WorldWideScience

Sample records for ballast crib

  1. Crib Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Strangled Children The New Crib Standards: A Safer Generation of Cribs Sleep Positioners: A Suffocation Risk Recalls ... it contains by CPSC or any of its employees. Click Ok if you wish to continue to ...

  2. Prevention of crib-biting: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, P D; Nicol, C J

    1998-11-01

    Crib-biting is a common oral stereotype. Because of perceived deleterious effects on the health and appearance of subjects the prevention of crib-biting is regularly attempted. The resourcefulness of horses in satisfying their motivation to perform this behaviour often frustrates owners' efforts at prevention. This paper reviews the efficacy and observable consequences of attempting to prevent crib-biting by a variety of methods. These include attempts to prevent the grasping of objects, to interfere with air-engulfing and to introduce punishment for grasping and neck-flexion. Other approaches include the use of surgery, acupuncture, pharmaceuticals, operant feeding and environmental enrichment. A remedy that is effective for every crib-biter remains elusive. We conclude that, rather than concentrating on remedial prevention, further research should be directed at establishing why horses crib-bite and how the emergence of crib-biting can be avoided. PMID:10485002

  3. Crib Card Use During Tests: Helpful or a Crutch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Steven C.; Dickson, K. Laurie

    2011-01-01

    The authors experimentally investigated the effect of crib cards on exam performance and student learning. Fifty-one students expected to use their prepared crib cards during an exam. However, they first completed an unexpected pretest without their crib card. Students performed significantly worse on the pretest than on identical questions when…

  4. Inerting ballast tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, Gabriel L.; Bronneberg, Jos [SBM Offshore, AA Schiedam (Netherlands); Barros, Maria A.S.D. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This report expands upon the work conducted by SBM Offshore to develop a tank preservation treatment, which is intended to achieve a service life of 30 years. This work focuses on the corrosion problems, in the ballast tanks, based on new built hulls, both for the Gas Exploration Market, the FLNG - Floating Liquefied Natural Gas, and for the Oil Exploration market - FPSO's - Floating Production Storage and offloading Units. Herein, the corrosion rate input comes from the various references related to the process of nitrogen injection, which is expected to extend the vessel's time life. The essential elements of this solution comprise the deoxygenation process, corrosion models, coating effects, tests from laboratory, shipboard tests, corrosion institutes and regulations applicable to the operation. The best corrosion protection system for ballast tanks area combines a coating system and an inert gas system. The condition of the tanks will be dependent upon the level of protection applied to the steel structure, including, but not limited to coating, cathodic protection, etc. There is a need for products which extend the life time. It is not sufficient, only have good theoretical base for the corrosion and an excellent treatment system. In addition, the design of the ships structure must also eliminate the presence of local stress concentrations which can result in fatigue cracking and rupture of the protective coating barrier starting the corrosion. As a direct result of this, more problems in corrosion can be mitigated, vessels can have a better corrosion performance with less maintenance and repairs to coating systems in ballast tanks. Furthermore ships will be positively impacted operationally due to less frequent dry docking. There is a huge potential in the application of inert gas to combat the corrosion rate inside the ballast tanks, one of the most corrosive environments on earth. This application can have a direct impact on vessel structure

  5. Ballast Water Treatment Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides functionality for the full-scale testing and controlled simulation of ship ballasting operations for assessment of aquatic nuisance species (ANS)...

  6. Crib Sheets and Exam Performance in a Data Structures Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, Sally; Shaffer, Clifford A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the relationship between the use of "crib sheets" or "cheat sheets" and performance on in-class exams. Our extensive survey of the existing literature shows that it is not decisive on the questions of when or whether crib sheets actually help students to either perform better on an exam or better learn…

  7. Crib sheets and exam performance in a data structures course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, Sally; Shaffer, Clifford A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the relationship between the use of "crib sheets" or "cheat sheets" and performance on in-class exams. Our extensive survey of the existing literature shows that it is not decisive on the questions of when or whether crib sheets actually help students to either perform better on an exam or better learn the material. We report on our own detailed analysis for a body of crib sheets created for the final exam in a junior-level Data Structures and Algorithms course. We wanted to determine whether there is any feature of the crib sheets that correlates to good exam scores. Exam performance was compared against a number of potential indicators for quality in a crib sheet. We have found that students performed significantly better on questions at the comprehension level of Bloom's taxonomy when their crib sheet contained good information on the topic, while performance on questions at higher levels of the taxonomy did not show correlation to crib sheet contents. We have also seen that students at certain levels of performance on the final exam (specifically, medium-to-high performance) did relatively better on certain questions than other students at that performance level when they had good coverage of that question's topic on their crib sheet.

  8. 46 CFR 182.540 - Ballast systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ballast systems. 182.540 Section 182.540 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.540 Ballast systems. (a) Ballast piping must not be installed in any compartment integral...

  9. Bailey mine eliminates cribbing in the tailgates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCaffrey, J.J.; Stankus, J.C.; Peng, S.S. (Enlow Fork Mine (United States))

    1994-05-01

    Describes a new method of tailgate support, designed as an alternative to modern crib support, and tested in an active longwall panel at the Bailey mine, Greene County, Pennsylvania. The new system works in conjunction with the existing primary support roof bolts and employs JM trusses from Jennmar Corp. installed at 4 ft intervals in the tailgate entry and 2 ft intervals in each crosscut. The entry was monitored prior to and during the successful longwall retreat through the test area using vibrating wire stress meters, convergence stations, strain gages, calibrated load cells and stratascope boreholes. There were no roof control problems in the tailgate entry and the trusses successfully controlled the abutment pressures, allowing the tailgate entry to remain open throughout the mining period. 3 figs., 4 photos.

  10. Description of individual data items and codes in CRIB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Eleanor K.; Calkins, James Alfred

    1978-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Computerized Resources Information Bank (CRIB) is being made available for public use through the computer facilities of the University of Oklahoma and the General Electric Company, U.S.A. The use of General Electric's worldwide information-services network provides access to the CRIB file to a worldwide clientele. This manual, which consists of two chapters, is intended as a guide to users who wish to interrogate the file. Chapter A contains a description of the CRIB file, information on the use of the GIPSY retrieval system, and a description of the General Electric MARK III Service. Chapter B contains a description of the individual data items in the CRIB record as well as code lists. CRIB consists of a set of variable-length records on the metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources of the United States and other countries. At present, 31,645 records in the master file are being made available. The record contains information on mineral deposits and mineral commodities. Some topics covered are: deposit name, location, commodity information, description of deposit, geology, production, reserves, potential resources, and references. The data are processed by the GIPSY program, which maintains the data file and builds, updates, searches, and prints the records using simple yet versatile command statements. Searching and selecting records is accomplished by specifying the presence, absence, or content of any element of information in the record; these specifications can be logically linked to prepare sophisticated search strategies. Output is available in the form of the complete record, a listing of selected parts of the record, or fixed-field tabulations. The General Electric MARK III Service is a computerized information services network operating internationally by land lines, satellites, and undersea cables. The service is available by local telephone to 500 cities in North America, Western Europe, Australia, Southeast Asia, Japan

  11. Assessment of didecyldimethylammonium chloride as a ballast water treatment method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Slooten, Cees; Buma, Anita; Peperzak, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Ballast water-mediated transfer of aquatic invasive species is considered a major threat to marine biodiversity, marine industry and human health. A ballast water treatment is needed to comply with International Maritime Organization (IMO) ballast water discharge regulations. Didecyldimethylammonium

  12. Ballasted photovoltaic module and module arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Danning, Matt

    2011-11-29

    A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module and a ballast tray. The PV module includes a PV device and a frame. A PV laminate is assembled to the frame, and the frame includes an arm. The ballast tray is adapted for containing ballast and is removably associated with the PV module in a ballasting state where the tray is vertically under the PV laminate and vertically over the arm to impede overt displacement of the PV module. The PV module assembly can be installed to a flat commercial rooftop, with the PV module and the ballast tray both resting upon the rooftop. In some embodiments, the ballasting state includes corresponding surfaces of the arm and the tray being spaced from one another under normal (low or no wind) conditions, such that the frame is not continuously subjected to a weight of the tray.

  13. Optical ballast and adaptive dynamic stable resonator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Guang-Yin; Jiao Zhi-Yong; Guo Shu-Guang; Zhang Xiao-Hua; Gu Xue-Wen; Yan Cai-Fan; Wu Ding-Er; Song Feng

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a new concept of ‘optical ballast' is put forward. Optical ballast is a kind of device that can be used to decrease the variation and fluctuation of the propagation characteristics of light beams caused by the disturbance of refractive index of the medium. To illustrate the idea clearly and concretely, a fully adaptive dynamic stable solid-state laser resonator is presented as application example of optical ballast.

  14. Infested ballast water; Spoekelser i ballasten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaland, Leif

    2001-07-01

    Ballast water discharged into harbours and coastal waters often brings unwanted organisms from distant regions (non-indigenous species). Some of the species that have come this way and that are now threatening Norwegian coasts and rivers are red algae, ghost shrimps (Caprella linearis) and the Japanese alga Sargassum muticum. Norway receives between 15 and 30 million tonnes of ballast water each year. International regulations about ballast water will not appear for many years, and in the meantime Norway is evaluating national immediate measures. Some ship owners in some countries are purifying the ballast water. However, harmful non-indigenous species may also come from mariculture.

  15. 33 CFR 151.1510 - Ballast water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ballast water management. 151..., AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in the Great Lakes and Hudson River § 151.1510 Ballast water management. (a) The master of each vessel subject to this...

  16. 33 CFR 151.2040 - What are the mandatory ballast water management requirements for vessels equipped with ballast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast... international laws or regulations. Ballast water carried in any tank containing a residue of oil, NLS, or any... water management requirements for vessels equipped with ballast tanks that operate in the waters of...

  17. Groundwater impact assessment for the 216-U-17 Crib, 200 West Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement milestone M-17-00A), this report assesses the impact to groundwater from discharge of process condensate to the ground at the 216-U-17 Crib. The assessment considers impacts associated with moisture movement through soil beneath the crib and the potential transport of contaminants to the groundwater

  18. Groundwater impact assessment for the 216-U-17 Crib, 200 West Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidel, S.P.; Johnson, V.G.; Kline, N.W.

    1993-06-01

    As required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement milestone M-17-00A), this report assesses the impact to groundwater from discharge of process condensate to the ground at the 216-U-17 Crib. The assessment considers impacts associated with moisture movement through soil beneath the crib and the potential transport of contaminants to the groundwater.

  19. Ballast water research at the WFRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinson, Lyman

    2006-01-01

    Invasive aquatic species are considered to be one of the greatest threats to marine biodiversity, coastal economies, and even human health. Ballast water is a primary vector for these bioinvasions. One method of reducing risk of ballast water introductions is mid-ocean exchange of marine ballast water. However, it is widely recognized that this practice has many limitations, including serious ship safety concerns and variable biological effectiveness. International agencies and federal, state and local governments are attempting to tackle the problem by recommending or mandating the installation of ballast water treatment systems. The WFRC is working with others to develop new technologies to detect, prevent, and control aquatic invasive species impacts in Puget Sound and the Pacific Northwest.

  20. Analysis of Soft Switched Electronic Ballast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Spanik

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available One of most perspective light sources are based on principle of electric discharge in gases. Feature of this phenomena is nonlinear impedance characteristic. Ballast interconnected between line and light source adapts requirements of light source to possibilities/requirements of the line. Today solution of modern ballast is based is based upon high frequency switch mode power supply, the cuts many disadvantages of standartd magnetic ballast off. The article describes development of high frequency electronic ballast for linear fluorescent tube in the frame of grant project 1/9025/02 with accent to soft switching. The most important advantages of this solutions are compactness, flicker-free lumen effeciency increase and reduced EMI interferencies.

  1. Dynamic characteristics analysis of mats of ballasted track on bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Kaiwei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A complete vehicle-ballasted track-bridge coupling dynamic model is established. A program to analyze dynamic characteristics is also invented, which is the first time to systematically analyze the dynamic characteristics of vehicles, tracks and bridges when using mats under ballast on the rigid foundation of bridge, in China. The results show that:(1 The mats under ballast are able to reduce vibration of the train and the wheel-rail forces by a certain extent, which increase the comforts of passengers.(2 The mats under ballast are able to reduce the stress of ballast, which has a great practical significance on avoiding ballast powdering and reducing maintenance work of ballast. (3 The mats under ballast are able to reduce the vibration of bridges. It has a great significance on avoiding the lateral flow deformation of ballast under dynamic loads, keeping good track geometry to ensure the safety of operation.

  2. Railway Ballast Characteristics, Selection Criteria and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Nålsund, Roar

    2014-01-01

    This work is a comprehensive investigation to find to what extent simple laboratory tests e.g. Los Angeles abrasion and micro-Deval might be suitable for predicting real railway ballast performance with respect to deformation and degradation. A number of tests to measure essential properties of ballast aggregate have been performed in addition to advanced material testing. Large cyclic triaxial loading test and full scale railway track model test were employed to simulate the effects of train...

  3. Ballast water research in France : Current status

    OpenAIRE

    Masson, Daniel; Courtois, Olivier; Masson, Nadine; Guesdon, Stephane; Rocher, Gregory

    2000-01-01

    Due to important economic activities along the French oastline, the introduction of noxious organisms into French coastal waters, particularly by ship ballast water, may have serious consequences. After preliminary studies of ship movements in Charente Maritime, several samplings of ballast water and sediment were made. Samples were taken in five major harbours in France, along the Atlantic, Channel and Mediterranean coastlines. The main task of this first assessment was the research for exot...

  4. Efficacy of a Feed Dispenser for Horses in Decreasing Cribbing Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Mazzola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cribbing is an oral stereotypy, tends to develop in captive animals as a means to cope with stress, and may be indicative of reduced welfare. Highly energetic diets ingested in a short time are one of the most relevant risk factors for the development of cribbing. The aim of this study was to verify whether feeding cribbing horses through a dispenser that delivers small quantities of concentrate when activated by the animal decreases cribbing behaviour, modifies feeding behaviour, or induces frustration. Ten horses (mean age 14 y, balanced for sex, breed, and size (mean height 162 cm, were divided into two groups of 5 horses each: Cribbing and Control. Animals were trained to use the dispenser and videorecorded continuously for 15 consecutive days from 1 h prior to feeding to 2 h after feeding in order to measure their behaviours. The feed dispenser, Quaryka®, induced an increase in time necessary to finish the ration in both groups of horses (P<0.05. With Quaryka, cribbers showed a significant reduction of time spent cribbing (P<0.05. After removal of the feed dispenser (Post-Quaryka, cribbing behaviour significantly increased. The use of Quaryka may be particularly beneficial in horses fed high-energy diets and ingesting the food too quickly.

  5. IBECS network/ballast interface: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, Francis; Pettler, Pete

    2001-11-15

    This report describes the work performed to design, develop, and demonstrate an IBECS network/ballast interface that is useful for economically dimming controllable ballasts in commercial buildings. The first section of the report provides the general background of the IBECS (Integrated Building Environmental Communications System) research and development work as well as the context for the development of the network/ballast interface. The research and development effort that went into producing the first proof-of-concept circuit and the physical prototype of that concept is detailed in the second section. In the third section of the report, we describe the lessons learned from the first demonstration of the network/ballast interface at an office at LBNL. The fourth section describes how electrical noise interference encountered with the first generation of interface led to design changes for a refined prototype that hardened the interface from electrical noise generated by the ballast. The final section of the report discusses the performance of refined prototype after we replaced the proof-of-concept prototype with the refined prototypes in the demonstration office at LBNL.

  6. 33 CFR 157.23 - Cargo and ballast system information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.23 Cargo and ballast system information. (a... automatic and manual operation of the cargo and ballast system in the vessel. (b) The format and information... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cargo and ballast...

  7. 46 CFR 119.540 - Ballast systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ballast systems. 119.540 Section 119.540 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge...

  8. Light Sources and Ballast Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Sakai, Makoto; Yasuda, Takeo; Maehara, Akiyoshi; Okada, Atsunori; Gouriki, Takeshi; Mannami, Tomoaki

    discharge models were reported. Further, studies on ultra high-pressure mercury lamps as light sources for projectors are becoming the mainstream of HID lamp related researches. For high-pressure sodium lamps, many studies on plant growing and pest control utilizing low insect attracting aspects were also reported in 2006. Additionally, for discharge lamps, the minimum sustaining electric power for arc tubes employed in electrode-less compact fluorescent lamps was investigated. For Hg-free rare-gas fluorescent lamps, a luminance of 10,000cd/m2 was attained by a 1 meter-long external duplex spiral electrode prototype using Xe/Ne barrier discharge. As to startup circuits, the commercialization of energy saving and high value added products mainly associated with fluorescent lamps and HID lamps are becoming common. Further, the miniaturization of startup circuits for self electronic-ballasted lamps has advanced. Speaking of the overall light sources and startup circuits in 2006 and with the enforcement of RoHS in Europe in July, the momentum toward hazardous substance-free and energy saving initiatives has been enhanced from the perspective of protecting the global environment. It is anticipated that similar restrictions will be globally enforced in the future.

  9. Testing Ballast Water Treatment at a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Andrew N.

    2001-01-01

    The main goal of the project was to investigate the feasibility of treating ships' ballast water in existing municipal wastewater treatment plants (= publicly-owned treatment works or POTWs). The main objectives included identifying and characterizing the limiting factors that could restrict the volume of ballast water that can be treated at POTWs; and test, in a series of laboratory experiments, the effectiveness of standard municipal wastewater treatment in removing or killing ballast water...

  10. Microbiologically influenced corrosion in ship ballast tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Heyer, A.

    2013-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is known to be a dangerous process in ship tanks due to its rapid and yet unpredictable occurrence, leading to extremely fast local corrosion, possibly jeopardizing the structural integrity, in a relatively short time. This project focuses on a fundamental understanding of MIC processes in ship ballast tanks (SBTs) as a basis for the development of effective counterstrategies that offer an appropriate protection against MIC attack. Local conditions...

  11. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 216-S-26 Crib, 200 West Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, J.W.; Evelo, S.D.; Alexander, D.J.

    1993-11-01

    This report assesses the impact of wastewater discharged to the 216-S-26 Crib on groundwater quality. The 216-S-26 Crib, located in the southern 200 West Area, has been in use since 1984 to dispose of liquid effluents from the 222-S Laboratory Complex. The 222-S Laboratory Complex effluent stream includes wastewater from four sources: the 222-S Laboratory, the 219-S Waste Storage Facility, the 222-SA Chemical Standards Laboratory, and the 291-S Exhaust Fan Control House and Stack. Based on assessment of groundwater chemistry and flow data, contaminant transport predictions, and groundwater chemistry data, the 216-S-26 Crib has minimal influence on groundwater contamination in the southern 200 West Area.

  12. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 216-S-26 Crib, 200 West Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report assesses the impact of wastewater discharged to the 216-S-26 Crib on groundwater quality. The 216-S-26 Crib, located in the southern 200 West Area, has been in use since 1984 to dispose of liquid effluents from the 222-S Laboratory Complex. The 222-S Laboratory Complex effluent stream includes wastewater from four sources: the 222-S Laboratory, the 219-S Waste Storage Facility, the 222-SA Chemical Standards Laboratory, and the 291-S Exhaust Fan Control House and Stack. Based on assessment of groundwater chemistry and flow data, contaminant transport predictions, and groundwater chemistry data, the 216-S-26 Crib has minimal influence on groundwater contamination in the southern 200 West Area

  13. 33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ballast water and/or sediment that were taken onboard the vessel outside the EEZ shall: (1) Conduct a... safely taken onboard at one time. The master of the vessel is responsible for ensuring the safety of the vessel, crew, and passengers. Vessels reporting only residual ballast water onboard shall take...

  14. Feasibility studies in relation to the IMO Ballast Water Convention

    OpenAIRE

    Tamis, J.E.; Kaag, N.H.B.M.; Karman, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    This project is aimed to develop possibilities to overcome the difficulties which arise from the implementation of the Ballast Water Convention (IMO 2004). For this purpose, three feasibility studies have been conducted: assessment of the applicability of small scale test systems; development of protocols for testing active substance residues; risk assessment of ballast water discharge.

  15. WET-tests on UV-treated ballast water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaag, N.H.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    Damen Shipyards has developed a barge-based ballast water management system (BWMS) that enables direct treatment of ballast water during discharge in a receiving harbour. The treatment is based upon filtration and a once-through UV-treatment. As part of the Type Approval process, the Dutch Authoriti

  16. Inspection and in situ impedance measurements for ballast water tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Buter, S.; Ferrari, G.; Prent, C.S.W.

    2012-01-01

    The application of coatings in ballast water tanks is critical for the safety of cargo ships. International Maritime Organization (IMO) has delivered a standard for the protection of water ballast tanks in which new built cargo vessels have to comply with {resolution MSC.215(82)}. In case the proced

  17. CRIB; the mineral resources data bank of the U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, James Alfred; Kays, Olaf; Keefer, Eleanor K.

    1973-01-01

    The recently established Computerized Resources Information Bank (CRIB) of the U.S. Geological Survey is expected to play an increasingly important role in the study of United States' mineral resources. CRIB provides a rapid means for organizing and summarizing information on mineral resources and for displaying the results. CRIB consists of a set of variable-length records containing the basic information needed to characterize one or more mineral commodities, a mineral deposit, or several related deposits. The information consists of text, numeric data, and codes. Some topics covered are: name, location, commodity information, geology, production, reserves, potential resources, and references. The data are processed by the GIPSY program, which performs all the processing tasks needed to build, operate, and maintain the CRIB file. The sophisticated retrieval program allows the user to make highly selective searches of the files for words, parts of words, phrases, numeric data, word ranges, numeric ranges, and others, and to interrelate variables by logic statements to any degree of refinement desired. Three print options are available, or the retrieved data can be passed to another program for further processing.

  18. Ballast water risk assessment in the North Sea. Evaluating ballast water management exemption in the North Sea region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer van der, Ruurd

    2012-01-01

    Summary Ships translocate organisms across the world via on-board ballast water. When a ship releases its ballast water these organism are released as well. They might have the advantage of not having any natural enemies in their new environment and they

  19. Emerging risks from ballast water treatment: The run-up to the International Ballast Water Management Convention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werschkun, B.; Banerji, S.; Basurko, O.C.; David, M.; Fuhr, F; Gollasch, S.; Grummt, T.; Haarich, M.; Jha, A.N.; Kacan, S.; Kehrer, A.; Linders, J.; Mesbahi, E.; Pughiuc, D.; Richardson, S.D.; Schwarz-Schulz, B.; Shah, A.; Theobald, N.; von Gunten, U.; Wieck, S.; Hofer, T.

    2014-01-01

    Uptake and discharge of ballast water by ocean-going ships contribute to the worldwide spread of aquatic invasive species, with negative impacts on the environment, economies, and public health. The International Ballast Water Management Convention aims at a global answer. The agreed standards for b

  20. Harmful aquatic organisms in ballast water: application for basic approval of the VARUNA ballast water treatment system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jak, R.G.; Jongbloed, R.H.; Sneekes, A.C.; Kaag, N.H.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    This document contains the non-confidential information related to the application for Basic Approval of the VARUNA Ballast Water Treatment System submitted in accordance with the Procedure for approval of ballast water management systems that make use of Active Substances (G9) adopted by resolution

  1. Electronic screw-in ballast and improved circline lamp phase I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, T.P.

    1980-09-01

    A solid state ballast has been designed for the efficient operation of a 10 in circline fluorescent lamp. The circuit can be manufactured using power hybrid technology. Eight discrete component versions of the ballasts have been delivered to LBL for testing. The results show the solid state fluorescent ballast system is more efficient than the core-coil ballasted systems on the market.

  2. 33 CFR 151.1514 - Ballast water management alternatives under extraordinary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ballast water management... SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in the Great Lakes and Hudson River § 151.1514 Ballast water management alternatives...

  3. Novel Design of HID Lamp Electronic Ballast for Automotive Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Ye-qiang; WANG Jin-hai; ZHENG Yu; ZHANG Cheng

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a high intensity discharge(HID) lamp for automotive illumination.A novel type of ballast for HID is proposed without an acoustic resonance.The system consists of high frequency DC/DC converter,DC/AC inverter(SLA2403M), high voltage igniter and a microcontroller unit(MCU).The proposed ballast controls the complex start-up process and constant power process by programming on the microcontroller. It is verified that experimental results agree well with the calculated ones. The ballast features such functions as failure protection, line under-voltage, line over-voltage, output short circuit and disconnection protections.

  4. HPS Electronic Ballast Based on CIC-CPPFC Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫; 苏勤; 高国安

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the application of CIC-CPPFC techniques to high-pressure sodium(HPS) lamp electronic ballast. In order to ensure a unity power factor, different power electronic ballasts are studied by PSpice simulation. A dynamic model of HPS lamp with simple and accurate features is proposed for further study of characteristics. Experimental results verify the feasibility of HPS lamp operating at high frequency. It is shown that the presented electronic ballast has 0.99 power factor and 9% total harmonic distortion(THD).

  5. Escore CRIB, peso ao nascer e idade gestacional na avaliação do risco de mortalidade neonatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Sara J de Brito

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a mortalidade dos recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso em uma UTI neonatal conforme as variações do escore CRIB (Clinical Risk Index for Babies, do peso de nascimento e da idade gestacional em determinado período. MÉTODOS: O escore CRIB foi aplicado seqüencial e prospectivamente em todos os recém-nascidos com peso de nascimento 10 (79,4%. A curva ROC (Receiver Operator Characteristic para os valores de CRIB, peso de nascimento e idade gestacional gerou áreas sob a curva de 0,88, 0,76 e 0,81, respectivamente. Na análise bivariada, o CRIB, peso e idade gestacional mostraram-se preditores de mortalidade, sendo o escore CRIB>4 o de melhor resultado com sensibilidade de 75,8%, especificidade de 86,7%, valor preditivo positivo de 63,3% e valor preditivo negativo de 92,2%. CONCLUSÕES: Os recém-nascidos com peso de nascimento 10 tiveram maiores taxas de mortalidade, sendo o escore CRIB>4 o que representou melhor poder preditivo quando comparado com peso ao nascer e idade gestacional.

  6. Implications of heterogeneous distributions of organisms on ballast water sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Eliardo G; Lopes, Rubens M; Singer, Julio M

    2015-02-15

    Ballast water sampling is one of the problems still needing investigation in order to enforce the D-2 Regulation of the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ship Ballast Water and Sediments. Although statistical "representativeness" of the sample is an issue usually discussed in the literature, neither a definition nor a clear description of its implications are presented. In this context, we relate it to the heterogeneity of the distribution of organisms in ballast water and show how to specify compliance tests under different models based on the Poisson and negative binomial distributions. We provide algorithms to obtain minimum sample volumes required to satisfy fixed limits on the probabilities of Type I and II errors. We show that when the sample consists of a large number of aliquots, the Poisson model may be employed even under moderate heterogeneity of the distribution of the organisms in the ballast water tank. PMID:25510550

  7. Dimmable Electronic Ballast for a Gas Discharge Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raducanu, Marius; Hennings, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is the most efficient photocatalyst for organic oxidative degradation. TiO2 is effective not only in aqueous solution, but also in nonaqueous solvents and in the gas phase. It is photostable, biologically and chemically inert, and non-toxic. Low-energy UV light (approximately 375 nm, UV-A) can be used to photoactivate TiO2. TiO2 photocatalysis has been used to mineralize most types of organic compounds. Also, TiO2 photocatalysis has been effectively used in sterilization. This effectiveness has been demonstrated by its aggressive destruction of microorganisms, and aggressive oxidation effects of toxins. It also has been used for the oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide, and ammonia to nitrogen. Despite having many attractive features, advanced photocatalytic oxidation processes have not been effectively used for air cleaning. One of the limitations of the traditional photocatalytic systems is the ballast that powers (lights) the bulbs. Almost all commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) ballasts are not dimmable and do not contain safety features. COTS ballasts light the UV lamp as bright as the bulb can be lit, and this results in shorter bulb lifetime and maximal power consumption. COTS magnetic ballasts are bulky, heavy, and inefficient. Several iterations of dimmable electronic ballasts have been developed. Some manifestations have safety features such as broken-bulb or over-temperature warnings, replace-bulb alert, logbulb operational hours, etc. Several electronic ballast boards capable of independently lighting and controlling (dimming) four fluorescent (UV light) bulbs were designed, fabricated, and tested. Because of the variation in the market bulb parameters, the ballast boards were designed with a very broad range output. The ballast boards can measure and control the current (power) for each channel.

  8. Ground reaction forces during human locomotion on railroad ballast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Chip; Redfern, Mark S

    2007-11-01

    Locomotion over ballast surfaces provides a unique situation for investigating the biomechanics of gait. Although much research has focused on level and sloped walking on a smooth, firm surface in order to understand the common kinematic and kinetic variables associated with human locomotion, the literature currently provides few if any discussions regarding the dynamics of locomotion on surfaces that are either rocky or uneven. The purpose of this study was to investigate a method for using force plates to measure the ground reaction forces (GRFs) during gait on ballast. Ballast is a construction aggregate of unsymmetrical rock used in industry for the purpose of forming track bed on which railway ties are laid or in yards where railroad cars are stored. It is used to facilitate the drainage of water and to create even running surfaces. To construct the experimental ballast surfaces, 31.75 mm (1 1/4 in.) marble ballast at depths of approximately 63.5 mm (2.5 in.) or 101.6 mm (4 in.) were spread over a carpeted vinyl tile walkway specially designed for gait studies. GRF magnitudes and time histories from a force plate were collected under normal smooth surface and under both ballast surface conditions for five subjects. GRF magnitudes and time histories during smooth surface walking were similar to GRF magnitudes and time histories from the two ballast surface conditions. The data presented here demonstrate the feasibility of using a force plate system to expand the scope of biomechanical analyses of locomotion on ballast surfaces. PMID:18089931

  9. WET-tests on UV-treated ballast water

    OpenAIRE

    Kaag, N.H.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    Damen Shipyards has developed a barge-based ballast water management system (BWMS) that enables direct treatment of ballast water during discharge in a receiving harbour. The treatment is based upon filtration and a once-through UV-treatment. As part of the Type Approval process, the Dutch Authorities (IL&T) required an Environmental Acceptability document, based upon Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) testing on freshwater and marine water, in order to ensure that no harmful levels of dis-inf...

  10. THE BC CRIBS & TRENCHES GEOPHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION PROJECT ONE STEP FORWARD IN HANFORDS CLEANUP PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENECKE, MN.W.

    2006-02-22

    A geophysical characterization project was conducted at the BC Cribs and Trenches Area, located south of 200 East at the Hanford Site. The area consists of 26 waste disposal trenches and cribs, which received approximately 30 million gallons of liquid waste from the uranium recovery process and the ferrocyanide processes associated with wastes generated by reprocessing nuclear fuel. Waste discharges to BC Cribs contributed perhaps the largest liquid fraction of contaminants to the ground in the 200 Areas. The site also includes possibly the largest inventory of Tc-99 ever disposed to the soil at Hanford with an estimated quantity of 400 Ci. Other waste constituents included high volumes of nitrate and U-238. The geophysical characterization at the 50 acre site primarily included high resolution resistivity (HRR). The resistivity technique is a non-invasive method by which electrical resistivity data are collected along linear transects, and data are presented as continuous profiles of subsurface electrical properties. The transects ranged in size from about 400-700 meters and provided information down to depths of 60 meters. The site was characterized by a network of 51 HRR lines with a total of approximately 19.7 line kilometers of data collected parallel and perpendicular to the trenches and cribs. The data were compiled to form a three-dimensional representation of low resistivity values. Low resistivity, or high conductivity, is indicative of high ionic strength soil and porewater resulting from the migration of nitrate and other inorganic constituents through the vadose zone. High spatial density soil data from a single borehole, that included coincident nitrate concentrations, electrical conductivity, and Tc-99, were used to transform the electrical resistivity data into a nitrate plume. The plume was shown to extend laterally beyond the original boundaries of the waste site and, in one area, to depths that exceeded the characterization strategy. It is

  11. Studying astrophysical reactions with low-energy RI beams at CRIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaguchi H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on nuclear astrophysics, nuclear structure, and other interests have been performed using the radioactive-isotope (RI beams at the low-energy RI beam separator CRIB, operated by Center for Nuclear Study (CNS, the University of Tokyo. A typical measurement performed at CRIB is the elastic resonant scattering with the inverse kinematics. One recent experiment was on the α resonant scattering with 7Li and 7Be beams. This study is related to the astrophysical 7Li/7Be(α,γ reactions, important at hot p-p chain and νp-process in supernovae. There have also been measurements based on other experimental methods. The first THM measurement using an RI beam has been performed at CRIB, to study the 18F(p, α15O reaction at astrophysical energies via the three body reaction 2H(18F, α15On. The 18F(p, α 15O reaction rate is crucial to understand the 511-keV γ-ray production in nova explosion phenomena, and we successfully evaluated the reaction cross section at novae temperature and below experimentally for the first time.

