small flagellates. Germinated dinoflagellates were found in 90% of ballast tanks and in all ports. Gymnodiniales spp. and Heterocapsa rotundata formed a major proportion of the proliferating dinoflagellate cells. One species, Peridinium quinquecorne, not previously reported from the Baltic Sea, was identified with SEM. The study emphasises that ships are potential transport vehicles for dinoflagellate cysts even in the low salinity Finnish waters, and small-sized dinoflagellates should be focused upon in ballast water studies.

  16. 改性环氧压载舱涂料的研制%Development of Modified Epoxy Ballast Tank Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马胜军; 王秀娟; 沈海鹰; 李敏; 潘煜怡; 刘宝成

    2012-01-01

    The blended curing agent of polyamide and phenolic amine was featured by its fast dry and good overall performance in ballast tank coatings. The pigments and fillers in coatings could improve the corrosion resintance, mechanical properties and adhesion. The P/B ratio was determined at 1. 5 ~ 2. 0 based on the test result of relationship between P/B ratio and film performance. The thixotropic agent, organic benton-ite G -1958, fumed silica 202/805 were evaluated by thixotropic index and sag resistance. Defoamer Efa-ka2722 showed strong anti — foaming with foam suppression, leveling and appearance improvement. The modified epoxy - resin coatings was prepared by using liquid epoxy resin, modification resin R, polyamide/ phenolic amine blended curing agent, thixotropic agents, efficient defoamers and fillers, which provided the modified epoxy ballast tank coatings excellent corrosion resistance, good flexibility, cathodic disbondment resistance , good wetting and adhesion on shop - primer. Test of simulated ballast tank condition & condensation chanber test have showed that performance of the modified epoxy — resin ballast tank coatings could meet technical requirements of PSPC appendix 1.%聚酰胺与酚醛胺的复配,所得固化剂固化速度快,综合性能好.颜料、填料能够提高涂料的防腐性、机械性能、附着力等,通过考察颜基比对涂层性能的影响,得出压载舱涂料的颜基比在1.5~2.0之间比较合适.由触变指数来评价触变剂的防沉抗流挂性能,筛选出G-1958有机喷润土和202/805气相二氧化硅.从破泡抑泡性、流平性和涂膜外观的效果来看,Efka2722消泡效果比较好,而且有一定的流平作用.以液体环氧树脂、改性树脂R为基料,聚酰胺和酚醛胺为固化剂,合理选用触变剂、消泡剂以及颜填料,所制得的改性环氧压载舱涂料柔韧性好,抗阴极剥离、附着能力好,防腐性能强.模拟压载舱和冷凝舱的试验表明,其性能

  17. 33 CFR 157.43 - Discharges of clean and segregated ballast: Seagoing tank vessels of 150 gross tons or more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... an approved oil discharge monitoring and control system or, if discharged before the required oil discharge monitoring and control system installation date, by visual examination of the ballast contents... mixture in the ballast. Use of an oil discharge monitoring and control system is not required....

  18. 33 CFR 151.2040 - What are the mandatory ballast water management requirements for vessels equipped with ballast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... water management requirements for vessels equipped with ballast tanks that operate in the waters of the... Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2040 What are the mandatory ballast water management requirements for vessels equipped with ballast tanks...

  19. 应用GDI+和C#开发船舶压载水监控系统控件%Development of Custom Ballast Tank Controls by Applying the GDI + and C#

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李顺亮; 王新辉; 钟碧良

    2012-01-01

    This article mainly introduces the core technique of programming ballast tank controls based on C/S with the GDI + and Visual C# NET. The method involved can be applied to the other controls.%应用最新的GDI+技术和VisualC#.net编程语言,开发基于C/S结构模式的船舶压载水监控系统控件,阐述了其中的核心技术;其有关技术在某一类控件制作中具有通用的应用价值.

  20. Modelling Ballast Water Transport

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, S.; Babu, M.T.; Vethamony, P.

    Ballast water discharges in the coastal environs have caused a great concern over the recent periods as they account for transporting marine organisms from one part of the world to the other. The movement of discharged ballast water as well...

  1. Zero energy-storage ballast for compact fluorescent lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, William Newell (Niskayuna, NY); Thomas, Robert James (Rexford, NY)

    1999-01-01

    A CFL ballast includes complementary-type switching devices connected in series with their gates connected together at a control node. The switching devices supply a resonant tank circuit which is tuned to a frequency near, but slightly lower than, the resonant frequency of a resonant control circuit. As a result, the tank circuit restarts oscillations immediately following each zero crossing of the bus voltage. Such rapid restarts avoid undesirable flickering while maintaining the operational advantages and high efficacy of the CFL ballast.

  2. 环氧压载舱涂料在PSPC新规范下的涂装过程控制%Coating Process Control of Epoxy Ballast Tank Coatings against PSPC New Specification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李松; 金晓鸿

    2012-01-01

    With the painting of 82 000 DWT bulk carrier ballast tank as an example, the solution of various problems encountered in the implementation of process specification of PSPC is introduced, involving coating inspector, inspection equipment requirements, closed sandblasting room, closed paiting room,and steel surface preparation, coating process control.%本文结合82 000t散货船压载舱的涂装,介绍了在PSPC规范的执行过程中遇到的各种问题及解决办法,包括涂层检查员、检测仪器的配备,全封闭喷砂房、涂装房的建立,以及钢材表面处理、涂装过程控制等.

  3. Infested ballast water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballast water discharged into harbours and coastal waters often brings unwanted organisms from distant regions (non-indigenous species). Some of the species that have come this way and that are now threatening Norwegian coasts and rivers are red algae, ghost shrimps (Caprella linearis) and the Japanese alga Sargassum muticum. Norway receives between 15 and 30 million tonnes of ballast water each year. International regulations about ballast water will not appear for many years, and in the meantime Norway is evaluating national immediate measures. Some ship owners in some countries are purifying the ballast water. However, harmful non-indigenous species may also come from mariculture

  4. Design and research on a variable ballast system for deep-sea manned submersibles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhong-Liang

    2008-12-01

    Variable ballast systems are necessary for manned submersibles to adjust their buoyancy. In this paper, the design of a variable ballast system for a manned submersible is described. The variable ballast system uses a super high pressure hydraulic seawater system. A super high pressure seawater pump and a deep-sea brushless DC motor are used to pump seawater into or from the variable ballast tank, increasing or decreasing the weight of the manned submersible. A magnetostrictive linear displacement transducer can detect the seawater level in the variable ballast tank. Some seawater valves are used to control pumping direction and control on-off states. The design and testing procedure for the valves is described. Finally, the future development of variable ballast systems and seawater hydraulic systems is projected.

  5. Design and research on a variable ballast system for deep-sea manned submersibles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Zhong-liang

    2008-01-01

    Variable ballast systems are necessary for manned submersibles to adjust their buoyancy. In this paper,the design of a variable ballast system for a manned submersible is described. The variable ballast system uses a super high pressure hydraulic seawater system. A super high pressure seawater pump and a deep-sea brushless DC motor are used to pump seawater into or from the variable ballast tank,increasing or decreasing the weight of the manned submersible. A magnetostrictive linear displacement transducer can detect the seawater level in the variable ballast tank. Some seawater valves are used to control pumping direction and control on-off states. The design and testing procedure for the valves is described. Finally,the future development of variable ballast systems and seawater hydraulic systems is projected.

  6. Implications of heterogeneous distributions of organisms on ballast water sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Eliardo G; Lopes, Rubens M; Singer, Julio M

    2015-02-15

    Ballast water sampling is one of the problems still needing investigation in order to enforce the D-2 Regulation of the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ship Ballast Water and Sediments. Although statistical "representativeness" of the sample is an issue usually discussed in the literature, neither a definition nor a clear description of its implications are presented. In this context, we relate it to the heterogeneity of the distribution of organisms in ballast water and show how to specify compliance tests under different models based on the Poisson and negative binomial distributions. We provide algorithms to obtain minimum sample volumes required to satisfy fixed limits on the probabilities of Type I and II errors. We show that when the sample consists of a large number of aliquots, the Poisson model may be employed even under moderate heterogeneity of the distribution of the organisms in the ballast water tank. PMID:25510550

  7. Quantifying non-indigenous species in accumulated ballast slurry residuals (swish) arriving at Vancouver, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, T. F.; Levings, C. D.

    2013-08-01

    Ballast tank “swish” samples were collected from ships following their arrival at Vancouver (British Columbia, Canada) after undergoing either a trans-oceanic or a Pacific-coastal voyage. The ballast swish consisted of a residual slurry mixture of sediment and water that remained trapped in ballast tanks following water discharge at port. The ballast tanks of 27 ships were sampled and ballast swish was found on 19 of the 27 ships. These ships were categorized according to ballast water management type: (1) Trans-oceanic = 7 trans-oceanic ships undergoing ballast water exchange (BWE) > 200 nm from shore; (2) Coastal-exchange = 7 Pacific-coastal ships traveling from ports south of Cape Blanco, Oregon undergoing coastal exchange > 50 nm from shore south of Cape Blanco; and (3) Coastal-no-exchange = 5 Pacific-coastal ships traveling from ports north of Cape Blanco, Oregon, without undergoing BWE. Invertebrate abundance and taxa richness were directly correlated with ballast-swish turbidity suggesting that highly-productive coastal source waters and ballast tank retention processes contributed to this trend. In turn, invertebrate taxa diversity increased with increasing invertebrate abundance. A Principal Component Analysis of the trans-oceanic data revealed that length of voyage showed a strong inverse relationship with invertebrate abundance for this category. Within the coastal-exchange voyage category, voyage length and ballast water age tended to be of the same magnitude and were directly correlated with both crustacean and nematode taxa. Finally, the coastal-no-exchange PCA results revealed that voyage length and salinity were inversely related due to the high number of river ports located at the southern border of the regulatory BWE exemption zone. Coastal voyages not undergoing BWE and undertaking a direct river-to-river route should be considered risky for the introduction of non-indigenous species, if the source waters contain potentially invasive species

  8. Verification of mid-ocean ballast water exchange using naturally occurring coastal tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined methods for verifying whether or not ships have performed mid-ocean ballast water exchange (BWE) on four commercial vessels operating in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. During BWE, a ship replaces the coastal water in its ballast tanks with water drawn from the open ocean, which is considered to harbor fewer organisms capable of establishing in coastal environments. We measured concentrations of several naturally occurring chemical tracers (salinity, six trace elements, colored dissolved organic matter fluorescence and radium isotopes) along ocean transects and in ballast tanks subjected to varying degrees of BWE (0-99%). Many coastal tracers showed significant concentration changes due to BWE, and our ability to detect differences between exchanged and unexchanged ballast tanks was greatest under multivariate analysis. An expanded dataset, which includes additional geographic regions, is now needed to test the generality of our results

  9. Ballast Water Treatment Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides functionality for the full-scale testing and controlled simulation of ship ballasting operations for assessment of aquatic nuisance species (ANS)...

  10. Low-head air stripper treats oil tanker ballast water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prototype tests conducted during the winter of 1989/90 have successfully demonstrated an economical design for air stripping volatile hydrocarbons from oily tanker ballast water. The prototype air stripper, developed for Alyeska's Ballast Water Treatment (BWT) facility in Valdez, Alaska, ran continuously for three months with an average removal of 88% of the incoming volatile organics. Initially designed to remove oil and grease compounds from tanker ballast water, the BWT system has been upgraded to a three-step process to comply with new, stringent regulations. The BWT biological oxidation process enhances the growth of bacteria present in the incoming ballast water through nutrient addition, aeration, and recirculation within a complete-mixed bioreactor. The average removal of BETX is over 95%, however, occassional upsets required the placement of a polishing air stripper downstream of the aeration tanks. Packed-tower air stripping was investigated but deemed economically unfeasible for a facility that would only occasionally be used. Twelve feet of excess gravity head in the existing BWT hydraulic gradeline were employed to drive the air stripper feed. This limited the stripper packing depth to 8 feet and imposed constraints on the design of the inlet water and air distributors. Water distribution, air flow, temperature effects, and fouling from constituents in the ballast water were investigated. The prototype was operated under water and air flow conditions similar to those specified for the full-scale unit, and at a range of test conditions above and below the normal design conditions

  11. Analysis of the class E amplifier used as electronic ballast with dimming capability for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponce, M.; Arau, J. [CENIDET-Electro' , Cuernavaca (Mexico); Alonso, J.M.; Rico-Secades, M. [ATE, Universidad de Oviedo, Campus de Viesques s/n Gijon (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    The analysis and design of a dimmable electronic ballast based on the class E amplifier and fed from solar cells with 12V backup batteries is described. The class E amplifier uses a capacitive impedance inverter as resonant tank and one diode antiparallel with the switch; these elements allow implementation of a dimming feature for the ballast and ignition of the lamp while maintaining zero voltage commutations in the switch. The designed electronic ballast drives a 21W lamp and operates at a switching frequency of 370kHz. Dimming is implemented using an SG3524 in a voltage-controlled oscillator fashion. (Author)

  12. 46 CFR 182.540 - Ballast systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ballast systems. 182.540 Section 182.540 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.540 Ballast systems. (a) Ballast piping must not...

  13. Free living and plankton-associated vibrios: assessment in ballast water, harbor areas and coastal ecosystems in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Nelly G. Rivera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ballast water is a major transport vector of exotic aquatic species and pathogenic microorganisms. The wide-ranging spread of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 from harbor areas has been frequently ascribed to discharge of contaminated ballast water into eutrophic coastal environments, such as during the onset of the seventh cholera pandemic in South America in the early 1990s. To determine the microbiological hazards of ballast waters transported to Brazilian ports, we evaluated water and plankton samples taken from (i ballast water tanks of recently arrived ships, (ii port areas along the Brazilian coastline from ~1 to 32 oS and (iii three coastal areas in São Paulo State. Vibrio concentration and toxigenic V. cholerae O1 occurrence were analyzed. Plankton-associated vibrios were more abundant than free-living vibrios in all studied environments. Vibrio cholerae was found in 9.5% of ballast tanks and 24.2% of port samples, both as free-living and attached forms, and was absent off São Paulo State. Toxigenic V. cholerae O1 isolates (ctxA+, tcpA+, involved in cholera disease, were found in ballast water (2% and harbor (2% samples. These results confirm that ballast water is an important carrier of pathogenic organisms, and that monitoring of vibrios and other plankton-attached bacteria is of paramount importance in ballast water management programs.

  14. Phytoplankton and Bacterial Assemblages in Ballast Water of U.S. Military Ships as a Function of Port of Origin, Voyage Time, and Ocean Exchange Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    We characterized the physical/chemical conditions and the algal and bacterial assemblages in ballast water from 62 ballast tanks aboard 28 ships operated by the U.S. Military Sealift Command and the Maritime Administration, sampled at 9 ports on the U.S. West Coast and 4 ports on the U.S. East Coast...

  15. Discrete/PWM Ballast-Resistor Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Roger J.

    1994-01-01

    Circuit offers low switching loss and automatic compensation for failure of ballast resistor. Discrete/PWM ballast-resistor controller improved shunt voltage-regulator circuit designed to supply power from high-resistance source to low-impedance bus. Provides both coarse discrete voltage levels (by switching of ballast resistors) and continuous fine control of voltage via pulse-width modulation.

  16. Hydroxide stabilization as a new tool for ballast disinfection: efficacy of treatment on zooplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Christine M.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Barenburg, Amber; Henquinet, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Effective and economical tools are needed for treating ship ballast to meet new regulatory requirements designed to reduce the introduction of invasive aquatic species from ship traffic. We tested the efficacy of hydroxide stabilization as a ballast disinfection tool in replicated, sequential field trials on board the M/V Ranger III in waters of Lake Superior. Ballast water was introduced into each of four identical 1,320 L stainless steel tanks during a simulated ballasting operation. Two tanks were treated with NaOH to elevate the pH to 11.7 and the remaining two tanks were held as controls without pH alteration. After retention on board for 14–18 h, CO2-rich gas recovered from one of two diesel propulsion engines was sparged into tanks treated with NaOH for 2 h to force conversion of NaOH ultimately to sodium bicarbonate, thereby lowering pH to about 7.1. Prior to gas sparging, the engine exhaust was treated by a unique catalytic converter/wet scrubber process train to remove unwanted combustion byproducts and to provide cooling. The contents of each tank were then drained and filtered through 35-µm mesh plankton nets to collect all zooplankton. The composition and relative survival of zooplankton in each tank were evaluated by microscopy. Zooplankton populations were dominated by rotifers, but copepods and cladocerans were also observed. Hydroxide stabilization was 100% effective in killing all zooplankton present at the start of the tests. Our results suggest hydroxide stabilization has potential to be an effective and practical tool to disinfect ship ballast. Further, using CO2 released from the ship engine reduces emissions and the neutralized by product, sodium bicarbonate, can have beneficial impacts on the aquatic environment.

  17. Challenges in global ballast water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballast water management is a complex issue raising the challenge of merging international regulations, ship's specific configurations along with ecological conservation. This complexity is illustrated in this paper by considering ballast water volume, discharge frequency, ship safety and operational issues aligned with regional characteristics to address ecological risk for selected routes. A re-estimation of ballast water volumes gives a global annual level of 3500 Mton. Global ballast water volume discharged into open sea originating from ballast water exchange operations is estimated to approximately 2800 Mton. Risk based decision support systems coupled to databases for different ports and invasive species characteristics and distributions can allow for differentiated treatment levels while maintaining low risk levels. On certain routes, the risk is estimated to be unacceptable and some kind of ballast water treatment or management should be applied

  18. Assessment of didecyldimethylammonium chloride as a ballast water treatment method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Slooten, C.; Peperzak, L.; Buma, A.G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Ballast water-mediated transfer of aquatic invasive species is considered a major threat to marine biodiversity, marine industry and human health. A ballast water treatment is needed to comply with International Maritime Organization (IMO) ballast water discharge regulations. Didecyldimethylammonium

  19. Optical ballast and adaptive dynamic stable resonator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Guang-Yin; Jiao Zhi-Yong; Guo Shu-Guang; Zhang Xiao-Hua; Gu Xue-Wen; Yan Cai-Fan; Wu Ding-Er; Song Feng

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a new concept of ‘optical ballast' is put forward. Optical ballast is a kind of device that can be used to decrease the variation and fluctuation of the propagation characteristics of light beams caused by the disturbance of refractive index of the medium. To illustrate the idea clearly and concretely, a fully adaptive dynamic stable solid-state laser resonator is presented as application example of optical ballast.

  20. 33 CFR 151.1510 - Ballast water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ballast water management. 151..., AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in the Great Lakes and Hudson River § 151.1510 Ballast water management. (a) The master of each vessel subject to this...

  1. Analysis of Soft Switched Electronic Ballast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Spanik

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available One of most perspective light sources are based on principle of electric discharge in gases. Feature of this phenomena is nonlinear impedance characteristic. Ballast interconnected between line and light source adapts requirements of light source to possibilities/requirements of the line. Today solution of modern ballast is based is based upon high frequency switch mode power supply, the cuts many disadvantages of standartd magnetic ballast off. The article describes development of high frequency electronic ballast for linear fluorescent tube in the frame of grant project 1/9025/02 with accent to soft switching. The most important advantages of this solutions are compactness, flicker-free lumen effeciency increase and reduced EMI interferencies.

  2. Railway Ballast Characteristics, Selection Criteria and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Nålsund, Roar

    2014-01-01

    This work is a comprehensive investigation to find to what extent simple laboratory tests e.g. Los Angeles abrasion and micro-Deval might be suitable for predicting real railway ballast performance with respect to deformation and degradation. A number of tests to measure essential properties of ballast aggregate have been performed in addition to advanced material testing. Large cyclic triaxial loading test and full scale railway track model test were employed to simulate the effects of train...

  3. Ballast water research in France : Current status

    OpenAIRE

    Masson, Daniel; Courtois, Olivier; Masson, Nadine; Guesdon, Stephane; Rocher, Gregory

    2000-01-01

    Due to important economic activities along the French oastline, the introduction of noxious organisms into French coastal waters, particularly by ship ballast water, may have serious consequences. After preliminary studies of ship movements in Charente Maritime, several samplings of ballast water and sediment were made. Samples were taken in five major harbours in France, along the Atlantic, Channel and Mediterranean coastlines. The main task of this first assessment was the research for exot...

  4. The Brazilian dilution method for ballast water exchange; O metodo de diluicao brasileiro para troca de agua de lastro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauro, Celso Alleluia [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Avaliacao e Monitoramento Ambiental]. E-mail: celso@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Land, Claudio Goncalves [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Abastecimento, Logistica e Planejamento]. E-mail: cgland@petrobras.com.br; Pimenta, Jose Maria Hollanda Alvares; Barreto, Francisco Carlos Peixoto [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Engenharia; Brandao, Marcus Vinicius Lisboa; Marroig, Nilton Lemos [Transpetro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Frota Nacional de Petroleiros. Inspetoria Geral; Tristao, Maria Luiza Braganca [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Quimica; Fadel, Andre Luiz da Fonseca [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Financas Corporativa e Tesouraria; Villac, Maria Celia; Fernandes, Lohengrin; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Dias, Cristina; Bonecker, Sergio; Denise Tenenbaum [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia; Persich, Graziela; Garcia, Virginia; Odebrecht, Clarisse [Fundacao Universidade do Rio Grande, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Oceanografia

    2002-12-01

    In a precautionary approach and dealing with the coming International Maritime Organization (IMO) regulations on ballast water, PETROBRAS developed a new method for ballast water exchange in tankers. Differently from ordinary methods PETROBRAS method which have been called Brazilian Dilution Method (BDM) or Dilution Method involves ballast loading through the top with simultaneous unloading from the bottom of the tanks. The method proposal was firstly presented to IMO, which encouraged PETROBRAS to carry out a field trial. PETROBRAS in June 1998 carried out a trial in the product carrier M/V Lavras. A simulation study was useful to plan the trial assessing the theoretical efficiency of the method, establishing the best sampling points and comparing the BDM with the Tank Overfilling Method (TOM). Simulation showed that for the same tank shape, the water renewal in BDM is more effective than in TOM and that 90 % of water renewal could be obtained by BDM. A dye concentration variation monitoring and a biological assessment were performed and the results confirmed that over than 90 % of the ballast water was renewed after three exchanges. The method was proved safe, practical, economical and suitable to minimize the risk of exotic species transport between ports. (author)

  5. IBECS network/ballast interface: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, Francis; Pettler, Pete

    2001-11-15

    This report describes the work performed to design, develop, and demonstrate an IBECS network/ballast interface that is useful for economically dimming controllable ballasts in commercial buildings. The first section of the report provides the general background of the IBECS (Integrated Building Environmental Communications System) research and development work as well as the context for the development of the network/ballast interface. The research and development effort that went into producing the first proof-of-concept circuit and the physical prototype of that concept is detailed in the second section. In the third section of the report, we describe the lessons learned from the first demonstration of the network/ballast interface at an office at LBNL. The fourth section describes how electrical noise interference encountered with the first generation of interface led to design changes for a refined prototype that hardened the interface from electrical noise generated by the ballast. The final section of the report discusses the performance of refined prototype after we replaced the proof-of-concept prototype with the refined prototypes in the demonstration office at LBNL.

  6. Chlorine dioxide as a treatment for ballast water to control invasive species: shipboard testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranda, Lucie; Cox, Annie M; Campbell, Robert G; Smith, David C

    2013-10-15

    The efficacy of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) in eliminating organisms present in estuarine ballast water of a containership was determined under actual operating conditions by comparing the survival of planktonic communities present in waters of treated and control ballast tanks. Sampling was via ballast-tank hatches. The treatment (5 mg L(-1)ClO2 without pre-filtration) delivered by a prototype ClO2-generating system was generally effective against planktonic assemblages, although bacterial communities rebounded after a few days. Regardless of temperature, ClO2 was very effective against phytoplankton; the effect was immediate, without resurgence. Some zooplankters in the ≥ 50-μm fraction may survive the biocide, especially those able to find refuge within a protective coating (e.g., cysts, resting eggs, and shells) or in sediment. In order to boost efficacy, a pre-filtration step is recommended (now installed as standard equipment) to lower the intake of the ≥ 50-μm fraction and lessen the challenge posed by this size class. PMID:23987094

  7. 33 CFR 157.23 - Cargo and ballast system information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.23 Cargo and ballast system information. (a... automatic and manual operation of the cargo and ballast system in the vessel. (b) The format and information... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cargo and ballast...

  8. 78 FR 33774 - Ballast Water Management Reporting and Recordkeeping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ...' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters,'' published on March 23, 2012. 77 FR 17254. The Coast Guard... Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters,'' (March 23, 2012-77 FR 17254), the Coast Guard... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 151 RIN 1625-AB68 Ballast Water Management Reporting and...

  9. 46 CFR 119.540 - Ballast systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ballast systems. 119.540 Section 119.540 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge...

  10. Not all calcite ballast is created equal: differing effects of foraminiferan and coccolith calcite on the formation and sinking of aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schmidt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Correlation between particulate organic carbon (POC and calcium carbonate sinking through the deep ocean has led to the idea that ballast provided by calcium carbonate is important for the export of POC from the surface ocean. While this idea is certainly to some extent true, it is worth considering in more nuance, for example, examining the different effects on the aggregation and sinking of POC of small, non-sinking calcite particles like coccoliths and large, rapidly sinking calcite like planktonic foraminiferan tests. We have done that here in a simple experiment carried out in roller tanks that allow particles to sink continuously without being impeded by container walls. Coccoliths were efficiently incorporated into aggregates that formed during the experiment, increasing their sinking speed compared to similarly sized aggregates lacking added calcite ballast. The foraminiferan tests, which sank as fast as 700 m d−1, became associated with only very minor amounts of POC. In addition, when they collided with other, larger, foraminferan-less aggregates, they fragmented them into two smaller, more slowly sinking aggregates. While these effects were certainly exaggerated within the confines of the roller tanks, they clearly demonstrate that calcium carbonate ballast is not just calcium carbonate ballast- different forms of calcium carbonate ballast have notably different effects on POC aggregation, sinking, and export.

  11. The effects of prolonged darkness on temperate and tropical marine phytoplankton, and their implications for ballast water risk management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Carney, K.J.; Delany, J.E.; Sawant, S.S.; Mesbahi, E.

    environment by these introduced organisms. Ballast tanks are hostile environments with no light to support growth of autotrophs over long periods, which consequently affects grazing populations. Food and nutrient availability, temperature, and chemical..., as has been demonstrated in a number of studies on polar and temperate species (Anita 1976; Peters 1996; Peters and Thomas, 1996). These studies did not however explore responses to the dark experimental conditions in assemblages of several taxa...

  12. Light Sources and Ballast Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Sakai, Makoto; Yasuda, Takeo; Maehara, Akiyoshi; Okada, Atsunori; Gouriki, Takeshi; Mannami, Tomoaki

    discharge models were reported. Further, studies on ultra high-pressure mercury lamps as light sources for projectors are becoming the mainstream of HID lamp related researches. For high-pressure sodium lamps, many studies on plant growing and pest control utilizing low insect attracting aspects were also reported in 2006. Additionally, for discharge lamps, the minimum sustaining electric power for arc tubes employed in electrode-less compact fluorescent lamps was investigated. For Hg-free rare-gas fluorescent lamps, a luminance of 10,000cd/m2 was attained by a 1 meter-long external duplex spiral electrode prototype using Xe/Ne barrier discharge. As to startup circuits, the commercialization of energy saving and high value added products mainly associated with fluorescent lamps and HID lamps are becoming common. Further, the miniaturization of startup circuits for self electronic-ballasted lamps has advanced. Speaking of the overall light sources and startup circuits in 2006 and with the enforcement of RoHS in Europe in July, the momentum toward hazardous substance-free and energy saving initiatives has been enhanced from the perspective of protecting the global environment. It is anticipated that similar restrictions will be globally enforced in the future.

  13. Detecting nuisance species using NGST: Methodology shortcomings and possible application in ballast water monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaiko, Anastasija; Martinez, Jose L; Ardura, Alba; Clusa, Laura; Borrell, Yaisel J; Samuiloviene, Aurelija; Roca, Agustín; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2015-12-01

    Detecting the presence of potential invasive species in ballast water is a priority for preventing their spread into new environments. Next generation sequencing technologies are being increasingly used for exploring and assessing biodiversity from environmental samples. Here we apply high throughput sequencing from DNA extracted from ballast water (BW) samples employing two different platforms, Ion Torrent and 454, and compare the putative species catalogues from the resulting Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU). Water samples were taken from the RV Polastern ballast tank in five different days between the second and the twentieth navigation day. Pronounced decrease of oxygen concentration and increase of temperature occurred in the BW during this time, coincident with a progressively higher proportion of unassigned OTU and short reads indicating DNA degradation. Discrepancy between platforms for species catalogues was consistent with previously published bias in AT-rich sequences for Ion Torrent platform. Some putative species detected from the two platforms increased in frequency during the Polarstern travel, which suggests they were alive and therefore tolerant to adverse conditions. OTU assigned to the highly invasive red alga Polysiphonia have been detected at low but increasing frequency from the two platforms. Although in this moment NGST could not replace current methods of sampling, sorting and individual taxonomic identification of BW biota, it has potential as an exploratory methodology especially for detecting scarce species. PMID:26174116

  14. Association of bacteria with marine invertebrates: Implications for ballast water management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, L.; Anil, A.C.

    stream_size 36739 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name EcoHealth_10_268a.pdf.txt stream_source_info EcoHealth_10_268a.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 1 Author version: EcoHealth... transportation, can have direct impact on society and human health. Ship’s ballast tanks hold different non-indigenous vertebrates, invertebrates, plants, microscopic algae, bacteria etc. (Williams et al. 1988; Carlton and Geller 1993; Smith et al. 1996...

  15. Use of oil tanker return/ballast space for the transportation of freshwater

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Vishal; Lande, Pål Berg

    2010-01-01

    This report analyzes the concept of using oil tankers’ free cargo space and/or segregated ballast tanks to transport freshwater on the return leg, i.e. from oil unloading port back to oil loading port – also called freshwater backhauling (FWBH). The hypothesis considered is that by shipping freshwater this way to arid, oil exporting regions one can achieve a low cost and low GHG emission water supply system. The report analyzes the concept in a holistic manner, considering technical issues, t...

  16. A Comparison of Microbial Water Quality and Diversity for Ballast and Tropical Harbor Waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmaine Ng

    Full Text Available Indicator organisms and antibiotic resistance were used as a proxy to measure microbial water quality of ballast tanks of ships, and surface waters in a tropical harbor. The survival of marine bacteria in ballast tanks appeared to diminish over longer water retention time, with a reduction of cell viability observed after a week based on heterotrophic plate counts. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes showed distinct differences in microbial composition of ballast and harbor waters. The harbor waters had a higher abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs assigned to Cyanobacteria (Synechococcus spp. and α-proteobacteria (SAR11 members, while marine hydrocarbon degraders such as γ-proteobacteria (Ocenspirillaes spp., Thiotrchales spp. and Bacteroidetes (Flavobacteriales spp. dominated the ballast water samples. Screening of indicator organisms found Escherichia coli (E. coli, Enterococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa in two or more of the ballast and harbor water samples tested. Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp. were detected exclusively in harbor water samples. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR, we screened for 13 antibiotic resistant gene (ARG targets and found higher abundances of sul1 (4.13-3.44 x 102 copies/mL, dfrA (0.77-1.80 x10 copies/mL and cfr (2.00-5.21 copies/mL genes compared to the other ARG targets selected for this survey. These genes encode for resistance to sulfonamides, trimethoprim and chloramphenicol-florfenicol antibiotics, which are also known to persist in sediments of aquaculture farms and coastal environments. Among the ARGs screened, we found significant correlations (P<0.05 between ereA, ermG, cfr and tetO genes to one or more of the indicator organisms detected in this study, which may suggest that these members contribute to the environmental resistome. This study provides a baseline water quality survey, quantitatively assessing indicators of antibiotic resistance, potentially pathogenic organisms and a

  17. Testing Ballast Water Treatment at a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Andrew N.

    2001-01-01

    The main goal of the project was to investigate the feasibility of treating ships' ballast water in existing municipal wastewater treatment plants (= publicly-owned treatment works or POTWs). The main objectives included identifying and characterizing the limiting factors that could restrict the volume of ballast water that can be treated at POTWs; and test, in a series of laboratory experiments, the effectiveness of standard municipal wastewater treatment in removing or killing ballast water...

  18. WET-tests on UV-treated ballast water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaag, N.H.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    Damen Shipyards has developed a barge-based ballast water management system (BWMS) that enables direct treatment of ballast water during discharge in a receiving harbour. The treatment is based upon filtration and a once-through UV-treatment. As part of the Type Approval process, the Dutch Authoriti

  19. Feasibility studies in relation to the IMO Ballast Water Convention

    OpenAIRE

    Tamis, J.E.; Kaag, N.H.B.M.; Karman, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    This project is aimed to develop possibilities to overcome the difficulties which arise from the implementation of the Ballast Water Convention (IMO 2004). For this purpose, three feasibility studies have been conducted: assessment of the applicability of small scale test systems; development of protocols for testing active substance residues; risk assessment of ballast water discharge.

  20. Ballast water risk assessment in the North Sea. Evaluating ballast water management exemption in the North Sea region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer van der, Ruurd

    2012-01-01

    Summary Ships translocate organisms across the world via on-board ballast water. When a ship releases its ballast water these organism are released as well. They might have the advantage of not having any natural enemies in their new environment and they

  1. 33 CFR 151.1514 - Ballast water management alternatives under extraordinary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ballast water management... SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in the Great Lakes and Hudson River § 151.1514 Ballast water management alternatives...

  2. Novel Design of HID Lamp Electronic Ballast for Automotive Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Ye-qiang; WANG Jin-hai; ZHENG Yu; ZHANG Cheng

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a high intensity discharge(HID) lamp for automotive illumination.A novel type of ballast for HID is proposed without an acoustic resonance.The system consists of high frequency DC/DC converter,DC/AC inverter(SLA2403M), high voltage igniter and a microcontroller unit(MCU).The proposed ballast controls the complex start-up process and constant power process by programming on the microcontroller. It is verified that experimental results agree well with the calculated ones. The ballast features such functions as failure protection, line under-voltage, line over-voltage, output short circuit and disconnection protections.

  3. HPS Electronic Ballast Based on CIC-CPPFC Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫; 苏勤; 高国安

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the application of CIC-CPPFC techniques to high-pressure sodium(HPS) lamp electronic ballast. In order to ensure a unity power factor, different power electronic ballasts are studied by PSpice simulation. A dynamic model of HPS lamp with simple and accurate features is proposed for further study of characteristics. Experimental results verify the feasibility of HPS lamp operating at high frequency. It is shown that the presented electronic ballast has 0.99 power factor and 9% total harmonic distortion(THD).

  4. WET-tests on UV-treated ballast water

    OpenAIRE

    Kaag, N.H.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    Damen Shipyards has developed a barge-based ballast water management system (BWMS) that enables direct treatment of ballast water during discharge in a receiving harbour. The treatment is based upon filtration and a once-through UV-treatment. As part of the Type Approval process, the Dutch Authorities (IL&T) required an Environmental Acceptability document, based upon Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) testing on freshwater and marine water, in order to ensure that no harmful levels of dis-inf...

  5. Ground reaction forces during human locomotion on railroad ballast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Chip; Redfern, Mark S

    2007-11-01

    Locomotion over ballast surfaces provides a unique situation for investigating the biomechanics of gait. Although much research has focused on level and sloped walking on a smooth, firm surface in order to understand the common kinematic and kinetic variables associated with human locomotion, the literature currently provides few if any discussions regarding the dynamics of locomotion on surfaces that are either rocky or uneven. The purpose of this study was to investigate a method for using force plates to measure the ground reaction forces (GRFs) during gait on ballast. Ballast is a construction aggregate of unsymmetrical rock used in industry for the purpose of forming track bed on which railway ties are laid or in yards where railroad cars are stored. It is used to facilitate the drainage of water and to create even running surfaces. To construct the experimental ballast surfaces, 31.75 mm (1 1/4 in.) marble ballast at depths of approximately 63.5 mm (2.5 in.) or 101.6 mm (4 in.) were spread over a carpeted vinyl tile walkway specially designed for gait studies. GRF magnitudes and time histories from a force plate were collected under normal smooth surface and under both ballast surface conditions for five subjects. GRF magnitudes and time histories during smooth surface walking were similar to GRF magnitudes and time histories from the two ballast surface conditions. The data presented here demonstrate the feasibility of using a force plate system to expand the scope of biomechanical analyses of locomotion on ballast surfaces. PMID:18089931

  6. Dimmable Electronic Ballast for a Gas Discharge Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raducanu, Marius; Hennings, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is the most efficient photocatalyst for organic oxidative degradation. TiO2 is effective not only in aqueous solution, but also in nonaqueous solvents and in the gas phase. It is photostable, biologically and chemically inert, and non-toxic. Low-energy UV light (approximately 375 nm, UV-A) can be used to photoactivate TiO2. TiO2 photocatalysis has been used to mineralize most types of organic compounds. Also, TiO2 photocatalysis has been effectively used in sterilization. This effectiveness has been demonstrated by its aggressive destruction of microorganisms, and aggressive oxidation effects of toxins. It also has been used for the oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide, and ammonia to nitrogen. Despite having many attractive features, advanced photocatalytic oxidation processes have not been effectively used for air cleaning. One of the limitations of the traditional photocatalytic systems is the ballast that powers (lights) the bulbs. Almost all commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) ballasts are not dimmable and do not contain safety features. COTS ballasts light the UV lamp as bright as the bulb can be lit, and this results in shorter bulb lifetime and maximal power consumption. COTS magnetic ballasts are bulky, heavy, and inefficient. Several iterations of dimmable electronic ballasts have been developed. Some manifestations have safety features such as broken-bulb or over-temperature warnings, replace-bulb alert, logbulb operational hours, etc. Several electronic ballast boards capable of independently lighting and controlling (dimming) four fluorescent (UV light) bulbs were designed, fabricated, and tested. Because of the variation in the market bulb parameters, the ballast boards were designed with a very broad range output. The ballast boards can measure and control the current (power) for each channel.

  7. Amplicon-Based Pyrosequencing Reveals High Diversity of Protistan Parasites in Ships' Ballast Water: Implications for Biogeography and Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagenkopp Lohan, K M; Fleischer, R C; Carney, K J; Holzer, K K; Ruiz, G M

    2016-04-01

    Ships' ballast water (BW) commonly moves macroorganisms and microorganisms across the world's oceans and along coasts; however, the majority of these microbial transfers have gone undetected. We applied high-throughput sequencing methods to identify microbial eukaryotes, specifically emphasizing the protistan parasites, in ships' BW collected from vessels calling to the Chesapeake Bay (Virginia and Maryland, USA) from European and Eastern Canadian ports. We utilized tagged-amplicon 454 pyrosequencing with two general primer sets, amplifying either the V4 or V9 domain of the small subunit (SSU) of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene complex, from total DNA extracted from water samples collected from the ballast tanks of bulk cargo vessels. We detected a diverse group of protistan taxa, with some known to contain important parasites in marine systems, including Apicomplexa (unidentified apicomplexans, unidentified gregarines, Cryptosporidium spp.), Dinophyta (Blastodinium spp., Euduboscquella sp., unidentified syndinids, Karlodinium spp., Syndinium spp.), Perkinsea (Parvilucifera sp.), Opisthokonta (Ichthyosporea sp., Pseudoperkinsidae, unidentified ichthyosporeans), and Stramenopiles (Labyrinthulomycetes). Further characterization of groups with parasitic taxa, consisting of phylogenetic analyses for four taxa (Cryptosporidium spp., Parvilucifera spp., Labyrinthulomycetes, and Ichthyosporea), revealed that sequences were obtained from both known and novel lineages. This study demonstrates that high-throughput sequencing is a viable and sensitive method for detecting parasitic protists when present and transported in the ballast water of ships. These data also underscore the potential importance of human-aided dispersal in the biogeography of these microbes and emerging diseases in the world's oceans. PMID:26476551

  8. Tiny Stowaways: Analyzing the Economic Benefits of a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Permit Regulating Ballast Water Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Sabrina J.; Drake, Lisa A.

