WorldWideScience

Sample records for ballast ships

  1. Microbiologically influenced corrosion in ship ballast tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Heyer, A.

    2013-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is known to be a dangerous process in ship tanks due to its rapid and yet unpredictable occurrence, leading to extremely fast local corrosion, possibly jeopardizing the structural integrity, in a relatively short time. This project focuses on a fundamental understanding of MIC processes in ship ballast tanks (SBTs) as a basis for the development of effective counterstrategies that offer an appropriate protection against MIC attack. Local conditions...

  2. Regrowth in ship's ballast water tanks: Think again!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Carolina; Pollet, Bruno G

    2016-08-15

    With the imminent ratification of the International Maritime Organisation's Ballast Water Management Convention, ship owners and operators will have to choose among a myriad of different Ballast Water Treatment Systems (BWTS) and technologies to comply with established discharge standards. However, it has come to our attention that decision-makers seem to be unaware of the problem of regrowth occurring in ballast water tanks after treatment. Furthermore, the information available on the subject in the literature is surprisingly and unfortunately very limited. Herein we summarise previous research findings that suggest that regrowth of bacteria and phytoplankton could occur 18h to 7days and 4 to 20days after treatment, respectively. By highlighting the problem of regrowth, we would like to encourage scientists and engineers to further investigate this issue and to urge ship owners and ship operators to inform themselves on the risks of regrowth associated with the implementation of different BWTS. PMID:27184126

  3. Eradication of algae in ships' ballast water by electrolyzing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DANG Kun; SUN Pei-ting; XIAO Jing-kun; SONG Yong-xin

    2006-01-01

    In order to verify the effectiveness of electrolytic treatment on ships' ballast water,experiments are carried out by a pilot system in laboratory. The raw seawater and seawater with different concentrations of different algae are simulated as ships' ballast water. The algae in the raw seawater can be killed if it is treated by electrolysis with an initial residual chlorine concentration of 5 mg/L. If the seawater with one kind of algae (Nitzschia closterum, Dicrateria spp., or Pyramidomonnas sp.105cells/mL) is treated by electrolysis with an initial residual chlorine concentration of 5 mg/L, the alga can be sterilized. If the seawater with one kind of algae (Dunaliella sp., Platymonas or Chlorella spp.)is directly treated by electrolyzing with an initial residual chlorine concentration of 4 mg/L, the instant mortality changes with the concentration of different algae. However, after 72 hours, in all treated samples, there are no live algal cells found.

  4. Microbiologically influenced corrosion in ship ballast tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyer, A.

    2013-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is known to be a dangerous process in ship tanks due to its rapid and yet unpredictable occurrence, leading to extremely fast local corrosion, possibly jeopardizing the structural integrity, in a relatively short time. This project focuses on a fundamenta

  5. Diversity of bacteria in ships ballast water as revealed by next generation DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmeyer, Robin

    2016-06-15

    The bacterial diversity in ballast water from five general cargo ships calling at the Port of Houston was determined with ion semiconductor DNA sequencing (Ion Torrent PGM) of PCR amplified 16S rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the composition of bacteria in ballast water did not resemble that of typical marine habitats or even open ocean waters where BWEs occur. The predominant group of bacteria in ships conducting BWEs was the Roseobacter clade within the Alphaproteobacteria. In contrast, Gammaproteobacteria were predominant in the ship that did not conduct a BWE. All the ships contained human, fish, and terrestrial plant pathogens as well as bacteria indicative of fecal or activated sludge contamination. Most of the 60 pathogens had not been detected in ballast water previously. Among these were the human pathogens Corynebacterium diptheriae and several Legionella species and the fish pathogens Francisella piscicida and Piscirickettsia salmonis. PMID:27076378

  6. Numerical Investigation of a Liquid-Gas Ejector Used for Shipping Ballast Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueguan Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shipping ballast water can have significant ecological and economic impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Currently, water ejectors are widely used in marine applications for ballast water treatment owing to their high suction capability and reliability. In this communication, an improved ballast treatment system employing a liquid-gas ejector is introduced to clear the ballast water to reduce environmental risks. Commonly, the liquid-gas ejector uses ballast water as the primary fluid and chemical ozone as the secondary fluid. In this study, high-pressure water and air, instead of ballast water and ozone, are considered through extensive numerical and experimental research. The ejector is particularly studied by a steady three-dimensional multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD analysis with commercial software ANSYS-CFX 14.5. Different turbulence models (including standard k-ε, RNG k-ε, SST, and k-ω with different grid size and bubble size are compared extensively and the experiments are carried out to validate the numerical design and optimization. This study concludes that the RNG k-ε turbulence model is the most efficient and effective for the ballast water treatment system under consideration and simple change of nozzle shape can greatly improve the ejector performance under high back pressure conditions.

  7. Effects of Hydroxyl Radicals on Introduced Organisms of Ship's Ballast Water Based Micro-Gap Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Mindong; ZHANG Zhitao; BAI Mindi; YANG Bo; BAI Xiyao

    2007-01-01

    With the physical method of micro-gap gas discharge,OH.radicals were produced by the ionization of O2 in air and H2O in the gaseous state,in order to explore more effective method totreat the ship's ballast water.The surface morphology of A1203 dielectric layer was analysed using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM),where the size of A1203 particles was in the range of 2 μm to 5 μm.At the same time,the biochemical effect of hydroxyl radicals on the introduced organisms and the quality of ship's ballast water were studied.The results indicate that the main reasons of cell death are lipid peroxide and damage of the antioxidant enzyme system in Catalase (CAT),Peroxidase (POD) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD).In addition,the quality of the ballast water was greatly improved.

  8. The ships' ballast waters, sources of pests introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Masson, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    At the end of the 1980s, the relatively recent Australian aquaculture industry suffered from the blooming of some unknown toxic phytoplanktonic algae. This was followed by some cases of harm to consumers' health and the shutting down of some production areas. Australian scientists quickly identified their origin, Japanese, as well as their introduction vector, the ballast waters of Japanese vessels loading in Australian harbours and deballasting along the coasts or inside the harbours. The in...

  9. Comparisons of interdisciplinary ballast water treatment systems and operational experiences from ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalar, Goran

    2016-01-01

    There are high functioning and low functioning ballast water treatment systems on board ships. In this study, five systems were analysed so as to methodically examine the operational difficulties for ship crew members while giving important consideration to sustainable environment practices. Multi-criteria analysis, a questionnaire, survey and interviews were used as the research method so as to ascertain and corroborate existing problems on board ships, and the reliability of the systems was calculated. The co-insistency, maintenance and the efficiency of the systems, were shown as being the major problem as there are no systems for tracking ship ballast operations from land. The treatment system that used oxidants was, through multi criteria analysis, evaluated as being the best and was ranked first. However, the survey results showed that the ship's crew had serious problems with this system which difficult to solve during the ship's operations with cargo. The deoxygenation system was the most appropriate according to ballast water treatment criteria in the port or at sea. The treatment system which used electrolysis with oxidant was better in terms of efficacy and the treatment system electrolysis with ultra violet light was better in terms of the criterion environment pollution footprint. During further research, it was shown that 7 % of the surveyed crew members had major problems with operating ballast water treatment systems, including the system which was ranked first through multi criteria analysis. They by-passed these systems while continuing to ballast or de-ballast. It was calculated that of the total time needed for the ballast water treatment system operation, 9 % of this time was used for repairs or maintenance of the systems. Some examples are changing a used UV bulb, cleaning the filter or controlling the amount of oxidant which would be discharged into the sea. A conclusion was made and solution was suggested. The study results emphasised

  10. Monitoring of Radionuclides in Ship Ballast Water Following the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballast water is the waters taken into the ship compartment to provide stability. It is taken on board at the port before the voyage begins and discharged at the port of call (arrival) while loading cargoes. Ballast is primarily composed of water and is full of stones, sediment, and thousands of living species. The quantity of water taken depends on the size of the ship and it can reach up to 10,000 tonnes. As a well known fact, Daiichi nuclear plant in Fukushima had released radioactive contaminated water into its surrounding sea and being dispersed by currents and tides. Therefore, ships travel between Malaysia and Japan in particular those from the affected regions and travel to Malaysia without cargoes will have a risk of transporting back radioactive contaminated water from Japan and released it at local ports. Malaysian Marine Department with the cooperation of Malaysian Nuclear Agency have been analysing the concentrations of several radionuclides in the ship's ballast water and sediment. This is to ensure the effective dosage is safe to the crews and general public as well to fulfill the permissible limit of 1 mSv/yr gazetted by the authorities. It is also to monitor that the contaminated water is not discharged into our marine environment. (author)

  11. A field study of the effectiveness of sacrificial anodes in ballast tanks of merchant ships

    OpenAIRE

    De Baere, K.; Verstraelen, H; Lemmens, L.; Lenaerts, S.; Dewil, R; Van Ingelgem, Y.; Potters, G.

    2014-01-01

    Sacrificial anodes have become a standard practice for the protection of ballast tanks of merchant vessels against corrosive damage. A well protected tank should extend the life span of a ship and consequently enhances its economic value. An in situ survey comprising more than 100 merchant vessels provided the opportunity to measure the impact of these anodes on the life expectancy of these vessels. Contrary to the general belief of these anodes' beneficial effect, no significant difference w...

  12. Novel Electrokinetic Microfluidic Detector for Evaluating Effectiveness of Microalgae Disinfection in Ship Ballast Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myint Myint Maw

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ship ballast water treatment methods face many technical challenges. The effectiveness of every treatment method usually is evaluated by using large scale equipment and a large volume of samples, which involves time-consuming, laborious, and complex operations. This paper reports the development of a novel, simple and fast platform of methodology in evaluating the efficiency and the best parameters for ballast water treatment systems, particularly in chemical disinfection. In this study, a microfluidic chip with six sample wells and a waste well was designed, where sample transportation was controlled by electrokinetic flow. The performance of this microfluidic platform was evaluated by detecting the disinfection of Dunaliella salina (D. salina algae in ballast water treated by sodium hypochlorite (NaClO solution. Light-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (LICF intensity was used to determine the viability of microalgae cells in the system, which can be operated automatically with the dimension of the detector as small as 50 mm × 24 mm × 5 mm. The 40 µL volume of sample solution was used for each treatment condition test and the validity of detection can be accomplished within about five min. The results show that the viability of microalgae cells under different treatment conditions can be determined accurately and further optimal treatment conditions including concentrations of NaClO and treatment time can also be obtained. These results can provide accurate evaluation and optimal parameters for ballast water treatment methods.

  13. Added Resistance Acting on Hull of a Non Ballast Water Ship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ngo Van He; Yoshiho Ikeda

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, added resistances acting on a hull of non ballast water ship (NBS) in high waves is discussed. The non ballast water ships were developed at the laboratory of the authors at Osaka Prefecture University, Japan. In the present paper, the performances of three kinds of bow shapes developed for the NBS were theoretically and experimentally investigated to find the best one in high waves. In previous papers, an optimum bow shape for the NBS was developed in calm water and in moderated waves. For a 2 m model for experiments and computations, the wave height is 0.02 m. This means that the wave height is 15%of the draft of the ship in full load conditions. In this paper, added resistances in high waves up to 0.07 m for a 2 m model or 53%of the full load draft are investigated. In such high waves linear wave theories which have been used in the design stage of a ship for a long time may not work well anymore, and experiments are the only effective tool to predict the added resistance in high waves. With the computations for waves, the ship is in a fully captured condition because shorter waves,λ/Lpp<0.6, are assumed.

  14. Treatment of ships' ballast water by irradiation of pulsed, intense relativistic electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zooplankton contained in ships' ballast water has been successfully treated by irradiation of pulsed, intense relativistic electron beam (PIREB). A treatment chamber is filled up with solution of 3-wt% salt in water containing a larva of artemia as the zooplankton, and is irradiated by the PIREB (2 MeV, 0.4 kA, 140 ns). We have found that electric conductivity and pH of the salt solution does not change significantly within 10 shots of the PIREB irradiation. We have obtained that the artemia of 24% is inactivated by firing 10 shots of the PIREB irradiation. (author)

  15. The ships' ballast water impact on the Black Sea marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acomi, Nicoleta; Acomi, Ovidiu

    2015-04-01

    Ships use ballast water to provide stability during voyages. This type of seawater loaded on board from one geographical area and discharged in very different port areas as ballasting practice, turned into a vector for spreading the non-native sea life species. The reduction and limitation of invasive species is a problem that the modern world addresses. Thus, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) developed the BWM 2004 Convention. Adopting international regulations influences the socio-economic sector and this is the reason why the ballast water, the subject of this paper, has been on the IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee's agenda for more than 10 years, while the Convention has not yet been ratified and enforced. Although the Black Sea was subject to incidents regarding the invasive species the Romanian Government, as member of the IMO, did not ratify the Convention. The Black Sea was the subject of four major incidents regarding the ships' ballast water. One of them refers to the North American Comb Jelly, native from the Eastern Seaboard of America, introduced in the Black, Azov and Caspian Seas and seriously affecting the Romanian coastal environment in the 1990's. This invasive species has negative impacts: it reproduces rapidly under favourable conditions, it feeds excessively on zooplankton, it depletes zooplankton stocks, altering the food web and the ecosystem functionality, and contributed significantly to the collapse of Black and Azov Sea fisheries in the 1990s, with massive economic and social impact. There are studies for identifying the invasive species for the Black sea, structured in a database for marine species - the Black Sea Red Data Book. For these invasive species, there have been identified and developed charts to emphasize their ways of migration into the Black Sea. This paper aims to analyse the marine traffic in Romanian ports, broken down according with seasons and types of vessels, and to assess its relationship with

  16. 33 CFR 155.440 - Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on new oceangoing ships of 4,000 gross tons and above...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on new oceangoing ships of 4,000 gross tons and above, other than oil tankers, and on new... PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.440 Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water...

  17. Phytoplankton and Bacterial Assemblages in Ballast Water of U.S. Military Ships as a Function of Port of Origin, Voyage Time, and Ocean Exchange Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    We characterized the physical/chemical conditions and the algal and bacterial assemblages in ballast water from 62 ballast tanks aboard 28 ships operated by the U.S. Military Sealift Command and the Maritime Administration, sampled at 9 ports on the U.S. West Coast and 4 ports on the U.S. East Coast...

  18. Study on the killing of oceanic harmful micro-organisms in ship's ballast water using oxygen active particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Meng, X. Y.; Bai, M. D.; Tian, Y. P.; Jing, Y.

    2013-03-01

    Global Environment Facility has identified that the spread of marine invasive alien species is one of the four major risk factors threatening the safety of global marine environments. Ballast water discharge is the main cause of biological invasion. With physical methods of strong electric field ionization discharge at atmospheric pressure, O2 and sea water (gaseous) were ionized, and then dissociated to a number of oxygen active particles (ROS) such as ·OH, O2+, H2O+, etc. ROS was injected into 0.6 t h-1 ballast water treatment system to form high concentration ROS solution in order to kill the harmful micro-organisms in ballast water. According to the land-based test standard of International Maritime Organization (IMO) Guidelines for Approval of Ballast Water Management Systems (G8), this paper concludes that single-cell algae of 3.0 × 104 cell ml-1 and bacteria of 2.0 × 104 cfu ml-1 were killed by ROS solution of 2.0 ppm. Death rate could reach almost 100%. The results meet the requirements of Regulation D-2 of International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments completely.

  19. Study on the killing of oceanic harmful micro-organisms in ship's ballast water using oxygen active particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global Environment Facility has identified that the spread of marine invasive alien species is one of the four major risk factors threatening the safety of global marine environments. Ballast water discharge is the main cause of biological invasion. With physical methods of strong electric field ionization discharge at atmospheric pressure, O2 and sea water (gaseous) were ionized, and then dissociated to a number of oxygen active particles (ROS) such as ·OH, O2+, H2O+, etc. ROS was injected into 0.6 t h−1 ballast water treatment system to form high concentration ROS solution in order to kill the harmful micro-organisms in ballast water. According to the land-based test standard of International Maritime Organization (IMO) Guidelines for Approval of Ballast Water Management Systems (G8), this paper concludes that single-cell algae of 3.0 × 104 cell ml−1 and bacteria of 2.0 × 104 cfu ml−1 were killed by ROS solution of 2.0 ppm. Death rate could reach almost 100%. The results meet the requirements of Regulation D-2 of International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments completely.

  20. Amplicon-Based Pyrosequencing Reveals High Diversity of Protistan Parasites in Ships' Ballast Water: Implications for Biogeography and Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagenkopp Lohan, K M; Fleischer, R C; Carney, K J; Holzer, K K; Ruiz, G M

    2016-04-01

    Ships' ballast water (BW) commonly moves macroorganisms and microorganisms across the world's oceans and along coasts; however, the majority of these microbial transfers have gone undetected. We applied high-throughput sequencing methods to identify microbial eukaryotes, specifically emphasizing the protistan parasites, in ships' BW collected from vessels calling to the Chesapeake Bay (Virginia and Maryland, USA) from European and Eastern Canadian ports. We utilized tagged-amplicon 454 pyrosequencing with two general primer sets, amplifying either the V4 or V9 domain of the small subunit (SSU) of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene complex, from total DNA extracted from water samples collected from the ballast tanks of bulk cargo vessels. We detected a diverse group of protistan taxa, with some known to contain important parasites in marine systems, including Apicomplexa (unidentified apicomplexans, unidentified gregarines, Cryptosporidium spp.), Dinophyta (Blastodinium spp., Euduboscquella sp., unidentified syndinids, Karlodinium spp., Syndinium spp.), Perkinsea (Parvilucifera sp.), Opisthokonta (Ichthyosporea sp., Pseudoperkinsidae, unidentified ichthyosporeans), and Stramenopiles (Labyrinthulomycetes). Further characterization of groups with parasitic taxa, consisting of phylogenetic analyses for four taxa (Cryptosporidium spp., Parvilucifera spp., Labyrinthulomycetes, and Ichthyosporea), revealed that sequences were obtained from both known and novel lineages. This study demonstrates that high-throughput sequencing is a viable and sensitive method for detecting parasitic protists when present and transported in the ballast water of ships. These data also underscore the potential importance of human-aided dispersal in the biogeography of these microbes and emerging diseases in the world's oceans. PMID:26476551

  1. 46 CFR 182.540 - Ballast systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ballast systems. 182.540 Section 182.540 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.540 Ballast systems. (a) Ballast piping must not...

  2. Ballast Water Treatment Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides functionality for the full-scale testing and controlled simulation of ship ballasting operations for assessment of aquatic nuisance species (ANS)...

  3. Infested ballast water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballast water discharged into harbours and coastal waters often brings unwanted organisms from distant regions (non-indigenous species). Some of the species that have come this way and that are now threatening Norwegian coasts and rivers are red algae, ghost shrimps (Caprella linearis) and the Japanese alga Sargassum muticum. Norway receives between 15 and 30 million tonnes of ballast water each year. International regulations about ballast water will not appear for many years, and in the meantime Norway is evaluating national immediate measures. Some ship owners in some countries are purifying the ballast water. However, harmful non-indigenous species may also come from mariculture

  4. Study of MIC impact in a full-scale ship ballast tank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyer, A.; Mol, J.M.C.; D'Souza, F.; Wit, J.H.W. de; Ferrari, G.

    2012-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of steel is a serious problem in the marine environment and many industries, such as the shipping industry. While electrochemical measurements such as impedance have been used in corrosion monitoring for several years, the true capabilities of the techniq

  5. UV spectrophotometry for monitoring the performance of a yeast-based deoxygenation process to treat ships' ballast water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Éloïse; de Lafontaine, Yves; Thomas, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    This study assessed the usefulness of UV spectrophotometry for the monitoring of a yeast-based deoxygenation process proposed for ships' ballast water treatment to prevent the transfer of aquatic invasive species. Ten-day laboratory experiments using three treatment concentrations and different water types were conducted and resulted in complete oxygen depletion of treated waters. The treatment performance and quality of treated waters were determined by measuring the UV-visible absorbance spectra of water samples taken over time. Samples were also used for laboratory analysis of water quality properties. The UV absorbance spectra values were strongly correlated (r = 0.96) to yeast cell density in treated waters. The second-order derivative (D (2)) of the spectra varied greatly over time, and the spectrum profiles could be divided into two groups corresponding to the oxygenated and anoxic phases of the treatment. The D (2) value at 215 nm was strongly correlated (r = 0.94) to ammonia levels, which increased over time. The D (2) value at 225 nm was strongly correlated (r > 0.97) to DO concentration. Our results showed that UV spectrophotometry may provide a rapid assessment of the behavior and performance of the yeast bioreactor over time by quantifying (1) the density of yeast cells, (2) the time at which anoxic conditions were reached, and (3) a water quality index of the treated water related to the production of ammonia. We conclude that the rapidity of the technique confers a solid advantage over standard methods used for water quality analysis in laboratory and would permit the direct monitoring of the treatment performance on-board ships. PMID:26944435

  6. Comparison of the community structure of planktonic bacteria in ballast water from entry ships and local sea water in Xiamen Port

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Ma; Hejian Xiong; Senming Tang; Qingshuang Yang; Minjuan Li

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the bacterial community structures in samples of ballast water collected from a ship from Singapore and of local sea water collected from Xiamen Port were compared using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Except for dominant α-Proteobacteria that are common to both systems, the bacterial community structures of the two systems were quite different. Most of the clones derived from the different systems were grouped into different phylogenetic clusters, and the sys-tems share only one common RFLP pattern. The ballast water, which is likely from clean offshore waters, contains sequences specific to α- and γ-Proteobacteria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the ballast water contained sequences belonging to attached bacteria and bacteria commonly found in the open sea, as well as many novel sequences. In addition, no known pathogenic bacteria were detected in the ballast water samples. Conversely, water samples from Xiamen Port were apparently affected by the near shore environments.Specifically, in addition to α- and γ-Proteobacteria, water from Xiamen Port contained β- and δ-Proteobacteria, Synechococcus, Bacter-oidetes and Actinobacteria, which are common in coastal environments. Additionally, four pathogenic bacterial sequences and one plas-mid sequence of a potential red tide forming alga were detected in the water from Xiamen Port, which suggests that the local sea water is polluted. The results of this study can be used as background information to assess the risk associated with the introduction of non-indig-enous species to local systems and to establish ballast water management systems.

  7. Challenges in global ballast water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballast water management is a complex issue raising the challenge of merging international regulations, ship's specific configurations along with ecological conservation. This complexity is illustrated in this paper by considering ballast water volume, discharge frequency, ship safety and operational issues aligned with regional characteristics to address ecological risk for selected routes. A re-estimation of ballast water volumes gives a global annual level of 3500 Mton. Global ballast water volume discharged into open sea originating from ballast water exchange operations is estimated to approximately 2800 Mton. Risk based decision support systems coupled to databases for different ports and invasive species characteristics and distributions can allow for differentiated treatment levels while maintaining low risk levels. On certain routes, the risk is estimated to be unacceptable and some kind of ballast water treatment or management should be applied

  8. Development and evaluation of a DNA microarray assay for the simultaneous detection of nine harmful algal species in ship ballast and seaport waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianfeng; Zhou, Qianjin; Duan, Weijun; Zhou, Chengxu; Duan, Lijun; Zhang, Huili; Sun, Aili; Yan, Xiaojun; Chen, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    Rapid, high-throughput and reliable methods are urgently required to accurately detect and monitor harmful algae, which are responsible for algal blooms, such as red and green tides. In this study, we successfully developed a multiplex PCR-based DNA microarray method capable of detecting nine harmful algal species simultaneously, namely Alexandrium tamarense, Gyrodinium instriatum, Heterosigma akashiwo, Karenia mikimotoi, Prorocentrum donghaiense, Prorocentrum minimum, Ulva compressa, Ulva ohnoi and Ulva prolifera. This method achieved a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.5 ng of genomic DNA (orders of magnitude of the deci-nanogram range) in the tested algae cultures. Altogether, 230 field samples from ship ballast waters and seaport waters were used to evaluate the DNA microarray. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of the DNA microarray assay in detecting field samples were 96.4% and 90.9%, respectively, relative to conventional morphological methods. This indicated that this high-throughput, automatic, and specific method is well suited for the detection of algae in water samples.

  9. 78 FR 33774 - Ballast Water Management Reporting and Recordkeeping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ...' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters,'' published on March 23, 2012. 77 FR 17254. The Coast Guard... Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters,'' (March 23, 2012-77 FR 17254), the Coast Guard... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 151 RIN 1625-AB68 Ballast Water Management Reporting and...

  10. Ballast water research in France : Current status

    OpenAIRE

    Masson, Daniel; Courtois, Olivier; Masson, Nadine; Guesdon, Stephane; Rocher, Gregory

    2000-01-01

    Due to important economic activities along the French oastline, the introduction of noxious organisms into French coastal waters, particularly by ship ballast water, may have serious consequences. After preliminary studies of ship movements in Charente Maritime, several samplings of ballast water and sediment were made. Samples were taken in five major harbours in France, along the Atlantic, Channel and Mediterranean coastlines. The main task of this first assessment was the research for exot...

  11. Inerting ballast tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, Gabriel L.; Bronneberg, Jos [SBM Offshore, AA Schiedam (Netherlands); Barros, Maria A.S.D. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This report expands upon the work conducted by SBM Offshore to develop a tank preservation treatment, which is intended to achieve a service life of 30 years. This work focuses on the corrosion problems, in the ballast tanks, based on new built hulls, both for the Gas Exploration Market, the FLNG - Floating Liquefied Natural Gas, and for the Oil Exploration market - FPSO's - Floating Production Storage and offloading Units. Herein, the corrosion rate input comes from the various references related to the process of nitrogen injection, which is expected to extend the vessel's time life. The essential elements of this solution comprise the deoxygenation process, corrosion models, coating effects, tests from laboratory, shipboard tests, corrosion institutes and regulations applicable to the operation. The best corrosion protection system for ballast tanks area combines a coating system and an inert gas system. The condition of the tanks will be dependent upon the level of protection applied to the steel structure, including, but not limited to coating, cathodic protection, etc. There is a need for products which extend the life time. It is not sufficient, only have good theoretical base for the corrosion and an excellent treatment system. In addition, the design of the ships structure must also eliminate the presence of local stress concentrations which can result in fatigue cracking and rupture of the protective coating barrier starting the corrosion. As a direct result of this, more problems in corrosion can be mitigated, vessels can have a better corrosion performance with less maintenance and repairs to coating systems in ballast tanks. Furthermore ships will be positively impacted operationally due to less frequent dry docking. There is a huge potential in the application of inert gas to combat the corrosion rate inside the ballast tanks, one of the most corrosive environments on earth. This application can have a direct impact on vessel structure

  12. Ballast water risk assessment in the North Sea. Evaluating ballast water management exemption in the North Sea region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer van der, Ruurd

    2012-01-01

    Summary Ships translocate organisms across the world via on-board ballast water. When a ship releases its ballast water these organism are released as well. They might have the advantage of not having any natural enemies in their new environment and they

  13. 上海港外来船舶压舱水中浮游植物的调查及风险分析%Investigation and risk analysis of Phytoplankton in ballast water of entry ships on Shanghai seaport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周淑辉; 吴俊; 孟庆松; 秦玉涛; 顾雪峰; 黄锳钢; 曹国佩; 陈家正; 陆春飞

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解上海港外来船舶压舱水中浮游植物的种类及入侵风险.方法 对2007-2011年上海港的60艘外来船舶压舱水样本进行和分析.结果 外来船舶压舱水中发现浮游植物共8门63属152种(包括62种赤潮生物).其中,常见种主要有菱形海线藻(Thalassionema nitzschioides)、圆海链藻(Thalassiosira rotula)、长菱形藻(Nitzschia longissima)、中肋骨条藻(Skelrtonema costatum)、丹麦细柱藻(Leptocylindrus danicus)、尖刺拟菱形藻(Pseudo-nitzschia pungens).结论 进入上海港的外来船舶压舱水中浮游植物物种丰富度较高,初步评估显示外来船舶压舱水的排放对上海港生态影响具有一定风险.%Objective To understand the species and invasion risk of the phytoplankton from ballast water samples from entry ships. Methods The phytoplankton from ballast water samples collected from 60 entry ships on Shanghai seaport between 2007 and 2011 were investigated and analyzed. Results A total of 152 taxa belonging 63 genera of 8 phytoplankton phyla (including 60 red tide species) were found. In which, the conunen species were Thalassionema nitzschioides, Thalassiosira rotula, Nitzschia longissima, Skelrtonema ctntatum, Leptocytindrus danicus ., Pseudo-nitzschia pungent. Conclusion Obvious is the wide range of phytoplankton species in ballast water of entry vessels on Shanghai seaport. The preliminary results of the assessment is discharge of ballast water from entry ship can pose serious threats to the ecological enoironment of Shanghai port.

  14. Study on alternative approaches to corrosion protection of ballast tanks using an economic model

    OpenAIRE

    De Baere, Kris; Verstraelen, Helen; Rigo, Philippe; Van Passel, Steven; Lenaerts, Silvia; Potters, Geert

    2013-01-01

    One of the most relevant problems in ship construction and maintenance nowadays is corrosion in ballast tanks of modern merchant vessels. On the one hand, there is a general consensus that the economic lifespan of such a vessel depends, to a large degree, upon the corrosion state of its ballast tanks, while on the other hand these ballast tanks, located between the outer hull and the cargo tanks, makes routine inspection and maintenance a difficult task. Today, ship's ballast tanks are usuall...

  15. 46 CFR 119.540 - Ballast systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ballast systems. 119.540 Section 119.540 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge...

  16. Shipping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnolst, N.; Wergeland, T.

    1996-01-01

    Shipping is a multi-faceted industry which is rather complex to define from an academic point of view. This book attempts to grasp these complexities and provide the reader with an overview of the main topics and terminology in shipping. The book is based on material from our courses in shipping at

  17. Testing Ballast Water Treatment at a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Andrew N.

    2001-01-01

    The main goal of the project was to investigate the feasibility of treating ships' ballast water in existing municipal wastewater treatment plants (= publicly-owned treatment works or POTWs). The main objectives included identifying and characterizing the limiting factors that could restrict the volume of ballast water that can be treated at POTWs; and test, in a series of laboratory experiments, the effectiveness of standard municipal wastewater treatment in removing or killing ballast water...

  18. Inspection and in situ impedance measurements for ballast water tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Buter, S.; Ferrari, G.; Prent, C.S.W.

    2012-01-01

    The application of coatings in ballast water tanks is critical for the safety of cargo ships. International Maritime Organization (IMO) has delivered a standard for the protection of water ballast tanks in which new built cargo vessels have to comply with {resolution MSC.215(82)}. In case the proced

  19. Macroalgal survival in ballast water tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite a large amount of research into invasive species and their introductions, there have been no studies focused on macroalgal transport in ballast water. To address this, we collected replicate samples of ballast water from 12 ships in two Mediterranean harbours (Naples and Salerno). Filtered samples were kept in culture for a month at Mediterranean mean conditions (18 deg. C, 12:12 h LD, 60 μmol photons m-2 s-1). Fifteen macroalgal taxa were cultured and differed according to the geographic origin of the ballast water. Most of the cultured algae were widely distributed species (e.g. Ulva spp. and Acinetospora-phase). However, Ulva ohnoi Hiraoka and Shimada, described from Japan, was hitherto unknown in the Mediterranean Sea. We show for the first time that ballast water can be an important vector for the transport of microscopic stages of macroalgae and that this can be a vector for the introduction of alien species

  20. Macroalgal survival in ballast water tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagella, Maria Monia [Benthic Ecology Laboratory, Stazione Zoologica A. Dohrn, P.ta S.Pietro, 80077, Ischia, Naples (Italy)], E-mail: flagella@szn.it; Verlaque, Marc [UMR 6540 DIMAR, COM, Universite de la Mediterranee, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Soria, Alessio; Buia, Maria Cristina [Benthic Ecology Laboratory, Stazione Zoologica A. Dohrn, P.ta S.Pietro, 80077, Ischia, Naples (Italy)

    2007-09-15

    Despite a large amount of research into invasive species and their introductions, there have been no studies focused on macroalgal transport in ballast water. To address this, we collected replicate samples of ballast water from 12 ships in two Mediterranean harbours (Naples and Salerno). Filtered samples were kept in culture for a month at Mediterranean mean conditions (18 deg. C, 12:12 h LD, 60 {mu}mol photons m{sup -2} s{sup -1}). Fifteen macroalgal taxa were cultured and differed according to the geographic origin of the ballast water. Most of the cultured algae were widely distributed species (e.g. Ulva spp. and Acinetospora-phase). However, Ulva ohnoi Hiraoka and Shimada, described from Japan, was hitherto unknown in the Mediterranean Sea. We show for the first time that ballast water can be an important vector for the transport of microscopic stages of macroalgae and that this can be a vector for the introduction of alien species.

  1. Modelling Ballast Water Transport

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, S.; Babu, M.T.; Vethamony, P.

    Ballast water discharges in the coastal environs have caused a great concern over the recent periods as they account for transporting marine organisms from one part of the world to the other. The movement of discharged ballast water as well...

  2. Development and testing of a rapid, sensitive ATP assay to detect living organisms in ballast water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Slooten, C.; Wijers, T,; Buma, A.G.J.; Peperzak, L.

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the spread of aquatic invasive species, the discharge of ballast water by ships will soon be compulsorily regulated by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the United States Coast Guard (USCG). Compliance with their regulations will have to be achieved by onboard ballast water

  3. Implications of heterogeneous distributions of organisms on ballast water sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Eliardo G; Lopes, Rubens M; Singer, Julio M

    2015-02-15

    Ballast water sampling is one of the problems still needing investigation in order to enforce the D-2 Regulation of the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ship Ballast Water and Sediments. Although statistical "representativeness" of the sample is an issue usually discussed in the literature, neither a definition nor a clear description of its implications are presented. In this context, we relate it to the heterogeneity of the distribution of organisms in ballast water and show how to specify compliance tests under different models based on the Poisson and negative binomial distributions. We provide algorithms to obtain minimum sample volumes required to satisfy fixed limits on the probabilities of Type I and II errors. We show that when the sample consists of a large number of aliquots, the Poisson model may be employed even under moderate heterogeneity of the distribution of the organisms in the ballast water tank. PMID:25510550

  4. Quantifying non-indigenous species in accumulated ballast slurry residuals (swish) arriving at Vancouver, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, T. F.; Levings, C. D.

    2013-08-01

    Ballast tank “swish” samples were collected from ships following their arrival at Vancouver (British Columbia, Canada) after undergoing either a trans-oceanic or a Pacific-coastal voyage. The ballast swish consisted of a residual slurry mixture of sediment and water that remained trapped in ballast tanks following water discharge at port. The ballast tanks of 27 ships were sampled and ballast swish was found on 19 of the 27 ships. These ships were categorized according to ballast water management type: (1) Trans-oceanic = 7 trans-oceanic ships undergoing ballast water exchange (BWE) > 200 nm from shore; (2) Coastal-exchange = 7 Pacific-coastal ships traveling from ports south of Cape Blanco, Oregon undergoing coastal exchange > 50 nm from shore south of Cape Blanco; and (3) Coastal-no-exchange = 5 Pacific-coastal ships traveling from ports north of Cape Blanco, Oregon, without undergoing BWE. Invertebrate abundance and taxa richness were directly correlated with ballast-swish turbidity suggesting that highly-productive coastal source waters and ballast tank retention processes contributed to this trend. In turn, invertebrate taxa diversity increased with increasing invertebrate abundance. A Principal Component Analysis of the trans-oceanic data revealed that length of voyage showed a strong inverse relationship with invertebrate abundance for this category. Within the coastal-exchange voyage category, voyage length and ballast water age tended to be of the same magnitude and were directly correlated with both crustacean and nematode taxa. Finally, the coastal-no-exchange PCA results revealed that voyage length and salinity were inversely related due to the high number of river ports located at the southern border of the regulatory BWE exemption zone. Coastal voyages not undergoing BWE and undertaking a direct river-to-river route should be considered risky for the introduction of non-indigenous species, if the source waters contain potentially invasive species

  5. A unique aspect of ballast water management requirements – The same location concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under certain circumstances vessels do not need to meet ballast water management requirements as stated in the International Convention for the Management and Control of Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM Convention). Besides exceptions to ensure e.g., (a) the safety of a ship, (b) discharge of ballast water for the purpose of avoiding or minimizing pollution incidents, (c) uptake and discharge on high seas of the same ballast water, the same location concept comes into play as ballast water discharges from a ship at the same location where it was taken up is also excepted from BWM requirements. The term same location was not defined in this instrument, hence it is exposed to different interpretations (e.g., a terminal, a port, a larger area where two or more ports may be located). As the BWM Convention is an instrument with biological meaning, the authors recommend a biologically meaningful definition of the same location in this contribution.

  6. Ageing of ships, LPG tankers

    OpenAIRE

    Ask, Martin

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades there have been several major ship accidents, and it is believed that old ships are more unsafe than newer ships. To get a better understanding of this phenomenon the thesis is investigating different issues with ship ageing. This thesis consists of a general description of the most important ageing issues, and the condition of sea water ballast tanks is identified as one of the most critical issue regarded to ageing on LPG-tankers. This investigation consists of...

  7. Ballast water: a review of the impact on the world public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CK Takahashi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the nineteenth century ships have been using ballast water (BW for safety, stability, propulsion and maneuverability, as well as to redress loss of fuel weight and water consumption, and to maintain structural stress at acceptable levels. Ballast water has been spreading many non-native species around the globe, but little is known about the extent and potential significance of ship-mediated transfer of microorganisms. The global movements of ballast water by ships create a long-distance dispersal mechanism for human pathogens that may be important in the worldwide distribution of microorganisms, as well as for the epidemiology of waterborne diseases. Only a few studies have been carried out on this subject, most of them involving ballast water containing crustacean larvae and phytoplankton. Specialized microbiological studies on these waters are necessary to avoid a repeat of what happened in 1991, when epidemic cholera was reported in Peru and rapidly spread through Latin America and Mexico. In July of 1992, Vibrio cholerae was found in the USA and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA determined that it came from ballast water of ships whose last port of call was in South America. In Brazil, just a few studies about the subject have been performed. An exploratory study by the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária - ANVISA found in ballast water different microorganisms, such as fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Clostridium perfringens, coliphages, Vibrio cholerae O1 and Vibrio cholerae non-O1. Until now, Brazil has been focusing only on organisms transported to its territory from other countries by ballast water, to avoid their establishment and dissemination in Brazilian areas. Studies that can assess the probability that water ballast carries pathogenic microorganisms are extremely important, as is the examination of ships that arrive in the country

  8. Verification of mid-ocean ballast water exchange using naturally occurring coastal tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined methods for verifying whether or not ships have performed mid-ocean ballast water exchange (BWE) on four commercial vessels operating in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. During BWE, a ship replaces the coastal water in its ballast tanks with water drawn from the open ocean, which is considered to harbor fewer organisms capable of establishing in coastal environments. We measured concentrations of several naturally occurring chemical tracers (salinity, six trace elements, colored dissolved organic matter fluorescence and radium isotopes) along ocean transects and in ballast tanks subjected to varying degrees of BWE (0-99%). Many coastal tracers showed significant concentration changes due to BWE, and our ability to detect differences between exchanged and unexchanged ballast tanks was greatest under multivariate analysis. An expanded dataset, which includes additional geographic regions, is now needed to test the generality of our results

  9. Comparison of SeaWiFS images with ballast water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozai, K.; Ishida, H.; Okamoto, K.; Fukuyo, Y.