  12. Plutonium waste crib logging using the prompt fission neutron uranium logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia Laboratories' Uranium Logging Project has demonstrated their prompt fission neutron (PFN) logging system at the Hanford, WA, site for Rockwell-Hanford Operations (RHO). The dates of the demonstration were July 31 through August 2, 1979. The purpose was to show RHO the capabilities of the system for measuring plutonium concentration. An underground effluent disposal crib associated with their processing facilities was used as the test site. The performance criterion was to be able to detect a 10 nCi/g concentration of plutonium. Six test wells penetrating the crib were logged, as were three other wells. The PFN tool was able to maintain a good signal-to-noise ratio even under the most extreme conditions of high count rate and high background. The wells at the center of the crib indicated very high concentrations of plutonium, while those at the periphery indicated much less. Concentrations estimated to be lower than 10 nCi/g were detected. Comparisons with core data were not made. The technique used to obtain physical samples for analysis did not follow uranium-exploration coring practice so comparisons were not possible. The data interpretation model used was originally developed for uranium and was modified to calculate plutonium concentration. Results indicated that the operation of a PFN logging system by RHO personnel would provide a suitable technique for monitoring transuranic waste storage sites

  13. Implementation of Energy Saving Controller for Electromagnetic Ballast Fluorescent Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhi; Barsoum, Cheong; Barsoum, N. N.

    2010-06-01

    Fluorescent lamps have proven to be the most efficient lighting device. However, energy losses have been found in electromagnetic ballast due to high harmonic distortion and low power factor so energy is consumed unnecessarily. In today's energy demanding environment, energy efficiency of fluorescent lamps can be improved by introducing an energy saving controller in the electromagnetic ballast. The energy saving controller limits the supply voltage to an optimum level which tends to reduce the power losses in electromagnetic ballasts and fluorescent lamps. It is also anticipated that the energy saving controller has desirable characteristics of high power factor with dimmable illuminance level control. In comparison to electronic dimmable ballast, integration an energy saving controller with electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps results in less power consumption, dimmable illuminance control and longer life span at a much lower installation cost. Furthermore, there is no replacement cost for integrating the energy saving controller with existing electromagnetic fluorescent lamps system. In this paper, experimental works have been performed to investigate hardware implementation of the system which further supported by simulation on MATLAB Simulink. Experimental results based on the proposed energy saving controller showed that electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps can be dimmed without any problems down to 50% illuminance level output. In addition, experimental results show that 37.5% power consumption can be saved by reducing 15% of the supply voltage.

  14.  Analysis of the ballast system of WindFlip

    OpenAIRE

    Alvheim, Atle

    2010-01-01

     The thesis firstly includes a study of the structure and requirements of a general ballast system. Based on this knowledge a ballast system suiting the needs of the WindFlip concept was designed through using the risk-based design methodology (RBD).The presented ballast system has one sub-system for ballasting during rotation of WindFlip from horizontal to vertical position and back again (called main ballast system). Another sub-system (called the secondary ballast system) is used during tr...

  15. The predicted impacts to the groundwater and Columbia River from ammoniated water discharges to the 216-A-36B crib

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impact from past and potential future discharges of ammoniated water to the 216-A-36B crib have on groundwater and river concentrations of hazardous chemical constitutents are studied. Until August 1987, the 216-A-36B crib, located in the 200-East Area of the Hanford Site, accepted ammoniated water discharges. Although this study addresses known hazardous chemical constituents associated with such discharges, the primary concern is the discharge of NH4OH because of its microbiological conversion to NO2/sup /minus// and NO3/sup /minus//. As a result of fuel decladding operations, material balance calculations indicate that NH4OH has been discharged to the 216-A-36B crib in amounts that exceed reportable quantities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980. Although flow to the crib is relatively constant, the estimated NH4OH discharge varies from negligible to a maximum of 10,000 g-molesh. Because these discharges are intermittent, the concentration delivered to the groundwater is a function of soil sorption, microbiological conversion rates of NH4+ to NO2/sup /minus// and NO3/sup /minus//, and groundwater dispersion. This report provides results based on the assumptions of maximum, nominal, and discountinued NH4OH discharges to the crib. Consequently, the results show maximum and realistic estimates of NH4+, NO2/sup /minus// and NO3/sup /minus// concentrations in the groundwater

  16. Ballast water: a threat to the Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Newton Narciso; Botter, Rui Carlos; Folena, Rafael Dompieri; Pereira, José Pinheiro Fragoso Neto; da Cunha, Alan Cavalcanti

    2014-07-15

    Ballast water exchange (BWE) is the most efficient measure to control the invasion of exotic species from ships. This procedure is being used for merchant ships in national and international voyages. The ballast water (BW) salinity is the main parameter to evaluate the efficacy of the mid-ocean ballast water exchange. The vessels must report to the Port State Control (PSC), via ballast water report (BWR), where and how the mid-ocean BWE was performed. This measure allows the PSC to analyze this information before the ship arrives at the port, and to decide whether or not it should berth. Ship BW reporting forms were collected from the Captaincy of Santana and some ships were visited near the Port of Santana, located in Macapá (Amazon River), to evaluate the BW quality onboard. We evaluated data submitted in these BWR forms and concluded that the BWE efficacy might be compromised, because data contained in these BWR indicate that some ships did not change their BW. We found mistakes in filling the BWR forms and lack of information. Moreover, these ships had discharged BW with high level of salinity, Escherichia coli and total coliforms into the Amazon River. We concluded that the authorities of the Amazon Region need to develop more efficient proceedings to evaluate the ballast water reporting forms and BW quality, as there is potential risk of future invasion of exotic species in Brazilian ports.

  17. Study on alternative approaches to corrosion protection of ballast tanks using an economic model

    OpenAIRE

    De Baere, Kris; Verstraelen, Helen; Rigo, Philippe; Van Passel, Steven; Lenaerts, Silvia; Potters, Geert

    2013-01-01

    One of the most relevant problems in ship construction and maintenance nowadays is corrosion in ballast tanks of modern merchant vessels. On the one hand, there is a general consensus that the economic lifespan of such a vessel depends, to a large degree, upon the corrosion state of its ballast tanks, while on the other hand these ballast tanks, located between the outer hull and the cargo tanks, makes routine inspection and maintenance a difficult task. Today, ship's ballast tanks are usuall...

  18. 33 CFR 157.33 - Water ballast in fuel oil tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water ballast in fuel oil tanks... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.33 Water ballast in fuel oil tanks. A new vessel may not carry ballast water in a fuel oil tank....

  19. 75 FR 14319 - Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts: Public Meeting and Availability of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... cycle to amend energy conservation standards for fluorescent lamp ballasts. 65 FR 56740, 56740-56749... Ballast Rule''). 65 FR 56740 (September 19, 2000). This rulemaking established a consensus standard... Regulations at 10 CFR 430.32(m). 70 FR 60407. These standards established ballast efficacy requirements...

  20. Microbial dynamics in acetate-enriched ballast water at different temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stehouwer, P.P.; van Slooten, C.; Peperzak, L.

    2013-01-01

    The spread of invasive species through ships' ballast water is considered as a major ecological threat to the world's oceans. For that reason, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has set performance standards for ballast water discharge. Ballast water treatment systems have been developed

  1. 33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ballast water management. 151.1518 Section 151.1518 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of... water management. (a) A person who violates this subpart is liable for a civil penalty in an amount...

  2. 33 CFR 151.2035 - What are the required ballast water management practices for my vessel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... water management practices for my vessel? 151.2035 Section 151.2035 Navigation and Navigable Waters... SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2035 What are the required ballast water...

  3. Regrowth in ship's ballast water tanks: Think again!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Carolina; Pollet, Bruno G

    2016-08-15

    With the imminent ratification of the International Maritime Organisation's Ballast Water Management Convention, ship owners and operators will have to choose among a myriad of different Ballast Water Treatment Systems (BWTS) and technologies to comply with established discharge standards. However, it has come to our attention that decision-makers seem to be unaware of the problem of regrowth occurring in ballast water tanks after treatment. Furthermore, the information available on the subject in the literature is surprisingly and unfortunately very limited. Herein we summarise previous research findings that suggest that regrowth of bacteria and phytoplankton could occur 18h to 7days and 4 to 20days after treatment, respectively. By highlighting the problem of regrowth, we would like to encourage scientists and engineers to further investigate this issue and to urge ship owners and ship operators to inform themselves on the risks of regrowth associated with the implementation of different BWTS. PMID:27184126

  4. Research of Railway Aggregate Sub-ballast Mixture Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deividas Navikas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Railway sub-ballast layer is a connecting layer between the ballast and other track layers. This layer must ensure even load distribution into the subgrade, drainage surface water, prevent materials of layers mixing. Ensuring these properties allows to extend the explotation of all railway road construction and geometrical parameter of road maintenance. This article analyzes investigated railway sub-ballast mixture properties from large sample sizes (n = 49: gradation, water permeability and density statistical parameters. The regression equation showing the relationship between the fully percent passing through sieves averages and standard deviations is presented. Her coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.909. The minimum number of representative samples of these three properties research is determined. Irregularity in most cases of water permeability (ν = 88,3%, depending on the laboratory tests methodology errors, is indicated.

  5. Regrowth in ship's ballast water tanks: Think again!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Carolina; Pollet, Bruno G

    2016-08-15

    With the imminent ratification of the International Maritime Organisation's Ballast Water Management Convention, ship owners and operators will have to choose among a myriad of different Ballast Water Treatment Systems (BWTS) and technologies to comply with established discharge standards. However, it has come to our attention that decision-makers seem to be unaware of the problem of regrowth occurring in ballast water tanks after treatment. Furthermore, the information available on the subject in the literature is surprisingly and unfortunately very limited. Herein we summarise previous research findings that suggest that regrowth of bacteria and phytoplankton could occur 18h to 7days and 4 to 20days after treatment, respectively. By highlighting the problem of regrowth, we would like to encourage scientists and engineers to further investigate this issue and to urge ship owners and ship operators to inform themselves on the risks of regrowth associated with the implementation of different BWTS.

  6. A New-Style Two-Staged Dimmable Electronic Ballast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红颖; 石季英; 陈宝瓷

    2004-01-01

    A two-staged electronic ballast with wide dimming range, high power factor(PF) and low electromagnetic interference(EMI) is presented. It changes the input voltage of the stage of power inverter for dimming control, so it overcomes some limitations of traditional electronic ballasts that use frequency variation. At the same time, the stage of power inverter runs under the soft-switching at the fixed switching frequency and reduces EMI greatly. Its principle and characteristic are analyzed in detail,and experimental and simulated results are obtained on a 40 W fluorescent lamp.

  7. Biomass-Derived Hydrogen from a Thermally Ballasted Gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Robert C

    2007-04-06

    The goal of this project is to develop an indirectly heated gasification system that converts switchgrass into hydrogen-rich gas suitable for powering fuel cells. The project includes investigations of the indirectly-heated gasifier, development of particulate removal equipment, evaluation of catalytic methods for upgrading producer gas, development of contaminant measurement and control techniques, modeling of the thermal performance of the ballasted gasifier, and estimation of the cost of hydrogen from the proposed gasification system. Specific technologies investigated include a thermally ballasted gasifier, a moving bed granular filter, and catalytic reactors for steam reforming and water-gas shift reaction. The approach to this project was to employ a pilot-scale (5 ton per day) gasifier to evaluate the thermally ballasted gasifier as a means for producing hydrogen from switchgrass. A slipstream from the gasifier was used to evaluate gas cleaning and upgrading options. Other tests were conducted with laboratory-scale equipment using simulated producer gas. The ballasted gasifier operated in conjunction with a steam reformer and two-stage water-gas shift reactor produced gas streams containing 54.5 vol-% H2. If purge gas to the feeder system could be substantially eliminated, hydrogen concentration would reach 61 vol-%, which closely approaches the theoretical maximum of 66 vol-%. Tests with a combined catalyst/sorbent system demonstrated that steam reforming and water-gas shift reaction could be substantially performed in a single reactor and achieve hydrogen concentrations exceeding 90 vol-%. Cold flow trials with a laboratory-scale moving bed granular filter achieved particle removal efficiencies exceeding 99%. Two metal-based sorbents were tested for their ability to remove H2S from biomass-derived producer gas. The ZnO sorbent, tested at 450° C, was effective in reducing H2S from 200 ppm to less than 2 ppm (>99% reduction) while tests with the MnO sorbent

  8. 33 CFR 151.2045 - What are the mandatory recordkeeping requirements for vessels equipped with ballast tanks that...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species... following information (Note: Ballast tank is any tank or hold that carries ballast water regardless of design): (1) Vessel information. Include the— (i) Name; (ii) International Maritime Organization...

  9. Chemical assessment of ballast water exchange compliance: Implementation in North America and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monaca eNoble

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence by naturally occurring dissolved organic matter (FDOM is a sensitive indicator of ballast water source, with high FDOM in coastal ballast water decreasing typically dramatically when replaced by oceanic seawater during ballast water exchange. In this study, FDOM was measured in 92 ships arriving at Pacific ports on the US west coast and in New Zealand, and used to assess their compliance with ballast water regulations that required 95% replacement of port water to minimize invasive species risks. Fluorescence in many ships that reported ballast water exchange was significantly higher than is usual for oceanic seawater, and in several cases, significantly higher than in other ships with similar provenance and ballast water management. Pre-exchange source port conditions represented the largest source of uncertainty in the analysis, because residual coastal FDOM when highly fluorescent can significantly influence the fluorescence signature of exchanged ballast water. A meta-analysis comparing the intensities of FDOM in un-exchanged ballast tanks with calculated pre-exchange intensities assuming that ships all correctly implemented and reported ballast water exchange revealed notable discrepancies. Thus, the incidence of high-FDOM port waters was seven times lower in reality than would be expected on the basis of these calculations. The results suggest that a significant rate of reporting errors occur due to a combination of factors that may include inadequate ballast water exchange and unintentional or deliberate misreporting of ballast water management.

  10. 100 Area soil washing: Bench scale tests on 116-F-4 pluto crib soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, J.G.

    1994-06-10

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a bench-scale treatability study on a pluto crib soil sample from 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of physical separation (wet sieving), treatment processes (attrition scrubbing, and autogenous surface grinding), and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating radioactively-contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. The soil washing treatability study was conducted on a soil sample from the 116-F-4 Pluto Crib that had been dug up as part of an excavation treatability study. Trace element analyses of this soil showed no elevated concentrations above typically uncontaminated soil background levels. Data on the distribution of radionuclide in various size fractions indicated that the soil-washing tests should be focused on the gravel and sand fractions of the 116-F-4 soil. The radionuclide data also showed that {sup 137}Cs was the only contaminant in this soil that exceeded the test performance goal (TPG). Therefore, the effectiveness of subsequent soil-washing tests for 116-F-4 soil was evaluated on the basis of activity attenuation of {sup 137}Cs in the gravel- and sand-size fractions.

  11. 100 Area soil washing: Bench scale tests on 116-F-4 pluto crib soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a bench-scale treatability study on a pluto crib soil sample from 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of physical separation (wet sieving), treatment processes (attrition scrubbing, and autogenous surface grinding), and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating radioactively-contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. The soil washing treatability study was conducted on a soil sample from the 116-F-4 Pluto Crib that had been dug up as part of an excavation treatability study. Trace element analyses of this soil showed no elevated concentrations above typically uncontaminated soil background levels. Data on the distribution of radionuclide in various size fractions indicated that the soil-washing tests should be focused on the gravel and sand fractions of the 116-F-4 soil. The radionuclide data also showed that 137Cs was the only contaminant in this soil that exceeded the test performance goal (TPG). Therefore, the effectiveness of subsequent soil-washing tests for 116-F-4 soil was evaluated on the basis of activity attenuation of 137Cs in the gravel- and sand-size fractions

  12. Compact Fluorescent Plug-In Ballast-in-a-Socket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebecca Voelker

    2001-12-21

    The primary goal of this program was to develop a ballast system for plug-in CFLs (compact fluorescent lamps) that will directly replace standard metal shell, medium base incandescent lampholders (such as Levition No. 6098) for use with portable lamp fixtures, such as floor, table and desk lamps. A secondary goal was to identify a plug-in CFL that is optimized for use with this ballast. This Plug-in CFL Ballastin-a-Socket system will allow fixture manufacturers to easily manufacture CFL-based high-efficacy portable fixtures that provide residential and commercial consumers with attractive, cost-effective, and energy-efficient fixtures for use wherever portable incandescent fixtures are used today. The advantages of this proposed system over existing CFL solutions are that the fixtures can only be used with high-efficacy CFLs, and they will be more attractive and will have lower life-cycle costs than screw-in or adapter-based CFL retrofit solutions. These features should greatly increase the penetration of CFL's into the North American market. Our work has shown that using integrated circuits it is quite feasible to produce a lamp-fixture ballast of a size comparable to the current Edison-screw 3-way incandescent fixtures. As for price points for BIAS-based fixtures, end-users polled by the Lighting Research Institute at RPI indicated that they would pay as much as an additional $10 for a lamp containing such a ballast. The ballast has been optimized to run with a 26 W amalgam triple biax lamp in the base-down position, yet can accept non-amalgam versions of the lamp. With a few part alterations, the ballast can be produced to support 32 W lamps as well. The ballast uses GE's existing L-Comp[1] power topology in the circuit so that the integrated circuit design would be a design that could possibly be used by other CFL and EFL products with minor modifications. This gives added value by reducing cost and size of not only the BIAS, but also possibly other

  13. Description of CRIB, the GIPSY retrieval mechanism, and the interface to the General Electric MARK III Service : CRIB, the mineral resources data bank of the U.S. Geological Survey--guide for public users, 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, James Alfred; Keefer, Eleanor K.; Ofsharick, Regina A.; Mason, George T.; Tracy, Patricia; Atkins, Mary

    1978-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Computerized Resources Information Bank (CRIB) is being made available for public use through the computer facilities of the University of Oklahoma and the General Electric Company, U.S.A. The use of General Electric's worldwide information-services network provides access to the CRIB file to a worldwide clientele. This manual, which consists of two chapters, is intended as a guide to users who wish to interrogate the file. Chapter A contains a description of the CRIB file, information on the use of the GIPSY retrieval system, and a description of the General Electric MARK III Service. Chapter B contains a description of the individual data items in the CRIB record as well as code lists. CRIB consists of a set of variable-length records on the metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources of the United States and other countries. At present, 31,645 records in the master file are being made available. The record contains information on mineral deposits and mineral commodities. Some topics covered are: deposit name, location, commodity information, description of deposit, geology, production, reserves, potential resources, and references. The data are processed by the GIPSY program, which maintains the data file and builds, updates, searches, and prints the records using simple yet versatile command statements. Searching and selecting records is accomplished by specifying the presence, absence, or content of any element of information in the record; these specifications can be logically linked to prepare sophisticated search strategies. Output is available in the form of the complete record, a listing of selected parts of the record, or fixed-field tabulations. The General Electric MARK III Service is a computerized information services network operating internationally by land lines, satellites, and undersea cables. The service is available by local telephone to 500 cities in North America, Western Europe, Australia, Southeast Asia, Japan

  14. Cooling effect of ballast revetment on the roadbed of Qinghai-Tibetan Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zeyong; CHENG Guodong; QIAN Zeyu; WANG Jiemin; WEI Guoan; HOU Xuhong; GU Lianglei; YAN Yuping

    2004-01-01

    The data obtained through the roadbed surface thermal regime experiment (ROBSTREX), which was carried out at Beiluhe test section of Qinghai-Tibetan Railway from October to December in 2002, were used to estimate the cooling effect of ballast revetment on the roadbed. The results show that both riprap rock ballast revetment and crushed stone ballast revetment can reduce the temperature of the roadbed. But the cooling effect of riprap rock ballast revetment is better than that of crushed stone ballast revetment when the temperature of roadbed is higher. The cooling effect of crushed stone ballast revetment is better than that of riprap rock ballast revetment when the temperature of the roadbed is lower, especially at deeper roadbed layers. In the frozen season, the heat release from the roadbed also shows that the cooling effect of ballast revetment on the roadbed is obvious, and the cooling effect of crushed stone-ballast revetment on the roadbed is much evident than that of riprap rock ballast revetment.

  15. Borehole data package for well 699-37-47A, PUREX Plant Cribs, CY 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new groundwater monitoring well (699-37-47A) was installed in 1996 as a downgradient well near the PUREX Plant Cribs Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility at Hanford. This document provides data from the well drilling and construction operations, as well as data from subsequent characterization of groundwater and sediment samples collected during the drilling process. The data include: well construction documentation, geologist's borehole logs, results of laboratory analysis of groundwater samples collected during drilling and of physical tests conducted on sediment samples collected during drilling, borehole geophysics, and results of aquifer testing including slug tests and flowmeter analysis. This well (699-37-47A) was constructed in support of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-24-00H and interim milestone M-24-35 (Ecology et al. 1994), and was funded under Project W-152

  16. Asbestos quantification in track ballast, a complex analytical problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Track ballast forms the trackbeb upon which railroad ties are laid. It is used to bear the load from the railroad ties, to facilitate water drainage, and also to keep down vegetation. It is typically made of angular crushed stone, with a grain size between 30 and 60 mm, with good mechanical properties (high compressive strength, freeze - thaw resistance, resistance to fragmentation). The most common rock types are represented by basalts, porphyries, orthogneisses, some carbonatic rocks and "green stones" (serpentinites, prasinites, amphibolites, metagabbros). Especially "green stones" may contain traces, and sometimes appreciable amounts of asbestiform minerals (chrysotile and/or fibrous amphiboles, generally tremolite - actinolite). In Italy, the chrysotile asbestos mine in Balangero (Turin) produced over 5 Mt railroad ballast (crushed serpentinites), which was used for the railways in northern and central Italy, from 1930 up to 1990. In addition to Balangero, several other serpentinite and prasinite quarries (e.g. Emilia Romagna) provided the railways ballast up to the year 2000. The legal threshold for asbestos content in track ballast is established in 1000 ppm: if the value is below this threshold, the material can be reused, otherwise it must be disposed of as hazardous waste, with very high costs. The quantitative asbestos determination in rocks is a very complex analytical issue: although techniques like TEM-SAED and micro-Raman are very effective in the identification of asbestos minerals, a quantitative determination on bulk materials is almost impossible or really expensive and time consuming. Another problem is represented by the discrimination of asbestiform minerals (e.g. chrysotile, asbestiform amphiboles) from the common acicular - pseudo-fibrous varieties (lamellar serpentine minerals, prismatic/acicular amphiboles). In this work, more than 200 samples from the main Italian rail yards were characterized by a combined use of XRD and a special SEM

  17. Design and research on a variable ballast system for deep-sea manned submersibles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Zhong-liang

    2008-01-01

    Variable ballast systems are necessary for manned submersibles to adjust their buoyancy. In this paper,the design of a variable ballast system for a manned submersible is described. The variable ballast system uses a super high pressure hydraulic seawater system. A super high pressure seawater pump and a deep-sea brushless DC motor are used to pump seawater into or from the variable ballast tank,increasing or decreasing the weight of the manned submersible. A magnetostrictive linear displacement transducer can detect the seawater level in the variable ballast tank. Some seawater valves are used to control pumping direction and control on-off states. The design and testing procedure for the valves is described. Finally,the future development of variable ballast systems and seawater hydraulic systems is projected.

  18. Ballasted and electrically steerable carbon nanotube field emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, M. T.; Li, C.; Qu, K.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, B.; Pribat, D.; Milne, W. I.

    2012-09-01

    Here we present our on-going efforts toward the development of stable ballasted carbon nanotube-based field emitters employing hydrothermally synthesized zinc oxide nanowires and thin film silicon-on-insulator substrates. The semiconducting channel in each controllably limits the emission current thereby preventing detrimental burn-out of individual emitters that occurs due to unavoidable statistical variability in emitter characteristics, particularly in their length. Fabrication details and emitter characterization are discussed in addition to their field emission performance. The development of a beam steerable triode electron emitter formed from hexagonal carbon nanotube arrays with central focusing nanotube electrodes, is also described. Numerical ab-initio simulations are presented to account for the empirical emission characteristics. Our engineered ballasted emitters have shown some of the lowest reported lifetime variations (sources.

  19. Eradication of algae in ships' ballast water by electrolyzing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DANG Kun; SUN Pei-ting; XIAO Jing-kun; SONG Yong-xin

    2006-01-01

    In order to verify the effectiveness of electrolytic treatment on ships' ballast water,experiments are carried out by a pilot system in laboratory. The raw seawater and seawater with different concentrations of different algae are simulated as ships' ballast water. The algae in the raw seawater can be killed if it is treated by electrolysis with an initial residual chlorine concentration of 5 mg/L. If the seawater with one kind of algae (Nitzschia closterum, Dicrateria spp., or Pyramidomonnas sp.105cells/mL) is treated by electrolysis with an initial residual chlorine concentration of 5 mg/L, the alga can be sterilized. If the seawater with one kind of algae (Dunaliella sp., Platymonas or Chlorella spp.)is directly treated by electrolyzing with an initial residual chlorine concentration of 4 mg/L, the instant mortality changes with the concentration of different algae. However, after 72 hours, in all treated samples, there are no live algal cells found.

  20. Discrete element modelling of geogrid-reinforced railway ballast and track transition zones

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Track deterioration has a serious influence on the safety and efficiency (speed restriction) of train operations. Many expensive, disruptive and frequent repair operations are often required to maintain the ballast characteristics due to the problem of settlement. Because of this, a geogrid solution that has proved to be a simple and economical method of reinforcing track ballast is widely used. This project presents an evaluation of the behaviour of geogrid-reinforced railway ballast. E...

  1. Finite Element-Discrete Element Coupling Strategies for the Modelling of Ballast-Soil Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Taforel, Paul; Renouf, Mathieu; Dubois, Frédéric; Voivret, Jean-Charles

    2015-01-01

    International audience Numerous modelling strategies have been used over the last decade to improve the understanding of the physical behaviour of the railway track system thanks to numerical simulation. In this context, discrete element (DE) methods are traditionally used to describe the granular behaviour of the ballast layer of the railway track whereas finite element (FE) methods are used to model the whole track system (soil and ballast) in which ballast is modelled as a continuous me...

  2. Track behaviour: the importance of the sleeper to ballast interface

    OpenAIRE

    Le Pen, Louis

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research is to develop a fuller understanding of the mechanical behaviour of the sleeper/ballast interface, related in particular, to the forces applied by high speed tilting trains on low radius curves. The research has used literature review, field measurements, and laboratory experiments on a single sleeper bay of track. Theoretical calculations are also presented. Field measurements are carried out using geophones to record time/deflection for sleepers duri...

  3. Optimization of Ballast Design: A Case Study of the Physics Entrepreneurship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jun; Cheng, Norman; Lamouri, Abbas; Sulcs, Juris; Brown, Robert; Taylor, Cyrus

    2001-10-01

    This talk presents a typical internship project for students in the Physics Entrepreneurship Program at Case Western Reserve University. As part of their overall strategy, Advanced Lighting International (ADLT) is involved in the production of magnetic ballasts for metal halide lamps. The systems in which these ballasts function is undergoing rapid evolution, leading to the question of how the design of the ballasts can be optimized in order to deliver superior performance for lower cost. Addressing this question requires a full understanding of a variety of issues ranging from the basic modeling of the physics of the magnetic ballasts to questions of overall market strategy, manufacturing considerations, and the competitive environment.

  4. PEMASANGAN PALATAL CRIB PADA ANAK USIA 5 TAHUN UNTUK MENGHILANGKAN KEBIASAAN MENGHISAP JARI DAN MEMPERBAIKI OKLUSI (Laporan Kasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuriyati Utami

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Finger sucking habit at child can result anterior open bite, protrusion and another malocclusion. If immediately eliminated, harder situation can be overcome immediately. Besides a psychological approach to eliminate the habit, sometimes the installation of a fixed or removable appliance is also needed. Besides eliminating finger sucking, a palatal crib attached fixed at a five years old child could so improve malocclusion repair.

  5. Effects of various ballast water treatment methods on the survival of phytoplankton and bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stehouwer, P.P.

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species are among the worst threats to marine biodiversity. The main vector for the spread of these aquatic invasive species is ships’ ballast water. Because of this, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopted the Ballast Water Convention. Part of this convention is the D

  6. 76 FR 70547 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... with the new and amended standards established for fluorescent lamp ballasts in today's final rule is... Significant Alternatives to Today's Final Rule Were Rejected. C. Review Under the Paperwork Reduction Act D... presents DOE's evaluation of the economic impacts of today's standards on consumers of ballasts for...

  7. Ballast water treatment techniques: review and suggestions regarding use in the Arctic and Great Lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den A.M.; Kaag, N.H.B.M.; Sneekes, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    The retreating ice cover opens up the opportunity for new shipping routes, and consequently shipping traffic in the Arctic region is increasing and with this the risk of introducing non-indigenous species (NIS) via ballast water. Ballast water must therefore be treated to prevent the transport of NI

  8. Biodegradation of ballast tank coating investigated by impedance spectroscopy and microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyer, A.; D'Souza, F.; Zhang, X.; Ferrari, G.M.; Mol, J.M.C.; Wit, J.H.W. de

    2014-01-01

    This research paper addresses the biodegradation process for ballast tank coatings in marine environments. As part of this new approach, a commercially available ballast tank coating was exposed to bacteria obtained from a culture collection and to a natural bacterial community isolated from a real

  9. 76 FR 25211 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... public rulemaking (NOPR) for the fluorescent lamp ballast standards rulemaking. 76 FR 20090. For the test... supplemental notice of proposed rulemaking (SNOPR). 75 FR 71570. All comments on the fluorescent lamp ballast... rulemaking''). DOE initiated that rulemaking by publishing a Federal Register (FR) notice announcing a...

  10. 75 FR 71570 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Availability of the Framework Document for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts'') on January 22, 2008. 73 FR 3653. On...) for the fluorescent lamp ballast standards rulemaking. 75 FR 14319. DOE also published a test... initiated that rulemaking by publishing a Federal Register (FR) notice announcing a public meeting...

  11. Development and testing of a rapid, sensitive ATP assay to detect living organisms in ballast water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Slooten, C.; Wijers, T,; Buma, A.G.J.; Peperzak, L.

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the spread of aquatic invasive species, the discharge of ballast water by ships will soon be compulsorily regulated by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the United States Coast Guard (USCG). Compliance with their regulations will have to be achieved by onboard ballast water

  12. A unique aspect of ballast water management requirements – The same location concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under certain circumstances vessels do not need to meet ballast water management requirements as stated in the International Convention for the Management and Control of Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM Convention). Besides exceptions to ensure e.g., (a) the safety of a ship, (b) discharge of ballast water for the purpose of avoiding or minimizing pollution incidents, (c) uptake and discharge on high seas of the same ballast water, the same location concept comes into play as ballast water discharges from a ship at the same location where it was taken up is also excepted from BWM requirements. The term same location was not defined in this instrument, hence it is exposed to different interpretations (e.g., a terminal, a port, a larger area where two or more ports may be located). As the BWM Convention is an instrument with biological meaning, the authors recommend a biologically meaningful definition of the same location in this contribution.

  13. Characterization of small mammal populations inhabiting the B-C cribs environs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedlund, J.D.; Rogers, L.E.

    1976-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the current status of small mammal populations inhibiting the 200 Area plateau near the B-C Crib management area and to compare them with populations inhabiting a protected (control) area within the confines of the Hanford ALE Reserve. Sampling sessions were conducted over two field seasons (1974 and 1975). A total of five species was detected within intensive study areas. These included the Great Basin pocket mouse (Perognathus parvus), deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), northern grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster), sagebrush vole (Lagurus curtatus), and western harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys megalotis). These species are probably representative of those found throughout the area at this particular elevation. Townsends ground squirrel (Spermophilus townsendii) also occurs in this area but did not occur on the sampling plots during the study duration. The pocket mouse was the only species present in sufficient numbers to permit a detailed analysis of population parameters. A discussion concerning the role small mammals play in mineral cycling and energy transfer processes is included along with a diagram depicting food web interrelationships for consumers inhabiting the 200 Area plateau region. Estimates of small mammal density and biomass provided in this document are needed for an overall understanding of the role biota play in the transfer of waste nuclides.