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has proposed permitting ballast water discharges—a benefit of which would be to reduce the economic damages associated with the introduction and spread of aquatic invasive species. Research on ship-borne aquatic invasive species has been conducted in earnest for decades, but determining the economic damages they cause remains troublesome. Furthermore, with the exception of harmful algal blooms, the economic consequences of microscopic invaders have not been studied, despite their potentially great negative effects. In this paper, we show how to estimate the economic benefits of preventing the introduction and spread of harmful bacteria, microalgae, and viruses delivered in U.S. waters. Our calculations of net social welfare show the damages from a localized incident, cholera-causing bacteria found in shellfish in the Gulf of Mexico, to be approximately 706,000 (2006). On a larger scale, harmful algal species have the potential to be transported in ships’ ballast tanks, and their effects in the United States have been to reduce commercial fisheries landings and impair water quality. We examine the economic repercussions of one bloom-forming species. Finally, we consider the possible translocation within the Great Lakes of a virus that has the potential to harm commercial and recreational fisheries. These calculations illustrate an approach to quantifying the benefits of preventing invasive aquatic microorganisms from controls on ballast water discharges.

  9. Implementation of Energy Saving Controller for Electromagnetic Ballast Fluorescent Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhi; Barsoum, Cheong; Barsoum, N. N.

    2010-06-01

    Fluorescent lamps have proven to be the most efficient lighting device. However, energy losses have been found in electromagnetic ballast due to high harmonic distortion and low power factor so energy is consumed unnecessarily. In today's energy demanding environment, energy efficiency of fluorescent lamps can be improved by introducing an energy saving controller in the electromagnetic ballast. The energy saving controller limits the supply voltage to an optimum level which tends to reduce the power losses in electromagnetic ballasts and fluorescent lamps. It is also anticipated that the energy saving controller has desirable characteristics of high power factor with dimmable illuminance level control. In comparison to electronic dimmable ballast, integration an energy saving controller with electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps results in less power consumption, dimmable illuminance control and longer life span at a much lower installation cost. Furthermore, there is no replacement cost for integrating the energy saving controller with existing electromagnetic fluorescent lamps system. In this paper, experimental works have been performed to investigate hardware implementation of the system which further supported by simulation on MATLAB Simulink. Experimental results based on the proposed energy saving controller showed that electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps can be dimmed without any problems down to 50% illuminance level output. In addition, experimental results show that 37.5% power consumption can be saved by reducing 15% of the supply voltage.

  10.  Analysis of the ballast system of WindFlip

    OpenAIRE

    Alvheim, Atle

    2010-01-01

     The thesis firstly includes a study of the structure and requirements of a general ballast system. Based on this knowledge a ballast system suiting the needs of the WindFlip concept was designed through using the risk-based design methodology (RBD).The presented ballast system has one sub-system for ballasting during rotation of WindFlip from horizontal to vertical position and back again (called main ballast system). Another sub-system (called the secondary ballast system) is used during tr...

  11. 大型半潜船压载水系统设计%Ballast water system for a great semi-submersible vessel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志垒

    2014-01-01

    To realize the semi-submersible function safely and reliably, the ballast system of a certain semi-submersible self-propelled heavy lift vessel is designed by means of combining the air and pump ballast systems according to the characteristics of its numerous ballast tanks. The trail results show that the design of the water ballast system is able to realize the semi-submersible working function for a semi-submersible self-propelled heavy lift vessel at sea, which satisfies the requirements of the technical specification.%为安全可靠地实现半潜功能,根据某半潜式自航工程船压载舱众多的特点,采用空气压载系统与泵压载系统相结合进行设计。试航结果显示:压载水系统的设计能够安全实现该半潜式自航工程船海上半潜作业功能,达到技术规格书中的有关要求。

  12. Sample size for estimating the mean concentration of organisms in ballast water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Eliardo G; Lopes, Rubens M; Singer, Julio M

    2016-09-15

    We consider the computation of sample sizes for estimating the mean concentration of organisms in ballast water. Given the possible heterogeneity of their distribution in the tank, we adopt a negative binomial model to obtain confidence intervals for the mean concentration. We show that the results obtained by Chen and Chen (2012) in a different set-up hold for the proposed model and use them to develop algorithms to compute sample sizes both in cases where the mean concentration is known to lie in some bounded interval or where there is no information about its range. We also construct simple diagrams that may be easily employed to decide for compliance with the D-2 regulation of the International Maritime Organization (IMO). PMID:27266648

  13. Difficulties in obtaining representative samples for compliance with the Ballast Water Management Convention

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Carney, K.J.; Basurko, O.C.; Pazouki, K.; Marsham, S.; Delany, J.E.; Desai, D; Anil, A.C.; Mesbahi, E.

    As implementation of the Ballast Water Convention draws nearer a major challenge is the development of protocols which accurately assess compliance with the D-2 Standard. Many factors affect the accuracy of assessment: e.g. large volume of ballast...

  14. 75 FR 14319 - Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts: Public Meeting and Availability of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... cycle to amend energy conservation standards for fluorescent lamp ballasts. 65 FR 56740, 56740-56749... Ballast Rule''). 65 FR 56740 (September 19, 2000). This rulemaking established a consensus standard... Regulations at 10 CFR 430.32(m). 70 FR 60407. These standards established ballast efficacy requirements...

  15. 33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ballast water management. 151.1518 Section 151.1518 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of... water management. (a) A person who violates this subpart is liable for a civil penalty in an amount...

  16. 33 CFR 151.2035 - What are the required ballast water management practices for my vessel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... water management practices for my vessel? 151.2035 Section 151.2035 Navigation and Navigable Waters... SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2035 What are the required ballast water...

  17. A New-Style Two-Staged Dimmable Electronic Ballast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红颖; 石季英; 陈宝瓷

    2004-01-01

    A two-staged electronic ballast with wide dimming range, high power factor(PF) and low electromagnetic interference(EMI) is presented. It changes the input voltage of the stage of power inverter for dimming control, so it overcomes some limitations of traditional electronic ballasts that use frequency variation. At the same time, the stage of power inverter runs under the soft-switching at the fixed switching frequency and reduces EMI greatly. Its principle and characteristic are analyzed in detail,and experimental and simulated results are obtained on a 40 W fluorescent lamp.

  18. Biomass-Derived Hydrogen from a Thermally Ballasted Gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Robert C

    2007-04-06

    The goal of this project is to develop an indirectly heated gasification system that converts switchgrass into hydrogen-rich gas suitable for powering fuel cells. The project includes investigations of the indirectly-heated gasifier, development of particulate removal equipment, evaluation of catalytic methods for upgrading producer gas, development of contaminant measurement and control techniques, modeling of the thermal performance of the ballasted gasifier, and estimation of the cost of hydrogen from the proposed gasification system. Specific technologies investigated include a thermally ballasted gasifier, a moving bed granular filter, and catalytic reactors for steam reforming and water-gas shift reaction. The approach to this project was to employ a pilot-scale (5 ton per day) gasifier to evaluate the thermally ballasted gasifier as a means for producing hydrogen from switchgrass. A slipstream from the gasifier was used to evaluate gas cleaning and upgrading options. Other tests were conducted with laboratory-scale equipment using simulated producer gas. The ballasted gasifier operated in conjunction with a steam reformer and two-stage water-gas shift reactor produced gas streams containing 54.5 vol-% H2. If purge gas to the feeder system could be substantially eliminated, hydrogen concentration would reach 61 vol-%, which closely approaches the theoretical maximum of 66 vol-%. Tests with a combined catalyst/sorbent system demonstrated that steam reforming and water-gas shift reaction could be substantially performed in a single reactor and achieve hydrogen concentrations exceeding 90 vol-%. Cold flow trials with a laboratory-scale moving bed granular filter achieved particle removal efficiencies exceeding 99%. Two metal-based sorbents were tested for their ability to remove H2S from biomass-derived producer gas. The ZnO sorbent, tested at 450° C, was effective in reducing H2S from 200 ppm to less than 2 ppm (>99% reduction) while tests with the MnO sorbent

  19. Emerging risks from ballast water treatment: the run-up to the International Ballast Water Management Convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werschkun, Barbara; Banerji, Sangeeta; Basurko, Oihane C; David, Matej; Fuhr, Frank; Gollasch, Stephan; Grummt, Tamara; Haarich, Michael; Jha, Awadhesh N; Kacan, Stefan; Kehrer, Anja; Linders, Jan; Mesbahi, Ehsan; Pughiuc, Dandu; Richardson, Susan D; Schwarz-Schulz, Beatrice; Shah, Amisha; Theobald, Norbert; von Gunten, Urs; Wieck, Stefanie; Höfer, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Uptake and discharge of ballast water by ocean-going ships contribute to the worldwide spread of aquatic invasive species, with negative impacts on the environment, economies, and public health. The International Ballast Water Management Convention aims at a global answer. The agreed standards for ballast water discharge will require ballast water treatment. Systems based on various physical and/or chemical methods were developed for on-board installation and approved by the International Maritime Organization. Most common are combinations of high-performance filters with oxidizing chemicals or UV radiation. A well-known problem of oxidative water treatment is the formation of disinfection by-products, many of which show genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, or other long-term toxicity. In natural biota, genetic damages can affect reproductive success and ultimately impact biodiversity. The future exposure towards chemicals from ballast water treatment can only be estimated, based on land-based testing of treatment systems, mathematical models, and exposure scenarios. Systematic studies on the chemistry of oxidants in seawater are lacking, as are data about the background levels of disinfection by-products in the oceans and strategies for monitoring future developments. The international approval procedure of ballast water treatment systems compares the estimated exposure levels of individual substances with their experimental toxicity. While well established in many substance regulations, this approach is also criticised for its simplification, which may disregard critical aspects such as multiple exposures and long-term sub-lethal effects. Moreover, a truly holistic sustainability assessment would need to take into account factors beyond chemical hazards, e.g. energy consumption, air pollution or waste generation. PMID:25048914

  20. Compact Fluorescent Plug-In Ballast-in-a-Socket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebecca Voelker

    2001-12-21

    The primary goal of this program was to develop a ballast system for plug-in CFLs (compact fluorescent lamps) that will directly replace standard metal shell, medium base incandescent lampholders (such as Levition No. 6098) for use with portable lamp fixtures, such as floor, table and desk lamps. A secondary goal was to identify a plug-in CFL that is optimized for use with this ballast. This Plug-in CFL Ballastin-a-Socket system will allow fixture manufacturers to easily manufacture CFL-based high-efficacy portable fixtures that provide residential and commercial consumers with attractive, cost-effective, and energy-efficient fixtures for use wherever portable incandescent fixtures are used today. The advantages of this proposed system over existing CFL solutions are that the fixtures can only be used with high-efficacy CFLs, and they will be more attractive and will have lower life-cycle costs than screw-in or adapter-based CFL retrofit solutions. These features should greatly increase the penetration of CFL's into the North American market. Our work has shown that using integrated circuits it is quite feasible to produce a lamp-fixture ballast of a size comparable to the current Edison-screw 3-way incandescent fixtures. As for price points for BIAS-based fixtures, end-users polled by the Lighting Research Institute at RPI indicated that they would pay as much as an additional $10 for a lamp containing such a ballast. The ballast has been optimized to run with a 26 W amalgam triple biax lamp in the base-down position, yet can accept non-amalgam versions of the lamp. With a few part alterations, the ballast can be produced to support 32 W lamps as well. The ballast uses GE's existing L-Comp[1] power topology in the circuit so that the integrated circuit design would be a design that could possibly be used by other CFL and EFL products with minor modifications. This gives added value by reducing cost and size of not only the BIAS, but also possibly other

  1. Cooling effect of ballast revetment on the roadbed of Qinghai-Tibetan Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zeyong; CHENG Guodong; QIAN Zeyu; WANG Jiemin; WEI Guoan; HOU Xuhong; GU Lianglei; YAN Yuping

    2004-01-01

    The data obtained through the roadbed surface thermal regime experiment (ROBSTREX), which was carried out at Beiluhe test section of Qinghai-Tibetan Railway from October to December in 2002, were used to estimate the cooling effect of ballast revetment on the roadbed. The results show that both riprap rock ballast revetment and crushed stone ballast revetment can reduce the temperature of the roadbed. But the cooling effect of riprap rock ballast revetment is better than that of crushed stone ballast revetment when the temperature of roadbed is higher. The cooling effect of crushed stone ballast revetment is better than that of riprap rock ballast revetment when the temperature of the roadbed is lower, especially at deeper roadbed layers. In the frozen season, the heat release from the roadbed also shows that the cooling effect of ballast revetment on the roadbed is obvious, and the cooling effect of crushed stone-ballast revetment on the roadbed is much evident than that of riprap rock ballast revetment.

  2. Asbestos quantification in track ballast, a complex analytical problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Track ballast forms the trackbeb upon which railroad ties are laid. It is used to bear the load from the railroad ties, to facilitate water drainage, and also to keep down vegetation. It is typically made of angular crushed stone, with a grain size between 30 and 60 mm, with good mechanical properties (high compressive strength, freeze - thaw resistance, resistance to fragmentation). The most common rock types are represented by basalts, porphyries, orthogneisses, some carbonatic rocks and "green stones" (serpentinites, prasinites, amphibolites, metagabbros). Especially "green stones" may contain traces, and sometimes appreciable amounts of asbestiform minerals (chrysotile and/or fibrous amphiboles, generally tremolite - actinolite). In Italy, the chrysotile asbestos mine in Balangero (Turin) produced over 5 Mt railroad ballast (crushed serpentinites), which was used for the railways in northern and central Italy, from 1930 up to 1990. In addition to Balangero, several other serpentinite and prasinite quarries (e.g. Emilia Romagna) provided the railways ballast up to the year 2000. The legal threshold for asbestos content in track ballast is established in 1000 ppm: if the value is below this threshold, the material can be reused, otherwise it must be disposed of as hazardous waste, with very high costs. The quantitative asbestos determination in rocks is a very complex analytical issue: although techniques like TEM-SAED and micro-Raman are very effective in the identification of asbestos minerals, a quantitative determination on bulk materials is almost impossible or really expensive and time consuming. Another problem is represented by the discrimination of asbestiform minerals (e.g. chrysotile, asbestiform amphiboles) from the common acicular - pseudo-fibrous varieties (lamellar serpentine minerals, prismatic/acicular amphiboles). In this work, more than 200 samples from the main Italian rail yards were characterized by a combined use of XRD and a special SEM

  3. Eradication of algae in ships' ballast water by electrolyzing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DANG Kun; SUN Pei-ting; XIAO Jing-kun; SONG Yong-xin

    2006-01-01

    In order to verify the effectiveness of electrolytic treatment on ships' ballast water,experiments are carried out by a pilot system in laboratory. The raw seawater and seawater with different concentrations of different algae are simulated as ships' ballast water. The algae in the raw seawater can be killed if it is treated by electrolysis with an initial residual chlorine concentration of 5 mg/L. If the seawater with one kind of algae (Nitzschia closterum, Dicrateria spp., or Pyramidomonnas sp.105cells/mL) is treated by electrolysis with an initial residual chlorine concentration of 5 mg/L, the alga can be sterilized. If the seawater with one kind of algae (Dunaliella sp., Platymonas or Chlorella spp.)is directly treated by electrolyzing with an initial residual chlorine concentration of 4 mg/L, the instant mortality changes with the concentration of different algae. However, after 72 hours, in all treated samples, there are no live algal cells found.

  4. Discrete element modelling of geogrid-reinforced railway ballast and track transition zones

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Track deterioration has a serious influence on the safety and efficiency (speed restriction) of train operations. Many expensive, disruptive and frequent repair operations are often required to maintain the ballast characteristics due to the problem of settlement. Because of this, a geogrid solution that has proved to be a simple and economical method of reinforcing track ballast is widely used. This project presents an evaluation of the behaviour of geogrid-reinforced railway ballast. E...

  5. Finite Element-Discrete Element Coupling Strategies for the Modelling of Ballast-Soil Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Taforel, Paul; Renouf, Mathieu; Dubois, Frédéric; Voivret, Jean-Charles

    2015-01-01

    International audience Numerous modelling strategies have been used over the last decade to improve the understanding of the physical behaviour of the railway track system thanks to numerical simulation. In this context, discrete element (DE) methods are traditionally used to describe the granular behaviour of the ballast layer of the railway track whereas finite element (FE) methods are used to model the whole track system (soil and ballast) in which ballast is modelled as a continuous me...

  6. The ships' ballast waters, sources of pests introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Masson, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    At the end of the 1980s, the relatively recent Australian aquaculture industry suffered from the blooming of some unknown toxic phytoplanktonic algae. This was followed by some cases of harm to consumers' health and the shutting down of some production areas. Australian scientists quickly identified their origin, Japanese, as well as their introduction vector, the ballast waters of Japanese vessels loading in Australian harbours and deballasting along the coasts or inside the harbours. The in...

  7. Track behaviour: the importance of the sleeper to ballast interface

    OpenAIRE

    Le Pen, Louis

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research is to develop a fuller understanding of the mechanical behaviour of the sleeper/ballast interface, related in particular, to the forces applied by high speed tilting trains on low radius curves. The research has used literature review, field measurements, and laboratory experiments on a single sleeper bay of track. Theoretical calculations are also presented. Field measurements are carried out using geophones to record time/deflection for sleepers duri...

  8. Intensification of the process of cleaning ballast water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepaneks, L.

    1983-01-01

    A large part of the waste water at offshore bulk plants is oil-containing ballast water of tankers. Its volume can reach 40-50% of their tonnage. In order to purify this water, mainly two-stage plans are currently used with mechanical methods in the first stage and physical mechanical in the second. In this case the concentration of petroleum products in the purified waste water is 15-20 mg/1. The need to improve the efficiency of the active treatment complexes (TC) results in considerable increase in cost of TC construction. In order to intensify the process of purification of waste water, the Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of the Ukrainian SSR Academy of Sciences has conducted laboratory studies to investigate the filtering activity of Black Sea mussles, a study was made of the viability of filtering organisms under different conditions of contamination. Studies of these processes made it possible to develop a biological method for purification of oil-containing waste water with the use of marine organisms. Based on many years of practical operation of structures to purify oil-containing ballast water of tankers at the active treatment complex of the offshore bulk plant ''Sheskharis'' and studies to improve the operating efficiency of the TC, a plan was developed for purifying the oil-containing ballast water of tankers with the use of the biological method.

  9. Magnetic fluorescent ballasts: Market data, market imperfections, and policy success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koomey, J.G.; Sanstad, A.H.; Shown, L.J.

    1995-12-01

    Many economists have strongly questioned engineering-economic studies aimed at demonstrating anomalously slow diffusion of energy-efficient technology and the benefits of regulations to promote such technology. One argument against such studies is that standard techniques of engineering-economics are either inappropriate for or are routinely misapplied in assessing the performance of the market for energy efficiency. This paper presents engineering-economic evidence on the diffusion of energy efficiency improvements that takes account of such critiques. The authors examine the engineering and economic characteristics of standard and energy-efficient magnetic ballasts for fluorescent lighting. Efficient magnetic ballasts represented an excellent investment for 99% of the commercial building floor stock, and a moderately good investment for 0.7% of the commercial floor stock. Still, these ballasts were only being adopted in the 1980s at a rate commensurate with the enactment of appliance efficiency standards in various states. In this case, there is solid empirical evidence for skepticism about the effectiveness of the market mechanism in promoting cost-effective energy efficiency improvements as well as evidence of the benefits of regulation to counteract this shortcoming.

  10. Optimization of Ballast Design: A Case Study of the Physics Entrepreneurship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jun; Cheng, Norman; Lamouri, Abbas; Sulcs, Juris; Brown, Robert; Taylor, Cyrus

    2001-10-01

    This talk presents a typical internship project for students in the Physics Entrepreneurship Program at Case Western Reserve University. As part of their overall strategy, Advanced Lighting International (ADLT) is involved in the production of magnetic ballasts for metal halide lamps. The systems in which these ballasts function is undergoing rapid evolution, leading to the question of how the design of the ballasts can be optimized in order to deliver superior performance for lower cost. Addressing this question requires a full understanding of a variety of issues ranging from the basic modeling of the physics of the magnetic ballasts to questions of overall market strategy, manufacturing considerations, and the competitive environment.

  11. A comparison of six different ballast water treatment systems based on UV radiation, electrochlorination and chlorine dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Stehouwer, P.P.; Buma, A.; Peperzak, L.

    2015-01-01

    The spread of aquatic invasive species through ballast water is a major ecological and economical threat. Because of this, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) set limits to the concentrations of organisms allowed in ballast water. To meet these limits, ballast water treatment systems (BWTSs) were developed. The main techniques used for ballast water treatment are ultraviolet (UV) radiation and electrochlorination (EC). In this study, phytoplankton regrowth after treatment was follow...

  12. Tank design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that aboveground tanks can be designed with innovative changes to complement the environment. Tanks can be constructed to eliminate the vapor and odor emanating from their contents. Aboveground tanks are sometimes considered eyesores, and in some areas the landscaping has to be improved before they are tolerated. A more universal concern, however, is the vapor or odor that emanates from the tanks as a result of the materials being sorted. The assertive posture some segments of the public now take may eventually force legislatures to classify certain vapors as hazardous pollutants or simply health risks. In any case, responsibility will be leveled at the corporation and subsequent remedy could increase cost beyond preventive measures. The new approach to design and construction of aboveground tanks will forestall any panic which might be induced or perceived by environmentalists. Recently, actions by local authorities and complaining residents were sufficient to cause a corporation to curtail odorous emissions through a change in tank design. The tank design change eliminated the odor from fuel oil vapor thus removing the threat to the environment that the residents perceived. The design includes reinforcement to the tank structure and the addition of an adsorption section. This section allows the tanks to function without any limitation and their contents do not foul the environment. The vapor and odor control was completed successfully on 6,000,000 gallon capacity tanks

  13. 76 FR 25211 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... public rulemaking (NOPR) for the fluorescent lamp ballast standards rulemaking. 76 FR 20090. For the test... supplemental notice of proposed rulemaking (SNOPR). 75 FR 71570. All comments on the fluorescent lamp ballast... rulemaking''). DOE initiated that rulemaking by publishing a Federal Register (FR) notice announcing a...

  14. 75 FR 14287 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... Framework Document for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts,'') on January 22, 2008. 73 FR 3653. DOE has completed the... consumption for fluorescent lamp ballasts in the Federal Register on October 22, 2009. 74 FR 54445. II... service fluorescent lamps and incandescent reflector lamps (74 FR 34080) adopted a new definition...

  15. 75 FR 71570 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Availability of the Framework Document for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts'') on January 22, 2008. 73 FR 3653. On...) for the fluorescent lamp ballast standards rulemaking. 75 FR 14319. DOE also published a test... initiated that rulemaking by publishing a Federal Register (FR) notice announcing a public meeting...

  16. Development and testing of a rapid, sensitive ATP assay to detect living organisms in ballast water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Slooten, C.; Wijers, T,; Buma, A.G.J.; Peperzak, L.

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the spread of aquatic invasive species, the discharge of ballast water by ships will soon be compulsorily regulated by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the United States Coast Guard (USCG). Compliance with their regulations will have to be achieved by onboard ballast water

  17. A unique aspect of ballast water management requirements – The same location concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under certain circumstances vessels do not need to meet ballast water management requirements as stated in the International Convention for the Management and Control of Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM Convention). Besides exceptions to ensure e.g., (a) the safety of a ship, (b) discharge of ballast water for the purpose of avoiding or minimizing pollution incidents, (c) uptake and discharge on high seas of the same ballast water, the same location concept comes into play as ballast water discharges from a ship at the same location where it was taken up is also excepted from BWM requirements. The term same location was not defined in this instrument, hence it is exposed to different interpretations (e.g., a terminal, a port, a larger area where two or more ports may be located). As the BWM Convention is an instrument with biological meaning, the authors recommend a biologically meaningful definition of the same location in this contribution.

  18. Characterization of ballasted flocs in water treatment using microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Mathieu; Barbeau, Benoit

    2016-03-01

    Ballasted flocculation is widely used in the water industry for drinking water, municipal wastewater, storm water and industrial water treatment. This gravity-based physicochemical separation process involves the injection of a ballasting agent, typically microsand, to increase the floc density and size. However, the physical characteristics of the final ballasted flocs are still ill-defined. A microscopic method was specifically developed to characterize floc 1) density, 2) size and 3) shape factor. Using this information, probability density functions (PDFs) of the floc settling velocity were calculated. The impacts of the mixing intensity, polymer dosage, microsand size and contact time during the floc maturation phase were assessed. No correlation was identified between the floc diameter, form and density PDFs. The floc equivalent diameter mainly controls the settling velocity (r = 0.94), with the floc density (r = 0.26) and shape factor (r = 0.25) having lower impacts. A velocity gradient of 165 s(-1) was optimal to maintain the microsand in suspension while simultaneously maximizing the floc diameter. An anionic high molecular weight polyacrylamide formed 1.5-fold larger aggregates compared with the starch-based polymer tested, but both polymers produced flocs of similar density (relative density = 1.53 ± 0.03). Generally, the floc mean settling velocity is a good predictor of the turbidity removal. An in-depth analysis of the floc characteristics indicates a correlation between the floc size and the largest microsand grain potentially embeddable in the floc structure. PMID:26724446

  19. Optimal Control of a Ballast-Stabilized Floating Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Søren; Knudsen, Torben; Bak, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    structural stiffness of a floating installation in combination with a coupling between the fore–aft motion of the tower and the blade pitch. To address this problem, the present paper models a ballast-stabilized floating wind turbine, and suggests a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) in combination with a wind...... estimator and a state observer. The results are simulated using aero elastic code and analysed in terms of damage equivalent loads. When compared to a baseline controller, this controller clearly demonstrates better generator speed and power tracking while reducing fatigue loads....

  20. DYNAMIC MODELING FOR AIRSHIP EQUIPPED WITH BALLONETS AND BALLAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Zi-li; QU Wei-dong; XI Yu-geng

    2005-01-01

    Total dynamics of an airship is modeled. The body of an airship is taken as a submerged rigid body with neutral buoyancy, i. e. , buoyancy with value equal to that of gravity, and the coupled dynamics between the body with ballonets and ballast is considered. The total dynamics of the airship is firstly derived by Newton-Euler laws and Kirchhoff's equations. Furthermore, by using Hamiltonian and Lagrangian semidirect product reduction theories, the dynamics is formulated as a Lie-Poisson system,control design using energy-based methods for Hamiltonian or Lagrangian system.

  1. A Novel Single-Switch Single-Stage Electronic Ballast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu-Hua Zhu; Xing-Bi Chen; Hong-Sheng Zhong

    2009-01-01

    A single-stage single-switch high- frequency electronic ballast topology is presented. The circuit topology is the integration of a buck power- factor-correction (PFC) converter and a class E resonant inverter with only one active power switch. The buck converter is operated in discontinuous conduction mode and at a fixed switching frequency, and constant duty cycle to achieve high power factor and it can be controlled easily. Detailed analysis of the operation and characteristics of the circuit is provided. Simulation results satisfy present standard require- ments.

  2. 33 CFR 151.2037 - If my vessel cannot conduct ballast water management practices because of its voyage and/or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ballast water management practices because of its voyage and/or safety concerns, will I be prohibited from..., MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2037 If my vessel cannot conduct ballast water...

  3. Investigation of the hydro-mechanical behaviour of fouled ballast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-jun CUI; Trong Vinh DUONG; Anh Minh TANG; Jean-Claude DUPLA; Nicolas CALON; Alain ROBINET

    2013-01-01

    In this study,a fouled ballast taken from the site of Sénissiat,France,was investigated.For the hydraulic behaviour,a large-scale cell was developed allowing drainage and evaporation tests to be carried out with monitoring of both suction and volumetric water content at various positions of the sample.It was observed that the hydraulic conductivity of fouled ballast is decreasing with suction increase,as for common unsaturated soils.The effect of fines content was found to be negligible.For the mechanical behaviour,both monotonic and cyclic triaxial tests were carried out using a large-scale triaxial cell.Various water contents were considered.The results were interpreted in terms of shear strength and permanent axial strain.It appeared that the water content is an important factor to be accounted for since any increase of water content or degree of saturation significantly decreases the shear strength and increases the permanent strain.Constitutive modelling has been attempted based on the experimental results.The model in its current state is capable of describing the effects of stress level,cycle number and water content.

  4. Comparison of SeaWiFS images with ballast water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozai, K.; Ishida, H.; Okamoto, K.; Fukuyo, Y.

    It has become a great concern among the international communities that the ship's ballast water causes marine environmental disturbances of coastal ecosystem. And the regulations and prohibitions of ballast water discharge have already been executed by some coastal countries and discussed by the International Maritime Organization. Since Japan is the one of the largest exporting countries of ballast water, it is important to investigate how the ballast water is exchanged at open seas and influences the surrounding waters. In collaboration with a LNG carrier of 110,000 gross tons onboard sampling and plankton analysis of the ballast water have been carried out during the six cruises between Japan and Qatar from May, 2002 to July, 2003. SeaWiFS images including the ballast water exchange areas along the ship's route were acquired and processsed by using SeaDAS. Based on the plankton analysis phytoplankton and zooplankton species were identified and their numbers of cell were counted for each ballast water exchange. Skeletonema costatum was identified as a species for most of the cruises. Prorocentrum minimum and Prorocentrum micans were also identified in one of the cruises. Furthermore it is found out that the observed cell density is highly correlated with the corresponding SeaWiFS-derived diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490nm.

  5. Tests to evaluate the ecological impact of treated ballast water on three Chinese marine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanan; Wang, Zixi; Cai, Leiming; Cai, Xiang; Sun, Wenjun; Ma, Liqing

    2014-09-01

    Ballast water has been a topic of concern for some time because of its potential to introduce invasive species to new habitats. To comply with the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments, members of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) must equip their ships with on-board treatment systems to eliminate organism release with ballast water. There are many challenges associated with the implementation of this IMO guideline, one of which is the selection of species for testing the ecological impacts of the treated ballast water. In the United States, ballast water toxicity test methods have been defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. However, the test methods had not been finalized in China until the toxicity test methods for ballast water were established in 2008. The Chinese methods have been based on species from three trophic levels: Skeletonema costatum, Neomysis awatschensis, and Ctenogobius gymnauchen. All three species live in broad estuarine and open sea areas of China; they are sensitive to reference toxicants and acclimatize easily to different conditions. In this paper, the biological characteristics, test processes and statistical analysis methods are presented for the three species. Results indicate that the methods for evaluating these three organisms can be included in the ecological toxicity tests for treated ballast water in China.

  6. Numerical Investigation of a Liquid-Gas Ejector Used for Shipping Ballast Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueguan Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shipping ballast water can have significant ecological and economic impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Currently, water ejectors are widely used in marine applications for ballast water treatment owing to their high suction capability and reliability. In this communication, an improved ballast treatment system employing a liquid-gas ejector is introduced to clear the ballast water to reduce environmental risks. Commonly, the liquid-gas ejector uses ballast water as the primary fluid and chemical ozone as the secondary fluid. In this study, high-pressure water and air, instead of ballast water and ozone, are considered through extensive numerical and experimental research. The ejector is particularly studied by a steady three-dimensional multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD analysis with commercial software ANSYS-CFX 14.5. Different turbulence models (including standard k-ε, RNG k-ε, SST, and k-ω with different grid size and bubble size are compared extensively and the experiments are carried out to validate the numerical design and optimization. This study concludes that the RNG k-ε turbulence model is the most efficient and effective for the ballast water treatment system under consideration and simple change of nozzle shape can greatly improve the ejector performance under high back pressure conditions.

  7. Study of MIC impact in a full-scale ship ballast tank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyer, A.; Mol, J.M.C.; D'Souza, F.; Wit, J.H.W. de; Ferrari, G.

    2012-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of steel is a serious problem in the marine environment and many industries, such as the shipping industry. While electrochemical measurements such as impedance have been used in corrosion monitoring for several years, the true capabilities of the techniq

  8. EIS study of MIC in three different zones derived from ship ballast tank model system

    OpenAIRE

    Heyer, A.; Mol, J. M. C.; D'Souza, F; De Wit, J.H.W.; G. Ferrari

    2011-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a well known phenomenon in aquatic environments [1]. The presence of a biofilm on metal surface often establishes new electrochemical reaction pathways, or promotes reactions which are not normally favored in the absence of microorganisms, resulting in increased corrosion rates and on the performance of the material. A approach was made by using a new developed lab scale model system containing working electrodes in different height levels to si...

  9. Anticorrosion characteristics of a Zn-primer coating in a ballast tank under various chloride concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At an open-circuit potential, the anodic polarization curves had very similar values, and no significant differences were observed among the conditions. In the cathodic polarization curves, total residual chloride (TRC) reacted with the Zn-primer coating and created a film that had anticorrosion properties. Therefore, the anticorrosion property improved. With an increase in applied potential in the potentiostatic experiment, the observed surface corrosion occurred due to the dissolution reaction. From Tafel analysis, the corrosion current density had the highest value in natural seawater and the lowest value in the 2 ppm solution. Generally, metals corrode faster with increasing TRC concentration, but with the formation of Zn(OH)2, which has anticorrosion properties, the corrosion resistance of a Zn-primer-coated specimen in seawater can be improved.

  10. Obstacles and opportunities in the commercialization of the solid state electronic fluorescent lighting ballast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. R.; Marcus, A. A.; Campbell, R. S.; Sommers, P.; Skumatz, L.; Berk, B.; Petty, P.; Eschbach, C.

    1981-10-01

    A solid state ballast (SSB), which improves the efficiency of fluorescent lights, is described. The first generation of solid state electronic ballasts was developed and the technology was transferred to the private sector. The opportunities for rapid dissemination of this technology into the marketplace is examined. Product characteristics and their influence on the commercialization of the SSB, a description of the technology delivery system presently used by the ballast industry, an analysis of the market for SSB, and identification of some high leverage opportunities to accelerate the commercialization process are included.

  11. Obstacles and opportunities in the commercialization of the solid-state-electronic fluorescent-lighting ballast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.; Marcus, A.A.; Campbell, R.S.; Sommers, P.; Skumatz, L.; Berk, B.; Petty, P.; Eschbach, C.

    1981-10-01

    The Solid State Ballast (SSB) Program, aimed at improving the efficiency of fluorescent lights, is described. The first generation of solid state electronic ballasts has been developed and the technology has been transferred to the private sector. This report examines the opportunities for rapid dissemination of this technology into the marketplace. It includes a description of product characteristics and their influence on the commercialization of the SSB, a description of the technology delivery system presently used by the ballast industry, an analysis of the market for SSB, and identification of some high-leverage opportunities to accelerate the commercialization process. (MCW)

  12. Backfilling with mixtures of bentonite/ballast materials or natural smectitic clay?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparison of the performance of backfills of mixed MX-80 and crushed rock ballast, and a natural smectitic clay, represented by the German Friedland clay, shows that the latter performs better than mixtures with up to 30 % MX-80. Considering cost, Friedland clay prepared to yield air-dry powder grains is cheaper than mixtures of 30 % MX-80 and crushed ballast. Both technically and economically it appears that the Friedland clay is a competitive alternative to mixtures of 30 % MX-80 and crushed ballast. However, it remains to be demonstrated on a full scale that Friedland clay ground to a suitable grain size distribution can be acceptably compacted on site

  13. Nitrogen tank

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Wanted The technical file about the pressure vessel RP-270 It concerns the Nitrogen tank, 60m3, 22 bars, built in 1979, and installed at Point-2 for the former L3 experiment. If you are in possession of this file, or have any files about an equivalent tank (probably between registered No. RP-260 and -272), please contact Marc Tavlet, the ALICE Glimos.

  14. Treating ballast water with hydroxyl radical on introduced organisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With physical method of micro-gap gas discharge, a large amount of hydroxyl radical can be produced in 20t/h pilot-scale system using the ionization of O2 and H2O. In this paper, the effect of biochemistry of hydroxyl radicals on introduced organisms in ballast water was experimentally investigated. The results indicate that the contents of chlorophyl-a, chlorophyl-b, chlorophyl-c and carotenoid are decreased by 35%-64% within 8.0s and further to the lowest limit of test 5 minutes. In addition, the main reasons of cell death are the lipid peroxidation, the strong destruction to the monose, amylose, protein, DNA and RNA of cell, and damage in CAT, POD and SOD of antioxidant enzyme system.

  15. Simulation of gamma irradiation system for a ballast water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Invasion by different kinds of ballast the water microorganisms is one of the most important marine environment problems around the world therefore preventing the invasion of these unwanted and harmful stowaways is one of the main strategies of responsible agencies. Some of these methods such as ocean exchange, heating, filtration, hydro cyclones, UV irradiation and chemical treatment, have various problems such as technical deficiency, high costs, lack of safety and environmental side effects. Materials and Methods: A novel system of treatment by Gamma irradiation is designed to irradiate the blast water uniformly and effectively. To determine the dose distribution as a function of distance from the irradiation source, the MCNP code was used. The systems used for source implant in this simulation were Paterson-Parker, Paris and Network systems. In each system, Sivert-integral and inverse square law were used in MATLAB program to determine the dose distribution. Results: Results of initial laboratory tests on offshore water samples of Siri Island indicated that the appropriate dose for deactivation of organisms of water samples is approximately one kGy. It has been demonstrated that the dose can be provided by twenty five 100,000 Ci line sources of '60Co in a triangle implant arranged in a 1*1*1 m3 cubic shape water pipe. In order to increase efficiency and radiation safety, water passed from two other coaxial and bigger cubes, after passing from the first cube. A one meter thick wall of concrete around the cubes was adequate to shield the system completely. Conclusion: The main advantages of this system such as high efficiency, safety, reliability, minimum environmental adverse effects, proves that this novel method not only can be used for ballast water treatment, but is also effective for drinking water purification

  16. Application of polyurethane geocomposites to help maintain track geometry for high-speed ballasted railway tracks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Keith WOODWARD; Abdellah EL KACIMI; Omar LAGHROUCHE; Gabriela MEDERO; Meysam BANIMAHD

    2012-01-01

    There are many issues surrounding the performance of critical assets on high-speed ballasted railway lines.At assets like switch & crossings and bridge transitions high track forces can be produced resulting in higher ballast settlements and hence track misalignments.The latter result in higher track forces and hence more settlement,leading to the need for increased track maintenance to ensure comfort and safety.Current technologies for solving issues like ballast movement under high-speed loading regimes are limited.However,a technique that has been well used across the UK and now increasingly overseas to stabilise and reinforce ballasted railway tracks is the application of in-situ polyurethane polymers,termed XiTRACK.This paper discusses how this technique can be used to solve these types of long-standing issues and presents actual polymer application profiles at two typical critical sites,namely a junction and a transition onto concrete slab-track.

  17. Characterization of Bacteria in Ballast Water Using MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Emami, K.; Askari, V.; Ullrich, M.; Mohinudeen, K.; Anil, A.C.; Khandeparker, L.; Burgess, J.G.; Mesbahi, E.

    To evaluate a rapid and cost-effective method for monitoring bacteria in ballast water, several marine bacterial isolates were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Since...

  18. An Investigation on the Energy Saving Potential of Electromagnetic Ballast Fluorescent Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Z. X.; Barsoum, N. N.