    It has become a great concern among the international communities that the ship's ballast water causes marine environmental disturbances of coastal ecosystem. And the regulations and prohibitions of ballast water discharge have already been executed by some coastal countries and discussed by the International Maritime Organization. Since Japan is the one of the largest exporting countries of ballast water, it is important to investigate how the ballast water is exchanged at open seas and influences the surrounding waters. In collaboration with a LNG carrier of 110,000 gross tons onboard sampling and plankton analysis of the ballast water have been carried out during the six cruises between Japan and Qatar from May, 2002 to July, 2003. SeaWiFS images including the ballast water exchange areas along the ship's route were acquired and processsed by using SeaDAS. Based on the plankton analysis phytoplankton and zooplankton species were identified and their numbers of cell were counted for each ballast water exchange. Skeletonema costatum was identified as a species for most of the cruises. Prorocentrum minimum and Prorocentrum micans were also identified in one of the cruises. Furthermore it is found out that the observed cell density is highly correlated with the corresponding SeaWiFS-derived diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490nm.

  10. Tests to evaluate the ecological impact of treated ballast water on three Chinese marine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanan; Wang, Zixi; Cai, Leiming; Cai, Xiang; Sun, Wenjun; Ma, Liqing

    2014-09-01

    Ballast water has been a topic of concern for some time because of its potential to introduce invasive species to new habitats. To comply with the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments, members of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) must equip their ships with on-board treatment systems to eliminate organism release with ballast water. There are many challenges associated with the implementation of this IMO guideline, one of which is the selection of species for testing the ecological impacts of the treated ballast water. In the United States, ballast water toxicity test methods have been defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. However, the test methods had not been finalized in China until the toxicity test methods for ballast water were established in 2008. The Chinese methods have been based on species from three trophic levels: Skeletonema costatum, Neomysis awatschensis, and Ctenogobius gymnauchen. All three species live in broad estuarine and open sea areas of China; they are sensitive to reference toxicants and acclimatize easily to different conditions. In this paper, the biological characteristics, test processes and statistical analysis methods are presented for the three species. Results indicate that the methods for evaluating these three organisms can be included in the ecological toxicity tests for treated ballast water in China.

  11. Reducing the cost of ballast tank corrosion: an economic modeling approach

    OpenAIRE

    De Baere, Kris; Verstraelen, Helen; Rigo, Philippe; Van Passel, Steven; Lenaerts, Silvia; Potters, Geert

    2013-01-01

    One of the most relevant problems in ship construction and maintenance nowadays concerns the corrosion in the double hull space ballast tanks of modern merchant vessels. On the one hand, there is a general consensus that the economic life span of such a vessel depends primarily upon the corrosion state of its ballast tanks, while on the other hand, the position of these tanks, squeezed between the outer hull and the loading tanks, makes routine inspection and maintenance almost impossible. To...

  12. Emerging risks from ballast water treatment: the run-up to the International Ballast Water Management Convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werschkun, Barbara; Banerji, Sangeeta; Basurko, Oihane C; David, Matej; Fuhr, Frank; Gollasch, Stephan; Grummt, Tamara; Haarich, Michael; Jha, Awadhesh N; Kacan, Stefan; Kehrer, Anja; Linders, Jan; Mesbahi, Ehsan; Pughiuc, Dandu; Richardson, Susan D; Schwarz-Schulz, Beatrice; Shah, Amisha; Theobald, Norbert; von Gunten, Urs; Wieck, Stefanie; Höfer, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Uptake and discharge of ballast water by ocean-going ships contribute to the worldwide spread of aquatic invasive species, with negative impacts on the environment, economies, and public health. The International Ballast Water Management Convention aims at a global answer. The agreed standards for ballast water discharge will require ballast water treatment. Systems based on various physical and/or chemical methods were developed for on-board installation and approved by the International Maritime Organization. Most common are combinations of high-performance filters with oxidizing chemicals or UV radiation. A well-known problem of oxidative water treatment is the formation of disinfection by-products, many of which show genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, or other long-term toxicity. In natural biota, genetic damages can affect reproductive success and ultimately impact biodiversity. The future exposure towards chemicals from ballast water treatment can only be estimated, based on land-based testing of treatment systems, mathematical models, and exposure scenarios. Systematic studies on the chemistry of oxidants in seawater are lacking, as are data about the background levels of disinfection by-products in the oceans and strategies for monitoring future developments. The international approval procedure of ballast water treatment systems compares the estimated exposure levels of individual substances with their experimental toxicity. While well established in many substance regulations, this approach is also criticised for its simplification, which may disregard critical aspects such as multiple exposures and long-term sub-lethal effects. Moreover, a truly holistic sustainability assessment would need to take into account factors beyond chemical hazards, e.g. energy consumption, air pollution or waste generation. PMID:25048914

  13. Ballast water management that adapts to climate changes and reduces harmful bio-invasions in marine eco-systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne

    2015-01-01

    marine ecosystem of changed factors in the shipping sector, for instance change of number, size, and design of vessels as well as treatment technologies of ballast water. New areas for shipping due to climate changes are also included. Our study would contribute to improve decision support tools, usable......The shipping ballast water is defined as water taken on board a ship to control trim, cargo, draught, stability and stress of the ship. Alien bio-organisms in ballast water have a range of ecological impacts, for instance reducing native bio-diversity, altering habitat and potentially the overall...... food-webs and eco-systems. Economic impacts include reductions in fisheries production and algae blooms harmful for fish farms, tourism and human health. Due to the rising temperatures of the Oceans, organisms that prefer a warm climate may take roots in marine ecosystems that were previously too cold...

  14. Discrete/PWM Ballast-Resistor Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Roger J.

    1994-01-01

    Circuit offers low switching loss and automatic compensation for failure of ballast resistor. Discrete/PWM ballast-resistor controller improved shunt voltage-regulator circuit designed to supply power from high-resistance source to low-impedance bus. Provides both coarse discrete voltage levels (by switching of ballast resistors) and continuous fine control of voltage via pulse-width modulation.

  15. Free living and plankton-associated vibrios: assessment in ballast water, harbor areas and coastal ecosystems in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Nelly G. Rivera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ballast water is a major transport vector of exotic aquatic species and pathogenic microorganisms. The wide-ranging spread of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 from harbor areas has been frequently ascribed to discharge of contaminated ballast water into eutrophic coastal environments, such as during the onset of the seventh cholera pandemic in South America in the early 1990s. To determine the microbiological hazards of ballast waters transported to Brazilian ports, we evaluated water and plankton samples taken from (i ballast water tanks of recently arrived ships, (ii port areas along the Brazilian coastline from ~1 to 32 oS and (iii three coastal areas in São Paulo State. Vibrio concentration and toxigenic V. cholerae O1 occurrence were analyzed. Plankton-associated vibrios were more abundant than free-living vibrios in all studied environments. Vibrio cholerae was found in 9.5% of ballast tanks and 24.2% of port samples, both as free-living and attached forms, and was absent off São Paulo State. Toxigenic V. cholerae O1 isolates (ctxA+, tcpA+, involved in cholera disease, were found in ballast water (2% and harbor (2% samples. These results confirm that ballast water is an important carrier of pathogenic organisms, and that monitoring of vibrios and other plankton-attached bacteria is of paramount importance in ballast water management programs.

  16. Assessment of didecyldimethylammonium chloride as a ballast water treatment method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Slooten, C.; Peperzak, L.; Buma, A.G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Ballast water-mediated transfer of aquatic invasive species is considered a major threat to marine biodiversity, marine industry and human health. A ballast water treatment is needed to comply with International Maritime Organization (IMO) ballast water discharge regulations. Didecyldimethylammonium

  17. Optical ballast and adaptive dynamic stable resonator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Guang-Yin; Jiao Zhi-Yong; Guo Shu-Guang; Zhang Xiao-Hua; Gu Xue-Wen; Yan Cai-Fan; Wu Ding-Er; Song Feng

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a new concept of ‘optical ballast' is put forward. Optical ballast is a kind of device that can be used to decrease the variation and fluctuation of the propagation characteristics of light beams caused by the disturbance of refractive index of the medium. To illustrate the idea clearly and concretely, a fully adaptive dynamic stable solid-state laser resonator is presented as application example of optical ballast.

  18. Hydroxide stabilization as a new tool for ballast disinfection: efficacy of treatment on zooplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Christine M.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Barenburg, Amber; Henquinet, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Effective and economical tools are needed for treating ship ballast to meet new regulatory requirements designed to reduce the introduction of invasive aquatic species from ship traffic. We tested the efficacy of hydroxide stabilization as a ballast disinfection tool in replicated, sequential field trials on board the M/V Ranger III in waters of Lake Superior. Ballast water was introduced into each of four identical 1,320 L stainless steel tanks during a simulated ballasting operation. Two tanks were treated with NaOH to elevate the pH to 11.7 and the remaining two tanks were held as controls without pH alteration. After retention on board for 14–18 h, CO2-rich gas recovered from one of two diesel propulsion engines was sparged into tanks treated with NaOH for 2 h to force conversion of NaOH ultimately to sodium bicarbonate, thereby lowering pH to about 7.1. Prior to gas sparging, the engine exhaust was treated by a unique catalytic converter/wet scrubber process train to remove unwanted combustion byproducts and to provide cooling. The contents of each tank were then drained and filtered through 35-µm mesh plankton nets to collect all zooplankton. The composition and relative survival of zooplankton in each tank were evaluated by microscopy. Zooplankton populations were dominated by rotifers, but copepods and cladocerans were also observed. Hydroxide stabilization was 100% effective in killing all zooplankton present at the start of the tests. Our results suggest hydroxide stabilization has potential to be an effective and practical tool to disinfect ship ballast. Further, using CO2 released from the ship engine reduces emissions and the neutralized by product, sodium bicarbonate, can have beneficial impacts on the aquatic environment.

  19. Effect of Buffer Bow Structure in Ship-Ship Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Endo, Hisayoshi; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2008-01-01

    structure in ship-ship collisions as compared with that of standard bulbous bows. This is demonstrated by conducting a series of large-scale finite element analyses. The finite element analyses are conducted with the general-purpose nonlinear structural code “LS-DYNA”. The applied scenario is one where a...... very large crude oil carrier (VLCC) in ballast condition collides with the midship region of a D/H VLCC in a laden condition. Fracture of fillet welds, elastic-plastic material properties and strain rate effects, are taken into account in the simulations. The effect of the equivalent failure strain (FS...

  20. Effect of Buffer Bow Structure in Ship-Ship Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Endo, Hisayoshi; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2008-01-01

    structure in ship-ship collisions as compared with that of standard bulbous bows. This is demonstrated by conducting a series of large-scale finite element analyses. The finite element analyses are conducted with the general-purpose nonlinear structural code “LS-DYNA”. The applied scenario is one where...... a very large crude oil carrier (VLCC) in ballast condition collides with the midship region of a D/H VLCC in a laden condition. Fracture of fillet welds, elastic-plastic material properties and strain rate effects, are taken into account in the simulations. The effect of the equivalent failure strain (FS...

  1. Holistic control of ship noise emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Borelli Davide; Gaggero Tomaso; Rizzuto Enrico; Schenone Corrado

    2016-01-01

    The sustainability of anthropogenic activities at sea is recently gaining more and more attention. As regards shipping, emissions from ships into the environment of various nature (engine exhaust gases, anti-fouling paints leaching, ballast exchange, releases at sea of oil and other noxious liquid or solid cargoes, of sewage and of garbage) have been recognized as sources of pollution and therefore controlled and limited since a long time. The subject of noise emission...

  2. 33 CFR 151.1510 - Ballast water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ballast water management. 151..., AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in the Great Lakes and Hudson River § 151.1510 Ballast water management. (a) The master of each vessel subject to this...

  3. Assessing exemptions under the ballast water management convention: preclude the Trojan horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olenin, Sergej; Ojaveer, Henn; Minchin, Dan; Boelens, Rick

    2016-02-15

    The International Maritime Organization (IMO) Ballast Water Management Convention (BWMC) is a powerful instrument aimed at reducing spread of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens (HAOPs). As BWMC is expected to enter into force soon, shipping companies will start seeking exemptions for ballast water management in accordance with BWMC Regulation A-4. However, without scientifically robust risk assessment (RA) and consistent rules, the exemptions may introduce a new form of risk within a convention generally designed to reduce risks. This paper describes an adaptive system for granting exemptions, consisting of six major components: target species selection procedure, port-to-port RA, monitoring, information support, administrative decision and review process. The system is based on key principles defined in the IMO guidelines for RA and is designed to continuously accumulate evolving experience on granting exemptions. The ultimate goal is to contribute to the control of the spread of HAOPs, without placing an unnecessary burden on the shipping industry. PMID:26795122

  4. Survey on germination and species composition of dinoflagellates from ballast tanks and recent sediments in ports on the South Coast of Finland, North-Eastern Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pertola, Sari [Finnish Institute of Marine Research, Department of Biological Research, P.O. Box 2, FI-00561 Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail sari.pertola@fimr.fi; Faust, Maria A. [Department of Botany, US National Herbarium, Smithsonian Institution, 4210 Silver Hill Road, Suitland, Maryland 20746 (United States); Kuosa, Harri [Tvaerminne Zoological Station, University of Helsinki, FI-10900 Hanko (Finland)

    2006-08-15

    Cyst beds in ships and ports in Finland have previously been unstudied. Therefore, sediments from ships' ballast water tanks and four Finnish ports were sampled for dinoflagellate cysts and other phytoplankton. Untreated sediments were incubated at 10 {sup o}C and 20 {sup o}C in the local 6 psu salinity for 1, 4 and 7 days, and vegetative cells were examined with light and scanning electron microscope. Sediments were inhabited by various dinoflagellates, diatoms, chlorophytes, cyanophytes and small flagellates. Germinated dinoflagellates were found in 90% of ballast tanks and in all ports. Gymnodiniales spp. and Heterocapsa rotundata formed a major proportion of the proliferating dinoflagellate cells. One species, Peridinium quinquecorne, not previously reported from the Baltic Sea, was identified with SEM. The study emphasises that ships are potential transport vehicles for dinoflagellate cysts even in the low salinity Finnish waters, and small-sized dinoflagellates should be focused upon in ballast water studies.

  5. Analysis of Soft Switched Electronic Ballast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Spanik

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available One of most perspective light sources are based on principle of electric discharge in gases. Feature of this phenomena is nonlinear impedance characteristic. Ballast interconnected between line and light source adapts requirements of light source to possibilities/requirements of the line. Today solution of modern ballast is based is based upon high frequency switch mode power supply, the cuts many disadvantages of standartd magnetic ballast off. The article describes development of high frequency electronic ballast for linear fluorescent tube in the frame of grant project 1/9025/02 with accent to soft switching. The most important advantages of this solutions are compactness, flicker-free lumen effeciency increase and reduced EMI interferencies.

  6. Railway Ballast Characteristics, Selection Criteria and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Nålsund, Roar

    2014-01-01

    This work is a comprehensive investigation to find to what extent simple laboratory tests e.g. Los Angeles abrasion and micro-Deval might be suitable for predicting real railway ballast performance with respect to deformation and degradation. A number of tests to measure essential properties of ballast aggregate have been performed in addition to advanced material testing. Large cyclic triaxial loading test and full scale railway track model test were employed to simulate the effects of train...

  7. Sunlight-induced photochemical decay of oxidants in natural waters: implications in ballast water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, William J; Jones, Adam C; Whitehead, Robert F; Zika, Rod G

    2007-05-15

    The transport and discharge of ship ballast water has been recognized as a major vector for the introduction of invasive species. Chemical oxidants, long used in drinking water and wastewater treatment, are alternative treatment methods for the control of invasive species currently being tested for use on ships. One concern when a ballasted vessel arrives in port is the adverse effects of residual oxidant in the treated water. The most common oxidants include chlorine (HOCl/OCl-), bromine (HOBr/OBr-), ozone (03), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), chlorine dioxide (ClO2), and monochloramine (NH2Cl). The present study was undertaken to evaluate the sunlight-mediated photochemical decomposition of these oxidants. Sunlight photodecomposition was measured at various pH using either distilled water or oligotrophic Gulf Stream water for specific oxidants. For selected oxidants, quantum yields at specific wavelengths were obtained. An environmental photochemical model, GCSOLAR, also provided predictions of the fate (sunlight photolysis half-lives) of HOCI/OCl-, HOBr/OBr-, ClO2, and NH2Cl for two different seasons at latitude 40 degrees and in water with two different concentrations of chromophoric dissolved organic matter. These data are useful in assessing the environmental fate of ballast water treatment oxidants if they were to be discharged in port. PMID:17547204

  8. IBECS network/ballast interface: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, Francis; Pettler, Pete

    2001-11-15

    This report describes the work performed to design, develop, and demonstrate an IBECS network/ballast interface that is useful for economically dimming controllable ballasts in commercial buildings. The first section of the report provides the general background of the IBECS (Integrated Building Environmental Communications System) research and development work as well as the context for the development of the network/ballast interface. The research and development effort that went into producing the first proof-of-concept circuit and the physical prototype of that concept is detailed in the second section. In the third section of the report, we describe the lessons learned from the first demonstration of the network/ballast interface at an office at LBNL. The fourth section describes how electrical noise interference encountered with the first generation of interface led to design changes for a refined prototype that hardened the interface from electrical noise generated by the ballast. The final section of the report discusses the performance of refined prototype after we replaced the proof-of-concept prototype with the refined prototypes in the demonstration office at LBNL.

  9. 33 CFR 157.23 - Cargo and ballast system information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.23 Cargo and ballast system information. (a... automatic and manual operation of the cargo and ballast system in the vessel. (b) The format and information... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cargo and ballast...

  10. 33 CFR 151.2040 - What are the mandatory ballast water management requirements for vessels equipped with ballast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... water management requirements for vessels equipped with ballast tanks that operate in the waters of the... Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2040 What are the mandatory ballast water management requirements for vessels equipped with ballast tanks...

  11. Global ballast water management and the "same location" concept: a clear term or a clear issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Matej; Gollasch, Stephan; Pavliha, Marko

    2013-03-01

    The United Nations recognized the transfer of harmful organisms and pathogens across natural barriers as one of the four greatest pressures to the world's oceans and seas, causing global environmental changes, while also posing a threat to human health, property, and resources. Ballast water transferred by vessels was recognized as a prominent vector of such species and was regulated by the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ship's Ballast Water and Sediments (2004). Permanent exceptions from ballast water management requirements may apply when the uptake and discharge of ballast water occur at the "same location." However, the "same location" concept may be interpreted differently, e.g., a port basin, a port, an anchorage, or a larger area even with more ports inside. Considering that the Convention is nearing the beginning of enforcement, national authorities all around the world will soon be exposed to applications for exceptions. Here we consider possible effects of different interpretations of the "same location" concept. We have considered different possible extensions of the same location through environmental, shipping, and legal aspects. The extension of such areas, and the inclusion of more ports, may compromise the Convention's main purpose. We recommend that "same location" mean the smallest practicable unit, i.e., the same harbor, mooring, or anchorage. An entire smaller port, possibly also including the anchorage, could be considered as same location. For larger ports with a gradient of environmental conditions, "same location" should mean a terminal or a port basin. We further recommend that IMO consider the preparation of a guidance document to include concepts, criteria, and processes outlining how to identify "same location," which limits should be clearly identified. PMID:23634585

  12. Relative invasion risk for plankton across marine and freshwater systems: examining efficacy of proposed international ballast water discharge standards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Casas-Monroy

    Full Text Available Understanding the implications of different management strategies is necessary to identify best conservation trajectories for ecosystems exposed to anthropogenic stressors. For example, science-based risk assessments at large scales are needed to understand efficacy of different vector management approaches aimed at preventing biological invasions associated with commercial shipping. We conducted a landscape-scale analysis to examine the relative invasion risk of ballast water discharges among different shipping pathways (e.g., Transoceanic, Coastal or Domestic, ecosystems (e.g., freshwater, brackish and marine, and timescales (annual and per discharge event under current and future management regimes. The arrival and survival potential of nonindigenous species (NIS was estimated based on directional shipping networks and their associated propagule pressure, environmental similarity between donor-recipient ecosystems (based on salinity and temperature, and effects of current and future management strategies (i.e., ballast water exchange and treatment to meet proposed international biological discharge standards. Our findings show that current requirements for ballast water exchange effectively reduce invasion risk to freshwater ecosystems but are less protective of marine ecosystems because of greater environmental mismatch between source (oceanic and recipient (freshwater ecoregions. Future requirements for ballast water treatment are expected to reduce risk of zooplankton NIS introductions across ecosystem types but are expected to be less effective in reducing risk of phytoplankton NIS. This large-scale risk assessment across heterogeneous ecosystems represents a major step towards understanding the likelihood of invasion in relation to shipping networks, the relative efficacy of different invasion management regimes and seizing opportunities to reduce the ecological and economic implications of biological invasions.

  13. Assessing ballast treatment standards for effect on rate of establishment using a stochastic model of the green crab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Cooper

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a stochastic model used to characterize the probability/risk of NIS establishment from ships' ballast water discharges. Establishment is defined as the existence of a sufficient number of individuals of a species to provide for a sustained population of the organism. The inherent variability in population dynamics of organisms in their native or established environments is generally difficult to quantify. Muchqualitative information is known about organism life cycles and biotic and abiotic environmental pressures on the population, but generally little quantitative data exist to develop a mechanistic model of populations in such complex environments. Moreover, there is little quantitative data to characterize the stochastic fluctuations of population size over time even without accounting for systematic responses to biotic and abiotic pressures. This research applies an approach using life-stage density and fecundity measures reported in research to determine a stochastic model of an organism's population dynamics. The model is illustrated withdata from research studies on the green crab that span a range of habitats of the established organism and were collected over some years to represent a range of time-varying biotic and abiotic conditions that are expected to exist in many receiving environments. This model is applied to introductions of NIS at the IMO D-2 and the U.S. ballast water discharge standard levels designated as Phase Two in the United States Coast Guard'sNotice of Proposed Rulemaking. Under a representative range of ballast volumes discharged at U.S. ports, the average rate of establishment of green crabs for ballast waters treated to the IMO-D2 concentration standard (less than 10 organisms/m3 is predicted to be reduced to about a third the average rate from untreated ballast water discharge. The longevity of populations from the untreated ballast water discharges is expected to be reducedby about 90% by

  14. Light Sources and Ballast Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Sakai, Makoto; Yasuda, Takeo; Maehara, Akiyoshi; Okada, Atsunori; Gouriki, Takeshi; Mannami, Tomoaki

    discharge models were reported. Further, studies on ultra high-pressure mercury lamps as light sources for projectors are becoming the mainstream of HID lamp related researches. For high-pressure sodium lamps, many studies on plant growing and pest control utilizing low insect attracting aspects were also reported in 2006. Additionally, for discharge lamps, the minimum sustaining electric power for arc tubes employed in electrode-less compact fluorescent lamps was investigated. For Hg-free rare-gas fluorescent lamps, a luminance of 10,000cd/m2 was attained by a 1 meter-long external duplex spiral electrode prototype using Xe/Ne barrier discharge. As to startup circuits, the commercialization of energy saving and high value added products mainly associated with fluorescent lamps and HID lamps are becoming common. Further, the miniaturization of startup circuits for self electronic-ballasted lamps has advanced. Speaking of the overall light sources and startup circuits in 2006 and with the enforcement of RoHS in Europe in July, the momentum toward hazardous substance-free and energy saving initiatives has been enhanced from the perspective of protecting the global environment. It is anticipated that similar restrictions will be globally enforced in the future.

  15. Use of oil tanker return/ballast space for the transportation of freshwater

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Vishal; Lande, Pål Berg

    2010-01-01

    This report analyzes the concept of using oil tankers’ free cargo space and/or segregated ballast tanks to transport freshwater on the return leg, i.e. from oil unloading port back to oil loading port – also called freshwater backhauling (FWBH). The hypothesis considered is that by shipping freshwater this way to arid, oil exporting regions one can achieve a low cost and low GHG emission water supply system. The report analyzes the concept in a holistic manner, considering technical issues, t...

  16. Numerical Study on the Effect of Buffer Bow Structure in Ship-to-ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Endo, Hisayoshi; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    structure in ship-ship collisions as compared with that of standard bulbous bows. This is demonstrated by conducting a series of large-scale finite element analyses. The finite element analyses are conducted with the general-purpose nonlinear structural code “LS-DYNA”. The applied scenario is one where a...... very large crude oil carrier (VLCC) in ballast condition collides with the midship region of a D/H VLCC in a laden condition. Fracture of fillet welds, elastic-plastic material properties and strain rate effects, are taken into account in the simulations. The effect of the equivalent failure strain (FS...

  17. Numerical Study on the Effect of Buffer Bow Structure in Ship-to-ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Endo, Hisayoshi; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2005-01-01

    structure in ship-ship collisions as compared with that of standard bulbous bows. This is demonstrated by conducting a series of large-scale finite element analyses. The finite element analyses are conducted with the general-purpose nonlinear structural code “LS-DYNA”. The applied scenario is one where...... a very large crude oil carrier (VLCC) in ballast condition collides with the midship region of a D/H VLCC in a laden condition. Fracture of fillet welds, elastic-plastic material properties and strain rate effects, are taken into account in the simulations. The effect of the equivalent failure strain (FS...

  18. Ballast water as a vector of coral pathogens in the Gulf of Mexico: the case of the Cayo Arcas coral reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Macedo, M Leopoldina; Vidal-Martinez, Victor M; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A; Valdés-Lozano, David S; Herrera-Rodríguez, Miguel; Olvera-Novoa, Miguel A

    2008-09-01

    The discharge of nutrients, phytoplankton and pathogenic bacteria through ballast water may threaten the Cayo Arcas reef system. To assess this threat, the quality of ballast water and presence of coral reef pathogenic bacteria in 30 oil tankers loaded at the PEMEX Cayo Arcas crude oil terminal were determined. The water transported in the ships originated from coastal, oceanic or riverine regions. Statistical associations among quality parameters and bacteria were tested using redundancy analysis (RDA). In contrast with coastal or oceanic water, the riverine water had high concentrations of coliforms, including Vibrio cholerae 01 and, Serratia marcescens and Sphingomona spp., which are frequently associated with "white pox" and "white plague type II" coral diseases. There were also high nutrient concentrations and low water quality index values (WQI and TRIX). The presence of V. cholerae 01 highlights the need for testing ballast water coming from endemic regions into Mexican ports. PMID:18639903

  19. Innovative Ballasted Flat Roof Solar PV Racking System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, Richard T.

    2015-01-23

    The objective of this project was to reduce the cost of racking for PV solar on flat commercial rooftops. Cost reductions would come from both labor savings and material savings related to the installation process. The rack would need to accommodate the majority of modules available on the market. Cascade Engineering has a long history of converting traditional metal type applications over to plastic. Injection molding of plastics have numerous advantages including selection of resin for the application, placing the material exactly where it is needed, designing in features that will speed up the installation process, and weight reduction of the array. A plastic rack would need to meet the requirements of UL2703, Mounting systems, mounting devices, clamping/retention devices, and ground lugs for use with flat-plate photovoltaic modules and panels. Comparing original data to the end of project racking design, racking material costs were reduced 50% and labor costs reduced 64%. The racking product accommodates all 60 and 72 cell panels on the market, meets UL2703 requirements, contributes only 1.3 pounds per square foot of weight to the array, requires little ballast to secure the array, automatically grounds the module when the module is secured, stacks/nests well for shipping/fewer lifts to the roof, provides integrated wire routing, allows water to drain on the roof, and accommodates various seismic roof connections. Project goals were achieved as noted in the original funding application.

  20. Shipping Fairways

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Various shipping zones delineate activities and regulations for marine vessel traffic. Traffic lanes define specific traffic flow, while traffic separation zones...

  1. WET-tests on UV-treated ballast water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaag, N.H.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    Damen Shipyards has developed a barge-based ballast water management system (BWMS) that enables direct treatment of ballast water during discharge in a receiving harbour. The treatment is based upon filtration and a once-through UV-treatment. As part of the Type Approval process, the Dutch Authoriti

  2. Feasibility studies in relation to the IMO Ballast Water Convention

    OpenAIRE

    Tamis, J.E.; Kaag, N.H.B.M.; Karman, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    This project is aimed to develop possibilities to overcome the difficulties which arise from the implementation of the Ballast Water Convention (IMO 2004). For this purpose, three feasibility studies have been conducted: assessment of the applicability of small scale test systems; development of protocols for testing active substance residues; risk assessment of ballast water discharge.

  3. A Comparison of Microbial Water Quality and Diversity for Ballast and Tropical Harbor Waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmaine Ng

    Full Text Available Indicator organisms and antibiotic resistance were used as a proxy to measure microbial water quality of ballast tanks of ships, and surface waters in a tropical harbor. The survival of marine bacteria in ballast tanks appeared to diminish over longer water retention time, with a reduction of cell viability observed after a week based on heterotrophic plate counts. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes showed distinct differences in microbial composition of ballast and harbor waters. The harbor waters had a higher abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs assigned to Cyanobacteria (Synechococcus spp. and α-proteobacteria (SAR11 members, while marine hydrocarbon degraders such as γ-proteobacteria (Ocenspirillaes spp., Thiotrchales spp. and Bacteroidetes (Flavobacteriales spp. dominated the ballast water samples. Screening of indicator organisms found Escherichia coli (E. coli, Enterococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa in two or more of the ballast and harbor water samples tested. Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp. were detected exclusively in harbor water samples. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR, we screened for 13 antibiotic resistant gene (ARG targets and found higher abundances of sul1 (4.13-3.44 x 102 copies/mL, dfrA (0.77-1.80 x10 copies/mL and cfr (2.00-5.21 copies/mL genes compared to the other ARG targets selected for this survey. These genes encode for resistance to sulfonamides, trimethoprim and chloramphenicol-florfenicol antibiotics, which are also known to persist in sediments of aquaculture farms and coastal environments. Among the ARGs screened, we found significant correlations (P<0.05 between ereA, ermG, cfr and tetO genes to one or more of the indicator organisms detected in this study, which may suggest that these members contribute to the environmental resistome. This study provides a baseline water quality survey, quantitatively assessing indicators of antibiotic resistance, potentially pathogenic organisms and a

  4. Ship Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafrance, Pierre

    1978-01-01

    Explores in a non-mathematical treatment some of the hydrodynamical phenomena and forces that affect the operation of ships, especially at high speeds. Discusses the major components of ship resistance such as the different types of drags and ways to reduce them and how to apply those principles for the hovercraft. (GA)

  5. Ship Vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1997-01-01

    Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board......Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board...

  6. 33 CFR 151.1514 - Ballast water management alternatives under extraordinary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ballast water management... SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in the Great Lakes and Hudson River § 151.1514 Ballast water management alternatives...

  7. Arctic Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Ørts; Grønsedt, Peter; Lindstrøm Graversen, Christian;

    maritime industries (including shipping, offshore energy, ports, and maritime service and equipment suppliers) as well as addresses topics that cut across maritime industries (regulation and competitiveness). The topics and narrower research questions addressed in the initiative were developed in close...

  8. Novel Design of HID Lamp Electronic Ballast for Automotive Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Ye-qiang; WANG Jin-hai; ZHENG Yu; ZHANG Cheng

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a high intensity discharge(HID) lamp for automotive illumination.A novel type of ballast for HID is proposed without an acoustic resonance.The system consists of high frequency DC/DC converter,DC/AC inverter(SLA2403M), high voltage igniter and a microcontroller unit(MCU).The proposed ballast controls the complex start-up process and constant power process by programming on the microcontroller. It is verified that experimental results agree well with the calculated ones. The ballast features such functions as failure protection, line under-voltage, line over-voltage, output short circuit and disconnection protections.

  9. HPS Electronic Ballast Based on CIC-CPPFC Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫; 苏勤; 高国安

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the application of CIC-CPPFC techniques to high-pressure sodium(HPS) lamp electronic ballast. In order to ensure a unity power factor, different power electronic ballasts are studied by PSpice simulation. A dynamic model of HPS lamp with simple and accurate features is proposed for further study of characteristics. Experimental results verify the feasibility of HPS lamp operating at high frequency. It is shown that the presented electronic ballast has 0.99 power factor and 9% total harmonic distortion(THD).

  10. Guidance for a harmonized emission scenario document (ESD) on ballast water discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zipperle, Andreas [BIS - Beratungszentrum fuer integriertes Sedimentmanagement, Hamburg (Germany); Gils, Jos van [DELTARES, Delft (Netherlands); Hattum, Bert van [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). IVM - Institute for Environmental Studies; Heise, Susanne [BIS - Beratungszentrum fuer integriertes Sedimentmanagement, Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    The present report provides guidance for a harmonized Emission Scenario Document (ESD) for the exposure assessment as part of the environmental risk assessment process which applicants seeking approval of a ballast water management system (BWMS) need to perform prior to notification and authorisation procedures. Despite the global variability of the marine environment, ballast water discharges and treatment methods, exposure assessments need to be comparable between different applications. In order to achieve this, this ESD points out the following aspects: - Applicants should use standardized scenarios in order to predict mean exposure. These should reflect generic situations, independent of region or port so that results are widely applicable. In addition to a harbour scenario, a standardized shipping lane scenario should be considered, - During or right after ballast water discharge, high concentrations may persist in a water body for a certain length of time until extensive mixing results in mean concentrations. Not taking exposure to peak concentrations within gradients into account could lead to an underestimation of risk, especially for rapidly degrading substances. Efforts have been made to approximate maximum exposure concentration with simple dilution factors. Their applicability was checked by near-field-evaluations. - Chemical properties determine the environmental fate of substances. If they are ambiguous, selection of a specific set of data strongly influences the result of an exposure assessment. Guidance is given on what to do about lacking data. - In order to harmonize the exposure assessments, reliable chemical model software should be used. A discussion on the requirements of suitable software and an evaluation of MAMPEC is given in this report. (orig.)

  11. Icebreaking ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Antarctic Program will have a new ship for working in polar waters by early 1992. It will be the first U.S. ship with icebreaking capability dedicated to scientific research. The Polar Duke, currently leased by the National Science Foundation, which manages the program, is ice-strengthened but cannot break ice.NSF announced in February that an $83.8-million contract for construction and 10-year lease of the 900-m ship had been signed with Edison Chouest Offshore, Inc., of Galliano, La. The design calls for a crew of 22, support for the research of 37 scientists for cruises as long as 75 days, a helicopter landing deck and housing and maintenance for two 4-passenger helicopters. The ship will have two propellers with three diesel engines driving each; the six engines can generate 11,070 horsepower. While it is not a true icebreaker, the ship will be able to break ice as thick as a meter at a speed of 3 knots

  12. Tiny Stowaways: Analyzing the Economic Benefits of a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Permit Regulating Ballast Water Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Sabrina J.; Drake, Lisa A.

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has proposed permitting ballast water discharges—a benefit of which would be to reduce the economic damages associated with the introduction and spread of aquatic invasive species. Research on ship-borne aquatic invasive species has been conducted in earnest for decades, but determining the economic damages they cause remains troublesome. Furthermore, with the exception of harmful algal blooms, the economic consequences of microscopic invaders have not been studied, despite their potentially great negative effects. In this paper, we show how to estimate the economic benefits of preventing the introduction and spread of harmful bacteria, microalgae, and viruses delivered in U.S. waters. Our calculations of net social welfare show the damages from a localized incident, cholera-causing bacteria found in shellfish in the Gulf of Mexico, to be approximately 706,000 (2006). On a larger scale, harmful algal species have the potential to be transported in ships’ ballast tanks, and their effects in the United States have been to reduce commercial fisheries landings and impair water quality. We examine the economic repercussions of one bloom-forming species. Finally, we consider the possible translocation within the Great Lakes of a virus that has the potential to harm commercial and recreational fisheries. These calculations illustrate an approach to quantifying the benefits of preventing invasive aquatic microorganisms from controls on ballast water discharges.

  13. WET-tests on UV-treated ballast water

    OpenAIRE

    Kaag, N.H.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    Damen Shipyards has developed a barge-based ballast water management system (BWMS) that enables direct treatment of ballast water during discharge in a receiving harbour. The treatment is based upon filtration and a once-through UV-treatment. As part of the Type Approval process, the Dutch Authorities (IL&T) required an Environmental Acceptability document, based upon Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) testing on freshwater and marine water, in order to ensure that no harmful levels of dis-inf...

  14. Ground reaction forces during human locomotion on railroad ballast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Chip; Redfern, Mark S

    2007-11-01

    Locomotion over ballast surfaces provides a unique situation for investigating the biomechanics of gait. Although much research has focused on level and sloped walking on a smooth, firm surface in order to understand the common kinematic and kinetic variables associated with human locomotion, the literature currently provides few if any discussions regarding the dynamics of locomotion on surfaces that are either rocky or uneven. The purpose of this study was to investigate a method for using force plates to measure the ground reaction forces (GRFs) during gait on ballast. Ballast is a construction aggregate of unsymmetrical rock used in industry for the purpose of forming track bed on which railway ties are laid or in yards where railroad cars are stored. It is used to facilitate the drainage of water and to create even running surfaces. To construct the experimental ballast surfaces, 31.75 mm (1 1/4 in.) marble ballast at depths of approximately 63.5 mm (2.5 in.) or 101.6 mm (4 in.) were spread over a carpeted vinyl tile walkway specially designed for gait studies. GRF magnitudes and time histories from a force plate were collected under normal smooth surface and under both ballast surface conditions for five subjects. GRF magnitudes and time histories during smooth surface walking were similar to GRF magnitudes and time histories from the two ballast surface conditions. The data presented here demonstrate the feasibility of using a force plate system to expand the scope of biomechanical analyses of locomotion on ballast surfaces. PMID:18089931

  15. Zero energy-storage ballast for compact fluorescent lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, William Newell (Niskayuna, NY); Thomas, Robert James (Rexford, NY)

    1999-01-01

    A CFL ballast includes complementary-type switching devices connected in series with their gates connected together at a control node. The switching devices supply a resonant tank circuit which is tuned to a frequency near, but slightly lower than, the resonant frequency of a resonant control circuit. As a result, the tank circuit restarts oscillations immediately following each zero crossing of the bus voltage. Such rapid restarts avoid undesirable flickering while maintaining the operational advantages and high efficacy of the CFL ballast.

  16. Dimmable Electronic Ballast for a Gas Discharge Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raducanu, Marius; Hennings, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is the most efficient photocatalyst for organic oxidative degradation. TiO2 is effective not only in aqueous solution, but also in nonaqueous solvents and in the gas phase. It is photostable, biologically and chemically inert, and non-toxic. Low-energy UV light (approximately 375 nm, UV-A) can be used to photoactivate TiO2. TiO2 photocatalysis has been used to mineralize most types of organic compounds. Also, TiO2 photocatalysis has been effectively used in sterilization. This effectiveness has been demonstrated by its aggressive destruction of microorganisms, and aggressive oxidation effects of toxins. It also has been used for the oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide, and ammonia to nitrogen. Despite having many attractive features, advanced photocatalytic oxidation processes have not been effectively used for air cleaning. One of the limitations of the traditional photocatalytic systems is the ballast that powers (lights) the bulbs. Almost all commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) ballasts are not dimmable and do not contain safety features. COTS ballasts light the UV lamp as bright as the bulb can be lit, and this results in shorter bulb lifetime and maximal power consumption. COTS magnetic ballasts are bulky, heavy, and inefficient. Several iterations of dimmable electronic ballasts have been developed. Some manifestations have safety features such as broken-bulb or over-temperature warnings, replace-bulb alert, logbulb operational hours, etc. Several electronic ballast boards capable of independently lighting and controlling (dimming) four fluorescent (UV light) bulbs were designed, fabricated, and tested. Because of the variation in the market bulb parameters, the ballast boards were designed with a very broad range output. The ballast boards can measure and control the current (power) for each channel.

  17. Implementation of Energy Saving Controller for Electromagnetic Ballast Fluorescent Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhi; Barsoum, Cheong; Barsoum, N. N.