  14. Characterization of small mammal populations inhabiting the B-C cribs environs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to document the current status of small mammal populations inhibiting the 200 Area plateau near the B-C Crib management area and to compare them with populations inhabiting a protected (control) area within the confines of the Hanford ALE Reserve. Sampling sessions were conducted over two field seasons (1974 and 1975). A total of five species was detected within intensive study areas. These included the Great Basin pocket mouse (Perognathus parvus), deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), northern grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster), sagebrush vole (Lagurus curtatus), and western harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys megalotis). These species are probably representative of those found throughout the area at this particular elevation. Townsends ground squirrel (Spermophilus townsendii) also occurs in this area but did not occur on the sampling plots during the study duration. The pocket mouse was the only species present in sufficient numbers to permit a detailed analysis of population parameters. A discussion concerning the role small mammals play in mineral cycling and energy transfer processes is included along with a diagram depicting food web interrelationships for consumers inhabiting the 200 Area plateau region. Estimates of small mammal density and biomass provided in this document are needed for an overall understanding of the role biota play in the transfer of waste nuclides

  15. Characterization of ballasted flocs in water treatment using microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Mathieu; Barbeau, Benoit

    2016-03-01

    Ballasted flocculation is widely used in the water industry for drinking water, municipal wastewater, storm water and industrial water treatment. This gravity-based physicochemical separation process involves the injection of a ballasting agent, typically microsand, to increase the floc density and size. However, the physical characteristics of the final ballasted flocs are still ill-defined. A microscopic method was specifically developed to characterize floc 1) density, 2) size and 3) shape factor. Using this information, probability density functions (PDFs) of the floc settling velocity were calculated. The impacts of the mixing intensity, polymer dosage, microsand size and contact time during the floc maturation phase were assessed. No correlation was identified between the floc diameter, form and density PDFs. The floc equivalent diameter mainly controls the settling velocity (r = 0.94), with the floc density (r = 0.26) and shape factor (r = 0.25) having lower impacts. A velocity gradient of 165 s(-1) was optimal to maintain the microsand in suspension while simultaneously maximizing the floc diameter. An anionic high molecular weight polyacrylamide formed 1.5-fold larger aggregates compared with the starch-based polymer tested, but both polymers produced flocs of similar density (relative density = 1.53 ± 0.03). Generally, the floc mean settling velocity is a good predictor of the turbidity removal. An in-depth analysis of the floc characteristics indicates a correlation between the floc size and the largest microsand grain potentially embeddable in the floc structure. PMID:26724446

  16. Ballast water regulations and the move toward concentration-based numeric discharge limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Ryan J; Lishman, John M; Saxena, Juhi R

    2013-03-01

    Ballast water from shipping is a principal source for the introduction of nonindigenous species. As a result, numerous government bodies have adopted various ballast water management practices and discharge standards to slow or eliminate the future introduction and dispersal of these nonindigenous species. For researchers studying ballast water issues, understanding the regulatory framework is helpful to define the scope of research needed by policy makers to develop effective regulations. However, for most scientists, this information is difficult to obtain because it is outside the standard scientific literature and often difficult to interpret. This paper provides a brief review of the regulatory framework directed toward scientists studying ballast water and aquatic invasive species issues. We describe different approaches to ballast water management in international, U.S. federal and state, and domestic ballast water regulation. Specifically, we discuss standards established by the International Maritime Organization (IMO), the U.S. Coast Guard and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and individual states in the United States including California, New York, and Minnesota. Additionally, outside the United States, countries such as Australia, Canada, and New Zealand have well-established domestic ballast water regulatory regimes. Different approaches to regulation have recently resulted in variations between numeric concentration-based ballast water discharge limits, particularly in the United States, as well as reliance on use of ballast water exchange pending development and adoption of rigorous science-based discharge standards. To date, numeric concentration-based discharge limits have not generally been based upon a thorough application of risk-assessment methodologies. Regulators, making decisions based on the available information and methodologies before them, have consequently established varying standards, or not established standards at all. The

  17. A Novel Single-Switch Single-Stage Electronic Ballast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu-Hua Zhu; Xing-Bi Chen; Hong-Sheng Zhong

    2009-01-01

    A single-stage single-switch high- frequency electronic ballast topology is presented. The circuit topology is the integration of a buck power- factor-correction (PFC) converter and a class E resonant inverter with only one active power switch. The buck converter is operated in discontinuous conduction mode and at a fixed switching frequency, and constant duty cycle to achieve high power factor and it can be controlled easily. Detailed analysis of the operation and characteristics of the circuit is provided. Simulation results satisfy present standard require- ments.

  18. Optimal Control of a Ballast-Stabilized Floating Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Søren; Knudsen, Torben; Bak, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    structural stiffness of a floating installation in combination with a coupling between the fore–aft motion of the tower and the blade pitch. To address this problem, the present paper models a ballast-stabilized floating wind turbine, and suggests a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) in combination with a wind...... estimator and a state observer. The results are simulated using aero elastic code and analysed in terms of damage equivalent loads. When compared to a baseline controller, this controller clearly demonstrates better generator speed and power tracking while reducing fatigue loads....

  19. DYNAMIC MODELING FOR AIRSHIP EQUIPPED WITH BALLONETS AND BALLAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Zi-li; QU Wei-dong; XI Yu-geng

    2005-01-01

    Total dynamics of an airship is modeled. The body of an airship is taken as a submerged rigid body with neutral buoyancy, i. e. , buoyancy with value equal to that of gravity, and the coupled dynamics between the body with ballonets and ballast is considered. The total dynamics of the airship is firstly derived by Newton-Euler laws and Kirchhoff's equations. Furthermore, by using Hamiltonian and Lagrangian semidirect product reduction theories, the dynamics is formulated as a Lie-Poisson system,control design using energy-based methods for Hamiltonian or Lagrangian system.

  20. Quantifying non-indigenous species in accumulated ballast slurry residuals (swish) arriving at Vancouver, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, T. F.; Levings, C. D.

    2013-08-01

    Ballast tank “swish” samples were collected from ships following their arrival at Vancouver (British Columbia, Canada) after undergoing either a trans-oceanic or a Pacific-coastal voyage. The ballast swish consisted of a residual slurry mixture of sediment and water that remained trapped in ballast tanks following water discharge at port. The ballast tanks of 27 ships were sampled and ballast swish was found on 19 of the 27 ships. These ships were categorized according to ballast water management type: (1) Trans-oceanic = 7 trans-oceanic ships undergoing ballast water exchange (BWE) > 200 nm from shore; (2) Coastal-exchange = 7 Pacific-coastal ships traveling from ports south of Cape Blanco, Oregon undergoing coastal exchange > 50 nm from shore south of Cape Blanco; and (3) Coastal-no-exchange = 5 Pacific-coastal ships traveling from ports north of Cape Blanco, Oregon, without undergoing BWE. Invertebrate abundance and taxa richness were directly correlated with ballast-swish turbidity suggesting that highly-productive coastal source waters and ballast tank retention processes contributed to this trend. In turn, invertebrate taxa diversity increased with increasing invertebrate abundance. A Principal Component Analysis of the trans-oceanic data revealed that length of voyage showed a strong inverse relationship with invertebrate abundance for this category. Within the coastal-exchange voyage category, voyage length and ballast water age tended to be of the same magnitude and were directly correlated with both crustacean and nematode taxa. Finally, the coastal-no-exchange PCA results revealed that voyage length and salinity were inversely related due to the high number of river ports located at the southern border of the regulatory BWE exemption zone. Coastal voyages not undergoing BWE and undertaking a direct river-to-river route should be considered risky for the introduction of non-indigenous species, if the source waters contain potentially invasive species

  1. Combination RCRA groundwater monitoring plan for the 216-A-10, 216-A-36B, and 216-A-37-1 PUREX cribs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, J.W.

    1997-06-01

    This document presents a groundwater quality assessment monitoring plan, under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) regulatory requirements for three RCRA sites in the Hanford Site`s 200 East Area: 216-A-10, 216-A-36B, and 216-A-37-1 cribs (PUREX cribs). The objectives of this monitoring plan are to combine the three facilities into one groundwater quality assessment program and to assess the nature, extent, and rate of contaminant migration from these facilities. A groundwater quality assessment plan is proposed because at least one downgradient well in the existing monitoring well networks has concentrations of groundwater constituents indicating that the facilities have contributed to groundwater contamination. The proposed combined groundwater monitoring well network includes 11 existing near-field wells to monitor contamination in the aquifer in the immediate vicinity of the PUREX cribs. Because groundwater contamination from these cribs is known to have migrated as far away as the 300 Area (more than 25 km from the PUREX cribs), the plan proposes to use results of groundwater analyses from 57 additional wells monitored to meet environmental monitoring requirements of US Department of Energy Order 5400.1 to supplement the near-field data. Assessments of data collected from these wells will help with a future decision of whether additional wells are needed.

  2. Investigation of the hydro-mechanical behaviour of fouled ballast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-jun CUI; Trong Vinh DUONG; Anh Minh TANG; Jean-Claude DUPLA; Nicolas CALON; Alain ROBINET

    2013-01-01

    In this study,a fouled ballast taken from the site of Sénissiat,France,was investigated.For the hydraulic behaviour,a large-scale cell was developed allowing drainage and evaporation tests to be carried out with monitoring of both suction and volumetric water content at various positions of the sample.It was observed that the hydraulic conductivity of fouled ballast is decreasing with suction increase,as for common unsaturated soils.The effect of fines content was found to be negligible.For the mechanical behaviour,both monotonic and cyclic triaxial tests were carried out using a large-scale triaxial cell.Various water contents were considered.The results were interpreted in terms of shear strength and permanent axial strain.It appeared that the water content is an important factor to be accounted for since any increase of water content or degree of saturation significantly decreases the shear strength and increases the permanent strain.Constitutive modelling has been attempted based on the experimental results.The model in its current state is capable of describing the effects of stress level,cycle number and water content.

  3. Comparison of SeaWiFS images with ballast water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozai, K.; Ishida, H.; Okamoto, K.; Fukuyo, Y.

    It has become a great concern among the international communities that the ship's ballast water causes marine environmental disturbances of coastal ecosystem. And the regulations and prohibitions of ballast water discharge have already been executed by some coastal countries and discussed by the International Maritime Organization. Since Japan is the one of the largest exporting countries of ballast water, it is important to investigate how the ballast water is exchanged at open seas and influences the surrounding waters. In collaboration with a LNG carrier of 110,000 gross tons onboard sampling and plankton analysis of the ballast water have been carried out during the six cruises between Japan and Qatar from May, 2002 to July, 2003. SeaWiFS images including the ballast water exchange areas along the ship's route were acquired and processsed by using SeaDAS. Based on the plankton analysis phytoplankton and zooplankton species were identified and their numbers of cell were counted for each ballast water exchange. Skeletonema costatum was identified as a species for most of the cruises. Prorocentrum minimum and Prorocentrum micans were also identified in one of the cruises. Furthermore it is found out that the observed cell density is highly correlated with the corresponding SeaWiFS-derived diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490nm.

  4. Tests to evaluate the ecological impact of treated ballast water on three Chinese marine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanan; Wang, Zixi; Cai, Leiming; Cai, Xiang; Sun, Wenjun; Ma, Liqing

    2014-09-01

    Ballast water has been a topic of concern for some time because of its potential to introduce invasive species to new habitats. To comply with the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments, members of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) must equip their ships with on-board treatment systems to eliminate organism release with ballast water. There are many challenges associated with the implementation of this IMO guideline, one of which is the selection of species for testing the ecological impacts of the treated ballast water. In the United States, ballast water toxicity test methods have been defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. However, the test methods had not been finalized in China until the toxicity test methods for ballast water were established in 2008. The Chinese methods have been based on species from three trophic levels: Skeletonema costatum, Neomysis awatschensis, and Ctenogobius gymnauchen. All three species live in broad estuarine and open sea areas of China; they are sensitive to reference toxicants and acclimatize easily to different conditions. In this paper, the biological characteristics, test processes and statistical analysis methods are presented for the three species. Results indicate that the methods for evaluating these three organisms can be included in the ecological toxicity tests for treated ballast water in China.

  5. Numerical Investigation of a Liquid-Gas Ejector Used for Shipping Ballast Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueguan Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shipping ballast water can have significant ecological and economic impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Currently, water ejectors are widely used in marine applications for ballast water treatment owing to their high suction capability and reliability. In this communication, an improved ballast treatment system employing a liquid-gas ejector is introduced to clear the ballast water to reduce environmental risks. Commonly, the liquid-gas ejector uses ballast water as the primary fluid and chemical ozone as the secondary fluid. In this study, high-pressure water and air, instead of ballast water and ozone, are considered through extensive numerical and experimental research. The ejector is particularly studied by a steady three-dimensional multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD analysis with commercial software ANSYS-CFX 14.5. Different turbulence models (including standard k-ε, RNG k-ε, SST, and k-ω with different grid size and bubble size are compared extensively and the experiments are carried out to validate the numerical design and optimization. This study concludes that the RNG k-ε turbulence model is the most efficient and effective for the ballast water treatment system under consideration and simple change of nozzle shape can greatly improve the ejector performance under high back pressure conditions.

  6. Spectral analysis of systemic and cerebral cardiovascular variabilities in preterm infants: relationship with clinical risk index for babies (CRIB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frequency spectrum analysis of circulatory signals has been proposed as a potential method for clinical risk assessment of preterm infants by previous studies. In this study, we examined the relationships between various spectral measures derived from systemic and cerebral cardiovascular variabilities and the clinical risk index for babies (CRIB II). Physiological data collected from 17 early low birth weight infants within 1–3 h after birth were analysed. Spectral and cross-spectral analyses were performed on heart rate variability, blood pressure variability and cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy measures such as oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobins (HbO2 and HHb) and tissue oxygenation index (TOI). In addition, indices related to cardiac baroreflex sensitivity and cerebral autoregulation were derived from the very low, low- and mid-frequency ranges (VLF, LF and MF). Moderate correlations with CRIB II were identified from mean arterial pressure (MAP) normalized MF power (r = 0.61, P = 0.009), LF MAP–HHb coherence (r = 0.64, P = 0.006), TOI VLF percentage power (r = 0.55, P = 0.023) and LF baroreflex gain (r = −0.61, P = 0.01 after logarithmic transformation), with the latter two parameters also highly correlated with gestational age (r = −0.75, P = 0.0005 and r = 0.70, P = 0.002, respectively). The relationships between CRIB II and various spectral measures of arterial baroreflex and cerebral autoregulation functions have provided further justification for these measures as possible markers of clinical risks and predictors of adverse outcome in preterm infants

  7. Evaluation of the Ground Response of a Pre-driven Longwall Recovery Room Supported by Concrete Cribs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hongpu; Lv, Huawen; Zhang, Xiao; Gao, Fuqiang; Wu, Zhigang; Wang, Zhichao

    2016-03-01

    Pre-driven recovery rooms allow for the safe and rapid extraction of longwall panel face equipment. Optimum support design requires an understanding of the loading mechanisms of pre-driven longwall recovery rooms subjected to large abutment pressures. This paper presents a case study evaluating the ground response of a pre-driven recovery room. The recovery room was supported by a rock bolt and cable support system in conjunction with two rows of concrete cribs. A numerical analysis of the pre-driven recovery room was conducted using the distinct element code UDEC. The numerical results were found to be in good agreement with field observations in terms of the patterns and magnitude of stress changes, roof-to-floor convergence and failure patterns. The present results suggest that the stresses carried by the outby pillar and inby fender began to significantly increase when the longwall face was approximately 20 m away. When the longwall face entered the recovery room, the stress concentration coefficient ranged from 3.0 to 3.5 in the inby fender and from 2.0 to 2.5 in the oubty pillar, resulting in spalling failure of the room ribs. The set of longwall face equipment was safely and successfully recovered. The concrete cribs, in conjunction with the rock bolts and cables, were considered effective, but conservative. It was also found that the stiffness of the concrete crib is critical to the ground response and must be considered when determining the required capacity. From the study results, design guidelines for determining the optimal support requirement of a pre-driven recovery room are proposed.

  8. Obstacles and opportunities in the commercialization of the solid-state-electronic fluorescent-lighting ballast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.; Marcus, A.A.; Campbell, R.S.; Sommers, P.; Skumatz, L.; Berk, B.; Petty, P.; Eschbach, C.

    1981-10-01

    The Solid State Ballast (SSB) Program, aimed at improving the efficiency of fluorescent lights, is described. The first generation of solid state electronic ballasts has been developed and the technology has been transferred to the private sector. This report examines the opportunities for rapid dissemination of this technology into the marketplace. It includes a description of product characteristics and their influence on the commercialization of the SSB, a description of the technology delivery system presently used by the ballast industry, an analysis of the market for SSB, and identification of some high-leverage opportunities to accelerate the commercialization process. (MCW)

  9. Analysis of the class E amplifier used as electronic ballast with dimming capability for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponce, M.; Arau, J. [CENIDET-Electro' , Cuernavaca (Mexico); Alonso, J.M.; Rico-Secades, M. [ATE, Universidad de Oviedo, Campus de Viesques s/n Gijon (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    The analysis and design of a dimmable electronic ballast based on the class E amplifier and fed from solar cells with 12V backup batteries is described. The class E amplifier uses a capacitive impedance inverter as resonant tank and one diode antiparallel with the switch; these elements allow implementation of a dimming feature for the ballast and ignition of the lamp while maintaining zero voltage commutations in the switch. The designed electronic ballast drives a 21W lamp and operates at a switching frequency of 370kHz. Dimming is implemented using an SG3524 in a voltage-controlled oscillator fashion. (Author)

  10. Characterization of Bacteria in Ballast Water Using MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Emami, K.; Askari, V.; Ullrich, M.; Mohinudeen, K.; Anil, A.C.; Khandeparker, L.; Burgess, J.G.; Mesbahi, E.

    and Methods Preparation of Artificial Ballast Water Seawater was collected from the Dove Marine Laboratory, Newcastle University, Cullercoats, North Tyneside (55u029000 N, 001u279000W) at low tide, from a depth of 2 m and also from Blyth harbour (55u089140N...:25 kV; Ion source 2:23.5 kV; Detection of Ballast Water Bacteria by MALDI-TOF PLoS ONE | www.plosone.org 2 June 2012 | Volume 7 | Issue 6 | e38515 Table 1. Identification of marine bacteria from artificial ballast water.*. IC Biotyper software ID BS 16S...

  11. Study on the Elasticity-Plasticity-Stickiness of the Railway Crushed Stone Ballast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Liang

    2004-01-01

    This paper is mainly aimed at the mechanics characteristic elas of ticity-plasticitystickiness existed in the CWR (continuously welded rails) track plane of the railway crushed stone ballast. As an important mechanics parameter of the CWR track plane, the ballast resistance is mainly influenced by this mechanics characteristic. Through the systematic experimental research and the theoretical analysis, this mechanics characteristic of the ballast resistance is revealed and a reasonable theoretical model is built for it. This study set a sound foundation for further studying the CWR track deformation property. It will be beneficial to the development of high-speed railway in China.

  12. Treating ballast water with hydroxyl radical on introduced organisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With physical method of micro-gap gas discharge, a large amount of hydroxyl radical can be produced in 20t/h pilot-scale system using the ionization of O2 and H2O. In this paper, the effect of biochemistry of hydroxyl radicals on introduced organisms in ballast water was experimentally investigated. The results indicate that the contents of chlorophyl-a, chlorophyl-b, chlorophyl-c and carotenoid are decreased by 35%-64% within 8.0s and further to the lowest limit of test 5 minutes. In addition, the main reasons of cell death are the lipid peroxidation, the strong destruction to the monose, amylose, protein, DNA and RNA of cell, and damage in CAT, POD and SOD of antioxidant enzyme system.

  13. Simulation of gamma irradiation system for a ballast water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Invasion by different kinds of ballast the water microorganisms is one of the most important marine environment problems around the world therefore preventing the invasion of these unwanted and harmful stowaways is one of the main strategies of responsible agencies. Some of these methods such as ocean exchange, heating, filtration, hydro cyclones, UV irradiation and chemical treatment, have various problems such as technical deficiency, high costs, lack of safety and environmental side effects. Materials and Methods: A novel system of treatment by Gamma irradiation is designed to irradiate the blast water uniformly and effectively. To determine the dose distribution as a function of distance from the irradiation source, the MCNP code was used. The systems used for source implant in this simulation were Paterson-Parker, Paris and Network systems. In each system, Sivert-integral and inverse square law were used in MATLAB program to determine the dose distribution. Results: Results of initial laboratory tests on offshore water samples of Siri Island indicated that the appropriate dose for deactivation of organisms of water samples is approximately one kGy. It has been demonstrated that the dose can be provided by twenty five 100,000 Ci line sources of '60Co in a triangle implant arranged in a 1*1*1 m3 cubic shape water pipe. In order to increase efficiency and radiation safety, water passed from two other coaxial and bigger cubes, after passing from the first cube. A one meter thick wall of concrete around the cubes was adequate to shield the system completely. Conclusion: The main advantages of this system such as high efficiency, safety, reliability, minimum environmental adverse effects, proves that this novel method not only can be used for ballast water treatment, but is also effective for drinking water purification

  14. All aboard! A biological survey of ballast water onboard vessels spanning the North Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steichen, Jamie L; Schulze, Anja; Brinkmeyer, Robin; Quigg, Antonietta

    2014-10-15

    Global movement of nonindigenous species, within ballast water tanks across natural barriers, threatens coastal and estuarine ecosystem biodiversity. In 2012, the Port of Houston ranked 10th largest in the world and 2nd in the US (waterborne tonnage). Ballast water was collected from 13 vessels to genetically examine the eukaryotic microorganism diversity being discharged into the Port of Houston, Texas (USA). Vessels took ballast water onboard in North Atlantic Ocean between the Port of Malabo, Africa and Port of New Orleans, Louisiana, (USA). Twenty genera of Protists, Fungi and Animalia were identified from at least 10 phyla. Dinoflagellates were the most diverse and dominant identified (Alexandrium, Exuviaella, Gyrodinium, Heterocapsa, Karlodinium, Pfiesteria and Scrippsiella). We are reporting the first detection of Picobiliphytes, Apusozoa (Amastigomonas) and Sarcinomyces within ballast water. This study supports that global commerce by shipping contributes to long-distance transportation of eukaryotic microorganisms, increasing propagule pressure and invasion supply on ecosystems.

  15. An Investigation on the Energy Saving Potential of Electromagnetic Ballast Fluorescent Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Z. X.; Barsoum, N. N.

    2009-08-01

    Energy saving issue is a matter of great concern for industry and electrical utilities. Energy saving from fluorescent lamp system can be achieved by means of optimizing lighting level, reducing power consumption and improving the efficiency of fluorescent lamps. This paper presents an alternative energy saving control method for electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps. Non-linearity characteristics of fluorescent lamps and the effect of energy saving controller are taken into account in the proposed energy saving controller. The proposed energy saving controller provides energy saving feature and dimmable illuminance level control for electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps. In comparison to electronic ballast, integration of an energy saving controller with electromagnetic ballast results in less power consumption, less green house gas emission and longer lifespan at a much lower installation cost. Experiment results based on the proposed controller showed that 37.5% energy can be saved by reducing 15% of the AC line voltage.

  16. Application of polyurethane geocomposites to help maintain track geometry for high-speed ballasted railway tracks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Keith WOODWARD; Abdellah EL KACIMI; Omar LAGHROUCHE; Gabriela MEDERO; Meysam BANIMAHD

    2012-01-01

    There are many issues surrounding the performance of critical assets on high-speed ballasted railway lines.At assets like switch & crossings and bridge transitions high track forces can be produced resulting in higher ballast settlements and hence track misalignments.The latter result in higher track forces and hence more settlement,leading to the need for increased track maintenance to ensure comfort and safety.Current technologies for solving issues like ballast movement under high-speed loading regimes are limited.However,a technique that has been well used across the UK and now increasingly overseas to stabilise and reinforce ballasted railway tracks is the application of in-situ polyurethane polymers,termed XiTRACK.This paper discusses how this technique can be used to solve these types of long-standing issues and presents actual polymer application profiles at two typical critical sites,namely a junction and a transition onto concrete slab-track.

  17. Reducing the cost of ballast tank corrosion: an economic modeling approach

    OpenAIRE

    De Baere, Kris; Verstraelen, Helen; Rigo, Philippe; Van Passel, Steven; Lenaerts, Silvia; Potters, Geert

    2013-01-01

    One of the most relevant problems in ship construction and maintenance nowadays concerns the corrosion in the double hull space ballast tanks of modern merchant vessels. On the one hand, there is a general consensus that the economic life span of such a vessel depends primarily upon the corrosion state of its ballast tanks, while on the other hand, the position of these tanks, squeezed between the outer hull and the loading tanks, makes routine inspection and maintenance almost impossible. To...

  18. Ballast water: a review of the impact on the world public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CK Takahashi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the nineteenth century ships have been using ballast water (BW for safety, stability, propulsion and maneuverability, as well as to redress loss of fuel weight and water consumption, and to maintain structural stress at acceptable levels. Ballast water has been spreading many non-native species around the globe, but little is known about the extent and potential significance of ship-mediated transfer of microorganisms. The global movements of ballast water by ships create a long-distance dispersal mechanism for human pathogens that may be important in the worldwide distribution of microorganisms, as well as for the epidemiology of waterborne diseases. Only a few studies have been carried out on this subject, most of them involving ballast water containing crustacean larvae and phytoplankton. Specialized microbiological studies on these waters are necessary to avoid a repeat of what happened in 1991, when epidemic cholera was reported in Peru and rapidly spread through Latin America and Mexico. In July of 1992, Vibrio cholerae was found in the USA and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA determined that it came from ballast water of ships whose last port of call was in South America. In Brazil, just a few studies about the subject have been performed. An exploratory study by the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária - ANVISA found in ballast water different microorganisms, such as fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Clostridium perfringens, coliphages, Vibrio cholerae O1 and Vibrio cholerae non-O1. Until now, Brazil has been focusing only on organisms transported to its territory from other countries by ballast water, to avoid their establishment and dissemination in Brazilian areas. Studies that can assess the probability that water ballast carries pathogenic microorganisms are extremely important, as is the examination of ships that arrive in the country

  19. Evaluation of the Strength of Railway Ballast Using Point Load Test for Various Size Fractions and Particle Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohmishi, Mehdi; Palassi, Massoud

    2016-07-01

    The ballast layer is one of the most important components of the railway track superstructure in which angular aggregates of high strength rocks are used. Ballast degradation is one of the main sources of railway problems in which the ballast aggregates are gradually degraded due to the abrasion of the sharp corners of the angular particles and splitting each individual particle into two or several small pieces under loading. In this paper, the effects of rock type, aggregate size and particle shape on the strength of the single ballast particles are investigated. For this purpose, point load test is carried out on ballast aggregates of four rock types including basalt, marl, dolomite and trachyte. According to the obtained results, as the size of the aggregates increases, the point load strength index decreases. The influence of size on the strength is more noticeable for ballasts obtained from higher strength rocks. It is also found that the shape of ballast particles has no major effect on its strength. Furthermore, our findings show that the failure pattern for ballasts of higher strength is so that each particle commonly splits into three pieces; while the dominant failure pattern for ballast particles with less strength is breaking the particle into two pieces.

  20. Presurgical management of a child with missing lower lip using a new design of fixed lower tongue crib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safeena, S; Najmuddin, M; Reddy, K

    2012-01-01

    Missing of any perioral structure can result in imbalance of muscular forces leading to loss of structure and function along with esthetics especially in a growing individual and can result in permanent damage. Rehabilitation of such children is a challenge and requires an integrated multidisciplinary approach not only to correct the defect, but also to ensure normal development with minimal handicap. Here is a case report of a 10-year-old child with missing lower lip due to childhood infection and its presurgical management using a new design of fixed lower tongue crib used to limit tongue pressure, improve tongue position, and facilitate lower incisor retraction. A new clinical experience for lower lip missing cases in children are added, as these cases are rare. PMID:22918109

  1. Characterization of Sediments from the Soil Desiccation Pilot Test (SDPT) Site in the BC Cribs and Trenches Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Wooyong; Truex, Michael J.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Iovin, Cristian; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Chang, Hyun-shik; Clayton, Ray E.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Ward, Anderson L.; Brown, Christopher F.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Clayton, Eric T.; Baum, Steven R.; Smith, David M.

    2009-09-25

    This technical report documents the results of laboratory geochemical and hydrologic measurements of sediments collected from new borehole 299-E13-65 (C7047) and comparison of the results with those of nearby borehole 299-13E-62 (C5923) both drilled in the BC Cribs and Trenches Area. The total and water-leachable concentrations of key contaminants will be used to update contaminant-distribution conceptual models and to provide more data for improving baseline risk predictions and remedial alternative selections. Improved understanding of subsurface conditions and methods to remediate these principal contaminants can be also used to evaluate the application of specific technologies to other contaminants across the Hanford Site.

  2. Innovative Ballasted Flat Roof Solar PV Racking System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, Richard T.

    2015-01-23

    The objective of this project was to reduce the cost of racking for PV solar on flat commercial rooftops. Cost reductions would come from both labor savings and material savings related to the installation process. The rack would need to accommodate the majority of modules available on the market. Cascade Engineering has a long history of converting traditional metal type applications over to plastic. Injection molding of plastics have numerous advantages including selection of resin for the application, placing the material exactly where it is needed, designing in features that will speed up the installation process, and weight reduction of the array. A plastic rack would need to meet the requirements of UL2703, Mounting systems, mounting devices, clamping/retention devices, and ground lugs for use with flat-plate photovoltaic modules and panels. Comparing original data to the end of project racking design, racking material costs were reduced 50% and labor costs reduced 64%. The racking product accommodates all 60 and 72 cell panels on the market, meets UL2703 requirements, contributes only 1.3 pounds per square foot of weight to the array, requires little ballast to secure the array, automatically grounds the module when the module is secured, stacks/nests well for shipping/fewer lifts to the roof, provides integrated wire routing, allows water to drain on the roof, and accommodates various seismic roof connections. Project goals were achieved as noted in the original funding application.

  3. IMPROVING THE STABILITY OF TONAL TRACK CIRCUITS UNDER FLUCTUATIONS OF BALLAST RESISTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Honcharov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.The purpose of investigation is the development of method for improving the stability of tonal track circuits that takes into account the actual insulation resistance (ballast resistance of rail line.Methodology. To achieve the research purpose it was proposed to automatically determine the insulation resistance of rail line, and depending on this value to adjust the output voltage of track generator. Ballast resistance is determined by the value of input resistance the rail line, which at high frequencies practically is equal to the wave impedance. To implement the proposed method it is necessary to connect to the track circuit additional high-frequency generators, high-frequency filters, unit for finding the ballast resistance and adjusting the output voltage of track generator. Findings. As a result of research it was found that at low values (less than 2 Ohms*km the change of ballast resistance causes significant change of voltage at the track receiver input, which may cause malfunction of the track circuit. Increasing the length of rail line leads to the reducing of its input resistance, raising the measuring frequency causes increasing the input resistance. In both cases, the input resistance tends to the value of the wave impedance. The measuring frequency should be chosen taking into account the length of rail line and the upper limit of ballast resistance, the value 5 Ohms*km can be taken as that limit. At higher values of ballast resistance its changes insignificantly influence the input voltage of track receiver. In this case, the adaptive adjustment of voltage at the track generator output is not performed. Originality. The method for measuring the insulation resistance of rail line has been improved that allows one to determine the ballast resistance automatically. The dependence between measuring frequency, length of rail line and ballast resistance have been determined. Practical value. The proposed method allows one to

  4. 33 CFR 155.370 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of 10,000...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ships of 400 gross tons and above that carry ballast water in their fuel oil tanks. 155.370 Section 155... mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of 10,000 gross tons and above and oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above that carry ballast water in their fuel oil...

  5. Free living and plankton-associated vibrios: assessment in ballast water, harbor areas and coastal ecosystems in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Nelly G. Rivera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ballast water is a major transport vector of exotic aquatic species and pathogenic microorganisms. The wide-ranging spread of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 from harbor areas has been frequently ascribed to discharge of contaminated ballast water into eutrophic coastal environments, such as during the onset of the seventh cholera pandemic in South America in the early 1990s. To determine the microbiological hazards of ballast waters transported to Brazilian ports, we evaluated water and plankton samples taken from (i ballast water tanks of recently arrived ships, (ii port areas along the Brazilian coastline from ~1 to 32 oS and (iii three coastal areas in São Paulo State. Vibrio concentration and toxigenic V. cholerae O1 occurrence were analyzed. Plankton-associated vibrios were more abundant than free-living vibrios in all studied environments. Vibrio cholerae was found in 9.5% of ballast tanks and 24.2% of port samples, both as free-living and attached forms, and was absent off São Paulo State. Toxigenic V. cholerae O1 isolates (ctxA+, tcpA+, involved in cholera disease, were found in ballast water (2% and harbor (2% samples. These results confirm that ballast water is an important carrier of pathogenic organisms, and that monitoring of vibrios and other plankton-attached bacteria is of paramount importance in ballast water management programs.

  6. 10 CFR 431.324 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of metal halide ballasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of metal halide ballasts. 431.324 Section 431.324 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Metal Halide Lamp Ballasts...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts Q Appendix Q to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Appendix Q to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent... fluorescent lamp ballast. 1.4DC control signal means a direct current (DC) signal that is supplied to...

  8. Effect of particle breakage on cyclic densification of ballast: A DEM approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of particle breakage on densification behaviour of ballast under cyclic loading using Discrete Element Method (DEM). Numerical simulations using PFC2D have been carried out on an assembly of angular particles with and without incorporation of particle breakage. Two-dimensional projection of angular ballast particles were simulated using clusters of bonded circular particles. Degradation of the bonds within a cluster was considered to represent particle breakage. Clump logic was used to make the cluster of particles unbreakable. DEM simulation results highlight that the particle breakage has a profound influence on the cyclic densification behaviour of ballast. The deformation behaviour exhibited by the assembly with breakage is in good agreement with the laboratory experiments. In addition, the evolution of particle displacement vectors clearly explains the breakage mechanism and associated deformations during cyclic loading.

  9. Effect of particle breakage on cyclic densification of ballast: A DEM approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, P. K.; Vinod, J. S.; Indraratna, B.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of particle breakage on densification behaviour of ballast under cyclic loading using Discrete Element Method (DEM). Numerical simulations using PFC2D have been carried out on an assembly of angular particles with and without incorporation of particle breakage. Two-dimensional projection of angular ballast particles were simulated using clusters of bonded circular particles. Degradation of the bonds within a cluster was considered to represent particle breakage. Clump logic was used to make the cluster of particles unbreakable. DEM simulation results highlight that the particle breakage has a profound influence on the cyclic densification behaviour of ballast. The deformation behaviour exhibited by the assembly with breakage is in good agreement with the laboratory experiments. In addition, the evolution of particle displacement vectors clearly explains the breakage mechanism and associated deformations during cyclic loading.

  10. Effects of Hydroxyl Radicals on Introduced Organisms of Ship's Ballast Water Based Micro-Gap Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Mindong; ZHANG Zhitao; BAI Mindi; YANG Bo; BAI Xiyao

    2007-01-01

    With the physical method of micro-gap gas discharge,OH.radicals were produced by the ionization of O2 in air and H2O in the gaseous state,in order to explore more effective method totreat the ship's ballast water.The surface morphology of A1203 dielectric layer was analysed using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM),where the size of A1203 particles was in the range of 2 μm to 5 μm.At the same time,the biochemical effect of hydroxyl radicals on the introduced organisms and the quality of ship's ballast water were studied.The results indicate that the main reasons of cell death are lipid peroxide and damage of the antioxidant enzyme system in Catalase (CAT),Peroxidase (POD) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD).In addition,the quality of the ballast water was greatly improved.