    2009-08-01

    Energy saving issue is a matter of great concern for industry and electrical utilities. Energy saving from fluorescent lamp system can be achieved by means of optimizing lighting level, reducing power consumption and improving the efficiency of fluorescent lamps. This paper presents an alternative energy saving control method for electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps. Non-linearity characteristics of fluorescent lamps and the effect of energy saving controller are taken into account in the proposed energy saving controller. The proposed energy saving controller provides energy saving feature and dimmable illuminance level control for electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps. In comparison to electronic ballast, integration of an energy saving controller with electromagnetic ballast results in less power consumption, less green house gas emission and longer lifespan at a much lower installation cost. Experiment results based on the proposed controller showed that 37.5% energy can be saved by reducing 15% of the AC line voltage.

  19. Comparison of mass and energy balances for air blown and thermally ballasted fluidized bed gasifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to compare the mass and energy balances for a conventional air blown fluidized bed gasifier and a ballasted fluidized bed gasifier developed at Iowa State University. The ballasted gasifier is an indirectly heated gasifier that uses a single reactor for both combustion and pyrolysis. Heat accumulated in high-temperature phase change material during the combustion phase is released during the pyrolysis phase to generate producer gas. Gas composition, tar and char contents, cold gas efficiency, carbon conversion, and hydrogen yield per unit biomass input were determined as part of these evaluation. During the pyrolysis phase of ballasted gasification, higher volumetric concentrations of hydrogen and methane were obtained than during air blown gasification. Hydrogen yield for ballasted gasification was 14 g kg−1 of biomass, which was about 20% higher than that obtained during air blown gasification. The higher heating value of the producer gas also reached higher levels during the ballasted pyrolysis phase than that of air blown gasification. Heating value for air blown gasification was 5.2 MJ m−3 whereas the heating value for the ballasted pyrolysis phase averaged 5.5 MJ m−3, reaching a maximum of 8.0 MJ m−3. The ballasted gasifier was expected to yield producer gas with average heating value as high as 15 MJ m−3 but excessive use of nitrogen to purge and cool the fuel feeder system greatly diluted the producer gas. Relatively simple redesign of the feeder system would greatly reduce the use of purge gas and may increase the heating values to about 17.5 MJ m−3. Higher char production per kilogram of biomass was associated with the ballasted system, producing 140 g kg−1 of biomass compared to only 53 g kg−1 of biomass during air blown gasification. On the other hand, tar concentrations in the producer gas were 6.0 g m−3 for ballasted gasification compared to 11.7 g m−3 for air blown gasification. On balance, carbon

  20. Ballast water: a review of the impact on the world public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CK Takahashi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the nineteenth century ships have been using ballast water (BW for safety, stability, propulsion and maneuverability, as well as to redress loss of fuel weight and water consumption, and to maintain structural stress at acceptable levels. Ballast water has been spreading many non-native species around the globe, but little is known about the extent and potential significance of ship-mediated transfer of microorganisms. The global movements of ballast water by ships create a long-distance dispersal mechanism for human pathogens that may be important in the worldwide distribution of microorganisms, as well as for the epidemiology of waterborne diseases. Only a few studies have been carried out on this subject, most of them involving ballast water containing crustacean larvae and phytoplankton. Specialized microbiological studies on these waters are necessary to avoid a repeat of what happened in 1991, when epidemic cholera was reported in Peru and rapidly spread through Latin America and Mexico. In July of 1992, Vibrio cholerae was found in the USA and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA determined that it came from ballast water of ships whose last port of call was in South America. In Brazil, just a few studies about the subject have been performed. An exploratory study by the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária - ANVISA found in ballast water different microorganisms, such as fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Clostridium perfringens, coliphages, Vibrio cholerae O1 and Vibrio cholerae non-O1. Until now, Brazil has been focusing only on organisms transported to its territory from other countries by ballast water, to avoid their establishment and dissemination in Brazilian areas. Studies that can assess the probability that water ballast carries pathogenic microorganisms are extremely important, as is the examination of ships that arrive in the country

  1. The research of electrical conductivity of ballast breakstone during transportation mineral fertilizers railway transport

    OpenAIRE

    Трикоз, Людмила Вікторівна; Багіянц, Ірина Вікторівна

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with influence of contamination of the ballast bed from mineral fertilizers on its specific electric conductivity. Electric conductivity has been determined for both clean and contaminated ballast. The electric conductivity of treated broken stone has been defined by the following method: the samples have been saturated with distilled water in prescribed proportion and mixed thoroughly until saturated solution has been obtained. The saturation has been defined by constant me...

  2. Digitally Controlled Integrated Electronic Ballast with Dimming and Power Factor Correction Features

    OpenAIRE

    C. Aguilar-Castillo; C.D. García-Beltrán; C. Morcillo-Herrera

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a digitally controlled integrated electronic ballast with dimming and power factor correctionfeatures. The control circuit is based on a low-cost PIC16C71 microcontroller where the different strategies for energysaving have been implemented. The ballast is operating in closed loop achieving tight lamp current regulation througha digital Proportional-Integral algorithm. The integrated power stage is based on a frequency-controlled single-switchboost rectifier plus a half-br...

  3. Investigating the effect of ballasting by CaCO 3 in Emiliania huxleyi: I. Formation, settling velocities and physical properties of aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Anja; Szlosek, Jennifer; Abramson, Lynn; Liu, Zhanfei; Lee, Cindy

    2009-08-01

    To investigate the role of ballasting by biogenic minerals in the export of organic matter in the ocean, a laboratory experiment was conducted comparing aggregate formation and settling velocity of non-calcifying and calcifying strains of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. Experiments were conducted by making aggregates using a roller table and following aggregate properties during incubation for a period of 40 days. Size, shape, and settling velocities of aggregates were described by image analysis of video pictures recorded during the roller tank incubation. Our results show that biogenic calcite has a strong effect on the formation rate and abundance of aggregates and on aggregate properties such as size, excess density, porosity, and settling velocity. Aggregates of calcifying cells (AGG CAL) formed faster, were smaller and had higher settling velocities, excess densities, and mass than those of non-calcifying cells (AGG NCAL). AGG CAL showed no loss during the duration of the experiment, whereas AGG NCAL decreased in size after 1 month of incubation. Potential mechanisms that can explain the different patterns in aggregate formation are discussed. Comparison of settling velocities of AGG CAL and AGG NCAL with aggregates formed by diatoms furthermore indicated that the ballast effect of calcite is greater than that of opal. Together these results help to better understand why calcite is of major importance for organic matter fluxes to the deep ocean.

  4. Evaluation of a force plate system for measuring center of pressure in railroad ballast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hang; Merryweather, Andrew; Bloswick, Donald

    2016-05-01

    Traditional biomechanical analyses have focused primarily on the human gait across hard, flat surfaces and provide little information about human locomotion as a function of work environment or terrain. The purpose of this study was evaluation of a force plate system for measure of center of pressure (COP) in railroad ballast by comparing its accuracy across three surface conditions (hard surface, mainline ballast and walking ballast) with two configurations (level and 7° cross-slope). Custom walkways and an isolation fixture were developed to rigidly attach a force plate beneath ballast surfaces to collect the COP. The difference in COP location (ΔCOPx, y, z) between the force plate system and a calibration system (motion capture derived) were compared using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results indicate that the effects of surface condition and configuration were not significant for ΔCOPx, y, z and no differences were found among the three surface conditions during pairwise comparison, though ΔCOPx, y, z were different between the center and corners of the force plate in ballasts for both level and cross-slope configurations. The system presented in this study demonstrates the feasibility of measuring the COP by using an isolation-fixture force plate to expand the scope of biomechanical studies on ballast surfaces that are level or cross-slope. PMID:27131198

  5. Evaluation of the Strength of Railway Ballast Using Point Load Test for Various Size Fractions and Particle Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohmishi, Mehdi; Palassi, Massoud

    2016-07-01

    The ballast layer is one of the most important components of the railway track superstructure in which angular aggregates of high strength rocks are used. Ballast degradation is one of the main sources of railway problems in which the ballast aggregates are gradually degraded due to the abrasion of the sharp corners of the angular particles and splitting each individual particle into two or several small pieces under loading. In this paper, the effects of rock type, aggregate size and particle shape on the strength of the single ballast particles are investigated. For this purpose, point load test is carried out on ballast aggregates of four rock types including basalt, marl, dolomite and trachyte. According to the obtained results, as the size of the aggregates increases, the point load strength index decreases. The influence of size on the strength is more noticeable for ballasts obtained from higher strength rocks. It is also found that the shape of ballast particles has no major effect on its strength. Furthermore, our findings show that the failure pattern for ballasts of higher strength is so that each particle commonly splits into three pieces; while the dominant failure pattern for ballast particles with less strength is breaking the particle into two pieces.

  6. Innovative Ballasted Flat Roof Solar PV Racking System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, Richard T.

    2015-01-23

    The objective of this project was to reduce the cost of racking for PV solar on flat commercial rooftops. Cost reductions would come from both labor savings and material savings related to the installation process. The rack would need to accommodate the majority of modules available on the market. Cascade Engineering has a long history of converting traditional metal type applications over to plastic. Injection molding of plastics have numerous advantages including selection of resin for the application, placing the material exactly where it is needed, designing in features that will speed up the installation process, and weight reduction of the array. A plastic rack would need to meet the requirements of UL2703, Mounting systems, mounting devices, clamping/retention devices, and ground lugs for use with flat-plate photovoltaic modules and panels. Comparing original data to the end of project racking design, racking material costs were reduced 50% and labor costs reduced 64%. The racking product accommodates all 60 and 72 cell panels on the market, meets UL2703 requirements, contributes only 1.3 pounds per square foot of weight to the array, requires little ballast to secure the array, automatically grounds the module when the module is secured, stacks/nests well for shipping/fewer lifts to the roof, provides integrated wire routing, allows water to drain on the roof, and accommodates various seismic roof connections. Project goals were achieved as noted in the original funding application.

  7. Tank 241-S-111: Tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, ORNL, and PNL tank vapor program. Scope of this plan is to provide guidance for sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-S-111 (this tank is on the organic and flammable gas watch list). This tank received Redox plant waste, among other wastes

  8. Tank 241-U-204 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the tank characterization plan for Tank 241-U-204 located in the 200 Area Tank Farm on the Hanford Reservation in Richland, Washington. This plan describes Data Quality Objectives (DQO) and presents historical information and scheduled sampling events for tank 241-U-204

  9. Tank 241-S-111: Tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-03-07

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, ORNL, and PNL tank vapor program. Scope of this plan is to provide guidance for sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-S-111 (this tank is on the organic and flammable gas watch list). This tank received Redox plant waste, among other wastes.

  10. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented

  11. Tank Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    For NASA's Apollo program, McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company, Huntington Beach, California, developed and built the S-IVB, uppermost stage of the three-stage Saturn V moonbooster. An important part of the development task was fabrication of a tank to contain liquid hydrogen fuel for the stage's rocket engine. The liquid hydrogen had to be contained at the supercold temperature of 423 degrees below zero Fahrenheit. The tank had to be perfectly insulated to keep engine or solar heat from reaching the fuel; if the hydrogen were permitted to warm up, it would have boiled off, or converted to gaseous form, reducing the amount of fuel available to the engine. McDonnell Douglas' answer was a supereffective insulation called 3D, which consisted of a one-inch thickness of polyurethane foam reinforced in three dimensions with fiberglass threads. Over a 13-year development and construction period, the company built 30 tanks and never experienced a failure. Now, after years of additional development, an advanced version of 3D is finding application as part of a containment system for transporting Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) by ship.

  12. 10 CFR 431.324 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of metal halide ballasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of metal halide ballasts. 431.324 Section 431.324 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Metal Halide Lamp Ballasts...

  13. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts Q Appendix Q to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Appendix Q to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent... fluorescent lamp ballast. 1.4DC control signal means a direct current (DC) signal that is supplied to...

  14. Diversity of bacteria in ships ballast water as revealed by next generation DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmeyer, Robin

    2016-06-15

    The bacterial diversity in ballast water from five general cargo ships calling at the Port of Houston was determined with ion semiconductor DNA sequencing (Ion Torrent PGM) of PCR amplified 16S rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the composition of bacteria in ballast water did not resemble that of typical marine habitats or even open ocean waters where BWEs occur. The predominant group of bacteria in ships conducting BWEs was the Roseobacter clade within the Alphaproteobacteria. In contrast, Gammaproteobacteria were predominant in the ship that did not conduct a BWE. All the ships contained human, fish, and terrestrial plant pathogens as well as bacteria indicative of fecal or activated sludge contamination. Most of the 60 pathogens had not been detected in ballast water previously. Among these were the human pathogens Corynebacterium diptheriae and several Legionella species and the fish pathogens Francisella piscicida and Piscirickettsia salmonis. PMID:27076378

  15. Effects of Hydroxyl Radicals on Introduced Organisms of Ship's Ballast Water Based Micro-Gap Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Mindong; ZHANG Zhitao; BAI Mindi; YANG Bo; BAI Xiyao

    2007-01-01

    With the physical method of micro-gap gas discharge,OH.radicals were produced by the ionization of O2 in air and H2O in the gaseous state,in order to explore more effective method totreat the ship's ballast water.The surface morphology of A1203 dielectric layer was analysed using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM),where the size of A1203 particles was in the range of 2 μm to 5 μm.At the same time,the biochemical effect of hydroxyl radicals on the introduced organisms and the quality of ship's ballast water were studied.The results indicate that the main reasons of cell death are lipid peroxide and damage of the antioxidant enzyme system in Catalase (CAT),Peroxidase (POD) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD).In addition,the quality of the ballast water was greatly improved.

  16. Effect of particle breakage on cyclic densification of ballast: A DEM approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of particle breakage on densification behaviour of ballast under cyclic loading using Discrete Element Method (DEM). Numerical simulations using PFC2D have been carried out on an assembly of angular particles with and without incorporation of particle breakage. Two-dimensional projection of angular ballast particles were simulated using clusters of bonded circular particles. Degradation of the bonds within a cluster was considered to represent particle breakage. Clump logic was used to make the cluster of particles unbreakable. DEM simulation results highlight that the particle breakage has a profound influence on the cyclic densification behaviour of ballast. The deformation behaviour exhibited by the assembly with breakage is in good agreement with the laboratory experiments. In addition, the evolution of particle displacement vectors clearly explains the breakage mechanism and associated deformations during cyclic loading.

  17. Effect of particle breakage on cyclic densification of ballast: A DEM approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, P. K.; Vinod, J. S.; Indraratna, B.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of particle breakage on densification behaviour of ballast under cyclic loading using Discrete Element Method (DEM). Numerical simulations using PFC2D have been carried out on an assembly of angular particles with and without incorporation of particle breakage. Two-dimensional projection of angular ballast particles were simulated using clusters of bonded circular particles. Degradation of the bonds within a cluster was considered to represent particle breakage. Clump logic was used to make the cluster of particles unbreakable. DEM simulation results highlight that the particle breakage has a profound influence on the cyclic densification behaviour of ballast. The deformation behaviour exhibited by the assembly with breakage is in good agreement with the laboratory experiments. In addition, the evolution of particle displacement vectors clearly explains the breakage mechanism and associated deformations during cyclic loading.

  18. Backfilling with mixtures of bentonite/ballast materials or natural smectitic clay?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, R. [Geodevelopment AB, (Sweden)

    1998-10-01

    Comparison of the performance of backfills of mixed MX-80 and crushed rock ballast, and a natural smectitic clay, represented by the German Friedland clay, shows that the latter performs better than mixtures with up to 30 % MX-80. Considering cost, Friedland clay prepared to yield air-dry powder grains is cheaper than mixtures of 30 % MX-80 and crushed ballast. Both technically and economically it appears that the Friedland clay is a competitive alternative to mixtures of 30 % MX-80 and crushed ballast. However, it remains to be demonstrated on a full scale that Friedland clay ground to a suitable grain size distribution can be acceptably compacted on site 14 refs, 32 figs, 6 tabs

  19. Lamp-Ballast Compatibility Index for Efficient Ceramic Metal Halide Lamp Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourish Chatterjee

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of energy efficient products and exploration of energy saving potential are major challenges for present day’s technology. Ceramic Metal Halide lamp is the latest improved version of metal halide lamp that finds its wide applications in indoor commercial lighting especially in retail shop lighting. This lamp shows better performance in terms of higher lumen per watt and colour constancy in comparison to conventional metal halide lamp. The inherent negative incremental impedance of CMH lamp demands the use of current control device in the lamp circuit and perfect matching of lamp ballast combination is required for efficient lamp operation. The electrical and photometric performance of two sets of commercial 70 watt CMH lamp and intregated ballast units were measured to investigate their compatibility for optimum lamp operation. The measured data were utilized to develop an electrical model for lamp ballast combination. Using this model a compatibility index is proposed which can be used for assessment of lamp performance.

  20. 49 CFR 172.331 - Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.331 Section 172.331 Transportation Other Regulations... packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) Each...

  1. A comparison of six different ballast water treatment systems based on UV radiation, electrochlorination and chlorine dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehouwer, Peter Paul; Buma, Anita; Peperzak, Louis

    2015-01-01

    The spread of aquatic invasive species through ballast water is a major ecological and economical threat. Because of this, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) set limits to the concentrations of organisms allowed in ballast water. To meet these limits, ballast water treatment systems (BWTSs) were developed. The main techniques used for ballast water treatment are ultraviolet (UV) radiation and electrochlorination (EC). In this study, phytoplankton regrowth after treatment was followed for six BWTSs. Natural plankton communities were treated and incubated for 20 days. Growth, photosystem II efficiency and species composition were followed. The three UV systems all showed similar patterns of decrease in phytoplankton concentrations followed by regrowth. The two EC and the chlorine dioxide systems showed comparable results. However, UV- and chlorine-based treatment systems showed significantly different responses. Overall, all BWTSs reduced phytoplankton concentrations to below the IMO limits, which represents a reduced risk of aquatic invasions through ballast water. PMID:25704551

  2. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1999-02-24

    This report examines the feasibility of remediating ancillary equipment associated with the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. Ancillary equipment includes surface structures and equipment, process waste piping, ventilation components, wells, and pits, boxes, sumps, and tanks used to make waste transfers to/from the AX tanks and adjoining tank farms. Two remedial alternatives are considered: (1) excavation and removal of all ancillary equipment items, and (2) in-situ stabilization by grout filling, the 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a strawman in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tanks. This is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

  3. 49 CFR 172.330 - Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.330..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.330 Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a... material— (1) In a tank car unless the following conditions are met: (i) The tank car must be marked...

  4. 76 FR 70547 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... product classes analyzed as representative (see section V.B.6), as measured by the average life-cycle cost... 3. Summary of Markups D. Energy Use Analysis E. Life-Cycle Cost and Payback Period Analyses 1... rulemaking cycles by publishing the 2000 Ballast Rule. 65 FR 56740 (Sept. 19, 2000). In this rulemaking,...

  5. An Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Testing of a Ballast Exchange Assurance Meter (BEAM) 100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mid-ocean ballast water exchange (BWE) is mandatory for all vessels entering U.S. waters from outside the 200-mile exclusive economic zone. To support such regulation, accurate and portable verification tools are needed for determining that BWE has taken place. One parameter pr...

  6. Novel Electrokinetic Microfluidic Detector for Evaluating Effectiveness of Microalgae Disinfection in Ship Ballast Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myint Myint Maw

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ship ballast water treatment methods face many technical challenges. The effectiveness of every treatment method usually is evaluated by using large scale equipment and a large volume of samples, which involves time-consuming, laborious, and complex operations. This paper reports the development of a novel, simple and fast platform of methodology in evaluating the efficiency and the best parameters for ballast water treatment systems, particularly in chemical disinfection. In this study, a microfluidic chip with six sample wells and a waste well was designed, where sample transportation was controlled by electrokinetic flow. The performance of this microfluidic platform was evaluated by detecting the disinfection of Dunaliella salina (D. salina algae in ballast water treated by sodium hypochlorite (NaClO solution. Light-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (LICF intensity was used to determine the viability of microalgae cells in the system, which can be operated automatically with the dimension of the detector as small as 50 mm × 24 mm × 5 mm. The 40 µL volume of sample solution was used for each treatment condition test and the validity of detection can be accomplished within about five min. The results show that the viability of microalgae cells under different treatment conditions can be determined accurately and further optimal treatment conditions including concentrations of NaClO and treatment time can also be obtained. These results can provide accurate evaluation and optimal parameters for ballast water treatment methods.

  7. Efficacy and production of disinfection by-products of ozone treated ballast water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneekes, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    AirTree is preparing for land-based testing at the NIOZ/IMARES test facility. As the Ballast Water Management System (BWMS) developed by AirTree uses ozone as active substance, IMO Guideline G9 applies and Basic and Final Approval are also required. In preparing the Basic Approval dossier, it appear

  8. 76 FR 20089 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... Interstate Rule (CAIR, 70 FR 25162 (May 12, 2005)), but not the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR, 70 FR 28606... Clean Air Transport Rule (75 FR 45210 (August 2, 2010)), do not appear in the forecast. \\5\\ DOE is aware... system. DOE's current test procedures for ballasts address such standby mode energy use. 74 FR...

  9. Comparisons of interdisciplinary ballast water treatment systems and operational experiences from ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalar, Goran

    2016-01-01

    There are high functioning and low functioning ballast water treatment systems on board ships. In this study, five systems were analysed so as to methodically examine the operational difficulties for ship crew members while giving important consideration to sustainable environment practices. Multi-criteria analysis, a questionnaire, survey and interviews were used as the research method so as to ascertain and corroborate existing problems on board ships, and the reliability of the systems was calculated. The co-insistency, maintenance and the efficiency of the systems, were shown as being the major problem as there are no systems for tracking ship ballast operations from land. The treatment system that used oxidants was, through multi criteria analysis, evaluated as being the best and was ranked first. However, the survey results showed that the ship's crew had serious problems with this system which difficult to solve during the ship's operations with cargo. The deoxygenation system was the most appropriate according to ballast water treatment criteria in the port or at sea. The treatment system which used electrolysis with oxidant was better in terms of efficacy and the treatment system electrolysis with ultra violet light was better in terms of the criterion environment pollution footprint. During further research, it was shown that 7 % of the surveyed crew members had major problems with operating ballast water treatment systems, including the system which was ranked first through multi criteria analysis. They by-passed these systems while continuing to ballast or de-ballast. It was calculated that of the total time needed for the ballast water treatment system operation, 9 % of this time was used for repairs or maintenance of the systems. Some examples are changing a used UV bulb, cleaning the filter or controlling the amount of oxidant which would be discharged into the sea. A conclusion was made and solution was suggested. The study results emphasised

  10. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report considers the feasibility of exposing, demolishing, and removing underground storage tanks from the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. For the study, it was assumed that the tanks would each contain 360 ft3 of residual waste (corresponding to the one percent residual Inventory target cited in the Tri-Party Agreement) at the time of demolition. The 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a ''strawman'' in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tank farms. The report is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms

  11. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1998-10-14

    This report considers the feasibility of exposing, demolishing, and removing underground storage tanks from the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. For the study, it was assumed that the tanks would each contain 360 ft{sup 3} of residual waste (corresponding to the one percent residual Inventory target cited in the Tri-Party Agreement) at the time of demolition. The 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a ''strawman'' in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tank farms. The report is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

  12. Tank 241-C-103 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data quality objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used to identify the sampling analytical needs for the resolution of safety issues. A Tank Characterization Plant (TCP) will be developed for each double shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process. There are four Watch list tank classifications (ferrocyanide, organic salts, hydrogen/flammable gas, and high heat load). These classifications cover the six safety issues related to public and worker health that have been associated with the Hanford Site underground storage tanks. These safety issues are as follows: ferrocyanide, flammable gas, organic, criticality, high heat, and vapor safety issues. Tank C-103 is one of the twenty tanks currently on the Organic Salts Watch List. This TCP will identify characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, hot cell sample isolation, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements in accordance with the appropriate DQO documents. In addition, the current contents and status of the tank are projected from historical information. The relevant safety issues that are of concern for tanks on the Organic Salts Watch List are: the potential for an exothermic reaction occurring from the flammable mixture of organic materials and nitrate/nitrite salts that could result in a release of radioactive material and the possibility that other safety issues may exist for the tank

  13. Tank 241-AW-101 tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathyanarayana, P.

    1994-11-22

    The first section gives a summary of the available information for Tank AW-101. Included in the discussion are the process history and recent sampling events for the tank, as well as general information about the tank such as its age and the risers to be used for sampling. Tank 241-AW-101 is one of the 25 tanks on the Flammable Gas Watch List. To resolve the Flammable Gas safety issue, characterization of the tanks, including intrusive tank sampling, must be performed. Prior to sampling, however, the potential for the following scenarios must be evaluated: the potential for ignition of flammable gases such as hydrogen-air and/or hydrogen-nitrous oxide; and the potential for secondary ignition of organic-nitrate/nitrate mixtures in crust layer initiated by the burning of flammable gases or by a mechanical in-tank energy source. The characterization effort applicable to this Tank Characterization Plan is focused on the resolution of the crust burn flammable gas safety issue of Tank AW-101. To evaluate the potential for a crust burn of the waste material, calorimetry tests will be performed on the waste. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) will be used to determine whether an exothermic reaction exists.

  14. Tank 241-AW-101 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first section gives a summary of the available information for Tank AW-101. Included in the discussion are the process history and recent sampling events for the tank, as well as general information about the tank such as its age and the risers to be used for sampling. Tank 241-AW-101 is one of the 25 tanks on the Flammable Gas Watch List. To resolve the Flammable Gas safety issue, characterization of the tanks, including intrusive tank sampling, must be performed. Prior to sampling, however, the potential for the following scenarios must be evaluated: the potential for ignition of flammable gases such as hydrogen-air and/or hydrogen-nitrous oxide; and the potential for secondary ignition of organic-nitrate/nitrate mixtures in crust layer initiated by the burning of flammable gases or by a mechanical in-tank energy source. The characterization effort applicable to this Tank Characterization Plan is focused on the resolution of the crust burn flammable gas safety issue of Tank AW-101. To evaluate the potential for a crust burn of the waste material, calorimetry tests will be performed on the waste. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) will be used to determine whether an exothermic reaction exists

  15. Effect of type and concentration of ballasting particles on sinking rate of marine snow produced by the appendicularian Oikopleura dioica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Lombard

    Full Text Available Ballast material (organic, opal, calcite, lithogenic is suggested to affect sinking speed of aggregates in the ocean. Here, we tested this hypothesis by incubating appendicularians in suspensions of different algae or Saharan dust, and observing the sinking speed of the marine snow formed by their discarded houses. We show that calcite increases the sinking speeds of aggregates by ~100% and lithogenic material by ~150% while opal only has a minor effect. Furthermore the effect of ballast particle concentration was causing a 33 m d(-1 increase in sinking speed for a 5×10(5 µm(3 ml(-1 increase in particle concentration, near independent on ballast type. We finally compare our observations to the literature and stress the need to generate aggregates similar to those in nature in order to get realistic estimates of the impact of ballast particles on sinking speeds.

  16. Effect of type and concentration of ballasting particles on sinking rate of marine snow produced by the appendicularian Oikopleura dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Fabien; Guidi, Lionel; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Ballast material (organic, opal, calcite, lithogenic) is suggested to affect sinking speed of aggregates in the ocean. Here, we tested this hypothesis by incubating appendicularians in suspensions of different algae or Saharan dust, and observing the sinking speed of the marine snow formed by their discarded houses. We show that calcite increases the sinking speeds of aggregates by ~100% and lithogenic material by ~150% while opal only has a minor effect. Furthermore the effect of ballast particle concentration was causing a 33 m d(-1) increase in sinking speed for a 5×10(5) µm(3) ml(-1) increase in particle concentration, near independent on ballast type. We finally compare our observations to the literature and stress the need to generate aggregates similar to those in nature in order to get realistic estimates of the impact of ballast particles on sinking speeds. PMID:24086610

  17. Applied for a Patent of Super First Grade, 'Electronic Ballast': fresh breeze to the related business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Editor [Korea Energy Management Corporation, Yongin (Korea)

    2002-01-01

    The features of electronic ballast developed in FINE DNC Co., Ltd are to save 30% of electricity consumption and have a high power factor of more than 98%. This product is applying for a patent now. With adopting a new method - a fixed current preheating method -, the ballast preheats at the fixed preheating time and the fixed preheating current. Since the ballast makes a lamp light up after preheating enough regardless of lamp manufacturer's features, therefore, the durability of a lamp can be guaranteed. Major features are as follows: The durability of a lamp is prolonged to 2-3 times as long as the original; because the light on lighting slowly changes into high brightness, dazzling is not caused and neighboring electronic appliances are not influenced; the stable out wave by using the ballast prolongs the durability of a lamp; the protecting circuit for over current and over voltage is built-in.

  18. Testing the BIO-SEA ballast water management system; Filter efficiency tests with high levels of zooplankton

    OpenAIRE

    Kaag, N.H.B.M.; Sneekes, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    The BIO-SEA® Ballast Water Treatment System (BWTS) was tested at the IMARES land-based test facility. General goal of the tests was to compare two different brands of filter and to test the filter efficiency of finer mesh sizes of each brand. The filters were tested in combination with a ‘one-shot UVtreatment’ (ballasting and deballasting the same day) in order to evaluate the effect of the filters on the overall treatment efficacy.

  19. Theoretical comparison between solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank solar combisystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon; Bales, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical investigations have shown that solar combisystems based on bikini tanks for low energy houses perform better than solar domestic hot water systems based on mantle tanks. Tank-in-tank solar combisystems are also attractive from a thermal performance point of view. In this paper......, theoretical comparisons between solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank solar combisystems are presented....

  20. Tank characterization report: Tank 241-C-109

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-shell tank 241-C-109 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in September 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-109 were conducted to support the resolution of the ferrocyanide unreviewed safety question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and consent Order (Tri- Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. This report describes this analysis

  1. Tank characterization report: Tank 241-C-109

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, B.C.; Borshiem, G.L.; Jensen, L.

    1993-09-01

    Single-shell tank 241-C-109 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in September 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-109 were conducted to support the resolution of the ferrocyanide unreviewed safety question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and consent Order (Tri- Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. This report describes this analysis.

  2. Tank 241-B-101 tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-04-28

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) has advised the US Department of Energy (DOE) to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues (Conway 1993). The data quality objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used to identify the sampling and analytical needs for the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement or TPA) milestone M-44 has been made, which states that ``A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process``. This document satisfies that requirement for tank 241-B-101 (B-101) sampling activities. Tank B-101 is identified as a low-heat load non-Watch List tank, and is classified as an assumed leaker. The tank is passively ventilated, interim stabilized, and intrusion prevention measures have been completed. As of January 31, 1995, approximately 428,000 liters of non-complexed waste was contained in the tank. Tank B-101 is expected to have two primary layers. A layer of saltcake waste generated from the 242-B evaporator, followed by a top layer of sludge composed of B-Plant high-level, B-Plant low-level, and unknown waste.

  3. Tank 244A tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Double-Shell Tank (DST) System currently receives waste from the Single-Shell Tank (SST) System in support of SST stabilization efforts or from other on-site facilities which generate or store waste. Waste is also transferred between individual DSTs. The mixing or commingling of potentially incompatible waste types at the Hanford Site must be addressed prior to any waste transfers into the DSTs. The primary goal of the Waste Compatibility Program is to prevent the formation of an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) as a result of improper waste management. Tank 244A is a Double Contained Receiver Tank (DCRT) which serves as any overflow tank for the East Area Farms. Waste material is able to flow freely between the underground storage tanks and tank 244A. Therefore, it is necessary to test the waste in tank 244A for compatibility purposes. Two issues related to the overall problem of waste compatibility must be evaluated: Assurance of continued operability during waste transfer and waste concentration and Assurance that safety problems are not created as a result of commingling wastes under interim storage. The results of the grab sampling activity prescribed by this Tank Characterization Plan shall help determine the potential for four kinds of safety problems: criticality, flammable gas accumulation, energetics, and corrosion and leakage

  4. Evaluation Of Flexure Strength Behavior Of Over Burnt Brick Ballast Aggregate Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Ali,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional conditions enforced engineers to generate a study on concrete which incorporate Over Burnt Brick Ballast Aggregate partially due to their abundance. 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% (M05, M10, M15, M20 incorporation was used as partial replacement of natural coarse aggregate in concrete. Analysis of incorporated concrete was done in fresh state as well in hardened state to evaluate different properties of concrete i.e. slump value, compaction factor value, unit weight, flexural strength and Los Angeles abrasion value. From experimental approach it is concluded that Concrete formed with over burnt brick ballast aggregate showed beneficial performance as compared with the concrete made up of natural aggregate obtained from Sargodha. It reduces the cost of concrete by reducing the aggregate cost and produces economical infrastructure system. The waste generated from the brick kiln is utilized efficiently, making environment friendly encouraging green construction.

  5. Assessing exemptions under the ballast water management convention: preclude the Trojan horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olenin, Sergej; Ojaveer, Henn; Minchin, Dan; Boelens, Rick

    2016-02-15

    The International Maritime Organization (IMO) Ballast Water Management Convention (BWMC) is a powerful instrument aimed at reducing spread of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens (HAOPs). As BWMC is expected to enter into force soon, shipping companies will start seeking exemptions for ballast water management in accordance with BWMC Regulation A-4. However, without scientifically robust risk assessment (RA) and consistent rules, the exemptions may introduce a new form of risk within a convention generally designed to reduce risks. This paper describes an adaptive system for granting exemptions, consisting of six major components: target species selection procedure, port-to-port RA, monitoring, information support, administrative decision and review process. The system is based on key principles defined in the IMO guidelines for RA and is designed to continuously accumulate evolving experience on granting exemptions. The ultimate goal is to contribute to the control of the spread of HAOPs, without placing an unnecessary burden on the shipping industry. PMID:26795122

  6. Global ballast water management and the "same location" concept: a clear term or a clear issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Matej; Gollasch, Stephan; Pavliha, Marko

    2013-03-01

    The United Nations recognized the transfer of harmful organisms and pathogens across natural barriers as one of the four greatest pressures to the world's oceans and seas, causing global environmental changes, while also posing a threat to human health, property, and resources. Ballast water transferred by vessels was recognized as a prominent vector of such species and was regulated by the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ship's Ballast Water and Sediments (2004). Permanent exceptions from ballast water management requirements may apply when the uptake and discharge of ballast water occur at the "same location." However, the "same location" concept may be interpreted differently, e.g., a port basin, a port, an anchorage, or a larger area even with more ports inside. Considering that the Convention is nearing the beginning of enforcement, national authorities all around the world will soon be exposed to applications for exceptions. Here we consider possible effects of different interpretations of the "same location" concept. We have considered different possible extensions of the same location through environmental, shipping, and legal aspects. The extension of such areas, and the inclusion of more ports, may compromise the Convention's main purpose. We recommend that "same location" mean the smallest practicable unit, i.e., the same harbor, mooring, or anchorage. An entire smaller port, possibly also including the anchorage, could be considered as same location. For larger ports with a gradient of environmental conditions, "same location" should mean a terminal or a port basin. We further recommend that IMO consider the preparation of a guidance document to include concepts, criteria, and processes outlining how to identify "same location," which limits should be clearly identified. PMID:23634585

  7. Evaluation Of Flexure Strength Behavior Of Over Burnt Brick Ballast Aggregate Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq Ali; Nouman Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Regional conditions enforced engineers to generate a study on concrete which incorporate Over Burnt Brick Ballast Aggregate partially due to their abundance. 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% (M05, M10, M15, M20) incorporation was used as partial replacement of natural coarse aggregate in concrete. Analysis of incorporated concrete was done in fresh state as well in hardened state to evaluate different properties of concrete i.e. slump value, compaction factor value, unit weight, flexural...

  8. Three Dimensional Passive Integrated Electronic Ballast for Low Wattage HID Lamps

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Around 19% of global power consumption and around 3% of global oil demand is attributable to lighting. After the first incandescent lamp was invented in 1879, more and more energy efficient lighting devices, such as gas discharge lamps, and light-emitting diodes (LED), have been developed during the last century. It is estimated that over 38% of future global lighting energy demand could be avoided by the use of more efficient lamps and ballasts [1]. High intensity discharge (HID) lamp...

  9. A GPR-based simulation approach for the analysis of railway ballast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Andrea; Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; Tosti, Fabio; Pajewski, Lara; Alani, Amir M.; Loizos, Andreas; Umiliaco, Andrea; Giulia Brancadoro, Maria; Pirrone, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    This study aims at proposing a model capable to assess the physical conditions of railway ballast, in terms of percentage of fouling within the material, by analyzing its electromagnetic response. For the calibration of such a model, a laboratory set-up was implemented in order to reproduce a real-scale railway environment. In more details, a 1.47 m long × 1.47 m wide × 0.48 m high plexiglass formwork was laid over a metal sheet, to define a proper domain of investigation. The formwork was then filled up with railway ballast, progressively fouled with a fine-grained pollutant material, namely, an A4 soil type according to the ASSHTO soil classification. At each step of fouling percentage, electromagnetic surveys were carried out by employing several ground-penetrating radar (GPR) systems, in both ground-coupled and air-coupled configurations. On the other hand, the validation of the model was performed through a simulation-based approach. In particular, the main physical and geometrical properties of each ballast-pollutant configuration were reproduced by means of a random sequence absorption (RSA) approach. For the representation of the shape of the solid matrix of the ballast, a relatively complex geometry was here adopted. Finally, the developed geometries were processed by the GprMax 2D numerical simulator, employing a finite-difference time domain (FDTD) model capable of generating a synthetic GPR response for the several configurations analysed in laboratory environment. As result, the potential of the combined use of RSA and FDTD approaches is demonstrated, and a model for characterizing such a complex coarse-grained heterogeneous material is finally proposed. Acknowledgement The Authors thank COST, for funding the Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar."

  10. Sunlight-induced photochemical decay of oxidants in natural waters: implications in ballast water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, William J; Jones, Adam C; Whitehead, Robert F; Zika, Rod G

    2007-05-15

    The transport and discharge of ship ballast water has been recognized as a major vector for the introduction of invasive species. Chemical oxidants, long used in drinking water and wastewater treatment, are alternative treatment methods for the control of invasive species currently being tested for use on ships. One concern when a ballasted vessel arrives in port is the adverse effects of residual oxidant in the treated water. The most common oxidants include chlorine (HOCl/OCl-), bromine (HOBr/OBr-), ozone (03), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), chlorine dioxide (ClO2), and monochloramine (NH2Cl). The present study was undertaken to evaluate the sunlight-mediated photochemical decomposition of these oxidants. Sunlight photodecomposition was measured at various pH using either distilled water or oligotrophic Gulf Stream water for specific oxidants. For selected oxidants, quantum yields at specific wavelengths were obtained. An environmental photochemical model, GCSOLAR, also provided predictions of the fate (sunlight photolysis half-lives) of HOCI/OCl-, HOBr/OBr-, ClO2, and NH2Cl for two different seasons at latitude 40 degrees and in water with two different concentrations of chromophoric dissolved organic matter. These data are useful in assessing the environmental fate of ballast water treatment oxidants if they were to be discharged in port. PMID:17547204

  11. Monitoring of Radionuclides in Ship Ballast Water Following the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballast water is the waters taken into the ship compartment to provide stability. It is taken on board at the port before the voyage begins and discharged at the port of call (arrival) while loading cargoes. Ballast is primarily composed of water and is full of stones, sediment, and thousands of living species. The quantity of water taken depends on the size of the ship and it can reach up to 10,000 tonnes. As a well known fact, Daiichi nuclear plant in Fukushima had released radioactive contaminated water into its surrounding sea and being dispersed by currents and tides. Therefore, ships travel between Malaysia and Japan in particular those from the affected regions and travel to Malaysia without cargoes will have a risk of transporting back radioactive contaminated water from Japan and released it at local ports. Malaysian Marine Department with the cooperation of Malaysian Nuclear Agency have been analysing the concentrations of several radionuclides in the ship's ballast water and sediment. This is to ensure the effective dosage is safe to the crews and general public as well to fulfill the permissible limit of 1 mSv/yr gazetted by the authorities. It is also to monitor that the contaminated water is not discharged into our marine environment. (author)

  12. Think tanks in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsten, Mark; Nørgaard Kristensen, Nete

    2016-01-01

    Though think tanks have a long history internationally, they have especially in recent years come to play an increasingly important role in both policy-formulation and public debate. In this article, we analyse the growing presence of think tanks in a Danish context during the 2000s and the first...... half of the 2010s, because in this national setting think tanks are still a relatively new phenomenon. Based on theories of mediatization and de-corporatization, we present 1) an analysis of the visibility of selected Danish think tanks in the media and 2) an analysis of their political networks...... outside the media. The study shows that the two largest and oldest think tanks in Denmark, the liberal think tank CEPOS and the social democratic think tank ECLM, are very active and observable in the media; that the media’s distribution of attention to these think tanks, to some extent, confirms a re...