    2010-06-01

    Fluorescent lamps have proven to be the most efficient lighting device. However, energy losses have been found in electromagnetic ballast due to high harmonic distortion and low power factor so energy is consumed unnecessarily. In today's energy demanding environment, energy efficiency of fluorescent lamps can be improved by introducing an energy saving controller in the electromagnetic ballast. The energy saving controller limits the supply voltage to an optimum level which tends to reduce the power losses in electromagnetic ballasts and fluorescent lamps. It is also anticipated that the energy saving controller has desirable characteristics of high power factor with dimmable illuminance level control. In comparison to electronic dimmable ballast, integration an energy saving controller with electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps results in less power consumption, dimmable illuminance control and longer life span at a much lower installation cost. Furthermore, there is no replacement cost for integrating the energy saving controller with existing electromagnetic fluorescent lamps system. In this paper, experimental works have been performed to investigate hardware implementation of the system which further supported by simulation on MATLAB Simulink. Experimental results based on the proposed energy saving controller showed that electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps can be dimmed without any problems down to 50% illuminance level output. In addition, experimental results show that 37.5% power consumption can be saved by reducing 15% of the supply voltage.

  18.  Analysis of the ballast system of WindFlip

    OpenAIRE

    Alvheim, Atle

    2010-01-01

     The thesis firstly includes a study of the structure and requirements of a general ballast system. Based on this knowledge a ballast system suiting the needs of the WindFlip concept was designed through using the risk-based design methodology (RBD).The presented ballast system has one sub-system for ballasting during rotation of WindFlip from horizontal to vertical position and back again (called main ballast system). Another sub-system (called the secondary ballast system) is used during tr...

  19. Difficulties in obtaining representative samples for compliance with the Ballast Water Management Convention

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Carney, K.J.; Basurko, O.C.; Pazouki, K.; Marsham, S.; Delany, J.E.; Desai, D; Anil, A.C.; Mesbahi, E.

    As implementation of the Ballast Water Convention draws nearer a major challenge is the development of protocols which accurately assess compliance with the D-2 Standard. Many factors affect the accuracy of assessment: e.g. large volume of ballast...

  20. Innovation in product and services in the shipping retrofit industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Köhler, Jonathan

    regulation could create innovation in green products and services in the maritime retrofitting industry?” Our case study focus on business models for the development, installation and operation of ballast water management systems in Denmark. We engaged the perspectives of ship-owners, equipment manufacturers...... increasingly developing product-service systems. It is however, argued that product-service systems are not always sustainable, and thus little evidence connect them with green growth. To fill in this gap, we are carrying a case study guided by the following research question: “How the ballast water treatment......The green growth strategies in Western Europe depart from the premises that environmental technologies are strategic for employment creation. Some countries wish to position themselves as world leaders in cleantech innovation and increase their exports and thus address internal unemployment...

  1. Low-head air stripper treats oil tanker ballast water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prototype tests conducted during the winter of 1989/90 have successfully demonstrated an economical design for air stripping volatile hydrocarbons from oily tanker ballast water. The prototype air stripper, developed for Alyeska's Ballast Water Treatment (BWT) facility in Valdez, Alaska, ran continuously for three months with an average removal of 88% of the incoming volatile organics. Initially designed to remove oil and grease compounds from tanker ballast water, the BWT system has been upgraded to a three-step process to comply with new, stringent regulations. The BWT biological oxidation process enhances the growth of bacteria present in the incoming ballast water through nutrient addition, aeration, and recirculation within a complete-mixed bioreactor. The average removal of BETX is over 95%, however, occassional upsets required the placement of a polishing air stripper downstream of the aeration tanks. Packed-tower air stripping was investigated but deemed economically unfeasible for a facility that would only occasionally be used. Twelve feet of excess gravity head in the existing BWT hydraulic gradeline were employed to drive the air stripper feed. This limited the stripper packing depth to 8 feet and imposed constraints on the design of the inlet water and air distributors. Water distribution, air flow, temperature effects, and fouling from constituents in the ballast water were investigated. The prototype was operated under water and air flow conditions similar to those specified for the full-scale unit, and at a range of test conditions above and below the normal design conditions

  2. 75 FR 14319 - Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts: Public Meeting and Availability of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... cycle to amend energy conservation standards for fluorescent lamp ballasts. 65 FR 56740, 56740-56749... Ballast Rule''). 65 FR 56740 (September 19, 2000). This rulemaking established a consensus standard... Regulations at 10 CFR 430.32(m). 70 FR 60407. These standards established ballast efficacy requirements...

  3. 33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ballast water management. 151.1518 Section 151.1518 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of... water management. (a) A person who violates this subpart is liable for a civil penalty in an amount...

  4. 33 CFR 151.2035 - What are the required ballast water management practices for my vessel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... water management practices for my vessel? 151.2035 Section 151.2035 Navigation and Navigable Waters... SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2035 What are the required ballast water...

  5. Shipping Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Through a SBIR contract between Kennedy Space Center and Silicon Designs, came the tri-axial data acquisition system, known commercially as the G-Logger. It is a portable, self-contained device that stores and analyzes shock, vibration, and temperature data during payload transport. It is sealed for protection from the weather and can be left unattended for up to three weeks as it collects data. It can easily be linked with any desktop or laptop computer in order to download the collected data. It serves uses in the automotive, shipping, aerospace, and machining industries.

  6. A New-Style Two-Staged Dimmable Electronic Ballast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红颖; 石季英; 陈宝瓷

    2004-01-01

    A two-staged electronic ballast with wide dimming range, high power factor(PF) and low electromagnetic interference(EMI) is presented. It changes the input voltage of the stage of power inverter for dimming control, so it overcomes some limitations of traditional electronic ballasts that use frequency variation. At the same time, the stage of power inverter runs under the soft-switching at the fixed switching frequency and reduces EMI greatly. Its principle and characteristic are analyzed in detail,and experimental and simulated results are obtained on a 40 W fluorescent lamp.

  7. Biomass-Derived Hydrogen from a Thermally Ballasted Gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Robert C

    2007-04-06

    The goal of this project is to develop an indirectly heated gasification system that converts switchgrass into hydrogen-rich gas suitable for powering fuel cells. The project includes investigations of the indirectly-heated gasifier, development of particulate removal equipment, evaluation of catalytic methods for upgrading producer gas, development of contaminant measurement and control techniques, modeling of the thermal performance of the ballasted gasifier, and estimation of the cost of hydrogen from the proposed gasification system. Specific technologies investigated include a thermally ballasted gasifier, a moving bed granular filter, and catalytic reactors for steam reforming and water-gas shift reaction. The approach to this project was to employ a pilot-scale (5 ton per day) gasifier to evaluate the thermally ballasted gasifier as a means for producing hydrogen from switchgrass. A slipstream from the gasifier was used to evaluate gas cleaning and upgrading options. Other tests were conducted with laboratory-scale equipment using simulated producer gas. The ballasted gasifier operated in conjunction with a steam reformer and two-stage water-gas shift reactor produced gas streams containing 54.5 vol-% H2. If purge gas to the feeder system could be substantially eliminated, hydrogen concentration would reach 61 vol-%, which closely approaches the theoretical maximum of 66 vol-%. Tests with a combined catalyst/sorbent system demonstrated that steam reforming and water-gas shift reaction could be substantially performed in a single reactor and achieve hydrogen concentrations exceeding 90 vol-%. Cold flow trials with a laboratory-scale moving bed granular filter achieved particle removal efficiencies exceeding 99%. Two metal-based sorbents were tested for their ability to remove H2S from biomass-derived producer gas. The ZnO sorbent, tested at 450° C, was effective in reducing H2S from 200 ppm to less than 2 ppm (>99% reduction) while tests with the MnO sorbent

  8. Shipping Industry Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Wijnolst, N.; Waals, F.

    1999-01-01

    Understanding Shipping Management requires a thorough understanding of the Shipping Industry Structure. This book provides this knowledge base and should be seen in conjunction with two other books: Shipping and Design Innovation in Shipping. Shipping Industry Structure was intended as the first part of a book on shipping management; the second part should discuss the different management domains in shipping, such as strategy, finance, investment and risk, marketing, operations, organisation ...

  9. Compact Fluorescent Plug-In Ballast-in-a-Socket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebecca Voelker

    2001-12-21

    The primary goal of this program was to develop a ballast system for plug-in CFLs (compact fluorescent lamps) that will directly replace standard metal shell, medium base incandescent lampholders (such as Levition No. 6098) for use with portable lamp fixtures, such as floor, table and desk lamps. A secondary goal was to identify a plug-in CFL that is optimized for use with this ballast. This Plug-in CFL Ballastin-a-Socket system will allow fixture manufacturers to easily manufacture CFL-based high-efficacy portable fixtures that provide residential and commercial consumers with attractive, cost-effective, and energy-efficient fixtures for use wherever portable incandescent fixtures are used today. The advantages of this proposed system over existing CFL solutions are that the fixtures can only be used with high-efficacy CFLs, and they will be more attractive and will have lower life-cycle costs than screw-in or adapter-based CFL retrofit solutions. These features should greatly increase the penetration of CFL's into the North American market. Our work has shown that using integrated circuits it is quite feasible to produce a lamp-fixture ballast of a size comparable to the current Edison-screw 3-way incandescent fixtures. As for price points for BIAS-based fixtures, end-users polled by the Lighting Research Institute at RPI indicated that they would pay as much as an additional $10 for a lamp containing such a ballast. The ballast has been optimized to run with a 26 W amalgam triple biax lamp in the base-down position, yet can accept non-amalgam versions of the lamp. With a few part alterations, the ballast can be produced to support 32 W lamps as well. The ballast uses GE's existing L-Comp[1] power topology in the circuit so that the integrated circuit design would be a design that could possibly be used by other CFL and EFL products with minor modifications. This gives added value by reducing cost and size of not only the BIAS, but also possibly other

  10. Shipping Industry Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnolst, N.; Waals, F.

    1999-01-01

    Understanding Shipping Management requires a thorough understanding of the Shipping Industry Structure. This book provides this knowledge base and should be seen in conjunction with two other books: Shipping and Design Innovation in Shipping. Shipping Industry Structure was intended as the first par

  11. Encoding the Shipping Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Lina; Lin Lin; Wang Siyuan

    2009-01-01

    @@ According to the statistics from Frech shipping advisory bod-ies,till December 21,2008,165 container ships were idle,leav-ing the fees,such as anchorage fees,ship maintaining fee,crev resettlement fee and repaying loans for ship-buying,an-noying the ship-owners.

  12. Cooling effect of ballast revetment on the roadbed of Qinghai-Tibetan Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zeyong; CHENG Guodong; QIAN Zeyu; WANG Jiemin; WEI Guoan; HOU Xuhong; GU Lianglei; YAN Yuping

    2004-01-01

    The data obtained through the roadbed surface thermal regime experiment (ROBSTREX), which was carried out at Beiluhe test section of Qinghai-Tibetan Railway from October to December in 2002, were used to estimate the cooling effect of ballast revetment on the roadbed. The results show that both riprap rock ballast revetment and crushed stone ballast revetment can reduce the temperature of the roadbed. But the cooling effect of riprap rock ballast revetment is better than that of crushed stone ballast revetment when the temperature of roadbed is higher. The cooling effect of crushed stone ballast revetment is better than that of riprap rock ballast revetment when the temperature of the roadbed is lower, especially at deeper roadbed layers. In the frozen season, the heat release from the roadbed also shows that the cooling effect of ballast revetment on the roadbed is obvious, and the cooling effect of crushed stone-ballast revetment on the roadbed is much evident than that of riprap rock ballast revetment.

  13. EIS study of MIC in three different zones derived from ship ballast tank model system

    OpenAIRE

    Heyer, A.; Mol, J. M. C.; D'Souza, F; De Wit, J.H.W.; G. Ferrari

    2011-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a well known phenomenon in aquatic environments [1]. The presence of a biofilm on metal surface often establishes new electrochemical reaction pathways, or promotes reactions which are not normally favored in the absence of microorganisms, resulting in increased corrosion rates and on the performance of the material. A approach was made by using a new developed lab scale model system containing working electrodes in different height levels to si...

  14. Asbestos quantification in track ballast, a complex analytical problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Track ballast forms the trackbeb upon which railroad ties are laid. It is used to bear the load from the railroad ties, to facilitate water drainage, and also to keep down vegetation. It is typically made of angular crushed stone, with a grain size between 30 and 60 mm, with good mechanical properties (high compressive strength, freeze - thaw resistance, resistance to fragmentation). The most common rock types are represented by basalts, porphyries, orthogneisses, some carbonatic rocks and "green stones" (serpentinites, prasinites, amphibolites, metagabbros). Especially "green stones" may contain traces, and sometimes appreciable amounts of asbestiform minerals (chrysotile and/or fibrous amphiboles, generally tremolite - actinolite). In Italy, the chrysotile asbestos mine in Balangero (Turin) produced over 5 Mt railroad ballast (crushed serpentinites), which was used for the railways in northern and central Italy, from 1930 up to 1990. In addition to Balangero, several other serpentinite and prasinite quarries (e.g. Emilia Romagna) provided the railways ballast up to the year 2000. The legal threshold for asbestos content in track ballast is established in 1000 ppm: if the value is below this threshold, the material can be reused, otherwise it must be disposed of as hazardous waste, with very high costs. The quantitative asbestos determination in rocks is a very complex analytical issue: although techniques like TEM-SAED and micro-Raman are very effective in the identification of asbestos minerals, a quantitative determination on bulk materials is almost impossible or really expensive and time consuming. Another problem is represented by the discrimination of asbestiform minerals (e.g. chrysotile, asbestiform amphiboles) from the common acicular - pseudo-fibrous varieties (lamellar serpentine minerals, prismatic/acicular amphiboles). In this work, more than 200 samples from the main Italian rail yards were characterized by a combined use of XRD and a special SEM

  15. Design and research on a variable ballast system for deep-sea manned submersibles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhong-Liang

    2008-12-01

    Variable ballast systems are necessary for manned submersibles to adjust their buoyancy. In this paper, the design of a variable ballast system for a manned submersible is described. The variable ballast system uses a super high pressure hydraulic seawater system. A super high pressure seawater pump and a deep-sea brushless DC motor are used to pump seawater into or from the variable ballast tank, increasing or decreasing the weight of the manned submersible. A magnetostrictive linear displacement transducer can detect the seawater level in the variable ballast tank. Some seawater valves are used to control pumping direction and control on-off states. The design and testing procedure for the valves is described. Finally, the future development of variable ballast systems and seawater hydraulic systems is projected.

  16. Design and research on a variable ballast system for deep-sea manned submersibles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Zhong-liang

    2008-01-01

    Variable ballast systems are necessary for manned submersibles to adjust their buoyancy. In this paper,the design of a variable ballast system for a manned submersible is described. The variable ballast system uses a super high pressure hydraulic seawater system. A super high pressure seawater pump and a deep-sea brushless DC motor are used to pump seawater into or from the variable ballast tank,increasing or decreasing the weight of the manned submersible. A magnetostrictive linear displacement transducer can detect the seawater level in the variable ballast tank. Some seawater valves are used to control pumping direction and control on-off states. The design and testing procedure for the valves is described. Finally,the future development of variable ballast systems and seawater hydraulic systems is projected.

  17. Discrete element modelling of geogrid-reinforced railway ballast and track transition zones

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Track deterioration has a serious influence on the safety and efficiency (speed restriction) of train operations. Many expensive, disruptive and frequent repair operations are often required to maintain the ballast characteristics due to the problem of settlement. Because of this, a geogrid solution that has proved to be a simple and economical method of reinforcing track ballast is widely used. This project presents an evaluation of the behaviour of geogrid-reinforced railway ballast. E...

  18. Finite Element-Discrete Element Coupling Strategies for the Modelling of Ballast-Soil Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Taforel, Paul; Renouf, Mathieu; Dubois, Frédéric; Voivret, Jean-Charles

    2015-01-01

    International audience Numerous modelling strategies have been used over the last decade to improve the understanding of the physical behaviour of the railway track system thanks to numerical simulation. In this context, discrete element (DE) methods are traditionally used to describe the granular behaviour of the ballast layer of the railway track whereas finite element (FE) methods are used to model the whole track system (soil and ballast) in which ballast is modelled as a continuous me...

  19. Track behaviour: the importance of the sleeper to ballast interface

    OpenAIRE

    Le Pen, Louis

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research is to develop a fuller understanding of the mechanical behaviour of the sleeper/ballast interface, related in particular, to the forces applied by high speed tilting trains on low radius curves. The research has used literature review, field measurements, and laboratory experiments on a single sleeper bay of track. Theoretical calculations are also presented. Field measurements are carried out using geophones to record time/deflection for sleepers duri...

  20. Green shipping management

    CERN Document Server

    Lun, Y H Venus; Wong, Christina W Y; Cheng, T C E

    2016-01-01

    This book presents theory-driven discussion on the link between implementing green shipping practices (GSP) and shipping firm performance. It examines the shipping industry’s challenge of supporting economic growth while enhancing environmental performance. Consisting of nine chapters, the book covers topics such as the conceptualization of green shipping practices (GSPs), measurement scales for evaluating GSP implementation, greening capability, greening and performance relativity (GPR), green management practice, green shipping network, greening capacity, and greening propensity. In view of the increasing quest for environment protection in the shipping sector, this book provides a good reference for firms to understand and evaluate their capability in carrying out green operations on their shipping activities.

  1. Intensification of the process of cleaning ballast water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepaneks, L.

    1983-01-01

    A large part of the waste water at offshore bulk plants is oil-containing ballast water of tankers. Its volume can reach 40-50% of their tonnage. In order to purify this water, mainly two-stage plans are currently used with mechanical methods in the first stage and physical mechanical in the second. In this case the concentration of petroleum products in the purified waste water is 15-20 mg/1. The need to improve the efficiency of the active treatment complexes (TC) results in considerable increase in cost of TC construction. In order to intensify the process of purification of waste water, the Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of the Ukrainian SSR Academy of Sciences has conducted laboratory studies to investigate the filtering activity of Black Sea mussles, a study was made of the viability of filtering organisms under different conditions of contamination. Studies of these processes made it possible to develop a biological method for purification of oil-containing waste water with the use of marine organisms. Based on many years of practical operation of structures to purify oil-containing ballast water of tankers at the active treatment complex of the offshore bulk plant ''Sheskharis'' and studies to improve the operating efficiency of the TC, a plan was developed for purifying the oil-containing ballast water of tankers with the use of the biological method.

  2. Magnetic fluorescent ballasts: Market data, market imperfections, and policy success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koomey, J.G.; Sanstad, A.H.; Shown, L.J.

    1995-12-01

    Many economists have strongly questioned engineering-economic studies aimed at demonstrating anomalously slow diffusion of energy-efficient technology and the benefits of regulations to promote such technology. One argument against such studies is that standard techniques of engineering-economics are either inappropriate for or are routinely misapplied in assessing the performance of the market for energy efficiency. This paper presents engineering-economic evidence on the diffusion of energy efficiency improvements that takes account of such critiques. The authors examine the engineering and economic characteristics of standard and energy-efficient magnetic ballasts for fluorescent lighting. Efficient magnetic ballasts represented an excellent investment for 99% of the commercial building floor stock, and a moderately good investment for 0.7% of the commercial floor stock. Still, these ballasts were only being adopted in the 1980s at a rate commensurate with the enactment of appliance efficiency standards in various states. In this case, there is solid empirical evidence for skepticism about the effectiveness of the market mechanism in promoting cost-effective energy efficiency improvements as well as evidence of the benefits of regulation to counteract this shortcoming.

  3. Optimization of Ballast Design: A Case Study of the Physics Entrepreneurship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jun; Cheng, Norman; Lamouri, Abbas; Sulcs, Juris; Brown, Robert; Taylor, Cyrus

    2001-10-01

    This talk presents a typical internship project for students in the Physics Entrepreneurship Program at Case Western Reserve University. As part of their overall strategy, Advanced Lighting International (ADLT) is involved in the production of magnetic ballasts for metal halide lamps. The systems in which these ballasts function is undergoing rapid evolution, leading to the question of how the design of the ballasts can be optimized in order to deliver superior performance for lower cost. Addressing this question requires a full understanding of a variety of issues ranging from the basic modeling of the physics of the magnetic ballasts to questions of overall market strategy, manufacturing considerations, and the competitive environment.

  4. The shipping man adventures in ship finance

    CERN Document Server

    McCleery, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    When restless New York City hedge fund manager Robert Fairchild watches the Baltic Dry Cargo Index plunge 97%, registering an all-time high and a 25-year low within the span of just six months, he decides to buy a ship. Immediately fantasizing about naming a vessel after his wife, carrying a string of worry beads and being able to introduce himself as a "shipowner" at his upcoming college reunion, Fairchild immediately embarks on an odyssey into the most exclusive, glamorous and high stakes business in the world. From pirates off the coast of Somalia and on Wall Street to Greek and Norwegian shipping magnates, the education of Robert Fairchild is an expensive one. In the end, he loses his hedge fund, but he gains a life - as a Shipping Man. Part fast paced financial thriller, part ship finance text book, The Shipping Man is 310 pages of required reading for anyone with an interest in capital formation for shipping.

  5. Novel Ship Propulsion System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Yulong; SUN Yuqing; ZHANG Hongpeng; ZHANG Yindong; CHEN Haiquan

    2009-01-01

    As the development tends towards high-speed, large-scale and high-power, power of the ship main engine becomes larger and larger. This make the engine design and cabin arrangement become more and more difficult. Ship maneuverability becomes bad. A new ship propulsion system, integrated hydraulic propulsion (IHP), is put forward to meet the development of modem ship. Principle of IHP system is discussed. Working condition matching characteristic of IHP ship is studied based on its matching characteristic charts. According to their propulsion principle, dynamic mathematic models of IHP ship and direct propulsion (DP) ship are developed. These two models are verified by test sailing and test stand data. Based on the software Matlab/Simulink, comparison research between IHP ship and DP ship is conducted. The results show that cabin arrangement of IHP ship is very flexible, working condition matching characteristic of IHP ship is good, the ratio of power to weight of IHP ship is larger than DP ship, and maneuverability is excellent. IHP system is suitable for engineering ship, superpower ship and warship, etc.

  6. Tar-free epoxy/amine curing system for corrosion protection of ballast tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preservation of seawater ballast tanks is one of the biggest maintenance burdens. It is well known that coal tar is one of the best materials to protect steel substrates against marine corrosion and is also prevalently widely used in ship tanks so far. However if tar-containing paint is applied, it is harmful to health and especially dark color (black or brown) is only available, which makes uneasy to detect the defects of painting and rust. We have studied and developed a light color, modified amine cured epoxy coating system, which reveals perfect protection performance even though without tar for long-term service period. The coating system is less harmful to health as it does not contain coal tar materials and meets the stringent VOC regulation in view of its low content of organic solvent (SVR>80%). Experiments have been carried out on three kinds of substrates, shop-primed panels, blast-cleaned panels and pre-rusted panels. All test specimens were compared with commercialized tar containing epoxy coating on equivalently treated steel substrates. We will report the test results in laboratory, general anti-corrosion properties, adhesion properties and cathodic protection data from seawater cycle test and wave tank simulation device. And also the results being reported will include the survey for field applications

  7. A comparison of six different ballast water treatment systems based on UV radiation, electrochlorination and chlorine dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Stehouwer, P.P.; Buma, A.; Peperzak, L.

    2015-01-01

    The spread of aquatic invasive species through ballast water is a major ecological and economical threat. Because of this, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) set limits to the concentrations of organisms allowed in ballast water. To meet these limits, ballast water treatment systems (BWTSs) were developed. The main techniques used for ballast water treatment are ultraviolet (UV) radiation and electrochlorination (EC). In this study, phytoplankton regrowth after treatment was follow...

  8. 76 FR 25211 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... public rulemaking (NOPR) for the fluorescent lamp ballast standards rulemaking. 76 FR 20090. For the test... supplemental notice of proposed rulemaking (SNOPR). 75 FR 71570. All comments on the fluorescent lamp ballast... rulemaking''). DOE initiated that rulemaking by publishing a Federal Register (FR) notice announcing a...

  9. 75 FR 14287 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... Framework Document for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts,'') on January 22, 2008. 73 FR 3653. DOE has completed the... consumption for fluorescent lamp ballasts in the Federal Register on October 22, 2009. 74 FR 54445. II... service fluorescent lamps and incandescent reflector lamps (74 FR 34080) adopted a new definition...

  10. 75 FR 71570 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Availability of the Framework Document for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts'') on January 22, 2008. 73 FR 3653. On...) for the fluorescent lamp ballast standards rulemaking. 75 FR 14319. DOE also published a test... initiated that rulemaking by publishing a Federal Register (FR) notice announcing a public meeting...

  11. Commercial nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following discussion of the arguments in favour of nuclear merchant ships and development of nuclear ship propulsion, the rentability of nuclear ships is dealt with in a comparative study with conventional ships regarding fuel costs, investments and environmental impact. The structure and components of a nuclear ship are described, with emphasis on its safety equipment. The problem of insurance is examined, particularly in connection with the difficulty in applying insurance for liability due to the present uncertainties of the legal position at international level. French legislation does not solve the problem of visiting foreign nuclear ships. The risk concept at operational, design and construction stages is also discussed. Unresolved difficulties, especially concerning the construction of nuclear ships, uncertainties in competitivity analyses between conventional and nuclear propulsion, and implementation of specific and complete legislation on nuclear ships are also mentioned, particularly in the context of their visits to ports

  12. Characterization of ballasted flocs in water treatment using microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Mathieu; Barbeau, Benoit

    2016-03-01

    Ballasted flocculation is widely used in the water industry for drinking water, municipal wastewater, storm water and industrial water treatment. This gravity-based physicochemical separation process involves the injection of a ballasting agent, typically microsand, to increase the floc density and size. However, the physical characteristics of the final ballasted flocs are still ill-defined. A microscopic method was specifically developed to characterize floc 1) density, 2) size and 3) shape factor. Using this information, probability density functions (PDFs) of the floc settling velocity were calculated. The impacts of the mixing intensity, polymer dosage, microsand size and contact time during the floc maturation phase were assessed. No correlation was identified between the floc diameter, form and density PDFs. The floc equivalent diameter mainly controls the settling velocity (r = 0.94), with the floc density (r = 0.26) and shape factor (r = 0.25) having lower impacts. A velocity gradient of 165 s(-1) was optimal to maintain the microsand in suspension while simultaneously maximizing the floc diameter. An anionic high molecular weight polyacrylamide formed 1.5-fold larger aggregates compared with the starch-based polymer tested, but both polymers produced flocs of similar density (relative density = 1.53 ± 0.03). Generally, the floc mean settling velocity is a good predictor of the turbidity removal. An in-depth analysis of the floc characteristics indicates a correlation between the floc size and the largest microsand grain potentially embeddable in the floc structure. PMID:26724446

  13. Reactors. Nuclear propulsion ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article has for object the development of nuclear-powered ships and the conception of the nuclear-powered ship. The technology of the naval propulsion P.W.R. type reactor is described in the article B.N.3 141 'Nuclear Boilers ships'. (N.C.)

  14. Optimal Control of a Ballast-Stabilized Floating Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Søren; Knudsen, Torben; Bak, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    structural stiffness of a floating installation in combination with a coupling between the fore–aft motion of the tower and the blade pitch. To address this problem, the present paper models a ballast-stabilized floating wind turbine, and suggests a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) in combination with a wind...... estimator and a state observer. The results are simulated using aero elastic code and analysed in terms of damage equivalent loads. When compared to a baseline controller, this controller clearly demonstrates better generator speed and power tracking while reducing fatigue loads....

  15. DYNAMIC MODELING FOR AIRSHIP EQUIPPED WITH BALLONETS AND BALLAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Zi-li; QU Wei-dong; XI Yu-geng

    2005-01-01

    Total dynamics of an airship is modeled. The body of an airship is taken as a submerged rigid body with neutral buoyancy, i. e. , buoyancy with value equal to that of gravity, and the coupled dynamics between the body with ballonets and ballast is considered. The total dynamics of the airship is firstly derived by Newton-Euler laws and Kirchhoff's equations. Furthermore, by using Hamiltonian and Lagrangian semidirect product reduction theories, the dynamics is formulated as a Lie-Poisson system,control design using energy-based methods for Hamiltonian or Lagrangian system.

  16. A Novel Single-Switch Single-Stage Electronic Ballast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu-Hua Zhu; Xing-Bi Chen; Hong-Sheng Zhong

    2009-01-01

    A single-stage single-switch high- frequency electronic ballast topology is presented. The circuit topology is the integration of a buck power- factor-correction (PFC) converter and a class E resonant inverter with only one active power switch. The buck converter is operated in discontinuous conduction mode and at a fixed switching frequency, and constant duty cycle to achieve high power factor and it can be controlled easily. Detailed analysis of the operation and characteristics of the circuit is provided. Simulation results satisfy present standard require- ments.

  17. 33 CFR 151.2037 - If my vessel cannot conduct ballast water management practices because of its voyage and/or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ballast water management practices because of its voyage and/or safety concerns, will I be prohibited from..., MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2037 If my vessel cannot conduct ballast water...

  18. Investigation of the hydro-mechanical behaviour of fouled ballast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-jun CUI; Trong Vinh DUONG; Anh Minh TANG; Jean-Claude DUPLA; Nicolas CALON; Alain ROBINET

    2013-01-01

    In this study,a fouled ballast taken from the site of Sénissiat,France,was investigated.For the hydraulic behaviour,a large-scale cell was developed allowing drainage and evaporation tests to be carried out with monitoring of both suction and volumetric water content at various positions of the sample.It was observed that the hydraulic conductivity of fouled ballast is decreasing with suction increase,as for common unsaturated soils.The effect of fines content was found to be negligible.For the mechanical behaviour,both monotonic and cyclic triaxial tests were carried out using a large-scale triaxial cell.Various water contents were considered.The results were interpreted in terms of shear strength and permanent axial strain.It appeared that the water content is an important factor to be accounted for since any increase of water content or degree of saturation significantly decreases the shear strength and increases the permanent strain.Constitutive modelling has been attempted based on the experimental results.The model in its current state is capable of describing the effects of stress level,cycle number and water content.

  19. Safety of nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interest in the utilization of nuclear steam supply systems for merchant ships and icebreakers has recently increased considerably due to the sharp rise in oil prices and the continuing trend towards larger and faster merchant ships. Canada, for example, is considering construction of an icebreaker in the near future. On the other hand, an accident which could result in serious damage to or the sinking of a nuclear ship is potentially far more dangerous to the general public than a similar accident with a conventional ship. Therefore, it was very important to evaluate in an international forum the safety of nuclear ships in the light of our contemporary safety philosophy, taking into account the results of cumulative operating experience with nuclear ships in operation. The philosophy and safety requirement for land-based nuclear installations were outlined because of many common features for both land-based nuclear installations and nuclear ships. Nevertheless, essential specific safety requirements for nuclear ships must always be considered, and the work on safety problems for nuclear ships sponsored by the NEA was regarded as an important step towards developing an international code of practice by IMCO on the safety of nuclear merchant ships. One session was devoted to the quantitative assessment of nuclear ship safety. The probability technique of an accident risk assessment for nuclear power plants is well known and widely used. Its modification, to make it applicable to nuclear propelled merchant ships, was discussed in some papers. Mathematical models for describing various postulated accidents with nuclear ships were developed and reported by several speakers. Several papers discussed a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) with nuclear steam supply systems of nuclear ships and engineering design features to prevent a radioactive effluence after LOCA. Other types of postulated accidents with reactors and systems in static and dynamic conditions were also

  20. Nuclear merchant ship propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation of about 300 nuclear naval vessels has proven the feasibility of nuclear ship propulsion. Until now only six non-military ships have been built or are under construction. The operation and experience with the NS OTTO HAHN, which is of value for future large-scale use of nuclear merchant ship propulsion, is discussed. In many countries studies and plans are being made for further nuclear merchant ships. The types of vessels investigated are large containerships, tankers and specialized ships like icebreakers or ice-breaking ships. The future of nuclear merchant ship propulsion depends on three interrelated items: nuclear ship technology; economy of nuclear ship propulsion; and legal questions. Nuclear merchant ship technology has been based until now on standard ship technology and light water reactor technology. Except for special questions due to the non-stationary type of the plant, entirely new problems do not arise. This has been proved by the recent conceptual licensing procedure for a large nuclear containership in FRG. The economics of nuclear propulsion will be under discussion until they are proved by the operation of privately owned lead ships. Unsolved legal questions, e.g. in connection with port entry permission, are at present another problem for nuclear shipping. Efforts are made to solve these questions on an international basis. The future development of nuclear energy electricity production in large land-based plants will stimulate the employment of smaller units. Any future development of long-distance sea transport will have to take this opportunity of a reliable and economic energy supply into account. (author)

  1. Obstacles and opportunities in the commercialization of the solid state electronic fluorescent lighting ballast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. R.; Marcus, A. A.; Campbell, R. S.; Sommers, P.; Skumatz, L.; Berk, B.; Petty, P.; Eschbach, C.

    1981-10-01

    A solid state ballast (SSB), which improves the efficiency of fluorescent lights, is described. The first generation of solid state electronic ballasts was developed and the technology was transferred to the private sector. The opportunities for rapid dissemination of this technology into the marketplace is examined. Product characteristics and their influence on the commercialization of the SSB, a description of the technology delivery system presently used by the ballast industry, an analysis of the market for SSB, and identification of some high leverage opportunities to accelerate the commercialization process are included.

  2. Analysis of the class E amplifier used as electronic ballast with dimming capability for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponce, M.; Arau, J. [CENIDET-Electro' , Cuernavaca (Mexico); Alonso, J.M.; Rico-Secades, M. [ATE, Universidad de Oviedo, Campus de Viesques s/n Gijon (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    The analysis and design of a dimmable electronic ballast based on the class E amplifier and fed from solar cells with 12V backup batteries is described. The class E amplifier uses a capacitive impedance inverter as resonant tank and one diode antiparallel with the switch; these elements allow implementation of a dimming feature for the ballast and ignition of the lamp while maintaining zero voltage commutations in the switch. The designed electronic ballast drives a 21W lamp and operates at a switching frequency of 370kHz. Dimming is implemented using an SG3524 in a voltage-controlled oscillator fashion. (Author)

  3. Obstacles and opportunities in the commercialization of the solid-state-electronic fluorescent-lighting ballast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.; Marcus, A.A.; Campbell, R.S.; Sommers, P.; Skumatz, L.; Berk, B.; Petty, P.; Eschbach, C.

    1981-10-01

    The Solid State Ballast (SSB) Program, aimed at improving the efficiency of fluorescent lights, is described. The first generation of solid state electronic ballasts has been developed and the technology has been transferred to the private sector. This report examines the opportunities for rapid dissemination of this technology into the marketplace. It includes a description of product characteristics and their influence on the commercialization of the SSB, a description of the technology delivery system presently used by the ballast industry, an analysis of the market for SSB, and identification of some high-leverage opportunities to accelerate the commercialization process. (MCW)

  4. Backfilling with mixtures of bentonite/ballast materials or natural smectitic clay?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparison of the performance of backfills of mixed MX-80 and crushed rock ballast, and a natural smectitic clay, represented by the German Friedland clay, shows that the latter performs better than mixtures with up to 30 % MX-80. Considering cost, Friedland clay prepared to yield air-dry powder grains is cheaper than mixtures of 30 % MX-80 and crushed ballast. Both technically and economically it appears that the Friedland clay is a competitive alternative to mixtures of 30 % MX-80 and crushed ballast. However, it remains to be demonstrated on a full scale that Friedland clay ground to a suitable grain size distribution can be acceptably compacted on site

  5. SPACs in Shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Shachmurove, Yochanan; Vulanovic, Milos

    2013-01-01

    In this study we examine how Specified Purpose Acquisition Companies (SPACs) were used as a financing tool for companies in the shipping industry in period 2004-2011. We confirm that SPACs focused on acquisitions in the shipping industry have similar characteristics as the population of SPACs that entered U.S financial markets in the same period. When their characteristics differ, SPACs focused on shipping are larger in size than the rest of SPACs, have larger number of underwriters in syndic...

  6. Buckling of Ship Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Shama, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Buckling of Ship Structures presents a comprehensive analysis of the buckling problem of ship structural members. A full analysis of the various types of loadings and stresses imposed on ship plating and primary and secondary structural members is given. The main causes and consequences of the buckling mode of failure of ship structure and the methods commonly used to control buckling failure are clarified. This book contains the main equations required to determine the critical buckling stresses for both ship plating and the primary and secondary stiffening structural members. The critical buckling stresses are given for ship plating subjected to the induced various types of loadings and having the most common boundary conditions encountered in ship structures.  The text bridges the gap existing in most books covering the subject of buckling of ship structures in the classical analytical format, by putting the emphasis on the practical methods required to ensure safety against buckling of ship structur...

  7. Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2011-01-01

    Liner shipping fleet repositioning consists of moving vessels between services in a liner ship- ping network in order to better orient the overall network to the world economy, and to ensure the proper maintenance of vessels. Thus, fleet repositioning involves sailing and loading activities subject......, can be accurately modeled. Numerous liner shipping fleet repositioning problems are solved each year by the world’s shipping firms without the assistance of any decision support, even though humans can require between two to three days to find a reasonable solution. Finding optimal repositionings...

  8. Nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional and nuclear merchant ships are compared with a view to economics. Still, one should keep in mind that for quite a time, nuclear merchant ships will remain improbable - not the least for environmental reasons. For the time beyond the year 2000, it is expectet that nuclear fission will be replaced by fusion energy. This form of energy cannot be directly used for ship propulsion, but it may indirectly give new impetus to merchant ship operation via coastal fusion plants for the production of synthetic fuels. (UA)

  9. Treating ballast water with hydroxyl radical on introduced organisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With physical method of micro-gap gas discharge, a large amount of hydroxyl radical can be produced in 20t/h pilot-scale system using the ionization of O2 and H2O. In this paper, the effect of biochemistry of hydroxyl radicals on introduced organisms in ballast water was experimentally investigated. The results indicate that the contents of chlorophyl-a, chlorophyl-b, chlorophyl-c and carotenoid are decreased by 35%-64% within 8.0s and further to the lowest limit of test 5 minutes. In addition, the main reasons of cell death are the lipid peroxidation, the strong destruction to the monose, amylose, protein, DNA and RNA of cell, and damage in CAT, POD and SOD of antioxidant enzyme system.

  10. Simulation of gamma irradiation system for a ballast water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Invasion by different kinds of ballast the water microorganisms is one of the most important marine environment problems around the world therefore preventing the invasion of these unwanted and harmful stowaways is one of the main strategies of responsible agencies. Some of these methods such as ocean exchange, heating, filtration, hydro cyclones, UV irradiation and chemical treatment, have various problems such as technical deficiency, high costs, lack of safety and environmental side effects. Materials and Methods: A novel system of treatment by Gamma irradiation is designed to irradiate the blast water uniformly and effectively. To determine the dose distribution as a function of distance from the irradiation source, the MCNP code was used. The systems used for source implant in this simulation were Paterson-Parker, Paris and Network systems. In each system, Sivert-integral and inverse square law were used in MATLAB program to determine the dose distribution. Results: Results of initial laboratory tests on offshore water samples of Siri Island indicated that the appropriate dose for deactivation of organisms of water samples is approximately one kGy. It has been demonstrated that the dose can be provided by twenty five 100,000 Ci line sources of '60Co in a triangle implant arranged in a 1*1*1 m3 cubic shape water pipe. In order to increase efficiency and radiation safety, water passed from two other coaxial and bigger cubes, after passing from the first cube. A one meter thick wall of concrete around the cubes was adequate to shield the system completely. Conclusion: The main advantages of this system such as high efficiency, safety, reliability, minimum environmental adverse effects, proves that this novel method not only can be used for ballast water treatment, but is also effective for drinking water purification

  11. Application of polyurethane geocomposites to help maintain track geometry for high-speed ballasted railway tracks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Keith WOODWARD; Abdellah EL KACIMI; Omar LAGHROUCHE; Gabriela MEDERO; Meysam BANIMAHD

    2012-01-01

    There are many issues surrounding the performance of critical assets on high-speed ballasted railway lines.At assets like switch & crossings and bridge transitions high track forces can be produced resulting in higher ballast settlements and hence track misalignments.The latter result in higher track forces and hence more settlement,leading to the need for increased track maintenance to ensure comfort and safety.Current technologies for solving issues like ballast movement under high-speed loading regimes are limited.However,a technique that has been well used across the UK and now increasingly overseas to stabilise and reinforce ballasted railway tracks is the application of in-situ polyurethane polymers,termed XiTRACK.This paper discusses how this technique can be used to solve these types of long-standing issues and presents actual polymer application profiles at two typical critical sites,namely a junction and a transition onto concrete slab-track.