  11. Lamp-Ballast Compatibility Index for Efficient Ceramic Metal Halide Lamp Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourish Chatterjee

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of energy efficient products and exploration of energy saving potential are major challenges for present day’s technology. Ceramic Metal Halide lamp is the latest improved version of metal halide lamp that finds its wide applications in indoor commercial lighting especially in retail shop lighting. This lamp shows better performance in terms of higher lumen per watt and colour constancy in comparison to conventional metal halide lamp. The inherent negative incremental impedance of CMH lamp demands the use of current control device in the lamp circuit and perfect matching of lamp ballast combination is required for efficient lamp operation. The electrical and photometric performance of two sets of commercial 70 watt CMH lamp and intregated ballast units were measured to investigate their compatibility for optimum lamp operation. The measured data were utilized to develop an electrical model for lamp ballast combination. Using this model a compatibility index is proposed which can be used for assessment of lamp performance.

  12. Backfilling with mixtures of bentonite/ballast materials or natural smectitic clay?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, R. [Geodevelopment AB, (Sweden)

    1998-10-01

    Comparison of the performance of backfills of mixed MX-80 and crushed rock ballast, and a natural smectitic clay, represented by the German Friedland clay, shows that the latter performs better than mixtures with up to 30 % MX-80. Considering cost, Friedland clay prepared to yield air-dry powder grains is cheaper than mixtures of 30 % MX-80 and crushed ballast. Both technically and economically it appears that the Friedland clay is a competitive alternative to mixtures of 30 % MX-80 and crushed ballast. However, it remains to be demonstrated on a full scale that Friedland clay ground to a suitable grain size distribution can be acceptably compacted on site 14 refs, 32 figs, 6 tabs

  13. Diversity of bacteria in ships ballast water as revealed by next generation DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmeyer, Robin

    2016-06-15

    The bacterial diversity in ballast water from five general cargo ships calling at the Port of Houston was determined with ion semiconductor DNA sequencing (Ion Torrent PGM) of PCR amplified 16S rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the composition of bacteria in ballast water did not resemble that of typical marine habitats or even open ocean waters where BWEs occur. The predominant group of bacteria in ships conducting BWEs was the Roseobacter clade within the Alphaproteobacteria. In contrast, Gammaproteobacteria were predominant in the ship that did not conduct a BWE. All the ships contained human, fish, and terrestrial plant pathogens as well as bacteria indicative of fecal or activated sludge contamination. Most of the 60 pathogens had not been detected in ballast water previously. Among these were the human pathogens Corynebacterium diptheriae and several Legionella species and the fish pathogens Francisella piscicida and Piscirickettsia salmonis. PMID:27076378

  14. A comparison of six different ballast water treatment systems based on UV radiation, electrochlorination and chlorine dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehouwer, Peter Paul; Buma, Anita; Peperzak, Louis

    2015-01-01

    The spread of aquatic invasive species through ballast water is a major ecological and economical threat. Because of this, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) set limits to the concentrations of organisms allowed in ballast water. To meet these limits, ballast water treatment systems (BWTSs) were developed. The main techniques used for ballast water treatment are ultraviolet (UV) radiation and electrochlorination (EC). In this study, phytoplankton regrowth after treatment was followed for six BWTSs. Natural plankton communities were treated and incubated for 20 days. Growth, photosystem II efficiency and species composition were followed. The three UV systems all showed similar patterns of decrease in phytoplankton concentrations followed by regrowth. The two EC and the chlorine dioxide systems showed comparable results. However, UV- and chlorine-based treatment systems showed significantly different responses. Overall, all BWTSs reduced phytoplankton concentrations to below the IMO limits, which represents a reduced risk of aquatic invasions through ballast water. PMID:25704551

  15. Electrical Resistivity Correlation to Vadose Zone Sediment and Pore-Water Composition for the BC Cribs and Trenches Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Ward, Anderson L.; Um, Wooyong; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Rucker, Dale F.; Lanigan, David C.; Benecke, Mark W.

    2009-06-01

    This technical report documents the results of geochemical and soil resistivity characterization of sediment obtained from four boreholes drilled in the BC Cribs and Trench area. Vadose zone sediment samples were obtained at a frequency of about every 2.5 ft from approximately 5 ft bgs to borehole total depth. In total, 505 grab samples and 39 six-inch long cores were obtained for characterization. The pore-water chemical composition data, laboratory-scale soil resistivity and other ancillary physical and hydrologic measurements and analyses described in this report are designed to provide a crucial link between direct measurements on sediments and the surface-based electrical-resistivity information obtained via field surveys. A second goal of the sediment characterization was to measure the total and water-leachable concentrations of key contaminants of concern as a function of depth and distance from the footprints of inactive disposal facilities. The total and water-leachable concentrations of key contaminants will be used to update contaminant distribution conceptual models and to provide more data for improving base-line risk predictions and remedial alternative selections. The ERC “ground truthing” exercise for the individual boreholes showed mixed results. In general, the high concentrations of dissolved salts in the pore waters of sediments from C5923, C5924 and C4191 produced a low resistivity “target” in the processed resistivity field surveys, and variability could be seen in the resistivity data that could relate to the variability in pore- water concentrations but the correlations (regression R2 were mediocre ranging from 0.2 to 0.7 at best; where perfect correlation is 1.0). The field-based geophysical data also seemed to suffer from a sort of vertigo, where looking down from the ground surface, the target (e.g., maximum pore-water salt concentration) depth was difficult to resolve. The best correlations between the field electrical

  16. 33 CFR 157.160 - Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... washing. 157.160 Section 157.160 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.160 Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing. (a) The owner, operator, and master of a tank vessel under §...

  17. 75 FR 14287 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... test procedure (appendix Q) can be shown to have a measurement uncertainty on the order of 5 percent... appearing on page 2. DOE understands NEMA's concerns regarding the measurement uncertainty related to the... impacted by measurement ] uncertainty because much of the T8 ballast market is high-frequency...

  18. Ballast Water Risk Assessment, Ports of Mumbai and Jawaharlal Nehru, India, October 2003: Final Report

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anil, A.C.; Clarke, C.; Hayes, T.; Hilliard, R.; Joshi, G.; Krishnamurthy, V.; Polglaze, J.; Sawant, S.S.; Raaymakers, S.

    , October 2003: Final Report vi Executive Summary The introduction of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens to new environments via ships? ballast water (BW) and other vectors has been identified as one of the four greatest threats to the world?s oceans.................................................................................................................................................v Executive Summary ...................................................................................................................................vi 1 Introduction and Background...

  19. An Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Testing of a Ballast Exchange Assurance Meter (BEAM) 100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mid-ocean ballast water exchange (BWE) is mandatory for all vessels entering U.S. waters from outside the 200-mile exclusive economic zone. To support such regulation, accurate and portable verification tools are needed for determining that BWE has taken place. One parameter pr...

  20. Population attenuation in zooplankton communities during transoceanic transfer in ballast water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabooli, Sara; Zhan, Aibin; Paolucci, Esteban; Hernandez, Marco R; Briski, Elizabeta; Cristescu, Melania E; MacIsaac, Hugh J

    2016-09-01

    Successful biological invasion requires introduction of a viable population of a nonindigenous species (NIS). Rarely have ecologists assessed changes in populations while entrained in invasion pathways. Here, we investigate how zooplankton communities resident in ballast water change during transoceanic voyages. We used next-generation sequencing technology to sequence a nuclear small subunit ribosomal DNA fragment of zooplankton from ballast water during initial, middle, and final segments as a vessel transited between Canada and Brazil. Operational taxonomic unit (OTU) diversity decreased as voyage duration increased, indicating loss of community-based genetic diversity and development of bottlenecks for zooplankton taxa prior to discharge of ballast water. On average, we observed 47, 26, and 24 OTUs in initial, middle, and final samples, respectively. Moreover, a comparison of genetic diversity within taxa indicated likely attenuation of OTUs in final relative to initial samples. Abundance of the most common taxa (copepods) declined in all final relative to initial samples. Some taxa (e.g., Copepoda) were represented by a high number of OTUs throughout the voyage, and thus had a high level of intraspecific genetic variation. It is not clear whether genotypes that were most successful in surviving transit in ballast water will be the most successful upon introduction to novel environments. This study highlights that population bottlenecks may be common prior to introduction of NIS to new ecosystems. PMID:27648234

  1. Novel Electrokinetic Microfluidic Detector for Evaluating Effectiveness of Microalgae Disinfection in Ship Ballast Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myint Myint Maw

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ship ballast water treatment methods face many technical challenges. The effectiveness of every treatment method usually is evaluated by using large scale equipment and a large volume of samples, which involves time-consuming, laborious, and complex operations. This paper reports the development of a novel, simple and fast platform of methodology in evaluating the efficiency and the best parameters for ballast water treatment systems, particularly in chemical disinfection. In this study, a microfluidic chip with six sample wells and a waste well was designed, where sample transportation was controlled by electrokinetic flow. The performance of this microfluidic platform was evaluated by detecting the disinfection of Dunaliella salina (D. salina algae in ballast water treated by sodium hypochlorite (NaClO solution. Light-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (LICF intensity was used to determine the viability of microalgae cells in the system, which can be operated automatically with the dimension of the detector as small as 50 mm × 24 mm × 5 mm. The 40 µL volume of sample solution was used for each treatment condition test and the validity of detection can be accomplished within about five min. The results show that the viability of microalgae cells under different treatment conditions can be determined accurately and further optimal treatment conditions including concentrations of NaClO and treatment time can also be obtained. These results can provide accurate evaluation and optimal parameters for ballast water treatment methods.

  2. Efficacy and production of disinfection by-products of ozone treated ballast water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneekes, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    AirTree is preparing for land-based testing at the NIOZ/IMARES test facility. As the Ballast Water Management System (BWMS) developed by AirTree uses ozone as active substance, IMO Guideline G9 applies and Basic and Final Approval are also required. In preparing the Basic Approval dossier, it appear

  3. Comparisons of interdisciplinary ballast water treatment systems and operational experiences from ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalar, Goran

    2016-01-01

    There are high functioning and low functioning ballast water treatment systems on board ships. In this study, five systems were analysed so as to methodically examine the operational difficulties for ship crew members while giving important consideration to sustainable environment practices. Multi-criteria analysis, a questionnaire, survey and interviews were used as the research method so as to ascertain and corroborate existing problems on board ships, and the reliability of the systems was calculated. The co-insistency, maintenance and the efficiency of the systems, were shown as being the major problem as there are no systems for tracking ship ballast operations from land. The treatment system that used oxidants was, through multi criteria analysis, evaluated as being the best and was ranked first. However, the survey results showed that the ship's crew had serious problems with this system which difficult to solve during the ship's operations with cargo. The deoxygenation system was the most appropriate according to ballast water treatment criteria in the port or at sea. The treatment system which used electrolysis with oxidant was better in terms of efficacy and the treatment system electrolysis with ultra violet light was better in terms of the criterion environment pollution footprint. During further research, it was shown that 7 % of the surveyed crew members had major problems with operating ballast water treatment systems, including the system which was ranked first through multi criteria analysis. They by-passed these systems while continuing to ballast or de-ballast. It was calculated that of the total time needed for the ballast water treatment system operation, 9 % of this time was used for repairs or maintenance of the systems. Some examples are changing a used UV bulb, cleaning the filter or controlling the amount of oxidant which would be discharged into the sea. A conclusion was made and solution was suggested. The study results emphasised

  4. Emission of phthalates and phthalate alternatives from vinyl flooring and crib mattress covers: the influence of temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yirui; Xu, Ying

    2014-12-16

    Emissions of phthalates and phthalate alternatives from vinyl flooring and crib mattress covers were measured in a specially designed chamber. The gas-phase concentrations versus time were measured at four different temperatures, that is, 25, 36, 45, and 55 °C. The key parameter that controls the emissions (y0, gas-phase concentration in equilibrium with the material phase) was determined, and the emissions were found to increase significantly with increasing temperature. Both the material-phase concentration (C0) and the chemical vapor pressure (Vp) were found to have great influence on the value of y0. The measured ratios of C0 to y0 were exponentially proportional to the reciprocal of temperature, in agreement with the van't Hoff equation. A emission model was validated at different temperatures, with excellent agreement between model calculations and chamber observations. In residential homes, an increase in the temperature from 25 to 35 °C can elevate the gas-phase concentration of phthalates by more than a factor of 10, but the total airborne concentration may not increase that much for less volatile compounds. In infant sleep microenvironments, an increase in the temperature of mattress can cause a significant increase in emission of phthalates from the mattress cover and make the concentration in the infant's breathing zone about four times higher than that in the bulk room air, resulting in potentially high exposure. PMID:25419579

  5. Hydroxide stabilization as a new tool for ballast disinfection: efficacy of treatment on zooplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Christine M.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Barenburg, Amber; Henquinet, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Effective and economical tools are needed for treating ship ballast to meet new regulatory requirements designed to reduce the introduction of invasive aquatic species from ship traffic. We tested the efficacy of hydroxide stabilization as a ballast disinfection tool in replicated, sequential field trials on board the M/V Ranger III in waters of Lake Superior. Ballast water was introduced into each of four identical 1,320 L stainless steel tanks during a simulated ballasting operation. Two tanks were treated with NaOH to elevate the pH to 11.7 and the remaining two tanks were held as controls without pH alteration. After retention on board for 14–18 h, CO2-rich gas recovered from one of two diesel propulsion engines was sparged into tanks treated with NaOH for 2 h to force conversion of NaOH ultimately to sodium bicarbonate, thereby lowering pH to about 7.1. Prior to gas sparging, the engine exhaust was treated by a unique catalytic converter/wet scrubber process train to remove unwanted combustion byproducts and to provide cooling. The contents of each tank were then drained and filtered through 35-µm mesh plankton nets to collect all zooplankton. The composition and relative survival of zooplankton in each tank were evaluated by microscopy. Zooplankton populations were dominated by rotifers, but copepods and cladocerans were also observed. Hydroxide stabilization was 100% effective in killing all zooplankton present at the start of the tests. Our results suggest hydroxide stabilization has potential to be an effective and practical tool to disinfect ship ballast. Further, using CO2 released from the ship engine reduces emissions and the neutralized by product, sodium bicarbonate, can have beneficial impacts on the aquatic environment.

  6. Effect of type and concentration of ballasting particles on sinking rate of marine snow produced by the appendicularian Oikopleura dioica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Lombard

    Full Text Available Ballast material (organic, opal, calcite, lithogenic is suggested to affect sinking speed of aggregates in the ocean. Here, we tested this hypothesis by incubating appendicularians in suspensions of different algae or Saharan dust, and observing the sinking speed of the marine snow formed by their discarded houses. We show that calcite increases the sinking speeds of aggregates by ~100% and lithogenic material by ~150% while opal only has a minor effect. Furthermore the effect of ballast particle concentration was causing a 33 m d(-1 increase in sinking speed for a 5×10(5 µm(3 ml(-1 increase in particle concentration, near independent on ballast type. We finally compare our observations to the literature and stress the need to generate aggregates similar to those in nature in order to get realistic estimates of the impact of ballast particles on sinking speeds.

  7. Effect of type and concentration of ballasting particles on sinking rate of marine snow produced by the appendicularian Oikopleura dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Fabien; Guidi, Lionel; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Ballast material (organic, opal, calcite, lithogenic) is suggested to affect sinking speed of aggregates in the ocean. Here, we tested this hypothesis by incubating appendicularians in suspensions of different algae or Saharan dust, and observing the sinking speed of the marine snow formed by their discarded houses. We show that calcite increases the sinking speeds of aggregates by ~100% and lithogenic material by ~150% while opal only has a minor effect. Furthermore the effect of ballast particle concentration was causing a 33 m d(-1) increase in sinking speed for a 5×10(5) µm(3) ml(-1) increase in particle concentration, near independent on ballast type. We finally compare our observations to the literature and stress the need to generate aggregates similar to those in nature in order to get realistic estimates of the impact of ballast particles on sinking speeds. PMID:24086610

  8. Efficacy of pH elevation as a bactericidal strategy for treating ballast water of freight carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Starliper, Clifford E.; Barnaby J. Watten; Iwanowicz, Deborah D.; Green, Phyllis A.; Bassett, Noel L.; Adams, Cynthia R

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of ship ballast water with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is one method currently being developed to minimize the risk to introduce aquatic invasive species. The bactericidal capability of sodium hydroxide was determined for 148 bacterial strains from ballast water collected in 2009 and 2010 from the M/V Indiana Harbor, a bulk-freight carrier plying the Laurentian Great Lakes, USA. Primary culture of bacteria was done using brain heart infusion agar and a developmental medium. Strains were...

  9. Testing the BIO-SEA ballast water management system; Filter efficiency tests with high levels of zooplankton

    OpenAIRE

    Kaag, N.H.B.M.; Sneekes, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    The BIO-SEA® Ballast Water Treatment System (BWTS) was tested at the IMARES land-based test facility. General goal of the tests was to compare two different brands of filter and to test the filter efficiency of finer mesh sizes of each brand. The filters were tested in combination with a ‘one-shot UVtreatment’ (ballasting and deballasting the same day) in order to evaluate the effect of the filters on the overall treatment efficacy.

  10. Assessing exemptions under the ballast water management convention: preclude the Trojan horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olenin, Sergej; Ojaveer, Henn; Minchin, Dan; Boelens, Rick

    2016-02-15

    The International Maritime Organization (IMO) Ballast Water Management Convention (BWMC) is a powerful instrument aimed at reducing spread of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens (HAOPs). As BWMC is expected to enter into force soon, shipping companies will start seeking exemptions for ballast water management in accordance with BWMC Regulation A-4. However, without scientifically robust risk assessment (RA) and consistent rules, the exemptions may introduce a new form of risk within a convention generally designed to reduce risks. This paper describes an adaptive system for granting exemptions, consisting of six major components: target species selection procedure, port-to-port RA, monitoring, information support, administrative decision and review process. The system is based on key principles defined in the IMO guidelines for RA and is designed to continuously accumulate evolving experience on granting exemptions. The ultimate goal is to contribute to the control of the spread of HAOPs, without placing an unnecessary burden on the shipping industry. PMID:26795122

  11. Disinfection by-products in ballast water treatment: an evaluation of regulatory data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werschkun, Barbara; Sommer, Yasmin; Banerji, Sangeeta

    2012-10-15

    To reduce the global spread of invasive aquatic species, international regulations will soon require reductions of the number of organisms in ballast water discharged by ships. For this purpose, ballast water treatment systems were developed and approved by an international procedure. These systems rely on established water treatment principles which, to different degrees, have been proven to generate disinfection by-products with hazardous properties but have only scarcely been investigated in marine environments. Our study evaluates the publicly available documentation about approved ballast water treatment systems with regard to by-product formation. The most commonly employed methods are chlorination, ozonation, and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Chlorination systems generate trihalomethanes, halogenated acetic acids, and bromate in substantially larger quantities than reported for other areas of application. Levels are highest in brackish water, and brominated species predominate, in particular bromoform and dibromoacetic acid. Ozonation, which is less frequently utilized, produces bromoform in lower concentrations but forms higher levels of bromate, both of which were effectively reduced by active carbon treatment. In systems based on UV radiation, medium pressure lamps are employed as well as UV-induced advanced oxidation. For all UV systems, by-product formation is reported only occasionally. The most notable observations were small increases in nitrite, hydrogen peroxide, halogenated methanes and acetic acids. The assessment of by-product formation during ballast water treatment is limited by the lacking completeness and quality of available information. This concerns the extent and statistical characterisation of chemical analysis as well as the documentation of the test water parameters.

  12. A field study of the effectiveness of sacrificial anodes in ballast tanks of merchant ships

    OpenAIRE

    De Baere, K.; Verstraelen, H; Lemmens, L.; Lenaerts, S.; Dewil, R; Van Ingelgem, Y.; Potters, G.

    2014-01-01

    Sacrificial anodes have become a standard practice for the protection of ballast tanks of merchant vessels against corrosive damage. A well protected tank should extend the life span of a ship and consequently enhances its economic value. An in situ survey comprising more than 100 merchant vessels provided the opportunity to measure the impact of these anodes on the life expectancy of these vessels. Contrary to the general belief of these anodes' beneficial effect, no significant difference w...

  13. Enhanced rates of particulate organic matter remineralization by microzooplankton are diminished by added ballast minerals

    OpenAIRE

    Moigne, F. A. C.; Gallinari, M.; Laurenceau, E.; Rocha, C L

    2013-01-01

    International audience; To examine the potentially competing influences of microzooplankton and calcite mineral ballast on organic matter remineralization, we incubated diatoms in darkness in rolling tanks with and without added calcite minerals (coccoliths) and microzooplankton (rotifers). Concentrations of particulate organic matter (POM in suspension or in aggregates), of dissolved organic matter (DOM), and of dissolved inorganic nutrients were monitored over 8 days. The presence of rotife...

  14. A GPR-based simulation approach for the analysis of railway ballast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Andrea; Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; Tosti, Fabio; Pajewski, Lara; Alani, Amir M.; Loizos, Andreas; Umiliaco, Andrea; Giulia Brancadoro, Maria; Pirrone, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    This study aims at proposing a model capable to assess the physical conditions of railway ballast, in terms of percentage of fouling within the material, by analyzing its electromagnetic response. For the calibration of such a model, a laboratory set-up was implemented in order to reproduce a real-scale railway environment. In more details, a 1.47 m long × 1.47 m wide × 0.48 m high plexiglass formwork was laid over a metal sheet, to define a proper domain of investigation. The formwork was then filled up with railway ballast, progressively fouled with a fine-grained pollutant material, namely, an A4 soil type according to the ASSHTO soil classification. At each step of fouling percentage, electromagnetic surveys were carried out by employing several ground-penetrating radar (GPR) systems, in both ground-coupled and air-coupled configurations. On the other hand, the validation of the model was performed through a simulation-based approach. In particular, the main physical and geometrical properties of each ballast-pollutant configuration were reproduced by means of a random sequence absorption (RSA) approach. For the representation of the shape of the solid matrix of the ballast, a relatively complex geometry was here adopted. Finally, the developed geometries were processed by the GprMax 2D numerical simulator, employing a finite-difference time domain (FDTD) model capable of generating a synthetic GPR response for the several configurations analysed in laboratory environment. As result, the potential of the combined use of RSA and FDTD approaches is demonstrated, and a model for characterizing such a complex coarse-grained heterogeneous material is finally proposed. Acknowledgement The Authors thank COST, for funding the Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar."

  15. Detecting nuisance species using NGST: Methodology shortcomings and possible application in ballast water monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaiko, Anastasija; Martinez, Jose L; Ardura, Alba; Clusa, Laura; Borrell, Yaisel J; Samuiloviene, Aurelija; Roca, Agustín; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2015-12-01

    Detecting the presence of potential invasive species in ballast water is a priority for preventing their spread into new environments. Next generation sequencing technologies are being increasingly used for exploring and assessing biodiversity from environmental samples. Here we apply high throughput sequencing from DNA extracted from ballast water (BW) samples employing two different platforms, Ion Torrent and 454, and compare the putative species catalogues from the resulting Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU). Water samples were taken from the RV Polastern ballast tank in five different days between the second and the twentieth navigation day. Pronounced decrease of oxygen concentration and increase of temperature occurred in the BW during this time, coincident with a progressively higher proportion of unassigned OTU and short reads indicating DNA degradation. Discrepancy between platforms for species catalogues was consistent with previously published bias in AT-rich sequences for Ion Torrent platform. Some putative species detected from the two platforms increased in frequency during the Polarstern travel, which suggests they were alive and therefore tolerant to adverse conditions. OTU assigned to the highly invasive red alga Polysiphonia have been detected at low but increasing frequency from the two platforms. Although in this moment NGST could not replace current methods of sampling, sorting and individual taxonomic identification of BW biota, it has potential as an exploratory methodology especially for detecting scarce species.

  16. A Comparison of Microbial Water Quality and Diversity for Ballast and Tropical Harbor Waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmaine Ng

    Full Text Available Indicator organisms and antibiotic resistance were used as a proxy to measure microbial water quality of ballast tanks of ships, and surface waters in a tropical harbor. The survival of marine bacteria in ballast tanks appeared to diminish over longer water retention time, with a reduction of cell viability observed after a week based on heterotrophic plate counts. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes showed distinct differences in microbial composition of ballast and harbor waters. The harbor waters had a higher abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs assigned to Cyanobacteria (Synechococcus spp. and α-proteobacteria (SAR11 members, while marine hydrocarbon degraders such as γ-proteobacteria (Ocenspirillaes spp., Thiotrchales spp. and Bacteroidetes (Flavobacteriales spp. dominated the ballast water samples. Screening of indicator organisms found Escherichia coli (E. coli, Enterococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa in two or more of the ballast and harbor water samples tested. Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp. were detected exclusively in harbor water samples. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR, we screened for 13 antibiotic resistant gene (ARG targets and found higher abundances of sul1 (4.13-3.44 x 102 copies/mL, dfrA (0.77-1.80 x10 copies/mL and cfr (2.00-5.21 copies/mL genes compared to the other ARG targets selected for this survey. These genes encode for resistance to sulfonamides, trimethoprim and chloramphenicol-florfenicol antibiotics, which are also known to persist in sediments of aquaculture farms and coastal environments. Among the ARGs screened, we found significant correlations (P<0.05 between ereA, ermG, cfr and tetO genes to one or more of the indicator organisms detected in this study, which may suggest that these members contribute to the environmental resistome. This study provides a baseline water quality survey, quantitatively assessing indicators of antibiotic resistance, potentially pathogenic organisms and a

  17. INVESTIGATION OF INNER SHEAR RESISTANCE OF GEOGRIDS BUILT UNDER GRANULAR PROTECTION LAYERS AND RAILWAY BALLAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sz. Fischer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Using adequate granular materials and layer structures in the railway super- and substructure is able to stabilise railway track geometry. For this purpose special behaviour of above materials has to be determined, e.g. inner shear resistance. Inner shear resistance of granular media with and without geogrid reinforcement in different depths is not known yet. Methodology. The author developed a special laboratory method to measure and define inner shear resistance of granular materials, it is called «multi-level shear box test». This method is adequate to determine inner shear resistance (pushing force vs. depth (distance from the «zero» surface. Two different granular materials: andesite railway ballast (31.5/63 mm and andesite railway protection layer material (0/56 mm, and seven different types of geogrids (GG1…GG7 were used during the tests. Findings. Values of inner shear resistance functions of andesite railway ballast without geogrid reinforcement and reinforced with different types of geogrids and andesite granular protection layer in function of the vertical distance from the geogrid plane were determined with multi-layer shear box tests when the material aggregation is uncompacted and compacted. Only the compacted sample was tested in case of the 0/56 mm protection layer. Cubic polynomial regression functions fitted on the mean values of the measurements are described graphically. Determination coefficients with values of R2>0.97 were resulted in all the cases of regression functions. Based on the polynomial regression functions fitted on the mean values of the test results, three increasing factors were determined in function of the distance measured from the geogrid. Increasing factor «A», «B» and «D». Originality. Multi-level shear box test, developed by the author, is certified unequivocally adequate for determining inner shear resistance of reinforced and unreinforced granular materials, e.g. railway ballast

  18. Inactivation of invasive marine species in the process of conveying ballast water using OH based on a strong ionization discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Mindong; Zheng, Qilin; Tian, Yiping; Zhang, Zhitao; Chen, Cao; Cheng, Chao; Meng, Xiangying

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, invasive marine species in medium-salinity ballast water were inactivated using OH generated from a strong ionization discharge. The OH is determined by the concentration of oxygen active species combined with the effects of water jet cavitation. The results indicated that the OH concentration reached 7.62 μM, within 1 s, which is faster and higher than in conventional AOP methods. In a pilot-scale OH ballast water system with a capacity of 10 m(3)/h, algae were inactivated when CT value was 0.1 mg min/L with a contact time only 6 s. The viable and nonviable cells were determined using SYTOX Green nucleic acid stain and Flow cytometry. As a result, the OH treatment could be completed during the process of conveying the ballast water. In addition, the concentrations of relevant disinfection by-products (DBPs), such as trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), and bromate, were less than that required by the World Health Organization's drinking water standards, which suggest that the discharged ballast water posed no risks to the oceanic environment. Nevertheless, for conventional ozonation and electrolysis methods, the ballast water should be treated only in the treated tanks during the ship's voyage and form higher level DBPs.

  19. Study on the killing of oceanic harmful micro-organisms in ship's ballast water using oxygen active particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global Environment Facility has identified that the spread of marine invasive alien species is one of the four major risk factors threatening the safety of global marine environments. Ballast water discharge is the main cause of biological invasion. With physical methods of strong electric field ionization discharge at atmospheric pressure, O2 and sea water (gaseous) were ionized, and then dissociated to a number of oxygen active particles (ROS) such as ·OH, O2+, H2O+, etc. ROS was injected into 0.6 t h−1 ballast water treatment system to form high concentration ROS solution in order to kill the harmful micro-organisms in ballast water. According to the land-based test standard of International Maritime Organization (IMO) Guidelines for Approval of Ballast Water Management Systems (G8), this paper concludes that single-cell algae of 3.0 × 104 cell ml−1 and bacteria of 2.0 × 104 cfu ml−1 were killed by ROS solution of 2.0 ppm. Death rate could reach almost 100%. The results meet the requirements of Regulation D-2 of International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments completely.

  20. 33 CFR 155.350 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of less...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of less than 400 gross... mixtures from bilges or fuel oil tank ballast and discharges into the sea according to § 151.10 of this... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oily mixture (bilge...

  1. 33 CFR 155.440 - Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on new oceangoing ships of 4,000 gross tons and above...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Segregation of fuel oil and... PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.440 Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on... 150 gross tons and above, ballast water must not be carried in any fuel oil tank. (b) Where...

  2. Phytoplankton and Bacterial Assemblages in Ballast Water of U.S. Military Ships as a Function of Port of Origin, Voyage Time, and Ocean Exchange Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    We characterized the physical/chemical conditions and the algal and bacterial assemblages in ballast water from 62 ballast tanks aboard 28 ships operated by the U.S. Military Sealift Command and the Maritime Administration, sampled at 9 ports on the U.S. West Coast and 4 ports on the U.S. East Coast...

  3. Analysis and performance of novel and highly efficient electronic ballast operating at unity-power-factor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V B Borghate; H M Suryawanshi; G A Dhomane

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents the electronic ballast, in which the coupling inductors are used to inject the current to the dc-bus capacitors, to boost the dc-bus voltage and to filter out the ripples from input line current. The current injection coupling inductor injects its stored energy to the dc-bus capacitors in every switching half cycle. Whereas, the boost coupling inductor keeps the dc-bus voltage always above the peak of ac input voltage. Therefore, the proposed ballast maintains unity-power-factor and high efficiency with ripple-free input current over wide range of input line voltage in case of worst regulation. A symmetrical half-bridge inverter is used to drive the fluorescent lamps. The experimental results of the laboratory prototype ballast for 2 × 36 W fluorescent lamps operating at 50 kHz are presented.

  4. Effects of proposed physical ballast tank treatments on aquatic invertebrate resting eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikow, David F; Reid, David F; Blatchley, Ernest R; Jacobs, Gregory; Landrum, Peter F

    2007-04-01

    Adaptations in aquatic invertebrate resting eggs that confer protection from natural catastrophic events also could confer protection from treatments applied to ballast water for biological invasion vector management. To evaluate the potential efficacy of physical ballast water treatment methods, the present study examined the acute toxicity of heat (flash and holding methods), ultraviolet (UV) radiation (254 nm), and deoxygenation (acute and chronic) on resting eggs of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia mendotae and the marine brine shrimp Artemia sp. Both D. mendotae and Artemia sp. were similarly sensitive to flash exposures of heat (100% mortality at 70 degrees C), but D. mendotae were much more sensitive to prolonged exposures. Exposure to 4,000 mJ/cm2 of UV radiation resulted in mortality rates of 59% in Artemia sp. and 91% in D. mendotae. Deoxygenation to an oxygen concentration of 1 mg/L was maximally toxic to both species. Deoxygenation suppressed hatching of D. mendotae resting eggs at oxygen concentrations of less than 5.5 mg/L and of Artemia sp. resting eggs at concentrations of less than 1 mg/L. Results suggest that UV radiation and deoxygenation are not viable treatment methods with respect to invertebrate resting eggs because of the impracticality of producing sufficient UV doses and the suppression of hatching at low oxygen concentrations. Results also suggest that the treatment temperatures required to kill resting eggs are much higher than those reported to be effective against other invertebrate life stages and species. The results, however, do not preclude the effectiveness of these treatments against other organisms or life stages. Nevertheless, if ballast tank treatment systems employing the tested methods are intended to include mitigation of viable resting eggs, then physical removal of large resting eggs and ephippia via filtration would be a necessary initial step. PMID:17447556

  5. Guidance for a harmonized emission scenario document (ESD) on ballast water discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zipperle, Andreas [BIS - Beratungszentrum fuer integriertes Sedimentmanagement, Hamburg (Germany); Gils, Jos van [DELTARES, Delft (Netherlands); Hattum, Bert van [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). IVM - Institute for Environmental Studies; Heise, Susanne [BIS - Beratungszentrum fuer integriertes Sedimentmanagement, Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    The present report provides guidance for a harmonized Emission Scenario Document (ESD) for the exposure assessment as part of the environmental risk assessment process which applicants seeking approval of a ballast water management system (BWMS) need to perform prior to notification and authorisation procedures. Despite the global variability of the marine environment, ballast water discharges and treatment methods, exposure assessments need to be comparable between different applications. In order to achieve this, this ESD points out the following aspects: - Applicants should use standardized scenarios in order to predict mean exposure. These should reflect generic situations, independent of region or port so that results are widely applicable. In addition to a harbour scenario, a standardized shipping lane scenario should be considered, - During or right after ballast water discharge, high concentrations may persist in a water body for a certain length of time until extensive mixing results in mean concentrations. Not taking exposure to peak concentrations within gradients into account could lead to an underestimation of risk, especially for rapidly degrading substances. Efforts have been made to approximate maximum exposure concentration with simple dilution factors. Their applicability was checked by near-field-evaluations. - Chemical properties determine the environmental fate of substances. If they are ambiguous, selection of a specific set of data strongly influences the result of an exposure assessment. Guidance is given on what to do about lacking data. - In order to harmonize the exposure assessments, reliable chemical model software should be used. A discussion on the requirements of suitable software and an evaluation of MAMPEC is given in this report. (orig.)