  13. Tank 241-TY-101 Tank Characterization Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TY-101

  14. Tank 241-U-105 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-U-105

  15. Tank 241-U-103 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-U-103

  16. Tank 241-SX-103 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-SX-103

  17. Tank 241-BX-104 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-BX-104

  18. Tank 241-T-107 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-T-107

  19. Tank 241-TY-101 Tank Characterization Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-03-20

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TY-101.

  20. Tank 241-T-111 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-T-111

  1. Tank 241-TX-105 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TX-105

  2. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B

  3. Tank 241-AZ-101 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has advised the DOE to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, A revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process. Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information''. This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-AZ-101 (AZ-101) sampling activities. Tank AZ-101 is currently a non-Watch List tank, so the only DQOs applicable to this tank are the safety screening DQO and the compatibility DQO, as described below. The contents of Tank AZ-101, as of October 31, 1994, consisted of 3,630 kL (960 kgal) of dilute non-complexed waste and aging waste from PUREX (NCAW, neutralized current acid waste). Tank AZ-101 is expected to have two primary layers. The bottom layer is composed of 132 kL of sludge, and the top layer is composed of 3,500 kL of supernatant, with a total tank waste depth of approximately 8.87 meters

  4. Tank 241-AZ-102 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has advised the DOE to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process ... Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information''. This document satisfies that requirement for tank 241-AZ-102 (AZ-102) sampling activities. Tank AZ-102 is currently a non-Watch List tank, so the only DQOs applicable to this tank are the safety screening DQO and the compatibility DQO, as described below. The current contents of Tank AZ-102, as of October 31, 1994, consisted of 3,600 kL (950 kgal) of dilute non-complexed waste and aging waste from PUREX (NCAW, neutralized current acid waste). Tank AZ-102 is expected to have two primary layers. The bottom layer is composed of 360 kL of sludge, and the top layer is composed of 3,240 kL of supernatant, with a total tank waste depth of approximately 8.9 meters

  5. INVESTIGATION OF INNER SHEAR RESISTANCE OF GEOGRIDS BUILT UNDER GRANULAR PROTECTION LAYERS AND RAILWAY BALLAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sz. Fischer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Using adequate granular materials and layer structures in the railway super- and substructure is able to stabilise railway track geometry. For this purpose special behaviour of above materials has to be determined, e.g. inner shear resistance. Inner shear resistance of granular media with and without geogrid reinforcement in different depths is not known yet. Methodology. The author developed a special laboratory method to measure and define inner shear resistance of granular materials, it is called «multi-level shear box test». This method is adequate to determine inner shear resistance (pushing force vs. depth (distance from the «zero» surface. Two different granular materials: andesite railway ballast (31.5/63 mm and andesite railway protection layer material (0/56 mm, and seven different types of geogrids (GG1…GG7 were used during the tests. Findings. Values of inner shear resistance functions of andesite railway ballast without geogrid reinforcement and reinforced with different types of geogrids and andesite granular protection layer in function of the vertical distance from the geogrid plane were determined with multi-layer shear box tests when the material aggregation is uncompacted and compacted. Only the compacted sample was tested in case of the 0/56 mm protection layer. Cubic polynomial regression functions fitted on the mean values of the measurements are described graphically. Determination coefficients with values of R2>0.97 were resulted in all the cases of regression functions. Based on the polynomial regression functions fitted on the mean values of the test results, three increasing factors were determined in function of the distance measured from the geogrid. Increasing factor «A», «B» and «D». Originality. Multi-level shear box test, developed by the author, is certified unequivocally adequate for determining inner shear resistance of reinforced and unreinforced granular materials, e.g. railway ballast

  6. Tank 241-B-103 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) has advised the US Department of Energy (DOE) to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The data quality objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used to identify sampling and analytical needs for the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement or TPA) milestone M-44-00 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process... Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users (e.g., Hanford Facility user groups, regulators) to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information.'' This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-B-103 (B-103) sampling activities. Tank B-103 was placed on the Organic Watch List in January 1991 due to review of TRAC data that predicts a TOC content of 3.3 dry weight percent. The tank was classified as an assumed leaker of approximately 30,280 liters (8,000 gallons) in 1978 and declared inactive. Tank B-103 is passively ventilated with interim stabilization and intrusion prevention measures completed in 1985

  7. Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    The emergence of more think tanks in recent decades has spawned some interest in how they function and impact policy-making in the European Union and its member states. So far however few empirical studies of think tanks have been carried out and think tanks have mainly been studied in their...... national contexts. Questions regarding patterns and differences in think tank organisations and functions across countries have largely been left unanswered. This paper advances a definition and research design that uses different expert roles to categorise think tanks. A sample of 34 think tanks from...... Brussels, Denmark and Germany are categorised according to different expert roles in a pilot analysis. As the analysis is sensitive to the interpretation and weight given to different indicators, besides from picturing the think tank landscape, the analysis is intended to trigger a discussion of how and...

  8. Filling Tanks with Hydrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, K.

    2004-10-01

    At the Hydrazine workshop in 2002 in Noordwijk several presentations dealt with the filling of satellite tanks. I was a bit surprised about the amount of manpower that is needed for this work. But I saw the same during the filling of the SCA system tanks some years ago in Trauen/Germany. I want to present the work flow of filling RESUS Hydrazine tanks. This bladder tanks have a capacity of 64 litres and are similar to some of the satellite tanks. We fill this tanks 25 to 50 times a year. Although the specifications are not exactly the same as those for satellite tank filling, it might be interesting to see how this work can be done half-automatically, because handling with Hydrazine is not a nice job, and the faster it goes, the better.

  9. 49 CFR 179.400 - General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... liquid tank car tanks. 179.400 Section 179.400 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and... liquid tank car tanks....

  10. Study on the killing of oceanic harmful micro-organisms in ship's ballast water using oxygen active particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Meng, X. Y.; Bai, M. D.; Tian, Y. P.; Jing, Y.

    2013-03-01

    Global Environment Facility has identified that the spread of marine invasive alien species is one of the four major risk factors threatening the safety of global marine environments. Ballast water discharge is the main cause of biological invasion. With physical methods of strong electric field ionization discharge at atmospheric pressure, O2 and sea water (gaseous) were ionized, and then dissociated to a number of oxygen active particles (ROS) such as ·OH, O2+, H2O+, etc. ROS was injected into 0.6 t h-1 ballast water treatment system to form high concentration ROS solution in order to kill the harmful micro-organisms in ballast water. According to the land-based test standard of International Maritime Organization (IMO) Guidelines for Approval of Ballast Water Management Systems (G8), this paper concludes that single-cell algae of 3.0 × 104 cell ml-1 and bacteria of 2.0 × 104 cfu ml-1 were killed by ROS solution of 2.0 ppm. Death rate could reach almost 100%. The results meet the requirements of Regulation D-2 of International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments completely.

  11. Study on the killing of oceanic harmful micro-organisms in ship's ballast water using oxygen active particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global Environment Facility has identified that the spread of marine invasive alien species is one of the four major risk factors threatening the safety of global marine environments. Ballast water discharge is the main cause of biological invasion. With physical methods of strong electric field ionization discharge at atmospheric pressure, O2 and sea water (gaseous) were ionized, and then dissociated to a number of oxygen active particles (ROS) such as ·OH, O2+, H2O+, etc. ROS was injected into 0.6 t h−1 ballast water treatment system to form high concentration ROS solution in order to kill the harmful micro-organisms in ballast water. According to the land-based test standard of International Maritime Organization (IMO) Guidelines for Approval of Ballast Water Management Systems (G8), this paper concludes that single-cell algae of 3.0 × 104 cell ml−1 and bacteria of 2.0 × 104 cfu ml−1 were killed by ROS solution of 2.0 ppm. Death rate could reach almost 100%. The results meet the requirements of Regulation D-2 of International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments completely.

  12. 33 CFR 155.440 - Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on new oceangoing ships of 4,000 gross tons and above...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on new oceangoing ships of 4,000 gross tons and above, other than oil tankers, and on new... PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.440 Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water...

  13. Analysis and performance of novel and highly efficient electronic ballast operating at unity-power-factor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V B Borghate; H M Suryawanshi; G A Dhomane

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents the electronic ballast, in which the coupling inductors are used to inject the current to the dc-bus capacitors, to boost the dc-bus voltage and to filter out the ripples from input line current. The current injection coupling inductor injects its stored energy to the dc-bus capacitors in every switching half cycle. Whereas, the boost coupling inductor keeps the dc-bus voltage always above the peak of ac input voltage. Therefore, the proposed ballast maintains unity-power-factor and high efficiency with ripple-free input current over wide range of input line voltage in case of worst regulation. A symmetrical half-bridge inverter is used to drive the fluorescent lamps. The experimental results of the laboratory prototype ballast for 2 × 36 W fluorescent lamps operating at 50 kHz are presented.

  14. Ballast water management that adapts to climate changes and reduces harmful bio-invasions in marine eco-systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne

    2015-01-01

    marine ecosystem of changed factors in the shipping sector, for instance change of number, size, and design of vessels as well as treatment technologies of ballast water. New areas for shipping due to climate changes are also included. Our study would contribute to improve decision support tools, usable......The shipping ballast water is defined as water taken on board a ship to control trim, cargo, draught, stability and stress of the ship. Alien bio-organisms in ballast water have a range of ecological impacts, for instance reducing native bio-diversity, altering habitat and potentially the overall...... food-webs and eco-systems. Economic impacts include reductions in fisheries production and algae blooms harmful for fish farms, tourism and human health. Due to the rising temperatures of the Oceans, organisms that prefer a warm climate may take roots in marine ecosystems that were previously too cold...

  15. Strategies for the correction of the power factor in electronic ballasts with low crest factor; Estrategias para la correccion del factor de potencia en balastros electronicos con bajo factor de cresta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Mata, Arturo Javier

    2002-07-15

    The goal in this work is to develop electronic ballast for fluorescent lamps with high power factor with the smaller number of components. With this aim it is looked for 1) to study the impact of the value of the filtrating capacitor used in a conventional rectifier on the harmonic content of the line current and the crest factor in the lamp, 2) to study resonant tanks commonly used in electronic ballasts with the purpose of observing the feasibility of implementing a control in frequency to vary the gain of the resonant tank and 3) to propose a strategy of frequency modulation that allows to reach low harmonic distortion of the line current maintaining a low crest factor. In chapter one the used theoretical concepts in illumination systems are presented, the justification for the use of electronic ballasts in fluorescent lamps, a revision of the state-of-the-art in the correction of the power factor in electronic ballasts and two strategies for the correction of this factor. In the next chapter the conventional resonant topologies used in the literature are presented, together with the analysis of resonant structures with high gain in steady state to compensate the variations of the instantaneous voltage of the DC bus that feeds the resonant inverter. Also simulations in PSpice are included to know the behavior of each one of the resonant structures and to be able to select, in that way, the most adequate resonant topology for this work. In the third chapter the strategy is presented for the correction of the power factor, eliminating the filtering capacitor. The effects of this elimination as far as the line current and the lamp current are shown. The characterization of the resonant tank in open loop and closed loop is presented. The method is described to control the gain of the resonant investor and its implementation. Experimental results obtained when reducing the filtering capacitor are included and the implementation of the proposed control loop to reduce

  16. Guidance for a harmonized emission scenario document (ESD) on ballast water discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zipperle, Andreas [BIS - Beratungszentrum fuer integriertes Sedimentmanagement, Hamburg (Germany); Gils, Jos van [DELTARES, Delft (Netherlands); Hattum, Bert van [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). IVM - Institute for Environmental Studies; Heise, Susanne [BIS - Beratungszentrum fuer integriertes Sedimentmanagement, Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    The present report provides guidance for a harmonized Emission Scenario Document (ESD) for the exposure assessment as part of the environmental risk assessment process which applicants seeking approval of a ballast water management system (BWMS) need to perform prior to notification and authorisation procedures. Despite the global variability of the marine environment, ballast water discharges and treatment methods, exposure assessments need to be comparable between different applications. In order to achieve this, this ESD points out the following aspects: - Applicants should use standardized scenarios in order to predict mean exposure. These should reflect generic situations, independent of region or port so that results are widely applicable. In addition to a harbour scenario, a standardized shipping lane scenario should be considered, - During or right after ballast water discharge, high concentrations may persist in a water body for a certain length of time until extensive mixing results in mean concentrations. Not taking exposure to peak concentrations within gradients into account could lead to an underestimation of risk, especially for rapidly degrading substances. Efforts have been made to approximate maximum exposure concentration with simple dilution factors. Their applicability was checked by near-field-evaluations. - Chemical properties determine the environmental fate of substances. If they are ambiguous, selection of a specific set of data strongly influences the result of an exposure assessment. Guidance is given on what to do about lacking data. - In order to harmonize the exposure assessments, reliable chemical model software should be used. A discussion on the requirements of suitable software and an evaluation of MAMPEC is given in this report. (orig.)

  17. WWTP Process Tank Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jesper

    solution of the Navier-Stokes equations in a multiphase scheme. After a general introduction to the activated sludge tank as a system, the activated sludge tank model is gradually setup in separate stages. The individual sub-processes that are often occurring in activated sludge tanks are initially...... investigated individually, with the purpose of obtaining a better understanding before the final integrated model is setup. In the sub-process investigations focus is addressed especially at aeration by bottom mounted diffusers and mechanical mixing of the activated sludge suspension via slowly rotating...... hydrofoil shaped propellers. These two sub-processes deliver the main part of the supplied energy to the activated sludge tank, and for this reason they are important for the mixing conditions in the tank. For other important processes occurring in the activated sludge tank, existing models and measurements...

  18. Assessing ballast treatment standards for effect on rate of establishment using a stochastic model of the green crab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Cooper

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a stochastic model used to characterize the probability/risk of NIS establishment from ships' ballast water discharges. Establishment is defined as the existence of a sufficient number of individuals of a species to provide for a sustained population of the organism. The inherent variability in population dynamics of organisms in their native or established environments is generally difficult to quantify. Muchqualitative information is known about organism life cycles and biotic and abiotic environmental pressures on the population, but generally little quantitative data exist to develop a mechanistic model of populations in such complex environments. Moreover, there is little quantitative data to characterize the stochastic fluctuations of population size over time even without accounting for systematic responses to biotic and abiotic pressures. This research applies an approach using life-stage density and fecundity measures reported in research to determine a stochastic model of an organism's population dynamics. The model is illustrated withdata from research studies on the green crab that span a range of habitats of the established organism and were collected over some years to represent a range of time-varying biotic and abiotic conditions that are expected to exist in many receiving environments. This model is applied to introductions of NIS at the IMO D-2 and the U.S. ballast water discharge standard levels designated as Phase Two in the United States Coast Guard'sNotice of Proposed Rulemaking. Under a representative range of ballast volumes discharged at U.S. ports, the average rate of establishment of green crabs for ballast waters treated to the IMO-D2 concentration standard (less than 10 organisms/m3 is predicted to be reduced to about a third the average rate from untreated ballast water discharge. The longevity of populations from the untreated ballast water discharges is expected to be reducedby about 90% by

  19. The ships' ballast water impact on the Black Sea marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acomi, Nicoleta; Acomi, Ovidiu

    2015-04-01

    Ships use ballast water to provide stability during voyages. This type of seawater loaded on board from one geographical area and discharged in very different port areas as ballasting practice, turned into a vector for spreading the non-native sea life species. The reduction and limitation of invasive species is a problem that the modern world addresses. Thus, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) developed the BWM 2004 Convention. Adopting international regulations influences the socio-economic sector and this is the reason why the ballast water, the subject of this paper, has been on the IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee's agenda for more than 10 years, while the Convention has not yet been ratified and enforced. Although the Black Sea was subject to incidents regarding the invasive species the Romanian Government, as member of the IMO, did not ratify the Convention. The Black Sea was the subject of four major incidents regarding the ships' ballast water. One of them refers to the North American Comb Jelly, native from the Eastern Seaboard of America, introduced in the Black, Azov and Caspian Seas and seriously affecting the Romanian coastal environment in the 1990's. This invasive species has negative impacts: it reproduces rapidly under favourable conditions, it feeds excessively on zooplankton, it depletes zooplankton stocks, altering the food web and the ecosystem functionality, and contributed significantly to the collapse of Black and Azov Sea fisheries in the 1990s, with massive economic and social impact. There are studies for identifying the invasive species for the Black sea, structured in a database for marine species - the Black Sea Red Data Book. For these invasive species, there have been identified and developed charts to emphasize their ways of migration into the Black Sea. This paper aims to analyse the marine traffic in Romanian ports, broken down according with seasons and types of vessels, and to assess its relationship with

  20. Treatment of ships' ballast water by irradiation of pulsed, intense relativistic electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zooplankton contained in ships' ballast water has been successfully treated by irradiation of pulsed, intense relativistic electron beam (PIREB). A treatment chamber is filled up with solution of 3-wt% salt in water containing a larva of artemia as the zooplankton, and is irradiated by the PIREB (2 MeV, 0.4 kA, 140 ns). We have found that electric conductivity and pH of the salt solution does not change significantly within 10 shots of the PIREB irradiation. We have obtained that the artemia of 24% is inactivated by firing 10 shots of the PIREB irradiation. (author)

  1. Using MCDA methods THOR in an application for outranking the ballast water management options

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Francisco Simões Gomes

    2005-01-01

    The Multicriteria Analysis Methodology has been developed in order to support and guide decision-makers in the evaluation and selection of alternatives/solutions. In this case, it is used to compare alternatives for the management ballast water (BW) exchange systems and treatment methods.O Apoio Multicritério à Decisão (AMD) desenvolve metodologias que ajudam o tomador ou agente de decisão a avaliar e selecionar alternativas. Este trabalho apresenta uma aplicação real do AMD em uma situação d...

  2. Hanford tanks initiative plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstract: The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) is a five-year project resulting from the technical and financial partnership of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Waste Management (EM-30) and Office of Science and Technology Development (EM-50). The HTI project accelerates activities to gain key technical, cost performance, and regulatory information on two high-level waste tanks. The HTI will provide a basis for design and regulatory decisions affecting the remainder of the Tank Waste Remediation System's tank waste retrieval Program

  3. Hanford tanks initiative plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, K.E.

    1997-07-01

    Abstract: The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) is a five-year project resulting from the technical and financial partnership of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Waste Management (EM-30) and Office of Science and Technology Development (EM-50). The HTI project accelerates activities to gain key technical, cost performance, and regulatory information on two high-level waste tanks. The HTI will provide a basis for design and regulatory decisions affecting the remainder of the Tank Waste Remediation System`s tank waste retrieval Program.

  4. Liquid metal storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns a liquid metal storage tank used for an FBR type reactor plant. It comprises a tank main body disposed in a pit chamber, a sealing tub disposed at an upper outer circumferential surface of the tank main body, a roof portion which closes the opening a the upper end of the pit chamber, a sealing partitioning cylinder suspended from the lower surface of the roof and having its lower end extended to the inside of the tub and a sealing liquid metal filled in the tub. The tank main body is kept at a high temperature by the liquid metal while the roof in the upper portion of the pit chamber is kept at a low temperature. Further, since the tank main body and the inside of the pit chamber are sealed by the sealing partitioning cylinder, no large thermal stresses are caused to the wall of the tank main body. Even if hydrogen gases are generated in the tank main body, since they can be released to the inside of the pit chamber, the integrity of the tank can be maintained, even if abrupt pressure elevation is caused in the tank main body. (I.S.)

  5. Fuel reprocessing tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tank of the present invention for spent fuels comprises a stainless steel tank main body for storing a highly corrosive dissolving solution, a steam jet pump disposed to the inside of the tank main body for transferring the dissolving solution to the outside of the tank main body and pipelines connecting them. With such a constitution, abnormal abrasion and drag of mechanical parts are less caused. In addition, a cleaning nozzle and a cleaning liquid pipeline which eliminates clogging of a sucking port of the steam jet pump if clogging is caused by sludges are disposed thereby enabling to avoid possibility of clogging. (T.M.)

  6. Added Resistance Acting on Hull of a Non Ballast Water Ship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ngo Van He; Yoshiho Ikeda

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, added resistances acting on a hull of non ballast water ship (NBS) in high waves is discussed. The non ballast water ships were developed at the laboratory of the authors at Osaka Prefecture University, Japan. In the present paper, the performances of three kinds of bow shapes developed for the NBS were theoretically and experimentally investigated to find the best one in high waves. In previous papers, an optimum bow shape for the NBS was developed in calm water and in moderated waves. For a 2 m model for experiments and computations, the wave height is 0.02 m. This means that the wave height is 15%of the draft of the ship in full load conditions. In this paper, added resistances in high waves up to 0.07 m for a 2 m model or 53%of the full load draft are investigated. In such high waves linear wave theories which have been used in the design stage of a ship for a long time may not work well anymore, and experiments are the only effective tool to predict the added resistance in high waves. With the computations for waves, the ship is in a fully captured condition because shorter waves,λ/Lpp<0.6, are assumed.

  7. HAWAII UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a point coverage of underground storage tanks(UST) for the state of Hawaii. The original database was developed and is maintained by the State of Hawaii, Dept. of Health. The point locations represent facilities where one or more underground storage tanks occur. Each fa...

  8. Tank characterization reference guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research

  9. 49 CFR 179.201 - Individual specification requirements applicable to non-pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to non-pressure tank car tanks. 179.201 Section 179.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes... car tanks....

  10. Effect of type and concentration of ballasting particles on sinking rate of marine snow produced by the Appendicularian Oikopleura dioica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombard, Fabien; Guidi, L.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Ballast material (organic, opal, calcite, lithogenic) is suggested to affect sinking speed of aggregates in the ocean. Here, we tested this hypothesis by incubating appendicularians in suspensions of different algae or Saharan dust, and observing the sinking speed of the marine snow formed...

  11. Fate of Enteromorpha flexuosa (Wulfen) J. Agardh and its spores in darkness: Implications for ballast water management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kolwalkar, J.P.; Sawant, S.S.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    are thankful to Dr. A.C. Anil, for discussion and constructive suggestions. One of the authors (JK) acknowledges the financial support from GloBallast program, India. We are also thankful to Dr. N. B. Bhosle, Dr. Lidita Khandeparkar, Dr. D. Desai, Mr. K...

  12. Consequences of using crushed crystalline rock as ballast in KBS-3 tunnels instead of rounded quartz particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic question has been whether such replacement alters the hydraulic conductivity and compressibility as well as expandability and also if the physical and chemical stabilities are altered. The key factor is the microstructural constitution of the bentonite/ballast mixtures, which is primarily controlled by the grain size distribution of the ballast. The compact ability of backfills with quartz sand (SB) is higher than that of backfills with crushed rock as ballast (RB). The physical stability of RB backfills in terms of piping and erosion resistance will be somewhat lower than that of SB backfills. The chemical stability is practically independent of whether the ballast is pure quartz or rock with K-bearing minerals because the temperature in the backfill will be too low to yield significant smectite to illite conversion in the short heating period. In order to reach the same densities of SB and RB backfills, which turn out to give fairly similar physical properties, the latter backfills need more effective compaction or, alternatively, a higher bentonite content. It is estimated that if the bentonite content in RB backfills is not increased while the density is enhanced to what is achievable, these backfills will serve equally well as SB backfills with the densities implied by the basic KBS-3 concept. 23 refs, 27 figs, 7 tabs

  13. Testing the BIO-SEA ballast water management system; Filter efficiency tests with high levels of zooplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaag, N.H.B.M.; Sneekes, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    The BIO-SEA® Ballast Water Treatment System (BWTS) was tested at the IMARES land-based test facility. General goal of the tests was to compare two different brands of filter and to test the filter efficiency of finer mesh sizes of each brand. The filters were tested in combination with a ‘one-shot U

  14. Ballast minerals and the sinking carbon flux in the ocean: carbon-specific respiration rates and sinking velocities of macroscopic organic aggregates (marine snow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Iversen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations have shown that fluxes of ballast minerals (calcium carbonate, opal, and lithogenic material and organic carbon fluxes are closely correlated in the bathypelagic zones of the ocean. Hence it has been hypothesized that incorporation of biogenic minerals within marine aggregates could either protect the organic matter from decomposition and/or increase the sinking velocity via ballasting of the aggregates. Here we present the first combined data on size, sinking velocity, carbon-specific respiration rate, and composition measured directly in three aggregate types; Emiliania huxleyi aggregates (carbonate ballasted, Skeletonema costatum aggregates (opal ballasted, and aggregates made from a mix of both E. huxleyi and S. costatum (carbonate and opal ballasted. Overall average carbon-specific respiration rate was ~0.13 d−1 and did not vary with aggregate type and size. Ballasting from carbonate resulted in 2- to 2.5-fold higher sinking velocities than aggregates ballasted by opal. We compiled literature data on carbon-specific respiration rate and sinking velocity measured in aggregate of different composition and sources. Compiled carbon-specific respiration rates (including this study vary between 0.08 d−1 and 0.20 d−1. Sinking velocity increases with increasing aggregate size within homogeneous sources of aggregates. When compared across different particle and aggregate sources, however, sinking velocity appeared to be independent of particle or aggregate size. The calculated carbon remineralization length scale due to microbial respiration and sinking velocity of mm-large marine aggregates was higher for calcite ballasted aggregates as compared to opal-ballasted aggregates. It varied between 0.0002 m−1 and 0.0030 m−1, and decreased with increasing aggregate size.

  15. Ballast minerals and the sinking carbon flux in the ocean: carbon-specific respiration rates and sinking velocity of marine snow aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, M. H.; Ploug, H.

    2010-09-01

    Recent observations have shown that fluxes of ballast minerals (calcium carbonate, opal, and lithogenic material) and organic carbon fluxes are closely correlated in the bathypelagic zones of the ocean. Hence it has been hypothesized that incorporation of biogenic minerals within marine aggregates could either protect the organic matter from decomposition and/or increase the sinking velocity via ballasting of the aggregates. Here we present the first combined data on size, sinking velocity, carbon-specific respiration rate, and composition measured directly in three aggregate types; Emiliania huxleyi aggregates (carbonate ballasted), Skeletonema costatum aggregates (opal ballasted), and aggregates made from a mix of both E. huxleyi and S. costatum (carbonate and opal ballasted). Overall average carbon-specific respiration rate was ~0.13 d-1 and did not vary with aggregate type and size. Ballasting from carbonate resulted in 2- to 2.5-fold higher sinking velocities than those of aggregates ballasted by opal. We compiled literature data on carbon-specific respiration rate and sinking velocity measured in aggregates of different composition and sources. Compiled carbon-specific respiration rates (including this study) vary between 0.08 d-1 and 0.20 d-1. Sinking velocity increases with increasing aggregate size within homogeneous sources of aggregates. When compared across different particle and aggregate sources, however, sinking velocity appeared to be independent of particle or aggregate size. The carbon-specific respiration rate per meter settled varied between 0.0002 m-1 and 0.0030 m-1, and decreased with increasing aggregate size. It was lower for calcite ballasted aggregates as compared to that of similar sized opal ballasted aggregates.

  16. Ballast minerals and the sinking carbon flux in the ocean: carbon-specific respiration rates and sinking velocity of marine snow aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Iversen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations have shown that fluxes of ballast minerals (calcium carbonate, opal, and lithogenic material and organic carbon fluxes are closely correlated in the bathypelagic zones of the ocean. Hence it has been hypothesized that incorporation of biogenic minerals within marine aggregates could either protect the organic matter from decomposition and/or increase the sinking velocity via ballasting of the aggregates. Here we present the first combined data on size, sinking velocity, carbon-specific respiration rate, and composition measured directly in three aggregate types; Emiliania huxleyi aggregates (carbonate ballasted, Skeletonema costatum aggregates (opal ballasted, and aggregates made from a mix of both E. huxleyi and S. costatum (carbonate and opal ballasted. Overall average carbon-specific respiration rate was ~0.13 d−1 and did not vary with aggregate type and size. Ballasting from carbonate resulted in 2- to 2.5-fold higher sinking velocities than those of aggregates ballasted by opal. We compiled literature data on carbon-specific respiration rate and sinking velocity measured in aggregates of different composition and sources. Compiled carbon-specific respiration rates (including this study vary between 0.08 d−1 and 0.20 d−1. Sinking velocity increases with increasing aggregate size within homogeneous sources of aggregates. When compared across different particle and aggregate sources, however, sinking velocity appeared to be independent of particle or aggregate size. The carbon-specific respiration rate per meter settled varied between 0.0002 m−1 and 0.0030 m−1, and decreased with increasing aggregate size. It was lower for calcite ballasted aggregates as compared to that of similar sized opal ballasted aggregates.

  17. Ballast minerals and the sinking carbon flux in the ocean: carbon-specific respiration rates and sinking velocities of macroscopic organic aggregates (marine snow)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, M. H.; Ploug, H.

    2010-05-01

    Recent observations have shown that fluxes of ballast minerals (calcium carbonate, opal, and lithogenic material) and organic carbon fluxes are closely correlated in the bathypelagic zones of the ocean. Hence it has been hypothesized that incorporation of biogenic minerals within marine aggregates could either protect the organic matter from decomposition and/or increase the sinking velocity via ballasting of the aggregates. Here we present the first combined data on size, sinking velocity, carbon-specific respiration rate, and composition measured directly in three aggregate types; Emiliania huxleyi aggregates (carbonate ballasted), Skeletonema costatum aggregates (opal ballasted), and aggregates made from a mix of both E. huxleyi and S. costatum (carbonate and opal ballasted). Overall average carbon-specific respiration rate was ~0.13 d-1 and did not vary with aggregate type and size. Ballasting from carbonate resulted in 2- to 2.5-fold higher sinking velocities than aggregates ballasted by opal. We compiled literature data on carbon-specific respiration rate and sinking velocity measured in aggregate of different composition and sources. Compiled carbon-specific respiration rates (including this study) vary between 0.08 d-1 and 0.20 d-1. Sinking velocity increases with increasing aggregate size within homogeneous sources of aggregates. When compared across different particle and aggregate sources, however, sinking velocity appeared to be independent of particle or aggregate size. The calculated carbon remineralization length scale due to microbial respiration and sinking velocity of mm-large marine aggregates was higher for calcite ballasted aggregates as compared to opal-ballasted aggregates. It varied between 0.0002 m-1 and 0.0030 m-1, and decreased with increasing aggregate size.

  18. Tank 241-C-101 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-C-101

  19. Tank 241-C-101 tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-12-06

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-C-101.

  20. Tank 241-AX-102 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-AX-102

  1. Tank 241-BY-105 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-BY-105

  2. Tank 241-BX-103 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-BX-103

  3. Tank 241-C-102 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-C-102

  4. Tank 241-AP-107 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-AP-107

  5. Tank 241-TY-104 Tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-15

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-C Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-TY-104.

  6. Tank 241-TY-106 Tank Characterization Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-02-22

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-TY-106.

  7. Tank 241-BX-103 tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, K.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-04-21

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-BX-103.

  8. Tank 241-C-203: Tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-03-06

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. Scope of this plan is to provide guidance for sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-C-203.

  9. Tank 241-U-201 tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-02-21

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 22-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-U-201.

  10. Tank 241-SX-115 tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, L.M.

    1995-04-24

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Project, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-SX-115.

  11. Tank 241-C-202: Tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-03-06

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. Scope of this plan is to provide guidance for sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-C-202.

  12. Tank 241-U-202 tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-02-21

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-U-202.

  13. Tank 241-BY-106 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-BY-106

  14. Tank 241-SX-115 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Project, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-SX-115

  15. Tank 241-BY-103 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL 329 Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-BY-103

  16. Tank 241-C-105 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-C-105

  17. Tow Tank #1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1930-01-01

    Digging the channel for the Tow Tank. In the late 1920s, the NACA decided to investigate the aero/hydro dynamics of floats for seaplanes. A Hydrodynamics Branch was established in 1929 and special towing basin was authorized in March of that same year. Starr Truscott (the first head of the new division) described the tank in NACA TR 470: 'The N.A.C.A. tank is of the Froude type; that is, the model which is being tested is towed through still water at successive constant speeds from a carriage spanning the tank. At each constant speed the towing pull is measured, the trim and the rise, or change of draft, are recorded and, if the model is being towed at a fixed trim, the moment required to hold it there is measured and recorded.' 'The reinforced concrete basin containing the water has the following dimensions: (1) Length on water, extreme, 2,020 feet; (2) Normal width of water surface, 24 feet; (3) Normal depth of water, 12 feet; (4) Length of 12 foot depth, 1,980 feet.' The tank was dedicated on May 27, 1931. In 1936 the tank was extended to a total length of 2,960 feet. In 1959 the facility was turned over to the U.S. Navy.Published in NACA TR No. 470, 'The N.A.C.A. Tank: A High-Speed Towing Basin for Testing Models of Seaplane Floats,' by Starr Truscott, 1933.

  18. TANK FARM ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through regulations, permitting or binding negotiations, Regulators establish requirements, limits, permit conditions and Notice of Construction (NOC) conditions with which the Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) must comply. Operating Specifications are technical limits which are set on a process to prevent injury to personnel, or damage to the facility or environment, The main purpose of this document is to provide specification limits and recovery actions for the TFC Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site. Specification limits are given for monitoring frequencies and permissible variation of readings from an established baseline or previous reading. The requirements in this document are driven by environmental considerations and data analysis issues, rather than facility design or personnel safety issues. This document is applicable to all single-shell tank (SST) and double-shell tank (DST) waste tanks, and the associated catch tanks and receiver tanks, and transfer systems. This Tank Farm Environmental Specifications Document (ESD) implements environmental-regulatory limits on the configuration and operation of the Hanford Tank Farms facility that have been established by Regulators. This ESD contains specific field operational limits and recovery actions for compliance with airborne effluent regulations and agreements, liquid effluents regulations and agreements, and environmental tank system requirements. The scope of this ESD is limited to conditions that have direct impact on Operations/Projects or that Operations Projects have direct impact upon. This document does not supercede or replace any Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, regulatory permits, notices of construction, or Regulatory agency agreements binding on the ORP or the TFC. Refer to the appropriate regulation, permit, or Notice of Construction for an inclusive listing of requirements

  19. NACA Tow Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    1930-01-01

    L4695 shows the interior view of construction of the Tow Tank. In the late 1920s, the NACA decided to investigate the aero/hydro dynamics of floats for seaplanes. A Hydrodynamics Branch was established in 1929 and special towing basin was authorized in March of that same year. Starr Truscott (the first head of the new division) described the tank in NACA TR 470: 'The N.A.C.A. tank is of the Froude type; that is, the model which is being tested is towed through still water at successive constant speeds from a carriage spanning the tank. At each constant speed the towing pull is measured, the trim and the rise, or change of draft, are recorded and, if the model is being towed at a fixed trim, the moment required to hold it there is measured and recorded.' 'The reinforced concrete basin containing the water has the following dimensions: (1) Length on water, extreme, 2,020 feet; (2) Normal width of water surface, 24 feet; (3) Normal depth of water, 12 feet; (4) Length of 12 foot depth, 1,980 feet.' This picture shows the tank before the coving was added. This brought the rails for the carriage closer together and helped suppress waves produced by the models. The finished tank would be filled with approximately 4 million gallons of salt water pumped in from the Back River. The tank was covered by a shelter which protected the water surface. The tank was dedicated on May 27, 1931. In 1936 the tank was extended to a total length of 2,960 feet. In 1959 the facility was turned over to the U.S. Navy.

  20. Development of smart solar tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the project is to develop smart solar tanks. A smart solar tank is a tank in which the domestic water can bee heated both by solar collectors and by an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system heats up the hot-water tank from the top and the water volume heated...

  1. Tank 48 - Chemical Destruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simner, Steven P.; Aponte, Celia I.; Brass, Earl A.

    2013-01-09

    Small tank copper-catalyzed peroxide oxidation (CCPO) is a potentially viable technology to facilitate the destruction of tetraphenylborate (TPB) organic solids contained within the Tank 48H waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A maturation strategy was created that identified a number of near-term development activities required to determine the viability of the CCPO process, and subsequent disposition of the CCPO effluent. Critical activities included laboratory-scale validation of the process and identification of forward transfer paths for the CCPO effluent. The technical documentation and the successful application of the CCPO process on simulated Tank 48 waste confirm that the CCPO process is a viable process for the disposition of the Tank 48 contents.

  2. Tank waste treatment science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remediation efforts at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site require that many technical and scientific principles be combined for effectively managing and disposing the variety of wastes currently stored in underground tanks. Based on these principles, pretreatment technologies are being studied and developed to separate waste components and enable the most suitable treatment methods to be selected for final disposal of these wastes. The Tank Waste Treatment Science Task at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is addressing pretreatment technology development by investigating several aspects related to understanding and processing the tank contents. The experimental work includes evaluating the chemical and physical properties of the alkaline wastes, modeling sludge dissolution, and evaluating and designing ion exchange materials. This paper gives some examples of results of this work and shows how these results fit into the overall Hanford waste remediation activities. This work is part of series of projects being conducted for the Tank Waste Remediation System

  3. Using MCDA methods THOR in an application for outranking the ballast water management options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Francisco Simões Gomes

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The Multicriteria Analysis Methodology has been developed in order to support and guide decision-makers in the evaluation and selection of alternatives/solutions. In this case, it is used to compare alternatives for the management ballast water (BW exchange systems and treatment methods.O Apoio Multicritério à Decisão (AMD desenvolve metodologias que ajudam o tomador ou agente de decisão a avaliar e selecionar alternativas. Este trabalho apresenta uma aplicação real do AMD em uma situação de ordenação de alternativas para o gerenciamento do problema de água de lastro.