  12. Characterization of Bacteria in Ballast Water Using MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Emami, K.; Askari, V.; Ullrich, M.; Mohinudeen, K.; Anil, A.C.; Khandeparker, L.; Burgess, J.G.; Mesbahi, E.

    To evaluate a rapid and cost-effective method for monitoring bacteria in ballast water, several marine bacterial isolates were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Since...

  13. An Investigation on the Energy Saving Potential of Electromagnetic Ballast Fluorescent Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Z. X.; Barsoum, N. N.

    2009-08-01

    Energy saving issue is a matter of great concern for industry and electrical utilities. Energy saving from fluorescent lamp system can be achieved by means of optimizing lighting level, reducing power consumption and improving the efficiency of fluorescent lamps. This paper presents an alternative energy saving control method for electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps. Non-linearity characteristics of fluorescent lamps and the effect of energy saving controller are taken into account in the proposed energy saving controller. The proposed energy saving controller provides energy saving feature and dimmable illuminance level control for electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps. In comparison to electronic ballast, integration of an energy saving controller with electromagnetic ballast results in less power consumption, less green house gas emission and longer lifespan at a much lower installation cost. Experiment results based on the proposed controller showed that 37.5% energy can be saved by reducing 15% of the AC line voltage.

  14. Comparison of mass and energy balances for air blown and thermally ballasted fluidized bed gasifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to compare the mass and energy balances for a conventional air blown fluidized bed gasifier and a ballasted fluidized bed gasifier developed at Iowa State University. The ballasted gasifier is an indirectly heated gasifier that uses a single reactor for both combustion and pyrolysis. Heat accumulated in high-temperature phase change material during the combustion phase is released during the pyrolysis phase to generate producer gas. Gas composition, tar and char contents, cold gas efficiency, carbon conversion, and hydrogen yield per unit biomass input were determined as part of these evaluation. During the pyrolysis phase of ballasted gasification, higher volumetric concentrations of hydrogen and methane were obtained than during air blown gasification. Hydrogen yield for ballasted gasification was 14 g kg−1 of biomass, which was about 20% higher than that obtained during air blown gasification. The higher heating value of the producer gas also reached higher levels during the ballasted pyrolysis phase than that of air blown gasification. Heating value for air blown gasification was 5.2 MJ m−3 whereas the heating value for the ballasted pyrolysis phase averaged 5.5 MJ m−3, reaching a maximum of 8.0 MJ m−3. The ballasted gasifier was expected to yield producer gas with average heating value as high as 15 MJ m−3 but excessive use of nitrogen to purge and cool the fuel feeder system greatly diluted the producer gas. Relatively simple redesign of the feeder system would greatly reduce the use of purge gas and may increase the heating values to about 17.5 MJ m−3. Higher char production per kilogram of biomass was associated with the ballasted system, producing 140 g kg−1 of biomass compared to only 53 g kg−1 of biomass during air blown gasification. On the other hand, tar concentrations in the producer gas were 6.0 g m−3 for ballasted gasification compared to 11.7 g m−3 for air blown gasification. On balance, carbon

  15. Hydrodynamics of Ship Propellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breslin, John P.; Andersen, Poul

    This book deals with flows over propellers operating behind ships, and the hydrodynamic forces and moments which the propeller generates on the shaft and on the ship hull.The first part of the text is devoted to fundamentals of the flow about hydrofoil sections (with and without cavitation) and a...

  16. Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    systems researchers engaged in the design and development of a prototype for an innovative IT-artifact called Shipping Information Pipeline which is a kind of “an internet” for shipping information. The instrumental aim is to enable information seamlessly to cross the organizational boundaries and...

  17. The research of electrical conductivity of ballast breakstone during transportation mineral fertilizers railway transport

    OpenAIRE

    Трикоз, Людмила Вікторівна; Багіянц, Ірина Вікторівна

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with influence of contamination of the ballast bed from mineral fertilizers on its specific electric conductivity. Electric conductivity has been determined for both clean and contaminated ballast. The electric conductivity of treated broken stone has been defined by the following method: the samples have been saturated with distilled water in prescribed proportion and mixed thoroughly until saturated solution has been obtained. The saturation has been defined by constant me...

  18. Digitally Controlled Integrated Electronic Ballast with Dimming and Power Factor Correction Features

    OpenAIRE

    C. Aguilar-Castillo; C.D. García-Beltrán; C. Morcillo-Herrera

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a digitally controlled integrated electronic ballast with dimming and power factor correctionfeatures. The control circuit is based on a low-cost PIC16C71 microcontroller where the different strategies for energysaving have been implemented. The ballast is operating in closed loop achieving tight lamp current regulation througha digital Proportional-Integral algorithm. The integrated power stage is based on a frequency-controlled single-switchboost rectifier plus a half-br...

  19. Evaluation of a force plate system for measuring center of pressure in railroad ballast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hang; Merryweather, Andrew; Bloswick, Donald

    2016-05-01

    Traditional biomechanical analyses have focused primarily on the human gait across hard, flat surfaces and provide little information about human locomotion as a function of work environment or terrain. The purpose of this study was evaluation of a force plate system for measure of center of pressure (COP) in railroad ballast by comparing its accuracy across three surface conditions (hard surface, mainline ballast and walking ballast) with two configurations (level and 7° cross-slope). Custom walkways and an isolation fixture were developed to rigidly attach a force plate beneath ballast surfaces to collect the COP. The difference in COP location (ΔCOPx, y, z) between the force plate system and a calibration system (motion capture derived) were compared using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results indicate that the effects of surface condition and configuration were not significant for ΔCOPx, y, z and no differences were found among the three surface conditions during pairwise comparison, though ΔCOPx, y, z were different between the center and corners of the force plate in ballasts for both level and cross-slope configurations. The system presented in this study demonstrates the feasibility of measuring the COP by using an isolation-fixture force plate to expand the scope of biomechanical studies on ballast surfaces that are level or cross-slope. PMID:27131198

  20. Real-Time Simulation of Ship-Structure and Ship-Ship Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Ole; Glimberg, Stefan Lemvig; Bingham, Harry B.;

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives the status of the development of a ship-hydrodynamic model for real-time ship-wave calculation and ship-structure and ship-ship interaction in a full mission marine simulator. The hydrodynamic model is based on potential flow theory, linear or non-linear free surface boundary...

  1. Travelers' Health: Cruise Ship Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children Fish Poisoning in Travelers Food and Water Getting Health ... INJURY ABOARD CRUISE SHIPS Cruise ship medical clinics deal with a wide variety of illnesses and injuries. ...

  2. Crushing Strength of Ship Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerup-Simonsen, Bo; Abramowicz, W.; Høstgaard-Brene, C.N.S.

    1999-01-01

    The crushing response of ship structures is of primary importance to the designers and practicing engineers concerned with accidental loading and accident reconstruction of marine vehicles. Ship to-ship collisions, ship-harbor infrastructure interaction or ship-offshore structure interaction are...... just few examples of accident scenarios where the detailed knowledge of the crushing response of ship structure is crucial for a reliable engineering analysis....

  3. Nuclear ships and their safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several aspects of nuclear ship propulsion, with special reference to nuclear safety, were discussed at an international symposium at Taormina, Italy, from 14-18 November 1960. Discussions on specific topics are conducted, grouped under the following headings: Economics and National Activities in Nuclear Ship Propulsion; International Problems and General Aspects of Safety for Nuclear Ships; Nuclear Ship Projects from the Angle of Safety; Ship Reactor Problems; Sea Motion and Hull Problems; Maintenance and Refuelling Problems; and Safety Aspects of Nuclear Ship Operation

  4. Effective and Safe Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Amdahl, Jørgen; Rutgersson, Olle;

    1996-01-01

    A Joint Nordic Research project "Effecive and Safe Ships" is presented. The project is aiming to develop methods and tools for quantitative evaluation fo ship safety. This report is the report of the preliminary phase where the plan for the main project is developed. The objectives of the project...... are described. The areas of safety that are presented are collisions, groundings, cargo shifting and ship fire. The areas of lack of knowledge are identified and the tasks within each subproject suggested. The proposal for the main project is presented in the summary. Background material of the state...

  5. Evaluation of the Strength of Railway Ballast Using Point Load Test for Various Size Fractions and Particle Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohmishi, Mehdi; Palassi, Massoud

    2016-07-01

    The ballast layer is one of the most important components of the railway track superstructure in which angular aggregates of high strength rocks are used. Ballast degradation is one of the main sources of railway problems in which the ballast aggregates are gradually degraded due to the abrasion of the sharp corners of the angular particles and splitting each individual particle into two or several small pieces under loading. In this paper, the effects of rock type, aggregate size and particle shape on the strength of the single ballast particles are investigated. For this purpose, point load test is carried out on ballast aggregates of four rock types including basalt, marl, dolomite and trachyte. According to the obtained results, as the size of the aggregates increases, the point load strength index decreases. The influence of size on the strength is more noticeable for ballasts obtained from higher strength rocks. It is also found that the shape of ballast particles has no major effect on its strength. Furthermore, our findings show that the failure pattern for ballasts of higher strength is so that each particle commonly splits into three pieces; while the dominant failure pattern for ballast particles with less strength is breaking the particle into two pieces.

  6. Ship propulsion reactors technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper takes the state of the art on ship propulsion reactors technology. The french research programs with the corresponding technological stakes, the reactors specifications and advantages are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  7. Nuclear ship accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report available information on 28 nuclear ship accident and incidents is considered. Of these 5 deals with U.S. ships and 23 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions and sea water leaks into the submarines are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that much of the available information is of a rather dubious nature. consequently some of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  8. Civilian nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the information available on nuclear powered ships, built for civilian purposes. In the introduction a short discussion is given of the reasons for the limited use of nuclear ships for these purposes. In the second section a brief review is presented of data for the three experimental/merchant ships build by the United States, Germany and Japan, i.e. NS Savannah, NS Otto Hahn and NS Mutsu. In the third section the Soviet/Russian icebreaker NS Lenin is considered. Its design, operational experience and the introduction of a new nuclear propulsion plant is reviewed. In the fourth section the newer Soviet/Russian icebreakers with nuclear propulsion are considered. Finally design of the Soviet/Russian icebreaker transport/container ship NS Sevmorput is reviewed in the fifth section. The future Russian plans for nuclear vessels for the arctic waters are briefly discussed. (au)

  9. SHIPPING REQUESTS ON EDH

    CERN Multimedia

    Logistics Group

    2001-01-01

    Users are informed that as from 1 September 2001 all Shipping Requests must be made on EDH using the appropriate electronic form. The submission of user requests directly into EDH will help rationalise the activities of the Shipping Service (Import & Export), with requests being automatically forwarded to hierarchical supervisors thereby improving the processing speed and facilitating the follow-up. Thank you for your collaboration.

  10. Ship accident studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes ship accident studies performed by George G. Sharp, Inc. for the U.S. Maritime Administration in connection with the Nuclear Ship Project. Casualties studied include fires/explosions, groundings and collisions for which a method for calculating probability on a specific route was developed jointly with the Babcock and Wilcox Co. Casualty data source was the Liverpool's Underwriters Association Casualty Returns

  11. Plastic Pollution from Ships

    OpenAIRE

    ČULIN, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of shipping on marine environment includes discharge of garbage. Plastic litter is of particular concern due to abundance, resistance to degradation and detrimental effect on marine biota. According to recently published studies, a further research is required to assess human health risk. Monitoring data indicate that despite banning plastic disposal at sea, shipping is still a source of plastic pollution. Some of the measures to combat the problem are discussed.

  12. [The hospital ship Jutlandia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winge, M

    1996-01-01

    The Danish contribution to the United Nations action during the Korean War (1950-52) was the hospital ship "Jutlandia". The motorvessel Jutlandia - 8.500 tons - was built by the Nakskov Shipyard in 1934, and was rebuilt in three months at the same shipyard to a modern hospital ship with 300 beds, 3 operating theatres, a dental clinic, an x-ray department etc. The crew and the hospital staff consisted approximately each of 100 persons. Jutlandia sailed for Korea on Jan. 23. 1951 and the expedition ended in Copenhagen on Oct. 16. 1953. On the first two cruises the ship was stationed at Pusan. During the first period mostly as an "evacuation sick-bay" and during the second period the ship was opened for Korean military and civil patients, and extensive help was given to the local population on shore. While in Denmark between the second and third cruise a helicopter deck was installed and the operating theatre for neuro-surgery was changed to an opthalmic clinic. This time the ship was stationed at the Bay of Ichon so close to the front, that the wounded could be admitted directly from the advanced dressing stations. On the return journeys to Europe patients were sailed to their home countries. Commodore Kai Hammerich was in charge of the expedition and captain Christen Kondrup was in charge of the ship, throughout the whole expedition. PMID:11625136

  13. On the Global Ship Hull Bending Energy in Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Y.

    2004-01-01

    During ship collisions part of the kinetic energy of the involved vessels prior to contact is absorbed as energy dissipated by crushing of the hull structures, by friction and by elastic energy. The purpose of this report is to present an estimate of the elastic energy that can be stored in elastic...... ship hull vibrations, such that with strong ship sides less energy has to be spent in crushing of the striking ship bow and/or the struck ship side. In normal ship-ship collision analyses both the striking and struck ship are usually considered as rigid bodies where structural crushing is confined to...... energy absorbed by the struck ship normally is small and varies from 1 to 6 % of the energy released for crushing. The energy stored as elastic global hull girder vibrations depends on the ship mass, the local stiffness of the side structure, and of the position of contact. The results also show that for...

  14. Outer Dynamics of Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of these notes is to present analysis procedures for the motion of ships during ship-ship collisions and for ship collisons with offshore structures. The aim is to estimate that part of the lost kinetic energy which will have to be absorbed by rupture and plastic damage of the colliding...

  15. Outer Dynamics of Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose is to present analysis procedures for the motion of ships during ship-ship collisions and for ship collisions with offshore structures. The aim is to estimate that part of the lost kinetic energy which will have to be absorbed by rupture and plastic damage of the colliding structures....

  16. Robot mother ship design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budulas, Peter P.; Young, Stuart H.; Emmerman, Philip J.

    2000-07-01

    Small physical agents will be ubiquitous on the battlefield of the 21st century, principally to lower the exposure to harm of our ground forces. Teams of small collaborating physical agents conducting tasks such as Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA); chemical and biological agent detection, logistics, sentry; and communications relay will have advanced sensor and mobility characteristics. The mother ship much effectively deliver/retrieve, service, and control these robots as well as fuse the information gathered by these highly mobile robot teams. The mother ship concept presented in this paper includes the case where the mother ship is itself a robot or a manned system. The mother ship must have long-range mobility to deploy the small, highly maneuverable agents that will operate in urban environments and more localized areas, and act as a logistics base for the robot teams. The mother ship must also establish a robust communications network between the agents and is an up-link point for disseminating the intelligence gathered by the smaller agents; and, because of its global knowledge, provides the high-level information fusion, control and planning for the collaborative physical agents. Additionally, the mother ship incorporates battlefield visualization, information fusion, and multi-resolution analysis, and intelligent software agent technology, to support mission planning and execution. This paper discusses on going research at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory that supports the development of a robot mother ship. This research includes docking, battlefield visualization, intelligent software agents, adaptive communications, information fusion, and multi- modal human computer interaction.

  17. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)]|[Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  18. Accidents in nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10-3 per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  19. SOME PROBLEMS ABOUT SHIP WAVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Min-jia

    2003-01-01

    Several problems about ship waves were discussed in the dissertation:(1) Transient ship waves from calmness to the generation of steady-state ship waves were described. (2) The procedure of the formation of the V-shaped steady-state ship waves were clearly shown, and the difference of ship waves on an inviscid fluid and on a viscous fluid was exmined. (3) With the Lighthill two-stage scheme, the algebraic expression for ship waves on a viscous fluid of finite depth was obtained.(4) Singularity on the two boundaries of the ship waves was treated.

  20. 46 CFR 56.50-50 - Bilge and ballast piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND... defined in 49 CFR part 173, in enclosed cargo spaces, the bilge-pumping system must be designed to ensure... vessels except unmanned barges shall be provided with a satisfactory bilge pumping plant capable...

  1. 10 CFR 431.324 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of metal halide ballasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of metal halide ballasts. 431.324 Section 431.324 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Metal Halide Lamp Ballasts...

  2. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts Q Appendix Q to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Appendix Q to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent... fluorescent lamp ballast. 1.4DC control signal means a direct current (DC) signal that is supplied to...

  3. 33 CFR 157.43 - Discharges of clean and segregated ballast: Seagoing tank vessels of 150 gross tons or more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... an approved oil discharge monitoring and control system or, if discharged before the required oil discharge monitoring and control system installation date, by visual examination of the ballast contents... mixture in the ballast. Use of an oil discharge monitoring and control system is not required....

  4. On the global ship hull bending energy in ship collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Yujie

    2009-01-01

    During ship collisions part of the kinetic energy of the involved vessels immediately prior to contact is absorbed as energy dissipated by crushing of the hull structures, by friction and by elastic energy. The purpose of this report is to present an estimate of the elastic energy that can be...... energy in global ship hull vibrations, such that with strong ship sides less energy has to be spent in crushing of the striking ship bow and/or the struck ship side. In normal ship–ship collision analyses both the striking and struck ship are usually considered as rigid bodies where structural crushing...... the elastic energy absorbed by the struck ship normally is small and varies from 1 to 6% of the energy released for crushing. The energy stored as elastic global hull girder vibrations depends on the ship mass, the local stiffness of the side structure, and of the position of contact. The results also...

  5. Efficacy of pH elevation as a bactericidal strategy for treating ballast water of freight carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford E. Starliper

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of ship ballast water with sodium hydroxide (NaOH is one method currently being developed to minimize the risk to introduce aquatic invasive species. The bactericidal capability of sodium hydroxide was determined for 148 bacterial strains from ballast water collected in 2009 and 2010 from the M/V Indiana Harbor, a bulk-freight carrier plying the Laurentian Great Lakes, USA. Primary culture of bacteria was done using brain heart infusion agar and a developmental medium. Strains were characterized based on PCR amplification and sequencing of a portion of the 16S rRNA gene. Sequence similarities (99+ % were determined by comparison with the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI GenBank catalog. Flavobacterium spp. were the most prevalent bacteria characterized in 2009, comprising 51.1% (24/47 of the total, and Pseudomonas spp. (62/101; 61.4% and Brevundimonas spp. (22/101; 21.8% were the predominate bacteria recovered in 2010; together, comprising 83.2% (84/101 of the total. Testing was done in tryptic soy broth (TSB medium adjusted with 5 N NaOH. Growth of each strain was evaluated at pH 10.0, pH 11.0 and pH 12.0, and 4 h up to 72 h. The median cell count at 0 h for 148 cultures was 5.20 × 106 cfu/mL with a range 1.02 × 105–1.60 × 108 cfu/mL. The TSB adjusted to pH 10.0 and incubation for less than 24 h was bactericidal to 52 (35.1% strains. Growth in pH 11.0 TSB for less than 4 h was bactericidal to 131 (88.5% strains and pH 11.0 within 12 h was bactericidal to 141 (95.3%. One strain, Bacillus horikoshii, survived the harshest treatment, pH 12.0 for 72 h.

  6. Performance Monitoring of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Vinther

    The purpose of the research project is to establish a reliable index in the performance evaluation of ships. During operation the ship will experience added resistance due to fouling of hull and propeller. The added resistance will lead to increased fuel consumption and thus increased emissions to...... measured torque on the propeller shaft. Further, an index based on the properties of the ship’s propeller, is used. The different indexes are described in a case study where the performance of a container ship is evaluated over one year. The reliability of the performance index is measured from the scatter...... in results and the ability of identifying the events that improves performance e.g. propeller and hull clean....

  7. Effect of particle breakage on cyclic densification of ballast: A DEM approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of particle breakage on densification behaviour of ballast under cyclic loading using Discrete Element Method (DEM). Numerical simulations using PFC2D have been carried out on an assembly of angular particles with and without incorporation of particle breakage. Two-dimensional projection of angular ballast particles were simulated using clusters of bonded circular particles. Degradation of the bonds within a cluster was considered to represent particle breakage. Clump logic was used to make the cluster of particles unbreakable. DEM simulation results highlight that the particle breakage has a profound influence on the cyclic densification behaviour of ballast. The deformation behaviour exhibited by the assembly with breakage is in good agreement with the laboratory experiments. In addition, the evolution of particle displacement vectors clearly explains the breakage mechanism and associated deformations during cyclic loading.

  8. Effect of particle breakage on cyclic densification of ballast: A DEM approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, P. K.; Vinod, J. S.; Indraratna, B.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of particle breakage on densification behaviour of ballast under cyclic loading using Discrete Element Method (DEM). Numerical simulations using PFC2D have been carried out on an assembly of angular particles with and without incorporation of particle breakage. Two-dimensional projection of angular ballast particles were simulated using clusters of bonded circular particles. Degradation of the bonds within a cluster was considered to represent particle breakage. Clump logic was used to make the cluster of particles unbreakable. DEM simulation results highlight that the particle breakage has a profound influence on the cyclic densification behaviour of ballast. The deformation behaviour exhibited by the assembly with breakage is in good agreement with the laboratory experiments. In addition, the evolution of particle displacement vectors clearly explains the breakage mechanism and associated deformations during cyclic loading.

  9. Backfilling with mixtures of bentonite/ballast materials or natural smectitic clay?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, R. [Geodevelopment AB, (Sweden)

    1998-10-01

    Comparison of the performance of backfills of mixed MX-80 and crushed rock ballast, and a natural smectitic clay, represented by the German Friedland clay, shows that the latter performs better than mixtures with up to 30 % MX-80. Considering cost, Friedland clay prepared to yield air-dry powder grains is cheaper than mixtures of 30 % MX-80 and crushed ballast. Both technically and economically it appears that the Friedland clay is a competitive alternative to mixtures of 30 % MX-80 and crushed ballast. However, it remains to be demonstrated on a full scale that Friedland clay ground to a suitable grain size distribution can be acceptably compacted on site 14 refs, 32 figs, 6 tabs

  10. Lamp-Ballast Compatibility Index for Efficient Ceramic Metal Halide Lamp Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourish Chatterjee

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of energy efficient products and exploration of energy saving potential are major challenges for present day’s technology. Ceramic Metal Halide lamp is the latest improved version of metal halide lamp that finds its wide applications in indoor commercial lighting especially in retail shop lighting. This lamp shows better performance in terms of higher lumen per watt and colour constancy in comparison to conventional metal halide lamp. The inherent negative incremental impedance of CMH lamp demands the use of current control device in the lamp circuit and perfect matching of lamp ballast combination is required for efficient lamp operation. The electrical and photometric performance of two sets of commercial 70 watt CMH lamp and intregated ballast units were measured to investigate their compatibility for optimum lamp operation. The measured data were utilized to develop an electrical model for lamp ballast combination. Using this model a compatibility index is proposed which can be used for assessment of lamp performance.

  11. Automated ship image acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, T. R.

    2008-04-01

    The experimental Automated Ship Image Acquisition System (ASIA) collects high-resolution ship photographs at a shore-based laboratory, with minimal human intervention. The system uses Automatic Identification System (AIS) data to direct a high-resolution SLR digital camera to ship targets and to identify the ships in the resulting photographs. The photo database is then searchable using the rich data fields from AIS, which include the name, type, call sign and various vessel identification numbers. The high-resolution images from ASIA are intended to provide information that can corroborate AIS reports (e.g., extract identification from the name on the hull) or provide information that has been omitted from the AIS reports (e.g., missing or incorrect hull dimensions, cargo, etc). Once assembled into a searchable image database, the images can be used for a wide variety of marine safety and security applications. This paper documents the author's experience with the practicality of composing photographs based on AIS reports alone, describing a number of ways in which this can go wrong, from errors in the AIS reports, to fixed and mobile obstructions and multiple ships in the shot. The frequency with which various errors occurred in automatically-composed photographs collected in Halifax harbour in winter time were determined by manual examination of the images. 45% of the images examined were considered of a quality sufficient to read identification markings, numbers and text off the entire ship. One of the main technical challenges for ASIA lies in automatically differentiating good and bad photographs, so that few bad ones would be shown to human users. Initial attempts at automatic photo rating showed 75% agreement with manual assessments.

  12. A comparison of six different ballast water treatment systems based on UV radiation, electrochlorination and chlorine dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehouwer, Peter Paul; Buma, Anita; Peperzak, Louis

    2015-01-01

    The spread of aquatic invasive species through ballast water is a major ecological and economical threat. Because of this, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) set limits to the concentrations of organisms allowed in ballast water. To meet these limits, ballast water treatment systems (BWTSs) were developed. The main techniques used for ballast water treatment are ultraviolet (UV) radiation and electrochlorination (EC). In this study, phytoplankton regrowth after treatment was followed for six BWTSs. Natural plankton communities were treated and incubated for 20 days. Growth, photosystem II efficiency and species composition were followed. The three UV systems all showed similar patterns of decrease in phytoplankton concentrations followed by regrowth. The two EC and the chlorine dioxide systems showed comparable results. However, UV- and chlorine-based treatment systems showed significantly different responses. Overall, all BWTSs reduced phytoplankton concentrations to below the IMO limits, which represents a reduced risk of aquatic invasions through ballast water. PMID:25704551

  13. Piracy in shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Q. Mejia Jr., Maximo; Cariou, Pierre; wolff, François-Charles

    2010-01-01

    Piracy in its various forms has posed a threat to trade and shipping for millennia. In the 1970s, a steady rise in the number of attacks ushered in the present phenomenon of modern piracy and not many parts of the world's seas are free from piracy in one form or another today. This paper reviews the historical and geographical developments of piracy in shipping, with a discussion on contentious issues involved in defining piracy. Using data available on piracy acts collected from the IMB rela...

  14. Shipping emissions in ports

    OpenAIRE

    Olaf MERK

    2014-01-01

    Shipping emissions in ports are substantial, accounting for 18 million tonnes of CO2 emissions, 0.4 million tonnes of NOx, 0.2 million of SOx and 0.03 million tonnes of PM10 in 2011. Around 85% of emissions come from containerships and tankers. Containerships have short port stays, but high emissions during these stays. Most of CO2 emissions in ports from shipping are in Asia and Europe (58%), but this share is low compared to their share of port calls (70%). European ports have much less emi...

  15. Emissions from international shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report assesses global emission of ship transport based on fuel consumption, military and civil fleet sizes and average engine statistics. Part 1 gives estimates for the years 1950 to 2001, part 2 displays scenarios for the years 2020 and 2050. (uke)

  16. Ship Roll Motion Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    . This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems and the challenges associated with their design. The paper discusses how to assess performance, the applicability of dierent models, and control methods that have been applied in the past....

  17. Ship Roll Damping Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    limitations and large variations of the spectral characteristics of wave-induced roll motion. This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems together with the challenges associated with their design. It discusses the assessment of performance and the...

  18. Hydroelastic Vibrations of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Folsø, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    A formula for the necessary hull girder bending stiffness required to avoid serious springing vibrations is derived. The expression takes into account the zero crossing period of the waves, the ship speed and main dimensions. For whipping vibrations the probability of exceedance for the combined...

  19. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  20. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bott...

  1. Ship and installation program optimal stationing of Naval ships

    OpenAIRE

    Willett, Devon K.

    2006-01-01

    .2 billion in savings. We also investigate the influence of using two different measures of pier capacity and incorporate 30 new ships and submarines to demonstrate SHIP's ability to station the proposed future force structure.

  2. EU Shipping Taxation: The Comparative Position of Greek Shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Marlow; Kyriaki Mitroussi

    2008-01-01

    The critical role shipping taxation has played in the structure and evolution of the shipping business over the last century can easily be recognised. Whether connected with the actual initiation of the open registries scheme or as a means to improve competitiveness of traditional flags, shipping taxation attracts the attention of shipping practitioners and policy makers and constitutes an always topical focus of study. Recent years have particularly seen the rise and growth of tonnage tax sy...

  3. Classification of Ship Routing and Scheduling Problems in Liner Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a classification scheme for ship routing and scheduling problems in liner shipping in line with the current and future operational conditions of the liner shipping industry. Based on the classification, the literature is divided into groups whose main characteristics are...

  4. Ship Observations - VOS and Navy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Combination of Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) and US Navy Ship weather observations. Obs generally taken 2-4 times daily at 00, 06, 12, and 18z.

  5. Trends of shipping markets development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Nowosielski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shipping markets are dependent on international trade transactions that generate transport needs. These needs can dynamically change depending on global natural resources and commodity markets situation. The changes affecting shipping markets can also be caused by changes to the existing cargo flows and by establishing new ones in different geographies. It is anticipated that in the future shipping markets will change, visible by a decline in shipping in North America and Europe and an increase in Asia.

  6. Trends of shipping markets development

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Nowosielski

    2012-01-01

    Shipping markets are dependent on international trade transactions that generate transport needs. These needs can dynamically change depending on global natural resources and commodity markets situation. The changes affecting shipping markets can also be caused by changes to the existing cargo flows and by establishing new ones in different geographies. It is anticipated that in the future shipping markets will change, visible by a decline in shipping in North America and Europe and an increa...

  7. 33 CFR 157.160 - Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... washing. 157.160 Section 157.160 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.160 Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing. (a) The owner, operator, and master of a tank vessel under §...

  8. 76 FR 70547 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... product classes analyzed as representative (see section V.B.6), as measured by the average life-cycle cost... 3. Summary of Markups D. Energy Use Analysis E. Life-Cycle Cost and Payback Period Analyses 1... rulemaking cycles by publishing the 2000 Ballast Rule. 65 FR 56740 (Sept. 19, 2000). In this rulemaking,...

  9. An Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Testing of a Ballast Exchange Assurance Meter (BEAM) 100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mid-ocean ballast water exchange (BWE) is mandatory for all vessels entering U.S. waters from outside the 200-mile exclusive economic zone. To support such regulation, accurate and portable verification tools are needed for determining that BWE has taken place. One parameter pr...

  10. Efficacy and production of disinfection by-products of ozone treated ballast water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneekes, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    AirTree is preparing for land-based testing at the NIOZ/IMARES test facility. As the Ballast Water Management System (BWMS) developed by AirTree uses ozone as active substance, IMO Guideline G9 applies and Basic and Final Approval are also required. In preparing the Basic Approval dossier, it appear

  11. 76 FR 20089 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... Interstate Rule (CAIR, 70 FR 25162 (May 12, 2005)), but not the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR, 70 FR 28606... Clean Air Transport Rule (75 FR 45210 (August 2, 2010)), do not appear in the forecast. \\5\\ DOE is aware... system. DOE's current test procedures for ballasts address such standby mode energy use. 74 FR...

  12. Mathematical Modeling: Convoying Merchant Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Susann M.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a mathematical model that connects mathematics with social studies. Students use mathematics to model independent versus convoyed ship deployments and sinkings to determine if the British should have convoyed their merchant ships during World War I. During the war, the British admiralty opposed sending merchant ships grouped…

  13. EMP coupling to ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scale-model tests were conducted to establish the adequacy and limitations of model measurements as tools for predicting electromagnetic pulse (EMP) coupling voltages and currents to the critical antennas, cables, and metallic structures on ships. The scale-model predictions are compared with the results of the full-scale EMP simulation test of the Canadian ASW ship, HMCS Huron. (The EMP coupling predictions in this report were made without prior knowledge of the results of the data from the HMCS Huron tests.) This report establishes that the scale-model tests in conjunction with the data base from EMP coupling modules provides the necessary information for source model development and permits effective, low-cost study of particular system configurations. 184 figures, 9 tables

  14. Shipping lines and logistics

    OpenAIRE

    FREMONT, A

    2009-01-01

    For some time it has been acknowledged that logistics is a driving force that shapes the integration of the transport chain. This paper argues that while the liner shipping industry exhibits increased horizontal integration, its vertical integration remains limited. A clear distinction is drawn between freight logistics, container logistics and vessel logistics. Freight logistics is defined as part of the supply chain process, the focus of which are the goods being transported. The purpose of...

  15. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate, preparation of the package and related paperwork). Large and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  16. Effect of Ship Bow Overhang on Water Shipping for Ship Advancing in Regular Head Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdeljalil Benmansour; Benameur Hamoudi; Lahouari Adjlout

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation dealing with the effect of bow overhang extensions on the quantity of shipping water over the foredeck in case of ships advancing in regular head waves. To perform this investigation, a series of free-running tests was conducted in regular waves using an experimental model of a multipurpose cargo ship to quantify the amount of shipping water. The tests were performed on five bow overhang variants with several combinations of wavelength and ship speed conditions. It was observed that the quantity of shipping water was affected by some parameters such as wavelength, ship speed, and bow shape in terms of an overhang extension. The results show the significant influence of an overhang extension, which is associated with the bow flare shape, on the occurrence of water shipping. These results involve the combined incoming regular waves and model speed.

  17. Towards Real Time Simulation of Ship-Ship Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Ole; Bingham, Harry B.; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter;

    2012-01-01

    more accurate (realistic) and much faster ship-wave and ship-ship simulations than are currently possible. The coupling of simulation with visualization should improve the visual experience such that it can be perceived as more realistic in training. Today the state-of-art in real-time ship......We present recent and preliminary work directed towards the development of a simplified, physics-based model for improved simulation of ship-ship interaction that can be used for both analysis and real-time computing (i.e. with real-time constraints due to visualization). The goal is to implement...... the model into a large maritime simulator for training of naval officers, in particular tug boat helmsmen. Tug boat simulators are used for training of communication and situation awareness during manoeuvre involved with towing of large vessels. A main objective of the work is to improve and enable...

  18. Effect of type and concentration of ballasting particles on sinking rate of marine snow produced by the appendicularian Oikopleura dioica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Lombard

    Full Text Available Ballast material (organic, opal, calcite, lithogenic is suggested to affect sinking speed of aggregates in the ocean. Here, we tested this hypothesis by incubating appendicularians in suspensions of different algae or Saharan dust, and observing the sinking speed of the marine snow formed by their discarded houses. We show that calcite increases the sinking speeds of aggregates by ~100% and lithogenic material by ~150% while opal only has a minor effect. Furthermore the effect of ballast particle concentration was causing a 33 m d(-1 increase in sinking speed for a 5×10(5 µm(3 ml(-1 increase in particle concentration, near independent on ballast type. We finally compare our observations to the literature and stress the need to generate aggregates similar to those in nature in order to get realistic estimates of the impact of ballast particles on sinking speeds.

  19. Effect of type and concentration of ballasting particles on sinking rate of marine snow produced by the appendicularian Oikopleura dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Fabien; Guidi, Lionel; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Ballast material (organic, opal, calcite, lithogenic) is suggested to affect sinking speed of aggregates in the ocean. Here, we tested this hypothesis by incubating appendicularians in suspensions of different algae or Saharan dust, and observing the sinking speed of the marine snow formed by their discarded houses. We show that calcite increases the sinking speeds of aggregates by ~100% and lithogenic material by ~150% while opal only has a minor effect. Furthermore the effect of ballast particle concentration was causing a 33 m d(-1) increase in sinking speed for a 5×10(5) µm(3) ml(-1) increase in particle concentration, near independent on ballast type. We finally compare our observations to the literature and stress the need to generate aggregates similar to those in nature in order to get realistic estimates of the impact of ballast particles on sinking speeds. PMID:24086610

  20. Applied for a Patent of Super First Grade, 'Electronic Ballast': fresh breeze to the related business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Editor [Korea Energy Management Corporation, Yongin (Korea)

    2002-01-01

    The features of electronic ballast developed in FINE DNC Co., Ltd are to save 30% of electricity consumption and have a high power factor of more than 98%. This product is applying for a patent now. With adopting a new method - a fixed current preheating method -, the ballast preheats at the fixed preheating time and the fixed preheating current. Since the ballast makes a lamp light up after preheating enough regardless of lamp manufacturer's features, therefore, the durability of a lamp can be guaranteed. Major features are as follows: The durability of a lamp is prolonged to 2-3 times as long as the original; because the light on lighting slowly changes into high brightness, dazzling is not caused and neighboring electronic appliances are not influenced; the stable out wave by using the ballast prolongs the durability of a lamp; the protecting circuit for over current and over voltage is built-in.

  1. A Model of Ship Auxiliary System for Reliable Ship Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Martinović, Dragan; Tudor, Mato; Bernečić, Dean

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of a vessel is to transport goods and passengers at minimum cost. Out of the analysis of relevant global databases on ship machinery failures, it is obvious that the most frequent failures occur precisely on the generator-running diesel engines. Any failure in the electrical system can leave the ship without propulsion, even if the main engine is working properly. In that case, the consequences could be devastating: higher running expenses, damage to the ship, oil spill or su...

  2. Ship voyage energy efficiency assessment using ship simulators

    OpenAIRE

    Bassam, Ameen M.; Phillips, Alexander B.; Turnock, Stephen R.; Wilson, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    The increase in global trade is driving growth in both the size and number of ships. However, this increased demand is leading to greater contributions from shipping to air pollution. This is leading designers and operators to propose and adopt novel powering and propulsion systems. However, there is a challenge with assessing the actual benefit from using a certain retrofit technology or changing the operating conditions of their ships, this may be addressed using numerical simulations. This...

  3. Testing the BIO-SEA ballast water management system; Filter efficiency tests with high levels of zooplankton

    OpenAIRE

    Kaag, N.H.B.M.; Sneekes, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    The BIO-SEA® Ballast Water Treatment System (BWTS) was tested at the IMARES land-based test facility. General goal of the tests was to compare two different brands of filter and to test the filter efficiency of finer mesh sizes of each brand. The filters were tested in combination with a ‘one-shot UVtreatment’ (ballasting and deballasting the same day) in order to evaluate the effect of the filters on the overall treatment efficacy.

  4. Simplified Analysis Tool for Ship-Ship Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a simplified ship collision analysis tool in order to rapidly estimate the structural damage and energy absorption of both striking and struck ships as well as prediction of rupture of cargo oil tanks of struck tankers. The present tool calculates external...... and internal dynamics independently. The 2-dimensional horizontal motions of both ships are taken into account. in the horizontal plane. Structural deformation for both the striking and the struck ship is evaluated independently using rigid-plastic simplified analysis procedure. The dDeveloped tool...

  5. Simplified Analysis Tool for Ship-Ship Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a simplified ship collision analysis tool in order to rapidly estimate the structural damage and energy absorption of both striking and struck ships as well as prediction of rupture of cargo oil tanks of struck tankers. The present tool calculates external...... and internal dynamics independently. The 2-dimensional horizontal motions of both ships are taken into account. in the horizontal plane. Structural deformation for both the striking and the struck ship is evaluated independently using rigid-plastic simplified analysis procedure. The dDeveloped tool...