  6. Bromination of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter following Full Scale Electrochemical Ballast Water Disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsior, Michael; Mitchelmore, Carys; Heyes, Andrew; Harir, Mourad; Richardson, Susan D; Petty, William Tyler; Wright, David A; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    An extensively diverse array of brominated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) were generated following electrochemical disinfection of natural coastal/estuarine water, which is one of the main treatment methods currently under consideration for ballast water treatment. Ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry revealed 462 distinct brominated DBPs at a relative abundance in the mass spectra of more than 1%. A brominated DBP with a relative abundance of almost 22% was identified as 2,2,4-tribromo-5-hydroxy-4-cyclopentene-1,3-dione, which is an analogue to several previously described 2,2,4-trihalo-5-hydroxy-4-cyclopentene-1,3-diones in drinking water. Several other brominated molecular formulas matched those of other known brominated DBPs, such as dibromomethane, which could be generated by decarboxylation of dibromoacetic acid during ionization, dibromophenol, dibromopropanoic acid, dibromobutanoic acid, bromohydroxybenzoic acid, bromophenylacetic acid, bromooxopentenoic acid, and dibromopentenedioic acid. Via comparison to previously described chlorine-containing analogues, bromophenylacetic acid, dibromooxopentenoic acid, and dibromopentenedioic acid were also identified. A novel compound at a 4% relative abundance was identified as tribromoethenesulfonate. This compound has not been previously described as a DBP, and its core structure of tribromoethene has been demonstrated to show toxicological implications. Here we show that electrochemical disinfection, suggested as a candidate for successful ballast water treatment, caused considerable production of some previously characterized DBPs in addition to novel brominated DBPs, although several hundred compounds remain structurally uncharacterized. Our results clearly demonstrate that electrochemical and potentially direct chlorination of ballast water in estuarine and marine systems should be approached with caution and the concentrations, fate, and toxicity of DBP need to be further characterized.

  7. Assessing ballast treatment standards for effect on rate of establishment using a stochastic model of the green crab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Cooper

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a stochastic model used to characterize the probability/risk of NIS establishment from ships' ballast water discharges. Establishment is defined as the existence of a sufficient number of individuals of a species to provide for a sustained population of the organism. The inherent variability in population dynamics of organisms in their native or established environments is generally difficult to quantify. Muchqualitative information is known about organism life cycles and biotic and abiotic environmental pressures on the population, but generally little quantitative data exist to develop a mechanistic model of populations in such complex environments. Moreover, there is little quantitative data to characterize the stochastic fluctuations of population size over time even without accounting for systematic responses to biotic and abiotic pressures. This research applies an approach using life-stage density and fecundity measures reported in research to determine a stochastic model of an organism's population dynamics. The model is illustrated withdata from research studies on the green crab that span a range of habitats of the established organism and were collected over some years to represent a range of time-varying biotic and abiotic conditions that are expected to exist in many receiving environments. This model is applied to introductions of NIS at the IMO D-2 and the U.S. ballast water discharge standard levels designated as Phase Two in the United States Coast Guard'sNotice of Proposed Rulemaking. Under a representative range of ballast volumes discharged at U.S. ports, the average rate of establishment of green crabs for ballast waters treated to the IMO-D2 concentration standard (less than 10 organisms/m3 is predicted to be reduced to about a third the average rate from untreated ballast water discharge. The longevity of populations from the untreated ballast water discharges is expected to be reducedby about 90% by

  8. The ships' ballast water impact on the Black Sea marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acomi, Nicoleta; Acomi, Ovidiu

    2015-04-01

    Ships use ballast water to provide stability during voyages. This type of seawater loaded on board from one geographical area and discharged in very different port areas as ballasting practice, turned into a vector for spreading the non-native sea life species. The reduction and limitation of invasive species is a problem that the modern world addresses. Thus, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) developed the BWM 2004 Convention. Adopting international regulations influences the socio-economic sector and this is the reason why the ballast water, the subject of this paper, has been on the IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee's agenda for more than 10 years, while the Convention has not yet been ratified and enforced. Although the Black Sea was subject to incidents regarding the invasive species the Romanian Government, as member of the IMO, did not ratify the Convention. The Black Sea was the subject of four major incidents regarding the ships' ballast water. One of them refers to the North American Comb Jelly, native from the Eastern Seaboard of America, introduced in the Black, Azov and Caspian Seas and seriously affecting the Romanian coastal environment in the 1990's. This invasive species has negative impacts: it reproduces rapidly under favourable conditions, it feeds excessively on zooplankton, it depletes zooplankton stocks, altering the food web and the ecosystem functionality, and contributed significantly to the collapse of Black and Azov Sea fisheries in the 1990s, with massive economic and social impact. There are studies for identifying the invasive species for the Black sea, structured in a database for marine species - the Black Sea Red Data Book. For these invasive species, there have been identified and developed charts to emphasize their ways of migration into the Black Sea. This paper aims to analyse the marine traffic in Romanian ports, broken down according with seasons and types of vessels, and to assess its relationship with

  9. Treatment of ships' ballast water by irradiation of pulsed, intense relativistic electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zooplankton contained in ships' ballast water has been successfully treated by irradiation of pulsed, intense relativistic electron beam (PIREB). A treatment chamber is filled up with solution of 3-wt% salt in water containing a larva of artemia as the zooplankton, and is irradiated by the PIREB (2 MeV, 0.4 kA, 140 ns). We have found that electric conductivity and pH of the salt solution does not change significantly within 10 shots of the PIREB irradiation. We have obtained that the artemia of 24% is inactivated by firing 10 shots of the PIREB irradiation. (author)

  10. Using MCDA methods THOR in an application for outranking the ballast water management options

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Francisco Simões Gomes

    2005-01-01

    The Multicriteria Analysis Methodology has been developed in order to support and guide decision-makers in the evaluation and selection of alternatives/solutions. In this case, it is used to compare alternatives for the management ballast water (BW) exchange systems and treatment methods.O Apoio Multicritério à Decisão (AMD) desenvolve metodologias que ajudam o tomador ou agente de decisão a avaliar e selecionar alternativas. Este trabalho apresenta uma aplicação real do AMD em uma situação d...

  11. Results of 1998 spectral gamma-ray monitoring of boreholes at the 216-Z-1A tile field, 216-Z-9 trench, and 216-Z-12 crib

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the results of fiscal year 1998 vadose zone monitoring of three inactive liquid waste disposal facilities associated with the Plutonium Finishing Plant: the 216-Z-1A tile field, the 216-Z-9 trench, and the 216-Z-12 crib. Monitoring consisted of spectral gamma-ray logging of 21 boreholes. This work was performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in conjunction with Three Rivers Scientific and Waste management Federal Services, inc. Northwest Operations. These three liquid waste disposal facilities were chosen for monitoring because they were identified as containing some of the most significant sources of radioactive contamination in the Hanford Site vadose zone. The basic question addressed by this logging activity is ''Has the configuration of subsurface contamination changed since it was last measured?'' Previous borehole logging and laboratory analyses provide the baseline data to help answer this question

  12. Development of a Conceptual Model for Vadose Zone Transport of Tc-99 at Hanford's BC Cribs and the Screening of Remedial Alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of waste trenches and cribs at Hanford's BC Cribs and Trenches site, which received about 10 Mgal of scavenged tank waste with elevated concentrations of technetium-99 and nitrate, are being evaluated for remediation. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a conceptual model for vadose zone transport of mobile contaminants, and 2) investigate the effects of fine-scale heterogeneity (i.e. horizontal laminations, cross-bedding) on the large-scale transport behavior with the goal of developing an appropriate remedial strategy. The vertical heterogeneity structure, conditioned on grain size distributions and borehole geophysical logs (water content and natural isotopes), was developed from a single borehole at the site. Geostatistical methods were used to impose a 3-D spatial correlation structure, using information from an adjacent well-characterized experimental site, and to merge heterogeneities at various scales. Flow and transport properties were derived using property transfer models based on grain size distributions. The STOMP simulator was used to predict flow and transport through the vadose zone and into a 5-m thick confined aquifer during the period of trench operations (1956-1958) through to the present time. Results show that fine-scale heterogeneity within the large-scale lithologic units enhanced lateral flow and mixing, limited vertical penetration in the vadose zone, and played a critical role in keeping contaminants above the water table. Model results show good agreement with a contaminant profile from a borehole installed in the 216-B-26 trench. Simulated distributions of nitrate and electrical resistivity are also in good agreement with the results of a field-scale resistivity survey. These results suggest that installation of an engineered surface barrier would reduce the threat to ground water by reducing the mass flux of contaminants to the water table and increasing the residence time in the vadose zone. (authors)

  13. Does the survivorship of activated resting stages in toxic environments provide cues for ballast water treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, Victor; Makrushin, Andrey; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2010-01-01

    The toxic effects of three inorganic metals (Cu, Cr, Hg), three organic (phenol, formalin, ammonium) chemicals, ozone-enriched water and peroxides (H2O2) on embryonic development were tested in 8 species from the Porifera, Bryozoa and Crustacea. Toxicants with lower molecular weight showed stronger negative impacts on post-diapause embryos than chemicals with higher molecular weight if related to the toxicity of the chemicals to active adult stages. Only few embryos of the cladoceran Moina macrocopa and none of the cladoceran Wlassicsia pannonica treated with peroxides at concentration 0.3% developed further. Ozone-enriched water had no significant effect on post-diapause embryonic development in cladocerans. Ammonium (the product of NH4OH dissociation) in concentration 100 mg/l and higher killed all embryos of M. macrocopa inside protective membranes. Peroxides and ammonium are suggested for the purification of ship ballast waters as effective, non-expensive and non-persistent toxic chemicals. Resting stages of invertebrates including at least Crustaceans, Porifera and Bryozoa seem to allow not only dispersal among toxic industrial environments such as ship ballast compartments, but may also endure serious pollution events common in seaports and estuaries. Artemia cysts due to their strong protection against different toxic substances are recommended as a model for studies of toxic effects in diapausing stages in polluted estuaries and marine environments. PMID:20356608

  14. Added Resistance Acting on Hull of a Non Ballast Water Ship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ngo Van He; Yoshiho Ikeda

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, added resistances acting on a hull of non ballast water ship (NBS) in high waves is discussed. The non ballast water ships were developed at the laboratory of the authors at Osaka Prefecture University, Japan. In the present paper, the performances of three kinds of bow shapes developed for the NBS were theoretically and experimentally investigated to find the best one in high waves. In previous papers, an optimum bow shape for the NBS was developed in calm water and in moderated waves. For a 2 m model for experiments and computations, the wave height is 0.02 m. This means that the wave height is 15%of the draft of the ship in full load conditions. In this paper, added resistances in high waves up to 0.07 m for a 2 m model or 53%of the full load draft are investigated. In such high waves linear wave theories which have been used in the design stage of a ship for a long time may not work well anymore, and experiments are the only effective tool to predict the added resistance in high waves. With the computations for waves, the ship is in a fully captured condition because shorter waves,λ/Lpp<0.6, are assumed.

  15. Consequences of using crushed crystalline rock as ballast in KBS-3 tunnels instead of rounded quartz particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic question has been whether such replacement alters the hydraulic conductivity and compressibility as well as expandability and also if the physical and chemical stabilities are altered. The key factor is the microstructural constitution of the bentonite/ballast mixtures, which is primarily controlled by the grain size distribution of the ballast. The compact ability of backfills with quartz sand (SB) is higher than that of backfills with crushed rock as ballast (RB). The physical stability of RB backfills in terms of piping and erosion resistance will be somewhat lower than that of SB backfills. The chemical stability is practically independent of whether the ballast is pure quartz or rock with K-bearing minerals because the temperature in the backfill will be too low to yield significant smectite to illite conversion in the short heating period. In order to reach the same densities of SB and RB backfills, which turn out to give fairly similar physical properties, the latter backfills need more effective compaction or, alternatively, a higher bentonite content. It is estimated that if the bentonite content in RB backfills is not increased while the density is enhanced to what is achievable, these backfills will serve equally well as SB backfills with the densities implied by the basic KBS-3 concept. 23 refs, 27 figs, 7 tabs

  16. Production, oxygen respiration rates, and sinking velocity of copepod fecal pellets: Direct measurements of ballasting by opal and calcite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, H.; Iversen, M.H.; Koski, Marja;

    2008-01-01

    sp., T. weissflogii, and E. huxleyi, respectively. The average carbon-specific respiration rate was 0.15 d(-1) independent on diet (range: 0.08-0.21 d(-1)). Because of ballasting of opal and calcite, sinking velocities were significantly higher for pellets produced on T. weissflogii (322 +/- 169 m d...

  17. The Brazilian dilution method for ballast water exchange; O metodo de diluicao brasileiro para troca de agua de lastro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauro, Celso Alleluia [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Avaliacao e Monitoramento Ambiental]. E-mail: celso@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Land, Claudio Goncalves [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Abastecimento, Logistica e Planejamento]. E-mail: cgland@petrobras.com.br; Pimenta, Jose Maria Hollanda Alvares; Barreto, Francisco Carlos Peixoto [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Engenharia; Brandao, Marcus Vinicius Lisboa; Marroig, Nilton Lemos [Transpetro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Frota Nacional de Petroleiros. Inspetoria Geral; Tristao, Maria Luiza Braganca [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Quimica; Fadel, Andre Luiz da Fonseca [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Financas Corporativa e Tesouraria; Villac, Maria Celia; Fernandes, Lohengrin; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Dias, Cristina; Bonecker, Sergio; Denise Tenenbaum [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia; Persich, Graziela; Garcia, Virginia; Odebrecht, Clarisse [Fundacao Universidade do Rio Grande, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Oceanografia

    2002-12-01

    In a precautionary approach and dealing with the coming International Maritime Organization (IMO) regulations on ballast water, PETROBRAS developed a new method for ballast water exchange in tankers. Differently from ordinary methods PETROBRAS method which have been called Brazilian Dilution Method (BDM) or Dilution Method involves ballast loading through the top with simultaneous unloading from the bottom of the tanks. The method proposal was firstly presented to IMO, which encouraged PETROBRAS to carry out a field trial. PETROBRAS in June 1998 carried out a trial in the product carrier M/V Lavras. A simulation study was useful to plan the trial assessing the theoretical efficiency of the method, establishing the best sampling points and comparing the BDM with the Tank Overfilling Method (TOM). Simulation showed that for the same tank shape, the water renewal in BDM is more effective than in TOM and that 90 % of water renewal could be obtained by BDM. A dye concentration variation monitoring and a biological assessment were performed and the results confirmed that over than 90 % of the ballast water was renewed after three exchanges. The method was proved safe, practical, economical and suitable to minimize the risk of exotic species transport between ports. (author)

  18. Testing the BIO-SEA ballast water management system; Filter efficiency tests with high levels of zooplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaag, N.H.B.M.; Sneekes, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    The BIO-SEA® Ballast Water Treatment System (BWTS) was tested at the IMARES land-based test facility. General goal of the tests was to compare two different brands of filter and to test the filter efficiency of finer mesh sizes of each brand. The filters were tested in combination with a ‘one-shot U

  19. Effect of type and concentration of ballasting particles on sinking rate of marine snow produced by the Appendicularian Oikopleura dioica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombard, Fabien; Guidi, L.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Ballast material (organic, opal, calcite, lithogenic) is suggested to affect sinking speed of aggregates in the ocean. Here, we tested this hypothesis by incubating appendicularians in suspensions of different algae or Saharan dust, and observing the sinking speed of the marine snow formed by the...

  20. Ballast minerals and the sinking carbon flux in the ocean: carbon-specific respiration rates and sinking velocity of marine snow aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Iversen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations have shown that fluxes of ballast minerals (calcium carbonate, opal, and lithogenic material and organic carbon fluxes are closely correlated in the bathypelagic zones of the ocean. Hence it has been hypothesized that incorporation of biogenic minerals within marine aggregates could either protect the organic matter from decomposition and/or increase the sinking velocity via ballasting of the aggregates. Here we present the first combined data on size, sinking velocity, carbon-specific respiration rate, and composition measured directly in three aggregate types; Emiliania huxleyi aggregates (carbonate ballasted, Skeletonema costatum aggregates (opal ballasted, and aggregates made from a mix of both E. huxleyi and S. costatum (carbonate and opal ballasted. Overall average carbon-specific respiration rate was ~0.13 d−1 and did not vary with aggregate type and size. Ballasting from carbonate resulted in 2- to 2.5-fold higher sinking velocities than those of aggregates ballasted by opal. We compiled literature data on carbon-specific respiration rate and sinking velocity measured in aggregates of different composition and sources. Compiled carbon-specific respiration rates (including this study vary between 0.08 d−1 and 0.20 d−1. Sinking velocity increases with increasing aggregate size within homogeneous sources of aggregates. When compared across different particle and aggregate sources, however, sinking velocity appeared to be independent of particle or aggregate size. The carbon-specific respiration rate per meter settled varied between 0.0002 m−1 and 0.0030 m−1, and decreased with increasing aggregate size. It was lower for calcite ballasted aggregates as compared to that of similar sized opal ballasted aggregates.

  1. Ballast minerals and the sinking carbon flux in the ocean: carbon-specific respiration rates and sinking velocities of macroscopic organic aggregates (marine snow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Iversen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations have shown that fluxes of ballast minerals (calcium carbonate, opal, and lithogenic material and organic carbon fluxes are closely correlated in the bathypelagic zones of the ocean. Hence it has been hypothesized that incorporation of biogenic minerals within marine aggregates could either protect the organic matter from decomposition and/or increase the sinking velocity via ballasting of the aggregates. Here we present the first combined data on size, sinking velocity, carbon-specific respiration rate, and composition measured directly in three aggregate types; Emiliania huxleyi aggregates (carbonate ballasted, Skeletonema costatum aggregates (opal ballasted, and aggregates made from a mix of both E. huxleyi and S. costatum (carbonate and opal ballasted. Overall average carbon-specific respiration rate was ~0.13 d−1 and did not vary with aggregate type and size. Ballasting from carbonate resulted in 2- to 2.5-fold higher sinking velocities than aggregates ballasted by opal. We compiled literature data on carbon-specific respiration rate and sinking velocity measured in aggregate of different composition and sources. Compiled carbon-specific respiration rates (including this study vary between 0.08 d−1 and 0.20 d−1. Sinking velocity increases with increasing aggregate size within homogeneous sources of aggregates. When compared across different particle and aggregate sources, however, sinking velocity appeared to be independent of particle or aggregate size. The calculated carbon remineralization length scale due to microbial respiration and sinking velocity of mm-large marine aggregates was higher for calcite ballasted aggregates as compared to opal-ballasted aggregates. It varied between 0.0002 m−1 and 0.0030 m−1, and decreased with increasing aggregate size.

  2. Ballast minerals and the sinking carbon flux in the ocean: carbon-specific respiration rates and sinking velocity of marine snow aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, M. H.; Ploug, H.

    2010-09-01

    Recent observations have shown that fluxes of ballast minerals (calcium carbonate, opal, and lithogenic material) and organic carbon fluxes are closely correlated in the bathypelagic zones of the ocean. Hence it has been hypothesized that incorporation of biogenic minerals within marine aggregates could either protect the organic matter from decomposition and/or increase the sinking velocity via ballasting of the aggregates. Here we present the first combined data on size, sinking velocity, carbon-specific respiration rate, and composition measured directly in three aggregate types; Emiliania huxleyi aggregates (carbonate ballasted), Skeletonema costatum aggregates (opal ballasted), and aggregates made from a mix of both E. huxleyi and S. costatum (carbonate and opal ballasted). Overall average carbon-specific respiration rate was ~0.13 d-1 and did not vary with aggregate type and size. Ballasting from carbonate resulted in 2- to 2.5-fold higher sinking velocities than those of aggregates ballasted by opal. We compiled literature data on carbon-specific respiration rate and sinking velocity measured in aggregates of different composition and sources. Compiled carbon-specific respiration rates (including this study) vary between 0.08 d-1 and 0.20 d-1. Sinking velocity increases with increasing aggregate size within homogeneous sources of aggregates. When compared across different particle and aggregate sources, however, sinking velocity appeared to be independent of particle or aggregate size. The carbon-specific respiration rate per meter settled varied between 0.0002 m-1 and 0.0030 m-1, and decreased with increasing aggregate size. It was lower for calcite ballasted aggregates as compared to that of similar sized opal ballasted aggregates.

  3. Ballast minerals and the sinking carbon flux in the ocean: carbon-specific respiration rates and sinking velocities of macroscopic organic aggregates (marine snow)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, M. H.; Ploug, H.

    2010-05-01

    Recent observations have shown that fluxes of ballast minerals (calcium carbonate, opal, and lithogenic material) and organic carbon fluxes are closely correlated in the bathypelagic zones of the ocean. Hence it has been hypothesized that incorporation of biogenic minerals within marine aggregates could either protect the organic matter from decomposition and/or increase the sinking velocity via ballasting of the aggregates. Here we present the first combined data on size, sinking velocity, carbon-specific respiration rate, and composition measured directly in three aggregate types; Emiliania huxleyi aggregates (carbonate ballasted), Skeletonema costatum aggregates (opal ballasted), and aggregates made from a mix of both E. huxleyi and S. costatum (carbonate and opal ballasted). Overall average carbon-specific respiration rate was ~0.13 d-1 and did not vary with aggregate type and size. Ballasting from carbonate resulted in 2- to 2.5-fold higher sinking velocities than aggregates ballasted by opal. We compiled literature data on carbon-specific respiration rate and sinking velocity measured in aggregate of different composition and sources. Compiled carbon-specific respiration rates (including this study) vary between 0.08 d-1 and 0.20 d-1. Sinking velocity increases with increasing aggregate size within homogeneous sources of aggregates. When compared across different particle and aggregate sources, however, sinking velocity appeared to be independent of particle or aggregate size. The calculated carbon remineralization length scale due to microbial respiration and sinking velocity of mm-large marine aggregates was higher for calcite ballasted aggregates as compared to opal-ballasted aggregates. It varied between 0.0002 m-1 and 0.0030 m-1, and decreased with increasing aggregate size.

  4. Recolonization by heterotrophic bacteria after UV irradiation or ozonation of seawater; a simulation of ballast water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess-Erga, Ole-Kristian; Blomvågnes-Bakke, Bente; Vadstein, Olav

    2010-10-01

    Transport of ballast water with ships represents a risk for introduction of foreign species. If ballast water is treated during uptake, there will be a recolonization of the ballast water by heterotrophic bacteria during transport. We investigated survival and succession of heterotrophic bacteria after disinfection of seawater in the laboratory, representing a model system of ballast water treatment and transport. The seawater was exposed to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, ozone (2 doses) or no treatment, incubated for 16 days and examined with culture-dependent and -independent methods. The number of colony-forming units (CFU) was reduced below the detection level after disinfection with UV and high ozone dose (700 mV), and 1% of the initial level for the low ozone dose (400 mV). After less than 3 days, the CFU was back or above the starting point for the control, UV and low ozone treatment, whereas it took slightly more than 6 days for the high ozone treatment. Disinfection increased substrate availability and reduced cell densities. Lack of competition and predation induced the recolonization by opportunistic bacteria (r-strategists), with significant increase in bacterial numbers and a low diversity (based on DGGE band pattern). All cultures stabilized after the initial recolonization phase (except Oz700) where competition due to crowding and nutrient limitation favoured bacteria with high substrate affinity (K-strategists), resulting in higher species richness and diversity (based on DGGE band pattern). The bacterial community was significantly altered qualitatively and quantitatively and may have a higher potential as invaders in the recipient depending on disinfection method and the time of release. These results have implications for the treatment strategy used for ballast water.

  5. Enhanced rates of particulate organic matter remineralization by microzooplankton are diminished by added ballast minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. C. Le Moigne

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To examine the potentially competing influences of microzooplankton and calcite mineral ballast on organic matter remineralization, we incubated diatoms in darkness in rolling tanks with and without added calcite minerals (coccoliths and microzooplankton (rotifers. Concentrations of particulate organic matter (POM, suspended or in aggregates, of dissolved organic matter (DOM, and of dissolved inorganic nutrients were monitored over 8 days. The presence of rotifers enhanced the remineralization of ammonium and phosphate, but not dissolved silicon, from the biogenic material, up to 40% of which became incorporated into aggregates early in the experiment. Added calcite resulted in rates of excretion of ammonium and phosphate by rotifers that were depressed by 67% and 36%, respectively, demonstrating the potential for minerals to inhibit the destruction of POM in the water column by zooplankton. Lastly, the presence of the rotifers and added calcite minerals resulted in more rapid kinetics of aggregation, although not a greater overall amount of aggregation during the experiment.

  6. Using MCDA methods THOR in an application for outranking the ballast water management options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Francisco Simões Gomes

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The Multicriteria Analysis Methodology has been developed in order to support and guide decision-makers in the evaluation and selection of alternatives/solutions. In this case, it is used to compare alternatives for the management ballast water (BW exchange systems and treatment methods.O Apoio Multicritério à Decisão (AMD desenvolve metodologias que ajudam o tomador ou agente de decisão a avaliar e selecionar alternativas. Este trabalho apresenta uma aplicação real do AMD em uma situação de ordenação de alternativas para o gerenciamento do problema de água de lastro.

  7. Sample size for estimating the mean concentration of organisms in ballast water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Eliardo G; Lopes, Rubens M; Singer, Julio M

    2016-09-15

    We consider the computation of sample sizes for estimating the mean concentration of organisms in ballast water. Given the possible heterogeneity of their distribution in the tank, we adopt a negative binomial model to obtain confidence intervals for the mean concentration. We show that the results obtained by Chen and Chen (2012) in a different set-up hold for the proposed model and use them to develop algorithms to compute sample sizes both in cases where the mean concentration is known to lie in some bounded interval or where there is no information about its range. We also construct simple diagrams that may be easily employed to decide for compliance with the D-2 regulation of the International Maritime Organization (IMO). PMID:27266648

  8. Evaluation of the stability of open bite treatment using a removable appliance with palatal crib combined with high-pull chincup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pedrin Carvalho Ferreira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this prospective study was to cephalometrically analyze the stability of dentoalveolar and skeletal changes produced by a removable appliance with palatal crib associated to high-pull chincup in individuals with anterior open bite treated for 12 months, and compare them to individuals with similar malocclusion and age, not submitted to orthodontic treatment, also followed for the same period. METHODS: Nineteen children with a mean age of 9.78 years old treated for 12 months with a removable appliance with palatal crib associated with chincup therapy were evaluated after 15 months (post-treatment period and compared with a control group of 19 subjects with mean age of 9.10 years with the same malocclusion that was followed-up for the same period. Seventy-six lateral cephalograms were evaluated at T1 (after correction and T2 (follow-up and cephalometric variables were analyzed by statistical tests. RESULTS: The results did not show significant skeletal, soft tissue or maxillary dentoalveolar changes. Overall, treatment effects on the experimental group were maintained at T2 evaluation with an increase of 0.56 mm in overbite. Overjet and maxillary incisors/molars position (vertical and sagittal remained essentially unchanged during the study period. Only mandibular incisors showed significant changes (labial inclination and protrusion compared to control group. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, it can be concluded that the early open bite treatment with a removable appliance and palatal crib associated with high-pull chincup therapy provided stability of 95%.OBJETIVO: avaliar cefalometricamente a estabilidade das alterações dentoesqueléticas e tegumentares, no protocolo de tratamento com o aparelho removível com grade palatina associado à mentoneira, em jovens portadores de mordida aberta anterior tratados por 12 meses, comparando-os com um grupo de jovens portadores de má oclusão semelhante que não foram submetidos ao tratamento

  9. A semi-empirical model for the prediction of fouling in railway ballast using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; Tosti, Fabio; Benedetto, Andrea; Alani, Amir M.; Loizos, Andreas; D'Amico, Fabrizio; Calvi, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    The first step in the planning for a renewal of a railway network consists in gathering information, as effectively as possible, about the state of the railway tracks. Nowadays, this activity is mostly carried out by digging trenches at regular intervals along the whole network, to evaluate both geometrical and geotechnical properties of the railway track bed. This involves issues, mainly concerning the invasiveness of the operations, the impacts on the rail traffic, the high costs, and the low levels of significance concerning such discrete data set. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can represent a useful technique for overstepping these issues, as it can be directly mounted onto a train crossing the railway, and collect continuous information along the network. This study is aimed at defining an empirical model for the prediction of fouling in railway ballast, by using GPR. With this purpose, a thorough laboratory campaign was implemented within the facilities of Roma Tre University. In more details, a 1.47 m long × 1.47 m wide × 0.48 m height plexiglass framework, accounting for the domain of investigation, was laid over a perfect electric conductor, and filled up with several configuration of railway ballast and fouling material (clayey sand), thereby representing different levels of fouling. Then, the set of fouling configurations was surveyed with several GPR systems. In particular, a ground-coupled multi-channel radar (600 MHz and 1600 MHz center frequency antennas) and three air-launched radar systems (1000 MHz and 2000 MHz center frequency antennas) were employed for surveying the materials. By observing the results both in terms of time and frequency domains, interesting insights are highlighted and an empirical model, relating in particular the shape of the frequency spectrum of the signal and the percentage of fouling characterizing the surveyed material, is finally proposed. Acknowledgement The Authors thank COST, for funding the Action TU1208 "Civil

  10. Enhancing the efficacy of electrolytic chlorination for ballast water treatment by adding carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyung-Gon; Seo, Min-Ho; Lee, Heon-Young; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Sup; Shin, Kyoungsoon; Choi, Keun-Hyung

    2015-06-15

    We examined the synergistic effects of CO2 injection on electro-chlorination in disinfection of plankton and bacteria in simulated ballast water. Chlorination was performed at dosages of 4 and 6ppm with and without CO2 injection on electro-chlorination. Testing was performed in both seawater and brackish water quality as defined by IMO G8 guidelines. CO2 injection notably decreased from the control the number of Artemia franciscana, a brine shrimp, surviving during a 5-day post-treatment incubation (1.8 and 2.3 log10 reduction in seawater and brackish water, respectively at 6ppm TRO+CO2) compared with water electro-chlorinated only (1.2 and 1.3 log10 reduction in seawater and brackish water, respectively at 6ppm TRO). The phytoplankton Tetraselmis suecica, was completely disinfected with no live cell found at >4ppm TRO with and without CO2 addition. The effects of CO2 addition on heterotrophic bacterial growth was not different from electro-chlorination only. Total residual oxidant concentration (TRO) more rapidly declined in electro-chlorination of both marine and brackish waters compared to chlorine+CO2 treated waters, with significantly higher amount of TRO being left in waters treated with the CO2 addition. Total concentration of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) measured at day 0 in brackish water test were found to be 2- to 3-fold higher in 6ppm TRO+CO2-treated water than in 6ppm TRO treated water. The addition of CO2 to electro-chlorination may improve the efficiency of this sterilizing treatment of ballast water, yet the increased production of some disinfection byproducts needs further study. PMID:25841887

  11. Enhancing the efficacy of electrolytic chlorination for ballast water treatment by adding carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyung-Gon; Seo, Min-Ho; Lee, Heon-Young; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Sup; Shin, Kyoungsoon; Choi, Keun-Hyung

    2015-06-15

    We examined the synergistic effects of CO2 injection on electro-chlorination in disinfection of plankton and bacteria in simulated ballast water. Chlorination was performed at dosages of 4 and 6ppm with and without CO2 injection on electro-chlorination. Testing was performed in both seawater and brackish water quality as defined by IMO G8 guidelines. CO2 injection notably decreased from the control the number of Artemia franciscana, a brine shrimp, surviving during a 5-day post-treatment incubation (1.8 and 2.3 log10 reduction in seawater and brackish water, respectively at 6ppm TRO+CO2) compared with water electro-chlorinated only (1.2 and 1.3 log10 reduction in seawater and brackish water, respectively at 6ppm TRO). The phytoplankton Tetraselmis suecica, was completely disinfected with no live cell found at >4ppm TRO with and without CO2 addition. The effects of CO2 addition on heterotrophic bacterial growth was not different from electro-chlorination only. Total residual oxidant concentration (TRO) more rapidly declined in electro-chlorination of both marine and brackish waters compared to chlorine+CO2 treated waters, with significantly higher amount of TRO being left in waters treated with the CO2 addition. Total concentration of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) measured at day 0 in brackish water test were found to be 2- to 3-fold higher in 6ppm TRO+CO2-treated water than in 6ppm TRO treated water. The addition of CO2 to electro-chlorination may improve the efficiency of this sterilizing treatment of ballast water, yet the increased production of some disinfection byproducts needs further study.