  4. Enhancing the efficacy of electrolytic chlorination for ballast water treatment by adding carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyung-Gon; Seo, Min-Ho; Lee, Heon-Young; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Sup; Shin, Kyoungsoon; Choi, Keun-Hyung

    2015-06-15

    We examined the synergistic effects of CO2 injection on electro-chlorination in disinfection of plankton and bacteria in simulated ballast water. Chlorination was performed at dosages of 4 and 6ppm with and without CO2 injection on electro-chlorination. Testing was performed in both seawater and brackish water quality as defined by IMO G8 guidelines. CO2 injection notably decreased from the control the number of Artemia franciscana, a brine shrimp, surviving during a 5-day post-treatment incubation (1.8 and 2.3 log10 reduction in seawater and brackish water, respectively at 6ppm TRO+CO2) compared with water electro-chlorinated only (1.2 and 1.3 log10 reduction in seawater and brackish water, respectively at 6ppm TRO). The phytoplankton Tetraselmis suecica, was completely disinfected with no live cell found at >4ppm TRO with and without CO2 addition. The effects of CO2 addition on heterotrophic bacterial growth was not different from electro-chlorination only. Total residual oxidant concentration (TRO) more rapidly declined in electro-chlorination of both marine and brackish waters compared to chlorine+CO2 treated waters, with significantly higher amount of TRO being left in waters treated with the CO2 addition. Total concentration of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) measured at day 0 in brackish water test were found to be 2- to 3-fold higher in 6ppm TRO+CO2-treated water than in 6ppm TRO treated water. The addition of CO2 to electro-chlorination may improve the efficiency of this sterilizing treatment of ballast water, yet the increased production of some disinfection byproducts needs further study. PMID:25841887

  5. A semi-empirical model for the prediction of fouling in railway ballast using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; Tosti, Fabio; Benedetto, Andrea; Alani, Amir M.; Loizos, Andreas; D'Amico, Fabrizio; Calvi, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    The first step in the planning for a renewal of a railway network consists in gathering information, as effectively as possible, about the state of the railway tracks. Nowadays, this activity is mostly carried out by digging trenches at regular intervals along the whole network, to evaluate both geometrical and geotechnical properties of the railway track bed. This involves issues, mainly concerning the invasiveness of the operations, the impacts on the rail traffic, the high costs, and the low levels of significance concerning such discrete data set. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can represent a useful technique for overstepping these issues, as it can be directly mounted onto a train crossing the railway, and collect continuous information along the network. This study is aimed at defining an empirical model for the prediction of fouling in railway ballast, by using GPR. With this purpose, a thorough laboratory campaign was implemented within the facilities of Roma Tre University. In more details, a 1.47 m long × 1.47 m wide × 0.48 m height plexiglass framework, accounting for the domain of investigation, was laid over a perfect electric conductor, and filled up with several configuration of railway ballast and fouling material (clayey sand), thereby representing different levels of fouling. Then, the set of fouling configurations was surveyed with several GPR systems. In particular, a ground-coupled multi-channel radar (600 MHz and 1600 MHz center frequency antennas) and three air-launched radar systems (1000 MHz and 2000 MHz center frequency antennas) were employed for surveying the materials. By observing the results both in terms of time and frequency domains, interesting insights are highlighted and an empirical model, relating in particular the shape of the frequency spectrum of the signal and the percentage of fouling characterizing the surveyed material, is finally proposed. Acknowledgement The Authors thank COST, for funding the Action TU1208 "Civil

  6. Optical Cryogenic Tank Level Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffell, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    Cryogenic fluids play an important role in space transportation. Liquid oxygen and hydrogen are vital fuel components for liquid rocket engines. It is also difficult to accurately measure the liquid level in the cryogenic tanks containing the liquids. The current methods use thermocouple rakes, floats, or sonic meters to measure tank level. Thermocouples have problems examining the boundary between the boiling liquid and the gas inside the tanks. They are also slow to respond to temperature changes. Sonic meters need to be mounted inside the tank, but still above the liquid level. This causes problems for full tanks, or tanks that are being rotated to lie on their side.

  7. Material selection for Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larrick, A.P.; Blackburn, L.D.; Brehm, W.F.; Carlos, W.C.; Hauptmann, J.P. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Danielson, M.J.; Westerman, R.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Divine, J.R. [ChemMet Ltd., West Richland, WA (United States); Foster, G.M. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the history of the materials selection for the US Department of Energy`s high-level waste carbon steel storage tanks. It also provides an evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. The evaluation included a materials matrix that summarized the critical design, fabrication, construction, and corrosion resistance requirements: assessed. each requirement: and cataloged the advantages and disadvantages of each material. This evaluation is based on the mission of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. On the basis of the compositions of the wastes stored in Hanford waste tanks, it is recommended that tanks for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility be constructed of ASME SA 515, Grade 70, carbon steel.

  8. Evaluating efficacy of a ballast water filtration system for reducing spread of aquatic species in freshwater ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Briski, Elizabeta; Linley, R. D.; Adams, J.; Bailey, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Biological invasions by non-indigenous species are considered a leading threat to biodiversity, with prevention being a key management strategy. Consequently, numerous commercial ballast water treatment systems have been, or are being, developed to prevent future aquatic invasions. However, most treatment systems are being designed for the many vessels undertaking long transoceanic voyages in marine waters rather than the relatively few vessels operating on short voyages in freshwater, such a...

  9. Relative invasion risk for plankton across marine and freshwater systems: examining efficacy of proposed international ballast water discharge standards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Casas-Monroy

    Full Text Available Understanding the implications of different management strategies is necessary to identify best conservation trajectories for ecosystems exposed to anthropogenic stressors. For example, science-based risk assessments at large scales are needed to understand efficacy of different vector management approaches aimed at preventing biological invasions associated with commercial shipping. We conducted a landscape-scale analysis to examine the relative invasion risk of ballast water discharges among different shipping pathways (e.g., Transoceanic, Coastal or Domestic, ecosystems (e.g., freshwater, brackish and marine, and timescales (annual and per discharge event under current and future management regimes. The arrival and survival potential of nonindigenous species (NIS was estimated based on directional shipping networks and their associated propagule pressure, environmental similarity between donor-recipient ecosystems (based on salinity and temperature, and effects of current and future management strategies (i.e., ballast water exchange and treatment to meet proposed international biological discharge standards. Our findings show that current requirements for ballast water exchange effectively reduce invasion risk to freshwater ecosystems but are less protective of marine ecosystems because of greater environmental mismatch between source (oceanic and recipient (freshwater ecoregions. Future requirements for ballast water treatment are expected to reduce risk of zooplankton NIS introductions across ecosystem types but are expected to be less effective in reducing risk of phytoplankton NIS. This large-scale risk assessment across heterogeneous ecosystems represents a major step towards understanding the likelihood of invasion in relation to shipping networks, the relative efficacy of different invasion management regimes and seizing opportunities to reduce the ecological and economic implications of biological invasions.

  10. 49 CFR 1242.15 - Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast, track laying and surfacing, and road property damaged (accounts XX-17-10 to XX-18-12 inclusive, 21-17-13 to 21-18-16 inclusive, XX-17-17, XX-18-17, XX-17-48, and XX-18-48). 1242.15 Section...

  11. Failure analysis of buried tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Failure of a buried tank can be hazardous. Failure may be a leak through which product is lost from the tank; but also through which contamination can occur. Failures are epidemic -- because buried tanks are out of sight, but also because designers of buried tanks have adopted analyses developed for pressure tanks. So why do pressure tanks fail when they are buried? Most failures of buried tanks are really soil failures. Soil compresses, or slips, or liquefies. Soil is not only a load, it is a support without which the tank deforms. A high water table adds to the load on the tank. It also reduces the strength of the soil. Based on tests, structural analyses are proposed for empty tanks buried in soils of various quality, with the water table at various levels, and with internal vacuum. Failure may be collapse tank. Such collapse is a sudden, audible inversion of the cylinder when the sidefill soil slips. Failure may be flotation. Failure may be a leak. Most leaks are fractures in the welds in overlap seams at flat spots. Flat spots are caused by a hard bedding or a heavy surface wheel load. Because the tank wall is double thick at the overlap, shearing stress in the weld is increased. Other weld failures occur when an end plate shears down past a cylinder; or when the tank is supported only at its ends like a beam. These, and other, failures can be analyzed with justifiable accuracy using basic principles of mechanics of materials. 10 figs

  12. Tank plan for tank 241-C-104 retrieval testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERTING, D.L.

    1999-05-21

    Tank 241-C-104 has been identified as one of the first tanks to be retrieved for high-level waste pretreatment and immobilization. Retrieval of the tank waste will require dilution. Laboratory tests are needed to determine the amount of dilution required for safe retrieval and transfer of feed. The proposed laboratory tests are described in this document.

  13. 49 CFR 180.519 - Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other than single-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other than single-unit tank car tanks. 180.519 Section 180.519 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... of Tank Cars § 180.519 Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other than single-unit tank...

  14. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

    2009-08-11

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  15. Tank waste isotope contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the results of a calculation to determine the relative contribution of selected isotopes to the inhalation and ingestion doses for a postulated release of Hanford tank waste. The fraction of the dose due to 90Sr, 90Y, 137Cs and the alpha emitters for single shell solids and liquids, double shell solids and liquids, aging waste solids and liquids and all solids and liquids. An effective dose conversion factor was also calculated for the alpha emitters for each composite of the tank waste

  16. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  17. Task 7c: Worm tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worm tank has a unique shape. In the seismic design of a worm tank, it is desirable to clear the behavior of the worm tank under the seismic loading. We assumed that there are two phenomena in the seismic behavior of the worm tank same as the behavior of the cylindrical and rectangular tanks. One is a sloshing behavior of the water and another is the dynamic response of the worm tank. In this study, we investigate the dynamic characteristics of the worm tank during the strong earthquakes. We conducted the vibration tests to clarify the seismic behaviors of the worm tanks and obtained the valuable data to verify the analytical method. It was found that the natural frequency can be calculated using the eigenvalue formula of the cylindrical and rectangular tanks. Lower modes of the worm tank are identical with that of the rectangular tank. We can estimate the surface behavior and the impact mode using the data of the rectangular tank. (author)

  18. Storage Tanks - Selection Of Type, Design Code And Tank Sizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work gives an insight into the proper selection of type, design code and sizing of storage tanks used in the Petroleum and Process industries. In this work, storage tanks are classified based on their design conditions. Suitable design codes and their limitations are discussed for each tank type. The option of storage under high pressure and ambient temperature, in spherical and cigar tanks, is compared to the option of storage under low temperature and slight pressure (close to ambient) in low temperature and cryogenic tanks. The discussion is extended to the types of low temperature and cryogenic tanks and recommendations are given to select their types. A study of pressurized tanks designed according to ASME code, conducted in the present work, reveals that tanks designed according to ASME Section VIII DIV 2 provides cost savings over tanks designed according to ASME Section VIII DlV 1. The present work is extended to discuss the parameters that affect sizing of flat bottom cylindrical tanks. The analysis shows the effect of height-to-diameter ratio on tank instability and foundation loads

  19. Material selection for Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report briefly summarizes the history of the materials selection for the US Department of Energy's high-level waste carbon steel storage tanks. It also provide an evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. The evaluation included a materials matrix that summarized the critical design, fabrication, construction, and corrosion resistance requirements; assessed each requirement; and cataloged the advantages and disadvantages of each material. This evaluation is based on the mission of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. On the basis of the compositions of the wastes stored in Hanford waste tanks, it is recommended that tanks for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility be constructed of normalized ASME SA 516, Grade 70, carbon steel

  20. Cryogenic fuel tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fuel tank is provided for the automotive transport of a cryogenic liquid fuel which in the course of transport is being consumed by an engine or the like. The fuel tank consists essentially of two containers, one for the cryogenic fuel and the other for a secondary cryogenic liquid which is used to cool the fuel during storage when no fuel is being consumed. By the method of the invention the build up of fuel vapor pressure during storage is avoided and the vapor pressure maintained at a predetermined level. The fuel tank described herein was two distinct modes of operation, namely, the fuel storage mode and the fuel supply mode. In the fuel storage mode the cryogenic fuel is being stored for later use while the secondary fluid is being used as a heat sink for the heat absorbed by the tank from the environment. In the fuel supply mode fuel is being supplied by the tank for consumption both as a liquid and as a gas while the secondary fluid is being restored to its initial state of lower temperature by the use of a refrigerator which employs the fuel as a heat sink. The two containers are thermally insulated from the outside environment as well as from each other. The fuel container and the secondary fluid container are connected by a heat transfer bridge which permits heat flow from the fuel to the secondary fluid only during the storage mode of operation. The fuel container has two fuel discharge connections, one carrying the liquid fuel the other carrying gaseous fuel which is vaporized within the fuel container. The pressure in the fuel container is maintained at an adequate level for the fuel supply to proceed without the need for a fuel pump

  1. 49 CFR 179.500 - Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.500 Section 179.500 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500 Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks....

  2. 49 CFR 179.301 - Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-unit tank car tanks. 179.301 Section 179.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Multi-Unit Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-106A and 110AW) § 179.301 Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks. (a)...

  3. 49 CFR 179.101 - Individual specification requirements applicable to pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to pressure tank car tanks. 179.101 Section 179.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT... tank car tanks. Editorial Note: At 66 FR 45186, Aug. 28, 2001, an amendment published amending a...

  4. Tank characterization report for Single-Shell Tank T-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tank 241-T-102 (hereafter referred to as T-102) is a 530,000 gallon single-shell waste tank located in the 200 West T Tank farm at the Hanford Site. In 1993, two cores were taken from this tank and analysis of the cores was conducted by Battelle's 325-A Laboratory. Characterization of the waste in this tank was conducted to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-44-05. Tank T-102 was constructed in 1943 and put into service in 1945; it is the second tank in a cascade system with Tanks T-101 and T-103. During its process history, Tank T-102 received mostly Metal Waste (MW) from the Bismuth Phosphate Process and Coating Waste (CW) from the REDOX Process via the cascade from Tank T-101 and in transfers from Tank C-102. In 1956, the MW was removed from T-102 by pumping and sluicing'. This tank was declared inactive and retired from service in 1976. In 1981, intrusion prevention and stabilization measures were taken to isolate the waste in T-102. The tank presently contains approximately 121,100 liters (32,000 gallons) of liquid and sludge-like waste. Historically, there are no unreviewed safety issues associated with this tank and none were revealed after reviewing the data from the latest core sampling event in 1993. An extensive set of analytical measurements was performed on the core composites. The major constituents (>0.5 wt%) of the waste are water, aluminum, sodium, iron, and nitrate, ordered from the largest concentration to the smallest. The concentrations and inventories of these and other constituents are given. The results of the chemical analyses have been compared to the dangerous waste codes in the Washington Dangerous Waste Regulations (WAC 173-303)

  5. Ergonomics evaluation of work posture in OWAS method in Ballast mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasl Seraji J

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, musculoskeletal disorders incidents have been found through NMQ. Then, with the OWAS method the results have been analysed. In this thesis, we have studied the case in two different workshops of Ballast Production Company. The jobs were classified according to static load caused by poor work posture and recommendations for reducing the hurmful load were made. The study of the questionnaire showe that there is meaningful relation between work experience and Low Back Pain (LBP (P<3%. Meanwhile BMI (Body Mass Index is closely related to LBP (P<2%. However a relation was found between low back and back and shoulder pain complaints during recent one year and last one week with that of the existence of the pains, respectively P<2% and P<5%. Jobs related with repair and maintenance rates the first as regards static load on the muscloskeletal system. Cooking, digging operations, driving bullodozer, operation of stone crushing device, loaders and lorries rank respectively in order.

  6. Technical data information systems - a necessity or a burden?; Technische Betriebsmittel-Informationssysteme - Notwendigkeit oder Ballast?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, W.; Hanschmann, R. [Thuega Aktiengesellschaft, Muenchen (Germany)

    1997-07-01

    Utilities are forced to set free capacities in order to be competitive in a changing market with themes like Third party access, utilities as service companies and lean management and production. Therefore complete and well structured documentation of technical data will be more and more important. This article shows some applications of a technical data information system (`TBIS`) and reports on experiences in implementing such systems. Very often time and efforts necessary for the implementation of such complex systems are underestimated. Especially the management has to define the goals of the project clearly and must garanty the required funds (personnel and financial). A TBIS will only be a burden to those companies, which try an implementation without a clear concept and sufficient coordination. (orig.) [Deutsch] Themen wie Neuorientierung der Energiewirtschaft, schlanke Unternehmen, Energieversorger als Dienstleistungsunternehmen usw. zwingen Energieversorgungsunternehmen (EVUs) darueber nachzudenken, in welchen Bereichen potentielle Ressourcen im Unternehmen freigesetzt werden koennen. Die Bedeutung einer gut strukturierten und vollstaendigen Dokumentation der Betriebsmittel wird dadurch weiter steigen. In diesem Artikel werden Anwendungen eines Technischen Betriebsmittel-Informationssystems (TBIS) beschrieben und ueber Erfahrungen bei der Einfuehrung derartiger Systeme berichtet. Es hat sich gezeigt, dass solch komplexe Informationssysteme in der Einfuehrungsphase einen erheblichen, oft unterschaetzten Aufwand von allen Beteiligten erfordern. Hierbei ist vor allem die Geschaeftsfuehrung betroffen, die unternehmensweite Projektziele setzen und diese personell, organisatorisch und vor allem finanziell absichern muss. Zum Ballast wird ein TBIS nur in den Unternehmen, die eine Einfuehrung den Endanwendern ueberlassen - ohne Projektkonzeption und -koordination. (orig.)

  7. Competitive Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    view that changing policy environments results in convergence of think tank strategies across Europe. As a perspective the paper shows that competitive think tanks do have a high average impact pr. staff on both mass and new media compared to other types of think tanks. This may indicate that......This paper offers a model for understanding the strategies that think tanks use to influence policy-making. The model combines the concepts of policy environments (McGann and Weaver, 2000) and knowledge regimes (Campbell and Pedersen, 2011) and argues that think tank strategies reflect changes in...

  8. Tank characterization technical sampling basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.M.

    1998-04-28

    Tank Characterization Technical Sampling Basis (this document) is the first step of an in place working process to plan characterization activities in an optimal manner. This document will be used to develop the revision of the Waste Information Requirements Document (WIRD) (Winkelman et al. 1997) and ultimately, to create sampling schedules. The revised WIRD will define all Characterization Project activities over the course of subsequent fiscal years 1999 through 2002. This document establishes priorities for sampling and characterization activities conducted under the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Tank Waste Characterization Project. The Tank Waste Characterization Project is designed to provide all TWRS programs with information describing the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of the contents of waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. These tanks contain radioactive waste generated from the production of nuclear weapons materials at the Hanford Site. The waste composition varies from tank to tank because of the large number of chemical processes that were used when producing nuclear weapons materials over the years and because the wastes were mixed during efforts to better use tank storage space. The Tank Waste Characterization Project mission is to provide information and waste sample material necessary for TWRS to define and maintain safe interim storage and to process waste fractions into stable forms for ultimate disposal. This document integrates the information needed to address safety issues, regulatory requirements, and retrieval, treatment, and immobilization requirements. Characterization sampling to support tank farm operational needs is also discussed.

  9. Tank characterization technical sampling basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tank Characterization Technical Sampling Basis (this document) is the first step of an in place working process to plan characterization activities in an optimal manner. This document will be used to develop the revision of the Waste Information Requirements Document (WIRD) (Winkelman et al. 1997) and ultimately, to create sampling schedules. The revised WIRD will define all Characterization Project activities over the course of subsequent fiscal years 1999 through 2002. This document establishes priorities for sampling and characterization activities conducted under the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Tank Waste Characterization Project. The Tank Waste Characterization Project is designed to provide all TWRS programs with information describing the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of the contents of waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. These tanks contain radioactive waste generated from the production of nuclear weapons materials at the Hanford Site. The waste composition varies from tank to tank because of the large number of chemical processes that were used when producing nuclear weapons materials over the years and because the wastes were mixed during efforts to better use tank storage space. The Tank Waste Characterization Project mission is to provide information and waste sample material necessary for TWRS to define and maintain safe interim storage and to process waste fractions into stable forms for ultimate disposal. This document integrates the information needed to address safety issues, regulatory requirements, and retrieval, treatment, and immobilization requirements. Characterization sampling to support tank farm operational needs is also discussed

  10. Tank characterization data report: Tank 241-C-112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, B.C.; Borsheim, G.L.; Jensen, L.

    1993-04-01

    Tank 241-C-112 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in March 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-112 were conducted to support the resolution of the Ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. Analysis of core samples obtained from tank 241-C-112 strongly indicates that the fuel concentration in the tank waste will not support a propagating exothermic reaction. It is probable that tank 241-C-112 exceeds the 1,000 g-mol inventory criteria established for the Ferrocyanide USQ; however, extensive energetic analysis of the waste has determined a maximum exothermic value of -9 cal/g dry waste. This value is substantially below any levels of concern (-75 cal/g). In addition, an investigation of potential mechanisms to generate concentration levels of radionuclides high enough to be of concern was performed. No credible mechanism was postulated that could initiate the formation of such concentration levels in the tank. Tank 241-C-112 waste is a complex material made up primarily of water and inert salts. The insoluble solids are a mixture of phosphates, sulfates, and hydroxides in combination with aluminum, calcium, iron, nickel, and uranium. Disodium nickel ferrocyanide and sodium cesium nickel ferrocyanide probably exist in the tank; however, there appears to have been significant degradation of this material since the waste was initially settled in the tank.

  11. Tank 241-AP-106 tank characterization plan: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tank 241-AP-106 (AP-106) is a candidate feed tank which is expected to be processed at the 242-A Evaporator. Three issues related to the overall concern of the evaporator must be evaluated: compatibility of the candidate waste with respect to feed tank, slurry tank, and evaporator requirements; safety parameters of the candidate waste tank to avoid a facility condition which is outside the safety boundaries; and compliance of the waste as dictated by regulations from various government and environmental agencies. The characterization efforts of this Tank Characterization Plan are focused on the resolution of the issues above. To evaluate the potential for waste incompatibility with the feed tank, slurry tank, and evaporator, as well as relevant safety issues, analyses will be performed on the grab samples obtained from tank AP-106. These analyses are discussed in Section 4.0. Once the characterization of tank AP-106 has been performed, the waste compatibility and safety assessment shall be conducted. This effort is discussed elsewhere

  12. Tank characterization data report: Tank 241-C-112

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tank 241-C-112 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in March 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-112 were conducted to support the resolution of the Ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. Analysis of core samples obtained from tank 241-C-112 strongly indicates that the fuel concentration in the tank waste will not support a propagating exothermic reaction. It is probable that tank 241-C-112 exceeds the 1,000 g-mol inventory criteria established for the Ferrocyanide USQ; however, extensive energetic analysis of the waste has determined a maximum exothermic value of -9 cal/g dry waste. This value is substantially below any levels of concern (-75 cal/g). In addition, an investigation of potential mechanisms to generate concentration levels of radionuclides high enough to be of concern was performed. No credible mechanism was postulated that could initiate the formation of such concentration levels in the tank. Tank 241-C-112 waste is a complex material made up primarily of water and inert salts. The insoluble solids are a mixture of phosphates, sulfates, and hydroxides in combination with aluminum, calcium, iron, nickel, and uranium. Disodium nickel ferrocyanide and sodium cesium nickel ferrocyanide probably exist in the tank; however, there appears to have been significant degradation of this material since the waste was initially settled in the tank

  13. Theoretical study of solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    . Originality/value - Many different Solar Combisystem designs have been commercialized over the years. In the IEA-SHC Task 26, twenty one solar combisystems have been described and analyzed. Maybe the mantle tank approach also for solar combisystems can be used with advantage? This might be possible if the...... solar heating system is based on a so called bikini tank. Therefore the new developed solar combisystems based on bikini tanks is compared to the tank-in-tank solar combisystems to elucidate which one is suitable for three different houses with low energy heating demand, medium and high heating demand.......Purpose - Low flow bikini solar combisystems and high flow tank-in-tank solar combisystems have been studied theoretically. The aim of the paper is to study which of these two solar combisystem designs is suitable for different houses. The thermal performance of solar combisystems based on the two...

  14. Soundpainting think tank

    OpenAIRE

    Minors, Helen Julia; Thomspon, Walter

    2013-01-01

    The Soundpainting Think Tank brought together over 30 international Soundpainters to workshop ways in which Soundpainting is sued to create a multimodal piece. Over a week the workshop produced a series of live performances, including a flash mob in the centre of Kingston, as well as shooting footage which will lead to a movie/documentary about Soundpainting. The research question: what is it to build a piece across musicians, dancers, actors and visual artists using the specific creative lan...

  15. A science think tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A journalist views on public perceptions on nuclear issues in Australia and Japan is presented. It is also emphasised that by not offering an undergraduate course in nuclear engineering, Australia have closed the door to the nuclear energy development in Australia and costed the country some depth of specialized knowledges. A scientific think tank with active participation of the nuclear scientists is thought to benefit Australia and be in the position to influence private industrial and governmental planning

  16. A low-energy intensive electrochemical system for the eradication of Escherichia coli from ballast water: Process development, disinfection chemistry, and kinetics modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invasion of biological organisms via ballast water has created threats to the environment and human health. In this study, a cost-effective electrochemical disinfection reactor was developed to inactivate Escherichia coli, one of the IMO-regulated indicator microbes, in simulated ballast water. The complete inactivation of E. coli could be achieved within a very short time (150, 120, or 60 s) with an energy consumption as low as 0.0090, 0.0074 or 0.0035 kWh/m3 for ballast water containing E. coli at concentrations of 108, 107 and 106 CFU/100 mL, respectively. Electrochemical chlorination was the major disinfection mechanism in chloride-abundant electrolytes, whereas oxidants such as ozone and free radicals contributed to 20% of the disinfection efficiency in chloride-free electrolytes. Moreover, a disinfection kinetics model was successfully developed to describe the inactivation of E. coli.

  17. Ballast water as a vector of coral pathogens in the Gulf of Mexico: the case of the Cayo Arcas coral reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Macedo, M Leopoldina; Vidal-Martinez, Victor M; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A; Valdés-Lozano, David S; Herrera-Rodríguez, Miguel; Olvera-Novoa, Miguel A

    2008-09-01

    The discharge of nutrients, phytoplankton and pathogenic bacteria through ballast water may threaten the Cayo Arcas reef system. To assess this threat, the quality of ballast water and presence of coral reef pathogenic bacteria in 30 oil tankers loaded at the PEMEX Cayo Arcas crude oil terminal were determined. The water transported in the ships originated from coastal, oceanic or riverine regions. Statistical associations among quality parameters and bacteria were tested using redundancy analysis (RDA). In contrast with coastal or oceanic water, the riverine water had high concentrations of coliforms, including Vibrio cholerae 01 and, Serratia marcescens and Sphingomona spp., which are frequently associated with "white pox" and "white plague type II" coral diseases. There were also high nutrient concentrations and low water quality index values (WQI and TRIX). The presence of V. cholerae 01 highlights the need for testing ballast water coming from endemic regions into Mexican ports. PMID:18639903

  18. Tank characterization report for Single-Shell Tank B-111

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tank 241-B-111 (hereafter referred to as B-111) is a 2,006,300 liter (530,000 gallon) single-shell waste tank located in the 200 East B tank farm at Hanford. Two cores were taken from this tank in 1991 and analysis of the cores was conducted by Battelle's 325-A Laboratory in 1993. Characterization of the waste in this tank is being done to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-44-05. Tank B-111 was constructed in 1943 and put into service in 1945; it is the second tank in a cascade system with Tanks B-110 and B-112. During its process history, B-111 received mostly second-decontamination-cycle waste and fission products waste via the cascade from Tank B-110. This tank was retired from service in 1976, and in 1978 the tank was assumed to have leaked 30,300 liters (8,000 gallons). The tank was interim stabilized and interim isolated in 1985. The tank presently contains approximately 893,400 liters (236,000 gallons) of sludge-like waste and approximately 3,800 liters (1,000 gallons) of supernate. Historically, there are no unreviewed safety issues associated with this tank and none were revealed after reviewing the data from the latest core sampling event in 1991. An extensive set of analytical measurements was performed on the core composites. The major constituents (> 0.5 wt%) measured in the waste are water, sodium, nitrate, phosphate, nitrite, bismuth, iron, sulfate and silicon, ordered from largest concentration to the smallest. The concentrations and inventories of these and other constituents are given. Since Tanks B-110 and B-111 have similar process histories, their sampling results were compared. The results of the chemical analyses have been compared to the dangerous waste codes in the Washington Dangerous Waste Regulations (WAC 173-303). This assessment was conducted by comparing tank analyses against dangerous waste characteristics 'D' waste codes; and against state waste codes

  19. Tank characterization data report: Tank 241-C-112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, B.C.; Borsheim, G.L.; Jensen, L.

    1993-09-01

    Tank 241-C-112 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in March 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-112 were conducted to support the resolution of the Ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. Analysis of core samples obtained from tank 241-C-112 strongly indicates that the fuel concentration in the tank waste will not support a propagating exothermic reaction. Analysis of the process history of the tank as well as studies of simulants provided valuable information about the physical and chemical condition of the waste. This information, in combination with the analysis of the tank waste, sup ports the conclusion that an exothermic reaction in tank 241-C-112 is not plausible. Therefore, the contents of tank 241-C-112 present no imminent threat to the workers at the Hanford Site, the public, or the environment from its forrocyanide inventory. Because an exothermic reaction is not credible, the consequences of this accident scenario, as promulgated by the General Accounting Office, are not applicable.

  20. Tank characterization data report: Tank 241-C-112

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tank 241-C-112 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in March 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-112 were conducted to support the resolution of the Ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. Analysis of core samples obtained from tank 241-C-112 strongly indicates that the fuel concentration in the tank waste will not support a propagating exothermic reaction. Analysis of the process history of the tank as well as studies of simulants provided valuable information about the physical and chemical condition of the waste. This information, in combination with the analysis of the tank waste, sup ports the conclusion that an exothermic reaction in tank 241-C-112 is not plausible. Therefore, the contents of tank 241-C-112 present no imminent threat to the workers at the Hanford Site, the public, or the environment from its forrocyanide inventory. Because an exothermic reaction is not credible, the consequences of this accident scenario, as promulgated by the General Accounting Office, are not applicable

  1. Boundary layer stability acts to ballast the mass of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkelhammer, M. B.; Noone, D. C.; Steen-Larsen, H. C.; O'Neill, M.; Raudzens Bailey, A.; Cox, C.; Schneider, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The mass of the Greenland Ice Sheet has been reduced over recent decades as a consequence of warming, the impact of which is already detectable on global sea level. However, temperature projections suggest that at interior high-altitude sites on the ice it could be decades or more before warming forces these regions to transition from a dry to wet snow facies. Shifts in boundary layer dynamics, including atmosphere-ice sheet hydrological exchange and cloud radiative forcing could expedite or delay this transition. These processes are important with respect to future ice sheet stability, yet they remain difficult to constrain. Using continuous in situ measurements of vertical profiles of the isotopic composition of water vapor at Summit Camp, the highest observatory on the ice sheet, we document the presence of a hydrologic balance between surface sublimation and condensation fluxes. This exists because of a nearly persistent temperature inversion, which hinders the efficiency with which surface water vapor mixes into the free atmosphere. In the presence of a strong temperature inversion, fog and ice particles form near the ice-atmosphere interface from surface moisture fluxes. When this condensate precipitates on or settles to the surface, it ballasts the ice sheet's mass. A decade-long trend towards lower annual accumulation at Summit may therefore reflect continuous replacement of the near surface atmosphere due to reduced atmospheric stability. If this tendency toward destabilization continues, it could accelerate mass loss at interior sites on the ice sheet. The role of boundary layer stability in ice sheet hydrological budgets discussed here is applicable beyond the accumulation zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  2. Tank Characterization Report for Double-Shell Tank (DST) 241-AN-107

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report interprets information about the tank answering a series of six questions covering areas such as information drivers, tank history, tank comparisons, disposal implications, data quality and quantity, and unique aspects of the tank

  3. Formation of a spark discharge in an inhomogeneous electric field with current limitation by a large ballast Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldanov, B. B., E-mail: baibat@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physical Material Science, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Results of studies of a spark discharge initiated in argon in a point–plane electrode gap with limitation of the discharge current by a large ballast resistance are presented. It is shown that the current flowing through the plasma channel of such a low-current spark has the form of periodic pulses. It is experimentally demonstrated that, when a low-current spark transforms into a constricted glow discharge, current pulses disappear, the spatial structure of the cathode glow changes abruptly, and a brightly glowing positive plasma column forms in the gap.

  4. Engineering study of the potential uses of salts from selective crystallization of Hanford tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Salt Process (CSP) is the fractional crystallization of nitrate salts from tank waste stored on the Hanford Site. This study reviews disposition options for a CSP product made from Hanford Site tank waste. These options range from public release to onsite low-level waste disposal to no action. Process, production, safety, environment, cost, schedule, and the amount of CSP material which may be used are factors considered in each option. The preferred alternative is offsite release of clean salt. Savings all be generated by excluding the material from low-level waste stabilization. Income would be received from sales of salt products. Savings and income from this alternative amount to $1,027 million, excluding the cost of CSP operations. Unless public sale of CSP products is approved, the material should be calcined. The carbonate form of the CSP could then be used as ballast in tank closure and stabilization efforts. Not including the cost of CSP operations, savings of $632 million would be realized. These savings would result from excluding the material from low-level waste stabilization and reducing purchases of chemicals for caustic recycle and stabilization and closure. Dose considerations for either alternative are favorable. No other cost-effective alternatives that were considered had the capacity to handle significant quantities of the CSP products. If CSP occurs, full-scale tank-waste stabilization could be done without building additional treatment facilities after Phase 1 (DOE 1996). Savings in capital and operating cost from this reduction in waste stabilization would be in addition to the other gains described

  5. 46 CFR 154.439 - Tank design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank design. 154.439 Section 154.439 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Independent Tank Type A § 154.439 Tank design. An independent tank type A must meet the deep tank standard of...

  6. 46 CFR 154.420 - Tank design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank design. 154.420 Section 154.420 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.420 Tank design. (a) The structure of an integral tank must meet the deep tank scantling...

  7. A Response to Warren's Review of Five Thousand Years of Maritime Subsistence at CA-SDI-48, on Ballast Point, San Diego County, California

    OpenAIRE

    Gallegos, Dennis R.

    2008-01-01

    The Ballast Point report (Five Thousand Years of Maritime Subsistence at CA-SDI-48, on Ballast Point, San Diego County, California) was the first such report to document the complexity of maritime subsistence in San Diego County from circa 6,600 B.P. to 1,300 B.P. It was completed in 1988, and later published by Coyote Press in 1998, "with very minor editing and corrections." CRM reports by their very nature are usually not structured for publication; however, the Coyote Press publishers felt...

  8. 49 CFR 179.102 - Special commodity requirements for pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.102 Section 179.102 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.102 Special commodity requirements for pressure tank car tanks. (a) In addition...

  9. 49 CFR 179.103 - Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.103 Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car tanks. (a) In addition to the...

  10. 49 CFR 179.100 - General specifications applicable to pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.100 Section 179.100 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.100 General specifications applicable to pressure tank car tanks....

  11. Tank Waste Remediation System Tank Waste Analysis Plan. FY 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, C.S.; Dove, T.H.

    1994-11-01

    This documents lays the groundwork for preparing the implementing the TWRS tank waste analysis planning and reporting for Fiscal Year 1995. This Tank Waste Characterization Plan meets the requirements specified in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, better known as the Tri-Party Agreement.

  12. Tank Waste Remediation System Tank Waste Analysis Plan. FY 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This documents lays the groundwork for preparing the implementing the TWRS tank waste analysis planning and reporting for Fiscal Year 1995. This Tank Waste Characterization Plan meets the requirements specified in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, better known as the Tri-Party Agreement

  13. Regulated underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guidance package is designed to assist DOE Field operations by providing thorough guidance on the underground storage tank (UST) regulations. [40 CFR 280]. The guidance uses tables, flowcharts, and checklists to provide a ''roadmap'' for DOE staff who are responsible for supervising UST operations. This package is tailored to address the issues facing DOE facilities. DOE staff should use this guidance as: An overview of the regulations for UST installation and operation; a comprehensive step-by-step guidance for the process of owning and operating an UST, from installation to closure; and a quick, ready-reference guide for any specific topic concerning UST ownership or operation

  14. Tank closure reducing grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-04-18

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr{sup 90}, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel.

  15. Tank closure reducing grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr90, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel

  16. Oil Storage Facilities - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  17. Hanford waste tank cone penetrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new tool is being developed to characterize tank waste at the Hanford Reservation. This tool, known as the cone penetrometer, is capable of obtaining chemical and physical properties in situ. For the past 50 years, this tool has been used extensively in soil applications and now has been modified for usage in Hanford Underground Storage tanks. These modifications include development of new ''waste'' data models as well as hardware design changes to accommodate the hazardous and radioactive environment of the tanks. The modified cone penetrometer is scheduled to be deployed at Hanford by Fall 1996. At Hanford, the cone penetrometer will be used as an instrumented pipe which measures chemical and physical properties as it pushes through tank waste. Physical data, such as tank waste stratification and mechanical properties, is obtained through three sensors measuring tip pressure, sleeve friction and pore pressure. Chemical data, such as chemical speciation, is measured using a Raman spectroscopy sensor. The sensor package contains other instrumentation as well, including a tip and side temperature sensor, tank bottom detection and an inclinometer. Once the cone penetrometer has reached the bottom of the tank, a moisture probe will be inserted into the pipe. This probe is used to measure waste moisture content, water level, waste surface moisture and tank temperature. This paper discusses the development of this new measurement system. Data from the cone penetrometer will aid in the selection of sampling tools, waste tank retrieval process, and addressing various tank safety issues. This paper will explore various waste models as well as the challenges associated with tank environment

  18. Effect of the finite size of an asteroid on its deflection using a tether-ballast system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashayekhi, Mohammad J.; Misra, Arun K.

    2016-07-01

    Potentially hazardous near-Earth objects which can impose a significant threat on life on the planet have generated a lot of interest in the study of various asteroid deflection strategies. There are numerous asteroid deflection techniques suggested and discussed in the literature. This paper is focused on one of the non-destructive asteroid deflection strategies by attaching a long tether-ballast system to the asteroid. In the existing literature on this technique, very simplified models of the asteroid-tether-ballast system including a point mass model of the asteroid have been used. In this paper, the dynamical effect of using a finite size asteroid model on the asteroid deflection achieved is analyzed in detail. It has been shown that considering the finite size of the asteroid, instead of the point mass approximation, can have significant influence on the deflection predicted. Furthermore the effect of the tether-deployment stage, which is an essential part of any realistic asteroid deflection mission, on the predicted deflection is studied in this paper. Finally the effect of cutting the tether on the deflection achieved is analyzed and it has been shown that depending on the orbital properties of the asteroid as well as its size and rotational rate, cutting the tether at an appropriate time can increase the deflection achieved. Several numerical examples have been used in this paper to elaborate on the proposed technique and to quantitatively analyze the effect of different parameters on the asteroid deflection.

  19. Effect of the finite size of an asteroid on its deflection using a tether-ballast system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashayekhi, Mohammad J.; Misra, Arun K.

    2016-04-01

    Potentially hazardous near-Earth objects which can impose a significant threat on life on the planet have generated a lot of interest in the study of various asteroid deflection strategies. There are numerous asteroid deflection techniques suggested and discussed in the literature. This paper is focused on one of the non-destructive asteroid deflection strategies by attaching a long tether-ballast system to the asteroid. In the existing literature on this technique, very simplified models of the asteroid-tether-ballast system including a point mass model of the asteroid have been used. In this paper, the dynamical effect of using a finite size asteroid model on the asteroid deflection achieved is analyzed in detail. It has been shown that considering the finite size of the asteroid, instead of the point mass approximation, can have significant influence on the deflection predicted. Furthermore the effect of the tether-deployment stage, which is an essential part of any realistic asteroid deflection mission, on the predicted deflection is studied in this paper. Finally the effect of cutting the tether on the deflection achieved is analyzed and it has been shown that depending on the orbital properties of the asteroid as well as its size and rotational rate, cutting the tether at an appropriate time can increase the deflection achieved. Several numerical examples have been used in this paper to elaborate on the proposed technique and to quantitatively analyze the effect of different parameters on the asteroid deflection.