  6. Analysis of a ship-to-ship collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories is involved in a safety assessment for the shipment of radioactive material by sea. One part of this study is investigation of the consequences of ship-to-ship collisions. This paper describes two sets of finite element analyses performed to assess the structural response of a small freighter and the loading imparted to radioactive material (RAM) packages during several postulated collision scenarios with another ship. The first series of analyses was performed to evaluate the amount of penetration of the freighter hull by a striking ship of various masses and initial velocities. Although these analyses included a representation of a single RAM package, the package was not impacted during the collision so forces on the package could not be computed. Therefore, a second series of analyses incorporating a representation of a row of seven packages was performed to ensure direct package impact by the striking ship. Average forces on a package were evaluated for several initial velocities and masses of the striking ship. In addition to. providing insight to ship and package response during a few postulated ship collisions scenarios, these analyses will be used to benchmark simpler ship collision models used in probabilistic risk assessment analyses

  7. Ship Creek bioassessment investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

  8. Operational Options for Green Ships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salma Sherbaz; Wenyang Duan

    2012-01-01

    Environmental issues and rising fuel prices necessitate better energy-efficiency in all sectors.The shipping industry is one of the major stakeholders,responsible for 3% of global CO2 emissions,14%-15% of global NOx emissions,and 16% of global SOx emissions.In addition,continuously rising fuel prices are also an incentive to focus on new ways for better energy-effectiveness.The green ship concept requires exploring and implementing technology on ships to increase energy-efficiency and reduce emissions.Ship operation is an important topic with large potential to increase cost-and-energy-effectiveness.This paper provided a comprehensive review of basic concepts,principles,and potential of operational options for green ships.The key challenges pertaining to ship crew i.e.academic qualifications prior to induction,in-service training and motivation were discussed.The author also deliberated on remedies to these challenges.

  9. NATO Standards for Virtual Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Kraker, J.K. de; Reading, R.

    2005-01-01

    The NATO Naval Armaments Group Sub-Group 61 on Virtual Ships has been chartered to establish NATO standards for modelling and simulation applied to ship acquisition. Its objective is to enable multi-national simulation re-use and interoperability, as well as simulation composability. Technical activity encompasses data modeling, runtime simulation, and process aspects of virtual ship representation. SG61 is responsible for development of a formal NATO standards document (STANAG) to codify its...

  10. NATO Standards for Virtual Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Kraker, J.K. de; DUNCAN, J; Budde, E.W.; Reading, R.

    2005-01-01

    The NATO Naval Armaments Group Sub-Group 61 on Virtual Ships has been chartered to establish NATO standards for modeling and simulation applied to ship acquisition. Its objective is to enable multi-national simulation re-use and interoperability, as well as simulation composability. Technical activity encompasses data modeling, runtime simulation, and process aspects of virtual ship representation. SG61 is responsible for development of a formal NATO standards document (STANAG) to codify its ...

  11. Dynamics of a Rigid Ship

    OpenAIRE

    Matusiak, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    This book is primarily meant as textbook of the course Ship Dynamics provided for the students of Naval Architecture of Aalto University. The approach to ship dynamics presented in the book makes it possible to deal with the seemingly different problems such as ship maneouvring, sea-keeping and dynamic stability using the same unified mathematical model. Motion dynamics of a ship regarded as a rigid body in a general motion with six-degree-of-freedom is considered. The relation of non-lineari...

  12. Evaluation Of Flexure Strength Behavior Of Over Burnt Brick Ballast Aggregate Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Ali,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional conditions enforced engineers to generate a study on concrete which incorporate Over Burnt Brick Ballast Aggregate partially due to their abundance. 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% (M05, M10, M15, M20 incorporation was used as partial replacement of natural coarse aggregate in concrete. Analysis of incorporated concrete was done in fresh state as well in hardened state to evaluate different properties of concrete i.e. slump value, compaction factor value, unit weight, flexural strength and Los Angeles abrasion value. From experimental approach it is concluded that Concrete formed with over burnt brick ballast aggregate showed beneficial performance as compared with the concrete made up of natural aggregate obtained from Sargodha. It reduces the cost of concrete by reducing the aggregate cost and produces economical infrastructure system. The waste generated from the brick kiln is utilized efficiently, making environment friendly encouraging green construction.

  13. Integrated cargo routing and ship scheduling in liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    The problem consists of creating routes and schedules for a heterogeneous fleet of ships while determining the cargo routing and the speed for all relevant port pair/ship combinations. Transshipment is allowed in ports with transshipment capabilities. The service frequency is fixed at one week...

  14. Evaluation Of Flexure Strength Behavior Of Over Burnt Brick Ballast Aggregate Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq Ali; Nouman Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Regional conditions enforced engineers to generate a study on concrete which incorporate Over Burnt Brick Ballast Aggregate partially due to their abundance. 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% (M05, M10, M15, M20) incorporation was used as partial replacement of natural coarse aggregate in concrete. Analysis of incorporated concrete was done in fresh state as well in hardened state to evaluate different properties of concrete i.e. slump value, compaction factor value, unit weight, flexural...

  15. Three Dimensional Passive Integrated Electronic Ballast for Low Wattage HID Lamps

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Around 19% of global power consumption and around 3% of global oil demand is attributable to lighting. After the first incandescent lamp was invented in 1879, more and more energy efficient lighting devices, such as gas discharge lamps, and light-emitting diodes (LED), have been developed during the last century. It is estimated that over 38% of future global lighting energy demand could be avoided by the use of more efficient lamps and ballasts [1]. High intensity discharge (HID) lamp...

  16. A GPR-based simulation approach for the analysis of railway ballast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Andrea; Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; Tosti, Fabio; Pajewski, Lara; Alani, Amir M.; Loizos, Andreas; Umiliaco, Andrea; Giulia Brancadoro, Maria; Pirrone, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    This study aims at proposing a model capable to assess the physical conditions of railway ballast, in terms of percentage of fouling within the material, by analyzing its electromagnetic response. For the calibration of such a model, a laboratory set-up was implemented in order to reproduce a real-scale railway environment. In more details, a 1.47 m long × 1.47 m wide × 0.48 m high plexiglass formwork was laid over a metal sheet, to define a proper domain of investigation. The formwork was then filled up with railway ballast, progressively fouled with a fine-grained pollutant material, namely, an A4 soil type according to the ASSHTO soil classification. At each step of fouling percentage, electromagnetic surveys were carried out by employing several ground-penetrating radar (GPR) systems, in both ground-coupled and air-coupled configurations. On the other hand, the validation of the model was performed through a simulation-based approach. In particular, the main physical and geometrical properties of each ballast-pollutant configuration were reproduced by means of a random sequence absorption (RSA) approach. For the representation of the shape of the solid matrix of the ballast, a relatively complex geometry was here adopted. Finally, the developed geometries were processed by the GprMax 2D numerical simulator, employing a finite-difference time domain (FDTD) model capable of generating a synthetic GPR response for the several configurations analysed in laboratory environment. As result, the potential of the combined use of RSA and FDTD approaches is demonstrated, and a model for characterizing such a complex coarse-grained heterogeneous material is finally proposed. Acknowledgement The Authors thank COST, for funding the Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar."

  17. MERCHANT MARINE SHIP REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumm, J.F.; North, D.C. Jr.; Rock, H.R.; Geston, D.K.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear reactor is described for use in a merchant marine ship. The reactor is of pressurized light water cooled and moderated design in which three passes of the water through the core in successive regions of low, intermediate, and high heat generation and downflow in a fuel region are made. The foregoing design makes a compact reactor construction with extended core life. The core has an egg-crate lattice containing the fuel elements confined between a lower flow baffle and upper grid plate, with the latter serving also as part of a turn- around manifold from which the entire coolant is distributed into the outer fuel elements for the second pass through the core. The inner fuel elements are cooled in the third pass.

  18. Chlorine dioxide as a treatment for ballast water to control invasive species: shipboard testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranda, Lucie; Cox, Annie M; Campbell, Robert G; Smith, David C

    2013-10-15

    The efficacy of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) in eliminating organisms present in estuarine ballast water of a containership was determined under actual operating conditions by comparing the survival of planktonic communities present in waters of treated and control ballast tanks. Sampling was via ballast-tank hatches. The treatment (5 mg L(-1)ClO2 without pre-filtration) delivered by a prototype ClO2-generating system was generally effective against planktonic assemblages, although bacterial communities rebounded after a few days. Regardless of temperature, ClO2 was very effective against phytoplankton; the effect was immediate, without resurgence. Some zooplankters in the ≥ 50-μm fraction may survive the biocide, especially those able to find refuge within a protective coating (e.g., cysts, resting eggs, and shells) or in sediment. In order to boost efficacy, a pre-filtration step is recommended (now installed as standard equipment) to lower the intake of the ≥ 50-μm fraction and lessen the challenge posed by this size class. PMID:23987094

  19. Detecting nuisance species using NGST: Methodology shortcomings and possible application in ballast water monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaiko, Anastasija; Martinez, Jose L; Ardura, Alba; Clusa, Laura; Borrell, Yaisel J; Samuiloviene, Aurelija; Roca, Agustín; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2015-12-01

    Detecting the presence of potential invasive species in ballast water is a priority for preventing their spread into new environments. Next generation sequencing technologies are being increasingly used for exploring and assessing biodiversity from environmental samples. Here we apply high throughput sequencing from DNA extracted from ballast water (BW) samples employing two different platforms, Ion Torrent and 454, and compare the putative species catalogues from the resulting Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU). Water samples were taken from the RV Polastern ballast tank in five different days between the second and the twentieth navigation day. Pronounced decrease of oxygen concentration and increase of temperature occurred in the BW during this time, coincident with a progressively higher proportion of unassigned OTU and short reads indicating DNA degradation. Discrepancy between platforms for species catalogues was consistent with previously published bias in AT-rich sequences for Ion Torrent platform. Some putative species detected from the two platforms increased in frequency during the Polarstern travel, which suggests they were alive and therefore tolerant to adverse conditions. OTU assigned to the highly invasive red alga Polysiphonia have been detected at low but increasing frequency from the two platforms. Although in this moment NGST could not replace current methods of sampling, sorting and individual taxonomic identification of BW biota, it has potential as an exploratory methodology especially for detecting scarce species. PMID:26174116

  20. Towards a nuclear merchant ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation of nuclear merchant ships is likely to be attended by a number of constraints and requirements. Not all of these can be fully resolved until such ships come into use and the necessary experience and confidence have been acquired. But the timing of commercial introduction, if it comes about, will depend on the relative economics of nuclear versus fossil fuel propulsion, and the differences in turn depend in part on the operating costs particular to nuclear ships. A review of operation aspects is essential not only to commercial appraisal; each country whose trade may be carried in nuclear ships - whether it will build such ships or not - will have occasion to give some attention to the problems. It is an international problem and is, as noted later, being considered internationally. This paper; i) reviews some of the operational aspects as seen in the U.K.; ii) summarizes views received by the Nuclear Merchant Ship Unit (NMSU) from U.K. shipping, shipbuilding and nuclear industries on the prospects of a U.K. nuclear merchant ship. (author)

  1. On Impact Mechanics in Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present analytical, closed-form expressions for the energy released for crushing and the impact impulse during ship collisions. Ship-ship collisions, ship collisions with rigid walls and ship collisions with flexible offshore structures are considered. The derived...

  2. 46 CFR 154.1820 - Shipping document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping document. 154.1820 Section 154.1820 Shipping... FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1820 Shipping document. No person may operate a vessel without carrying a shipping document in the wheelhouse that lists for...

  3. 46 CFR 340.4 - Shipping services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping services. 340.4 Section 340.4 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PRIORITY USE AND ALLOCATION OF SHIPPING SERVICES, CONTAINERS AND CHASSIS, AND PORT FACILITIES AND SERVICES FOR NATIONAL SECURITY...

  4. Identification of Dynamically Positioned Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor I. Fossen

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Todays model-based dynamic positioning (DP systems require that the ship and thruster dynamics are known with some accuracy in order to use linear quadratic optical control theory. However, it is difficult to identify the mathematical model of a dynamically posititmed (DP ship since the ship is not persistently excited under DP. In addition the ship parameter estimation problem is nonlinear and multivariable with only position and thruster state measurements available for parameter estimation. The process and measurement noise must also be modeled in order to avoid parameter drift due to environmental disturbances and sensor failure. This article discusses an off-line parallel extended Kalman filter (EKF algorithm utilizing two measurement series in parallel to estimate the parameters in the DP ship model. Full-scale experiments with a supply vessel are used to demonstrate the convergence and robustness of the proposed parameter estimator.

  5. INVESTIGATION OF INNER SHEAR RESISTANCE OF GEOGRIDS BUILT UNDER GRANULAR PROTECTION LAYERS AND RAILWAY BALLAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sz. Fischer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Using adequate granular materials and layer structures in the railway super- and substructure is able to stabilise railway track geometry. For this purpose special behaviour of above materials has to be determined, e.g. inner shear resistance. Inner shear resistance of granular media with and without geogrid reinforcement in different depths is not known yet. Methodology. The author developed a special laboratory method to measure and define inner shear resistance of granular materials, it is called «multi-level shear box test». This method is adequate to determine inner shear resistance (pushing force vs. depth (distance from the «zero» surface. Two different granular materials: andesite railway ballast (31.5/63 mm and andesite railway protection layer material (0/56 mm, and seven different types of geogrids (GG1…GG7 were used during the tests. Findings. Values of inner shear resistance functions of andesite railway ballast without geogrid reinforcement and reinforced with different types of geogrids and andesite granular protection layer in function of the vertical distance from the geogrid plane were determined with multi-layer shear box tests when the material aggregation is uncompacted and compacted. Only the compacted sample was tested in case of the 0/56 mm protection layer. Cubic polynomial regression functions fitted on the mean values of the measurements are described graphically. Determination coefficients with values of R2>0.97 were resulted in all the cases of regression functions. Based on the polynomial regression functions fitted on the mean values of the test results, three increasing factors were determined in function of the distance measured from the geogrid. Increasing factor «A», «B» and «D». Originality. Multi-level shear box test, developed by the author, is certified unequivocally adequate for determining inner shear resistance of reinforced and unreinforced granular materials, e.g. railway ballast

  6. Puncture phenomena in low velocity impact of radioactive waste shipping containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punch penetration phenomena of a radioactive waste shipping container when subjected to low velocity impact are studied both analytically and experimentally. Model cask materials in the form of circular test samples of stainless steel, backed with high density material (lead or uranium) are dropped on a steel punch with impact velocities of 220 in/sec or less. The experimental program involves 25 static tests and 67 dynamic tests in which plate thicknesses, backing material and punch diameters are varied. A detailed finite element analysis including the effects of plastic-work hardening in the materials and plate laminate separation was made on two geometries; ballasted with an impact velocity of 66.7 in/sec and unballasted with an impact velocity of 200 in/sec. An alternate analytical program was developed based upon a system frequency spectra analysis. A Rayleigh-Ritz approach was selected, including the laminated plates, deformable punch and elastic ballast in the potential energy, and distributed mass in the kinetic energy. A model analysis using the first five frequencies was performed and stress calculations included the effects of plastic deformation. Excellent agreement was obtained between the Rayleigh-Ritz and the finite element analyses. In most cases, it was observed that initial impact was not sufficient to cause onset of punch yield or plate puncture but the plate vibration effects would initiate failure at a later time. The Rayleigh-Ritz program was used to analyze the different experimental configurations and then compared to experimental data. This research indicates that low velocity impact studies of radioactive waste shipping containers must consider the phenomena of structural vibrations. The analytical approach developed offers an accurate, quick and inexpensive method of examining low velocity impact

  7. Shipping Lanes in U.S. Waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GIS REST service for "Shipping Lanes in U.S. waters" provides raster maps of the Shipping Lanes is a term used to indicate the general flow of merchant shipping...

  8. Manning of nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manning of nuclear propelled merchant ships bases on two principles: safe management of the vessel from the starting port to the place of destination, including cargo handling; qualification for operating a nuclear plant. The German Atomic Law requires the proof of sufficient qualifications of the personnel running land-based power stations. These requirements are applied analogously at the technical crews of nuclear powered ships. After dealing with the differences of plant operation on board ship and land-based plants the education of technical crews will be discussed. At the example of NS OTTO HAHN, the manning, education of the key positions, and responsibility of the ship's management are presented. For reasons of comparison the crews of NS SAVANNAH and NS MUTSU are opposed to this. A hint will be given on the new developments in the manning field of conventional ships, and at least a view into the future will be given under the aspect of progressive studies on the questions of manning future ships, and the work carried out by IMCO for a code of nuclear powered merchant ships

  9. Bio-indications of sunken ships and ship wrecks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.

    An evaluation of bottom fauna of ship-wreck sites in estuarine and coastal waters of Goa, India, revealed an exceptionally high biotic enrichment. In terms of number of species, faunal dispersion, faunal diversity, biomass and productivity, in space...

  10. Potential risks of nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report represents an attempt to evaluate the potential risks of nuclear ships. Firstly reasons are given why nuclear ship accidents will not lead to accidents of the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. This is due to much lower content of radioactive material and to different reactor designs. Next a review is given of the types of accidents which have actually occurred. Of these the reactor accidents which may lead to serious consequences for the crew and the environment are considered further. These are reactivity accidents and loss of coolant accidents. In addition the long term risks of sunken nuclear ships and sea disposed reactor compartments etc. are also discussed. Based on available accident data an attempt is made to estimate the probability of serious nuclear ship accidents. (au)

  11. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad

    shipping company earnings.The operation of the route net constitute the majority of the total costs, so it is essential to achieve a good capacity utilization in a route plan with travel times that satisfy customer requirements. Most academic articles dealing with the design of container networks neither...... quality.The contributions of this thesis cover modeling, methodology, and applications.The developed methods address operational (cargo routing), tactical (speed optimization and service selection), and strategic (network design) planning problems faced by liner shipping companies. Ultimately, the......The goal of this thesis is to develop decision support tools, which can be used to optimize container shipping networks while supporting competitive transportation services. The competitiveness of container liner shipping is to a high degree determined by transportation times and number of...

  12. WMO Selected, Supplemenatary, Auxiliary Ships

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Meteorological Organization International List of Selected, Supplementary and Auxiliary Ships, recognized as Publication 47. 1973-1998 editions, gathered from...

  13. Analysis and performance of novel and highly efficient electronic ballast operating at unity-power-factor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V B Borghate; H M Suryawanshi; G A Dhomane

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents the electronic ballast, in which the coupling inductors are used to inject the current to the dc-bus capacitors, to boost the dc-bus voltage and to filter out the ripples from input line current. The current injection coupling inductor injects its stored energy to the dc-bus capacitors in every switching half cycle. Whereas, the boost coupling inductor keeps the dc-bus voltage always above the peak of ac input voltage. Therefore, the proposed ballast maintains unity-power-factor and high efficiency with ripple-free input current over wide range of input line voltage in case of worst regulation. A symmetrical half-bridge inverter is used to drive the fluorescent lamps. The experimental results of the laboratory prototype ballast for 2 × 36 W fluorescent lamps operating at 50 kHz are presented.

  14. Primary particles in ship emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridell, Erik; Steen, Erica; Peterson, Kjell

    There is not much data available regarding particle emissions from ships. In this study the size distributions of particles in ship exhaust from three different ships in normal operational conditions were studied using a cascade impactor. The ships were equipped with slow- or medium-speed main engines and medium-speed auxiliary engines. The fuel was residual oil except for the auxiliary engines on one ship which used marine diesel. Large emissions and a dependence of the sulfur content in the fuel were observed. High amounts of relatively large particles (around 8 μm) were observed. These are attributed to re-entrained soot particles from walls in the engine systems. A strong variation between different ships was observed for the particle-size distribution and for the dependence on engine load. The particle emissions were found to be reduced to about half, over the whole size range, by an SCR system. The total particle emission, measured after dilution, varied between 0.3 and 3 g kW h -1 depending on load, fuel and engine.

  15. Effects of proposed physical ballast tank treatments on aquatic invertebrate resting eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikow, David F; Reid, David F; Blatchley, Ernest R; Jacobs, Gregory; Landrum, Peter F

    2007-04-01

    Adaptations in aquatic invertebrate resting eggs that confer protection from natural catastrophic events also could confer protection from treatments applied to ballast water for biological invasion vector management. To evaluate the potential efficacy of physical ballast water treatment methods, the present study examined the acute toxicity of heat (flash and holding methods), ultraviolet (UV) radiation (254 nm), and deoxygenation (acute and chronic) on resting eggs of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia mendotae and the marine brine shrimp Artemia sp. Both D. mendotae and Artemia sp. were similarly sensitive to flash exposures of heat (100% mortality at 70 degrees C), but D. mendotae were much more sensitive to prolonged exposures. Exposure to 4,000 mJ/cm2 of UV radiation resulted in mortality rates of 59% in Artemia sp. and 91% in D. mendotae. Deoxygenation to an oxygen concentration of 1 mg/L was maximally toxic to both species. Deoxygenation suppressed hatching of D. mendotae resting eggs at oxygen concentrations of less than 5.5 mg/L and of Artemia sp. resting eggs at concentrations of less than 1 mg/L. Results suggest that UV radiation and deoxygenation are not viable treatment methods with respect to invertebrate resting eggs because of the impracticality of producing sufficient UV doses and the suppression of hatching at low oxygen concentrations. Results also suggest that the treatment temperatures required to kill resting eggs are much higher than those reported to be effective against other invertebrate life stages and species. The results, however, do not preclude the effectiveness of these treatments against other organisms or life stages. Nevertheless, if ballast tank treatment systems employing the tested methods are intended to include mitigation of viable resting eggs, then physical removal of large resting eggs and ephippia via filtration would be a necessary initial step. PMID:17447556

  16. Association of bacteria with marine invertebrates: Implications for ballast water management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, L.; Anil, A.C.

    stream_size 36739 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name EcoHealth_10_268a.pdf.txt stream_source_info EcoHealth_10_268a.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 1 Author version: EcoHealth... transportation, can have direct impact on society and human health. Ship’s ballast tanks hold different non-indigenous vertebrates, invertebrates, plants, microscopic algae, bacteria etc. (Williams et al. 1988; Carlton and Geller 1993; Smith et al. 1996...

  17. Using MCDA methods THOR in an application for outranking the ballast water management options

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Francisco Simões Gomes

    2005-01-01

    The Multicriteria Analysis Methodology has been developed in order to support and guide decision-makers in the evaluation and selection of alternatives/solutions. In this case, it is used to compare alternatives for the management ballast water (BW) exchange systems and treatment methods.O Apoio Multicritério à Decisão (AMD) desenvolve metodologias que ajudam o tomador ou agente de decisão a avaliar e selecionar alternativas. Este trabalho apresenta uma aplicação real do AMD em uma situação d...

  18. 46 CFR 42.05-63 - Ship(s) and vessel(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship(s) and vessel(s). 42.05-63 Section 42.05-63... BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-63 Ship(s) and vessel(s). The terms ship(s) and vessel(s) are interchangeable or synonymous words, and include every description of...

  19. On impact mechanics in ship collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present analytical, closed-form expressions for the energy released for crushing and the impact impulse during ship collisions. Ship–ship collisions, ship collisions with rigid walls and ship collisions with flexible offshore structures are considered. The derived...

  20. CASE: Reinventing the container shipping industry

    OpenAIRE

    Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Containerized shipping is the backbone of global trade and a pivotal element in modern day globalization. Every year, millions of containers are shipped onboard more than 5.000 container - the main shipping routes being between Asia, Europa and the USA. In 2010, more than 30 million TEUs (twenty foot equivalent units - the common unit in container shipping) were exported from China alone.

  1. 15 CFR 750.11 - Shipping tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shipping tolerances. 750.11 Section... PROCESSING, ISSUANCE, AND DENIAL § 750.11 Shipping tolerances. (a) Applicability and use of shipping... a shipping tolerance. This section tells you, as the licensee, when you may take advantage of...

  2. 7 CFR 91.20 - Shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shipping. 91.20 Section 91.20 Agriculture Regulations... AND GENERAL INFORMATION Samples § 91.20 Shipping. (a) Samples must be submitted to the laboratory in a... for providing shipping containers and paying shipping costs for fee basis tests. (f) A courier...

  3. An Algorithm for Interpolating Ship Motion Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Qinyou Hu; F. Cai; Chun Yang; Chaojian Shi

    2014-01-01

    Interpolation of ship motion vectors is able to be used for estimating the lost ship AIS dynamic information, which is important for replaying marine accidents and for analysing marine traffic data. The previous methods can only interpolate ship's position, while not including ship's course and speed. In this paper, vector function is used to express the relationship between the ship's time and space coordinates, and the tangent of the vector function and its change rate are able to express p...

  4. Studying Network design in Container linter shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Nguyen Khoi

    2015-01-01

    This thesis studies network design in container liner shipping by concentrating on four research questions: - How were operational patterns deployed in route design? - How was container shipping network developed? - How efficient were fleet expansion and mega vessel deployment? - How do operational factors influence on route design? Question 1 analyses characteristics of shipping routes, a basis component of shipping operation. Question 2 deals with shipping network, which is a combination of...

  5. Transnucleaire's experience in ship adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the application of the new IMDG regulations for the transport of radioactive material by sea, the conditions of transport of MTR spent fuel have drastically changed five years ago. In this paper, TRANSNUCLEAIRE analyses the necessary modifications to apply to existing ships in order to comply with the IMDG/INF regulations as well as with the Japanese KAISA 520 regulation. In the MTR spent fuel transport market characterized by a competitive approach, TRANSNUCLEAIRE has carried out many transports by sea in full compliance with the regulations at a price which is as close as possible to that of other industrial goods and without the need to fully dedicate the BOUGUENAIS ship to nuclear transports. Innovative ship design solutions have been implemented and accepted by different Authorities uncluding the Advisory Committee of the Japanese MOT. Due to efficient finite element calculations, benchmarked by laboratory large scale tests, high performances crushing materials have been developed in order to absorb the energy of collision between ships. These developments have led ta propose an efficient ship design complying with all the existing worldwide nuclear regulations. (author)

  6. Boiler for ships; Hakuyo boira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoda, F. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-20

    In this paper, production and technology trend of boiler for ships in 1998 are described. The actual results of main boiler are as follows. As the main boiler for LNG ships, 4 boilers produced by Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding for Qatar Project, 8 produced by Kawasaki Heavy Industries for South Korea and 10 produced by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries for domestic use and South Korea. 1998 was an active year for the main boiler for ships. The auxiliary boiler of steam pressure of 16k to 25k equipping for tanker ships was 115 (4,441t/h of steam quantity in total), it greatly increased in comparison with 88 (3,172t/h) produced in the proceeding year. Donkey boilers of steam pressure of 6k to 10k equipping for container ships and bulk cargo was 147 (672t/h), and it substantially decreased in comparison with 274 (693t/h) of the proceeding year, but capacity per boiler increased. The gas exhaust economizer for turbo power generation plants was 6 produced for VLCC. (NEDO)

  7. UNIVERSE IS LIKE SPACE SHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Arulmani, V.R.Hema Latha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A scientific research in this article focus that the whole Cosmo Universe shall be considered as a “SPACE SHIP”. The Space Ship shall be considered as ANCHORED to the base of universe with three-in-one space elements SUN, EARTH, MOON for its stability and symmetry. Further the Anchor of Universe shall be considered fastened to the “J-Hook” through strong THREAD consists of three core or strand for its “Centre of Buoyancy”.The Space Ship shall be considered as a suspending pendulum. The base of the pendulum considered like Anchor which is fastened to J-Hook through a cable of three core and in “Standstill State”.The human populations, life organisms spread all over the EARTH shall be considered as Passengers. Other space objects such as Planets, Comets, Asteroids, Matters, Molecules having definite mass shall be considered as CARGO existing in the Upper Deck of Human Passengers and other life organisms.The “J-Hook” shall be considered as having infinity energy level and any weight added to the base of space ship during the course of expanding universe shall not affect the centre of buoyancy of ship and the ship shall be considered as highly stable for ever (Highly Anchored and become standstill.

  8. Fuel exchanger for nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To prevent enviromental contamination landing radioactive materials from the inside of a ship. Constitution: A provisional cabin having a shape covering a reactor hatch and a hatch cover is disposed on the upper deck of a ship body. A ceiling shutter is disposed to the cabin. A protection cylinder having a shutter and a filter fan is attached on the cabin. Materials to be discharged out of the ship are transported to a fuel exchange tower on land by using a crane while being contained in the protection cylinder with the shutter being closed. The protection cylinder is connected by means of a wire rope to a loop-wheel machine which disposed on the trolly of a crane. While the bellows through which the suspending wire for the discharged products passes is perforated, since the inside of the cylinder is depressurized by a filter fan, there is no air leakage through the perforation to the outside. (Ikeda, J.)

  9. Wind Forces on Container Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the wind forces acting on a 9,000+ TEU container ship has been carried out through a series of wind tunnel tests. It was investigated how the wind forces depend on the container configuration on the deck using a 1:450 scale model and a series of appropriate container configura......An investigation of the wind forces acting on a 9,000+ TEU container ship has been carried out through a series of wind tunnel tests. It was investigated how the wind forces depend on the container configuration on the deck using a 1:450 scale model and a series of appropriate container...... presented as nondimensional coefficients. It is concluded, that the measured forces and moment depend on the container configuration on deck, and the results may provide a general idea of how the magnitude of the wind forces is affected by a given container stacking configuration on a similar container ship....

  10. Reliability Based Ship Structural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogliani, M.; Østergaard, C.; Parmentier, G.;

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of different methods that allow the reliability-based design of ship structures to be transferred from the area of research to the systematic application in current design. It summarises the achievements of a three-year collaborative research project dealing...... with developments of models of load effects and of structural collapse adopted in reliability formulations which aim at calibrating partial safety factors for ship structural design. New probabilistic models of still-water load effects are developed both for tankers and for containerships. New results...... the primary hull structure of several tankers and containerships. The results of the reliability analysis were the basis for the definition of a target safety level which was used to asses the partial safety factors suitable for in a new design rules format to be adopted in modern ship structural...

  11. Ship waves and lee waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, R. D.; Wurtele, M. G.

    1983-01-01

    Dynamics analogous to those of surface ship waves on water of finite depth are noted for the three-dimensional trapped lee wave modes produced by an isolated obstacle in a stratified fluid. This vertical trapping of wave energy is modeled by uniform upstream flow and stratification, bounded above by a rigid lid, and by a semiinfinite fluid of uniform stability whose wind velocity increases exponentially with height, representing the atmosphere. While formal asymptotic solutions are produced, limited quantitative usefulness is obtained through them because of the limitations of the approximations and the infinity of modes in the solution. Time-dependent numerical models are accordingly developed for both surface ship waves and internal and atmospheric ship waves, yielding a variety of results.

  12. Aim to International Shipping Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Wenxiu

    2009-01-01

    @@ Since 1990s,various countries in the world have been focusing on the construction of the key ports,leading to a fiercer competition between ports.For example,in East Asia,South Korea and Japan are rivaling for the international shipping center in Northeast Asia.Taking Busan Port and Gwangyang Port as the central ports,South Korea is boosting the ports expansion plans,to construct a"logistic center in Northeast Asia".Meanwhile.Japan is projecting the optimizmg and integration of port resources,to regain the international shipping center in Asia.The central government of China made plans for constructing Shanghai Shipping Center as early in 1996.and after 13 years'construction,now Shanghai Port has the largest cargo throughput and the second largest container throughput in the world.

  13. Design of Crashworthy Ship Strucures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toernqvist, Rikard

    2003-01-01

    The main purpose of the project has been to develop a rational procedure for designing new crashworthy side structures for those ship types where it could be expected that a substantial improvement of the crashworthiness and the related safety could be achieved by careful consideration of the...... collision and grounding analysis is the prediction of the onset of fracture and crack propagation in the shell plating. In simulations of accidental loading on ships it is crucial that fracture is determined correctly, as it will influence the global deformation mode and the amount of damage to the hull and...

  14. Visualization of Ship Risk Profiles for the Shipping Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Knapp (Sabine); M. van de Velden (Michel)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis article uses correspondence analysis to visualize risk profiles and their changes over the time period 1977 to 2008. It is based on a unique dataset which combines incident data and ship particular data. The risk profiles can help stakeholders better understand the relationship of s

  15. Effect of type and concentration of ballasting particles on sinking rate of marine snow produced by the Appendicularian Oikopleura dioica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombard, Fabien; Guidi, L.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Ballast material (organic, opal, calcite, lithogenic) is suggested to affect sinking speed of aggregates in the ocean. Here, we tested this hypothesis by incubating appendicularians in suspensions of different algae or Saharan dust, and observing the sinking speed of the marine snow formed...

  16. Fate of Enteromorpha flexuosa (Wulfen) J. Agardh and its spores in darkness: Implications for ballast water management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kolwalkar, J.P.; Sawant, S.S.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    are thankful to Dr. A.C. Anil, for discussion and constructive suggestions. One of the authors (JK) acknowledges the financial support from GloBallast program, India. We are also thankful to Dr. N. B. Bhosle, Dr. Lidita Khandeparkar, Dr. D. Desai, Mr. K...

  17. Consequences of using crushed crystalline rock as ballast in KBS-3 tunnels instead of rounded quartz particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic question has been whether such replacement alters the hydraulic conductivity and compressibility as well as expandability and also if the physical and chemical stabilities are altered. The key factor is the microstructural constitution of the bentonite/ballast mixtures, which is primarily controlled by the grain size distribution of the ballast. The compact ability of backfills with quartz sand (SB) is higher than that of backfills with crushed rock as ballast (RB). The physical stability of RB backfills in terms of piping and erosion resistance will be somewhat lower than that of SB backfills. The chemical stability is practically independent of whether the ballast is pure quartz or rock with K-bearing minerals because the temperature in the backfill will be too low to yield significant smectite to illite conversion in the short heating period. In order to reach the same densities of SB and RB backfills, which turn out to give fairly similar physical properties, the latter backfills need more effective compaction or, alternatively, a higher bentonite content. It is estimated that if the bentonite content in RB backfills is not increased while the density is enhanced to what is achievable, these backfills will serve equally well as SB backfills with the densities implied by the basic KBS-3 concept. 23 refs, 27 figs, 7 tabs

  18. Testing the BIO-SEA ballast water management system; Filter efficiency tests with high levels of zooplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaag, N.H.B.M.; Sneekes, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    The BIO-SEA® Ballast Water Treatment System (BWTS) was tested at the IMARES land-based test facility. General goal of the tests was to compare two different brands of filter and to test the filter efficiency of finer mesh sizes of each brand. The filters were tested in combination with a ‘one-shot U

  19. The Brazilian dilution method for ballast water exchange; O metodo de diluicao brasileiro para troca de agua de lastro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauro, Celso Alleluia [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Avaliacao e Monitoramento Ambiental]. E-mail: celso@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Land, Claudio Goncalves [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Abastecimento, Logistica e Planejamento]. E-mail: cgland@petrobras.com.br; Pimenta, Jose Maria Hollanda Alvares; Barreto, Francisco Carlos Peixoto [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Engenharia; Brandao, Marcus Vinicius Lisboa; Marroig, Nilton Lemos [Transpetro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Frota Nacional de Petroleiros. Inspetoria Geral; Tristao, Maria Luiza Braganca [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Quimica; Fadel, Andre Luiz da Fonseca [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Financas Corporativa e Tesouraria; Villac, Maria Celia; Fernandes, Lohengrin; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Dias, Cristina; Bonecker, Sergio; Denise Tenenbaum [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia; Persich, Graziela; Garcia, Virginia; Odebrecht, Clarisse [Fundacao Universidade do Rio Grande, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Oceanografia

    2002-12-01

    In a precautionary approach and dealing with the coming International Maritime Organization (IMO) regulations on ballast water, PETROBRAS developed a new method for ballast water exchange in tankers. Differently from ordinary methods PETROBRAS method which have been called Brazilian Dilution Method (BDM) or Dilution Method involves ballast loading through the top with simultaneous unloading from the bottom of the tanks. The method proposal was firstly presented to IMO, which encouraged PETROBRAS to carry out a field trial. PETROBRAS in June 1998 carried out a trial in the product carrier M/V Lavras. A simulation study was useful to plan the trial assessing the theoretical efficiency of the method, establishing the best sampling points and comparing the BDM with the Tank Overfilling Method (TOM). Simulation showed that for the same tank shape, the water renewal in BDM is more effective than in TOM and that 90 % of water renewal could be obtained by BDM. A dye concentration variation monitoring and a biological assessment were performed and the results confirmed that over than 90 % of the ballast water was renewed after three exchanges. The method was proved safe, practical, economical and suitable to minimize the risk of exotic species transport between ports. (author)

  20. EX1001 Ship Shakedown (EX1001, EM302) on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ship has been alongside for repairs and leave since November, 2009. The ship shakedown cruise is scheduled to provide an opportunity for the ship to get...

  1. Ballast minerals and the sinking carbon flux in the ocean: carbon-specific respiration rates and sinking velocities of macroscopic organic aggregates (marine snow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Iversen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations have shown that fluxes of ballast minerals (calcium carbonate, opal, and lithogenic material and organic carbon fluxes are closely correlated in the bathypelagic zones of the ocean. Hence it has been hypothesized that incorporation of biogenic minerals within marine aggregates could either protect the organic matter from decomposition and/or increase the sinking velocity via ballasting of the aggregates. Here we present the first combined data on size, sinking velocity, carbon-specific respiration rate, and composition measured directly in three aggregate types; Emiliania huxleyi aggregates (carbonate ballasted, Skeletonema costatum aggregates (opal ballasted, and aggregates made from a mix of both E. huxleyi and S. costatum (carbonate and opal ballasted. Overall average carbon-specific respiration rate was ~0.13 d−1 and did not vary with aggregate type and size. Ballasting from carbonate resulted in 2- to 2.5-fold higher sinking velocities than aggregates ballasted by opal. We compiled literature data on carbon-specific respiration rate and sinking velocity measured in aggregate of different composition and sources. Compiled carbon-specific respiration rates (including this study vary between 0.08 d−1 and 0.20 d−1. Sinking velocity increases with increasing aggregate size within homogeneous sources of aggregates. When compared across different particle and aggregate sources, however, sinking velocity appeared to be independent of particle or aggregate size. The calculated carbon remineralization length scale due to microbial respiration and sinking velocity of mm-large marine aggregates was higher for calcite ballasted aggregates as compared to opal-ballasted aggregates. It varied between 0.0002 m−1 and 0.0030 m−1, and decreased with increasing aggregate size.

  2. Ballast minerals and the sinking carbon flux in the ocean: carbon-specific respiration rates and sinking velocity of marine snow aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, M. H.; Ploug, H.

    2010-09-01

    Recent observations have shown that fluxes of ballast minerals (calcium carbonate, opal, and lithogenic material) and organic carbon fluxes are closely correlated in the bathypelagic zones of the ocean. Hence it has been hypothesized that incorporation of biogenic minerals within marine aggregates could either protect the organic matter from decomposition and/or increase the sinking velocity via ballasting of the aggregates. Here we present the first combined data on size, sinking velocity, carbon-specific respiration rate, and composition measured directly in three aggregate types; Emiliania huxleyi aggregates (carbonate ballasted), Skeletonema costatum aggregates (opal ballasted), and aggregates made from a mix of both E. huxleyi and S. costatum (carbonate and opal ballasted). Overall average carbon-specific respiration rate was ~0.13 d-1 and did not vary with aggregate type and size. Ballasting from carbonate resulted in 2- to 2.5-fold higher sinking velocities than those of aggregates ballasted by opal. We compiled literature data on carbon-specific respiration rate and sinking velocity measured in aggregates of different composition and sources. Compiled carbon-specific respiration rates (including this study) vary between 0.08 d-1 and 0.20 d-1. Sinking velocity increases with increasing aggregate size within homogeneous sources of aggregates. When compared across different particle and aggregate sources, however, sinking velocity appeared to be independent of particle or aggregate size. The carbon-specific respiration rate per meter settled varied between 0.0002 m-1 and 0.0030 m-1, and decreased with increasing aggregate size. It was lower for calcite ballasted aggregates as compared to that of similar sized opal ballasted aggregates.