  12. 33 CFR 155.330 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on U.S. non-oceangoing ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on U.S. non-oceangoing ships. (a) No person may operate a U.S... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on U.S. non-oceangoing ships. 155.330 Section 155.330 Navigation...

  13. Pandemic serotypes of Vibrio cholerae isolated from ships' ballast tanks and coastal waters: assessment of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes (tcpA and ctxA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Fred C; Goodrich, Amanda L; Thomson, Frank K; Hynes, Wayne

    2013-05-01

    There is concern that ships' ballasting operations may disseminate Vibrio cholerae to ports throughout the world. Given evidence that the bacterium is indeed transported by ships, we isolated pandemic serotypes O1 and O139 from ballast tanks and characterized them with respect to antibiotic resistance and virulence genes ctxA and tcpA. We carried out concurrent studies with V. cholerae isolated from coastal waters. Of 284 isolates, 30 were serotype O1 and 59 were serotype O139. These serotypes were overrepresented in ballast tanks relative to the coastal waters sampled. All locations, whether coastal waters or ballast tanks, yielded samples from which serotype O1, O139, or both were isolated. There were three groups among the 62 isolates for which antibiotic characterization was conclusive: those exhibiting β-lactamase activity and resistance to at least one of the 12 antibiotics tested; those negative for β-lactamase but having antibiotic resistance; those negative for β-lactamase and registering no antibiotic resistance. When present, antibiotic resistance in nearly all cases was to ampicillin; resistance to multiple antibiotics was uncommon. PCR assays revealed that none of the isolates contained the ctxA gene and only two isolates, one O139 and one O1, contained the tcpA gene; both isolates originated from ballast water. These results support the bacteriological regulations proposed by the International Maritime Association for discharged ballast water.

  14. Evaluating efficacy of a ballast water filtration system for reducing spread of aquatic species in freshwater ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Briski, Elizabeta; Linley, R. D.; Adams, J.; Bailey, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Biological invasions by non-indigenous species are considered a leading threat to biodiversity, with prevention being a key management strategy. Consequently, numerous commercial ballast water treatment systems have been, or are being, developed to prevent future aquatic invasions. However, most treatment systems are being designed for the many vessels undertaking long transoceanic voyages in marine waters rather than the relatively few vessels operating on short voyages in freshwater, such a...

  15. Study of chemical and microbial factors affecting the corrosion in ballast tanks on board of merchant navy vessels

    OpenAIRE

    De Baere, K.; Verstraelen, H.; Schillemans, W.; Dewil, R.; Potters, G.

    2008-01-01

    Corrosion in double hull ballast tanks is a very specific issue, influenced by numerous circumstances such as high humidity, presence of sea water, alternation between wet and dry, high temperature, dissolved oxygen, microbial influenced corrosion, complex constructions with a lot of welding, flexibility of constructions, pollution of the ballastwater, marine fouling, use of inferior steel from recycling, insufficient maintenance and coating.As a consequence, many different types of corrosion...

  16. Relative invasion risk for plankton across marine and freshwater systems: examining efficacy of proposed international ballast water discharge standards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Casas-Monroy

    Full Text Available Understanding the implications of different management strategies is necessary to identify best conservation trajectories for ecosystems exposed to anthropogenic stressors. For example, science-based risk assessments at large scales are needed to understand efficacy of different vector management approaches aimed at preventing biological invasions associated with commercial shipping. We conducted a landscape-scale analysis to examine the relative invasion risk of ballast water discharges among different shipping pathways (e.g., Transoceanic, Coastal or Domestic, ecosystems (e.g., freshwater, brackish and marine, and timescales (annual and per discharge event under current and future management regimes. The arrival and survival potential of nonindigenous species (NIS was estimated based on directional shipping networks and their associated propagule pressure, environmental similarity between donor-recipient ecosystems (based on salinity and temperature, and effects of current and future management strategies (i.e., ballast water exchange and treatment to meet proposed international biological discharge standards. Our findings show that current requirements for ballast water exchange effectively reduce invasion risk to freshwater ecosystems but are less protective of marine ecosystems because of greater environmental mismatch between source (oceanic and recipient (freshwater ecoregions. Future requirements for ballast water treatment are expected to reduce risk of zooplankton NIS introductions across ecosystem types but are expected to be less effective in reducing risk of phytoplankton NIS. This large-scale risk assessment across heterogeneous ecosystems represents a major step towards understanding the likelihood of invasion in relation to shipping networks, the relative efficacy of different invasion management regimes and seizing opportunities to reduce the ecological and economic implications of biological invasions.

  17. Amplicon-Based Pyrosequencing Reveals High Diversity of Protistan Parasites in Ships' Ballast Water: Implications for Biogeography and Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagenkopp Lohan, K M; Fleischer, R C; Carney, K J; Holzer, K K; Ruiz, G M

    2016-04-01

    Ships' ballast water (BW) commonly moves macroorganisms and microorganisms across the world's oceans and along coasts; however, the majority of these microbial transfers have gone undetected. We applied high-throughput sequencing methods to identify microbial eukaryotes, specifically emphasizing the protistan parasites, in ships' BW collected from vessels calling to the Chesapeake Bay (Virginia and Maryland, USA) from European and Eastern Canadian ports. We utilized tagged-amplicon 454 pyrosequencing with two general primer sets, amplifying either the V4 or V9 domain of the small subunit (SSU) of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene complex, from total DNA extracted from water samples collected from the ballast tanks of bulk cargo vessels. We detected a diverse group of protistan taxa, with some known to contain important parasites in marine systems, including Apicomplexa (unidentified apicomplexans, unidentified gregarines, Cryptosporidium spp.), Dinophyta (Blastodinium spp., Euduboscquella sp., unidentified syndinids, Karlodinium spp., Syndinium spp.), Perkinsea (Parvilucifera sp.), Opisthokonta (Ichthyosporea sp., Pseudoperkinsidae, unidentified ichthyosporeans), and Stramenopiles (Labyrinthulomycetes). Further characterization of groups with parasitic taxa, consisting of phylogenetic analyses for four taxa (Cryptosporidium spp., Parvilucifera spp., Labyrinthulomycetes, and Ichthyosporea), revealed that sequences were obtained from both known and novel lineages. This study demonstrates that high-throughput sequencing is a viable and sensitive method for detecting parasitic protists when present and transported in the ballast water of ships. These data also underscore the potential importance of human-aided dispersal in the biogeography of these microbes and emerging diseases in the world's oceans. PMID:26476551

  18. Tiny Stowaways: Analyzing the Economic Benefits of a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Permit Regulating Ballast Water Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Sabrina J.; Drake, Lisa A.

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has proposed permitting ballast water discharges—a benefit of which would be to reduce the economic damages associated with the introduction and spread of aquatic invasive species. Research on ship-borne aquatic invasive species has been conducted in earnest for decades, but determining the economic damages they cause remains troublesome. Furthermore, with the exception of harmful algal blooms, the economic consequences of microscopic invaders have not been studied, despite their potentially great negative effects. In this paper, we show how to estimate the economic benefits of preventing the introduction and spread of harmful bacteria, microalgae, and viruses delivered in U.S. waters. Our calculations of net social welfare show the damages from a localized incident, cholera-causing bacteria found in shellfish in the Gulf of Mexico, to be approximately 706,000 (2006). On a larger scale, harmful algal species have the potential to be transported in ships’ ballast tanks, and their effects in the United States have been to reduce commercial fisheries landings and impair water quality. We examine the economic repercussions of one bloom-forming species. Finally, we consider the possible translocation within the Great Lakes of a virus that has the potential to harm commercial and recreational fisheries. These calculations illustrate an approach to quantifying the benefits of preventing invasive aquatic microorganisms from controls on ballast water discharges.

  19. Ergonomics evaluation of work posture in OWAS method in Ballast mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasl Seraji J

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, musculoskeletal disorders incidents have been found through NMQ. Then, with the OWAS method the results have been analysed. In this thesis, we have studied the case in two different workshops of Ballast Production Company. The jobs were classified according to static load caused by poor work posture and recommendations for reducing the hurmful load were made. The study of the questionnaire showe that there is meaningful relation between work experience and Low Back Pain (LBP (P<3%. Meanwhile BMI (Body Mass Index is closely related to LBP (P<2%. However a relation was found between low back and back and shoulder pain complaints during recent one year and last one week with that of the existence of the pains, respectively P<2% and P<5%. Jobs related with repair and maintenance rates the first as regards static load on the muscloskeletal system. Cooking, digging operations, driving bullodozer, operation of stone crushing device, loaders and lorries rank respectively in order.

  20. Enhanced rates of particulate organic matter remineralization by microzooplankton are diminished by added ballast minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. C. Le Moigne

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To examine the potentially competing influences of microzooplankton and calcite mineral ballast on organic matter remineralization, we incubated diatoms in darkness in rolling tanks with and without added calcite minerals (coccoliths and microzooplankton (rotifers. Concentrations of particulate organic matter (POM in suspension or in aggregates, of dissolved organic matter (DOM, and of dissolved inorganic nutrients were monitored over 8 days. The presence of rotifers enhanced the remineralization of ammonium and phosphate, but not dissolved silicon, from the biogenic particulate matter, up to 40% of which became incorporated into aggregates early in the experiment. Added calcite resulted in rates of excretion of ammonium and phosphate by rotifers that were depressed by 67% and 36%, respectively, demonstrating the potential for minerals to inhibit the destruction of POM by zooplankton in the water column. Lastly, the presence of the rotifers and added calcite minerals resulted in a more rapid initial rate of aggregation, although not a greater overall amount of aggregation during the experiment.

  1. Nonlinear Finite Element Modelling of Railway Turnout System considering Bearer/Sleeper-Ballast Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sae Siew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rail turnouts are built to enable flexibility in the rail network as they allow for vehicles to switch between various tracks, therefore maximizing the utilisation of existing rail infrastructure. In general, railway turnouts are a safety-critical and expensive feature to a rail system as they suffer aggressive operational loads, in comparison to a plain rail track, and thus require frequent monitoring and maintenance. In practice, great consideration is given to the dynamic interaction between the turnouts components as a failed component may have adverse effects on the performance of neighbouring components. This paper presents a nonlinear 3D finite element (FE model, taking into account the nonlinearities of materials, in order to evaluate the interaction and behaviour of turnout components. Using ABAQUS, the finite element model was developed to simulate standard concrete bearers with 60 kg/m rail and with a tangential turnout radius of 250 m. The turnout structure is supported by a ballast layer, which is represented by a nonlinearly deformable tensionless solid. The numerical studies firstly demonstrate the importance of load transfer mechanisms in the failure modes of the turnout components. The outcome will lead to a better design and maintenance of railway turnouts, improving public safety and operational reliability.

  2. Not all calcite ballast is created equal: differing effects of foraminiferan and coccolith calcite on the formation and sinking of aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schmidt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Correlation between particulate organic carbon (POC and calcium carbonate sinking through the deep ocean has led to the idea that ballast provided by calcium carbonate is important for the export of POC from the surface ocean. While this idea is certainly to some extent true, it is worth considering in more nuance, for example, examining the different effects on the aggregation and sinking of POC of small, non-sinking calcite particles like coccoliths and large, rapidly sinking calcite like planktonic foraminiferan tests. We have done that here in a simple experiment carried out in roller tanks that allow particles to sink continuously without being impeded by container walls. Coccoliths were efficiently incorporated into aggregates that formed during the experiment, increasing their sinking speed compared to similarly sized aggregates lacking added calcite ballast. The foraminiferan tests, which sank as fast as 700 m d−1, became associated with only very minor amounts of POC. In addition, when they collided with other, larger, foraminferan-less aggregates, they fragmented them into two smaller, more slowly sinking aggregates. While these effects were certainly exaggerated within the confines of the roller tanks, they clearly demonstrate that calcium carbonate ballast is not just calcium carbonate ballast- different forms of calcium carbonate ballast have notably different effects on POC aggregation, sinking, and export.

  3. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-36, 108-F Biological Laboratory, and for the 116-F-15, 108-F Radiation Crib, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-05-24

    The 116-F-15 waste site is the former location of the 108-F Radiation Crib that was located in the first floor of the 108-F Biological Laboratory. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  4. Survey on germination and species composition of dinoflagellates from ballast tanks and recent sediments in ports on the South Coast of Finland, North-Eastern Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pertola, Sari [Finnish Institute of Marine Research, Department of Biological Research, P.O. Box 2, FI-00561 Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail sari.pertola@fimr.fi; Faust, Maria A. [Department of Botany, US National Herbarium, Smithsonian Institution, 4210 Silver Hill Road, Suitland, Maryland 20746 (United States); Kuosa, Harri [Tvaerminne Zoological Station, University of Helsinki, FI-10900 Hanko (Finland)

    2006-08-15

    Cyst beds in ships and ports in Finland have previously been unstudied. Therefore, sediments from ships' ballast water tanks and four Finnish ports were sampled for dinoflagellate cysts and other phytoplankton. Untreated sediments were incubated at 10 {sup o}C and 20 {sup o}C in the local 6 psu salinity for 1, 4 and 7 days, and vegetative cells were examined with light and scanning electron microscope. Sediments were inhabited by various dinoflagellates, diatoms, chlorophytes, cyanophytes and small flagellates. Germinated dinoflagellates were found in 90% of ballast tanks and in all ports. Gymnodiniales spp. and Heterocapsa rotundata formed a major proportion of the proliferating dinoflagellate cells. One species, Peridinium quinquecorne, not previously reported from the Baltic Sea, was identified with SEM. The study emphasises that ships are potential transport vehicles for dinoflagellate cysts even in the low salinity Finnish waters, and small-sized dinoflagellates should be focused upon in ballast water studies.

  5. Ballast water as a vector of coral pathogens in the Gulf of Mexico: the case of the Cayo Arcas coral reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Macedo, M Leopoldina; Vidal-Martinez, Victor M; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A; Valdés-Lozano, David S; Herrera-Rodríguez, Miguel; Olvera-Novoa, Miguel A

    2008-09-01

    The discharge of nutrients, phytoplankton and pathogenic bacteria through ballast water may threaten the Cayo Arcas reef system. To assess this threat, the quality of ballast water and presence of coral reef pathogenic bacteria in 30 oil tankers loaded at the PEMEX Cayo Arcas crude oil terminal were determined. The water transported in the ships originated from coastal, oceanic or riverine regions. Statistical associations among quality parameters and bacteria were tested using redundancy analysis (RDA). In contrast with coastal or oceanic water, the riverine water had high concentrations of coliforms, including Vibrio cholerae 01 and, Serratia marcescens and Sphingomona spp., which are frequently associated with "white pox" and "white plague type II" coral diseases. There were also high nutrient concentrations and low water quality index values (WQI and TRIX). The presence of V. cholerae 01 highlights the need for testing ballast water coming from endemic regions into Mexican ports. PMID:18639903

  6. Boundary layer stability acts to ballast the mass of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkelhammer, M. B.; Noone, D. C.; Steen-Larsen, H. C.; O'Neill, M.; Raudzens Bailey, A.; Cox, C.; Schneider, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The mass of the Greenland Ice Sheet has been reduced over recent decades as a consequence of warming, the impact of which is already detectable on global sea level. However, temperature projections suggest that at interior high-altitude sites on the ice it could be decades or more before warming forces these regions to transition from a dry to wet snow facies. Shifts in boundary layer dynamics, including atmosphere-ice sheet hydrological exchange and cloud radiative forcing could expedite or delay this transition. These processes are important with respect to future ice sheet stability, yet they remain difficult to constrain. Using continuous in situ measurements of vertical profiles of the isotopic composition of water vapor at Summit Camp, the highest observatory on the ice sheet, we document the presence of a hydrologic balance between surface sublimation and condensation fluxes. This exists because of a nearly persistent temperature inversion, which hinders the efficiency with which surface water vapor mixes into the free atmosphere. In the presence of a strong temperature inversion, fog and ice particles form near the ice-atmosphere interface from surface moisture fluxes. When this condensate precipitates on or settles to the surface, it ballasts the ice sheet's mass. A decade-long trend towards lower annual accumulation at Summit may therefore reflect continuous replacement of the near surface atmosphere due to reduced atmospheric stability. If this tendency toward destabilization continues, it could accelerate mass loss at interior sites on the ice sheet. The role of boundary layer stability in ice sheet hydrological budgets discussed here is applicable beyond the accumulation zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  7. Formation of a spark discharge in an inhomogeneous electric field with current limitation by a large ballast Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldanov, B. B., E-mail: baibat@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physical Material Science, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Results of studies of a spark discharge initiated in argon in a point–plane electrode gap with limitation of the discharge current by a large ballast resistance are presented. It is shown that the current flowing through the plasma channel of such a low-current spark has the form of periodic pulses. It is experimentally demonstrated that, when a low-current spark transforms into a constricted glow discharge, current pulses disappear, the spatial structure of the cathode glow changes abruptly, and a brightly glowing positive plasma column forms in the gap.

  8. A Response to Warren's Review of Five Thousand Years of Maritime Subsistence at CA-SDI-48, on Ballast Point, San Diego County, California

    OpenAIRE

    Gallegos, Dennis R.

    2008-01-01

    The Ballast Point report (Five Thousand Years of Maritime Subsistence at CA-SDI-48, on Ballast Point, San Diego County, California) was the first such report to document the complexity of maritime subsistence in San Diego County from circa 6,600 B.P. to 1,300 B.P. It was completed in 1988, and later published by Coyote Press in 1998, "with very minor editing and corrections." CRM reports by their very nature are usually not structured for publication; however, the Coyote Press publishers felt...

  9. Effect of the finite size of an asteroid on its deflection using a tether-ballast system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashayekhi, Mohammad J.; Misra, Arun K.

    2016-07-01

    Potentially hazardous near-Earth objects which can impose a significant threat on life on the planet have generated a lot of interest in the study of various asteroid deflection strategies. There are numerous asteroid deflection techniques suggested and discussed in the literature. This paper is focused on one of the non-destructive asteroid deflection strategies by attaching a long tether-ballast system to the asteroid. In the existing literature on this technique, very simplified models of the asteroid-tether-ballast system including a point mass model of the asteroid have been used. In this paper, the dynamical effect of using a finite size asteroid model on the asteroid deflection achieved is analyzed in detail. It has been shown that considering the finite size of the asteroid, instead of the point mass approximation, can have significant influence on the deflection predicted. Furthermore the effect of the tether-deployment stage, which is an essential part of any realistic asteroid deflection mission, on the predicted deflection is studied in this paper. Finally the effect of cutting the tether on the deflection achieved is analyzed and it has been shown that depending on the orbital properties of the asteroid as well as its size and rotational rate, cutting the tether at an appropriate time can increase the deflection achieved. Several numerical examples have been used in this paper to elaborate on the proposed technique and to quantitatively analyze the effect of different parameters on the asteroid deflection.

  10. Alfa Laval to meet the ballast water challenge%阿法拉伐应对压载水的挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Alfa Laval, the market leader in separation, heat transfer and freshwater generation, is widening its offering of solutions for environmental protection. The company hereby announces that a potent technology for dealing with unwanted organisms in ballast water will be commercially available as early as 2006.

  11. Efficacy of Coagulants and Ballast Compounds in Removal of Cyanobacteria (Microcystis) from Water of the Tropical Lagoon Jacarepaguá (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magalhães, de Leonardo; Noyma, Natália Pessoa; Furtado, Luciana Lima; Nunes Teixeira Mucci, Maira; Oosterhout, van Frank; Huszar, Vera L.M.; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi; Lurling, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Eutrophication is considered the most important water quality problem in freshwaters and coastal waters worldwide promoting frequent occurrence of blooms of potentially toxic cyanobacteria. Removal of cyanobacteria from the water column using a combination of coagulant and ballast is a promising

  12. Gallegos and Kyle: Five Thousand Years of Maritime Subsistence at CA-SDI-48, on Ballast Point, San Diego County, California

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Claude N.

    2007-01-01

    Five Thousand Years of Maritime Subsistence at CA-SDI-48, on Ballast Point, San Diego County, California. Dennis Gallegos and Carolyn Kyle. Salinas: Coyote Press, 1998. [Archives of California Prehistory No. 40.] Xiv + 224 pp., 32 figs., 86 tables, 1 appendix. $23.00, (paper).

  13. 大型半潜船压载水系统设计%Ballast water system for a great semi-submersible vessel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志垒

    2014-01-01

    To realize the semi-submersible function safely and reliably, the ballast system of a certain semi-submersible self-propelled heavy lift vessel is designed by means of combining the air and pump ballast systems according to the characteristics of its numerous ballast tanks. The trail results show that the design of the water ballast system is able to realize the semi-submersible working function for a semi-submersible self-propelled heavy lift vessel at sea, which satisfies the requirements of the technical specification.%为安全可靠地实现半潜功能,根据某半潜式自航工程船压载舱众多的特点,采用空气压载系统与泵压载系统相结合进行设计。试航结果显示:压载水系统的设计能够安全实现该半潜式自航工程船海上半潜作业功能,达到技术规格书中的有关要求。

  14. A Novel Low Cost Single Stage Electronic Ballast%一种新颖的低价单级电子镇流器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周成虎; 瓮嘉民; 李松涛

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a single-stage electronic ballast based on the integration of self-excited oscillation converter and Buck-Boost power factor correction circuit.Controlling signals of Power MOSFET is obtained from the resonance circuit of the combination of saturated transformer.The iron core is saturated to control two Power MOSFET control signal dead time.Since no special integrated circuit control ballast,and compared with typical two stages of electronic ballast,the ballast is low cost and the experiments show that the circuit is feasible.%给出了一个基于集成自激振荡变换器与Buck-Boost功率因数校正电路的单级电子镇流器.功率开关管的控制信号是通过谐振电路中串接的饱和变压器获得的,用铁芯饱和来控制两个开关管控制信号之间的死区时间.由于没有专用集成电路控制镇流器,所以这种镇流器和典型的两级电子镇流器相比成本较低,实验证明其电路可行.

  15. 33 CFR 151.2037 - If my vessel cannot conduct ballast water management practices because of its voyage and/or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...? (a) A vessel that cannot practicably meet the requirements of § 151.2035(b)(1) because its voyage does not take it into waters 200 nautical miles or greater from any shore for a sufficient length of time and elects to retain ballast water on board, or because of the safety concerns contained in §...

  16. Comparison of the community structure of planktonic bacteria in ballast water from entry ships and local sea water in Xiamen Port

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Ma; Hejian Xiong; Senming Tang; Qingshuang Yang; Minjuan Li

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the bacterial community structures in samples of ballast water collected from a ship from Singapore and of local sea water collected from Xiamen Port were compared using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Except for dominant α-Proteobacteria that are common to both systems, the bacterial community structures of the two systems were quite different. Most of the clones derived from the different systems were grouped into different phylogenetic clusters, and the sys-tems share only one common RFLP pattern. The ballast water, which is likely from clean offshore waters, contains sequences specific to α- and γ-Proteobacteria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the ballast water contained sequences belonging to attached bacteria and bacteria commonly found in the open sea, as well as many novel sequences. In addition, no known pathogenic bacteria were detected in the ballast water samples. Conversely, water samples from Xiamen Port were apparently affected by the near shore environments.Specifically, in addition to α- and γ-Proteobacteria, water from Xiamen Port contained β- and δ-Proteobacteria, Synechococcus, Bacter-oidetes and Actinobacteria, which are common in coastal environments. Additionally, four pathogenic bacterial sequences and one plas-mid sequence of a potential red tide forming alga were detected in the water from Xiamen Port, which suggests that the local sea water is polluted. The results of this study can be used as background information to assess the risk associated with the introduction of non-indig-enous species to local systems and to establish ballast water management systems.

  17. Study on management and risk of ballast water%船舶压载水的风险与管理探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亮山; 周连志; 刘文正; 温智清; 曲鑫

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解船舶压载水的风险,以及国内外主管部门对船舶压载水的管理现状,并提出管理对策与建议.方法 收集国内外相关文献资料、相关法律法规和公约的规定,进行综合的分析与研究.结果 发现船舶压载水中带有的病原体和有害生物随压载水在全球范围内一起转移,造成经济损失,危害公众健康,我国压载水危害的现状严峻.结论船舶压载水存在传播病原体和外来有害生物的风险,需要进一步建立健全船舶压载水管理相关法律法规,加大执法和科研力度.%Objective To understand the management and risk of ship ballast water at domestic and abroad. Methods The collection and research of the relevant literature material, related laws and regulations and convention at domestic and foreign was done. Results The ship ballast water contained harmful biological and pathogens, and which transfered a-round the global scope cause a public health hazard, economic losses. The situation of risk of ballast water in our country was serious. The international maritime organization (IMO) and several major freight states took a strict management to the ballast water. Conclusion China needs further strengthening of ship ballast water management on legislation, enforcement and scientific research inputs.

  18. Shipboard testing of the efficacy of SeaKleen as a ballast water treatment to eliminate non-indigenous species aboard a working tanker in Pacific waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D A; Dawson, R; Caceres, V; Orano-Dawson, C E; Kananen, G E; Cutler, S J; Cutler, H G

    2009-08-01

    Trials were conducted aboard the tanker Seabulk Mariner to test a natural product, SeaKleen, as a biocide controlling non-indigenous populations of plankton and bacteria in ballast water. SeaKleen was dosed into matched ballast tanks at two different concentrations, 0.8 mg L(-1) active ingredient (a.i.) and 1.6 mg L(-1) a.i. during ballasting off the Oregon coast during a three-day passage to Prince William Sound, Alaska. Live organism counts from treated ballast water were compared with those from untreated (control tank) water collected from the same source location. Shipboard chemical analyses were made to verify dose and quantify chemical degradation and residuals following dilution. Results indicated that both SeaKleen doses resulted in complete zooplankton and phytoplankton mortality and that the higher dose (1.6 mg L(-1) a.i.) caused a two-log removal of culturable bacteria over a 92 h grow-out period. Spectrophotometry confirmed initial dosing to within 5% of nominal values. Shipboard bioassays were conducted using larval fish (Cyprinodon variegatus), brine shrimp (Artemia salina) and the bioluminescent dinoflagellate Pyrocystis lunula. Exposure of the test organisms to water drawn from treated ballast tanks 48 h after SeaKleen was added to the tanks resulted in 100% mortalities in Cyprinodon and Pyrocystis at both doses. Corresponding mortalities for Artemia larvae were 100% and 60% for high and low SeaKleen doses, respectively. Toxicity testing of treated water, subjected to varying dilutions, indicated that residual toxicity to even the most sensitive organisms would be eliminated once the discharge had dispersed beyond 100 feet from the vessel.

  19. Eco-geomorphic processes that maintain a small coral reef island: Ballast Island in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayanne, Hajime; Aoki, Kenji; Suzuki, Takuya; Hongo, Chuki; Yamano, Hiroya; Ide, Yoichi; Iwatsuka, Yuudai; Takahashi, Kenya; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Sekimoto, Tsunehiro; Isobe, Masahiko

    2016-10-01

    Landform changes in Ballast Island, a small coral reef island in the Ryukyu Islands, were investigated by remote sensing analysis and a field survey. The area of the island almost doubled after a mass coral bleaching event in 1998. Coral branches generated by the mass mortality and broken by waves were delivered and stocked on a reef flat and accumulated to expand the area of the island. In 2012 high waves generated by typhoons also changed the island's topography. Overall, the island moved in the downdrift direction of the higher waves. Waves impacting both sides of the island piled up a large volume of coral gravels above the high-tide level. Eco-geomorphic processes, including a supply of calcareous materials from the corals on the same reef especially during stormy wave conditions, were key factors in maintaining the dynamic topographic features of this small coral reef island.

  20. 改性环氧压载舱涂料的研制%Development of Modified Epoxy Ballast Tank Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马胜军; 王秀娟; 沈海鹰; 李敏; 潘煜怡; 刘宝成

    2012-01-01

    The blended curing agent of polyamide and phenolic amine was featured by its fast dry and good overall performance in ballast tank coatings. The pigments and fillers in coatings could improve the corrosion resintance, mechanical properties and adhesion. The P/B ratio was determined at 1. 5 ~ 2. 0 based on the test result of relationship between P/B ratio and film performance. The thixotropic agent, organic benton-ite G -1958, fumed silica 202/805 were evaluated by thixotropic index and sag resistance. Defoamer Efa-ka2722 showed strong anti — foaming with foam suppression, leveling and appearance improvement. The modified epoxy - resin coatings was prepared by using liquid epoxy resin, modification resin R, polyamide/ phenolic amine blended curing agent, thixotropic agents, efficient defoamers and fillers, which provided the modified epoxy ballast tank coatings excellent corrosion resistance, good flexibility, cathodic disbondment resistance , good wetting and adhesion on shop - primer. Test of simulated ballast tank condition & condensation chanber test have showed that performance of the modified epoxy — resin ballast tank coatings could meet technical requirements of PSPC appendix 1.%聚酰胺与酚醛胺的复配,所得固化剂固化速度快,综合性能好.颜料、填料能够提高涂料的防腐性、机械性能、附着力等,通过考察颜基比对涂层性能的影响,得出压载舱涂料的颜基比在1.5~2.0之间比较合适.由触变指数来评价触变剂的防沉抗流挂性能,筛选出G-1958有机喷润土和202/805气相二氧化硅.从破泡抑泡性、流平性和涂膜外观的效果来看,Efka2722消泡效果比较好,而且有一定的流平作用.以液体环氧树脂、改性树脂R为基料,聚酰胺和酚醛胺为固化剂,合理选用触变剂、消泡剂以及颜填料,所制得的改性环氧压载舱涂料柔韧性好,抗阴极剥离、附着能力好,防腐性能强.模拟压载舱和冷凝舱的试验表明,其性能

  1. Ballast water management that adapts to climate changes and reduces harmful bio-invasions in marine eco-systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne

    2015-01-01

    food-webs and eco-systems. Economic impacts include reductions in fisheries production and algae blooms harmful for fish farms, tourism and human health. Due to the rising temperatures of the Oceans, organisms that prefer a warm climate may take roots in marine ecosystems that were previously too cold...... in marine ecosystem of changed factors in the shipping sector, for instance change of number, size, and design of vessels as well as treatment technologies of ballast water. New areas for shipping due to climate changes are also included. Our study would contribute to improve decision support tools, usable...... in shipping management and in development of international regulations for shipping with special focus on reducing the impacts in marine ecosystem. It can help to identify needs for change of regulations and shipping management procedures necessary to prevent even more harmful bio-invasions in the future....

  2. Exploring the depths of Kraken Mare - Power, thermal analysis, and ballast control for the Saturn Titan submarine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, J. W.; Colozza, A.; Lorenz, R. D.; Oleson, S.; Landis, G.; Schmitz, P.; Paul, M.; Walsh, J.

    2016-03-01

    To explore the depths of the hydrocarbon rich seas on the Saturn moon Titan, a conceptual design of an unmanned submarine concept was recently developed for a Phase I NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) study. Data from Cassini Huygens indicates that the Titan polar environment sustains stable seas of variable concentrations of ethane, methane, and nitrogen, with a surface temperature around 93 K. To meet science exploration objectives, the submarine must operate autonomously, study atmosphere/sea exchange, interact with the seabed at pressures up to 10 atm, traverse large distances with limited energy, hover at the surface and at any depth within the sea, and be capable of tolerating multiple different concentration levels of hydrocarbons. Therefore Titan presents many cryogenic design challenges. This paper presents the trade studies with emphasis on the preliminary design of the power, thermal, and ballast control subsystems for the Saturn Titan submarine.

  3. Effect and mechanism of a High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) and Ultraviolet (UV) composite process on the inactivation of microbes in ballast water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhijun; Zhang, Lin; Shi, Yue; Leng, Xiaodong; Shao, Jingchao

    2016-07-15

    The patented technology of a High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS)-Ultraviolet (UV) composite process was used to treat ballast water. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was selected as the reference bacteria. After treatment by the HGMS-UV process, the concentration of S. aureus on the log 10 scale was lower than 2 at different flow rates, S. aureus suffered the most serious damage, and K(+) leakage of the bacteria was 1.73mg/L higher than separate 60min UV irradiation (1.17mg/L) and HGMS (0.12mg/L) processes. These results demonstrated that the HGMS-UV composite process was an effective approach to treat ballast water. Further, the HGMS process had synergistic action on the subsequent UV irradiation process and accelerated cell membrane damage. Meanwhile, the results of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities of bacteria and DNA band analyses indicated that the inactivation mechanisms were different for HGMS and UV irradiation. PMID:27126180

  4. Application of Polyurethane Polymer and Assistant Rails to Settling the Abnormal Vehicle-Track Dynamic Effects in Transition Zone between Ballastless and Ballasted Track

    OpenAIRE

    Caiyou Zhao; Ping Wang; Qiang Yi; Duo Meng

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes tests on a transition section between ballasted and ballastless tracks in the Liupanshui-Zhanyi railway in China. The originally unsettled transition zone is exposed to sudden car shaking and a series of track transition problems during train passage. As an example, the influences of polyurethane polymer and a combination of polyurethane and assistant rails to increase track stiffness distribution and track transition decay rates on the dynamic vehicle and track behaviour...