  20. Solitons in a wave tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, M.; Smith, H.; Scott, Alwyn C.

    1984-01-01

    A wave tank experiment (first described by the nineteenth-century engineer and naval architect John Scott Russell) relates a linear eigenvalue problem from elementary quantum mechanics to a striking feature of modern nonlinear wave theory: multiple generation of solitons. The tank experiment is...

  1. Cleaning Validation of Fermentation Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Satu; Friis, Alan; Wirtanen, Gun

    2008-01-01

    Reliable test methods for checking cleanliness are needed to evaluate and validate the cleaning process of fermentation tanks. Pilot scale tanks were used to test the applicability of various methods for this purpose. The methods found to be suitable for validation of the clenlinees were visula o...

  2. Modelling of baffled stirred tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstedt, H.; Lahtinen, M. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The three-dimensional flow field of a baffled stirred tank has been calculated using four different turbulence models. The tank is driven by a Rushton-type impeller. The boundary condition for the impeller region has been given as a source term or by calculating the impeller using the sliding mesh technique. Calculated values have been compared with measured data. (author)

  3. HAWAII LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point coverage of leaking underground storage tanks(LUST) for the state of Hawaii. The original database was developed and is maintained by the State of Hawaii, Dept. of Health. The point locations represent facilities where one or more leaking underground storage tank exists. ...

  4. Do Fish Enhance Tank Mixing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Laursen, Jesper; Craig, Steven R.;

    2005-01-01

    The design of fish rearing tanks represents a critical stage in the development of optimal aquaculture systems, especially in the context of recirculating systems. Poor hydrodynamics can compromise water quality, waste management and the physiology and behaviour of fish, and thence, production...... determine the impact of fish presence upon tank hydrodynamics, Rhodamine fluorometry was employed to examine mixing within a recirculating aquaculture system. Two different methods were compared, traditional, outlet-based measurements and a technique that employed in-tank data acquisition. Circular tanks...... were employed during data collection either in the presence or absence of xperimental fish-red drum Sciaenops ocellatus (n =36; 5 kg total wet wt); and at two flow rates. Irrespective of flow rate, the presence of fish dramatically enhanced the mixing process ( P< 0.001), with mixing times in tanks...

  5. Hanford site waste tank characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the on-going work in the characterization of the Hanford-Site high-level waste tanks. The waste in these tanks was produced as part of the nuclear weapons materials processing mission that occupied the Hanford Site for the first 40 years of its existence. Detailed and defensible characterization of the tank wastes is required to guide retrieval, pretreatment, and disposal technology development, to address waste stability and reactivity concerns, and to satisfy the compliance criteria for the various regulatory agencies overseeing activities at the Hanford Site. The resulting Tank Characterization Reports fulfill these needs, as well as satisfy the tank waste characterization milestones in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order

  6. Gallegos and Kyle: Five Thousand Years of Maritime Subsistence at CA-SDI-48, on Ballast Point, San Diego County, California

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Claude N.

    2007-01-01

    Five Thousand Years of Maritime Subsistence at CA-SDI-48, on Ballast Point, San Diego County, California. Dennis Gallegos and Carolyn Kyle. Salinas: Coyote Press, 1998. [Archives of California Prehistory No. 40.] Xiv + 224 pp., 32 figs., 86 tables, 1 appendix. $23.00, (paper).

  7. Alfa Laval to meet the ballast water challenge%阿法拉伐应对压载水的挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Alfa Laval, the market leader in separation, heat transfer and freshwater generation, is widening its offering of solutions for environmental protection. The company hereby announces that a potent technology for dealing with unwanted organisms in ballast water will be commercially available as early as 2006.

  8. Supporting document for the Southeast Quadrant historical tank content estimate report for SY-tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historical Tank Content Estimate of the Southeast Quadrant provides historical evaluations on a tank by tank basis of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the underground double-shell tanks of the Hanford 200 East and West Areas. This report summarizes historical information such as waste history, temperature profiles, psychrometric data, tank integrity, inventory estimates and tank level history on a tank by tank basis. Tank Farm aerial photos and in-tank photos of each tank are provided. A brief description of instrumentation methods used for waste tank surveillance are included. Components of the data management effort, such as Waste Status and Transaction Record Summary, Tank Layer Model, Supernatant Mixing Model, Defined Waste Types, and Inventory Estimates which generate these tank content estimates, are also given in this report

  9. Flammable gas tank waste level reconciliation tank 241-SX-105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluor Daniel Northwest was authorized to address flammable gas issues by reconciling the unexplained surface level increases in Tank 241-SX-105 (SX-105, typical). The trapped gas evaluation document states that Tank SX-105 exceeds the 25% of the lower flammable limit criterion, based on a surface level rise evaluation. The Waste Storage Tank Status and Leak Detection Criteria document, commonly referred to as the Welty Report is the basis for this letter report. The Welty Report is also a part of the trapped gas evaluation document criteria. The Welty Report contains various tank information, including: physical information, status, levels, and dry wells. The unexplained waste level rises were attributed to the production and retention of gas in the column of waste corresponding to the unaccounted for surface level rise. From 1973 through 1980, the Welty Report tracked Tank SX-105 transfers and reported a net cumulative change of 20.75 in. This surface level increase is from an unknown source or is unaccounted for. Duke Engineering and Services Hanford and Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation are interested in determining the validity of unexplained surface level changes reported in the Welty Report based upon other corroborative sources of data. The purpose of this letter report is to assemble detailed surface level and waste addition data from daily tank records, logbooks, and other corroborative data that indicate surface levels, and to reconcile the cumulative unaccounted for surface level changes as shown in the Welty Report from 1973 through 1980. Tank SX-105 initially received waste from REDOX starting the second quarter of 1955. After June 1975, the tank primarily received processed waste (slurry) from the 242-S Evaporator/Crystallizer and transferred supernate waste to Tanks S-102 and SX-102. The Welty Report shows a cumulative change of 20.75 in. from June 1973 through December 1980

  10. Tank-automotive robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Gerald R.

    1999-07-01

    To provide an overview of Tank-Automotive Robotics. The briefing will contain program overviews & inter-relationships and technology challenges of TARDEC managed unmanned and robotic ground vehicle programs. Specific emphasis will focus on technology developments/approaches to achieve semi- autonomous operation and inherent chassis mobility features. Programs to be discussed include: DemoIII Experimental Unmanned Vehicle (XUV), Tactical Mobile Robotics (TMR), Intelligent Mobility, Commanders Driver Testbed, Collision Avoidance, International Ground Robotics Competition (ICGRC). Specifically, the paper will discuss unique exterior/outdoor challenges facing the IGRC competing teams and the synergy created between the IGRC and ongoing DoD semi-autonomous Unmanned Ground Vehicle and DoT Intelligent Transportation System programs. Sensor and chassis approaches to meet the IGRC challenges and obstacles will be shown and discussed. Shortfalls in performance to meet the IGRC challenges will be identified.

  11. Comparison of the community structure of planktonic bacteria in ballast water from entry ships and local sea water in Xiamen Port

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Ma; Hejian Xiong; Senming Tang; Qingshuang Yang; Minjuan Li

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the bacterial community structures in samples of ballast water collected from a ship from Singapore and of local sea water collected from Xiamen Port were compared using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Except for dominant α-Proteobacteria that are common to both systems, the bacterial community structures of the two systems were quite different. Most of the clones derived from the different systems were grouped into different phylogenetic clusters, and the sys-tems share only one common RFLP pattern. The ballast water, which is likely from clean offshore waters, contains sequences specific to α- and γ-Proteobacteria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the ballast water contained sequences belonging to attached bacteria and bacteria commonly found in the open sea, as well as many novel sequences. In addition, no known pathogenic bacteria were detected in the ballast water samples. Conversely, water samples from Xiamen Port were apparently affected by the near shore environments.Specifically, in addition to α- and γ-Proteobacteria, water from Xiamen Port contained β- and δ-Proteobacteria, Synechococcus, Bacter-oidetes and Actinobacteria, which are common in coastal environments. Additionally, four pathogenic bacterial sequences and one plas-mid sequence of a potential red tide forming alga were detected in the water from Xiamen Port, which suggests that the local sea water is polluted. The results of this study can be used as background information to assess the risk associated with the introduction of non-indig-enous species to local systems and to establish ballast water management systems.

  12. Tank farms hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanford contractors are writing new facility specific emergency procedures in response to new and revised US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders on emergency preparedness. Emergency procedures are required for each Hanford facility that has the potential to exceed the criteria for the lowest level emergency, an Alert. The set includes: (1) a facility specific procedure on Recognition and Classification of Emergencies, (2) area procedures on Initial Emergency Response and, (3) an area procedure on Protective Action Guidance. The first steps in developing these procedures are to identify the hazards at each facility, identify the conditions that could release the hazardous material, and calculate the consequences of the releases. These steps are called a Hazards Assessment. The final product is a document that is similar in some respects to a Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The document could br produced in a month for a simple facility but could take much longer for a complex facility. Hanford has both types of facilities. A strategy has been adopted to permit completion of the first version of the new emergency procedures before all the facility hazards Assessments are complete. The procedures will initially be based on input from a task group for each facility. This strategy will but improved emergency procedures in place sooner and therefore enhance Hanford emergency preparedness. The purpose of this document is to summarize the applicable information contained within the Waste Tank Facility ''Interim Safety Basis Document, WHC-SD-WM-ISB-001'' as a resource, since the SARs covering Waste Tank Operations are not current in all cases. This hazards assessment serves to collect, organize, document and present the information utilized during the determination process

  13. Sloshing impact in roofed tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large number of high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks exists in various tank farms. Seismic activities at those locations may cause significant sloshing in HLW tanks. These tanks are covered to avoid any spilling during large amplitude earthquakes. However, large amplitude sloshing may result in impact on the cover or the roof of the tank. Hence, a better understanding of the impact phenomenon is necessary to assess the safety of the tanks currently in existence, and to establish design guidelines for future designs. A pressure based formulation is derived to model sloshing impact in roofed tanks. It is incorporated into Argonne's in-house finite element code FLUSTR-ANL. A numerical test case with a harmonic input excitation is studied. The simulation results indicate that linear behavior is preserved beyond the first impact, and some mesh distortion is observed following a stronger second impact. During the impact, the displacement of the contacting surface nodes remains constant, and the velocities are reduced to zero. An identification of impacting nodes is possible from the dynamic pressures induced in surface elements

  14. Tank 241-AP-107 tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has directed the DOE to concentrate ear-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of issues (Conway 1993). The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44-00 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process; Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users (e.g., Hanford Facility user groups, regulators) to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information.'' This document satisfies that requirement for the tank 241-AP-107 (AP-107)

  15. Tank 241-U-111 tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan that identifies the information needed to address relevant issues concerning short-term and long-term safe storage and long-term management of Single-Shell Tank (SST) 241-U-111

  16. Tank 241-BX-103 tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan that identifies the information needed to address relevant issues concerning short-term and long-term safe storage and long-term management of Single-Shell Tank (SST) 241-BX-103

  17. Tank 241-BX-109 tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan that identifies the information needed to address relevant issues concerning short-term and long-term safe storage and long-term management of Single-Shell Tank (SST) 241-BX-109

  18. Tank 241-BX-106 tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan that identifies the information needed to address relevant issues concerning short-term and long-term safe storage and long-term management of Single-Shell Tank (SST) 241-BX-106

  19. Tank vapor mitigation requirements for Hanford Tank Farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse Hanford Company has contracted Los Alamos Technical Associates to listing of vapors and aerosols that are or may be emitted from the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at Hanford. Mitigation requirements under Federal and State law, as well as DOE Orders, are included in the listing. The lists will be used to support permitting activities relative to tank farm ventilation system up-grades. This task is designated Task 108 under MJB-SWV-312057 and is an extension of efforts begun under Task 53 of Purchase Order MPB-SVV-03291 5 for Mechanical Engineering Support. The results of that task, which covered only thirty-nine tanks, are repeated here to provide a single source document for vapor mitigation requirements for all 177 HLW tanks

  20. Tank vapor mitigation requirements for Hanford Tank Farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakestraw, L.D.

    1994-11-15

    Westinghouse Hanford Company has contracted Los Alamos Technical Associates to listing of vapors and aerosols that are or may be emitted from the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at Hanford. Mitigation requirements under Federal and State law, as well as DOE Orders, are included in the listing. The lists will be used to support permitting activities relative to tank farm ventilation system up-grades. This task is designated Task 108 under MJB-SWV-312057 and is an extension of efforts begun under Task 53 of Purchase Order MPB-SVV-03291 5 for Mechanical Engineering Support. The results of that task, which covered only thirty-nine tanks, are repeated here to provide a single source document for vapor mitigation requirements for all 177 HLW tanks.

  1. Tank characterization report for single-shell Tank B-201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to characterize the waste in single shell Tank B-201. Characterization includes the determination of the physical, chemical (e.g., concentrations of elements and organic species), and radiological properties of the waste. These determinations are made using analytical results from B-201 core samples as well as historical information about the tank. The main objective is to determine average waste properties: but in some cases, concentrations of analytes as a function of depth were also determined. This report also consolidates the available historical information regarding Tank B-201, arranges the analytical information from the recent core sampling in a useful format, and provides an interpretation of the data within the context of what is known about the tank

  2. Ecodesign of Liquid Fuel Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicevska, Jana; Bazbauers, Gatis; Repele, Mara

    2011-01-01

    The subject of the study is a 10 litre liquid fuel tank made of metal and used for fuel storage and transportation. The study dealt with separate life cycle stages of this product, compared environmental impacts of similar fuel tanks made of metal and plastic, as well as analysed the product's end-of-life cycle stage, studying the waste treatment and disposal scenarios. The aim of this study was to find opportunities for improvement and to develop proposals for the ecodesign of 10 litre liquid fuel tank.

  3. Stabilization of in-tank residual wastes and external-tank soil contamination for the tank focus area, Hanford tank initiative: Applications to the AX Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combined engineering and geochemistry approach is recommended for the stabilization of waste in decommissioned tanks and contaminated soils at the AX Tank Farm, Hanford, WA. A two-part strategy of desiccation and gettering is proposed for treatment of the in-tank residual wastes. Dry portland cement and/or fly ash are suggested as an effective and low-cost desiccant for wicking excess moisture from the upper waste layer. Getters work by either ion exchange or phase precipitation to reduce radionuclide concentrations in solution. The authors recommend the use of specific natural and man-made compounds, appropriately proportioned to the unique inventory of each tank. A filler design consisting of multilayered cementitous grout with interlayered sealant horizons should serve to maintain tank integrity and minimize fluid transport to the residual waste form. External tank soil contamination is best mitigated by placement of grouted skirts under and around each tank, together with installation of a cone-shaped permeable reactive barrier beneath the entire tank farm. Actinide release rates are calculated from four tank closure scenarios ranging from no action to a comprehensive stabilization treatment plan (desiccant/getters/grouting/RCRA cap). Although preliminary, these calculations indicate significant reductions in the potential for actinide transport as compared to the no-treatment option

  4. Double-shell tank emergency pumping guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Double-Shell Tank Emergency Pumping Guide provides the preplanning necessary to expeditiously remove any waste that may leak from the primary tank to the secondary tank for Hanfords 28 DSTs. The strategy is described, applicable emergency procedures are referenced, and transfer routes and pumping equipment for each tank are identified

  5. 46 CFR 154.446 - Tank design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank design. 154.446 Section 154.446 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Independent Tank Type B § 154.446 Tank design. An independent tank type B must meet the calculations under §...

  6. A decision analytical framework for evaluating technical innovation and diffusion: The case of electronic ballasts for commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, H.G.; Weyant, J.P.; Johnson, B.; Kann, A.

    1996-03-01

    The authors present a decision analytical framework for studying the decision to purchase new energy-efficient magnetic ballasts for commercial buildings as a special case study for understanding the decision environment that could either encourage or retard the penetration of new carbon-saving technologies. The framework is particularly germane to situations where uncertainty in the investment outcome prevails as a dominant dimension of the problem. It allows the policy analyst to consider policies that operate through other considerations than through the price alone. A key effect is how a policy will either truncate a probability distribution to remove the worst outcomes or cause the probability distribution to narrow. Such considerations appear important when studying information programs, vendor warranty, and other factors that condition the investment decision.

  7. Production, oxygen respiration rates, and sinking velocity of copepod fecal pellets: Direct measurements of ballasting by opal and calcite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, H.; Iversen, M.H.; Koski, Marja; Buitenhuis, E.T.

    2008-01-01

    sp., T. weissflogii, and E. huxleyi, respectively. The average carbon-specific respiration rate was 0.15 d(-1) independent on diet (range: 0.08-0.21 d(-1)). Because of ballasting of opal and calcite, sinking velocities were significantly higher for pellets produced on T. weissflogii (322 +/- 169 m d......Production, oxygen uptake, and sinking velocity of copepod fecal pellets egested by Temora longicornis were measured using a nanoflagellate (Rhodomonas sp.), a diatom (Thalassiosira weissflogii), or a coccolithophorid (Emiliania huxleyi) as food sources. Fecal pellet production varied between 0......(-1)) and E. huxleyi (200 +/- 93 m d(-1)) than on Rhodomonas sp. (35 +/- 29 m d(-1)). Preservation of carbon was estimated to be approximately 10-fold higher in fecal pellets produced when T. longicornis was fed E. huxleyi or T. weissflogii rather than Rhodomonas sp. Our study directly demonstrates...

  8. Exploring the depths of Kraken Mare - Power, thermal analysis, and ballast control for the Saturn Titan submarine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, J. W.; Colozza, A.; Lorenz, R. D.; Oleson, S.; Landis, G.; Schmitz, P.; Paul, M.; Walsh, J.

    2016-03-01

    To explore the depths of the hydrocarbon rich seas on the Saturn moon Titan, a conceptual design of an unmanned submarine concept was recently developed for a Phase I NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) study. Data from Cassini Huygens indicates that the Titan polar environment sustains stable seas of variable concentrations of ethane, methane, and nitrogen, with a surface temperature around 93 K. To meet science exploration objectives, the submarine must operate autonomously, study atmosphere/sea exchange, interact with the seabed at pressures up to 10 atm, traverse large distances with limited energy, hover at the surface and at any depth within the sea, and be capable of tolerating multiple different concentration levels of hydrocarbons. Therefore Titan presents many cryogenic design challenges. This paper presents the trade studies with emphasis on the preliminary design of the power, thermal, and ballast control subsystems for the Saturn Titan submarine.

  9. Tank 48 Chemical Destruction - 13237

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simner, Steven P.; Aponte, Celia I.; Brass, Earl A. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC, Savannah River Remediation, Savannah River Site, Building 766-H, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Small tank copper-catalyzed peroxide oxidation (CCPO) is a potentially viable technology to facilitate the destruction of tetraphenylborate (TPB) organic solids contained within the Tank 48H waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A maturation strategy was created that identified a number of near-term development activities required to determine the viability of the CCPO process, and subsequent disposition of the CCPO effluent. Critical activities included laboratory scale validation of the process and identification of forward transfer paths for the CCPO effluent. The technical documentation and the successful application of the CCPO process on simulated Tank 48 waste confirm that the CCPO process is a viable process for the disposition of the Tank 48 contents. (authors)

  10. Underground Storage Tanks in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Underground storage tank (UST) sites which store petroleum in Iowa. Includes sites which have been reported to DNR, and have active or removed underground storage...

  11. Tank depletion flow instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new flowmetering system is developed to measure and control flow without the need for an inline flowmeter. Flowrate is determined from the rate of level change in reference vessel. This system is unique in its use of balance pots for zero suppression to enable range amplification. The result is an accuracy in flow measurement and control as good as $plus or minus$1%. The system uses state-of-the-art digital integrated circuits with a crystal time base in conjunction with the time-proven pneumatic bubbler probe low range transmitters. The benefits are (1) reduced radiation exposure to personnel during maintenance of flowmeters for radioactive streams since instruments are all located in an operating area isolated from the process by four feet of concrete, (2) reduced volume of solid nuclear wastes through processing efficiencies, (3) reduced cost of chemicals involved, (4) increased speed of flowrate determination, (5) reduced maintenance time and material cost to correct flow instrument component failures, (6) no obstruction to flow in the process stream, and (7) reduced cost of instrumentation to determine flowrate. A disadvantage is the requirement that flow must be related to tank level thus only one unknown flow into or out of a given vessel at a time may be metered and controlled. 1 ref

  12. Tank 241-C-109 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank C-109. The drivers and objectives of the waste tank headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports

  13. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, B.; Waltz, R.

    2010-06-21

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2009 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report. The 2009 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. All inspections scheduled per LWO-LWE-2008-00423, HLW Tank Farm Inspection Plan for 2009, were completed. All Ultrasonic measurements (UT) performed in 2009 met the requirements of C-ESG-00006, In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks, Rev. 1, and WSRC-TR-2002-00061, Rev.4. UT inspections were performed on Tank 29 and the findings are documented in SRNL-STI-2009-00559, Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2009, Waste Tank 29. Post chemical cleaning UT measurements were made in Tank 6 and the results are documented in SRNL-STI-2009-00560, Tank Inspection NDE Results Tank 6, Including Summary of Waste Removal Support Activities in Tanks 5 and 6. A total of 6669 photographs were made and 1276 visual and video inspections were performed during 2009. Twenty-Two new leaksites were identified in 2009. The locations of these leaksites are documented in C-ESR-G-00003, SRS High Level Waste Tank Leaksite Information, Rev.4. Fifteen leaksites at Tank 5 were documented during tank wall/annulus cleaning activities. Five leaksites at Tank 6 were documented during tank wall/annulus cleaning activities. Two new leaksites were identified at Tank 19 during waste removal activities. Previously documented leaksites were reactivated at Tanks 5 and 12 during waste removal activities. Also, a very small amount of additional leakage from a previously identified leaksite at Tank 14 was observed.

  14. Stabilization of in-tank residual wastes and external-tank soil contamination for the tank focus area, Hanford Tank Initiative: Applications to the AX tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report investigates five technical areas for stabilization of decommissioned waste tanks and contaminated soils at the Hanford Site AX Farm. The investigations are part of a preliminary evacuation of end-state options for closure of the AX Tanks. The five technical areas investigated are: (1) emplacement of cementations grouts and/or other materials; (2) injection of chemicals into contaminated soils surrounding tanks (soil mixing); (3) emplacement of grout barriers under and around the tanks; (4) the explicit recognition that natural attenuation processes do occur; and (5) combined geochemical and hydrological modeling. Research topics are identified in support of key areas of technical uncertainty, in each of the five areas. Detailed cost-benefit analyses of the technologies are not provided. This investigation was conducted by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, during FY 1997 by tank Focus Area (EM-50) funding

  15. ROBOTIC TANK INSPECTION END EFFECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel Landry

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this contract between Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) and the Department of Energy (DOE) was to provide a tool for the DOE to inspect the inside tank walls of underground radioactive waste storage tanks in their tank farms. Some of these tanks are suspected to have leaks, but the harsh nature of the environment within the tanks precludes human inspection of tank walls. As a result of these conditions only a few inspection methods can fulfill this task. Of the methods available, OSS chose to pursue Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM), because it does not require clean surfaces for inspection, nor any contact with the Surface being inspected, and introduces no extra by-products in the inspection process (no coupling fluids or residues are left behind). The tool produced by OSS is the Robotic Tank Inspection End Effector (RTIEE), which is initially deployed on the tip of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). The RTEE combines ACFM with a color video camera for both electromagnetic and visual inspection The complete package consists of an end effector, its corresponding electronics and software, and a user's manual to guide the operator through an inspection. The system has both coarse and fine inspection modes and allows the user to catalog defects and suspected areas of leakage in a database for further examination, which may lead to emptying the tank for repair, decommissioning, etc.. The following is an updated report to OSS document OSS-21100-7002, which was submitted in 1995. During the course of the contract, two related subtasks arose, the Wall and Coating Thickness Sensor and the Vacuum Scarifying and Sampling Tool Assembly. The first of these subtasks was intended to evaluate the corrosion and wall thinning of 55-gallon steel drums. The second was retrieved and characterized the waste material trapped inside the annulus region of the underground tanks on the DOE's tank farms. While these subtasks were derived from the original

  16. ROBOTIC TANK INSPECTION END EFFECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this contract between Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) and the Department of Energy (DOE) was to provide a tool for the DOE to inspect the inside tank walls of underground radioactive waste storage tanks in their tank farms. Some of these tanks are suspected to have leaks, but the harsh nature of the environment within the tanks precludes human inspection of tank walls. As a result of these conditions only a few inspection methods can fulfill this task. Of the methods available, OSS chose to pursue Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM), because it does not require clean surfaces for inspection, nor any contact with the Surface being inspected, and introduces no extra by-products in the inspection process (no coupling fluids or residues are left behind). The tool produced by OSS is the Robotic Tank Inspection End Effector (RTIEE), which is initially deployed on the tip of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). The RTEE combines ACFM with a color video camera for both electromagnetic and visual inspection The complete package consists of an end effector, its corresponding electronics and software, and a user's manual to guide the operator through an inspection. The system has both coarse and fine inspection modes and allows the user to catalog defects and suspected areas of leakage in a database for further examination, which may lead to emptying the tank for repair, decommissioning, etc.. The following is an updated report to OSS document OSS-21100-7002, which was submitted in 1995. During the course of the contract, two related sub-tasks arose, the Wall and Coating Thickness Sensor and the Vacuum Scarifying and Sampling Tool Assembly. The first of these sub-tasks was intended to evaluate the corrosion and wall thinning of 55-gallon steel drums. The second was retrieved and characterized the waste material trapped inside the annulus region of the underground tanks on the DOE's tank farms. While these sub-tasks were derived from the original intent

  17. Identification of single-shell tank in-tank hardware obstructions to retrieval at Hanford Site Tank Farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two retrieval technologies, one of which uses robot-deployed end effectors, will be demonstrated on the first single-shell tank (SST) waste to be retrieved at the Hanford Site. A significant impediment to the success of this technology in completing the Hanford retrieval mission is the presence of unique tank contents called in-tank hardware (ITH). In-tank hardware includes installed and discarded equipment and various other materials introduced into the tank. This paper identifies those items of ITH that will most influence retrieval operations in the arm-based demonstration project and in follow-on tank operations within the SST farms

  18. Evaluation of tank waste transfers at 241-AW tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of waste transfers are needed to process and feed waste to the private contractors in support of Phase 1 Privatization. Other waste transfers are needed to support the 242-A Evaporator, saltwell pumping, and other ongoing Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) operations. The purpose of this evaluation is to determine if existing or planned equipment and systems are capable of supporting the Privatization Mission of the Tank Farms and continuing operations through the end of Phase 1B Privatization Mission. Projects W-211 and W-314 have been established and will support the privatization effort. Equipment and system upgrades provided by these projects (W-211 and W-314) will also support other ongoing operations in the tank farms. It is recognized that these projects do not support the entire transfer schedule represented in the Tank Waste Remediation system Operation and Utilization Plan. Additionally, transfers surrounding the 241-AW farm must be considered. This evaluation is provided as information, which will help to define transfer paths required to complete the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) mission. This document is not focused on changing a particular project, but it is realized that new project work in the 241-AW Tank Farm is required

  19. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SAMPLING OF TANK 19 IN F TANK FARM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, S.; Shine, G.

    2009-12-14

    Representative sampling is required for characterization of the residual material in Tank 19 prior to operational closure. Tank 19 is a Type IV underground waste storage tank located in the F-Tank Farm. It is a cylindrical-shaped, carbon steel tank with a diameter of 85 feet, a height of 34.25 feet, and a working capacity of 1.3 million gallons. Tank 19 was placed in service in 1961 and initially received a small amount of low heat waste from Tank 17. It then served as an evaporator concentrate (saltcake) receiver from February 1962 to September 1976. Tank 19 also received the spent zeolite ion exchange media from a cesium removal column that once operated in the Northeast riser of the tank to remove cesium from the evaporator overheads. Recent mechanical cleaning of the tank removed all mounds of material. Anticipating a low level of solids in the residual waste, Huff and Thaxton [2009] developed a plan to sample the waste during the final clean-up process while it would still be resident in sufficient quantities to support analytical determinations in four quadrants of the tank. Execution of the plan produced fewer solids than expected to support analytical determinations in all four quadrants. Huff and Thaxton [2009] then restructured the plan to characterize the residual separately in the North and the South regions: two 'hemispheres.' This document provides sampling recommendations to complete the characterization of the residual material on the tank bottom following the guidance in Huff and Thaxton [2009] to split the tank floor into a North and a South hemisphere. The number of samples is determined from a modification of the formula previously published in Edwards [2001] and the sample characterization data for previous sampling of Tank 19 described by Oji [2009]. The uncertainty is quantified by an upper 95% confidence limit (UCL95%) on each analyte's mean concentration in Tank 19. The procedure computes the uncertainty in analyte

  20. 241-AY-101 Tank Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Travis J.; Gunter, Jason R.

    2013-08-26

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for tank 241-AY-101. The construction history of tank 241-AY-101 has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In tank 241-AY-101, the second double-shell tank constructed, similar issues as those with tank 241-AY-102 construction reoccurred. The overall extent of similary and affect on tank 241-AY-101 integrity is described herein.

  1. 241-AW Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Travis J.; Gunter, Jason R.; Reeploeg, Gretchen E.

    2013-11-19

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for the 241-AW tank farm. The construction history of the 241-AW tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-AW tank farm, the fourth double-shell tank farm constructed, similar issues as those with tank 241-AY-102 construction occured. The overall extent of similary and affect on 241-AW tank farm integrity is described herein.

  2. 241-AP Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Travis J.; Gunter, Jason R.; Reeploeg, Gretchen E.

    2014-04-04

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for the 241-AP tank farm. The construction history of the 241-AP tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-AP tank farm, the sixth double-shell tank farm constructed, tank bottom flatness, refractory material quality, post-weld stress relieving, and primary tank bottom weld rejection were improved.

  3. Effect and mechanism of a High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) and Ultraviolet (UV) composite process on the inactivation of microbes in ballast water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhijun; Zhang, Lin; Shi, Yue; Leng, Xiaodong; Shao, Jingchao

    2016-07-15

    The patented technology of a High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS)-Ultraviolet (UV) composite process was used to treat ballast water. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was selected as the reference bacteria. After treatment by the HGMS-UV process, the concentration of S. aureus on the log 10 scale was lower than 2 at different flow rates, S. aureus suffered the most serious damage, and K(+) leakage of the bacteria was 1.73mg/L higher than separate 60min UV irradiation (1.17mg/L) and HGMS (0.12mg/L) processes. These results demonstrated that the HGMS-UV composite process was an effective approach to treat ballast water. Further, the HGMS process had synergistic action on the subsequent UV irradiation process and accelerated cell membrane damage. Meanwhile, the results of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities of bacteria and DNA band analyses indicated that the inactivation mechanisms were different for HGMS and UV irradiation. PMID:27126180

  4. Lightweight Tanks for Storing Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Single-walled, jacketed aluminum tanks have been conceived for storing liquefied natural gas (LNG) in LNG-fueled motor vehicles. Heretofore, doublewall steel tanks with vacuum between the inner and outer walls have been used for storing LNG. In comparison with the vacuum- insulated steel tanks, the jacketed aluminum tanks weigh less and can be manufactured at lower cost. Costs of using the jacketed aluminum tanks are further reduced in that there is no need for the vacuum pumps heretofore needed to maintain vacuum in the vacuum-insulated tanks.

  5. Flammable gas tank waste level reconcilliation tank 241-SX-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluoro Dynel Northwest (FDNW) was authorized to address flammable gas issues by reconciling the unexplained surface level increases in Tank 24 1-S-1 1 1 (S-I 1 1, typical). The trapped gas evaluation document (ref 1) states that Tank SX-102 exceeds the 25% of the lower flammable limit (FL) criterion (ref 2), based on a surface level rise evaluation. The Waste Storage Tank Status and Leak Detection Criteria document, commonly referred to as the ''Wallet Report'' is the basis for this letter report (ref 3). The Wallet Report is also a part of the trapped gas evaluation document criteria. The Wallet Report contains various tank information, including: physical information, status, levels, and dry wells, see Appendix A. The unexplained waste level rises were attributed to the production and retention of gas in the column of waste corresponding to the unacquainted for surface level rise. From 1973 through 1980, the Wallet Report tracked Tank S- 102 transfers and reported a net cumulative change of 19.95 in. This surface level increase is from an unknown source or is unacquainted for. Duke Engineering and Services Hanford (DASH) and Leached Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) are interested in determining the validity of the unexplained surface level changes reported in the 0611e Wallet Report based upon other corroborative sources of data. The purpose of this letter report is to assemble detailed surface level and waste addition data from daily tank records, logbooks, and other corroborative data that indicate surface levels, and to reconcile the cumulative unacquainted for surface level changes as shown in the Wallet Report from 1973 through 1980

  6. Mixing Suspensions in Slender Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rieger

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial suspension mixing processes are carried out both in standard tanks (H/D =1 and in the tanks with height H/D > 1. When only one impeller is used in such slender tanks, it may be difficult to produce a suspension of desired homogeneity. Hence it may be necessary to install a larger number of impellers on the shaft.The aim of this study was to explain the mechanism of suspension formation in slender tanks (H/D = 2 with an increased number of impellers. On the basis of the solid bed height on the tank bottom, the position of the suspension - water interface and the concentration profile of solid particles in the suspension (standard deviation of solid body concentration the operation of the impellers was estimated and conclusions were drawn on how and at what distance from each other to install them were presented.The location of the upper, highest impeller appeared to be specially significant. On the basis of this study it is recommended to locate the upper impeller so that its distance from the free liquid surface is less than 0.8 D. It was found that such a position of the highest impeller was also advantageous from the energy point of view.

  7. Tank Waste Disposal Program redefinition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, M.L.; Augustine, C.A.; Cahill, M.A.; Garfield, J.S.; Johnson, M.E.; Kupfer, M.J.; Meyer, G.A.; Roecker, J.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Holton, L.K.; Hunter, V.L.; Triplett, M.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1991-10-01

    The record of decision (ROD) (DOE 1988) on the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland Washington identifies the method for disposal of double-shell tank waste and cesium and strontium capsules at the Hanford Site. The ROD also identifies the need for additional evaluations before a final decision is made on the disposal of single-shell tank waste. This document presents the results of systematic evaluation of the present technical circumstances, alternatives, and regulatory requirements in light of the values of the leaders and constitutents of the program. It recommends a three-phased approach for disposing of tank wastes. This approach allows mature technologies to be applied to the treatment of well-understood waste forms in the near term, while providing time for the development and deployment of successively more advanced pretreatment technologies. The advanced technologies will accelerate disposal by reducing the volume of waste to be vitrified. This document also recommends integration of the double-and single-shell tank waste disposal programs, provides a target schedule for implementation of the selected approach, and describes the essential elements of a program to be baselined in 1992.

  8. Optical inspections of research reactor tanks and tank components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By the end of 1987 worldwide there were 326 research reactors in operation, 276 of them operating more than 10 years, and 195 of them operating more than 20 years. The majority of these reactors are swimming-pool type or tank type reactors using aluminium as structural material. Although aluminium has prooven its excellent properties for reactor application in primary system, it is however subjected to various types of corrosion if it gets into contact with other materials such as mild steel in the presence of destilled water. This paper describes various methods of research reactor tank inspections, maintenance and repair possibilities. 9 figs. (Author)

  9. Application of Polyurethane Polymer and Assistant Rails to Settling the Abnormal Vehicle-Track Dynamic Effects in Transition Zone between Ballastless and Ballasted Track

    OpenAIRE

    Caiyou Zhao; Ping Wang; Qiang Yi; Duo Meng

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes tests on a transition section between ballasted and ballastless tracks in the Liupanshui-Zhanyi railway in China. The originally unsettled transition zone is exposed to sudden car shaking and a series of track transition problems during train passage. As an example, the influences of polyurethane polymer and a combination of polyurethane and assistant rails to increase track stiffness distribution and track transition decay rates on the dynamic vehicle and track behaviour...

  10. first tank of Linac 1

    CERN Multimedia

    This was the first tank of the linear accelerator Linac1, the injection system for the Proton Synchrotron, It ran for 34 years (1958 - 1992). Protons entered at the far end and were accelerated between the copper drift tubes by an oscillating electromagnetic field. The field flipped 200 million times a second (200 MHz) so the protons spent 5 nanoseconds crossing a drift tube and a gap. Moving down the tank, the tubes and gaps had to get longer as the protons gained speed. The tank accelerated protons from 500 KeV to 10 MeV. Linac1 was also used to accelerate deutrons and alpha particles for the Intersecting Storage Rings and oxygen and sulpher ions for the Super Proton Synchrotron heavy ion programme.

  11. ICPP Tank Farm systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the early years (1950--1965) of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) operations, eleven, 300,000-gallon waste storage tanks were constructed. A project was in progress to replace these aging tanks; however, since fuel reprocessing has been curtailed at ICPP, it is not clear that the new tanks are required. The Department of Energy (DOE) requested a systems engineering evaluation to determine the need for the new tanks. Over 100 alternatives were identified during a facilitated team meeting using Value Engineering techniques. After eliminating any ideas which clearly could not meet the requirements, the remaining ideas were combined into nine basic cases with five sub cases. These fourteen cases were then carefully defined using two methods. First, each case was drawn graphically to show waste processing equipment interfaces and time constraints where they existed or were imposed. Second, each case was analyzed using a time-dependent computer simulation of ICPP waste management activities to determine schedule interactions, liquid storage requirements, and solid waste quantities. Based on the evaluation data, the team developed the following recommendations: Install and operate the high-level liquid waste evaporator; minimize liquid waste generation as much as possible within the constraints of required ICPP operational, safety, and environmental commitments; bring a Waste Immobilization Facility on line by 2008 or earlier; operate NWCF as required to alleviate the need for new tank farm capacity; maximize the concentration of Na and K in the calcine to minimize the final amount of waste requiring immobilization; avoid using Bin Set 7 for calcine storage, if possible, to reduce future calcine retrieval and D ampersand D costs; and use WM-190 for liquid waste storage and one of the pillar and panel vaulted tanks as the spare

  12. Tank waste concentration mechanism study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study determines whether the existing 242-A Evaporator should continue to be used to concentrate the Hanford Site radioactive liquid tank wastes or be replaced by an alternative waste concentration process. Using the same philosophy, the study also determines what the waste concentration mechanism should be for the future TWRS program. Excess water from liquid DST waste should be removed to reduce the volume of waste feed for pretreatment, immobilization, and to free up storage capacity in existing tanks to support interim stabilization of SSTS, terminal cleanout of excess facilities, and other site remediation activities

  13. TANK SPACE ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TURNER DA; KIRCH NW; WASHENFELDER DJ; SCHAUS PS; WODRICH DD; WIEGMAN SA

    2010-04-27

    This report addresses the projected shortfall of double-shell tank (DST) space starting in 2018. Using a multi-variant methodology, a total of eight new-term options and 17 long-term options for recovering DST space were evaluated. These include 11 options that were previously evaluated in RPP-7702, Tank Space Options Report (Rev. 1). Based on the results of this evaluation, two near-term and three long-term options have been identified as being sufficient to overcome the shortfall of DST space projected to occur between 2018 and 2025.

  14. Tank waste isotope contributions; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the results of a calculation to determine the relative contribution of selected isotopes to the inhalation and ingestion doses for a postulated release of Hanford tank waste. The fraction of the dose due to(sup 90)Sr,(sup 90)Y,(sup 137)Cs and the alpha emitters for single shell solids and liquids, double shell solids and liquids, aging waste solids and liquids and all solids and liquids. An effective dose conversion factor was also calculated for the alpha emitters for each composite of the tank waste

  15. Tank Riser Suspension System Conceptual Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A team of engineers from High Level Waste (HLW), the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), and Project Engineering and Construction Division (PE and CD) explored ways of more effectively utilizing the HLW tank's risers during waste removal and closure activities. Currently, some of the risers are being used to store failed and contaminated equipment. To make those risers available for tank operation, failed equipment must be moved out of the tank and relocated or disposed of appropriately. Disposing of contaminated equipment is a time consuming and expensive process. This report describes the Tank Riser Suspension System (TRSS). It will allow failed equipment to be stored inside of the tank while making riser space available for other tank process equipment. In addition, the TRSS will permit disposing of failed equipment in the tank as part of tank closure activities

  16. Comparative safety analysis of LNG storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecht, B.A.; Gates, T.E.; Nelson, K.O.; Marr, G.D.