  3. Ballast minerals and the sinking carbon flux in the ocean: carbon-specific respiration rates and sinking velocity of marine snow aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Iversen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations have shown that fluxes of ballast minerals (calcium carbonate, opal, and lithogenic material and organic carbon fluxes are closely correlated in the bathypelagic zones of the ocean. Hence it has been hypothesized that incorporation of biogenic minerals within marine aggregates could either protect the organic matter from decomposition and/or increase the sinking velocity via ballasting of the aggregates. Here we present the first combined data on size, sinking velocity, carbon-specific respiration rate, and composition measured directly in three aggregate types; Emiliania huxleyi aggregates (carbonate ballasted, Skeletonema costatum aggregates (opal ballasted, and aggregates made from a mix of both E. huxleyi and S. costatum (carbonate and opal ballasted. Overall average carbon-specific respiration rate was ~0.13 d−1 and did not vary with aggregate type and size. Ballasting from carbonate resulted in 2- to 2.5-fold higher sinking velocities than those of aggregates ballasted by opal. We compiled literature data on carbon-specific respiration rate and sinking velocity measured in aggregates of different composition and sources. Compiled carbon-specific respiration rates (including this study vary between 0.08 d−1 and 0.20 d−1. Sinking velocity increases with increasing aggregate size within homogeneous sources of aggregates. When compared across different particle and aggregate sources, however, sinking velocity appeared to be independent of particle or aggregate size. The carbon-specific respiration rate per meter settled varied between 0.0002 m−1 and 0.0030 m−1, and decreased with increasing aggregate size. It was lower for calcite ballasted aggregates as compared to that of similar sized opal ballasted aggregates.

  4. Ballast minerals and the sinking carbon flux in the ocean: carbon-specific respiration rates and sinking velocities of macroscopic organic aggregates (marine snow)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, M. H.; Ploug, H.

    2010-05-01

    Recent observations have shown that fluxes of ballast minerals (calcium carbonate, opal, and lithogenic material) and organic carbon fluxes are closely correlated in the bathypelagic zones of the ocean. Hence it has been hypothesized that incorporation of biogenic minerals within marine aggregates could either protect the organic matter from decomposition and/or increase the sinking velocity via ballasting of the aggregates. Here we present the first combined data on size, sinking velocity, carbon-specific respiration rate, and composition measured directly in three aggregate types; Emiliania huxleyi aggregates (carbonate ballasted), Skeletonema costatum aggregates (opal ballasted), and aggregates made from a mix of both E. huxleyi and S. costatum (carbonate and opal ballasted). Overall average carbon-specific respiration rate was ~0.13 d-1 and did not vary with aggregate type and size. Ballasting from carbonate resulted in 2- to 2.5-fold higher sinking velocities than aggregates ballasted by opal. We compiled literature data on carbon-specific respiration rate and sinking velocity measured in aggregate of different composition and sources. Compiled carbon-specific respiration rates (including this study) vary between 0.08 d-1 and 0.20 d-1. Sinking velocity increases with increasing aggregate size within homogeneous sources of aggregates. When compared across different particle and aggregate sources, however, sinking velocity appeared to be independent of particle or aggregate size. The calculated carbon remineralization length scale due to microbial respiration and sinking velocity of mm-large marine aggregates was higher for calcite ballasted aggregates as compared to opal-ballasted aggregates. It varied between 0.0002 m-1 and 0.0030 m-1, and decreased with increasing aggregate size.

  5. Cloud Condensation Nuclei and Ship Tracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, James G.; Garrett, Timothy J.; Hobbs, Peter V.; Strader, Scott R.; Xie, Yonghong; Yum, Seong Soo

    2000-08-01

    Enhancements of droplet concentrations in clouds affected by four ships were fairly accurately predicted from ship emission factors and plume and background cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) spectra. Ship exhausts thus accounted for the increased droplet concentrations in these `ship tracks.' Derived supersaturations were typical of marine stratus clouds, although there was evidence of some lowering of supersaturations in some ship tracks closer to the ships where CCN and droplet concentrations were very high.Systematic differences were measured in the emission rates of CCN for different engines and fuels. Diesel engines burning low-grade marine fuel oil produced order of magnitude higher CCN emissions than turbine engines burning higher-grade fuel. Consequently, diesel ships burning low-grade fuel were responsible for nearly all of the observed ship track clouds. There is some evidence that fuel type is a better predictor of ship track potential than engine type.

  6. Automated Planning for Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller; Kroer, Christian;

    2012-01-01

    The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs that are a ......The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs...

  7. Legal risk management in shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siig, Kristina

    The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts of the...

  8. Modeling of Ship Propulsion Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Benjamin Pjedsted; Larsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Full scale measurements of the propulsion power, ship speed, wind speed and direction, sea and air temperature, from four different loading conditions has been used to train a neural network for prediction of propulsion power. The network was able to predict the propulsion power with accuracy...

  9. Single liner shipping service design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Pisinger, David; Salazar-González, Juan-José;

    2014-01-01

    demand under commercially driven constraints. This paper introduces the Single Liner Shipping Service Design Problem. Arc-flow and path-flow models are presented using state-of-the-art elements from the wide literature on pickup and delivery problems. A Branch-and-Cut-and-Price algorithm is proposed...

  10. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, H; Nielsen, D; Frydenberg, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may be initiated.

  11. Accidents on ships in the Danish International Ship register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ádám, Balázs; Rasmussen, Hanna Barbara

    our study is to describe trend of accidents and their contributing factors, with special focus on nationality, occurring in ships under Danish flag in the period 2010-2012. The study used two independent data sources, the Danish Maritime Authority and the Danish Radio Medical. It is mandatory to...... report accidents causing at least one day off work beyond the day of accident but the first source contains several accidents not fulfilling this criterion, too. Radio Medical is an independent service where all Danish ships may seek medical advice. The data sets were merged by identification number to...... create a single database that has been studied by descriptive statistics and regression analysis. Findings show a stabilised number of accidents in the analysed period. The occurrence of accidents is influenced by nationality. There is a higher frequency of reported injuries found among Danish and other...

  12. Carcass or Tissue Packaging and Shipping

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP on proper shipping of wildlife tissues to labs. Provides stepwise instructions and guidance on how to collect and ship wildlife carcasses, carcass parts, or...

  13. New Zealand code for nuclear powered shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report recommends guidelines for the safety precautions and procedures to be implemented when New Zealand ports and approaches are used by nuclear powered merchant ships and nuclear powered naval ships

  14. Sample size for estimating the mean concentration of organisms in ballast water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Eliardo G; Lopes, Rubens M; Singer, Julio M

    2016-09-15

    We consider the computation of sample sizes for estimating the mean concentration of organisms in ballast water. Given the possible heterogeneity of their distribution in the tank, we adopt a negative binomial model to obtain confidence intervals for the mean concentration. We show that the results obtained by Chen and Chen (2012) in a different set-up hold for the proposed model and use them to develop algorithms to compute sample sizes both in cases where the mean concentration is known to lie in some bounded interval or where there is no information about its range. We also construct simple diagrams that may be easily employed to decide for compliance with the D-2 regulation of the International Maritime Organization (IMO). PMID:27266648

  15. Using MCDA methods THOR in an application for outranking the ballast water management options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Francisco Simões Gomes

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The Multicriteria Analysis Methodology has been developed in order to support and guide decision-makers in the evaluation and selection of alternatives/solutions. In this case, it is used to compare alternatives for the management ballast water (BW exchange systems and treatment methods.O Apoio Multicritério à Decisão (AMD desenvolve metodologias que ajudam o tomador ou agente de decisão a avaliar e selecionar alternativas. Este trabalho apresenta uma aplicação real do AMD em uma situação de ordenação de alternativas para o gerenciamento do problema de água de lastro.

  16. Enhancing the efficacy of electrolytic chlorination for ballast water treatment by adding carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyung-Gon; Seo, Min-Ho; Lee, Heon-Young; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Sup; Shin, Kyoungsoon; Choi, Keun-Hyung

    2015-06-15

    We examined the synergistic effects of CO2 injection on electro-chlorination in disinfection of plankton and bacteria in simulated ballast water. Chlorination was performed at dosages of 4 and 6ppm with and without CO2 injection on electro-chlorination. Testing was performed in both seawater and brackish water quality as defined by IMO G8 guidelines. CO2 injection notably decreased from the control the number of Artemia franciscana, a brine shrimp, surviving during a 5-day post-treatment incubation (1.8 and 2.3 log10 reduction in seawater and brackish water, respectively at 6ppm TRO+CO2) compared with water electro-chlorinated only (1.2 and 1.3 log10 reduction in seawater and brackish water, respectively at 6ppm TRO). The phytoplankton Tetraselmis suecica, was completely disinfected with no live cell found at >4ppm TRO with and without CO2 addition. The effects of CO2 addition on heterotrophic bacterial growth was not different from electro-chlorination only. Total residual oxidant concentration (TRO) more rapidly declined in electro-chlorination of both marine and brackish waters compared to chlorine+CO2 treated waters, with significantly higher amount of TRO being left in waters treated with the CO2 addition. Total concentration of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) measured at day 0 in brackish water test were found to be 2- to 3-fold higher in 6ppm TRO+CO2-treated water than in 6ppm TRO treated water. The addition of CO2 to electro-chlorination may improve the efficiency of this sterilizing treatment of ballast water, yet the increased production of some disinfection byproducts needs further study. PMID:25841887

  17. A semi-empirical model for the prediction of fouling in railway ballast using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; Tosti, Fabio; Benedetto, Andrea; Alani, Amir M.; Loizos, Andreas; D'Amico, Fabrizio; Calvi, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    The first step in the planning for a renewal of a railway network consists in gathering information, as effectively as possible, about the state of the railway tracks. Nowadays, this activity is mostly carried out by digging trenches at regular intervals along the whole network, to evaluate both geometrical and geotechnical properties of the railway track bed. This involves issues, mainly concerning the invasiveness of the operations, the impacts on the rail traffic, the high costs, and the low levels of significance concerning such discrete data set. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can represent a useful technique for overstepping these issues, as it can be directly mounted onto a train crossing the railway, and collect continuous information along the network. This study is aimed at defining an empirical model for the prediction of fouling in railway ballast, by using GPR. With this purpose, a thorough laboratory campaign was implemented within the facilities of Roma Tre University. In more details, a 1.47 m long × 1.47 m wide × 0.48 m height plexiglass framework, accounting for the domain of investigation, was laid over a perfect electric conductor, and filled up with several configuration of railway ballast and fouling material (clayey sand), thereby representing different levels of fouling. Then, the set of fouling configurations was surveyed with several GPR systems. In particular, a ground-coupled multi-channel radar (600 MHz and 1600 MHz center frequency antennas) and three air-launched radar systems (1000 MHz and 2000 MHz center frequency antennas) were employed for surveying the materials. By observing the results both in terms of time and frequency domains, interesting insights are highlighted and an empirical model, relating in particular the shape of the frequency spectrum of the signal and the percentage of fouling characterizing the surveyed material, is finally proposed. Acknowledgement The Authors thank COST, for funding the Action TU1208 "Civil

  18. Note from the radioprotection group's shipping service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The service for the import/export of radioactive materials reminds you that shipping requests for potentially radioactive materials must be made via the EDH request form by ticking the box 'radioactive material'. All the necessary information is given on the web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Requests not complying with the above procedure will not be taken into account. Radioactive Shipping Service http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Tel. 73171 Fax: 69200

  19. Operational Measures For Energy Efficiency In Shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Emin ÖZTÜRK

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify potential solutions to improve energy efficiency of the existing ships. To have an Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) on board has become mandatory for all ships starting from 1 January 2013. Increasing fuel prices and growing environmental concerns are driving the shipping industry to be more efficient. Therefore it is necessary to develop energy efficient operational measures.

  20. Safety aspects of nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety equipment of a nuclear merchant ship is, to a great extent, defined by postulated reactor and ship's accidents. Examples of measures to cope with such accidents and to prevent undue environmental impact from abnormal ship operation are cited. The discussion is based upon the recent design of the Nuclear Container Ship NCS 80 carried out by the Gesellschaft fuer Kernenergieverwertung in Schiffbau und Schiffahrt mbH (GKSS) and the industrial consortium INTERATOM/BREMER VULKAN. (orig.)

  1. 33 CFR 151.29 - Foreign ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign ships. 151.29 Section 151.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION... Pertains to Pollution from Ships Oil Pollution § 151.29 Foreign ships. (a) Each oil tanker of 150...

  2. Evaluation of the Service Performance of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Borrod, Anne-Sophie; Blanchot, Hervé

    2005-01-01

    A simple method has been established for the evaluation of the service performance of ships. Input data are easily collected daily on board and transformed to a well-defined condition that makes possible the comparison between ships, for instance, sister ships, and between different time periods of...

  3. 27 CFR 44.254 - Shipping containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44.254 Section 44.254 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Requirements § 44.254 Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container, in which cigars...

  4. 27 CFR 44.187 - Shipping containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44.187 Section 44.187 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container in which tobacco products, or...

  5. 41 CFR 51-5.6 - Shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Shipping. 51-5.6 Section... Shipping. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, commodities are sold to the Government... pay all shipping charges to specified delivery points. (b) The Committee may determine that...

  6. 49 CFR 176.24 - Shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 176.24 Section 176.24... Requirements § 176.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by vessel unless that person has received a shipping paper prepared...

  7. 49 CFR 174.24 - Shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 174.24 Section 174.24... Requirements § 174.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by rail unless that person receives a shipping paper prepared in...

  8. The Museum-ship "Abdon Calderon"

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas W. Mitiukov

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals the reconstruction of the career of the Ecuadorian tug "Abdon Calderon," which is now a museum-ship. It is shown that the ship had a significant impact on the naval history of Ecuador. But the role of the ship in the battle in the strait Jambeli in 1941 clearly exaggerated.

  9. Reliability Based Ship Structural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogliani, M.; Østergaard, C.; Parmentier, G.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of different methods that allow the reliability-based design of ship structures to be transferred from the area of research to the systematic application in current design. It summarises the achievements of a three-year collaborative research project dealing...... with developments of models of load effects and of structural collapse adopted in reliability formulations which aim at calibrating partial safety factors for ship structural design. New probabilistic models of still-water load effects are developed both for tankers and for containerships. New results...... are presented of non-linear wave induced load effects and the corresponding long-term formulations. Methods to combine linear and non-linear components of wave induced load effects have been developed and checked by alternative methods.These improved models were used for the reliability assessment of...

  10. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Pisinger, David

    leg are used to balance sailings speed against operational costs, hence ensuring that the found network is competitive on both transit time and cost. We present a matheuristic for the problem where a MIP is used to select which ports should be inserted or removed on a route. Computational results......We present a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem which is a core strategic planning problem faced by container carriers. We propose the first practical algorithm which explicitly handles transshipment time limits for all demands. Individual sailing speeds at each service...... are presented showing very promising results for realistic global liner shipping networks. Due to a number of algorithmic enhancements, the obtained solutions can be found within the same time frame as used by previous algorithms not handling time constraints. Furthermore we present a sensitivity analysis...

  11. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may be...... initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were...... identified during a total of 31 140 years at sea. Among these, 209 accidents resulted in permanent disability of 5% or more, and 27 were fatal. The mean risk of having an occupational accident was 6.4/100 years at sea and the risk of an accident causing a permanent disability of 5% or more was 0.67/100 years...

  12. Shipping Crises in the Media

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the general media’s portrayal of important maritime accidents which in the maritime media receive widespread publicity and are likely to have an impact on the shipping community’s social image. To this purpose, news framing theories were researched and used in a content analysis of print media articles on six important maritime accidents and incidents during the period 2008 to 2012. The study examines related articles published in the UK newspapers with...

  13. World Ships - Architectures & Feasibility Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, A. M.; Pak, M.; Putz, D.; Buhler, C.; Reiss, P.

    A world ship is a concept for manned interstellar flight. It is a huge, self-contained and self-sustained interstellar vehicle. It travels at a fraction of a per cent of the speed of light and needs several centuries to reach its target star system. The well- known world ship concept by Alan Bond and Anthony Martin was intended to show its principal feasibility. However, several important issues haven't been addressed so far: the relationship between crew size and robustness of knowledge transfer, reliability, and alternative mission architectures. This paper addresses these gaps. Furthermore, it gives an update on target star system choice, and develops possible mission architectures. The derived conclusions are: a large population size leads to robust knowledge transfer and cultural adaptation. These processes can be improved by new technologies. World ship reliability depends on the availability of an automatic repair system, as in the case of the Daedalus probe. Star systems with habitable planets are probably farther away than systems with enough resources to construct space colonies. Therefore, missions to habitable planets have longer trip times and have a higher risk of mission failure. On the other hand, the risk of constructing colonies is higher than to establish an initial settlement on a habitable planet. Mission architectures with precursor probes have the potential to significantly reduce trip and colonization risk without being significantly more costly than architectures without. In summary world ships remain an interesting concept, although they require a space colony-based civilization within our own solar system before becoming feasible.

  14. Non-Military Nuclear Ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents short description of nuclear reactor of loop-type PWRs for non-military ships in Russia and in Japan. It starts with the first nuclear ice-breaker ''Lenin'' initially powered with 3 x OK-150 reactors, replaced later by only 2 x OK-900 and then 2 x OK-900A. By reason of success the OK-900A twins were chosen for the six subsequent ice-breaker. Newer generation of propulsion reactors is KLT-40, also loop-type PWRs, which is used for container transport despite ice-breaking capabilities. Its modification, KLT-40M is meant also for river bound routes. Whereas the KLT-40C is intended for a floating power plant version. As the number of nuclear ships, civilian as well as military (aircraft carriers, submarines) increased it was rational to provide special (diesel powered) fleet to serve them for refueling, fuel storage, and liquid radwaste processing and interim storage. The Japanese nuclear research ship, Mutsu (36 MWt), had terminated its service several years ago. A stationary version of its reactor design (36 MWt, 9 MWe), being smaller in pressure vessel size, is being offered by the MHI for the coupling with a desalination plant

  15. Ship motion estimation from polarized Doppler spectra from ship wakes on two-dimensional sea surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wang-Qiang; Zhang, Min; Nie, Ding; Sun, Rong-Qing

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the Doppler spectra from ship wakes on two-dimensional sea surfaces and further estimate the ship motion characteristics. The analysis of the ship wakes is helpful to detect the existence of ships on sea surface. And it will be an alternative method when the radar cross-section values are not competent to identify the ship target. In the study, Doppler spectra for different polarizations are compared with and without ship's wakes based on the second-order small slope approximation method. As expected, there appears the second spectral peak when ship's wake is considered. Moreover, the ship velocities, wind speed, and direction are also analyzed. As the results shown, there is a good linearity relation between the position of the second Doppler spectral peak and the ship velocity. Therefore, it is feasible to detect ship according the Doppler spectra.

  16. Liner Shipping Service Scheduling with Workshift Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander

    Container shipping companies are currently facing combined challenges of overcapacity and volatile fuel prices. In addition, rising concerns about greenhouse gas emissions has made it crucial for shipping companies to reduce their fuel consumption. The consumption of fuel for shipping vessel is...... polynomially proportional to the speed. This study proposes a new model which for a fixed liner shipping network, minimizes the fuel consumption by adjusting the port berth times to allow for a more even speed throughout the service and thus a lower overall fuel consumption. This speed optimization is done...... liner shipping networks is presented....

  17. Approximate Method of Calculating Forces on Rudder During Ship Sailing on a Shipping Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zelazny

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Service speed of a ship in real weather conditions is a basic design parameter. Forecasting of this speed at preliminary design stage is made difficult by the lack of simple but at the same accurate models of forces acting upon a ship sailing on a preset shipping route. The article presents a model for calculating forces and moment on plane rudder, useful for forecasting of ship service speed at preliminary stages of ship design.

  18. Ballast Water Risk Assessment, Ports of Mumbai and Jawaharlal Nehru, India, October 2003: Final Report

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anil, A.C.; Clarke, C.; Hayes, T.; Hilliard, R.; Joshi, G.; Krishnamurthy, V.; Polglaze, J.; Sawant, S.S.; Raaymakers, S.

    Commercial Sea Port of Odessa (port authority) DGS Directorate General of Shipping (Ministry of Shipping), India DSS Decision support system (for BW management) DWT Deadweight tonnage (typically reported in metric tonnes) GIS Geographic information system... seeking cost-effectiveness and a relatively simple, widely applicable system, a semi-quantitative approach was followed, using widely-supported computer software. The semi-quantitative method aims to minimise subjectivity by using as much quantitative data...

  19. 75 FR 64390 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... --Formal safety assessment --Piracy and armed robbery against ships --General cargo ship...

  20. Evaluating efficacy of a ballast water filtration system for reducing spread of aquatic species in freshwater ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Briski, Elizabeta; Linley, R. D.; Adams, J.; Bailey, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Biological invasions by non-indigenous species are considered a leading threat to biodiversity, with prevention being a key management strategy. Consequently, numerous commercial ballast water treatment systems have been, or are being, developed to prevent future aquatic invasions. However, most treatment systems are being designed for the many vessels undertaking long transoceanic voyages in marine waters rather than the relatively few vessels operating on short voyages in freshwater, such a...

  1. The effects of prolonged darkness on temperate and tropical marine phytoplankton, and their implications for ballast water risk management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Carney, K.J.; Delany, J.E.; Sawant, S.S.; Mesbahi, E.

    environment by these introduced organisms. Ballast tanks are hostile environments with no light to support growth of autotrophs over long periods, which consequently affects grazing populations. Food and nutrient availability, temperature, and chemical..., as has been demonstrated in a number of studies on polar and temperate species (Anita 1976; Peters 1996; Peters and Thomas, 1996). These studies did not however explore responses to the dark experimental conditions in assemblages of several taxa...

  2. Study of chemical and microbial factors affecting the corrosion in ballast tanks on board of merchant navy vessels

    OpenAIRE

    De Baere, K.; Verstraelen, H.; Schillemans, W.; Dewil, R.; Potters, G.

    2008-01-01

    Corrosion in double hull ballast tanks is a very specific issue, influenced by numerous circumstances such as high humidity, presence of sea water, alternation between wet and dry, high temperature, dissolved oxygen, microbial influenced corrosion, complex constructions with a lot of welding, flexibility of constructions, pollution of the ballastwater, marine fouling, use of inferior steel from recycling, insufficient maintenance and coating.As a consequence, many different types of corrosion...

  3. 49 CFR 1242.15 - Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast, track laying and surfacing, and road property damaged (accounts XX-17-10 to XX-18-12 inclusive, 21-17-13 to 21-18-16 inclusive, XX-17-17, XX-18-17, XX-17-48, and XX-18-48). 1242.15 Section...

  4. Prediction of ship-ship interactions in ports by a non-hydrostatic model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周明贵; 邹早建

    2015-01-01

    Complicated channel geometry and currents may aggravate the interactions between passing ships and berthed ships, which should be evaluated and taken into account in a port design. A method for predicting the ship-ship interactions, based on a non-hydrostatic shallow water flow model, is presented in this paper and is validated by comparing the numerical results with experimental data. The method is subsequently applied to predict the interaction forces acting on a berthed ship due to a passing ship in ports. The influences of the difference of the water depths between the dock and the main channel, the dock geometry, the current and another berthed ship in the dock on the ship-ship interactions are studied. Analysis based on the numerical results is carried out, which is useful for the port design.

  5. Decommission of nuclear ship `MUTSU`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateyama, Takeshi [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-11-01

    The nuclear-powered ship `MUTSU` was decommissioned by removing the reactor room in June 1995, which was hoisted and transported by a floating crane to a shore storage room at Sekinehama, Aomori Prefecture. This work was carried out in three stages: extraction of the spent fuel assemblies and neutron sources, dismantling of the machinery in the reactor auxiliary room, and separation and transportation of the reactor together with the secondary shielding structure and surrounding hull. IHI mainly conducted the third stage work. The separation work of the reactor room structure using a semisubmersible barge is outlined. Stress analysis and design of the reactor room for lifting work is also described. (author)

  6. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Toshikatus; Mizushima, Toshihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Mutsu, Aomori (Japan). Mutsu Establishment] [and others

    1992-01-01

    The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship `MUTSU` was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author).

  7. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Toshikatus; Mizushima, Toshihiko (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Mutsu, Aomori (Japan). Mutsu Establishment) (and others)

    1992-01-01

    The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship 'MUTSU' was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author).

  8. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship 'MUTSU' was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author)

  9. Ship Collision Avoidance by Distributed Tabu Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Gyun Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available More than 90% of world trade is transported by sea. The size and speed of ships is rapidly increasing in order to boost economic efficiency. If ships collide, the damage and cost can be astronomical. It is very difficult for officers to ascertain routes that will avoid collisions, especially when multiple ships travel the same waters. There are several ways to prevent ship collisions, such as lookouts, radar, and VHF radio. More advanced methodologies, such as ship domain, fuzzy theory, and genetic algorithm, have been proposed. These methods work well in one-on-one situations, but are more difficult to apply in multiple-ship situations. Therefore, we proposed the Distributed Local Search Algorithm (DLSA to avoid ship collisions as a precedent study. DLSA is a distributed algorithm in which multiple ships communicate with each other within a certain area. DLSA computes collision risk based on the information received from neighboring ships. However, DLSA suffers from Quasi-Local Minimum (QLM, which prevents a ship from changing course even when a collision risk arises. In our study, we developed the Distributed Tabu Search Algorithm (DTSA. DTSA uses a tabu list to escape from QLM that also exploits a modified cost function and enlarged domain of next-intended courses to increase its efficiency. We conducted experiments to compare the performance of DLSA and DTSA. The results showed that DTSA outperformed DLSA.

  10. Ship emissions and air pollution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Helge Rørdam; Winther, Morten; Ellermann, Thomas;

    A project has been carried out to map the contribution from ship traffic to air pollution in Denmark. A main element in the project is the establishment of a new, improved inventory of ship emissions for the waters around Denmark. The inventory makes use of the so-called AIS system, which...... continuously keeps track of ship positions. The inventory provides basis for model calculations of air quality in Denmark for the years 2007, 2011 and 2020. The study has focus on identifying the contribution from ships, and on assessing the effect of international regulations of ship pollution. A minor...... component of the study concerns the contribution to local air pollution from ships at port....

  11. Berth Operability Estimation Related to Ship Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Prpić-Oršić, Jasna; Slapničar, Vedran; Turk, Anton

    2014-01-01

    The method of exposed berth operability estimation based on moored ship criteria for safe working and mooring is presented. The solution methodology consists of modelling a ship as a panel model used to calculate the hydrodynamic loads and responses from the potential theory. The mooring lines are modelled by ship-to-ground spring elements. The stiffness of those elements is accumulated in the global restoring matrix of the rigid body equations of motion. The obtained system of differential e...

  12. Auxiliary facilities on nuclear ship 'MUTSU'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear ship 'MUTSU' has been moored at SEKINEHAMA, MUTU City in AOMORI Prefecture and several tests and works are being carried out on the ship. The construction of the auxiliary facilities for these works on the ship was completed in safety in August 1988. After that the facilities have fulfilled their function. The outlines of design, fabrication and construction of the facilities are described in this paper. (author)

  13. The Mersey Barrage - the impact on shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the main findings of the shipping and navigation studies carried out in 1990/1991 to assess the impact on shipping of the proposed barrage on the Mersey estuary in the United Kingdom. Shipping in the estuary has been studied using a traffic model and shiphandling simulations to identify any additional shipping related costs as a result of constructing the barrage and to demonstrate the adequacy of the facilities proposed. Consideration has also been given to the effect of the barrage on pilotage, towage, dredging and vessel traffic services and a risk assessment has been carried out. (author)

  14. Potential of biofuels for shipping. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florentinus, A.; Hamelinck, C.; Van den Bos, A.; Winkel, R.; Cuijpers, M. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    Biofuels could be one of the options to realize a lower carbon intensity in the propulsion of ships and also possibly reduce the effect of ship emissions on local air quality. Therefore, EMSA, the European Maritime Safety Agency, is evaluating if and how biofuels could be used in the shipping sector as an alternative fuel. To determine the potential of biofuels for ships, a clearer picture is needed on technical and organizational limitations of biofuels in ships, both on board of the ship as in the fuel supply chain to the ship. Economic and sustainability analysis of biofuels should be included in this picture, as well as an overview on current and potential policy measures to stimulate the use of biofuels in shipping. Ecofys has determined the potential of biofuels, based on analysis of collected data through literature review, own expertise and experiences, direct communication with EMSA, research publications, market developments based on press and other media, and consultations with relevant stakeholders in the shipping market.

  15. Note from the radioprotection group's shipping service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Le service SHIPPING du groupe de radioprotection souhaite vous rappeler qu'avant toute expédition de matériel susceptible d'être radioactif, une demande de transport doit être établie par EDH en cochant la case appropriée (danger radioactif). Merci de bien vouloir prendre note des informations figurant dans le site Web: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Toute demande non conforme ne sera pas prise en compte. Radioactive Shipping Service http://cern.ch/service-rp-shippingTél: 73171Fax: 69200

  16. COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMULAS OF MAXIMUM SHIP SQUAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRU SERGIU SERBAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ship squat is a combined effect of ship’s draft and trim increase due to ship motion in limited navigation conditions. Over time, researchers conducted tests on models and ships to find a mathematical formula that can define squat. Various forms of calculating squat can be found in the literature. Among those most commonly used are of Barrass, Millward, Eryuzlu or ICORELS. This paper presents a comparison between the squat formulas to see the differences between them and which one provides the most satisfactory results. In this respect a cargo ship at different speeds was considered as a model for maximum squat calculations in canal navigation conditions.

  17. MASTER OF THE SHIP, MANAGER AND INSTRUCTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Florin IORDANOAIA

    2010-01-01

    The master of the ship is the person on the board who has the qualification and the necessary certificate of competency for running a maritime transport ship. He is the one who takes the ship into administration from the ship-owner, he is the only leader, the legal and direct chief of the entire crew, being invested with authority upon all the members of the crew. The master fulfils the attributes and displays his activity according to the legal laws of his flag, of the marine regulations and...

  18. Ergonomics evaluation of work posture in OWAS method in Ballast mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasl Seraji J

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, musculoskeletal disorders incidents have been found through NMQ. Then, with the OWAS method the results have been analysed. In this thesis, we have studied the case in two different workshops of Ballast Production Company. The jobs were classified according to static load caused by poor work posture and recommendations for reducing the hurmful load were made. The study of the questionnaire showe that there is meaningful relation between work experience and Low Back Pain (LBP (P<3%. Meanwhile BMI (Body Mass Index is closely related to LBP (P<2%. However a relation was found between low back and back and shoulder pain complaints during recent one year and last one week with that of the existence of the pains, respectively P<2% and P<5%. Jobs related with repair and maintenance rates the first as regards static load on the muscloskeletal system. Cooking, digging operations, driving bullodozer, operation of stone crushing device, loaders and lorries rank respectively in order.

  19. Technical data information systems - a necessity or a burden?; Technische Betriebsmittel-Informationssysteme - Notwendigkeit oder Ballast?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, W.; Hanschmann, R. [Thuega Aktiengesellschaft, Muenchen (Germany)

    1997-07-01

    Utilities are forced to set free capacities in order to be competitive in a changing market with themes like Third party access, utilities as service companies and lean management and production. Therefore complete and well structured documentation of technical data will be more and more important. This article shows some applications of a technical data information system (`TBIS`) and reports on experiences in implementing such systems. Very often time and efforts necessary for the implementation of such complex systems are underestimated. Especially the management has to define the goals of the project clearly and must garanty the required funds (personnel and financial). A TBIS will only be a burden to those companies, which try an implementation without a clear concept and sufficient coordination. (orig.) [Deutsch] Themen wie Neuorientierung der Energiewirtschaft, schlanke Unternehmen, Energieversorger als Dienstleistungsunternehmen usw. zwingen Energieversorgungsunternehmen (EVUs) darueber nachzudenken, in welchen Bereichen potentielle Ressourcen im Unternehmen freigesetzt werden koennen. Die Bedeutung einer gut strukturierten und vollstaendigen Dokumentation der Betriebsmittel wird dadurch weiter steigen. In diesem Artikel werden Anwendungen eines Technischen Betriebsmittel-Informationssystems (TBIS) beschrieben und ueber Erfahrungen bei der Einfuehrung derartiger Systeme berichtet. Es hat sich gezeigt, dass solch komplexe Informationssysteme in der Einfuehrungsphase einen erheblichen, oft unterschaetzten Aufwand von allen Beteiligten erfordern. Hierbei ist vor allem die Geschaeftsfuehrung betroffen, die unternehmensweite Projektziele setzen und diese personell, organisatorisch und vor allem finanziell absichern muss. Zum Ballast wird ein TBIS nur in den Unternehmen, die eine Einfuehrung den Endanwendern ueberlassen - ohne Projektkonzeption und -koordination. (orig.)

  20. The role of ship and mortgage registration in shipping finance: : the prospects for the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to provide an analysis of the current issues and conditions affecting shipping finance in Russia based on the development of the systems of ship and mortgage registration. Particular economic reasons describing the situation on the shipping markets lie outside the scope of this thesis. However, a general overview of the situation of the shipping markets and results achieved by the leading banks will be provided in the first chapter. The reason is to demonst...

  1. SNF shipping cask shielding analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.O.; Pace, J.V. III

    1996-01-01

    The Waste Management and Remedial Action Division has planned a modification sequence for storage facility 7827 in the Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA). The modification cycle is: (1) modify an empty caisson, (2) transfer the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of an occupied caisson to a hot cell in building 3525 for inspection and possible repackaging, and (3) return the package to the modified caisson in the SWSA. Although the SNF to be moved is in the solid form, it has different levels of activity. Thus, the following 5 shipping casks will be available for the task: the Loop Transport Carrier, the In- Pile Loop LITR HB-2 Carrier, the 6.5-inch HRLEL Carrier, the HFIR Hot Scrap Carrier, and the 10-inch ORR Experiment Removal Shield Cask. This report describes the shielding tasks for the 5 casks: determination of shielding characteristics, any streaming avenues, estimation of thermal limits, and shielding calculational uncertainty for use in the transportation plan.

  2. SNF shipping cask shielding analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Management and Remedial Action Division has planned a modification sequence for storage facility 7827 in the Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA). The modification cycle is: (1) modify an empty caisson, (2) transfer the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of an occupied caisson to a hot cell in building 3525 for inspection and possible repackaging, and (3) return the package to the modified caisson in the SWSA. Although the SNF to be moved is in the solid form, it has different levels of activity. Thus, the following 5 shipping casks will be available for the task: the Loop Transport Carrier, the In- Pile Loop LITR HB-2 Carrier, the 6.5-inch HRLEL Carrier, the HFIR Hot Scrap Carrier, and the 10-inch ORR Experiment Removal Shield Cask. This report describes the shielding tasks for the 5 casks: determination of shielding characteristics, any streaming avenues, estimation of thermal limits, and shielding calculational uncertainty for use in the transportation plan

  3. Nuclear propulsion for merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear propulsion was first used in submarines. The experience acquired in this way has shown the characteristics of naval propulsion reactors: essentially reliability, strength, manoeuvrability and ease of operation. The technique has now been perfected and the development of nuclear propulsion depends mainly on problems of safety, economic competitivity and legislation. With regard to safety, the technical solutions concern essentially the interface with the ship. Competitivity must be studied, not only in the case of replacing a conventional boiler by a nuclear boiler on a given type of vessel, but also against the wider background of a system of transport with optimization of all the factors of its economy. Finally, operation is governed seriously by legislation and much still remains to be done in this field

  4. Not all calcite ballast is created equal: differing effects of foraminiferan and coccolith calcite on the formation and sinking of aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schmidt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Correlation between particulate organic carbon (POC and calcium carbonate sinking through the deep ocean has led to the idea that ballast provided by calcium carbonate is important for the export of POC from the surface ocean. While this idea is certainly to some extent true, it is worth considering in more nuance, for example, examining the different effects on the aggregation and sinking of POC of small, non-sinking calcite particles like coccoliths and large, rapidly sinking calcite like planktonic foraminiferan tests. We have done that here in a simple experiment carried out in roller tanks that allow particles to sink continuously without being impeded by container walls. Coccoliths were efficiently incorporated into aggregates that formed during the experiment, increasing their sinking speed compared to similarly sized aggregates lacking added calcite ballast. The foraminiferan tests, which sank as fast as 700 m d−1, became associated with only very minor amounts of POC. In addition, when they collided with other, larger, foraminferan-less aggregates, they fragmented them into two smaller, more slowly sinking aggregates. While these effects were certainly exaggerated within the confines of the roller tanks, they clearly demonstrate that calcium carbonate ballast is not just calcium carbonate ballast- different forms of calcium carbonate ballast have notably different effects on POC aggregation, sinking, and export.

  5. LCA-ship. Design tool for energy efficient ships. A Life Cycle Analysis Program for Ships. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiven, Karl; Sjoebris, Anders [MariTerm AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Nilsson, Maria [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Stiftelsen TEM; Ellis, Joanne; Traegaardh, Peter; Nordstroem, Malin [SSPA Sweden AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    In order to make it easier to include aspects during ship design that will improve environmental performance, general methods for life cycle calculations and a prototype tool for LCA calculations of ships and marine transportation have been developed. The base of the life cycle analyses is a comprehensive set of life cycle data that was collected for the materials and consumables used in ship construction and vessel operations. The computer tool developed makes it possible to quickly and simply specify (and calculate) the use of consumables over the vessel's life time cycle. Special effort has been made to allow the tool to be used for different types of vessels and sea transport. The main result from the project is the computer tool LCA ship, which incorporates collected and developed life cycle data for some of the most important materials and consumables used in ships and their operation. The computer application also contains a module for propulsion power calculations and a module for defining and optimising the energy system onboard the vessel. The tool itself is described in more detail in the Computer application manual. The input to the application should, as much as possible, be the kind of information that is normally found in a shipping company concerning vessel data and vessel movements. It all starts with defining the ship to be analysed and continues with defining how the ship is used over the lifetime. The tool contains compiled and processed background information about specific materials and processes (LCA data) connected to shipping operations. The LCA data is included in the tool in a processed form. LCA data for steel will for example include the environmental load from the steel production, the process to build the steel structure of the ship, the scrapping and the recycling phase. To be able to calculate the environmental load from the use of steel the total amount of steel used over the life cycle of the ship is also needed. The

  6. 19 CFR 4.69 - Shipping articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....S.C. chapter 103, in the form provided for in 46 CFR 14.05-1. ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping articles. 4.69 Section 4.69 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.69 Shipping articles. No vessel of the...

  7. Orchestrating Transnational Environmental Governance in Maritime Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lister, Jane; Taudal Poulsen, René; Ponte, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Maritime shipping is the transmission belt of the global economy. It is also a major contributor to global environmental change through its under-regulated air, water and land impacts. It is puzzling that shipping is a lagging sector as it has a well-established global regulatory body—the Interna...

  8. India's ship recycling trade-off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worrell, E.; Athanasopoulou, V.

    2014-01-01

    The special nature of India's steel industry lends particular importance to ship recycling as a source of scrap. Ship recycling in upgraded 'green' facilities can substitute other 'dirty' ironmaking processes, resulting in energy savings and air pollutant emission reductions for the Indian steel sec

  9. 49 CFR 177.817 - Shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 177.817 Section 177.817 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Information and Regulations § 177.817 Shipping papers. (a) General requirements. A person may not accept...

  10. 31 CFR 361.3 - Shipping procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shipping procedure. 361.3 Section 361.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... § 361.3 Shipping procedure. Shipments of valuables shall be made so as to provide the greatest...