  5. Onboard ship evaluation of the effectiveness and the potential environmental effects of PERACLEAN Ocean for ballast water treatment in very cold conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lafontaine, Y; Despatie, S-P; Veilleux, E; Wiley, C

    2009-02-01

    This study verified the effectiveness and the potential toxic impact of PERACLEAN Ocean ballast water treatment for very cold freshwater (0.1-0.5 degrees C) in real ballast tank (750 m(3)) conditions aboard a ship and in large-volume (4.5 m(3)) polyethylene tanks. Concentrations of peracetic acid (PAA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) gradually dropped by 41-59% over 5 days. The treatment altered the quality of the treated waters by causing a pH drop of 0.9-1.3 units and a fourfold to sevenfold increase in dissolved organic carbon and organophosphates concentrations. More than 90% of the biomass of free-floating micro-organisms and viable phytoplankton were eliminated within 48 h after treatment. The treatment resulted in 100% mortality in caged fish exposed to treated waters but was totally ineffective against adult zebra mussels and some nematods living in tank sediments. Toxic response from ecotoxicological assays indicated that treated waters after 5 days should be diluted by a factor of 1:2 to 1:200 to reduce toxicity below selected endpoints of acute lethality tests. On the basis of PAA degradation rate, fresh waters treated with 100-ppm PERACLEAN Ocean should be kept in ballast tanks for 15-20 days after treatment to reduce toxicity. It is concluded that the treatment can be an effective biocide to rapidly eliminate organisms of the water column inside the ballast tanks over a wide range of environmental conditions, but that the discharge of the toxic treated waters should be properly managed to minimize potential environmental impact.

  6. Application of immobilized TiO2 photocatalysis to improve the inactivation of Heterosigma akashiwo in ballast water by intense pulsed light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Daolun; Xu, Shihong; Liu, Gang

    2015-04-01

    Ballast water exotic discharge has been identified as a leading vector for marine species invasion. Here immobilized TiO2 photocatalysis is introduced to improve the performance of intense pulsed light. For intense pulsed light/TiO2 photocatalysis, a typical inactivation of 99.89±0.46% can be achieved under treatment condition of 1.78 L min(-1) flow rate, 300 V pulse peak voltage, 15 Hz pulse frequency and 5 ms pulse width. Moreover, within tested 220-260 V peak voltage, 18.37-40.51% elevation in inactivation is observed in comparison with intense pulsed light treatment alone. The rough energy consumption of the tested intense pulsed light/TiO2 treatment system is about 1.51-2.51 times higher than that of the typical commercial UV ballast water treatment system. The stability of the photocatalytic reactivity and intactness of loaded TiO2 film is proved within 20-d's test, while local erosion on stainless steel support is observed after 30-d's test. The results indicate that intense pulsed light/TiO2 photocatalysis is likely to be a competitive ballast water treatment technique, while further measures is needed to reduce the energy consumption and ensure the performance of TiO2 film in a long run.

  7. Efficacy of pH elevation as a bactericidal strategy for treating ballast water of freight carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford E. Starliper

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of ship ballast water with sodium hydroxide (NaOH is one method currently being developed to minimize the risk to introduce aquatic invasive species. The bactericidal capability of sodium hydroxide was determined for 148 bacterial strains from ballast water collected in 2009 and 2010 from the M/V Indiana Harbor, a bulk-freight carrier plying the Laurentian Great Lakes, USA. Primary culture of bacteria was done using brain heart infusion agar and a developmental medium. Strains were characterized based on PCR amplification and sequencing of a portion of the 16S rRNA gene. Sequence similarities (99+ % were determined by comparison with the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI GenBank catalog. Flavobacterium spp. were the most prevalent bacteria characterized in 2009, comprising 51.1% (24/47 of the total, and Pseudomonas spp. (62/101; 61.4% and Brevundimonas spp. (22/101; 21.8% were the predominate bacteria recovered in 2010; together, comprising 83.2% (84/101 of the total. Testing was done in tryptic soy broth (TSB medium adjusted with 5 N NaOH. Growth of each strain was evaluated at pH 10.0, pH 11.0 and pH 12.0, and 4 h up to 72 h. The median cell count at 0 h for 148 cultures was 5.20 × 106 cfu/mL with a range 1.02 × 105–1.60 × 108 cfu/mL. The TSB adjusted to pH 10.0 and incubation for less than 24 h was bactericidal to 52 (35.1% strains. Growth in pH 11.0 TSB for less than 4 h was bactericidal to 131 (88.5% strains and pH 11.0 within 12 h was bactericidal to 141 (95.3%. One strain, Bacillus horikoshii, survived the harshest treatment, pH 12.0 for 72 h.

  8. Efficacy of pH elevation as a bactericidal strategy for treating ballast water of freight carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starliper, Clifford E; Watten, Barnaby J; Iwanowicz, Deborah D; Green, Phyllis A; Bassett, Noel L; Adams, Cynthia R

    2015-05-01

    Treatment of ship ballast water with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is one method currently being developed to minimize the risk to introduce aquatic invasive species. The bactericidal capability of sodium hydroxide was determined for 148 bacterial strains from ballast water collected in 2009 and 2010 from the M/V Indiana Harbor, a bulk-freight carrier plying the Laurentian Great Lakes, USA. Primary culture of bacteria was done using brain heart infusion agar and a developmental medium. Strains were characterized based on PCR amplification and sequencing of a portion of the 16S rRNA gene. Sequence similarities (99+ %) were determined by comparison with the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) GenBank catalog. Flavobacterium spp. were the most prevalent bacteria characterized in 2009, comprising 51.1% (24/47) of the total, and Pseudomonas spp. (62/101; 61.4%) and Brevundimonas spp. (22/101; 21.8%) were the predominate bacteria recovered in 2010; together, comprising 83.2% (84/101) of the total. Testing was done in tryptic soy broth (TSB) medium adjusted with 5 N NaOH. Growth of each strain was evaluated at pH 10.0, pH 11.0 and pH 12.0, and 4 h up to 72 h. The median cell count at 0 h for 148 cultures was 5.20 × 10(6) cfu/mL with a range 1.02 × 10(5)-1.60 × 10(8) cfu/mL. The TSB adjusted to pH 10.0 and incubation for less than 24 h was bactericidal to 52 (35.1%) strains. Growth in pH 11.0 TSB for less than 4 h was bactericidal to 131 (88.5%) strains and pH 11.0 within 12 h was bactericidal to 141 (95.3%). One strain, Bacillus horikoshii, survived the harshest treatment, pH 12.0 for 72 h. PMID:26257948

  9. Inactivation of dinoflagellate Scrippsiella trochoidea in synthetic ballast water by reactive species generated from dielectric barrier discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Qiong; Jiang Wenju; Yang Zhishan [Institute of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Zhang Yi; Lim Tuti Mariana, E-mail: TMLim@ntu.edu.s [Institute of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technology University, Innovation Center, Block 2, Unit 237, 18 Nanyang Drive, 637723 Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-05-07

    The inactivation of dinoflagellate Scrippsiella trochoidea in synthetic ballast water by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) system was investigated. The OH{sup .} radical, ozone and hydrogen peroxide generated from the DBD system were measured. Before and after the treatment, the viability of dinoflagellate S. trochoidea was evaluated by analyzing chlorophyll a, protein and saccharide content and morphology of the cells, as well as the pH of the cell culture media. The results show OH{sup .} radical was the major reactive species when humid air was used. The inactivation of S. trochoidea was found to be dependent on the applied voltage and the gas flow rate, and was completed within 4 min at a gas flow rate of 7 L min{sup -1} and an applied voltage of 20 kV. The change of chlorophyll a, protein and saccharide concentrations of S. trochoidea and the morphology of the cells indicates that the reactive species generated from the DBD system can break up the cells via oxidation.

  10. Molecular detection of native and invasive marine invertebrate larvae present in ballast and open water environmental samples collected in Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J.B.J.; Hoy, M.S.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Non-native marine species have been and continue to be introduced into Puget Sound via several vectors including ship's ballast water. Some non-native species become invasive and negatively impact native species or near shore habitats. We present a new methodology for the development and testing of taxon specific PCR primers designed to assess environmental samples of ocean water for the presence of native and non-native bivalves, crustaceans and algae. The intergenic spacer regions (IGS; ITS1, ITS2 and 5.8S) of the ribosomal DNA were sequenced for adult samples of each taxon studied. We used these data along with those available in Genbank to design taxon and group specific primers and tested their stringency against artificial populations of plasmid constructs containing the entire IGS region for each of the 25 taxa in our study, respectively. Taxon and group specific primer sets were then used to detect the presence or absence of native and non-native planktonic life-history stages (propagules) from environmental samples of ballast water and plankton tow net samples collected in Puget Sound. This methodology provides an inexpensive and efficient way to test the discriminatory ability of taxon specific oligonucleotides (PCR primers) before creating molecular probes or beacons for use in molecular ecological applications such as probe hybridizations or microarray analyses. This work addresses the current need to develop molecular tools capable of diagnosing the presence of planktonic life-history stages from non-native marine species (potential invaders) in ballast water and other environmental samples. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  11. 基于CFD的潜艇高压气吹除主压载水舱系统模拟%The simulation research of high Pressure air blowing the main ballast tank based on CFD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李其修; 刘辉; 吴向君

    2012-01-01

    高压气吹除主压载水舱是潜艇舱室进水情况下最有效的应急挽回手段之一.由于高压气吹除时压载水舱中剧烈的气液混合流动,导致建立的理论模型有一定局限性.本文通过CFD中两相流VOF模型对高压气吹除压载水舱的动态过程进行仿真,分析吹除过程中压载水舱中气-液混合现象、压力变化情况及压载水舱排水速率等特点,以验证高压气吹除压载水舱的理论模型.%The high pressure air blowing ballast tanks are the most effective means of emergency to restore under flooded submarine. As the process of blowing, there will bring the flow of exquisite gas-liquid mixture in the ballast compartment. This led to the theoretical models that have certain limitations. The paper simulates the dynamic process of high-pressure air blowing ballast tanks by VOF two-phase flow model to analyze gas-liquid mixture phenomena, pressure changes, the ballast tank drainage rate during the process of blowing ballast tank, which provides the basis to theoretical models for the establishment of the high pressure air blowing ballast tanks.

  12. UV spectrophotometry for monitoring the performance of a yeast-based deoxygenation process to treat ships' ballast water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Éloïse; de Lafontaine, Yves; Thomas, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    This study assessed the usefulness of UV spectrophotometry for the monitoring of a yeast-based deoxygenation process proposed for ships' ballast water treatment to prevent the transfer of aquatic invasive species. Ten-day laboratory experiments using three treatment concentrations and different water types were conducted and resulted in complete oxygen depletion of treated waters. The treatment performance and quality of treated waters were determined by measuring the UV-visible absorbance spectra of water samples taken over time. Samples were also used for laboratory analysis of water quality properties. The UV absorbance spectra values were strongly correlated (r = 0.96) to yeast cell density in treated waters. The second-order derivative (D (2)) of the spectra varied greatly over time, and the spectrum profiles could be divided into two groups corresponding to the oxygenated and anoxic phases of the treatment. The D (2) value at 215 nm was strongly correlated (r = 0.94) to ammonia levels, which increased over time. The D (2) value at 225 nm was strongly correlated (r > 0.97) to DO concentration. Our results showed that UV spectrophotometry may provide a rapid assessment of the behavior and performance of the yeast bioreactor over time by quantifying (1) the density of yeast cells, (2) the time at which anoxic conditions were reached, and (3) a water quality index of the treated water related to the production of ammonia. We conclude that the rapidity of the technique confers a solid advantage over standard methods used for water quality analysis in laboratory and would permit the direct monitoring of the treatment performance on-board ships. PMID:26944435

  13. The design and application of ballast valve groups remote-control system for Ro-Ro ship%滚装船压载阀组遥控系统的设计与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万会雄; 明仁雄; 章琅浩

    2001-01-01

    了实现对滚装船压载舱压载阀的开闭实行有效的控 制,文章介绍了压载阀组遥控系统的组成、工作原理以及该系统的设计特点与应用。%To realize the effective control to starting an d shutting of ballast valve groups,this paper introduces the composition,working principle,designing features and application of ballast valve groups remote-co ntrol system for Ro-Ro ship.

  14. Research on V Shape Ballast-Free Ship Based on FREESHIP%基于FREESHIP的V型无压载水船研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琳; 解德

    2013-01-01

    Based on V-shape hull theory the non ballast water ship is researched with the ship design software FREESHIP. A method determining the bottom inclination angle is proposed for the first time and a new method for line conversion at non-parallel part of the body is addressed. A bulk carrier is taken as the mother ship and converted into a non-ballast water ship. From a comparative study on floating state, stability and sea keeping between the design ship and the mother ship, it is found that performance of the design ship is better than that of the mother ship with few exceptions.%基于V型船体理论,通过船舶设计软件FREESHIP进行无压载水船设计,以一艘散货船为母型船进行实例变换。首次提出了确定船底倾角的方法和非平行中体部分型线变换新方法。分别对设计船与母型船的浮态、稳性、耐波性进行对比研究,发现除个别情况外,设计船的各项性能均比母型船好。

  15. Application of Polyurethane Polymer and Assistant Rails to Settling the Abnormal Vehicle-Track Dynamic Effects in Transition Zone between Ballastless and Ballasted Track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiyou Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes tests on a transition section between ballasted and ballastless tracks in the Liupanshui-Zhanyi railway in China. The originally unsettled transition zone is exposed to sudden car shaking and a series of track transition problems during train passage. As an example, the influences of polyurethane polymer and a combination of polyurethane and assistant rails to increase track stiffness distribution and track transition decay rates on the dynamic vehicle and track behaviour were investigated. The measured results indicate using only polyurethane and using both polyurethane and assistant rails not only effectively makes the track stiffness change more even but also increases the track decay rate at the target frequencies. These positive effects further reduce the wheel-rail interaction forces and vehicle and rail vertical acceleration, which decreases more when combining polyurethane and assistant rails than when using only polyurethane because the former outperforms the latter for smoothing the track stiffness distribution and increasing the track decay rate. Based on abating wheel-rail impact during the transition from ballasted to ballastless track and improving traffic operation and passenger comfort, combining polyurethane and assistant rails had the greatest effect and may be an effective remedy.

  16. 船舶压载水处理设备及应用技术研究进展%Research on Ship' s Ballast Water Treatment Equipment and Technolgies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱力强; 张晓荣

    2012-01-01

    The indiscriminate discharge of ballast water and sediment in ships will bring other invasion biol- ogy which was harm to the globe ' s ocean environment. So, the IMO was highly regarded in the marine environ- ment problems caused by ship' s ballast wate, ((International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships Ballast Water and Sediments))was adopted in February 2004 ,which makes the treatment of ship's ballast wate becoming one of the most pressing issues for shipping enterprise. This paper introduced and analyzed the latest global ballast handlinz eauinments and technologies.%船舶压载水和沉积物的随意排放会造成生物入侵,严重威胁海洋环境。为此,船舶压栽水及其对海洋环境的危害问题受到了IMO越来越多的关注。特别是《船舶压栽水及沉积物控制和管理公约》于2004年2月通过后,使得远洋船舶压载水处理成为了各国航运企业亟待解决的现实技术问题。本文对近年来国际上船舶压载水处理设备及应用技术的最新研究进展进行介绍、分析。

  17. Modeling and Analysis of a Buoyancy-Ballast Driven Airship%一类“浮力-压块”驱动飞艇建模与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬依林; 刘屿

    2012-01-01

    In view of a new kind of buoyancy-ballast driven airship, the model and dynamics of a kind of buoyancy-ballast driven airship are studied. Based on Kirchhoff equations and Newton-Euler laws, we developed the six degree of freedom nonlinear dynamic model for an airship equipped with independent ballonets and moveable ballast by analysis its movement and stress. On the condition of little perturbation, the nonlinear dynamic model is divided into three group equations by restricting airship motion in longitudinal, lateral and e2-e3 planes respectively. Then the characteristics of mode and respond to input of airship are studied using linearization model and its related parameter. The results of simulation verify the correctness of established model and rationality of theoretical analysis on this kind of stratospheric airship, thus making itself a theoretical basis for the design of its control strategy.%针对一类新型“浮力-压块”驱动的自治飞艇,研究了该类飞艇的动力学建模和动力学特性.在Kirchhoff方程和Newton-Euler理论基础上,通过对飞艇运动及受力分析,建立了包括独立气囊和可运动压块的飞艇六自由度非线性动力学模型,并采用小扰动线性化方法,将飞艇运动分别限制在纵向、横侧向和e2-e3平面内,得到与之对应的三组飞艇线性化方程,其后基于飞艇相关参数和线性化模型,利用Matlab软件平台对飞艇运动模态和输入响应特性进行了分析研究.仿真结果验证了谊类飞艇模型的正确性和理论分析的合理性,为其后控制策略设计提供理论依据.

  18. Modelling Ballast Water Transport

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, S.; Babu, M.T.; Vethamony, P.

    , pipelines, water intake, marine outfall and single point moorings associated with refineries. Some of the coastal areas are natural habitats for rich vegetation, especially mangroves. Fig. 1. Gulf of Kachchh: bathymetry and morphological features...

  19. 盐田港船舶压载水致病微生物入侵风险分析%Analysis on invasion risk of pathogenic microorganisms in ship's ballast water at Yantian seaport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小洪; 刘文正; 杨燕秋; 赵爽

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解盐田港港区海水及船舶压载水致病微生物种类和数量,分析压载水致病微生物的入侵风险,为船舶压载水管理提供依据.方法 采用实验室技术对港区海水及船舶压载水水样进行检测分析,采用一般性统计描述、x2检验、秩和检验等对数据进行比较研究.结果 近处水域海水水质较远处水域海水水质差;船舶压载水水质明显较港区海水水质差;不同来源地压载水水质相差不大.港区海水共检出8种致病性弧菌,其中优势弧菌为溶藻弧菌(39.13%)、创伤弧菌(17.39%)、鲨鱼弧菌(13.04%).船舶压载水样本共检出12种致病弧菌,其中优势弧菌为溶藻弧菌(34.69%)、副溶血性弧菌(28.57%).结论 船舶压载水存在致病性微生物入侵性风险,必须采取预防性消毒处理后方可排放;港区海水日常监测主要采集浅层海水,增加对优势弧菌的监测内容.%Objective To understand species and quantity of pathogenic microorganisms in Yantian port seawater and ship's ballast water,and to analyze invasive risks of pathogenic microbes parasitizing in ballast water,and to provide identifiable basis for supervising ballast water.Methods Through laboratory technology,water samples in port seawater and ballast water was analyzed.Through statistic method,such as general statistical description,x2 test,rank-sum test,etc,the data was compared and investigated.Results Water quality in nearby water was worse compared to the distant water.Quality of ballast water was worse compared to the ports water,while the differences of ballast water loaded in different sources were little.Eight kinds of pathogenic vibrios were detected in port water,in which,the dominant vibrios were Vibrio alginolyticus (39.13%),Vibrio vulnificus (17.39%),and Vibrio carchariae (13.04%).Twelve kinds of pathogenic vibrios were detected in ballast water,in which,the dominant vibrios incluld Vibrio alginolyticus (34.69

  20. 高山发射台照明用电子镇流器的防雷改进%The Anti-thunder Improvement of High Mountain Transmitting Stations Lighting Electronic Ballasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建平

    2012-01-01

    This article analysis the commonly used electronic ballasts, combine the factor of more electronic equipments in radio transmitting station are damaged by impact of thunder in high mountains, targeted to improve the anti-thunder performance of electronic ballasts, to reduce the losses after thunder.%分析常用电子镇流器的工作原理,结合高山发射台雷电影响较大、电子设备损坏较多的实际,有针对性地改进电子镇流器的防雷性能,以达到减少雷击损失的目的。

  1. Natural gas ballast requirement to allow participation of thermal plants in the new energy auctions: analysis and proposals; Requisito de lastro de gas natural para viabilizar a participacao de termeletricas nos leiloes de energia nova: analise e propostas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Pedro Luis de; Bezerra, Bernardo Vieira; Barroso, Luiz Augusto Nobrega; Pereira, Mario Veiga; Rosenblatt, Jose [PSR, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Since the first New Energy Auction (LEN), held in December 2005, there has been a continuous process of improving the auction rules and mechanism. For the specific case of gas-fired plants, a significant change was observed between the LEN A-3/2011 and LEN A-5/2011, and refers to the need of natural gas ballast for candidate projects in the auction. This rule was introduced by ANP Resolution No. 52, which establishes that the gas supply agreements must be backed up by proven reserves (analogous to the requirement in the power sector contracts of physical guarantee backup), and Ordinance MME No. 21/2008, which deals with power plants qualification for the new energy auctions. The latter was amended by MME Ordinance No. 514, which requires proven natural gas reserves to support the GSA of all candidate projects in a LEN. In other words, the gas supplier now has to prove that there are sufficient gas reserves to meet requirements of all candidate project in an auction, regardless of the plausibility of their engagement in the auction. In this context, the present study discusses these issues and has as main contributions: (I) a review of current regulations on contract ballast in the Brazilian natural gas sector, (II) a proposal to conciliate the need of fuel supply contract ballast to the dynamics of the natural gas sector, and (III) a proposal to conciliate the need for fuel contract ballast to the contracting process of the thermoelectric power in the new energy auctions. These contributions aim at a better integration between the sectors of natural gas and electricity in Brazil, leading to a more efficient use of resources and infrastructure development. (author)

  2. Installation technology and characteristics of steel- wood structure water ballast spaces in immersed tube element%沉管管节钢木结构压载水箱安装工艺及特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈聪; 李元庆

    2015-01-01

    The water ballast spaces are important as interim member when the immersed tube was floating and transporting. The structural design and installing efficiency of water ballast space impact the plan and cost of immersed tube's outfitting. Combining with a outfitting process of the Hongkong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge immersed tube element prefabrication, we expounded the installation technology and characteristics of steel-wood structure water ballast spaces, and will be used in the future similar projects.%在沉管浮运安装施工中,作为临时结构的压载水箱显得尤为重要,其结构设计、安装效率直接影响沉管舾装的进度及成本。结合港珠澳大桥沉管隧道管节预制一次舾装,详细介绍了钢木结构压载水箱的施工工艺及优点,可为同类工程借鉴。

  3. 船舶压载水UV处理装置的设计与仿真%Design and simulation of ship's ballast water UV treatment devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟梦; 包国治; 陈宁

    2015-01-01

    针对船舶压载水排放要求,结合当前船舶压载水处理技术,采用紫外技术设计处理量为200 m3/h的压载水装置。基于紫外线的工作原理,设计了新型UV压载水处理装置,其中包括灯管的选择、腔体结构的设计和紫外线辐照强度、剂量的计算等。采用Fluent软件分别对新型与原型UV装置内的流场分布、流体过流时间进行数值模拟;分别采用Fluent和Mat-lab软件对装置内的紫外辐照强度和辐照剂量进行仿真模拟,并将模拟结果进行对比分析。模拟结果显示,新型UV装置内的流体过流时间与辐射剂量较原型装置均有所增加;与Fluent软件相比较,Matlab软件能够精确计算装置内各点的UV强度与剂量,且模拟过程更加简便,对UV装置展开深入的研究提供了一种定量分析的新方法。%In view of the requirements for ship's ballast water discharging,combining with current technologies, ultraviolet technology is used in the design of ship's ballast water treatment devices. Based on the working princi-ple of the ultraviolet ray,a new UV ballast water treatment device is designed. The design includes selection of tubes,the calculation of ultraviolet doses and the design of cylinder bodies,etc. The flow field and residence time of the UV device are simulated by the Fluent software,and the UV intensity and dose are calculated by both Fluent and Matlab. The results show that compared with the prototype UV device,both the residence time and UV dose of the new UV device increase;compared with the Fluent software,UV intensity and dose of each point in the UV device can be calculated by Matlab accurately and it's process of simulation is easier,and it provides a new method for quantitative analysis of the further study of intensive UV device.

  4. 船舶压载水中海洋微生物的羟基自由基致死特性研究%Treatment characteristics of marine microalgae hydroxyl radicals in ship's ballast water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛晓红; 张芝涛; 白敏冬; 张拿慧; 田一平

    2013-01-01

    Currently, there is no effective method to treat the introduced algaes and bacteria in the ship's ballast water. To solve this problem, the method of advanced oxidation technology producing high-concentration hydroxyl radical solution was used to treat marine microorganisms. With strong ionization discharge, O2 in air and H2O in seawater could be ionized and dissociated into a number of activate particles such as hydroxyl radicals ( ·OH) , which can dissolve into seawater (a part of ballast water) to form the high concentration ·OH solution. With the high reaction rate and broad - spectrum lethal characteristic, · OH radicals could kill the introduced microorganisms through dissociative radical reactions in the course of both discharging and inputting the ballast water, without the pollution by medicament. In this study, Isochrysis zhanjiangensis, Chaetoceros muelleri and Escherichia coli in ballast water were killed by ·OH radicals. Results indicated that the threshold lethal concentration of ·OH radicals for microorganisms in ballast water was 0.6 mg·L-1. A-chlorophyll was damaged by ·OH radicals during the treatment, which resulted in the death of algaes.%鉴于当前尚无一种有效治理压载水中外来有害生物入侵的方法,为解决这一难题,本文采用高级氧化技术,即生成高浓度羟基溶液的方法治理船舶压载水中的海洋微生物.研究主要是利用介质阻挡强电离放电的方法,将空气中的O2和海水中H2O电离离解成·OH等氧化自由基,溶于海水中形成高浓度羟基溶液.同时,实验以羟基致死压载水中的湛江等鞭金藻、牟氏角毛藻和大肠杆菌为例进行了研究.结果表明:羟基致死微生物的阈值为0.6 mg·L-1,主要是破坏了藻类体内的叶绿素,进而导致藻类的死亡.

  5. Development and evaluation of a DNA microarray assay for the simultaneous detection of nine harmful algal species in ship ballast and seaport waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianfeng; Zhou, Qianjin; Duan, Weijun; Zhou, Chengxu; Duan, Lijun; Zhang, Huili; Sun, Aili; Yan, Xiaojun; Chen, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    Rapid, high-throughput and reliable methods are urgently required to accurately detect and monitor harmful algae, which are responsible for algal blooms, such as red and green tides. In this study, we successfully developed a multiplex PCR-based DNA microarray method capable of detecting nine harmful algal species simultaneously, namely Alexandrium tamarense, Gyrodinium instriatum, Heterosigma akashiwo, Karenia mikimotoi, Prorocentrum donghaiense, Prorocentrum minimum, Ulva compressa, Ulva ohnoi and Ulva prolifera. This method achieved a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.5 ng of genomic DNA (orders of magnitude of the deci-nanogram range) in the tested algae cultures. Altogether, 230 field samples from ship ballast waters and seaport waters were used to evaluate the DNA microarray. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of the DNA microarray assay in detecting field samples were 96.4% and 90.9%, respectively, relative to conventional morphological methods. This indicated that this high-throughput, automatic, and specific method is well suited for the detection of algae in water samples.

  6. Analysis of Injection Molding For the Electronic Ballast Pan on Moldflow%基于Moldflow的电子镇流器底壳注射成型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    萧时诚; 杨文浩

    2012-01-01

    Analysis was made on (he optimal gate location and flow behavior in insertion molding of electronic ballast pan was simulated by Moldflow and the optimal gak- location was determined. Some possible defects in the products were predicted based on the numerical simulation of the filling time, the location of air pockets, weld line, clamping force curve and front temperature. It was shown that the Moldflow technology in the mold development process for optimizing plastic mold design and optimization of plastic mold injection process parameters, etc. played a significant role.%利用Moldflow软件对电子镇流器底壳注射成型过程中最佳浇口位置和流动情况进行分析,确定了最佳浇口位置.通过对填充时间、气穴、熔接痕、锁模力曲线和流动前沿温度等数值模拟,预测塑件可能出现的缺陷,显示了Moldflow技术在模具开发过程中对于优化塑料注射模设计和优化注射工艺参数等方面所起到的显著作用.

  7. 协调版共同结构规范下的压载水交换工况对船体结构安全影响探讨%Impact of ballast water exchange condition on hull structure safety by harmonised common structural rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴嘉蒙; 张帆

    2015-01-01

    Ballast water management is important for the environmental protection of ships. Different methods for the ballast water management have the different inlfuence on the hull structure safety, resulting in the different overpressure of ballast tank and different minimum slamming draught. Within the framework of CSR-H, it discusses the impact of still water bending moment and the design load sets under the water ballast exchange condition on the hull structural members according to the new requirements for the ballast water exchange condition. It also provides the relevant suggestions based on the assessment results.%压载水管理是船舶环保要求的重要内容。不同的压载水管理方式对船体结构安全的影响不同,主要体现在压载舱的附加压头、最小砰击吃水等。基于协调版共同结构规范对压载水交换工况的新要求,论述在CSR-H规范框架体系下,压载水交换工况下的静水弯矩和设计载荷组对船体结构构件的影响,并提出基于结果评估的相关建议。

  8. Levantamento florístico das macroalgas da baía de Sepetiba e adjacências, RJ: ponto de partida para o Programa GloBallast no Brasil Floristic survey of the macroalgae from Sepetiba bay and surrounding area, Rio de Janeiro State: starting point for the GloBallast Programme in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Menezes de Széchy

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O Porto de Sepetiba, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, foi escolhido, no Brasil, como área-piloto do projeto "Remoção de barreiras para a implementação efetiva do controle de água de lastro e medidas de gestão em países em desenvolvimento" (Programa GloBallast. Para possibilitar comparações, os seis países participantes do Programa GloBallast foram orientados a adotar a mesma metodologia para o levantamento preliminar da biota das áreas-pilotos valorizando a identificação em nível de espécie. O presente estudo teve como objetivo aplicar metodologia estabelecida pelo Centro para Pesquisa sobre Espécies Marinhas Introduzidas, da Austrália (Procedimento CRIMP, com algumas adaptações, no levantamento florístico das macroalgas de substratos consolidados naturais da área-piloto do Porto de Sepetiba. Coletas de macroalgas foram realizadas em novembro/2001, em nove locais da baía de Sepetiba e adjacências, desde a franja da região sublitorânea até cerca de -4 m de profundidade. Em cada local, seis quadrados de 0,1 m² de área foram raspados. O material foi depositado no Herbário do Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro (RB. Das 96 espécies identificadas (20 Chlorophyta, 16 Phaeophyta, 60 Rhodophyta, 12 não haviam sido citadas anteriormente para a área de estudo. Cladophora pellucidoidea C. Hoek, Coelothrix irregularis (Harv. Boergesen e Acrochaetium savianum (Menegh. Nägeli são ocorrências novas para o Estado. Não há indícios de que as novas ocorrências equivalem a espécies recentemente introduzidas por meio das atividades portuárias. O procedimento metodológico adotado mostrou-se eficiente, resultando em listagem de espécies comparável às de levantamentos florísticos com maior esforço amostral e complementando os dados pretéritos existentes para a baía de Sepetiba e adjacências. No entanto, ressalta-se a importância de uma reavaliação das escalas temporal e espacial da estratégia de

  9. 上海港外来船舶压舱水中浮游植物的调查及风险分析%Investigation and risk analysis of Phytoplankton in ballast water of entry ships on Shanghai seaport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周淑辉; 吴俊; 孟庆松; 秦玉涛; 顾雪峰; 黄锳钢; 曹国佩; 陈家正; 陆春飞

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解上海港外来船舶压舱水中浮游植物的种类及入侵风险.方法 对2007-2011年上海港的60艘外来船舶压舱水样本进行和分析.结果 外来船舶压舱水中发现浮游植物共8门63属152种(包括62种赤潮生物).其中,常见种主要有菱形海线藻(Thalassionema nitzschioides)、圆海链藻(Thalassiosira rotula)、长菱形藻(Nitzschia longissima)、中肋骨条藻(Skelrtonema costatum)、丹麦细柱藻(Leptocylindrus danicus)、尖刺拟菱形藻(Pseudo-nitzschia pungens).结论 进入上海港的外来船舶压舱水中浮游植物物种丰富度较高,初步评估显示外来船舶压舱水的排放对上海港生态影响具有一定风险.%Objective To understand the species and invasion risk of the phytoplankton from ballast water samples from entry ships. Methods The phytoplankton from ballast water samples collected from 60 entry ships on Shanghai seaport between 2007 and 2011 were investigated and analyzed. Results A total of 152 taxa belonging 63 genera of 8 phytoplankton phyla (including 60 red tide species) were found. In which, the conunen species were Thalassionema nitzschioides, Thalassiosira rotula, Nitzschia longissima, Skelrtonema ctntatum, Leptocytindrus danicus ., Pseudo-nitzschia pungent. Conclusion Obvious is the wide range of phytoplankton species in ballast water of entry vessels on Shanghai seaport. The preliminary results of the assessment is discharge of ballast water from entry ship can pose serious threats to the ecological enoironment of Shanghai port.