    1982-07-01

    LNG storage tank design and response to selected release scenarios were reviewed. The selection of the scenarios was based on an investigation of potential hazards as cited in the literature. A review of the structure of specific LNG storage facilities is given. Scenarios initially addressed included those that most likely emerge from the tank facility itself: conditions of overfill and overflow as related to liquid LNG content levels; over/underpressurization at respective tank vapor pressure boundaries; subsidence of bearing soil below tank foundations; and crack propagation in tank walls due to possible exposure of structural material to cryogenic temperatures. Additional scenarios addressed include those that result from external events: tornado induced winds and pressure drops; exterior tank missile impact with tornado winds and rotating machinery being the investigated mode of generation; thermal response due to adjacent fire conditions; and tank response due to intense seismic activity. Applicability of each scenario depended heavily on the specific tank configurations and material types selected. (PSB)

  17. Lightweight, Composite Cryogenic Tank Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcosm has developed and qualified strong, all-composite LOX tanks for launch vehicles. Our new 42-inch diameter tank design weighs 486 lbs and burst without...

  18. The Politics of Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    typology of think tanks, quantitative data and interviews with think tank practitioners, the interplay between state and market dynamics and the development of different types of think tanks is analysed. Although think tanks develop along different institutional trajectories, it is concluded that the Anglo......In the 21st century, think tanks have become more than a buzzword in European public discourse. They now play important roles in the policy-making process by providing applied research, building networks and advocating policies. The book studies the development of think tanks and contemporary...... consequences in the United Kingdom, Germany, Denmark and at the EU-level. A Continental think tank tradition in which the state plays a pivotal role and an Anglo-American tradition which facilitates interaction in public policy on market-like terms have shaped the development of think tanks. On the basis of a...

  19. Hanford tank waste oxidative leach behavior analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper study develops a modeling assumption for oxidative leaching Hanford tank wastes based on observed behavior of a limited set of samples tested. Oxidative Leaching of solids from Hanford tank wastes can reduce chromium concentrations appreciably

  20. AX Tank Farm ancillary equipment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines the feasibility of remediating ancillary equipment associated with the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. Ancillary equipment includes surface structures and equipment, process waste piping, ventilation components, wells, and pits, boxes, sumps, and tanks used to make waste transfers to/from the AX tanks and adjoining tank farms. Two remedial alternatives are considered: (1) excavation and removal of all ancillary equipment items, and (2) in-situ stabilization by grout filling, the 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a strawman in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tanks. This is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms

  1. Tank 241-BY-103 Tank Characterization Plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-BY-103

  2. Tank 241-C-101: Tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the characterization program, sampling operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. Scope of this plan is to provide guidance for sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-C-101. The sampling type has been changed from push mode core sampling to auger sampling

  3. Tank 241-C-101: Tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-03-08

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the characterization program, sampling operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. Scope of this plan is to provide guidance for sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-C-101. The sampling type has been changed from push mode core sampling to auger sampling.

  4. Tank 241-C-103 tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-C-103

  5. Efficacy of pH elevation as a bactericidal strategy for treating ballast water of freight carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford E. Starliper

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of ship ballast water with sodium hydroxide (NaOH is one method currently being developed to minimize the risk to introduce aquatic invasive species. The bactericidal capability of sodium hydroxide was determined for 148 bacterial strains from ballast water collected in 2009 and 2010 from the M/V Indiana Harbor, a bulk-freight carrier plying the Laurentian Great Lakes, USA. Primary culture of bacteria was done using brain heart infusion agar and a developmental medium. Strains were characterized based on PCR amplification and sequencing of a portion of the 16S rRNA gene. Sequence similarities (99+ % were determined by comparison with the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI GenBank catalog. Flavobacterium spp. were the most prevalent bacteria characterized in 2009, comprising 51.1% (24/47 of the total, and Pseudomonas spp. (62/101; 61.4% and Brevundimonas spp. (22/101; 21.8% were the predominate bacteria recovered in 2010; together, comprising 83.2% (84/101 of the total. Testing was done in tryptic soy broth (TSB medium adjusted with 5 N NaOH. Growth of each strain was evaluated at pH 10.0, pH 11.0 and pH 12.0, and 4 h up to 72 h. The median cell count at 0 h for 148 cultures was 5.20 × 106 cfu/mL with a range 1.02 × 105–1.60 × 108 cfu/mL. The TSB adjusted to pH 10.0 and incubation for less than 24 h was bactericidal to 52 (35.1% strains. Growth in pH 11.0 TSB for less than 4 h was bactericidal to 131 (88.5% strains and pH 11.0 within 12 h was bactericidal to 141 (95.3%. One strain, Bacillus horikoshii, survived the harshest treatment, pH 12.0 for 72 h.

  6. Results of Hg speciation testing on tank 39 and 1Q16 tank 50 samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with preparing and shipping samples for Hg speciation by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences, Inc. in Seattle, WA on behalf of the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Mercury Task Team.i,ii The seventeenth shipment of samples was designated to include two Tank 39 samples and the 1Q16 Tank 50 Quarterly WAC sample. The surface Tank 39 sample was pulled at 262.1” from the tank bottom, and the depth Tank 39 sample was pulled at 95” from the tank bottom. The 1Q16 Tank 50 WAC sample was drawn from the 1-L variable depth sample received by SRNL.

  7. Tank 241-BY-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-05

    Tank 241-BY-107 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues{close_quotes}. Tank 241-BY-107 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution{close_quotes}.

  8. Tank 241-BY-103 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tank 241-BY-103 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-BY-103 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  9. Tank 241-C-112 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tank 241-C-112 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-C-112 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  10. Tank 241-BY-106 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tank 241-BY-106 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-BY-106 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  11. Tank 241-BY-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tank 241-BY-107 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issuesclose quotes. Tank 241-BY-107 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolutionclose quotes

  12. Tank 241-BY-112 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tank 241-BY-112 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-BY-112 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  13. Tank 241-U-111 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tank 241-U-111 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-U-111 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  14. Tank 241-C-108 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tank 241-C-108 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-C-108 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  15. Tank 241-S-102 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tank 241-S-102 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-S-102 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution. close quotes

  16. Tank 241-C-104 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tank 241-C-104 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-C-104 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  17. Tank 241-BY-104 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tank 241-BY-104 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-BY-104 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  18. Tank 241-TX-105 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tank 241-TX-105 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-TX-105 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  19. Tank 241-BY-105 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tank 241-BY-105 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-BY-105 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  20. Tank 241-BY-111 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tank 241-BY-111 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-BY-111 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  1. Tank 241-U-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tank 241-U-107 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-U-107 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  2. Tank 241-BY-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tank 241-BY-107 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-BY-107 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  3. Tank 241-C-108 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tank 241-C-108 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues (Osborne and Huckaby 1994). Tank 241-C-108 was vapor sampled in accordance with Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution (Osborne et al., 1994)

  4. Tank 241-TX-118 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tank 241-TX-118 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-TX-118 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  5. Think Tanks, Education and Elite Policy Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Glenn C.

    2016-01-01

    The past decade has seen think tanks operate in sophisticated ways to influence the development of education policies. In this paper, I reflect upon the influence of think tanks in the formation of national reform, using the Common Core State Standards initiative in the USA as an illustrative case. In doing so, I explore how certain think tanks,…

  6. Predominant radoinuclides in Hanford site waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predominant radionuclides in Hanford Site waste tanks are determined. Predominant radionuclides are defined as those radionuclides presenting over 99 percent of the long-term or short-term risk to workers or members of the public. Predominant radionuclides are those for which best estimates of inventory are needed on a tank-by-tank basis

  7. Stabilization of In-Tank Residual Wastes and External-Tank Soil Contamination for the Hanford Tank Closure Program: Applications to the AX Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, H.L.; Dwyer, B.P.; Ho, C.; Krumhansl, J.L.; McKeen, G.; Molecke, M.A.; Westrich, H.R.; Zhang, P.

    1998-11-01

    Technical support for the Hanford Tank Closure Program focused on evaluation of concepts for immobilization of residual contaminants in the Hanford AX tanks and underlying soils, and identification of cost-effective approaches to improve long-term performance of AX tank farm cIosure systems. Project objectives are to develop materials or engineered systems that would significantly reduce the radionuclide transport to the groundwater from AX tanks containing residual waste. We pursued several studies that, if implemented, would help achieve these goals. They include: (1) tank fill design to reduce water inilltration and potential interaction with residual waste; (2) development of in-tank getter materials that would specifically sorb or sequester radionuclides; (3) evaluation of grout emplacement under and around the tanks to prevent waste leakage during waste retrieval or to minimize water infiltration beneath the tanks; (4) development of getters that will chemically fix specific radionuclides in soils under tanks; and (5) geochemical and hydrologic modeling of waste-water-soil-grout interactions. These studies differ in scope from the reducing grout tank fill employed at the Savannah River Site in that our strategy improves upon tank fill design by providing redundancy in the barriers to radionuclide migration and by modification the hydrogeochemistry external to the tanks.

  8. Tank 12H residuals sample analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shine, E. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Diprete, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coleman, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-06-11

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 12H final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Eleven Tank 12H floor and mound residual material samples and three cooling coil scrape samples were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August of 2014.

  9. Application of seismic isolation to industrial tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayas, V.A.; Low, S.S. [Earthquake Protection Systems, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The state-of-the-art in the application of seismic isolation to industrial tanks is presented. Use of seismic isolation in industrial tanks can reduce lateral shaking forces by factors of 3 to 5 for strong earthquake loadings. This level of force reduction offers a practical and economical means of designing tanks on a linear elastic basis, and thereby reduces the risk of local failures and leakage during earthquakes. The case studies presented include: LNG Storage Tanks, an Ammonia Storage Tank, and an Emergency Fire and Cooling Water Tank. The tank capacities range from 50 thousand gallons to 19 million gallons. Two applications are new tanks, and one is a retrofit of an existing tank. The methodology for the design of the isolation bearings and tank structures is presented. The dynamic analysis methods used to perform the seismic analysis of the isolated tanks are reviewed, including the hydrodynamic modeling methods. The engineering principles and theory of the Friction Pendulum isolation bearings are discussed. This pendulum based isolation system results in the same natural period of vibration regardless of changes in the fluid levels in the tank, or temperature, aging, and environmental conditions. Test results for the isolation bearings are presented, including comparisons of experimental and analytical results for dynamic loadings, and strength, temperature and aging tests.

  10. Tank 12H residuals sample analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 12H final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Eleven Tank 12H floor and mound residual material samples and three cooling coil scrape samples were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August of 2014.

  11. SRS tank closure. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-level waste (HLW) tank closure technology is designed to stabilize any remaining radionuclides and hazardous constituents left in a tank after bulk waste removal. Two Savannah River Site (SRS) HLW tanks were closed after cleansing and then filling each tank with three layers of grout. The first layer consists of a chemically reducing grout. The fill material has chemical properties that retard the movement of some radionuclides and chemical constituents. A layer of controlled low-strength material (CLSM), a self-leveling fill material, is placed on top of the reducing grout. CLSM provides sufficient strength to support the overbearing weight. The final layer is a free-flowing, strong grout similar to normal concrete. After the main tank cavity is filled, risers are filled with grout, and all waste transfer piping connected to the tank is isolated. The tank ventilation system is dismantled, and the remaining systems are isolated. Equipment that remains with the tank is filled with grout. The tank and ancillary systems are left in a state requiring only limited surveillance. Administrative procedures are in place to control land use and access. DOE eventually plans to remove all of its HLW storage tanks from service. These tanks are located at SRS, Hanford, and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Low-activity waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge Reservation are also scheduled for closure

  12. DOUBLE SHELL TANK EMERGENCY PUMPING GUIDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides preplanning necessary to expeditiously remove any waste that may leak from the primary tank to the secondary tank for Hanford's 28 DSTs. The strategy is described, applicable emergency procedures are referenced, and transfer routes and pumping equipment for each tank are identified

  13. SRS tank closure. Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-08-01

    High-level waste (HLW) tank closure technology is designed to stabilize any remaining radionuclides and hazardous constituents left in a tank after bulk waste removal. Two Savannah River Site (SRS) HLW tanks were closed after cleansing and then filling each tank with three layers of grout. The first layer consists of a chemically reducing grout. The fill material has chemical properties that retard the movement of some radionuclides and chemical constituents. A layer of controlled low-strength material (CLSM), a self-leveling fill material, is placed on top of the reducing grout. CLSM provides sufficient strength to support the overbearing weight. The final layer is a free-flowing, strong grout similar to normal concrete. After the main tank cavity is filled, risers are filled with grout, and all waste transfer piping connected to the tank is isolated. The tank ventilation system is dismantled, and the remaining systems are isolated. Equipment that remains with the tank is filled with grout. The tank and ancillary systems are left in a state requiring only limited surveillance. Administrative procedures are in place to control land use and access. DOE eventually plans to remove all of its HLW storage tanks from service. These tanks are located at SRS, Hanford, and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Low-activity waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge Reservation are also scheduled for closure.

  14. Tank characterization report for double-shell tank 241-AP-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In April 1993, Double-Shell Tank 241-AP-102 was sampled to determine waste feed characteristics for the Hanford Grout Disposal Program. This Tank Characterization Report presents an overview of that tank sampling and analysis effort, and contains observations regarding waste characteristics, expected bulk inventory, and concentration data for the waste contents based on this latest sampling data and information on the history of the tank. Finally, this report makes recommendations and conclusions regarding tank operational safety issues

  15. Tank Farms and Waste Feed Delivery - 12507

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of the Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is to safely retrieve and treat the 56 million gallons of Hanford's tank waste and close the Tank Farms to protect the Columbia River. Our discussion of the Tank Farms and Waste Feed Delivery will cover progress made to date with Base and Recovery Act funding in reducing the risk posed by tank waste and in preparing for the initiation of waste treatment at Hanford. The millions of gallons of waste are a by-product of decades of plutonium production. After irradiated fuel rods were taken from the nuclear reactors to the processing facilities at Hanford they were exposed to a series of chemicals designed to dissolve away the rod, which enabled workers to retrieve the plutonium. Once those chemicals were exposed to the fuel rods they became radioactive and extremely hot. They also couldn't be used in this process more than once. Because the chemicals are caustic and extremely hazardous to humans and the environment, underground storage tanks were built to hold these chemicals until a more permanent solution could be found. The underground storage tanks range in capacity from 55,000 gallons to more than 1 million gallons. The tanks were constructed with carbon steel and reinforced concrete. There are eighteen groups of tanks, called 'tank farms', some having as few as two tanks and others up to sixteen tanks. Between 1943 and 1964, 149 single-shell tanks were built at Hanford in the 200 West and East Areas. Heat generated by the waste and the composition of the waste caused an estimated 67 of these single-shell tanks to leak into the ground. Washington River Protection Solutions is the prime contractor responsible for the safe management of this waste. WRPS' mission is to reduce the risk to the environment that is posed by the waste. All of the pumpable liquids have been removed from the single-shell tanks and transferred to the double-shell tanks. What remains in the single-shell tanks are

  16. Tank Farms and Waste Feed Delivery - 12507

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, Thomas; Charboneau, Stacy; Olds, Erik [US DOE (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The mission of the Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is to safely retrieve and treat the 56 million gallons of Hanford's tank waste and close the Tank Farms to protect the Columbia River. Our discussion of the Tank Farms and Waste Feed Delivery will cover progress made to date with Base and Recovery Act funding in reducing the risk posed by tank waste and in preparing for the initiation of waste treatment at Hanford. The millions of gallons of waste are a by-product of decades of plutonium production. After irradiated fuel rods were taken from the nuclear reactors to the processing facilities at Hanford they were exposed to a series of chemicals designed to dissolve away the rod, which enabled workers to retrieve the plutonium. Once those chemicals were exposed to the fuel rods they became radioactive and extremely hot. They also couldn't be used in this process more than once. Because the chemicals are caustic and extremely hazardous to humans and the environment, underground storage tanks were built to hold these chemicals until a more permanent solution could be found. The underground storage tanks range in capacity from 55,000 gallons to more than 1 million gallons. The tanks were constructed with carbon steel and reinforced concrete. There are eighteen groups of tanks, called 'tank farms', some having as few as two tanks and others up to sixteen tanks. Between 1943 and 1964, 149 single-shell tanks were built at Hanford in the 200 West and East Areas. Heat generated by the waste and the composition of the waste caused an estimated 67 of these single-shell tanks to leak into the ground. Washington River Protection Solutions is the prime contractor responsible for the safe management of this waste. WRPS' mission is to reduce the risk to the environment that is posed by the waste. All of the pumpable liquids have been removed from the single-shell tanks and transferred to the double-shell tanks. What remains in

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF ANSYS FINITE ELEMENT MODELS FOR SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) and DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) TANKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summary report of ANSYS finite element models developed for dome load analysis of Hanford 100-series single-shell tanks and double-shell tanks. Document provides user interface for selecting proper tank model and changing of analysis parameters for tank specific analysis. Current dome load restrictions for the Hanford Site underground waste storage tanks are based on existing analyses of record (AOR) that evaluated the tanks for a specific set of design load conditions. However, greater flexibility is required in controlling dome loadings applied to the tanks due to day-to-day operations and waste retrieval activities. This requires the development of an analytical model with sufficient detail to evaluate various dome loading conditions not specifically addressed in the AOR

  18. Inactivation of dinoflagellate Scrippsiella trochoidea in synthetic ballast water by reactive species generated from dielectric barrier discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Qiong; Jiang Wenju; Yang Zhishan [Institute of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Zhang Yi; Lim Tuti Mariana, E-mail: TMLim@ntu.edu.s [Institute of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technology University, Innovation Center, Block 2, Unit 237, 18 Nanyang Drive, 637723 Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-05-07

    The inactivation of dinoflagellate Scrippsiella trochoidea in synthetic ballast water by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) system was investigated. The OH{sup .} radical, ozone and hydrogen peroxide generated from the DBD system were measured. Before and after the treatment, the viability of dinoflagellate S. trochoidea was evaluated by analyzing chlorophyll a, protein and saccharide content and morphology of the cells, as well as the pH of the cell culture media. The results show OH{sup .} radical was the major reactive species when humid air was used. The inactivation of S. trochoidea was found to be dependent on the applied voltage and the gas flow rate, and was completed within 4 min at a gas flow rate of 7 L min{sup -1} and an applied voltage of 20 kV. The change of chlorophyll a, protein and saccharide concentrations of S. trochoidea and the morphology of the cells indicates that the reactive species generated from the DBD system can break up the cells via oxidation.

  19. Tank 241-C-103 headspace flammability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information regarding flammable vapors, gases, and aerosols is presented for the purpose of resolving the tank 241-C-103 headspace flammability issue. Analyses of recent vapor and liquid samples, as well as visual inspections of the tank headspace, are discussed in the context of tank dynamics. This document is restricted to issues regarding the flammability of gases, vapors, and an aerosol that may exist in the headspace of tank 241-C-103. While discussing certain information about the organic liquid present in tank 241-C-103, this document addresses neither the potential for, nor consequences of, a pool fire involving this organic liquid; they will be discussed in a separate report

  20. Fish stocking density impacts tank hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Lunger, Angela; Laursen, Jesper;

    2006-01-01

    The effect of stocking density upon the hydrodynamics of a circular tank, configured in a recirculation system, was investigated. Red drums Sciaenops ocellatus of approximately 140 g wet weight, were stocked at five rates varying from 0 to 12 kg m-3. The impact of the presence of fish upon tank...... hydrodynamics was established using in-tank-based Rhodamine WT fluorometry at a flow rate of 0.23 l s-1 (tank exchange rate of 1.9 h-1). With increasing numbers of animals, curvilinear relationships were observed for dispersion coefficients and tank mixing times. Stocking densities of 3, 6, 9 and 12 kg m-3...

  1. ICPP Tank Farm planning through 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, liquid high-level waste (HLW) generated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant has been stored in the Tank Farm after which it is calcined with the calcine being stored in stainless steel bins. Following the curtailment of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing in 1992, the HLW treatment methods were re-evaluated to establish a path forward for producing a final waste form from the liquid sodium bearing wastes (SBW) and the HLW calcine. Projections for significant improvements in waste generation, waste blending and evaporation, and calcination were incorporated into the Tank Farm modeling. This optimized modeling shows that all of the SBW can be calcined by the end of 2012 as required by the Idaho Settlement Agreement. This Tank Farm plan discusses the use of each of the eleven HLW tanks and shows that two tanks can be emptied, allowing them to be Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closed by 2006. In addition, it describes the construction of each tank and vault, gives the chemical concentrations of the contents of each tank, based on historical input and some sampling, and discusses the regulatory drivers important to Tank Farm operation. It also discusses new waste generation, the computer model used for the Tank Farm planning, the operating schedule for each tank, and the schedule for when each tank will be empty and closed

  2. Pad B Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Felicia

    2007-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center is home to two liquid hydrogen storage tanks, one at each launch pad of Launch Complex 39. The liquid hydrogen storage tank at Launch Pad B has a significantly higher boil off rate that the liquid hydrogen storage tank at Launch Pad A. This research looks at various calculations concerning the at Launch Pad B in an attempt to develop a solution to the excess boil off rate. We will look at Perlite levels inside the tank, Boil off rates, conductive heat transfer, and radiant heat transfer through the tank. As a conclusion to the research, we will model the effects of placing an external insulation to the tank in order to reduce the boil off rate and increase the economic efficiency of the liquid hydrogen storage tanks.

  3. Aircraft fuel tank slosh and vibration test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, H.

    1981-12-01

    A dynamic qualification test for a subsonic and a supersonic external drop tank for a European fighter is presented. The test rig and the specimens are described and the measuring results are discussed. It is shown that for the supersonic tank as well as for the subsonic tank a certain slosh angle an eigenfrequency of the rig increases the amplitudes at the excitation position and the accelerations on the tank. For the subsonic tank it seems that an eigenfrequency is excited for the nose down position of the tank. The qualification requirements are examined. It is proposed that instead of using an arbitrary vibration amplitude and frequency for excitation, frequency ranges and amplitudes which are averaged out of flight measurements at the tank attachment points on the aircraft be used and that the demand for a certain input amplitude at the top of the attachment bulkheads and an output amplitude at the bottom of the attachment bulkheads be deleted.

  4. History of Tank 23, 1962 through 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tank 23 was placed in service in April 1964 receiving contaminated water from Buildings 244-H, the Receiving Basin for Off-Site Fuel (RBOF), and 245-H, the Resin Regeneration Facility (RRF). Tank 23 also provided emergency storage space for 500,000 gallons in the event of a severe contamination incident in Building 244-H. The tank has remained in this service since that time. The Tank 23 waste was processed initially by the 242-H evaporator, but since mid-1966 the waste has been processed through a zeolite bed to remove 137C and other radioisotopes by ion exchange, and discarded to seepage basins. Inspections of the tank interior were made by using a 40-ft optical periscope and the thickness of the steel bottom of the tank was measured ultrasonically. Samples of the waste in the tank and liquid collected in the side wall and bottom sumps were analyzed. Several equipment modifications and repairs were made

  5. Hanford Site Waste Storage Tank Information Notebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husa, E.I.; Raymond, R.E.; Welty, R.K.; Griffith, S.M.; Hanlon, B.M.; Rios, R.R.; Vermeulen, N.J.

    1993-07-01

    This report provides summary data on the radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 East and West Areas at the Hanford Site. The summary data covers each of the existing 161 Series 100 underground waste storage tanks (500,000 gallons and larger). It also contains information on the design and construction of these tanks. The information in this report is derived from existing reports that document the status of the tanks and their materials. This report also contains interior, surface photographs of each of the 54 Watch List tanks, which are those tanks identified as Priority I Hanford Site Tank Farm Safety Issues in accordance with Public Law 101-510, Section 3137*.

  6. Thermal stratification in a hot water tank established by heat loss from the tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Results of experimental and numerical investigations of thermal stratification and natural convection in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank during standby periods are presented. The transient fluid flow and heat transfer in the tank during cooling caused by heat loss are investigated by...... computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations and by thermal measurements. A tank with uniform temperatures and thermal stratification is studied. The distribution of the heat loss coefficient for the different parts of the tank is measured by tests and used as input to the CFD model. The investigations focus...... on the natural buoyancy resulting in downward flow along the tank side walls due to heat loss of the tank and the influence on thermal stratification of the tank by the downward flow and the corresponding upward flow in the central parts of the tank. Water temperatures at different levels of the tank...

  7. CRITICAL ASSUMPTIONS IN THE F-TANK FARM CLOSURE OPERATIONAL DOCUMENTATION REGARDING WASTE TANK INTERNAL CONFIGURATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hommel, S.; Fountain, D.

    2012-03-28

    The intent of this document is to provide clarification of critical assumptions regarding the internal configurations of liquid waste tanks at operational closure, with respect to F-Tank Farm (FTF) closure documentation. For the purposes of this document, FTF closure documentation includes: (1) Performance Assessment for the F-Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (hereafter referred to as the FTF PA) (SRS-REG-2007-00002), (2) Basis for Section 3116 Determination for Closure of F-Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (DOE/SRS-WD-2012-001), (3) Tier 1 Closure Plan for the F-Area Waste Tank Systems at the Savannah River Site (SRR-CWDA-2010-00147), (4) F-Tank Farm Tanks 18 and 19 DOE Manual 435.1-1 Tier 2 Closure Plan Savannah River Site (SRR-CWDA-2011-00015), (5) Industrial Wastewater Closure Module for the Liquid Waste Tanks 18 and 19 (SRRCWDA-2010-00003), and (6) Tank 18/Tank 19 Special Analysis for the Performance Assessment for the F-Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (hereafter referred to as the Tank 18/Tank 19 Special Analysis) (SRR-CWDA-2010-00124). Note that the first three FTF closure documents listed apply to the entire FTF, whereas the last three FTF closure documents listed are specific to Tanks 18 and 19. These two waste tanks are expected to be the first two tanks to be grouted and operationally closed under the current suite of FTF closure documents and many of the assumptions and approaches that apply to these two tanks are also applicable to the other FTF waste tanks and operational closure processes.

  8. Tank Focus Area pretreatment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plans call for the high-level wastes to be retrieved from the tanks and immobilized in a stable waste form suitable for long-term isolation. Chemistry and chemical engineering operations are required to retrieve the wastes, to condition the wastes for subsequent steps, and to reduce the costs of the waste management enterprise. Pretreatment includes those processes between retrieval and immobilization, and includes preparation of suitable feed material for immobilization and separations to partition the waste into streams that yield lower life-cycle costs. Some of the technologies being developed by the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to process these wastes are described. These technologies fall roughly into three areas: (1) solid/liquid separation (SLS), (2) sludge pretreatment, and (3) supernate pretreatment

  9. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT BUCKLING EVALUATION METHODS & RESULTS FOR THE PRIMARY TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2006-03-17

    This report documents a detailed buckling evaluation of the primary tanks in the Hanford double shell waste tanks. The analysis is part of a comprehensive structural review for the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project. This work also provides information on tank integrity that specifically responds to concerns raise by the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Oversight (EH-22) during a review (in April and May 2001) of work being performed on the double-shell tank farms, and the operation of the aging waste facility (AWF) primary tank ventilation system.

  10. 241-SY Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Travis J.; Boomer, Kayle D.; Gunter, Jason R.; Venetz, Theodore J.

    2013-07-25

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for tanks 241-SY-101, 241-SY-102, and 241-SY-103. The construction history of the 241-SY tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank 241-AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank 241-AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-SY tank farm, the third DST farm constructed, refractory quality and stress relief were improved, while similar tank and liner fabrication issues remained.

  11. 241-AZ Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Travis J.; Boomer, Kayle D.; Gunter, Jason R.; Venetz, Theodore J.

    2013-07-30

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102. The construction history of the 241-AZ tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-AZ tank farm, the second DST farm constructed, both refractory quality and tank and liner fabrication were improved.

  12. External tank space debris considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfer, N.; Baillif, F.; Robinson, J.

    1992-01-01

    Orbital debris issues associated with maintaining a Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) on orbit are presented. The first issue is to ensure that the ET does not become a danger to other spacecraft by generating space debris, and the second is to protect the pressurized ET from penetration by space debris or meteoroids. Tests on shield designs for penetration resistance showed that when utilized with an adequate bumper, thermal protection system foam on the ET is effective in preventing penetration.

  13. Double wall underground storage tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canaan, E.B. Jr.; Wiegand, J.R.; Bartlow, D.H.

    1993-07-06

    A double wall underground storage tank is described comprising: (a) a cylindrical inner wall, (b) a cylindrical outer wall comprising plastic resin and reinforcement fibers, and (c) a layer of spacer filaments wound around the inner wall, the spacer filaments separating the inner and outer walls, and the spacer filaments being at least partially surrounded by voids to enable liquids to flow along the filaments.

  14. In situ vitrification of radioactive underground tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a treatment process with great potential for remediating underground tanks previously used for storing radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Tests at several scales have demonstrated the utility of ISV for these tanks. An engineering-scale test vitrified a 30-cm-diameter buried steel and concrete tank that contained simulated tank sludge. Hazardous components of the tank sludge were immobilized, or removed and captured in the off-gas treatment system, and the tank walls were melted or incorporated into the ISV block. A pilot-scale ISV test vitrified a 1-m simulated underground tank than contained a simulated refractory sludge. The ISV process completely vitrified the tank, its contents, and the soil below the tank to a depth of 2.4 m, producing a uniform glass and crystalline monolith with an estimated mass of 30 tons. A large-scale underground tank test is scheduled for early 1991. 5 refs., 4 figs

  15. Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State has the most diverse and largest amount of highly radioactive waste of any site in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored in large underground tanks since 1944. A Tank Waste Remediation System Program has been established within the DOE to safely manage and immobilize these wastes in anticipation of permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Waste Management 1993 Symposium Papers and Viewgraphs covered the following topics: Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Overview; Tank Waste Retrieval Issues and Options for their Resolution; Tank Waste Pretreatment - Issues, Alternatives and Strategies for Resolution; Low-Level Waste Disposal - Grout Issue and Alternative Waste Form Technology; A Strategy for Resolving High-Priority Hanford Site Radioactive Waste Storage Tank Safety Issues; Tank Waste Chemistry - A New Understanding of Waste Aging; Recent Results from Characterization of Ferrocyanide Wastes at the Hanford Site; Resolving the Safety Issue for Radioactive Waste Tanks with High Organic Content; Technology to Support Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Objectives

  16. Seismic response of flexible clyindrical tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental study of the seismic behaviour of thin shell circular cylindrical liquid storage tanks is described. The investigation was planned to evaluate the adequacy of present methods of tank design, and was conducted using the Earthquake Simulator Facility of the University of California, Berkeley. The model tank considered in this paper was 6 ft high by 12 ft in diameter, and was welded from thin sheet aluminium to simulate a steel tank 36 feet in diameter. Results of the experiments demonstrate that fluid pressures included both impulsive and convective components, and that the wave sloshing followed basic theory quite closely.But it also was apparent that the tank flexibility influenced the hydrodynamic pressures, as indicated by pressure amplification in the clamped tank, and by a total change of pressure history in the unclamped case. Significant out of round distortions of the tank were developed, of a three lobe form for the free base case and with four lobes in the fixed base case. Uplift of the tank base was closely related to the out-of-round deformation of the unanchored tank, whereas initial eccentricities apparently caused the section distortions in the anchored system. Stresses in the tank wall do not follow the expected pattern of response to overturning moment; instead they seem to be mainly associated with the section distortions. At present there is no analytical procedure for predicting these distortions. (Auth.)

  17. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM - 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, B.; Waltz, R.

    2012-06-21

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2011 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report. The 2011 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. All inspections scheduled per SRR-LWE-2011-00026, HLW Tank Farm Inspection Plan for 2011, were completed. Ultrasonic measurements (UT) performed in 2011 met the requirements of C-ESR-G-00006, In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks, Rev. 3, and WSRC-TR-2002-00061, Rev.6. UT inspections were performed on Tanks 25, 26 and 34 and the findings are documented in SRNL-STI-2011-00495, Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2011, Waste Tanks 25, 26, 34 and 41. A total of 5813 photographs were made and 835 visual and video inspections were performed during 2011. A potential leaksite was discovered at Tank 4 during routine annual inspections performed in 2011. The new crack, which is above the allowable fill level, resulted in no release to the environment or tank annulus. The location of the crack is documented in C-ESR-G-00003, SRS High Level Waste Tank Leaksite Information, Rev.6.

  18. RETRIEVAL & TREATMENT OF HANFORD TANK WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EACKER, J.A.; SPEARS, J.A.; STURGES, M.H.; MAUSS, B.M.

    2006-01-20

    The Hanford Tank Farms contain 53 million gal of radioactive waste accumulated during over 50 years of operations. The waste is stored in 177 single-shell and double-shell tanks in the Hanford 200 Areas. The single-shell tanks were put into operation from the early 1940s through the 1960s with wastes received from several generations of processing facilities for the recovery of plutonium and uranium, and from laboratories and other ancillary facilities. The overall hanford Tank Farm system represents one of the largest nuclear legacies in the world driving towards completion of retrieval and treatment in 2028 and the associated closure activity completion by 2035. Remote operations, significant radiation/contamination levels, limited access, and old facilities are just some of the challenges faced by retrieval and treatment systems. These systems also need to be able to successfully remove 99% or more of the waste, and support waste treatment, and tank closure. The Tank Farm retrieval program has ramped up dramatically in the past three years with design, fabrication, installation, testing, and operations ongoing on over 20 of the 149 single-shell tanks. A variety of technologies are currently being pursued to retrieve different waste types, applications, and to help establish a baseline for recovery/operational efficiencies. The paper/presentation describes the current status of retrieval system design, fabrication, installation, testing, readiness, and operations, including: (1) Saltcake removal progress in Tanks S-102, S-109, and S-112 using saltcake dissolution, modified sluicing, and high pressure water lancing techniques; (2) Sludge vacuum retrieval experience from Tanks C-201, C-202, C-203, and C-204; (3) Modified sluicing experience in Tank C-103; (4) Progress on design and installation of the mobile retrieval system for sludge in potentially leaking single-shell tanks, particularly Tank C-101; and (5) Ongoing installation of various systems in the next

  19. UV spectrophotometry for monitoring the performance of a yeast-based deoxygenation process to treat ships' ballast water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Éloïse; de Lafontaine, Yves; Thomas, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    This study assessed the usefulness of UV spectrophotometry for the monitoring of a yeast-based deoxygenation process proposed for ships' ballast water treatment to prevent the transfer of aquatic invasive species. Ten-day laboratory experiments using three treatment concentrations and different water types were conducted and resulted in complete oxygen depletion of treated waters. The treatment performance and quality of treated waters were determined by measuring the UV-visible absorbance spectra of water samples taken over time. Samples were also used for laboratory analysis of water quality properties. The UV absorbance spectra values were strongly correlated (r = 0.96) to yeast cell density in treated waters. The second-order derivative (D (2)) of the spectra varied greatly over time, and the spectrum profiles could be divided into two groups corresponding to the oxygenated and anoxic phases of the treatment. The D (2) value at 215 nm was strongly correlated (r = 0.94) to ammonia levels, which increased over time. The D (2) value at 225 nm was strongly correlated (r > 0.97) to DO concentration. Our results showed that UV spectrophotometry may provide a rapid assessment of the behavior and performance of the yeast bioreactor over time by quantifying (1) the density of yeast cells, (2) the time at which anoxic conditions were reached, and (3) a water quality index of the treated water related to the production of ammonia. We conclude that the rapidity of the technique confers a solid advantage over standard methods used for water quality analysis in laboratory and would permit the direct monitoring of the treatment performance on-board ships. PMID:26944435

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF A SMART SOLAR TANK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa

    1999-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of small SDHW systems based on so-called smart solar tanks are presented. A smart solar tank is a hot water tank in which the domestic water can both be heated by solar collectors and by an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply...... system heats up the hot water tank from the top and the water volume heated by the auxiliary energy supply system is fitted to the hot water consumption and consumption pattern. In periods with a large hot water demand the volume is large, in periods with a small hot water demand the volume is small. The...... investigations showed that the yearly thermal performance of small SDHW systems can be increased by up to about 30 % if a smart solar tank is used instead of a traditional solar combi tank. The thermal increase is strongly influenced by the hot water consumption and consumption pattern. Recommendations for...

  1. Simple characterisation of solar DHW tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the project is to compare different methods used for testing small solar domestic hot water tanks. A small hot water tank is tested at three different European laboratories by means of the test methods normally used at the laboratories. The tank is marketed in Denmark.The test carried...... temperatures. The annual thermal performance for a solar domestic hot water system based on the tested tank is calculated. Further, proposal for a future test on mixing during draw-off as well as proposal for a maximum acceptable mixing during draw-off is given....... out at the Department for Buildings and Energy compromises determination of the heat loss coefficient for the tank and the heat transfer coefficient for the auxiliary helix. A dynamic test is performed and a simulation model of the tank is made and validated against measured energy quantities and...

  2. Novel high effective waste water equalization tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new solution of the circle shape wastewater equalization tank for petrochemical industry with pointwise sewage inlet and its discharge by system of two immersed perforated pipes on the circumference of the tank was proposed. The tank simultaneously realizes averaging of waste flow rate, chemical composition of sewage and discharge of sediment from bottom of tank and organic phase from liquid surface. The radiotracer examination of the tank flow dynamic in Mazovian Petrochemical Factory, Plock, was carried out. The 60% reduction of COD and 90% reduction of total sediment contents were obtained. The 20% rate of zone of flow stagnation in scraper region was located. The significant averaging of flow rate in the tank was observed. (author). 4 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  3. 46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154.412... Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion...) carries a cargo that corrodes the tank material. Note: Corrosion allowance for independent tank type C...

  4. 49 CFR 230.115 - Feed water tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Feed water tanks. 230.115 Section 230.115... Tenders Steam Locomotive Tanks § 230.115 Feed water tanks. (a) General provisions. Tanks shall be... water. Feed water tanks shall be equipped with a device that permits the measurement of the quantity...

  5. 49 CFR 180.507 - Qualification of tank cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualification of tank cars. 180.507 Section 180... QUALIFICATION AND MAINTENANCE OF PACKAGINGS Qualification and Maintenance of Tank Cars § 180.507 Qualification of tank cars. (a) Each tank car marked as meeting a “DOT” specification or any other tank car...

  6. Utilities:Water:Water Tanks at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Water:tanks)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents tanks at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. It consists of 2 polygons representing the Tunnel Spring Division Tank and the 1/2...

  7. 33 CFR 157.147 - Similar tank design: Inspections on foreign tank vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels...