  11. 48 CFR 8.708 - Shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping. 8.708 Section 8.708 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING... Blind or Severely Disabled 8.708 Shipping. (a) Delivery is accomplished when a shipment is placed...

  12. Dynamic recognition from ship-radiated noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xungao; FENG Xinxin; GE Yi

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of envelope spectrum analysis of ship-radiated noise, the features and the extracting methods are discussed, and then a new method of dynamic recognition has been proposed. Using this method, accurate recognition rate for different types of ship targets can be effectively improved, and some of the important parameters of target's movement can be obtained at the same time.

  13. Ship detection with Envisat's alternating polarization mode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, A.J.E.; Chesworth, J.; Greidanus, H.

    2005-01-01

    A ship detection algorithm is developed that uses Envisat ASAR imagery in alternating polarisation mode. From airborne data it is shown that of the two co-polarisations, HH is preferred over VV because of a larger ship-to-clutter ratio. Combining the HH and HV images of alternating polarisation mode

  14. Science Ⅲ marine research ship delivered

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Wei

    2006-01-01

    @@ On August 18, China's most advanced marine research ship Science Ⅲ was commissioned into operation at Qingdao and became an official member of China's marine research fleet. Designed and built by CSIC, the ship was delivered at Shanghai to the Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Optimizing Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin

    With the incredible growth of containerization over the past half century, shipping lines and ports are facing increasing challenges in ensuring that containers arrive at their destinations on time and on budget. This dissertation addresses several critical problems to the operations of shipping ...

  16. Nuclear merchant ships: problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from the hitherto successful operation of the OTTO HAHN the next steps in the development of an economical, commercial nuclear ship in the FRG are discussed. This ship is to be built until 1985, and from then on it is to be taken into service. (UA)

  17. Achieving Energy Efficient Ship Operations Under Third Party Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudal Poulsen, René; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Profitable energy saving measures are often not fully implemented in shipping, causing energy efficiency gaps. The paper identifies energy efficiency gaps in ship operations, and explores their causes. Lack of information on energy efficiency, lack of energy training at sea and onshore and lack...... of time to produce and provide reliable energy efficiency information cause energy efficiency gaps. The paper brings together the energy efficiency and ship management literatures, demonstrating how ship management models influence energy efficiency in ship operations. Achieving energy efficiency in ship...... operations is particularly challenging under third party ship management. Finally, the paper discusses management implications for shipping companies, which outsource ship management to third parties....

  18. 46 CFR 91.60-45 - American Bureau of Shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false American Bureau of Shipping. 91.60-45 Section 91.60-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS....60-45 American Bureau of Shipping. (a) The American Bureau of Shipping, with its home office at...

  19. 46 CFR 148.02-1 - Shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 148.02-1 Section 148.02-1 Shipping... MATERIALS IN BULK Vessel Requirements § 148.02-1 Shipping papers. (a) Carriers may not accept for..., unless the hazardous materials offered for such shipment is accompanied by a shipping paper on which...

  20. 46 CFR 189.60-45 - American Bureau of Shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false American Bureau of Shipping. 189.60-45 Section 189.60-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION...-45 American Bureau of Shipping. (a) The American Bureau of Shipping, with its home office at...

  1. 46 CFR 151.45-7 - Shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 151.45-7 Section 151.45-7 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-7 Shipping papers. Each barge carrying dangerous cargo shall have on board a bill of lading, manifest, or shipping document giving the name...

  2. Wave energy extraction using decommisioned ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansour, A.E.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Paik, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    scrap naval vessels in 2002 was $33.4 million. Now apparently the Navy sinks naval vessels by bombs and torpedos. Scrapping can cause pollution, health hazards, accidents and threat to the ecosystem. Can a “polluting” ship about to be scrapped be used to generate clean wave energy? Maybe! It is possible...... to place the ship (unmanned) in about 50 m of water where deep-water swells may have an average wave period of 6–15 s. The ship would be “tuned” to have large motion response, particularly in heave and pitch. In short waves, the ship could serve as a platform for secondary energy absorption. The idea...... is to tune the ship to have rigid body resonance, or close to it, and resist that motion to absorb power. A hydraulic ramp connected to an accumulator feeding a hydraulic motor that generates power is one possibility. Several other energy extraction mechanisms such as turbines connected to...

  3. A low-energy intensive electrochemical system for the eradication of Escherichia coli from ballast water: Process development, disinfection chemistry, and kinetics modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invasion of biological organisms via ballast water has created threats to the environment and human health. In this study, a cost-effective electrochemical disinfection reactor was developed to inactivate Escherichia coli, one of the IMO-regulated indicator microbes, in simulated ballast water. The complete inactivation of E. coli could be achieved within a very short time (150, 120, or 60 s) with an energy consumption as low as 0.0090, 0.0074 or 0.0035 kWh/m3 for ballast water containing E. coli at concentrations of 108, 107 and 106 CFU/100 mL, respectively. Electrochemical chlorination was the major disinfection mechanism in chloride-abundant electrolytes, whereas oxidants such as ozone and free radicals contributed to 20% of the disinfection efficiency in chloride-free electrolytes. Moreover, a disinfection kinetics model was successfully developed to describe the inactivation of E. coli.

  4. Ship2Shore Marine Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, N. R.; Sen, G.; Doehler, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) Observatory, comprised of VENUS and NEPTUNE Canada (NC) cabled networks, supports transformative coastal to deep ocean research and enables real-time interactive experiments. Engaging students, educators and the public is critical to increasing the global awareness of our integral relationship with the ocean. One way to accomplish this is to encourage educators to incorporate marine science concepts into their lesson plans. ONC's new initiative, Ship2Shore Marine Educators (S2SME), enables educators to learn first hand about marine science and technology by going to sea on a maintenance/research cruise. While at sea Marine Educators (ME) participate in technology deployments, assist with water and core sampling, write daily blogs, produce short video updates, develop learning resources and conduct presentations to students on shore via video conferencing. MEs participating in the last NC cruise -"Wiring the Abyss 2012" - were fascinated with being a part of science in the real world. They had an experience of a lifetime and anticipate incorporating what they have learned into their lessons during the upcoming semester. Outreach between the MEs and ONC communication staff aboard the ship resulted in nearly 7,000 unique visitors to the "Wiring the Abyss 2012'' cruise website. Live ROPOS video feeds (~ 9,000 views), highlight videos (436 views/day), daily blogs (~1200 views) and stunning images (~391 views/day) were among the top rated pages. Visitors from 10 countries tuned in to "Wiring the Abyss 2012" and experienced the Pacific's deep sea! One of the best experiences for the MEs was connecting with students and teachers on shore via video conferencing. Roughly 300 students in BC and USA received a live connection from approximately 200km off the west coast. Students were most fascinated by a demo involving compressed Styrofoam cups, showing the intensity of pressure at the bottom of the sea. Successes: A positive working

  5. Boundary layer stability acts to ballast the mass of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkelhammer, M. B.; Noone, D. C.; Steen-Larsen, H. C.; O'Neill, M.; Raudzens Bailey, A.; Cox, C.; Schneider, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The mass of the Greenland Ice Sheet has been reduced over recent decades as a consequence of warming, the impact of which is already detectable on global sea level. However, temperature projections suggest that at interior high-altitude sites on the ice it could be decades or more before warming forces these regions to transition from a dry to wet snow facies. Shifts in boundary layer dynamics, including atmosphere-ice sheet hydrological exchange and cloud radiative forcing could expedite or delay this transition. These processes are important with respect to future ice sheet stability, yet they remain difficult to constrain. Using continuous in situ measurements of vertical profiles of the isotopic composition of water vapor at Summit Camp, the highest observatory on the ice sheet, we document the presence of a hydrologic balance between surface sublimation and condensation fluxes. This exists because of a nearly persistent temperature inversion, which hinders the efficiency with which surface water vapor mixes into the free atmosphere. In the presence of a strong temperature inversion, fog and ice particles form near the ice-atmosphere interface from surface moisture fluxes. When this condensate precipitates on or settles to the surface, it ballasts the ice sheet's mass. A decade-long trend towards lower annual accumulation at Summit may therefore reflect continuous replacement of the near surface atmosphere due to reduced atmospheric stability. If this tendency toward destabilization continues, it could accelerate mass loss at interior sites on the ice sheet. The role of boundary layer stability in ice sheet hydrological budgets discussed here is applicable beyond the accumulation zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  6. 76 FR 51980 - Atlantic Shipping Company, Inc. v. Di Nos Shipping, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Complaint and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... COMMISSION Atlantic Shipping Company, Inc. v. Di Nos Shipping, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Complaint and...) by Atlantic Shipping Company, Inc., hereinafter ``Complainant,'' against DI Nos Shipping, Inc... Respondent is in violation of the Shipping Act of 1984, 46 U.S.C. 40901 and 40902, by operating as a...

  7. Formation of a spark discharge in an inhomogeneous electric field with current limitation by a large ballast Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldanov, B. B., E-mail: baibat@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physical Material Science, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Results of studies of a spark discharge initiated in argon in a point–plane electrode gap with limitation of the discharge current by a large ballast resistance are presented. It is shown that the current flowing through the plasma channel of such a low-current spark has the form of periodic pulses. It is experimentally demonstrated that, when a low-current spark transforms into a constricted glow discharge, current pulses disappear, the spatial structure of the cathode glow changes abruptly, and a brightly glowing positive plasma column forms in the gap.

  8. A Response to Warren's Review of Five Thousand Years of Maritime Subsistence at CA-SDI-48, on Ballast Point, San Diego County, California

    OpenAIRE

    Gallegos, Dennis R.

    2008-01-01

    The Ballast Point report (Five Thousand Years of Maritime Subsistence at CA-SDI-48, on Ballast Point, San Diego County, California) was the first such report to document the complexity of maritime subsistence in San Diego County from circa 6,600 B.P. to 1,300 B.P. It was completed in 1988, and later published by Coyote Press in 1998, "with very minor editing and corrections." CRM reports by their very nature are usually not structured for publication; however, the Coyote Press publishers felt...

  9. 77 FR 57638 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... new measures; Formal safety assessment; Piracy and armed robbery against ships; Implementation...

  10. 76 FR 19176 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct two... safety --Piracy and armed robbery against ships --Implementation of instruments and related...

  11. 78 FR 29201 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... new measures Formal safety assessment Piracy and armed robbery against ships Implementation...

  12. 75 FR 39089 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an..., Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department of State. BILLING CODE 4710-09-P...

  13. 77 FR 16316 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... . Dated: March 9, 2012. Brian Robinson, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee,...

  14. 75 FR 3272 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... . ] Dated: January 12, 2009. Jon Trent Warner, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating...

  15. 77 FR 47491 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... . Dated: August 1, 2012. Brian Robinson, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee,...

  16. 75 FR 54415 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct four...: August 30, 2010. Jon Trent Warner, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department...

  17. 77 FR 57637 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... --Protection of vital shipping lanes --Periodic review of administrative requirements in mandatory...

  18. 77 FR 12641 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an..., 2012. Brian Robinson, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department of...

  19. 78 FR 58596 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... session of the Assembly --Protection of vital shipping lanes --Periodic review of...

  20. 77 FR 70525 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an..., 2012. Brian Robinson, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department of...

  1. 76 FR 70529 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will...: November 7, 2011. Brian Robinson, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department of...

  2. 75 FR 65551 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Subcommittee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Subcommittee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct.... Jon Trent Warner, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department of State....

  3. 75 FR 10546 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... . ] Dated: March 2, 2010. Jon Trent Warner, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee,...

  4. 78 FR 45592 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an..., 2013. Marc Zlomek, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department of State....

  5. 77 FR 70526 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an...: November 14, 2012. Brian Robinson, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department...

  6. 75 FR 82129 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct two... Trent Warner, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department of State. BILLING...

  7. 77 FR 28923 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an..., 2012. Brian Robinson, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department of...

  8. 77 FR 27832 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... Governing Board --Protection of vital shipping lanes --External relations: --Relations with the...

  9. 76 FR 82026 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... . Dated: December 22, 2011. Brian Robinson, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating...

  10. 77 FR 47490 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct open.... Brian Robinson, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department of State. BILLING...

  11. 76 FR 30229 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct four... vital shipping lanes. --World Maritime University. --IMO International Maritime Law...

  12. 77 FR 64576 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will... . Dated: October 15, 2012. Brian Robinson, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating...

  13. Arctic shipping emissions inventories and future scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Corbett

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents 5 km×5 km Arctic emissions inventories of important greenhouse gases, black carbon and other pollutants under existing and future (2050 scenarios that account for growth of shipping in the region, potential diversion traffic through emerging routes, and possible emissions control measures. These high-resolution, geospatial emissions inventories for shipping can be used to evaluate Arctic climate sensitivity to black carbon (a short-lived climate forcing pollutant especially effective in accelerating the melting of ice and snow, aerosols, and gaseous emissions including carbon dioxide. We quantify ship emissions scenarios which are expected to increase as declining sea ice coverage due to climate change allows for increased shipping activity in the Arctic. A first-order calculation of global warming potential due to 2030 emissions in the high-growth scenario suggests that short-lived forcing of ~4.5 gigagrams of black carbon from Arctic shipping may increase global warming potential due to Arctic ships' CO2 emissions (~42 000 gigagrams by some 17% to 78%. The paper also presents maximum feasible reduction scenarios for black carbon in particular. These emissions reduction scenarios will enable scientists and policymakers to evaluate the efficacy and benefits of technological controls for black carbon, and other pollutants from ships.

  14. MASTER OF THE SHIP, MANAGER AND INSTRUCTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin IORDANOAIA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The master of the ship is the person on the board who has the qualification and the necessary certificate of competency for running a maritime transport ship. He is the one who takes the ship into administration from the ship-owner, he is the only leader, the legal and direct chief of the entire crew, being invested with authority upon all the members of the crew. The master fulfils the attributes and displays his activity according to the legal laws of his flag, of the marine regulations and of the international conventions. In all the relationships which he establishes with physical or juridical people, the master represents the ship-owner, in a double condition, as an officer and as a commercial manager. In this paper, it is analysed the situation of the ship masters, the relationships which these masters have with the crew and the problems which appear during their voyage. At the end of the paper there are proposed measures to increase the quality of the training of the ship masters, to solve the situations connected with the members of the crew.

  15. Ultimate Strength of Ship Hulls under Torsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Thayamballi, Anil K.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup;

    2001-01-01

    For a ship hull with large deck openings such as container vessels and some large bulk carriers, the analysis of warping stresses and hatch opening deformations is an essential part of ship structural analyses. It is thus of importance to better understand the ultimate torsional strength characte......For a ship hull with large deck openings such as container vessels and some large bulk carriers, the analysis of warping stresses and hatch opening deformations is an essential part of ship structural analyses. It is thus of importance to better understand the ultimate torsional strength...... characteristics of ships with large hatch openings. The primary aim of the present study is to investigate the ultimate strength characteristics of ship hulls with large hatch openings under torsion. Axial (warping) as well as shear stresses are normally developed for thin-walled beams with open cross sections...... analyses, it is shown that the influence of torsion induced warping stresses on the ultimate hull girder bending strength is small for ductile hull materials while torsion induced shear stresses will of course reduce the ship hull ultimate bending moment....

  16. Ship wakes: Kelvin or Mach angle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaud, Marc; Moisy, Frédéric

    2013-05-24

    From the analysis of a set of airborne images of ship wakes, we show that the wake angles decrease as U(-1) at large velocities, in a way similar to the Mach cone for supersonic airplanes. This previously unnoticed Mach-like regime is in contradiction with the celebrated Kelvin prediction of a constant angle of 19.47° independent of the ship's speed. We propose here a model, confirmed by numerical simulations, in which the finite size of the disturbance explains this transition between the Kelvin and Mach regimes at a Froude number Fr=U/√[gL]~/=0.5, where L is the hull ship length. PMID:23745883

  17. Ship wakes: Kelvin or Mach angle?

    CERN Document Server

    Rabaud, Marc

    2013-01-01

    From the analysis of a set of airborne images of ship wakes, we show that the wake angles decrease as $U^{-1}$ at large velocities, in a way similar to the Mach cone for supersonic airplanes. This previously unnoticed Mach-like regime is in contradiction with the celebrated Kelvin prediction of a constant angle of $19.47\\degree$ independent of the ship's speed. We propose here a model, confirmed by numerical simulations, in which the finite size of the disturbance explains this transition between the Kelvin and Mach regimes at a Froude number $Fr = U/\\sqrt{gL} \\simeq 0.5$, where $L$ is the hull ship length.

  18. Insight of The New Shipping Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Siyuan

    2009-01-01

    @@ Last year,the financial crisis sourced in USA caused shipping market to decline.All at once,global economy's environment,industrial structure,capital value and supply chain structure changed greatly,marking the beginning of world economic fission.Great fission brings chances of great consolidation.Just one year after the financial crisis broke out,shipping industry participants are standing at the point of consolidation,considering a light,strong,clear strategy for this new shipping and trade industrial trend.

  19. Merchant shipping (Safety Convention) Act 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When this Act comes into force, it will enable the United Kingdom to ratify and to give effect to the 1974 International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (the SOLAS Convention) which replaces the SOLAS Convention of 1960. Under the Act, the Secretary of State may make such rules as he considers appropriate regarding ships provided with nuclear power plants in accordance with Chapter VIII of the Annex to the 1974 Convention and to Recommendations attached to it, dealing with nuclear ships, and insofar as those provisions have not been implemented by the Merchant Shipping Acts 1894 to 1974. (NEA)

  20. Ship motion pattern directed VTOL letdown guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatak, A. V.; Karmali, M. S.; Paulk, C. H., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines ship motion pattern directed letdown guidance strategies for landing a VTOL aircraft onboard a small aviation ship under adverse environmental conditions. Off-line computer simulation of the shipboard landing task is utilized for assessing the relative merits of the proposed guidance schemes. A sum of seventy sinusoids representation is used to model the ship motion time histories. The touchdown performance of a nonimal constant-rate-of-descent (CROD) letdown strategy serves as a benchmark for ranking the performance of the alternative letdown schemes.

  1. Financing in the Ship-owning Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kallestad, Mathilde

    2014-01-01

    This is a study of how ship-owning companies finance their investments. 27 ship-owning companies listed on Oslo Børs are included in the study, from both OSLO Shipping Index and OSLO Energy Index. The companies represents four segments, offshore, LNG and LPG, bulk and tank, hence the thesis also questioners if there are differences between the segments. The pecking order theory, the static trade-off theory and the Miller and Modigliani s propositions are the three financing theories that form...

  2. Effect of the finite size of an asteroid on its deflection using a tether-ballast system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashayekhi, Mohammad J.; Misra, Arun K.

    2016-07-01

    Potentially hazardous near-Earth objects which can impose a significant threat on life on the planet have generated a lot of interest in the study of various asteroid deflection strategies. There are numerous asteroid deflection techniques suggested and discussed in the literature. This paper is focused on one of the non-destructive asteroid deflection strategies by attaching a long tether-ballast system to the asteroid. In the existing literature on this technique, very simplified models of the asteroid-tether-ballast system including a point mass model of the asteroid have been used. In this paper, the dynamical effect of using a finite size asteroid model on the asteroid deflection achieved is analyzed in detail. It has been shown that considering the finite size of the asteroid, instead of the point mass approximation, can have significant influence on the deflection predicted. Furthermore the effect of the tether-deployment stage, which is an essential part of any realistic asteroid deflection mission, on the predicted deflection is studied in this paper. Finally the effect of cutting the tether on the deflection achieved is analyzed and it has been shown that depending on the orbital properties of the asteroid as well as its size and rotational rate, cutting the tether at an appropriate time can increase the deflection achieved. Several numerical examples have been used in this paper to elaborate on the proposed technique and to quantitatively analyze the effect of different parameters on the asteroid deflection.

  3. Effect of the finite size of an asteroid on its deflection using a tether-ballast system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashayekhi, Mohammad J.; Misra, Arun K.

    2016-04-01

    Potentially hazardous near-Earth objects which can impose a significant threat on life on the planet have generated a lot of interest in the study of various asteroid deflection strategies. There are numerous asteroid deflection techniques suggested and discussed in the literature. This paper is focused on one of the non-destructive asteroid deflection strategies by attaching a long tether-ballast system to the asteroid. In the existing literature on this technique, very simplified models of the asteroid-tether-ballast system including a point mass model of the asteroid have been used. In this paper, the dynamical effect of using a finite size asteroid model on the asteroid deflection achieved is analyzed in detail. It has been shown that considering the finite size of the asteroid, instead of the point mass approximation, can have significant influence on the deflection predicted. Furthermore the effect of the tether-deployment stage, which is an essential part of any realistic asteroid deflection mission, on the predicted deflection is studied in this paper. Finally the effect of cutting the tether on the deflection achieved is analyzed and it has been shown that depending on the orbital properties of the asteroid as well as its size and rotational rate, cutting the tether at an appropriate time can increase the deflection achieved. Several numerical examples have been used in this paper to elaborate on the proposed technique and to quantitatively analyze the effect of different parameters on the asteroid deflection.

  4. AIS Ship Traffic: Hawaii: 2011-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ship position data from a satellite-based Automatic Identification System (AIS) were obtained jointly by PacIOOS (J. Potemra), SOEST/ORE of the University of Hawaii...

  5. Operational data of nuclear ship `MUTSU`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazawa, Toshio; Takahasi, Hiroki; Kyouya, Masahiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Watahiki, Masayuki

    1999-03-01

    The first nuclear ship of Japan, `MUTSU`, experienced voyage of about 82,000 km. Many data on the ship`s motion and the power plant behavior were obtained under various meteorological conditions during the voyage. These data were recorded on more than 500 rolls of magnetic tape (MT). These data were transferred to these in digital audio tapes (DATs). The computer program was developed to transfer the data on DATs into the text form. As the result, we came to be able to utilize these data easily through the nuclear ship database system and a personal computer. This report describes a conversion program, data structure, list of saved data and utilization for the experimental data. Reduction of the storage space was achieved by the data transfer work from the MTs to the DATs. (author)

  6. Ship dynamics for maritime ISAR imaging.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2008-02-01

    Demand is increasing for imaging ships at sea. Conventional SAR fails because the ships are usually in motion, both with a forward velocity, and other linear and angular motions that accompany sea travel. Because the target itself is moving, this becomes an Inverse- SAR, or ISAR problem. Developing useful ISAR techniques and algorithms is considerably aided by first understanding the nature and characteristics of ship motion. Consequently, a brief study of some principles of naval architecture sheds useful light on this problem. We attempt to do so here. Ship motions are analyzed for their impact on range-Doppler imaging using Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR). A framework for analysis is developed, and limitations of simple ISAR systems are discussed.

  7. Fuel exchanging machine for a nuclear ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To prevent atmospheric contaminations upon fuel exchange thereby keep the environmental circumstance clean in the periphery of the nuclear ship. Constitution: A nuclear reactor container is disposed to the inside of a containing vessel in the ship body and a shutter is mounted to the upper opening of the ship body. Further, a landing container having a bottom opening equipped with shutter for alingning the upper opening equipped with shuuter of the ship is elevatably suspended to the trolley of a crane by way of a wire rope and a winch, and a fuel exchange cask is elevatably disposed to the inside of the landing container. Further, airs in the inside of the container is adapted to be discharged externally through a filter by means of a blower and the inside is kept at a negative pressure. Thus, since the containing vessel is covered with the landing container upon fuel exchanging operation, atmospheric contamination can be prevented sufficiently. (Sekiya, K.)

  8. Nuclear ship accidents, description and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report available information on 44 reported nuclear ship events is considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships and 38 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/ explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that some of the information of which this report is based, may be of dubious nature. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  9. Communication from the Radioactive Shipping Service

    CERN Document Server

    DDGS Unit

    2011-01-01

    The radioactive materials Import/Export service reminds you that all movements of potentially radioactive material must be declared in advance. For exports, shipping requests must be made via the EDH request form, ticking the box “radioactive material”. For imports, an electronic form must be completed before the arrival of the material. Requests which do not comply with the above procedure and any unauthorized imports of radioactive material will be refused.The same applies to imports/exports of radioactive sources. All necessary information is given in the web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Yann Donjoux / Radioactive Shipping Service Phone: +41 22 767.31.71 Fax: +41 22 766.92.00 Email: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch

  10. ULTIMATE TORSIONAL STRENGTH ANALYSIS OF CONTAINER SHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALICE MATHAI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Container ships with wide hatch openings are thin walled open sections and have low torsional stiffness. Hence response arising from torsional loads is significant and subsequently the torsional analysis of container ship is necessary. Using the ANSYS software, the progressive collapse behaviour of a typical container vessel undertorsion was analysed. The effect of torsional moment on the ultimate strength of ship hull subjected to design vertical shear force was also determined. Full hull between the bulkheads was modeled with fully restrained warping displacement at the unloaded end. When pure torsion is applied, the hull corner regions are typically the most highly stressed areas, which may collapse. Thus, scantlings of the hull corner region should be sufficient for ship hulls with large deck openings. The ultimate strength based safety factor under pure torsion for the vessel, is 4.5, which is reduced by 30% when subjected to design vertical shear force also.

  11. Facts about Noroviruses on Cruise Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Public Information Information for Travelers Cruise Ship Industry Meetings & Announcements July 2016 VSP Document Revision and ... 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Communicable Disease Prevention 4.0 Gastrointestinal Illness Surveillance 5.0 Potable Water 6. ...

  12. Legal aspects of nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Review of Chapter VIII of SOLAS Convention, Brussels' Convention on Liability of Operators of Nuclear Ships and its impact on national laws and bilateral treaties. Problems encountered with informal agreements on port visits. Prospects and problems of future legal development

  13. Arctic shipping emissions inventories and future scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    J. J. Corbett; D. A. Lack; J. J. Winebrake; Harder, S; J. A. Silberman; Gold, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents 5 km×5 km Arctic emissions inventories of important greenhouse gases, black carbon and other pollutants under existing and future (2050) scenarios that account for growth of shipping in the region, potential diversion traffic through emerging routes, and possible emissions control measures. These high-resolution, geospatial emissions inventories for shipping can be used to evaluate Arctic climate sensitivity to black carbon (a short-lived climate forcing pollutant especial...

  14. Arctic shipping emissions inventories and future scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    J. J. Corbett; D. A. Lack; J. J. Winebrake; Harder, S; J. A. Silberman; Gold, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Arctic is a sensitive region in terms of climate change and a rich natural resource for global economic activity. Arctic shipping is an important contributor to the region's anthropogenic air emissions, including black carbon – a short-lived climate forcing pollutant especially effective in accelerating the melting of ice and snow. These emissions are projected to increase as declining sea ice coverage due to climate change allows for increased shipping activity in the Arctic. To understa...

  15. Arctic Shipping Emissions in the Changing Climate

    OpenAIRE

    Vihanninjoki, Vesa

    2014-01-01

    Due to the Arctic climate change and the related diminishing of Arctic sea ice cover, the general conditions for Arctic shipping are changing. The retreat of Arctic sea ice opens up new routes for maritime transportation, both trans-Arctic passages and new alternatives within the Arctic region. Hence the amount of Arctic shipping is presumed to increase. Despite the observed development, the sailing conditions in the Arctic waters will remain challenging. Thus particular attention will be ...

  16. Monitoring of a single point moored ship

    OpenAIRE

    Facchini, Luca; Rizzo, Michele; Spadaccini, Ostilio; Vignoli, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The offshore platform VEGA is operating since 1988 in Sicily channel with a Single Point Moored tanker ship,. This work shows the overall features of the system and the collection and analysis of the data concerning the structural response of column-yoke-vessel FSO recorded since 2009. The structural monitoring is performed through a series of 37 optical strain gauges installed on the ship and on the yoke, and two biaxial inclinometers installed on SPM. Therefore the following items are moni...

  17. China's Guess of Ship Financinc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hua

    2012-01-01

    As the financial crisis intensifies, many western ship owners and monetary sectors focus their attention on China's capital. , There are not only good expectations but also fierce criticisms.Thus, how on earth will China's shipping capital meet the challenges of the world? Like pulling the chestnut out of fire, how to seize the business opportunity concealed in the crisis in order to draw on advantages and avoid disadvantages?

  18. SNS Inner Plug Shipping Cask Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations were performed to evaluate the dose rates outside the shipping cask containing the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) inner plug assembly. The analysis consisted of simulating the proton beam interaction with the SNS target, activation calculations with the determined neutron flux levels and assumed SNS operation schedule, and calculation of the decay gamma-rays propagation through the inner plug and shipping cask. Several materials were considered for the inner plug. The results provide guidance for the finalization of the plug design

  19. Absorbed Energy in Ship Collisions and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    ship collisions and grounding. The developed expressions reflect the structural arrangement, the material properties and different damage patterns.The present method is validated against a large number of existing experimental results and detailed numerical simulation results. Applications to full......-sale ship grounding accidents, the bottom raking damage to tankers and the bottom damage distribution for high-speed vessels are also presented. The propesed method may be considered as an improvement of the classical Minorsky method....

  20. Evaluation of the Service Performance of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Borrod, Anne-Sophie; Blanchot, Hervé

    2005-01-01

    voyages for the same ship. The procedure has been applied to two ships that are identical, with the exception that one has a conventional propeller, whereas the other one is fitted with a high-efficiency propeller of the KAPPEL type. The results are obtained from a period of 2 years steaming for both...... vessels. They clearly confirm the increase of propulsive efficiency obtained with the KAPPEL propeller in the order of magnitude of 4%....

  1. PARTICIPATION BASED MODEL OF SHIP CREW MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Bielić, Toni; Ivanišević, Dalibor; Gundić, Ana

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyse the participation - based model on board the ship as possibly optimal leadership model existing in the shipping industry with accent on decision - making process. In the paper authors have tried to define master’s behaviour model and management style identifying drawbacks and disadvantages of vertical, pyramidal organization with master on the top. Paper describes efficiency of decision making within team organization and optimization of a ship’s organisation by introduci...

  2. MAX-DOAS measurements of shipping emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyler, André; Wittrock, Folkard; Kattner, Lisa; Mathieu-Üffing, Barbara; Peters, Enno; Richter, Andreas; Schmolke, Stefan; Theobald, Norbert; Burrows, John P.

    2015-04-01

    Air pollution from ships contributes to overall air quality problems and it has direct health effects on the population in particular in coastal regions, and in harbor cities. In order to reduce the emissions the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) have tightened the regulations for air pollution. E.g. Sulfur Emission Control Areas (SECA) have been introduced where the sulfur content of marine fuel is limited. Recently, on the 1st of January 2015, the allowed sulfur content of marine fuels inside Sulfur Emission Control Areas has been significantly decreased from 1.0% to 0.1%. However, up to now there is no regular monitoring system available to verify that ships are complying with the new regulations. Furthermore measurements of reactive trace gases in marine environments are in general sparse. The project MeSMarT (Measurements of shipping emissions in the marine troposphere, www.mesmart.de) has been established as a cooperation between the University of Bremen and the German Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie (Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency) with support of the Helmholtz Research Centre Geesthacht to estimate the influence of ship emissions on the chemistry of the atmospheric boundary layer and to establish a monitoring system for main shipping routes. Here we present MAX-DOAS observations of NO2 and SO2 carried out from two permanent sites close to the Elbe river (Wedel, Germany) and on the island Neuwerk close to the mouths of Elbe and Weser river since the year 2013. Mixing ratios of both trace gases have been retrieved using different approaches (pure geometric and taking into account the radiative transfer) and compared to in situ observations (see Kattner et al., Monitoring shipping fuel sulfur content regulations with in-situ measurements of shipping emissions). Furthermore, simple approaches have been used to calculate emission factors of NOx and SO2 for single ships.

  3. Prediction of Ship Unsteady Maneuvering in Calm Water by a Fully Nonlinear Ship Motion Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ray-Qing Lin; Tim Smith; Michael Hughes

    2012-01-01

    This is the continuation of our research on development of a fully nonlinear, dynamically consistent, numerical ship motion model (DiSSEL). In this study we will report our results in predicting ship motions in unsteady maneuvering in calm water. During the unsteady maneuvering, both the rudder angle, and ship forward speed vary with time. Therefore, not only surge, sway, and yaw motions occur, but roll, pitch and heave motions will also occur even in calm water as heel, trim, and sinkage, re...

  4. Ship Scheduling and Cost Analysis for Route Planning in Liner Shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Shih-Chan Ting; Gwo-Hshiung Tzeng

    2003-01-01

    Liner shipping companies can benefit significantly by improving ship scheduling and cost analysis in service route planning by systematic methods. This paper proposes a dynamic programming (DP) model for ship scheduling and identifies cost items relevant to the planning of a service route, which can help planners make better scheduling decisions under berth time-window constraints, as well as estimate more accurately voyage fixed costs and freight variable costs in liner service route plannin...

  5. Ship design methodologies of preliminary design

    CERN Document Server

    Papanikolaou, Apostolos

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with ship design and in particular with methodologies of the preliminary design of ships. The book is complemented by a basic bibliography and five appendices with useful updated charts for the selection of the main dimensions and other basic characteristics of different types of ships (Appendix A), the determination of hull form  from the data of systematic hull form series (Appendix B), the detailed description of the relational method for the preliminary estimation of ship weights (Appendix C), a brief review of the historical evolution of shipbuilding science and technology from the prehistoric era to date (Appendix D) and finally a historical review of regulatory developments of ship's damage stability to date (Appendix E).  The book can be used as textbook for ship design courses or as additional reading for university or college students of naval architecture courses and related disciplines; it may also serve as a reference book for naval architects, practicing engineers of rel...

  6. Grid data extraction algorithm for ship routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuankui; Zhang, Yingjun; Yue, Xingwang; Gao, Zongjiang

    2015-05-01

    With the aim of extracting environmental data around routes, as the basis of ship routing optimization and other related studies, this paper, taking wind grid data as an example, proposes an algorithm that can effectively extract the grid data around rhumb lines. According to different ship courses, the algorithm calculates the wind grid index values in eight different situations, and a common computational formula is summarised. The wind grids around a ship route can be classified into `best-fitting' grids and `additional' grids, which are stored in such a way that, for example, when the data has a high-spacing resolution, only the `best-fitting' grids around ship routes are extracted. Finally, the algorithm was implemented and simulated with MATLAB programming. As the simulation results indicate, the algorithm designed in this paper achieved wind grid data extraction in different situations and further resolved the extraction problem of meteorological and hydrogeological field grids around ship routes efficiently. Thus, it can provide a great support for optimal ship routing related to meteorological factors.

  7. Report of Nuclear Powered Ship Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the forecast of energy balance in the world to 21st century, the diversification of energy supply and the technical development enabling it are necessary in Japan. The stable supply of marine fuel is important to maintain and develop the national life. At present, as the marine fuel substituting for petroleum, atomic energy is at the position nearest to practical use. In advanced countries, the basic technology required for the practical use of nuclear-powered merchant ships seems to have been established, but Japan is about 10 years behind them due to the delay of the Mutsu project. In order to maintain and improve the technical level of shipbuilders, the independent technology related to nuclear-powered ships must be established in Japan. In the economical examination of nuclear-powered ships, ice breakers and ice breaking tankers are advantageous, but in other types of ships, a number of conditions must be satisfied to be economical. The Mutsu must be operated to collect the data and experience, and the project of an improved marine prototype reactor must be decided. Also a demonstration ship must be built. The standards for the design, construction and operation of nuclear-powered ships and the public acceptance are necessary. (Kako, I.)

  8. Gallegos and Kyle: Five Thousand Years of Maritime Subsistence at CA-SDI-48, on Ballast Point, San Diego County, California

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Claude N.

    2007-01-01

    Five Thousand Years of Maritime Subsistence at CA-SDI-48, on Ballast Point, San Diego County, California. Dennis Gallegos and Carolyn Kyle. Salinas: Coyote Press, 1998. [Archives of California Prehistory No. 40.] Xiv + 224 pp., 32 figs., 86 tables, 1 appendix. $23.00, (paper).

  9. 大型半潜船压载水系统设计%Ballast water system for a great semi-submersible vessel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志垒

    2014-01-01

    To realize the semi-submersible function safely and reliably, the ballast system of a certain semi-submersible self-propelled heavy lift vessel is designed by means of combining the air and pump ballast systems according to the characteristics of its numerous ballast tanks. The trail results show that the design of the water ballast system is able to realize the semi-submersible working function for a semi-submersible self-propelled heavy lift vessel at sea, which satisfies the requirements of the technical specification.%为安全可靠地实现半潜功能,根据某半潜式自航工程船压载舱众多的特点,采用空气压载系统与泵压载系统相结合进行设计。试航结果显示:压载水系统的设计能够安全实现该半潜式自航工程船海上半潜作业功能,达到技术规格书中的有关要求。

  10. Alfa Laval to meet the ballast water challenge%阿法拉伐应对压载水的挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Alfa Laval, the market leader in separation, heat transfer and freshwater generation, is widening its offering of solutions for environmental protection. The company hereby announces that a potent technology for dealing with unwanted organisms in ballast water will be commercially available as early as 2006.

  11. Development of the Nuclear Ship Database. 1. Outline of the Nuclear Ship Experimental Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyouya, Masahiko; Ochiai, Masa-aki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hashidate, Kouji

    1995-03-01

    We obtained the experimental data on the effects of the ship motions and the change in load and caused by the ship operations, the waves, the winds etc., to the nuclear power plant behavior, through the Power-up Tests and Experimental Voyages of the Nuclear Ship MUTSU. Moreover, we accumulated the techniques, the knowledge and others on the Nuclear Ship development at the each stage of the N.S. MUTSU Research and Development program, such as the design stage, the construction stage, the operation stage and others. These data, techniques, knowledge and others are the assembly of the experimental data and the experiences through the design, the construction and the operation of the first nuclear ship in JAPAN. It is important to keep and pigeonhole these products of the N.S. MUTSU program in order to utilize them effectively in the research and development of the advanced marine reactor, since there is no construction plan of the nuclear ship for the present in JAPAN. We have been carrying out the development of the Nuclear Ship Database System since 1991 for the purpose of effective utilization of the N.S. MUTSU products in the design study of the advanced marine reactors. The part of the Nuclear Ship Database System on the experimental data, called Nuclear Ship Experimental Database, was already accomplished and utilized since 1993. This report describes the outline and the use of the Nuclear Ship Experimental Database.The remaining part of the database system on the documentary data, called Nuclear Ship Documentary Database, are now under development. (author).

  12. 46 CFR 169.817 - Master to instruct ship's company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Master to instruct ship's company. 169.817 Section 169.817 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.817 Master to instruct ship's company. The master shall conduct drills and...

  13. 76 FR 82027 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct two... against noise on board ships; --Provisions for the reduction of noise from commercial shipping and...

  14. The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2012-01-01

    We solve an important problem for the liner shipping industry called the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. Shippers wish...

  15. Solving the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Askelsdottir, Björg; Jensen, Rune Møller;

    2015-01-01

    We solve a central problem in the liner shipping industry called the liner shipping fleet repositioning problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between routes in a liner shipping network. Liner carriers wish...

  16. A building cost estimation method for inland ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekkenberg, R.G.

    2014-01-01

    There is very little publicly available data about the building cost of inland ships, especially for ships that have dimensions that differ significantly from those of common ships. Also, no methods to determine the building cost of inland ships are described in literature. In this paper, a method t

  17. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Measures to protect ship's payrolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Measures to protect ship's payrolls. Sec. 5 Section 5... SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 5 Measures to protect ship's payrolls. (a) General Agents are not required to consider the amount of the payroll delivered to the Master at the conclusion of a voyage in determining...