  8. Waste Tank Vapor Project: Tank vapor database development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the Tank Vapor Database (TVD) Development task in FY 1994 was to create a database to store, retrieve, and analyze data collected from the vapor phase of Hanford waste tanks. The data needed to be accessible over the Hanford Local Area Network to users at both Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The data were restricted to results published in cleared reports from the laboratories analyzing vapor samples. Emphasis was placed on ease of access and flexibility of data formatting and reporting mechanisms. Because of time and budget constraints, a Rapid Application Development strategy was adopted by the database development team. An extensive data modeling exercise was conducted to determine the scope of information contained in the database. a A SUN Sparcstation 1000 was procured as the database file server. A multi-user relational database management system, Sybase reg-sign, was chosen to provide the basic data storage and retrieval capabilities. Two packages were chosen for the user interface to the database: DataPrism reg-sign and Business Objects trademark. A prototype database was constructed to provide the Waste Tank Vapor Project's Toxicology task with summarized and detailed information presented at Vapor Conference 4 by WHC, PNL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Oregon Graduate Institute. The prototype was used to develop a list of reported compounds, and the range of values for compounds reported by the analytical laboratories using different sample containers and analysis methodologies. The prototype allowed a panel of toxicology experts to identify carcinogens and compounds whose concentrations were within the reach of regulatory limits. The database and user documentation was made available for general access in September 1994

  9. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaulding, B.C.; Gavalya, R.A.; Dahlmeir, M.M. [and others

    1998-02-01

    The disposition of INEEL radioactive wastes is now under a Settlement Agreement between the DOE and the State of Idaho. The Settlement Agreement requires that existing liquid sodium bearing waste (SBW), and other liquid waste inventories be treated by December 31, 2012. This agreement also requires that all HLW, including calcined waste, be disposed or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. Sodium bearing waste (SBW) is produced from decontamination operations and HLW from reprocessing of SNF. SBW and HLW are radioactive and hazardous mixed waste; the radioactive constituents are regulated by DOE and the hazardous constituents are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Calcined waste, a dry granular material, is produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF). Two primary waste tank storage locations exist at the ICPP: Tank Farm Facility (TFF) and the Calcined Solids Storage Facility (CSSF). The TFF has the following underground storage tanks: four 18,400-gallon tanks (WM 100-102, WL 101); four 30,000-gallon tanks (WM 103-106); and eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. This includes nine 300,000-gallon tanks (WM 182-190) and two 318,000 gallon tanks (WM 180-181). This study analyzes the closure and subsequent use of the eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. The 18,400 and 30,000-gallon tanks were not included in the work scope and will be closed as a separate activity. This study was conducted to support the HLW Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) waste separations options and addresses closure of the 300,000-gallon liquid waste storage tanks and subsequent tank void uses. A figure provides a diagram estimating how the TFF could be used as part of the separations options. Other possible TFF uses are also discussed in this study.

  10. Operating characteristics of LNG storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukacek, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    Although liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tanks might seem to be the most passive components in the LNG plant or ship, this appearance of quiescence arises only because we too easily imagine LNG storage to be like the storage of water. The contents of an LNG storage tank are in continuous dynamic reaction because of heat leak into the tanks, changes in barometric pressure, and the circumstances surrounding the addition and withdrawal of LNG.

  11. Radiotracer investigation in gold leaching tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagadu, C.P.K., E-mail: dagadukofi@yahoo.co.uk [Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon, Accra (Ghana); Akaho, E.H.K.; Danso, K.A. [Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon, Accra (Ghana); Stegowski, Z.; Furman, L. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-UST, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2012-01-15

    Measurement and analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) is a classical method to investigate performance of chemical reactors. In the present investigation, the radioactive tracer technique was used to measure the RTD of aqueous phase in a series of gold leaching tanks at the Damang gold processing plant in Ghana. The objective of the investigation was to measure the effective volume of each tank and validate the design data after recent process intensification or revamping of the plant. I-131 was used as a radioactive tracer and was instantaneously injected into the feed stream of the first tank and monitored at the outlet of different tanks. Both sampling and online measurement methods were used to monitor the tracer concentration. The results of measurements indicated that both the methods provided identical RTD curves. The mean residence time (MRT) and effective volume of each tank was estimated. The tanks-in-series model with exchange between active and stagnant volume was used and found suitable to describe the flow structure of aqueous phase in the tanks. The estimated effective volume of the tanks and high degree of mixing in tanks could validate the design data and confirmed the expectation of the plant engineer after intensification of the process. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer I-131 radioactive tracer is suitable for tracing the aqueous phase in gold ore slurry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Online data collection is more convenient method for tracer monitoring in industrial process systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tanks-in-series model with exchange between active and stagnant zones is suitable to describe the flow behavior of leaching tanks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The radiotracer RTD technique could be used to validate design data after process intensification in gold leaching tanks.

  12. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disposition of INEEL radioactive wastes is now under a Settlement Agreement between the DOE and the State of Idaho. The Settlement Agreement requires that existing liquid sodium bearing waste (SBW), and other liquid waste inventories be treated by December 31, 2012. This agreement also requires that all HLW, including calcined waste, be disposed or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. Sodium bearing waste (SBW) is produced from decontamination operations and HLW from reprocessing of SNF. SBW and HLW are radioactive and hazardous mixed waste; the radioactive constituents are regulated by DOE and the hazardous constituents are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Calcined waste, a dry granular material, is produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF). Two primary waste tank storage locations exist at the ICPP: Tank Farm Facility (TFF) and the Calcined Solids Storage Facility (CSSF). The TFF has the following underground storage tanks: four 18,400-gallon tanks (WM 100-102, WL 101); four 30,000-gallon tanks (WM 103-106); and eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. This includes nine 300,000-gallon tanks (WM 182-190) and two 318,000 gallon tanks (WM 180-181). This study analyzes the closure and subsequent use of the eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. The 18,400 and 30,000-gallon tanks were not included in the work scope and will be closed as a separate activity. This study was conducted to support the HLW Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) waste separations options and addresses closure of the 300,000-gallon liquid waste storage tanks and subsequent tank void uses. A figure provides a diagram estimating how the TFF could be used as part of the separations options. Other possible TFF uses are also discussed in this study

  13. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, B.; Waltz, R.

    2011-06-23

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2010 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report. The 2010 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. All inspections scheduled per SRR-LWE-2009-00138, HLW Tank Farm Inspection Plan for 2010, were completed. Ultrasonic measurements (UT) performed in 2010 met the requirements of C-ESG-00006, In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks, Rev. 3, and WSRC-TR-2002-00061, Rev.6. UT inspections were performed on Tanks 30, 31 and 32 and the findings are documented in SRNL-STI-2010-00533, Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2010, Waste Tanks 30, 31 and 32. A total of 5824 photographs were made and 1087 visual and video inspections were performed during 2010. Ten new leaksites at Tank 5 were identified in 2010. The locations of these leaksites are documented in C-ESR-G-00003, SRS High Level Waste Tank Leaksite Information, Rev.5. Ten leaksites at Tank 5 were documented during tank wall/annulus cleaning activities. None of these new leaksites resulted in a release to the environment. The leaksites were documented during wall cleaning activities and the waste nodules associated with the leaksites were washed away. Previously documented leaksites were reactivated at Tank 12 during waste removal activities.

  14. Tank 241-C-105 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-C-105. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  15. Tank 241-C-109 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-C-109. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  16. Tank 241-BX-104 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-BX-104. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedure that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  17. Tank 241-C-102 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-C-102. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  18. Tank 241-C-110 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-C-110. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedure that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  19. Tank 241-C-106 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-C-106. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  20. Tank 241-C-105 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-C-105. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank.

  1. Tank characterization report for double-shell tank 241-AN-102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-29

    This characterization report summarizes the available information on the historical uses, current status, and sampling and analysis results of waste stored in double-shell underground storage tank 241- AN-102. This report supports the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, Milestone M-44-09 (Ecology et al. 1996). Tank 241-AN-102 is one of seven double-shell tanks located in the AN Tank Farm in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The tank was hydrotested in 1981, and when the water was removed, a 6-inch heel was left. Tank 241-AN-102 began receiving waste from tank 241-SY-102 beginning in 1982. The tank was nearly emptied in the third quarter of 1983, leaving only 125 kL (33 kgal) of waste. Between the fourth quarter of 1983 and the first quarter of 1984, tank 241-AN-102 received waste from tanks 241-AY-102, 241-SY-102, 241-AW-105, and 241- AN-101. The tank was nearly emptied in the second quarter of 1984, leaving a heel of 129 kL (34 kgal). During the second and third quarters of 1984, the tank was filled with concentrated complexant waste from tank 241-AW-101. Since that time, only minor amounts of Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant miscellaneous waste and water have been received; there have been no waste transfer to or from the tank since 1992. Therefore, the waste currently in the tank is considered to be concentrated complexant waste. Tank 241-AN-102 is sound and is not included on any of the Watch Lists.

  2. Tank characterization report for double-shell tank 241-AN-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This characterization report summarizes the available information on the historical uses, current status, and sampling and analysis results of waste stored in double-shell underground storage tank 241- AN-102. This report supports the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, Milestone M-44-09 (Ecology et al. 1996). Tank 241-AN-102 is one of seven double-shell tanks located in the AN Tank Farm in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The tank was hydrotested in 1981, and when the water was removed, a 6-inch heel was left. Tank 241-AN-102 began receiving waste from tank 241-SY-102 beginning in 1982. The tank was nearly emptied in the third quarter of 1983, leaving only 125 kL (33 kgal) of waste. Between the fourth quarter of 1983 and the first quarter of 1984, tank 241-AN-102 received waste from tanks 241-AY-102, 241-SY-102, 241-AW-105, and 241- AN-101. The tank was nearly emptied in the second quarter of 1984, leaving a heel of 129 kL (34 kgal). During the second and third quarters of 1984, the tank was filled with concentrated complexant waste from tank 241-AW-101. Since that time, only minor amounts of Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant miscellaneous waste and water have been received; there have been no waste transfer to or from the tank since 1992. Therefore, the waste currently in the tank is considered to be concentrated complexant waste. Tank 241-AN-102 is sound and is not included on any of the Watch Lists

  3. Tank 241-TY-103 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-TY-103. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedure that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  4. Tank 241-TY-101 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-TY-101. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedure that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  5. Tank 241-BY-110 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-BY-110. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to the tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  6. Tank 241-C-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-C-107. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  7. Tank 241-SX-106 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-SX-106. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedure that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  8. Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-U-110

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tank 241-U-110 (U-110) is a Hanford Site waste tank that was;most recently sampled in November and December 1989. Analysis of the samples obtained from tank U-110 was conducted to support the characterization of the contents of this tank and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-10-00 (Ecology, et al. 1992). Because of incomplete recovery of the waste during sampling, there may be bias in the results of this characterization report

  9. Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-U-110

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report investigates the nature of the waste in tank U-110 using historical and current information. When characterizing tank waste, several important properties are considered. First, the physical characteristics of the waste are presented, including waste appearance, density, and size of waste particles. The existence of any exotherms in the tank that may present a safety concern is investigated. Finally, the radiological and chemical composition of the tank are presented

  10. Tank 241-TY-104 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-TY-104. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  11. Tank 241-B-103 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-B-103. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedure that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  12. Protocol for disposition of tank farm equipment lists and tank farm drawings for year 2000 compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program has been initiated to assess, renovate, document and certify tank farm field equipment for year 2000 compliance. The program is necessary to assure no adverse effects occur in tank farm operations as a result of equipment malfunction due to what is widely known as the ''millennium bug''. This document elaborates the protocols for reviewing field equipment lists and tank farm drawings for the purpose of identifying and resolving year 2000 compliance problems in tank farm equipment

  13. Tank 241-T-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-T-107. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedure that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  14. TANK COLOR IMPACTS PERFORMANCE OF CULTURED FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewen McLean

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Tank color impacts marine fish larval performance, as dark tanks appear to provide contrast that allows larvae to better visualize live and artificial prey. While tanks can be fabricated in any color, commercially available on–growing systems are generally black, green, or dark and light blue. Anecdotal information suggested that certain juvenile fish perform better in tanks with black sides and sandy colored bottoms. To determine whether tank color impacted performance of juvenile fish we examined the effect of black, green, red, dark, and light blue colored tanks on the short–term growth and feed efficiency of summer flounder and growth, feed efficiency, body composition of Nile tilapia. Cortisol response was also examined for both species. Tank color did not affect growth performance of flounder or tilapia although fish maintained in red–colored tanks returned better percent increases in weight. Differences (P < 0.05 in feed conversion efficiency were observed for summer flounder held in red tanks. Plasma cortisol levels in summer flounder ranged from 1.39–3.71 ng cortisol per ml, compared to 12.7–94.4 ng cortisol per ml plasma for tilapia. Lowest cortisol levels (P < 0.05 were detected in flounder and tilapia reared in red–colored aquaria. Background color had no effects on tilapia fillet composition.

  15. Dynamics of solid-containing tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Making use of a relatively simple, approximate but reliable method of analysis, a study is made of the responses to horizontal base shaking of vertical, circular cylindrical tanks that are filled with a uniform viscoelastic material. The method of analysis is described, and comprehensive numerical data are presented that elucidate the underlying response mechanisms and the effects and relative importance of the various parameters involved. In addition to the characteristics of the ground motion and a dimensionless measure of the tank wall flexibility relative to the contained medium, the parameters examined include the ratio of tank-height to tank-radius and the physical properties of the contained material. Both harmonic and earthquake-induced ground motions are considered. The response quantities investigated are the dynamic wall pressures, the critical forces in the tank wall, and the forces exerted on the foundation. Part A of the report deals with rigid tanks while the effects of tank wall flexibility are examined in Part B. A brief account is also given in the latter part of the interrelationship of the critical responses of solid-containing tanks and those induced in tanks storing a liquid of the same mass density

  16. Dynamics of solid-containing tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veletsos, A.S.; Younan, A.H.; Bandyopadhyay, K.

    1997-01-01

    Making use of a relatively simple, approximate but reliable method of analysis, a study is made of the responses to horizontal base shaking of vertical, circular cylindrical tanks that are filled with a uniform viscoelastic material. The method of analysis is described, and comprehensive numerical data are presented that elucidate the underlying response mechanisms and the effects and relative importance of the various parameters involved. In addition to the characteristics of the ground motion and a dimensionless measure of the tank wall flexibility relative to the contained medium, the parameters examined include the ratio of tank-height to tank-radius and the physical properties of the contained material. Both harmonic and earthquake-induced ground motions are considered. The response quantities investigated are the dynamic wall pressures, the critical forces in the tank wall, and the forces exerted on the foundation. Part A of the report deals with rigid tanks while the effects of tank wall flexibility are examined in Part B. A brief account is also given in the latter part of the interrelationship of the critical responses of solid-containing tanks and those induced in tanks storing a liquid of the same mass density.

  17. Characterization of Hanford tank wastes containing ferrocyanides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingey, J.M.; Matheson, J.D.; McKinley, S.G.; Jones, T.E.; Pool, K.H.

    1993-02-01

    Currently, 17 storage tanks on the Hanford site that are believed to contain > 1,000 gram moles (465 lbs) of ferrocyanide compounds have been identified. Seven other tanks are classified as ferrocyanide containing waste tanks, but contain less than 1,000 gram moles of ferrocyanide compounds. These seven tanks are still included as Hanford Watch List Tanks. These tanks have been declared an unreviewed safety question (USQ) because of potential thermal reactivity hazards associated with the ferrocyanide compounds and nitrate and nitrite. Hanford tanks with waste containing > 1,000 gram moles of ferrocyanide have been sampled. Extensive chemical, radiothermical, and physical characterization have been performed on these waste samples. The reactivity of these wastes were also studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric analysis. Actual tank waste samples were retrieved from tank 241-C-112 using a specially designed and equipped core-sampling truck. Only a small portion of the data obtained from this characterization effort will be reported in this paper. This report will deal primarily with the cyanide and carbon analyses, thermal analyses, and limited physical property measurements.

  18. Characterization of Hanford tank wastes containing ferrocyanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, 17 storage tanks on the Hanford site that are believed to contain > 1,000 gram moles (465 lbs) of ferrocyanide compounds have been identified. Seven other tanks are classified as ferrocyanide containing waste tanks, but contain less than 1,000 gram moles of ferrocyanide compounds. These seven tanks are still included as Hanford Watch List Tanks. These tanks have been declared an unreviewed safety question (USQ) because of potential thermal reactivity hazards associated with the ferrocyanide compounds and nitrate and nitrite. Hanford tanks with waste containing > 1,000 gram moles of ferrocyanide have been sampled. Extensive chemical, radiothermical, and physical characterization have been performed on these waste samples. The reactivity of these wastes were also studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric analysis. Actual tank waste samples were retrieved from tank 241-C-112 using a specially designed and equipped core-sampling truck. Only a small portion of the data obtained from this characterization effort will be reported in this paper. This report will deal primarily with the cyanide and carbon analyses, thermal analyses, and limited physical property measurements

  19. Tank Farms Restoration and Upgrades Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tank Farm Restoration and Upgrades Program Plan provides a summary description of action plans to renovate various Tank Farm management control programs, equipment, systems, and facilities. The Tank Farm upgrades identified in this plan are required (1) to ensure safe, environmentally compliant, and efficient operation of the facilities or (2) to support the waste cleanup mission at the Hanford Site. The program plan identifies planned Tank Farm upgrades through the Year 2000. This document summarizes the need basis (i.e., the justification) for planned upgrades and major uncertainties in upgrade planning. Summary-level schedules and interdependencies between projects and upgrade tasks are presented

  20. Tank waste remediation system (TWRS) mission analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieck, R.H.

    1996-10-03

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Mission Analysis provides program level requirements and identifies system boundaries and interfaces. Measures of success appropriate to program level accomplishments are also identified.

  1. Chemical composition of Hanford Tank SY-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to safely manage and dispose of the radioactive waste, both current and future, stored in double-shell and single-shell tanks at the Hanford sites. One major program element in TWRS is pretreatment which was established to process the waste prior to disposal using the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant. In support of this program, Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed a conceptual process flow sheet which will remediate the entire contents of a selected double-shelled underground waste tank, including supernatant and sludge, into forms that allow storage and final disposal in a safe, cost-effective and environmentally sound manner. The specific tank selected for remediation is 241-SY-102 located in the 200 West Area. As part of the flow sheet development effort, the composition of the tank was defined and documented. This database was built by examining the history of liquid waste transfers to the tank and by performing careful analysis of all of the analytical data that have been gathered during the tank's lifetime. In order to more completely understand the variances in analytical results, material and charge balances were done to help define the chemistry of the various components in the tank. This methodology of defining the tank composition and the final results are documented in this report

  2. Hanford Technology Development (Tank Farms) - 12509

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of the Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is to safely retrieve and treat the 56 million gallons of Hanford's tank waste and close the Tank Farms to protect the Columbia River. The millions of gallons of tank waste are a byproduct of decades of plutonium production. After irradiated fuel rods were taken from the nuclear reactors to the processing facilities at Hanford they were exposed to a series of chemicals designed to dissolve away the rod, which enabled workers to retrieve the plutonium. Once those chemicals were exposed to the fuel rods they became radioactive and extremely hot. They also couldn't be used in this process more than once. Because the chemicals are caustic and extremely hazardous to humans and the environment, underground storage tanks were built to hold these chemicals until a more permanent solution could be found. One key part of the ongoing work at Hanford is retrieving waste from the single-shell tanks, some of which have leaked in the past, and transferring that waste to the double-shell tanks - none of which have ever leaked. The 56 million gallons of radioactive tank waste is stored in 177 underground tanks, 149 of which are single-shell tanks built between 1943 and 1964. The tanks sit approximately 250 feet above the water table. Hanford's single-shell tanks are decades past their 20-year design life. In the past, up to 67 of the single-shell tanks are known or suspected to have leaked as much as one million gallons of waste to the surrounding soil. Starting in the late 1950's, waste leaks from dozens of the single-shell tanks were detected or suspected. Most of the waste is in the soil around the tanks, but some of this waste is thought to have reached groundwater. The Vadose Zone Project was established to understand the radioactive and chemical contamination in the soil beneath the tanks as the result of leaks and discharges from past plutonium-production operations. The vadose zone is the area of

  3. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for B Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides historical evaluations of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the Hanford Site 200-East Area underground single-shell tanks (SSTs). A Historical Tank Content Estimate has been developed by reviewing the process histories, waste transfer data, and available physical and chemical characterization data from various Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Defense (DOD) contractors. The historical data will supplement information gathered from in-tank core sampling activities that are currently underway. A tank history review that is accompanied by current characterization data creates a complete and reliable inventory estimate. Additionally, historical review of the tanks may reveal anomalies or unusual contents that are critical to characterization and post characterization activities. Complete and accurate tank waste characterizations are critical first steps for DOE and Westinghouse Hanford Company safety programs, waste pretreatment, and waste retrieval activities. The scope of this document is limited to the SSTs in the B Tank Farm of the northeast quadrant of the 200 East Area. Nine appendices compile data on: tank level histories; temperature graphs; surface level graphs; drywell graphs; riser configuration and tank cross section; sampling data; tank photographs; unknown tank transfers; and tank layering comparison. 113 refs

  4. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for A-Tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on A-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information,temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the northeast quadrant of the Hanford 200 East Area

  5. Supporting Document for the SW Quadrant Historical Tank Content Estimate for SX-Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Supporting Document provides historical characterization information gathered on SX-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature data, sampling data, and drywell and liquid observation well data for Historical Tank Content Estimate of the SW Quadrant at the Hanford 200 West Area

  6. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for BX-tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on BX-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information,temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the northeast quadrant of the Hanford 200 East Area

  7. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for BY-Tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on BY-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information,temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the northeast quadrant of the Hanford 200 East Area

  8. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for AW-tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on AW-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the Southeast Quadrant of the Hanford 200 Areas

  9. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for AP-tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on AP-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the Southeast Quadrant of the Hanford 200 Areas

  10. Supporting document for the SW Quadrant Historical Tank Content Estimate for U-Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Supporting Document provides historical characterization information gathered on U-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature data, sampling data, and drywell and liquid observation well data for Historical Tank Content Estimate of the SW Quadrant at the Hanford 200 West Area

  11. Tank 241-C-101 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tank C-101 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks of fugitive emissions to tank farm workers. Gas and vapor samples from the Tank C-101 headspace were collected on July 7, 1994 using the in situ sampling (ISS) method, and again on September 1, 1994 using the more robust vapor sampling system (VSS). Gas and vapor concentrations in Tank C-101 are influenced by its connections to other tanks and its ventilation pathways. At issue is whether the organic vapors in Tank C-101 are from the waste in that tank, or from Tanks C-102 or C-103. Tank C-103 is on the Organic Watch List; the other two are not. Air from the Tank C-101 headspace was withdrawn via a 7.9-m long heated sampling probe mounted in riser 8, and transferred via heated tubing to the VSS sampling manifold. The tank headspace temperature was determined to be 34.0 C, and all heated zones of the VSS were maintained at approximately 50 C. Sampling media were prepared and analyzed by WHC, Oak Ridge National Laboratories, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, and Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology through a contract with Sandia National Laboratories. The 39 tank air samples and 2 ambient air control samples collected are listed in Table X-1 by analytical laboratory. Table X-1 also lists the 14 trip blanks and 2 field blanks provided by the laboratories

  12. Tank characterization report for double-shell tank 241-AN-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes the information on the historical uses, present status, and the sampling and analysis results of waste stored in Tank 241-AN-103. This report supports the requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-44-10. (This tank has been designated an Hydrogen Watch List tank.)

  13. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for A Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides historical evaluations of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the Hanford Site 200-East Area underground single-shell tanks (SSTs). A Historical Tank Content Estimate has been developed by reviewing the process histories, waste transfer data, and available physical and chemical characterization data from various Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Defense (DOD) contractors. The historical data will supplement information gathered from in-tank core sampling activities that are currently underway. A tank history review that is accompanied by current characterization data creates a complete and reliable inventory estimate. Additionally, historical review of the tanks may reveal anomalies or unusual contents that are critical to characterization and post characterization activities. Complete and accurate tank waste characterizations are critical first steps for DOE and Westinghouse Hanford Company safety programs, waste pretreatment, and waste retrieval activities. The scope of this document is limited to the SSTs in the A Tank Farm of the northeast quadrant of the 200 East Area. Nine appendices compile data on: tank level histories; temperature graphs; surface level graphs; drywell graphs; riser configuration and tank cross section; sampling data; tank photographs; unknown tank transfers; and tank layering comparison. 113 refs

  14. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for BX-tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.

    1996-06-28

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on BX-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information,temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the northeast quadrant of the Hanford 200 East Area.

  15. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for BY Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides historical evaluations of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the Hanford Site 200-East Area underground single-shell tanks (SSTs). A Historical Tank Content Estimate has been developed by reviewing the process histories, waste transfer data, and available physical and chemical characterization data from various Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Defense (DOD) contractors. The historical data will supplement information gathered from in-tank core sampling activities that are currently underway. A tank history review that is accompanied by current characterization data creates a complete and reliable inventory estimate. Additionally, historical review of the tanks may reveal anomalies or unusual contents that are critical to characterization and post characterization activities. Complete and accurate tank waste characterizations are critical first steps for DOE and Westinghouse Hanford Company safety programs, waste pretreatment, and waste retrieval activities. The scope of this document is limited to the SSTs in the BY Tank Farm of the northeast quadrant of the 200 East Area. Nine appendices contain data on: tank level histories; temperature graphs; surface level graphs; drywell graphs; riser configuration and tank cross section; sampling data; tank photographs; unknown tank transfers; and tank layering comparison. 113 refs

  16. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for S tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Walsh, A.C.

    1994-06-01

    This document provides historical evaluations of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the Hanford Site 200 West Area underground single-shell tanks (SSTs). A Historical Tank Content Estimate has been developed by reviewing the process histories, waste transfer data, and available physical and chemical characterization data from various Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Defense (DOD) contractors. The historical data will supplement information gathered from in-tank core sampling activities that are currently underway. A tank history review that is accompanied by current characterization data creates a complete and reliable inventory estimate. Additionally, historical review of the tanks may reveal anomalies or unusual contents that are critical to characterization and post characterization activities. Complete and accurate tank waste characterizations are critical first steps for DOE and Westinghouse Hanford Company safety programs, waste pretreatment, and waste retrieval activities. The scope of this document is limited to all the SSTs in the S Tank Farm of the southwest quadrant of the 200 West Area. Nine appendices compile data on: tank level histories; temperature graphs; surface level graphs; drywell graphs; riser configuration and tank cross section; sampling data; tank photographs; unknown tank transfers; and tank layering comparison. 113 refs.

  17. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for AY-tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C H; Stroup, J L; Funk, J. W.

    1997-03-12

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on AY-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the Southeast Quadrant of the Hanford 200 Areas.

  18. Thermal stratification in a hot water tank established by heat loss from the tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents numerical investigations of thermal stratification in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank established by standby heat loss from the tank. The transient fluid flow and heat transfer in the tank during cooling caused by standby heat loss are calculated by means of validated...

  19. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for S tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides historical evaluations of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the Hanford Site 200 West Area underground single-shell tanks (SSTs). A Historical Tank Content Estimate has been developed by reviewing the process histories, waste transfer data, and available physical and chemical characterization data from various Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Defense (DOD) contractors. The historical data will supplement information gathered from in-tank core sampling activities that are currently underway. A tank history review that is accompanied by current characterization data creates a complete and reliable inventory estimate. Additionally, historical review of the tanks may reveal anomalies or unusual contents that are critical to characterization and post characterization activities. Complete and accurate tank waste characterizations are critical first steps for DOE and Westinghouse Hanford Company safety programs, waste pretreatment, and waste retrieval activities. The scope of this document is limited to all the SSTs in the S Tank Farm of the southwest quadrant of the 200 West Area. Nine appendices compile data on: tank level histories; temperature graphs; surface level graphs; drywell graphs; riser configuration and tank cross section; sampling data; tank photographs; unknown tank transfers; and tank layering comparison. 113 refs

  20. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate of U-tank fram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-26

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on U-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the Southwest Quadrant of the Hanford 200 West Area.

  1. Supporting document for the SW Quadrant Historical Tank Content Estimate for U-Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Johnson, E.D.

    1994-06-01

    This Supporting Document provides historical characterization information gathered on U-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature data, sampling data, and drywell and liquid observation well data for Historical Tank Content Estimate of the SW Quadrant at the Hanford 200 West Area.

  2. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for the S-tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-25

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on S-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the Southwest Quadrant of the Hanford 200 West Area.

  3. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for the SX-tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-25

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on SX-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the Southwest Quadrant of the Hanford 200 West Area.

  4. Tank characterization report for double-shell tank 241-AN-103

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, N.E.

    1997-08-22

    This document summarizes the information on the historical uses, present status, and the sampling and analysis results of waste stored in Tank 241-AN-103. This report supports the requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-44-10. (This tank has been designated an Hydrogen Watch List tank.)

  5. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for B Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Johnson, E.D.

    1994-06-01

    This document provides historical evaluations of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the Hanford Site 200-East Area underground single-shell tanks (SSTs). A Historical Tank Content Estimate has been developed by reviewing the process histories, waste transfer data, and available physical and chemical characterization data from various Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Defense (DOD) contractors. The historical data will supplement information gathered from in-tank core sampling activities that are currently underway. A tank history review that is accompanied by current characterization data creates a complete and reliable inventory estimate. Additionally, historical review of the tanks may reveal anomalies or unusual contents that are critical to characterization and post characterization activities. Complete and accurate tank waste characterizations are critical first steps for DOE and Westinghouse Hanford Company safety programs, waste pretreatment, and waste retrieval activities. The scope of this document is limited to the SSTs in the B Tank Farm of the northeast quadrant of the 200 East Area. Nine appendices compile data on: tank level histories; temperature graphs; surface level graphs; drywell graphs; riser configuration and tank cross section; sampling data; tank photographs; unknown tank transfers; and tank layering comparison. 113 refs.

  6. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for A Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Walsh, A.C.

    1994-06-01

    This document provides historical evaluations of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the Hanford Site 200-East Area underground single-shell tanks (SSTs). A Historical Tank Content Estimate has been developed by reviewing the process histories, waste transfer data, and available physical and chemical characterization data from various Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Defense (DOD) contractors. The historical data will supplement information gathered from in-tank core sampling activities that are currently underway. A tank history review that is accompanied by current characterization data creates a complete and reliable inventory estimate. Additionally, historical review of the tanks may reveal anomalies or unusual contents that are critical to characterization and post characterization activities. Complete and accurate tank waste characterizations are critical first steps for DOE and Westinghouse Hanford Company safety programs, waste pretreatment, and waste retrieval activities. The scope of this document is limited to the SSTs in the A Tank Farm of the northeast quadrant of the 200 East Area. Nine appendices compile data on: tank level histories; temperature graphs; surface level graphs; drywell graphs; riser configuration and tank cross section; sampling data; tank photographs; unknown tank transfers; and tank layering comparison. 113 refs.

  7. Interactions between diatom aggregates, minerals, particulate organic carbon, and dissolved organic matter: Further implications for the ballast hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    De La Rocha, Christina,; Nowald, N.; Passow, Uta

    2008-01-01

    Correlations of particulate organic carbon (POC) and mineral fluxes into sediment traps in the deep sea have previously suggested that interactions between organic matter and minerals play a key role in organic matter flux to the deep. Here experiments were carried out in rolling tanks to observe the incorporation of suspended biogenic minerals ( calcium carbonate coccoliths or silica diatom frustules) into diatom aggregates and examine their influence on aggregate character. Addition of high...

  8. Tank Waste Remediation System Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope, number and complexity of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) decisions require an integrated, consistent, and logical approach to decision making. TWRS has adopted a seven-step decision process applicable to all decisions. Not all decisions, however, require the same degree of rigor/detail. The decision impact will dictate the appropriate required detail. In the entire process, values, both from the public as well as from the decision makers, play a key role. This document concludes with a general discussion of the implementation process that includes the roles of concerned parties

  9. Tank farms essential drawing plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to define criteria for selecting Essential Drawings, Support Drawings, and Controlled Print File (CPF) drawings and documents for facilities that are part of East and West Tank Farms. Also, the drawings and documents that meet the criteria are compiled separate listings. The Essential Drawing list and the Support Drawing list establish a priority for updating technical baseline drawings. The CPF drawings, denoted by an asterisk (*), defined the drawings and documents that Operations is required to maintain per the TWRS Administration Manual. The Routing Boards in Buildings 272-WA and 272-AW are not part of the CPF

  10. Application of Polyurethane Polymer and Assistant Rails to Settling the Abnormal Vehicle-Track Dynamic Effects in Transition Zone between Ballastless and Ballasted Track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiyou Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes tests on a transition section between ballasted and ballastless tracks in the Liupanshui-Zhanyi railway in China. The originally unsettled transition zone is exposed to sudden car shaking and a series of track transition problems during train passage. As an example, the influences of polyurethane polymer and a combination of polyurethane and assistant rails to increase track stiffness distribution and track transition decay rates on the dynamic vehicle and track behaviour were investigated. The measured results indicate using only polyurethane and using both polyurethane and assistant rails not only effectively makes the track stiffness change more even but also increases the track decay rate at the target frequencies. These positive effects further reduce the wheel-rail interaction forces and vehicle and rail vertical acceleration, which decreases more when combining polyurethane and assistant rails than when using only polyurethane because the former outperforms the latter for smoothing the track stiffness distribution and increasing the track decay rate. Based on abating wheel-rail impact during the transition from ballasted to ballastless track and improving traffic operation and passenger comfort, combining polyurethane and assistant rails had the greatest effect and may be an effective remedy.

  11. 49 CFR 179.500-8 - Openings in tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500... of a length not less than as specified for American Standard taper pipe threads. External...

  12. Heat removal characteristics of waste storage tanks. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A topical report that examines the relationship between tank heat load and maximum waste temperatures. The passive cooling response of the tanks is examined, and loss of active cooling in ventilated tanks is investigated

  13. Screening the Hanford tanks for trapped gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, P.

    1995-10-01

    The Hanford Site is home to 177 large, underground nuclear waste storage tanks. Hydrogen gas is generated within the waste in these tanks. This document presents the results of a screening of Hanford`s nuclear waste storage tanks for the presence of gas trapped in the waste. The method used for the screening is to look for an inverse correlation between waste level measurements and ambient atmospheric pressure. If the waste level in a tank decreases with an increase in ambient atmospheric pressure, then the compressibility may be attributed to gas trapped within the waste. In this report, this methodology is not used to estimate the volume of gas trapped in the waste. The waste level measurements used in this study were made primarily to monitor the tanks for leaks and intrusions. Four measurement devices are widely used in these tanks. Three of these measure the level of the waste surface. The remaining device measures from within a well embedded in the waste, thereby monitoring the liquid level even if the liquid level is below a dry waste crust. In the past, a steady rise in waste level has been taken as an indicator of trapped gas. This indicator is not part of the screening calculation described in this report; however, a possible explanation for the rise is given by the mathematical relation between atmospheric pressure and waste level used to support the screening calculation. The screening was applied to data from each measurement device in each tank. If any of these data for a single tank indicated trapped gas, that tank was flagged by this screening process. A total of 58 of the 177 Hanford tanks were flagged as containing trapped gas, including 21 of the 25 tanks currently on the flammable gas watch list.

  14. Screening the Hanford tanks for trapped gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site is home to 177 large, underground nuclear waste storage tanks. Hydrogen gas is generated within the waste in these tanks. This document presents the results of a screening of Hanford's nuclear waste storage tanks for the presence of gas trapped in the waste. The method used for the screening is to look for an inverse correlation between waste level measurements and ambient atmospheric pressure. If the waste level in a tank decreases with an increase in ambient atmospheric pressure, then the compressibility may be attributed to gas trapped within the waste. In this report, this methodology is not used to estimate the volume of gas trapped in the waste. The waste level measurements used in this study were made primarily to monitor the tanks for leaks and intrusions. Four measurement devices are widely used in these tanks. Three of these measure the level of the waste surface. The remaining device measures from within a well embedded in the waste, thereby monitoring the liquid level even if the liquid level is below a dry waste crust. In the past, a steady rise in waste level has been taken as an indicator of trapped gas. This indicator is not part of the screening calculation described in this report; however, a possible explanation for the rise is given by the mathematical relation between atmospheric pressure and waste level used to support the screening calculation. The screening was applied to data from each measurement device in each tank. If any of these data for a single tank indicated trapped gas, that tank was flagged by this screening process. A total of 58 of the 177 Hanford tanks were flagged as containing trapped gas, including 21 of the 25 tanks currently on the flammable gas watch list

  15. Seismic response of flexible cylindrical tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental study of the seismic behavior of thin shell circular cylindrical liquid storage tanks is described. The investigation was planned to evaluate the adequacy of present methods of tank design, and was conducted using the Earthquake Simulator Facility of the University of California, Berkeley. The model tank considered in this paper was 6 ft high by 12 ft in diameter, and was welded from thin sheet aluminum to simulate a steel tank 36 feet in diameter. During testing the tank had an open top, held 60 inches of water, and was subjected to a time scaled El Centro (1940) earthquake, amplified to a peak acceleration of 0.5 g. Both base free and base fixed conditions were studied. Results of the experiments demonstrate that fluid pressures included both impulsive and convective components, and that the wave sloshing followed basic theory quite closely. But it also was apparent that the tank flexibility influenced the hydrodynamic pressures, as indicated by pressure amplification in the clamped tank, and by a total change of pressure history in the unclamped case. Significant out of round distortions of the tank were developed, of a three lobe form or the free base case and with four lobes in the fixed base case. Uplift of the tank base was closely related to the out-of-round deformation of the unanchored tank, whereas initial eccentricities apparently caused the section distortions in the anchored system. Stresses in the tank wall do not follow the expected pattern of response to overturning moment; instead they seem to be mainly associated with the section distortions. At present there is no analytical procedure for predicting these distortions

  16. Decontamination of naturally contaminated liquid nitrogen storage tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Gilson Antonio Pessoa; Mara Iolanda Batistella Rubin; Carlos Antonio Mondino Silva; Denize Costa da Rosa

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cleaning and decontamination procedures in liquid nitrogen tanks. We evaluated 151 canisters and 133 bottoms from 133 nitrogen tanks of companies or farms for the presence of bacteria and fungi. Samples were collected from the canisters and the bottom of tanks containing liquid nitrogen. Tanks were divided into Group 1 (G1): tanks decontaminated with 2% glutaraldehyde - Glutaron® II (n = 16 canisters in 8 tanks); Group 2 (G2): decont...

  17. Application of infrared imaging in ferrocyanide tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report analyzes the feasibility of using infrared imaging techniques and scanning equipment to detect potential hot spots within ferrocyanide waste tanks at the Hanford Site. A hot spot is defined as a volumetric region within a waste tank with an excessively warm temperature that is generated by radioactive isotopes. The thermal image of a hot spot was modeled by computer. this model determined the image an IR system must detect. Laboratory and field tests of the imaging system are described, and conclusions based on laboratory and field data are presented. The report shows that infrared imaging is capable of detecting hot spots in ferrocyanide waste tanks with depths of up to 3.94 m (155 in.). The infrared imaging system is a useful technology for initial evaluation and assessment of hot spots in the majority of ferrocyanide waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The system will not allow an exact hot spot and temperature determination, but it will provide the necessary information to determine the worst-case hot spot detected in temperature patterns. Ferrocyanide tanks are one type of storage tank on the Watch List. These tanks are identified as priority 1 Hanford Site Tank farm Safety Issues

  18. Musculoskeletal disorders in main battle tank personnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Guldager, Bernadette; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders of personnel in the main battle tank (MBT) units in the Danish army with those of personnel in other types of army units, and to investigate associations between job function in the tank, military rank, and musculoskeletal problems. ...

  19. 27 CFR 24.167 - Tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tanks. 24.167 Section 24.167 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... devices affixed to a spirits tank will be constructed to prevent extraction of the contents of the...

  20. Thermal Stratification in Vertical Mantle Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren; Furbo, Simon

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that it is important to have a high degree of thermal stratification in the hot water storage tank to achieve a high thermal performance of SDHW systems. This study is concentrated on thermal stratification in vertical mantle tanks. Experiments based on typical operation conditio...