  18. Arctic shipping emissions inventories and future scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Corbett

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is a sensitive region in terms of climate change and a rich natural resource for global economic activity. Arctic shipping is an important contributor to the region's anthropogenic air emissions, including black carbon – a short-lived climate forcing pollutant especially effective in accelerating the melting of ice and snow. These emissions are projected to increase as declining sea ice coverage due to climate change allows for increased shipping activity in the Arctic. To understand the impacts of these increased emissions, scientists and modelers require high-resolution, geospatial emissions inventories that can be used for regional assessment modeling. This paper presents 5 km×5 km Arctic emissions inventories of important greenhouse gases, black carbon and other pollutants under existing and future (2050 scenarios that account for growth of shipping in the region, potential diversion traffic through emerging routes, and possible emissions control measures. Short-lived forcing of ~4.5 gigagrams of black carbon from Arctic shipping may increase climate forcing; a first-order calculation of global warming potential due to 2030 emissions in the high-growth scenario suggests that short-lived forcing of ~4.5 gigagrams of black carbon from Arctic shipping may increase climate forcing due to Arctic ships by at least 17% compared to warming from these vessels' CO2 emissions (~42 000 gigagrams. The paper also presents maximum feasible reduction scenarios for black carbon in particular. These emissions reduction scenarios will enable scientists and policymakers to evaluate the efficacy and benefits of technological controls for black carbon, and other pollutants from ships.

  19. Feasibility Study on Nuclear Propulsion Ship according to Economic Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of nuclear ships has been extending to the icebreaker, the deep-water exploration ship, and the floating nuclear power plant. Prior to developing the new ship, the relevant regulations need to be considered. In this study, we reviewed the nuclear ship-related regulations. In addition, economic value is one of the most important factors which should be considered in the pre-design phase. To evaluate the economics of the nuclear ship, we calculated Capital Expenditure (abbreviated as CAPEX) and Operation Expenditure (abbreviated as OPEX) for various types of ships. We reviewed the nuclear ship-related regulations and evaluated the economics of the nuclear ship compared to the diesel ship. The calculation result shows that economic feasibility of the nuclear ship depends on the oil price as well as the cost of the nuclear reactor

  20. Feasibility Study on Nuclear Propulsion Ship according to Economic Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Youngmi; Yoo, Seongjin; Oh, June; Byun, Yoonchul; Woo, Ilguk [Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co., Ltd, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jiho; Choi, Suhn [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The use of nuclear ships has been extending to the icebreaker, the deep-water exploration ship, and the floating nuclear power plant. Prior to developing the new ship, the relevant regulations need to be considered. In this study, we reviewed the nuclear ship-related regulations. In addition, economic value is one of the most important factors which should be considered in the pre-design phase. To evaluate the economics of the nuclear ship, we calculated Capital Expenditure (abbreviated as CAPEX) and Operation Expenditure (abbreviated as OPEX) for various types of ships. We reviewed the nuclear ship-related regulations and evaluated the economics of the nuclear ship compared to the diesel ship. The calculation result shows that economic feasibility of the nuclear ship depends on the oil price as well as the cost of the nuclear reactor.

  1. Prediction of Ship Unsteady Maneuvering in Calm Water by a Fully Nonlinear Ship Motion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray-Qing Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the continuation of our research on development of a fully nonlinear, dynamically consistent, numerical ship motion model (DiSSEL. In this study we will report our results in predicting ship motions in unsteady maneuvering in calm water. During the unsteady maneuvering, both the rudder angle, and ship forward speed vary with time. Therefore, not only surge, sway, and yaw motions occur, but roll, pitch and heave motions will also occur even in calm water as heel, trim, and sinkage, respectively. When the rudder angles and ship forward speed vary rapidly with time, the six degrees-of-freedom ship motions and their interactions become strong. To accurately predict the six degrees-of-freedom ship motions in unsteady maneuvering, a universal method for arbitrary ship hull requires physics-based fully-nonlinear models for ship motion and for rudder forces and moments. The numerical simulations will be benchmarked by experimental data of the Pre-Contract DDG51 design and an Experimental Hull Form. The benchmarking shows a good agreement between numerical simulations by the enhancement DiSSEL and experimental data. No empirical parameterization is used, except for the influence of the propeller slipstream on the rudder, which is included using a flow acceleration factor.

  2. Contribution of ship traffic to aerosol particle concentrations downwind of a major shipping lane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivekäs, N.; Massling, Andreas; Grythe, H.;

    2014-01-01

    Particles in the atmosphere are of concern due to their toxic properties and effects on climate. In coastal areas, ship emissions can be a significant anthropogenic source. In this study we investigated the contribution from ship emissions to the total particle number and mass concentrations at a...

  3. Monitoring compliance with sulfur content regulations of shipping fuel by in situ measurements of ship emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattner, L.; Mathieu-Üffing, B.; Burrows, J. P.; Richter, A.; Schmolke, S.; Seyler, A.; Wittrock, F.

    2015-09-01

    In 1997 the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) adopted MARPOL Annex VI to prevent air pollution by shipping emissions. It regulates, among other issues, the sulfur content in shipping fuels, which is transformed into the air pollutant sulfur dioxide (SO2) during combustion. Within designated Sulfur Emission Control Areas (SECA), the sulfur content was limited to 1 %, and on 1 January 2015, this limit was further reduced to 0.1 %. Here we present the set-up and measurement results of a permanent ship emission monitoring site near Hamburg harbour in the North Sea SECA. Trace gas measurements are conducted with in situ instruments and a data set from September 2014 to January 2015 is presented. By combining measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and SO2 with ship position data, it is possible to deduce the sulfur fuel content of individual ships passing the measurement station, thus facilitating the monitoring of compliance of ships with the IMO regulations. While compliance is almost 100 % for the 2014 data, it decreases only very little in 2015 to 95.4 % despite the much stricter limit. We analysed more than 1400 ship plumes in total and for months with favourable conditions, up to 40 % of all ships entering and leaving Hamburg harbour could be checked for their sulfur fuel content.

  4. Stability criterion and its calculation for sail-assisted ship

    OpenAIRE

    Hu Yihuai; Tang Juanjuan; Xue Shuye; Liu Shewen

    2015-01-01

    Stability criterion and its calculation are the crucial issue in the application of sail-assisted ship. How- ever, there is at present no specific criterion and computational methods for the stability of sail-assisted ship. Based on the stability; requirements for seagoing ships, the stability criterion of the sail-assisted ships is suggested in this paper. Furthermore, how to calculate the parameters and determine some specific coefficients for the ship stability; calculation, as well as how...

  5. The Transformation of Swedish Shipping, 1970-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Sjögren, Hans; Taro Lennerfors, Thomas; Taudal Poulsen, Rene

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, as shipping has undergone a period of structural change, Swedish shipping has rapidly declined from a position of global importance. The Swedish-controlled fleet has dwindled, and the structure of the industry itself has changed. This article explores the influence of shipping markets, shipping regulations, company strategies, maritime know-how, and financial resources on the development of Swedish shipping from 1970 to 2010. A comparison is made between, on the one han...

  6. Radiative Forcing Over Ocean by Ship Wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Wilcox, E.; Poudyal, R.; Wang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in surface albedo represent one of the main forcing agents that can counteract, to some extent, the positive forcing from increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. Here, we report on enhanced ocean reflectance from ship wakes over the Pacific Ocean near the California coast, where we determined, based on airborne radiation measurements that ship wakes can increase reflected sunlight by more than 100%. We assessed the importance of this increase to climate forcing, where we estimated the global radiative forcing of ship wakes to be -0.00014 plus or minus 53% Watts per square meter assuming a global distribution of 32331 ships of size of greater than or equal to 100000 gross tonnage. The forcing is smaller than the forcing of aircraft contrails (-0.007 to +0.02 Watts per square meter), but considering that the global shipping fleet has rapidly grown in the last five decades and this trend is likely to continue because of the need of more inter-continental transportation as a result of economic globalization, we argue that the radiative forcing of wakes is expected to be increasingly important especially in harbors and coastal regions.

  7. Capital structure in the global shipping industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paun Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis emerged from a particular financial crisis that started in the United States and being rapidly propagated all over the world. It did not affect a limited region or a limited economic sector. This crisis induced significant changes in all management areas, including financial management. This study is focused on financing strategies adopted by shipping companies during the crisis, analyzing relevant factors for a specific issue - the capital structure. The research methodology proposed for this analysis on relevant factors that could explain the capital structure of shipping is OLS regression applied on selected variables derived from the financial statements of the major shipping companies. The dependent variables reflecting capital structure are book value to total liabilities ratio and book value to total debt ratio. The explanatory variables are derived from the theory of capital structure. This study empirically illustrates the relevance of the capital structure theory for the studied economic sector and is a useful tool for the shipping companies, providing relevant information about the optimal capital structure adopted by shipping companies and about factors that influence this decision during a crisis period.

  8. 改性环氧压载舱涂料的研制%Development of Modified Epoxy Ballast Tank Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马胜军; 王秀娟; 沈海鹰; 李敏; 潘煜怡; 刘宝成

    2012-01-01

    The blended curing agent of polyamide and phenolic amine was featured by its fast dry and good overall performance in ballast tank coatings. The pigments and fillers in coatings could improve the corrosion resintance, mechanical properties and adhesion. The P/B ratio was determined at 1. 5 ~ 2. 0 based on the test result of relationship between P/B ratio and film performance. The thixotropic agent, organic benton-ite G -1958, fumed silica 202/805 were evaluated by thixotropic index and sag resistance. Defoamer Efa-ka2722 showed strong anti — foaming with foam suppression, leveling and appearance improvement. The modified epoxy - resin coatings was prepared by using liquid epoxy resin, modification resin R, polyamide/ phenolic amine blended curing agent, thixotropic agents, efficient defoamers and fillers, which provided the modified epoxy ballast tank coatings excellent corrosion resistance, good flexibility, cathodic disbondment resistance , good wetting and adhesion on shop - primer. Test of simulated ballast tank condition & condensation chanber test have showed that performance of the modified epoxy — resin ballast tank coatings could meet technical requirements of PSPC appendix 1.%聚酰胺与酚醛胺的复配,所得固化剂固化速度快,综合性能好.颜料、填料能够提高涂料的防腐性、机械性能、附着力等,通过考察颜基比对涂层性能的影响,得出压载舱涂料的颜基比在1.5~2.0之间比较合适.由触变指数来评价触变剂的防沉抗流挂性能,筛选出G-1958有机喷润土和202/805气相二氧化硅.从破泡抑泡性、流平性和涂膜外观的效果来看,Efka2722消泡效果比较好,而且有一定的流平作用.以液体环氧树脂、改性树脂R为基料,聚酰胺和酚醛胺为固化剂,合理选用触变剂、消泡剂以及颜填料,所制得的改性环氧压载舱涂料柔韧性好,抗阴极剥离、附着能力好,防腐性能强.模拟压载舱和冷凝舱的试验表明,其性能

  9. A decision analytical framework for evaluating technical innovation and diffusion: The case of electronic ballasts for commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, H.G.; Weyant, J.P.; Johnson, B.; Kann, A.

    1996-03-01

    The authors present a decision analytical framework for studying the decision to purchase new energy-efficient magnetic ballasts for commercial buildings as a special case study for understanding the decision environment that could either encourage or retard the penetration of new carbon-saving technologies. The framework is particularly germane to situations where uncertainty in the investment outcome prevails as a dominant dimension of the problem. It allows the policy analyst to consider policies that operate through other considerations than through the price alone. A key effect is how a policy will either truncate a probability distribution to remove the worst outcomes or cause the probability distribution to narrow. Such considerations appear important when studying information programs, vendor warranty, and other factors that condition the investment decision.

  10. Production, oxygen respiration rates, and sinking velocity of copepod fecal pellets: Direct measurements of ballasting by opal and calcite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, H.; Iversen, M.H.; Koski, Marja; Buitenhuis, E.T.

    2008-01-01

    sp., T. weissflogii, and E. huxleyi, respectively. The average carbon-specific respiration rate was 0.15 d(-1) independent on diet (range: 0.08-0.21 d(-1)). Because of ballasting of opal and calcite, sinking velocities were significantly higher for pellets produced on T. weissflogii (322 +/- 169 m d......Production, oxygen uptake, and sinking velocity of copepod fecal pellets egested by Temora longicornis were measured using a nanoflagellate (Rhodomonas sp.), a diatom (Thalassiosira weissflogii), or a coccolithophorid (Emiliania huxleyi) as food sources. Fecal pellet production varied between 0......(-1)) and E. huxleyi (200 +/- 93 m d(-1)) than on Rhodomonas sp. (35 +/- 29 m d(-1)). Preservation of carbon was estimated to be approximately 10-fold higher in fecal pellets produced when T. longicornis was fed E. huxleyi or T. weissflogii rather than Rhodomonas sp. Our study directly demonstrates...

  11. Exploring the depths of Kraken Mare - Power, thermal analysis, and ballast control for the Saturn Titan submarine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, J. W.; Colozza, A.; Lorenz, R. D.; Oleson, S.; Landis, G.; Schmitz, P.; Paul, M.; Walsh, J.

    2016-03-01

    To explore the depths of the hydrocarbon rich seas on the Saturn moon Titan, a conceptual design of an unmanned submarine concept was recently developed for a Phase I NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) study. Data from Cassini Huygens indicates that the Titan polar environment sustains stable seas of variable concentrations of ethane, methane, and nitrogen, with a surface temperature around 93 K. To meet science exploration objectives, the submarine must operate autonomously, study atmosphere/sea exchange, interact with the seabed at pressures up to 10 atm, traverse large distances with limited energy, hover at the surface and at any depth within the sea, and be capable of tolerating multiple different concentration levels of hydrocarbons. Therefore Titan presents many cryogenic design challenges. This paper presents the trade studies with emphasis on the preliminary design of the power, thermal, and ballast control subsystems for the Saturn Titan submarine.

  12. Superconducting magnets for MHD ship propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superconducting magnets application for MHD ship propulsion seems quite attractive because there is no altarnative: huge masses of winding and of power source prevent conventional type magnet using. However, the mass of a steady state stabilized superconducting magnet appears excessive and application of such magnets for large propulsive devices appears uneffective. So optimisation of superconducting winding is significant not only to increase parameters of the device but to realize this method of propulsion. Is it suggestive to use conductors with current density about 20 kA/cm2 in combination with light structural materials (i.e. Ti or Al alloys) for these devices. Necessity to minimize fringe fields should be taken into consideration in process of the optimization, to prevent the ship force interaction with other ships and berth facilities and also the Earth magnetic field distortion. Some option of magnets with minimized fringe fields and some problems of large non steady stabilized magnets performance are considered in this report. (orig.)

  13. Operational data of nuclear ship 'MUTSU'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first nuclear ship of Japan, 'MUTSU', experienced voyage of about 82,000 km. Many data on the ship's motion and the power plant behavior were obtained under various meteorological conditions during the voyage. These data were recorded on more than 500 rolls of magnetic tape (MT). These data were transferred to these in digital audio tapes (DATs). The computer program was developed to transfer the data on DATs into the text form. As the result, we came to be able to utilize these data easily through the nuclear ship database system and a personal computer. This report describes a conversion program, data structure, list of saved data and utilization for the experimental data. Reduction of the storage space was achieved by the data transfer work from the MTs to the DATs. (author)

  14. The Two Regimes of Postwar Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Martin Jes; Tenold, Stig

    2014-01-01

    the bargaining that accompanied the shift from the national regime to the competitive regime. Specifically, we show that the new regime primarily accommodated the interests of private actors such as shipping companies, rather than the interests of the authorities and the trade unions.......The aim of this article is to illustrate the most important changes in the regulatory framework of the shipping sector from the 1960s to 2010, and to analyse the basis for, and effects of, these changes. In order to explain how the transformation has occurred, we use two traditional maritime...... nations—Denmark and Norway—as case studies. First, we introduce the two regimes of Danish and Norwegian shipping: ‘the national regime’ from the early 1960s to the mid-1970s; and ‘the competitive regime’, which was fully established by the middle of the 1990s and still persists. Then, we briefly sketch...

  15. Standardized analyses of nuclear shipping containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes improved capabilities for analyses of nuclear fuel shipping containers within SCALE -- a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation. Criticality analysis improvements include the new KENO V, a code which contains an enhanced geometry package and a new control module which uses KENO V and allows a criticality search on optimum pitch (maximum k-effective) to be performed. The SAS2 sequence is a new shielding analysis module which couples fuel burnup, source term generation, and radial cask shielding. The SAS5 shielding sequence allows a multidimensional Monte Carlo analysis of a shipping cask with code generated biasing of the particle histories. The thermal analysis sequence (HTAS1) provides an easy-to-use tool for evaluating a shipping cask response to the accident capability of the SCALE system to provide the cask designer or evaluator with a computational system that provides the automated procedures and easy-to-understand input that leads to standarization

  16. The oscillations of ship lock bottom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Yu. Kuzmin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the dynamic characteristics of the ship lock. The accurate design relations intended to study the natural and forced vibrations of the bottom of the ship lock are provided. The degree of filling of the lock, as well as the added mass of water is considered. The various coupling conditions of the bottom and walls of buildings are taken into account. A concrete example of the calculation is given.An exact, in the framework of the adopted design scheme, solution of the problem of the own and forced vibrations of the bottom of the ship lock is found. The frequency of the first five tones of vibrations and the associated mass of liquid according to thickness of the structure and coupling conditions of the bottom and sides of the lock are analyzed. A significant effect of liquids on low-frequency part of the spectrum and the dynamic response of the bottom is determined.

  17. Performance of Ship Assistance Program for Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Mira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study identify inhibiting factors that make the program Inka Mina did not reach goal. The study uses regression analysis and correlation analysis. Correlation analysis results indicate that the strong correlation between the number of aid ships with determining factors such as the potential for fisheries, the number of fishermen, the amount of production, the number of ship, number of KUB, and the fishing port. Regression analysis results indicate that amount of aid ships in a region is in accordance with the elements set out in the technical guidance. However, a strong correlation does not necessarily determine the success of this program, because there are other factors that have not been considered (qualitative factors , such as culture one day fishing on coastal communities, people's habits (gear and type of size, transfer knowledge, and other factors. Assessment for this problem, government should consider the culture aspect.

  18. Design of Control and Monitoring System to Avoid Inter-Ship Collisions in West Shipping Lane Tanjung Perak Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Devina P. Sari; Aulia S. Aisjah; A.A. Masroeri

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of several ship accidents in narrow waters of Madura strait which is the west shipping lane of Tanjung Perak Surabaya has inspired the research on the design of a control system on the ship to avoid any collision between ships. The existence of automatic control with the autopilot is required to minimize the occurrence of collisions between ships In this final study investigated the application of fuzzy logic to control the yaw angle on the vessel MV Karana Sembilan. Fuzzy logi...

  19. A Simplified Method for Calculating Propeller Thrust Decrease for a Ship Sailing on a Given Shipping Lane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelazny Katarzyna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During ship sailing on rough water, relative ship motions can be observed which make the propeller emerge from the water, and decrease its thrust as a consequence. The article presents a simplified method for calculating the thrust decrease and the time of propeller emergence from water for the ship on a regular an irregular wave. The method can be used for predicting the operating speed of the ship on a given shipping lane.

  20. The mechanics of ship impacts against bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    information is introduced in a mathematical model for estimation of the return period for collisions with bridge piers and girders. A new mathematical model is thereafter presented for calculation of the energies released for crushing of structures given a specific collision scenario which may include a...... glancing blow between the ship and the bridge structure. This model is based on rigid body mechanics and well suited for inclusion in a probabilistic analysis procedure. Finally, some empirical expressions are presented which relate the energy absorbed by crushing of ship structures to the maximum impact...

  1. Global Loads on FRP Ship Hulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    Fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) composites used for high-speed vessels have lower modulus of elasticity than the conventionally used steels.Therefore, for large fast ships the lowest natural frequencies of the global hull modes can be relatively low compared to the frequency of waveencounter. As...... part of the NoKoS project it was decided to investigate the effect of hull flexibility on the wave-induced as well as accidental structural loads on high-speed ships.Especially it was decided to determine whether there is an upper size of FRP and aluminium mono-hulls caused by continuous wave action...

  2. Network Design Models for Container Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Kallehauge, Brian; Nielsen, Anders Nørrelund;

    included in the calculation of the capacity and that a inhomogeneous fleet is modeled. The model also includes the cost of transshipment which is one of the major cost for the shipping companies. The concept of pseudo simple routes is introduced to expand the set of feasible routes. The linearization of......This paper presents a study of the network design problem in container shipping. The paper combines the network design and fleet assignment problem into a mixed integer linear programming model minimizing the overall cost. The major contributions of this paper is that the time of a vessel route is...

  3. Nuclear shipping and waste disposal cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cost estimates for the shipping of spent fuel from the reactor, shipping of waste from the reprocessing plant, and disposal of reprocessing plant wastes have been made for five reactor types. The reactors considered are the light-water reactor (LWR), the mixed-oxide-fueled light-water reactor (MOX), the Canadian deuterium-uranium reactor (CANDU), the fast breeder reactor (FBR), and the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). In addition to the cost estimates, this report provides details on the bases and assumptions used to develop the cost estimates

  4. Nuclear shipping and waste disposal cost estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, C.R. II

    1977-11-01

    Cost estimates for the shipping of spent fuel from the reactor, shipping of waste from the reprocessing plant, and disposal of reprocessing plant wastes have been made for five reactor types. The reactors considered are the light-water reactor (LWR), the mixed-oxide-fueled light-water reactor (MOX), the Canadian deuterium-uranium reactor (CANDU), the fast breeder reactor (FBR), and the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). In addition to the cost estimates, this report provides details on the bases and assumptions used to develop the cost estimates.

  5. Designing for High-Speed Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Røed, Bjarte Knappen

    2007-01-01

    Fast patrol boats are high-speed vessels operated by the Royal Norwegian Navy (RNoN). These ships are 36,5 meters long, have a beam of 6,2 meters and operate at high speed (32 knots – 16,5 meters per second) in very restricted waters. The fast patrol boats are war ships and navigation tasks performed by the crews are different from those in civilian high-speed craft. A team of five persons navigate the fast patrol boats, and navigation is based on traditional means such as visual observations...

  6. Strength of ship plates under combined loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Weiching; Wang, Yongjun; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2000-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role for the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjected to...... that the simplified method is able to determine the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates with imperfections in the form of welding induced residual stresses and geometric deflections subjected to combined loads. Comparisons with experimental results show that the procedure has sufficient accuracy...

  7. Code of safety for nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Code is in chapters, entitled: general (including general safety principles and principles of risk acceptance); design criteria and conditions; ship design, construction and equipment; nuclear steam supply system; machinery and electrical installations; radiation safety (including radiological protection design; protection of persons; dosimetry; radioactive waste management); operation (including emergency operation procedures); surveys. Appendices cover: sinking velocity calculations; seaway loads depending on service periods; safety assessment; limiting dose-equivalent rates for different areas and spaces; quality assurance programme; application of single failure criterion. Initial application of the Code is restricted to conventional types of ships propelled by nuclear propulsion plants with pressurized light water type reactors. (U.K.)

  8. Innovation in product and services in the shipping retrofit industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Köhler, Jonathan; Scheepens, Arno

    2015-01-01

    shed light on this issue, the authors develop a conceptual framework to show how a specific type of business model (Product-Service Systems) could be applied to the context of the maritime industry. With a focus on the Danish maritime industry, the case study addresses two questions: Which business...... models are being used to develop, install and service the ballast water treatment technology? And, How can these business models add value to the ballast water treatment systems in the market? The case shows that different business models are applied depending on whether the installation is on new or......Eco-innovation research pays increasing attention to business models and their contribution to the diffusion of environmental technology into socio-technological systems. The extent to which a business model hampers or promotes certain types of eco-innovations remains an open question. In order to...

  9. Research on an Integrated Modeling Method of Virtual Ship Assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Yuan; Yao Zhao; Jun Yan

    2011-01-01

    A new method of virtual ship assembly modeling which integrates ship three-dimensional design and ship construction planning was described in this paper.A workflow model of simulation modeling based on the virtual ship assembly process was also established; furthermore,a method of information transformation between the ship three-dimensional design and ship construction plan was formulated.To meet the requirements of information sharing between different systems in the ship virtual assembly,a simulation database was created by using the software engineering design method and the relational data model.With the application of this database,the information of ship three-dimensional design,construction planning,and virtual assembly can be integrated into one system.Subsequently,this new method was applied as a tool to simulate the virtual assembly of a ship,and the results guarantee its rationality and reliability.

  10. A numerical study on ship-ship interaction in shallow and restricted waterway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Sungwook

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a numerical prediction method on the hydrodynamic interaction force and moment between two ships in shallow and restricted waterway is presented. Especially, the present study proposes a methodology to overcome the limitation of the two dimensional perturbation method which is related to the moored-passing ship interaction. The validation study was performed and compared with the experiment, firstly. Afterward, in order to propose a methodology in terms with the moored-passing ship interaction, further studies were performed for the moored-passing ship case with a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS calculation which is using OpenFOAM with Arbitrary Coupled Mesh Interface (ACMI technique and compared with the experiment result. Finally, the present study proposes a guide to apply the two dimensional perturbation method to the moored-passing ship interaction. In addition, it presents a possibility that the RANS calculation with ACMI can applied to the ship-ship interaction without using a overset moving grid technique.

  11. A numerical study on ship-ship interaction in shallow and restricted waterway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungwook

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, a numerical prediction method on the hydrodynamic interaction force and moment between two ships in shallow and restricted waterway is presented. Especially, the present study proposes a methodology to overcome the limitation of the two dimensional perturbation method which is related to the moored-passing ship interaction. The validation study was performed and compared with the experiment, firstly. Afterward, in order to propose a methodology in terms with the moored-passing ship interaction, further studies were performed for the moored-passing ship case with a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) calculation which is using OpenFOAM with Arbitrary Coupled Mesh Interface (ACMI) technique and compared with the experiment result. Finally, the present study proposes a guide to apply the two dimensional perturbation method to the moored-passing ship interaction. In addition, it presents a possibility that the RANS calculation with ACMI can applied to the ship-ship interaction without using a overset moving grid technique.

  12. Maritime trade and merchant shipping: The shipping/trade-ratio from the 1870s until today.

    OpenAIRE

    Ojala, Jari; Tenold, Stig

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of countries’ market shares in world shipping over the last 150 years. The analysis is based upon a new and purpose-built indicator: the shipping/trade-ratio. This indicator presents the relationship between the merchant marine of a country and the country’s role in world trade. Analysis of the shipping/trade-ratio identifies two important developments. First, although the share of the world fleet registered in Europe has dropped significantly, Europe’s ro...

  13. Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), Shipping Marketing and Safety Orientation: The Case of Greek Tanker Shipping Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Plomaritou, Evi; Konsta, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    If you are not sure where you are, how will you find out where to go? The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between the KPIs and the shipping marketing as well as the usefulness of KPIs in shipping companies performance evaluation. The paper brings the importance of KPIs closer to the reader and examines their definition, purpose and role in the shipping company. The first part is devoted to literature review on KPIs. The second part examines the relationship among the KPIs,...

  14. What maritime ISAR designers should know about ship dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerry, A. W.

    2012-06-01

    ISAR has enjoyed some success in imaging maritime targets, particularly ships. In fact, a number of maritime ISAR systems have been operational for a number of years. With ISAR, the ship's own motion is critical to forming well-resolved ISAR images. Seemingly important to accounting for ship motion is to first understand the nature of the ship motion that we are likely to encounter. Designing ships for specific motion characteristics is the domain of naval architecture. This paper presents some preliminary analysis of naval architecture principles, and typical ship designs' impact on the ISAR problem.

  15. Challenges to Ship Hydrodynamics in the XXI Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Kobylinski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of twenty-first century is characterized with important changes in world shipping and exploitation of ocean resources. Three important trends are clearly visible: environment protection, safety and economy. They materialize in important changes in the structure of world fleet where some existing ship types are going to disappear and new ship types emerge. Increasing the size of some ship types is another visible tendency. Stress on environment protection has serious impact on the hydrodynamic characteristics of ships whether with regard to safety zero accident rate is the goal. Important challenges to ship hydrodynamics caused by those tendencies are discussed in the paper.

  16. A PDDL Domain for the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Coles, Amanda; Coles, Andrew;

    The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs that are a ......The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs...

  17. Legal aspects of merchant ships with nuclear propulsion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Status and prospects of using nuclear power plants for merchant ship propulsion are considered. Standard acts adopted in the USSR concerning nuclear power application on merchant ships and the problems of responsibility fo damage caused by utilization of nuclear power plants on sea ships are discussed. Nuclear ships compare favourably with ships using the traditional types of fuels in performance. At the same time despite high degree of nuclear ship reliability and safety extremely strict requirements making severe their legal status are specified to them

  18. Ship-shore packet switched communications system

    OpenAIRE

    Buddenberg, Rex A.

    1986-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited This thesis presents an architecture for ship-shore sea service communications. Starting with the ARPANET packet switching model (TCP/IP), Network and Logical Link layers are defined which deal with the following problems... http://archive.org/details/shipshorepackets00budd Lieutenant Commander, United States Coast Guard

  19. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Video Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During each NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer field season, full-resolution video in a ProRes 422 format at a bitrate of 145 Mbps is produced during each deployment of the...

  20. Time constrained liner shipping network design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Desaulniers, Guy;

    2016-01-01

    iteratively to perform moves in a large neighborhood search. Our improvement heuristic is applicable as a real-time decision support tool for a liner shipping company. It can be used to find improvements to the network when evaluating changes in operating conditions or testing different scenarios...

  1. Exergy Analysis of Complex Ship Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Marty

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With multiple primary and secondary energy converters (diesel engines, steam turbines, waste heat recovery (WHR and oil-fired boilers, etc. and extensive energy networks (steam, cooling water, exhaust gases, etc., ships may be considered as complex energy systems. Understanding and optimizing such systems requires advanced holistic energy modeling. This modeling can be done in two ways: The simpler approach focuses on energy flows, and has already been tested, approved and presented; a new, more complicated approach, focusing on energy quality, i.e., exergy, is presented in this paper. Exergy analysis has rarely been applied to ships, and, as a general rule, the shipping industry is not familiar with this tool. This paper tries to fill this gap. We start by giving a short reminder of what exergy is and describe the principles of exergy modeling to explain what kind of results should be expected from such an analysis. We then apply these principles to the analysis of a large two-stroke diesel engine with its cooling and exhaust systems. Simulation results are then presented along with the exergy analysis. Finally, we propose solutions for energy and exergy saving which could be applied to marine engines and ships in general.

  2. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Ship's boilers. (a) Before work is performed in the fire, steam, or water spaces of a boiler where employees may be subject to injury from the direct escape of a high temperature medium such as steam, or... dead boiler with the live system or systems shall be secured, blanked, and tagged indicating...

  3. Developmental tendencies in container ships reloading technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz ROSOCHACKI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of developmental tendencies in reloading technology for container ships is presented in the paper. Innovative methods are described for typical solutions. The paper indicates factors which can have significant influence on forming modern systems of loading and unloading containers on vessels.

  4. Press freight and shipping guide: Sochi 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This "Press freight and shipping guide" is intended for accredited members of the media. This guide provides a practical insight about how to import and export various types of goods to and from Russia, for use in connection with the Sochi 2014 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games.

  5. Reconfigurable Control of a Ship Propulsion Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    1998-01-01

    -tolerant control is a fairly new area. Thise paper presents a ship propulsion system as a benchmark that should be useful as a platform for the development of new ideas and a comparison of methods. The benchmark has two main elements. One is the development of efficient FDI algorithms, and the other is the...

  6. IS INLAND SHIPPING NEEDED IN POLAND?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, inland shipping plays only a mariginal role in transport needs fulfillment. Inland shipping has a share of mere 0,3% in goods transport modal split. The reason for this is poor and variable technical parameters of inland waterways together with adverse legal regulations. Different situation takes place in Western European countries, in which the development of this mode of transport is viewed as a way of road transport develop-ment restraint. In Poland, the need to move some of the volume from road transport to in-land shipping is specifically observed within marine ports surroundings. Because of their complex nature, the investments in inland shipping infrastructure would also be helpful in solving the current problems of water management. Inland waterways in Poland guaran-tee neither an adequate level of flood protection, nor the water needs fulfillment of do-mestic economy. When it comes to water reserves, Poland is one of the most deficient countries in Europe. Thus there is a need to invest in inland waterways in Poland.

  7. Detection of Parametric Roll on Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have shown several incidents with dramatic damage on container vessels caused by parametric resonance. When the resonance starts, the roll oscillation at a sub-harmonic frequency of the wave excitation may be completely unexpected. Timely warning about the onset of the resonance phen...... experimental data from towing tank tests and data from a container ship passing an Atlantic storm....

  8. Developmental tendencies in container ships reloading technology

    OpenAIRE

    Włodzimierz ROSOCHACKI

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of developmental tendencies in reloading technology for container ships is presented in the paper. Innovative methods are described for typical solutions. The paper indicates factors which can have significant influence on forming modern systems of loading and unloading containers on vessels.

  9. Shielding Analysis of the 5320 Shipping Cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Nathan, S. [Westinghouse Safety Management Solutions, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to demonstrate that the 5320 shipping cask meets Federal regulations for maximum radiation dose rates when loaded with the intended plutonium oxide cargo. It should be emphasized that the 5320 is an existing cask, and therefore this work represents confirmatory analysis rather than design analysis.

  10. Flooding and sinking of nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In contrast to land-based power plants for ship reactors the marine environment brings up the peril of sinking. But this peril is low for nuclear ships with its high safety standard. An evaluation of casualties from 1964 - 1974 for ships>8000 GRT allows to estimate a very low sink probability for nuclear ships in the range of 10-7 to 10-8 p.a. In spite of this low probability a sinking cannot be excluded absolutely. Therefore passive means must be provided for sinking in deep waters: to maintain the integrity of at least one enclosure as activity barrier; to supply seawater into the safety containment for decay heat removal. For sinking in shallow waters and flooding at least one of the redundant decay heat removal systems including power supply stays operable. A mathematical tool is available for the design of flood openings of sufficient cross sections to flood the containment and to reach a pressure balance in case of postulated sinking in deep waters of any depth

  11. EX1101: Ship Shakedown and Patch Tests on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer (EM302)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project will involve the shakedown of all Okeanos Explorer ship capabilities and a patch test of the Kongsberg EM302 multibeam system. Operations for this...

  12. Low emission fuel cell ship. Environmental account of fuel cell powered ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipping is the dominant mode of global transport, accounting for total global anthropogenic NOx and SOx emissions of 10-14% and 4-6% respectively. Future environmental requirements signalled for shipping may exceed the possibilities within current conventional technology. The work presented document the environmental benefits of using fuel cells compared to diesel engines. The work describes the general principles for modelling emissions to air for ships. The model was calibrated by measurements onboard an offshore supply vessel and a car carrier. For the offshore vessel, the FC model includes 100% of onboard power delivered by FC's. For the car carrier, the FC replaces the auxiliary engines. FC type modelled was a high temperature FC running on natural gas. The work quantifies yearly reduction in atmospheric emissions of CO2, NOx, SOx and PM. Our results show that the installation of fuel cells in ships will improve the environmental performance significantly (e.g. global warming and acidification). (author)

  13. Environmental accounting for Arctic shipping - a framework building on ship tracking data from satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjelde, A; Martinsen, K; Eide, M; Endresen, O

    2014-10-15

    Arctic shipping is on the rise, leading to increased concern over the potential environmental impacts. To better understand the magnitude of influence to the Arctic environment, detailed modelling of emissions and environmental risks are essential. This paper describes a framework for environmental accounting. A cornerstone in the framework is the use of Automatic Identification System (AIS) ship tracking data from satellites. When merged with ship registers and other data sources, it enables unprecedented accuracy in modelling and geographical allocation of emissions and discharges. This paper presents results using two of the models in the framework; emissions of black carbon (BC) in the Arctic, which is of particular concern for climate change, and; bunker fuels and wet bulk carriage in the Arctic, of particular concern for oil spill to the environment. Using the framework, a detailed footprint from Arctic shipping with regards to operational emissions and potential discharges is established. PMID:25168183

  14. Effect and mechanism of a High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) and Ultraviolet (UV) composite process on the inactivation of microbes in ballast water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhijun; Zhang, Lin; Shi, Yue; Leng, Xiaodong; Shao, Jingchao

    2016-07-15

    The patented technology of a High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS)-Ultraviolet (UV) composite process was used to treat ballast water. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was selected as the reference bacteria. After treatment by the HGMS-UV process, the concentration of S. aureus on the log 10 scale was lower than 2 at different flow rates, S. aureus suffered the most serious damage, and K(+) leakage of the bacteria was 1.73mg/L higher than separate 60min UV irradiation (1.17mg/L) and HGMS (0.12mg/L) processes. These results demonstrated that the HGMS-UV composite process was an effective approach to treat ballast water. Further, the HGMS process had synergistic action on the subsequent UV irradiation process and accelerated cell membrane damage. Meanwhile, the results of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities of bacteria and DNA band analyses indicated that the inactivation mechanisms were different for HGMS and UV irradiation. PMID:27126180

  15. Monitoring compliance with sulfur content regulations of shipping fuel by in situ measurements of ship emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Kattner, L.; B. Mathieu-Üffing; Burrows, J.P.; Richter, A; Schmolke, S; A. Seyler; Wittrock, F.

    2015-01-01

    In 1997 the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) adopted MARPOL Annex VI to prevent air pollution by shipping emissions. It regulates, among other issues, the sulfur content in shipping fuels, which is transformed into the air pollutant sulfur dioxide (SO2) during combustion. Within designated Sulfur Emission Control Areas (SECA), the sulfur content was limited to 1 %, and on 1 January 2015, this limit was further reduced to 0.1 %. Here we present the set-up and measure...

  16. Application of Polyurethane Polymer and Assistant Rails to Settling the Abnormal Vehicle-Track Dynamic Effects in Transition Zone between Ballastless and Ballasted Track

    OpenAIRE

    Caiyou Zhao; Ping Wang; Qiang Yi; Duo Meng

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes tests on a transition section between ballasted and ballastless tracks in the Liupanshui-Zhanyi railway in China. The originally unsettled transition zone is exposed to sudden car shaking and a series of track transition problems during train passage. As an example, the influences of polyurethane polymer and a combination of polyurethane and assistant rails to increase track stiffness distribution and track transition decay rates on the dynamic vehicle and track behaviour...

  17. 78 FR 75484 - Federal Management Regulation (FMR); Shipping Household Goods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ...] RIN 3090-AJ38 Federal Management Regulation (FMR); Shipping Household Goods AGENCY: Office of... shipping means the reimbursement rate the Federal employee receives for moving his/her own HHG or...

  18. 77 FR 12353 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... onboard, or following a report of a missing person from, a ship and (2) in the pastoral and medical care of alleged victims of serious crimes onboard ships. Although no such formal proposal has...

  19. Study of the ship design process model for collaborative design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The ship design process model is the basis for developing the ship collaborative design system under network environment.According to the characteristics of the ship design, a method for dividing the ship design process into three layers is pat forward, that is project layer, design task layer and design activity layer, then the formalized definitions of the ship design process model, the decomposing principles of the ship design process and the architecture of the ship collaborative design (SDPM) system are presented. This method simplifies the activity network, makes the optimization and adjustment of the design plan convenient and also makes the design process easier to control and change, at last the architecture of the ship collaborative design system is discussed.

  20. STUDY OF HYDRODYNAMIC FORCES OF SHIPS IN NARROW WATERWAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xie-dong; Wu Xiu-heng

    2003-01-01

    The collision of ships in narrow waterway may occur for a variety of reasons. The hydrodynamic forces between two ships change the maneuvering characteristics of ships greatly. So based on the boundary element method, this paper proposes a calculation method for hydrodynamic interaction forces between ships under meeting and passing conditions in narrow waterway. The results from this method are compared with the existing results obtained from other theoretical approaches, and they are in good agreement.