  10. 潜艇高压气吹除主压载水舱过程的数值模拟%Numerical simulation on compressed gas blowing ballast tank of submarine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建华; 胡坤; 刘常波

    2015-01-01

    采用结构化六面体网格对主压载水舱内部流场进行离散化,基于FLUENT流体计算软件,应用VOF两相流模型,对10 m及20 m水深时高压气吹除主压载水舱过程进行了数值模拟,研究了气液两相界面的形成及生长过程,深入分析了水舱排水速率的变化规律,并针对压载水的残留现象提出了实际操艇过程中需要注意的问题。仿真结果与现有文献中实体模型的实验结果吻合较好,均揭示了吹除过程中水舱内部压力及排水速率的波动现象,验证了数值模拟方法的准确性和有效性。为与实际情况相符,还提出了针对入口及出口边界条件的改进方案。%The inner fluid domain of the ballast tank for computing was dispersed and meshed by applying the structured hexahedral grid, and by using the VOF two-phase flow model, the process of high compressed gas blowing ballast tank while at 10 m and 20 m depth under water was numerically simulated based on computational fluid dynamics package FLUENT. The research studied the forming and developing process of the gas-water two-phase interface was studied, the draining rule of the ballast tank was analysed, and the attention issues in the process of practically steering submarine aiming at the remanet ballast water were indicated. The simulation results match the model experiment results of the existing literatures very well, and for both the results indicating the undulation phenomenon of the interior pressure of the tank and the draining velocity in the process of blowing, the veracity and validity of the numerical simulation is validat-ed. For matching the actual situation, the amelioration schemes of the inlet and outlet boundary conditions were given.

  11. 应用GDI+和C#开发船舶压载水监控系统控件%Development of Custom Ballast Tank Controls by Applying the GDI + and C#

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李顺亮; 王新辉; 钟碧良

    2012-01-01

    This article mainly introduces the core technique of programming ballast tank controls based on C/S with the GDI + and Visual C# NET. The method involved can be applied to the other controls.%应用最新的GDI+技术和VisualC#.net编程语言,开发基于C/S结构模式的船舶压载水监控系统控件,阐述了其中的核心技术;其有关技术在某一类控件制作中具有通用的应用价值.

  12. Development of an electronic ballast with high power factor, using cd/cd conversion techniques for fluorescent lamps; Desarrollo de un balastro electronico con alto factor de potencia, utilizando tecnicas de conversion cd/cd para lamparas fluorescentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Raul Antonio

    1995-02-01

    The recent advances and improvements in fluorescent lamps and ballasts technologies have resulted in substantial gain in efficiency, in illumination (lm/w), in the useful life of the lamp, in ballasts (electric characteristics), and consequently, an increase in energy saving in the fluorescent illumination systems. This thesis work was for the development of an electronic ballast that incorporates active correction of the PF for the handling of fluorescent lamps of the fast start type F4OW T-12. The prototype was implemented in two stages. In the first stage, for the Power Factor Correction (PFC) a converter CD/CD of the boost type in Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM) was chosen. The control technique that was used for this converter was the Average Current Mode (ACM) control. This thesis work comprised part of a collaboration project between the Electronics Department of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and the Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico (National Center of Investigation and Technological Development (CENIDET)) named Technology Assimilation of the Power Factor Correction in the Electronic Equipment Design. In chapter 1 of this thesis the advantages of fluorescent illumination systems (IS) are mentioned, with respect to the traditional incandescent illumination systems. Also the most important characteristics of the fluorescent lamps and the operation (physical) principle will be presented, as well as the design aspects of electronic ballasts and their evolution. The proposal of the development of an experimental electronic prototype of ballast will be set forth. Chapter 2 mentions the evolution of the different schemes of fluorescent lamps ballasts, of electromagnetic, as well as electronic. Also some of the specifications that were taken into consideration for the design of the electronic prototype of the ballast presented in this thesis are mentioned. In chapter 3 the specifications of the electronic prototype of

  13. Application of floating ballast concrete floor slab at diversion tunnel of Baoxing Hydropower Project%浮碴混凝土底板在宝兴水电站引水隧洞中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹坤; 胡嘉航

    2014-01-01

    For the diversion tunnel of Baoxing Hydropower Project,field floating ballast concrete floor slab lifting test against external water pressure was conducted during construction. With reference to the testing results and the experience of similar projects,the original plain concrete floor slab construction scheme was optimized and floating ballast concrete floor slab scheme was adopted for the tunnel sections with II~III category surrounding rock ,which had played an active role in cost control and accelerating construction progress due to simplified floor slab cleaning procedures,reduced concrete slab thickness,increased drainage holes on base slab and walls.%在宝兴水电站引水隧洞底板施工过程中,通过现场浮碴混凝土底板抗外水抬动试验,并参考类似工程经验,对原素混凝土底板施工方案进行了优化,在部分Ⅱ-Ⅲ类围岩洞段采用浮碴混凝土底板,简化了底板清理的施工工序,降低了底板混凝土厚度,增加了混凝土底板及边墙排水孔,对控制投资、加快施工进度起到了积极作用。

  14. Study and implementation of a non-resonant inverter as electronic ballast for discharge lamps; Estudio e implementacion de un inversor no resonante como balastro electronico para lamparas de descarga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Garcia, Efren

    2003-02-15

    Implementation of an electronic ballast with integrated ignition circuit that feeds a high density discharge lamp and that limits the current through it without closing the control loop under the technique of current square waves to eliminate the acoustic resonances characteristic of these high pressure lamps. In chapter 1 the basic concepts are presented of high intensity discharge lamps, showing their classification and describing their operation. In addition, the phenomenon of acoustic resonances is mentioned, emphasizing the square wave shape use for its elimination and presenting the state-of-the-art around the use of this technique for the elimination of acoustic resonances. In chapter 2 the different techniques are presented to stabilize the current in a discharge lamp. In addition, a topology of converter DC-DC is proposed that stabilizes the discharge in presenting a resistance in series with the lamp and it does not use a control loop for this, presenting its analysis and raising the necessary characteristics for its correct operation. In chapter 3 the analysis of each one of the stages that conforms the ballast is presented, simultaneously two igniter topologies are presented, that on the basis of an analysis one of them is selected for its implementation. In addition, the simulation results of the ballast performed in the PSpice simulator are presented. In chapter 4 is shown the form in which the implementation of the ballast was carried out, presenting the experimental results and verifying that the ballast operates according to the originally proposed specifications. Finally, in chapter 5 the conclusions of the work and the recommendations for future works are presented. [Spanish] Implementacion de un balastro electronico con circuito de encendido integrado que alimenta a una lampara de alta densidad de descarga y que limita la corriente a traves de ella sin cerrar el lazo de control bajo la tecnica de ondas cuadradas de corriente para eliminar las

  15. Strategies for the correction of the power factor in electronic ballasts with low crest factor; Estrategias para la correccion del factor de potencia en balastros electronicos con bajo factor de cresta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Mata, Arturo Javier

    2002-07-15

    The goal in this work is to develop electronic ballast for fluorescent lamps with high power factor with the smaller number of components. With this aim it is looked for 1) to study the impact of the value of the filtrating capacitor used in a conventional rectifier on the harmonic content of the line current and the crest factor in the lamp, 2) to study resonant tanks commonly used in electronic ballasts with the purpose of observing the feasibility of implementing a control in frequency to vary the gain of the resonant tank and 3) to propose a strategy of frequency modulation that allows to reach low harmonic distortion of the line current maintaining a low crest factor. In chapter one the used theoretical concepts in illumination systems are presented, the justification for the use of electronic ballasts in fluorescent lamps, a revision of the state-of-the-art in the correction of the power factor in electronic ballasts and two strategies for the correction of this factor. In the next chapter the conventional resonant topologies used in the literature are presented, together with the analysis of resonant structures with high gain in steady state to compensate the variations of the instantaneous voltage of the DC bus that feeds the resonant inverter. Also simulations in PSpice are included to know the behavior of each one of the resonant structures and to be able to select, in that way, the most adequate resonant topology for this work. In the third chapter the strategy is presented for the correction of the power factor, eliminating the filtering capacitor. The effects of this elimination as far as the line current and the lamp current are shown. The characterization of the resonant tank in open loop and closed loop is presented. The method is described to control the gain of the resonant investor and its implementation. Experimental results obtained when reducing the filtering capacitor are included and the implementation of the proposed control loop to reduce

  16. "Sõputshii ballast" stabilnosti / Vassili Kononenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kononenko, Vassili

    2005-01-01

    Avaliku arvamuse uurimise ülevenemaalise keskuse läbiviidud küsitluste andmeil on Venemaal kasvanud muutuste pooldajate hulk, ühiskonna tähelepanu keskmesse on tõusnud varasemaga võrreldes teised probleemid

  17. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  18. 环氧压载舱涂料在PSPC新规范下的涂装过程控制%Coating Process Control of Epoxy Ballast Tank Coatings against PSPC New Specification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李松; 金晓鸿

    2012-01-01

    With the painting of 82 000 DWT bulk carrier ballast tank as an example, the solution of various problems encountered in the implementation of process specification of PSPC is introduced, involving coating inspector, inspection equipment requirements, closed sandblasting room, closed paiting room,and steel surface preparation, coating process control.%本文结合82 000t散货船压载舱的涂装,介绍了在PSPC规范的执行过程中遇到的各种问题及解决办法,包括涂层检查员、检测仪器的配备,全封闭喷砂房、涂装房的建立,以及钢材表面处理、涂装过程控制等.

  19. EFFECT OF ELECTROLYTIC TREATMENT OF BALLAST WATER ON THE CORROSION BEHAVIOR OF 316L STAINLESS STEEL%电解法处理压载水对316L不锈钢腐蚀行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘光洲; 王建明; 张鉴清; 曹楚南

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of invasive marine species into new environments by the ballast water of ships has been identified as one of the four greatest threats to the world's oceans. Many technologies have been developed for ballast water treatment among which electrolytic treatment method has been taken as the most promising one. However, the corrosion problem of metals in treated seawater was seriously concerned by international maritime organization (IMO) and ship owners, especially the corrosion of 316L stainless steel which is widely used in the monitoring equipments of the ballast system of ships. In this study, the variation of environmental parameters of the seawater before and after electrolytic treatment was monitored. The corrosion behaviors of 316L stainless steel in both natural and treated seawater were investigated by electrochemical methods such as open-circuit potential (Eocp) measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization. The results showed that the pH value of the seawater increased and the dissolved oxygen content decreased slightly after electrolytic treatment, and the contents of dissolved organic carbon and particulate organic carbon decreased significantly in treated seawater. The corrosion test results showed that the resistance of 316L stainless steel to pitting corrosion was enhanced in treated seawater. Compared to the system in natural seawater, the open-circuit potential of the steel in treated seawater shifted about 0.4 V positively, and charge transfer resistance of the steel greatly increased. The breakdown potential of passivation films in treated seawater positively shifted more than 0.37 V. Our experimental results suggested that the corrosion resistance of 316L stainless steel in treated seawater was improved, which was ascribed to the thickening and compactness of the passivation film formed in treated seawater. It is safe for 316L stainless steel to be used in treated ballast water with

  20. 船舶压载水系统UV模块的优化设计及实验验证%UV ballast water system optimal design and experimental verification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡明

    2014-01-01

    Ballast water system using the method of UV sterilization, is already a very mature technology. By adding baffles, this article is to improve the original UV chamber, and through numerical simulation and the experimental of biological approaches to solve the problems in practical application, such as the radiation dose not reaching the standard and consuming too much power.%压载水系统利用紫外线进行杀菌处理的方法,已经是一套很成熟的技术。本文通过增加导流板来改进原有的UV腔体,并通过数值模拟和生物实验的方法来解决实际应用中出现的问题,如辐射剂量不达标,消耗的功率太大等。

  1. Security Risk Assessment of Ultraviolet Radiation for Self-ballasted Fluorescent Lamps for General Lighting Service%普通照明用自镇流荧光灯产品紫外辐射安全风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋松林

    2015-01-01

    Self-ballasted fluorescent lamps for general lighting service (energy saving lamp for short), is the lighting equipment which combining the fluorescent lamps and ballast together. Energy saving lamp will transmit ultraviolet radiation through glass tube to environment with working condition, and the nearer the object to the lamp, the stronger the ultraviolet radiation will be. This paper provides the analysis of main problems, and the suggestion and safeguard procedures for risk treatment by carding the risk source and the risk case for ultraviolet radiation of energy saving lamp, combining the risk monitoring and assessment result of this project.%普通照明用自镇流荧光灯,又称紧凑型荧光灯或一体式荧光灯(下文中简称节能灯),是指将荧光灯与镇流器组合成一个整体的照明设备.节能灯在使用过程中灯管内的紫外线会有部分透过玻璃管辐射到环境中,加之荧光粉的脱落等因素,节能灯会产生一定的紫外辐射.而且灯与被照物的距离越近,紫外线辐射强度越高.本文通过对节能灯紫外辐射的风险源和风险案例进行梳理,结合针对该项目的风险监测和评估结果,详细分析了目前存在的主要问题,最后提出了风险处理的意见和防护措施.

  2. Analysis of the Common Problems in the Safety Specification Testing of Self-ballasted LED Bulb for General Lighting Services%普通照明用自镇流LED球泡灯安规检测中常见问题解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许巧云; 林祥灿

    2014-01-01

    本文根据GB 24906-2010《普通照明用50V以上自镇流LED灯安全要求》标准要求,结合实际安规检测中的常见问题进行解析,并提出改进方法,旨在为照明产品生产企业及其他检测机构测试人员提供借鉴和参考。%This paper analyzes the common problems that appeared in the actual safety specifications testing for the self-ballasted LED lamps for general linghting services.According to the standard of GB 24906-2010 Self-ballasted LEDlampsforgenerallinghtingservices>50V-safetyspecifications,it provides the improvement methods for the lighting products manufacturer and other testing institute testers.

  3. Research and Design of Whole Section Ballast Screening Machine of PLC Control System%全断面道砟清筛机PLC控制系统研究与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙电锋; 杨亚罗

    2012-01-01

    During twenty-first century,railroad of our country has gotten speed-raising. Railway repairing entered the era of mechanization,but the digging machine applied to the ballast,screening of the QS-650 ballast screen scarifier digging device operation is still manual control,so the cleaning machine driver operation is not convenient and flexible. Using PLC to control the excavation device for the regular processing movements can not only save the energy of operating staff,but also enhance the working efficiency and safety of working processing. This paper introduced the application of PLC in hydraulic control for the excavation device of screen scarifier and all the PLC program design was shown in details. The research method of this paper is very good,the manual control problem solution provides a good tool for railway maintenance machinery, and improves that the degree of automation is important.%进入21世纪,我国铁路大面积提速,铁路维修也进入了机械化时代,而应用于道砟挖出、筛分的QS-650道砟清筛机的挖掘装置操作还是手动控制,清筛机驾驶员操作不方便,不灵活.应用PLC控制挖掘装置实现各种规定的动作,可以减轻操作人员劳动强度,提高劳动生产率,保证工作区间安全.通过PLC在清筛机挖掘装置控制中的应用,给出了详细的PLC程序设计过程,对于解决清筛机控制问题进行了有益的尝试,对提高铁路养护机械自动化程度有重要意义.

  4. U1/U2 crib groundwater biological treatment demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of the biological treatment project is to develop and demonstrate a process for Hanford groundwater remediation. Biodenitrification using facultative anaerobic microorganisms is a promising technology for the simultaneous removal of nitrates and organics from contaminated aqueous streams. During FY 1988, a consortium of Hanford groundwater microorganisms was shown to degrade both nitrates and carbon tetrachloride (CC14). A pilot-scale treatment system was designed and constructed based on the results of laboratory-and-bench-scale testing. This report summarizes the results of biological groundwater treatment studies performed during FY 1989 at the pilot-scale. These tests were conducted using a simulated Hanford groundwater with a continuous stirred-tank bioreactor, and a fluidized-bed bioreactor that was added to the pilot-scale treatment system in FY 1989. The pilot-scale system demonstrated continuous degradation of nitrates and CC14 in a simulated groundwater. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  5. 带有基极镇流电阻的SiGe HBT射频功率放大器%SiGe HBT RF Power Amplifier with Base Ballast Resistor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡锦; 刘安玲; 陶可欣; 郝明丽

    2012-01-01

    A RF power amplifier applied to WLAN, WIFI, Bluetooth and other application was designed based on 0-13 μm SiGe HBT process. The power amplifier works in class AB, which consists of three circuits, and uses base ballast resistor to enhance the thermal stability and AC stability. The test for the power amplifier on PCB was conducted, the S parameter results are as follows: at 2-4 GHz, S21 = 24. 3 dB, S11 = —10. 79 dB, S22=—13. 8 dB and S12=-45. 5 dB; The output power at 1 dB compression point is 20. 3 dBm, and the maximum output power is 23 dBm.%基于0.13 μm SiGe HBT工艺,设计了一款应用于WLAN、WIFI以及蓝牙等应用领域的射频功率放大器.该功率放大器带有基极镇流电阻,增强了热稳定性和交流稳定性,工作在AB类状态,由三级电路级联构成.完成了功率放大器芯片的PCB板级测试,测试结果如下:在2.4 GHz工作频率处,S参数S21为24.3 dB,S11为—10.79 dB,S22为-13.8 dB,S12为-45.5 dB;1 dB压缩点输出功率为20.3 dBm,最大输出功率可达23 dBm.

  6. Research on frequency tracking technology of electronic ballasts for electrodeless lamp%无极灯电子镇流器频率跟踪控制技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈豫; 林国庆; 唐建山

    2013-01-01

    Due to the excellent features of high efficiency, high color rendering, no flash and long life, electrode-less lamp becomes a new gas-discharge light source with a good development prospect. Electrodeless lamp has a negative resistance property, so that a reliable electronic ballast assorted is needed for the lamp. Based on the analysis of the electrical model of electrodeless lamp, a novel control strategy suitable for load characteristics of electrodeless lamp is presented in the paper. The resonant frequency is searched to get the trigger high voltage by frequency sweeping. In order to achieve the maximum output power and best load matching, the phase difference between inverter output voltage and resonant capacitor voltage is adopted as the phase loop control variable to track resonant frequency automatically in normal operation. Finally, the simulation and experiment results have proved the feasibility of the proposed strategy.%基于无极灯电气模型的分析,提出一种适合于无极灯负载特性的控制策略.通过扫频控制寻找谐振频率以产生点灯所需的高压脉冲,正常运行时以半桥逆变器中点电压与谐振电容电压的相位差作为闭环控制变量实现对谐振频率的自动跟踪控制,以获得最大的功率输出和最佳的负载匹配.电路仿真和实验结果验证了所提出的方案是可行的.

  7. Desempenho de um trator em função do tipo de pneu, da lastragem e da velocidade de trabalho Performance of an tractor as a function of tire type, ballasting and forward speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Lopes

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho comparou o desempenho de um trator agrícola 4x2 TDA de 89 kW (121cv em função do tipo de pneus (radial, diagonal e de baixa pressão, a condição de lastragem (com e sem água nos pneus e quatro velocidades [V1 (1,84km h-1, V2 (3,18km h-1, V3 (4,57km h-1, V4 (5,04km h-1]. O experimento foi realizado na UNESP-Jaboticabal-SP, em condição de preparo do solo com escarificador de sete hastes a 30cm de profundidade. Os pneus foram do tipo R1, com as seguintes características: [radial (dianteiros-14.9 R 26; traseiros-620/75 R 30 diagonal (dianteiros-14.9-26, traseiros-23.1-30 e BPAF (dianteiros-500/60-26.5; traseiros-700/55-34]. O delineamento experimental foi blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 3x2x4, com 24 tratamentos e três repetições. Os resultados evidenciaram vantagens para o trator equipado com pneus radiais.The objective of this study was to compare the performance of the FWD agricultural tractor, equipped with three types of tires (bias ply, radial and low pressure, with and without tire water ballasting, operating in four forward speed. The research was carried out at UNESP, SP, Brazil, with the tractor pulling a chisel plow. A tractor with 89kW (121cv engine power equipped with FWD, was used in the experiment, and the tires used had the following characteristics: radial (front: 14.9R26 and rear: 620/75R30, bias ply (front: 14.9-26 and rear: 23.1-30 and low pressure (front: 500/60-26.5 and rear: 700/55-34. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block, design (3x2x4, with 24 treatments and three replications. The results evidenced advantages for the tractor equipped with radial tires.

  8. Microbiologically influenced corrosion in ship ballast tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyer, A.

    2013-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is known to be a dangerous process in ship tanks due to its rapid and yet unpredictable occurrence, leading to extremely fast local corrosion, possibly jeopardizing the structural integrity, in a relatively short time. This project focuses on a fundamenta

  9. Analysis of the population structure of dinoflagellate cysts in the sediment of ballast tank of four cargo boats at Zhoushan Port%舟山港4艘商船压舱箱沉积物中甲藻孢囊种群结构的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴鑫烽; 陆斗定; 王春生; 夏平; 黄雷; 王采典; 王红霞; 黄海燕; 何飘霞

    2012-01-01

    为了解商船压舱箱沉积物在海洋水生生物入侵过程中扮演的潜在媒介作用,本文利用光学显微镜观察法,研究了停泊于我国舟山港4艘商船压舱箱沉积物中甲藻孢囊的种类组成、孢囊密度、香农-威纳指数(H')和PSP原因种,并对甲藻孢囊种群结构进行了相关性分析.结果表明,鉴定出的甲藻孢囊隶属于5大类,共24种,4份样品中甲藻孢囊的种群结构各有差异,但均检测出能产生麻痹性贝毒(Paralytic Shellfish Poisons,PSP)的甲藻孢囊,如亚历山大藻Alexandrium spp.和链状裸甲藻Gymnodium catenatum.在4艘商船的压舱箱沉积物中均检测出有硅藻分布,其中在富成轮压舱箱沉积物中还检测出3种未知种孢囊.通过相关性分析可知,甲藻孢囊H'值与PSP甲藻孢囊密度占总甲藻孢囊密度的比率呈负相关.甲藻可以通过商船压舱箱沉积物为传播媒介,以孢囊形式来扩大其生物地理分布,提高甲藻物种多样性可有助于降低PSP甲藻的破坏风险.因此,有效处理船只压舱箱沉积物、积极保护当地海洋生物物种多样性,对于降低外来甲藻物种(特别是一些有毒有害种)的赤潮风险和保持当地海洋生态系统的平衡,具有十分重要的意义.%Ballast water of the merchant vessel plays an important role in the invasion of alien marine species which may damage the local marine ecosystem. However, the potential role of the ballast tank sediment in the transmission of the alien species is always underestimated. Using optical microscopic viewing method, the species composition, cyst density, Shannon-Weiner index(H'), Paralytic Shellfish Poisons (PSP) causative species and their relationships of the dinoflagellate cysts from the sediment of four cargo boats at Zhoushan Port were studied, and 24 types of dinoflagellate cysts of 5 groups were identified including some toxic species such as Alexandrium spp. And Gymnodium catenatum which could produce PSP

  10. Application of non-contact obstacle-detection in obstacle-avoiding for ballast-clearing coach operating in pollution soil zone%非接触障碍检测技术在清筛机污土带避障中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡传亮; 高春雷; 王发灯; 周佳亮

    2013-01-01

    According to the safety problem in domestic ballast cleaning machine operation,which is dirty-soil conveyer belt frequently knocking down the catenary system post,this paper introduced a kind of automatic obstacle avoidance system used for dirty-soil conveyer belt of ballast cleaning machine. This system applied two kinds of non-contact detection technology which are laser and ultrasonic in order to detect the obstacles,adopted self-developed goniometer to measure the angel of dirty soil conveyor belt, used DSPIC30F6012 single chip as the core control device,presented the reliable algorithm for automatic obstacle avoidance,and designed the system software. Meanwhile,this system also used digital image monitoring technology in order to help the driver avoid the obstacle and improve the system interactivity, which would solve the problem of automatic obstacle avoidance for dirty-soil conveyor belt in safety production and bring good social and economic benefits.%  针对国内清筛机作业时,污土带经常发生碰倒接触网支柱的问题,本文介绍了一种清筛机污土传送带自动避障系统。该系统用激光和超声波两种非接触式检测技术对障碍物进行检测,采用自主研发的污土带转角传感器对污土带位置进行测量,用 DSPIC30F6012单片机作为控制器,提出了避障算法,通过设计的相关软件,结合数字图像监控技术,辅助清筛机驾驶员实现避障操作,提高了系统的交互性,此系统解决了清筛机污土带安全生产避障问题,使用后产生了良好的社会和经济效益。

  11. Consumo de combustível de um trator em função do tipo de pneu, da lastragem e da velocidade de trabalho Fuel consumption of a tractor as a function of the tyre type, ballasting and forward speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Lopes

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o presente trabalho, teve-se como objetivo comparar o consumo de combustível de um trator agrícola operando com pneus (radial, diagonal e de baixa pressão em duas condições de lastragem (com e sem água nos pneus e quatro velocidades de deslocamento. O experimento foi realizado na FCAV-UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP, em condição de preparo do solo com escarificador. Utilizou-se um trator 4x2 TDA, com potência de 89 kW (121 CV no motor. Os pneus foram do tipo R1, com as seguintes características: radial (dianteiros: 14.9 R 26; traseiros: 620/75 R 30 diagonal (dianteiros: 14.9-26, traseiros: 23.1-30 e BPAF (dianteiros: 500/60-26.5; traseiros: 700/55-34. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 3x2x4, com 24 tratamentos e 3 repetições. Os resultados evidenciaram vantagens para o trator quando equipado com pneus radiais. A condição de lastragem com água nos pneus ofereceu menor consumo específico. Observou-se também que o aumento da velocidade de deslocamento reduziu o consumo específico.The objective of this study was to compare the consumption of fuel of the FWD agricultural tractor, equipped with three types of tyres (bias ply, radial and low pressure, with and without tyre water ballasting, operating in four forward speeds. The research was carried out at FCAV/UNESP, SP, Brazil, The soil was tilled using a chisel plow. A tractor with 89 kW (121 HP engine power equipped with FWD was used in the experiment, and the tyres used had the following characteristics: radial (front: 14.9R26 and rear: 620/75R30, bias ply (front: 14.9-26 and rear: 23.1-30 and low pressure (front: 500/60-26.5 and rear: 700/55-34. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design (3x2x4, with a total of 24 treatments and three replications. The results evidenced advantages for the tractor equipped with radial tyres. The ballasting condition with water in the tyres showed lower specific consumption. It was

  12. 有砟轨道长轨直铺技术在太原西南环铁路施工中的应用%Application of Straight Laying of Long Trails on Ballast Tracks in the Construction of the Southwest-ring Railways in Taiyuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王四虎

    2016-01-01

    In construction of railway lines, how to select track laying method is the key to the success of the entire project, it directly determines the duration and cost of two important goals. This paper described the construction process of YZ500⁃TY track⁃laying machine with straight laying of long trails on ballast tracks, and introduced in detail the construction method applied to the construction of Southwest⁃ring Railways in Taiyuan. For short circuit or temporary land acquisition difficulty in laying base⁃building project, this construction method has a great advantage.%在铁路线路工程施工中,铺轨方法的选择,是整个项目成败的关键,它直接决定了工期、成本两个重要的目标。本文阐述了YZ500⁃TY铺轨机组进行有砟轨道长轨直铺法的施工过程,详细介绍了该施工方法在太原西南环铁路施工中的应用。该方法对于短距离线路或临时征地困难无法建设铺轨基地的工程项目,有着较大的施工优势。

  13. Improvement of the Construction Technique of Jointless Track Replacement Track-laying Method of Newly Built Double-track Railway Ballast Track%新建双线铁路有砟轨道无缝线路换铺法施工技术改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高娃

    2016-01-01

    Based on in-depth knowledge of replacement track-laying method and combined with the construction characteristics and project case of the present newly built double-track ballast jointless line, this paper introduces the improvement idea of the current replacement track-laying method and the independently developed practical device, obtaining significant comprehensive benefit in improving working efficiency, reducing safety risk, reducing labor intensity and saving cost. This paper can provide reference for similar projects.%本文在对换铺法深入了解的基础上,结合目前新建双线有砟无缝线路的施工特点和工程实例,介绍了对现有换铺技术提出的改进思路,和自主开发的实用性装置,在提高工效、降低安全风险、降低劳动强度、节省成本等方面取得了显著的综合效益,谨供同类工程参考。

  14. Fuel consumption of a tractor in function of wear, of ballasting and tire inflation pressure Consumo de combustível de um trator em função do desgaste, da lastragem e pressão de inflação dos pneus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger T. Spagnolo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available When using appropriate inflation pressures and load capacity (ballast, it may obtain a higher yield and prolongation of the life of the tire, besides it may minimize the problems of loss of traction, increased slippage and fuel consumption. This study aimed to evaluate the fuel consumption of a tractor operating with new and worn tires in three conditions of ballasting and three inflation pressures, when driving on compacted soil with vegetation cover. The experiment was conducted at the experimental unit from the Department of Animal Science, Federal University of Lavras, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in an agricultural soil compacted by cattle trampling and with vegetation cover. It was used a tractor 4x2 with front wheel assist, of a 65.62 kW engine power. The tires were of R1 type, diagonal (front: 12.4 to 24; and rear: 18.4 to 30, the average height of the clutches of the new tires were 0.3 and 0.35 m for front and rear tires, respectively, and for the worn tires were 0.018 and 0.0045 m, for the front and the rear tires, respectively. The results showed advantages for the tractor equipped with new tires.Ao se utilizar pressão de inflação e a capacidade de carga (lastro adequadas, pode-se obter um rendimento maior e um prolongamento da vida útil do pneu; além disso, minimizam-se os problemas de perda de tração, aumento de patinhagem e consumo de combustível. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o consumo de combustível de um trator agrícola operando com pneus novos e desgastados, em três condições de lastragem e três pressões de inflação, ao trafegar sobre solo compactado com cobertura vegetal. O experimento foi realizado na unidade experimental do Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras-MG, em um solo compactado pelo pisoteio de bovinos e com cobertura vegetal. Utilizou-se um trator 4x2 TDA, com potência de 65,62 kW no motor. Os pneus foram do tipo R1, diagonal (dianteiros: 12

  15. On-board Trial of Ballast Water Treatment System Based on Hydroxyl Radicals Produced by Strong Electric-field Discharge%强电场放电制备羟基自由基处理压载水实船试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张拿慧; 白敏冬; 薛晓红; 杨宪立; 范丹; 钟华仓; 华六三

    2011-01-01

    The prevention of marine biological invasion is a major demand of our country, and the ballast water treatment system of ships, based on hydroxyl radicals, has been developed. According to the advanced oxidation process principle, a novel method was proposed for OH radical generation by using strong electric-field discharge under atmospheric pressure, and a non-equilibrium plasma generator was built. Oxygen and gas phase water were I-onized by high energy electron, and then dissociated into free active radicals or ions. These active radicals or ions were mixed well with water, followed by serious plasma chemical reaction to form OH radicals. The on-board trial was carried out on " Yulong" ship with the treatment capacity of 250 mVh. The biological efficacy and relevant chemicals analysis were investigated. The test results indicate that the application of hydroxyl radicals is found to be an effective method to kill algae and bacteria; the results meet the standards set by regulation D-2 of the Convention; the concentration of tribromomethane as the main disinfection by-products is 88. 14 μg/L; no significant differences are obtained from water qualities, except dissolve organic carbon ( DOC) , particle organic carbon (POC) and total suspended solid (TSS) ; the DOC increases over time; on the contrary, POC decreases; TSS decreases over time. The OH ballast water treatment system provides a successful example during voyage and technical support for the development of global shipping market.%针对防治海洋外来生物入侵性传播这一国家重大需求,利用大气压强电场放电的极端物理手段高效制备羟基自由基这一技术治理船舶压载水.实船试验在大连港“育龙号”上进行,羟基自由基压载水处理系统的处理量为250 m3/h,试验从生物有效性、相关化学物质分析以及水质指标变化3个方面对系统性能进行考察.试验结果表明,处理后压载水生物有效性可

  16. Crib Work--An Evaluation of a Problem-Based Learning Experiment: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Vonda K.; Bush, H. Francis

    2013-01-01

    Problem-based learning has been proven to be successful in both medical colleges and physics classes, but not uniformly across all disciplines. A college course in probability and statistics was used as a setting to test the effectiveness of problem-based learning when applied to homework. This paper compares the performances of the students from…

  17. The Robot in the Crib: A Developmental Analysis of Imitation Skills in Infants and Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiris, Yiannis; Meltzoff, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Interesting systems, whether biological or artificial, develop. Starting from some initial conditions, they respond to environmental changes, and continuously improve their capabilities. Developmental psychologists have dedicated significant effort to studying the developmental progression of infant imitation skills, because imitation underlies…

  18. 46 CFR 56.50-50 - Bilge and ballast piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... drainage of small pockets or spaces in which case 11/2-inch diameter may be used. For vessels less than 150... commercial size not more than one-fourth inch under the required diameter may be used. Bilge suction pipes...=Length of compartment, in feet. d=Required internal diameter of suction pipe, in inches. Note 1. For...

  19. 78 FR 33774 - Ballast Water Management Reporting and Recordkeeping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... proposed rule, call or email LCDR Rodney Wert, Environmental Standards Division, U.S. Coast Guard (CG-OES-3..., Environmental Standards Division, U.S. Coast Guard (CG-OES-3); telephone 202-372-1434, email, rodney.wert@uscg... FR 3316). D. Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. You may submit a request...

  20. Jettisoning ballast en route to the next millennium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esveld, C.

    2000-01-01

    Railway engineering has been a traditional discipline for over hundred years. Most developments were based upon experience and progressed thus very slowly. Recent proposed new railway structures and new applications make the traditional empirical approach ineffective. To support the new developments

  1. Towards a prototype Decision Support Tool for ballast water risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, F. T.; Andersen, Jesper; Uhrenholdt, T.

    , pelagic larvae of benthic invertebrates or juvenile fish) connectivity is primarily determined by the sea currents and secondarily by species specific life histories and motional behaviour. We have developed a prototype methodology for mapping the connectivity of marine areas of the North Sea region...

  2. Ballast water risk assessment in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, Ruurd van der

    2012-01-01

    Auteur: Ruurd van der Meer Centrum voor Energie en Milieukunde, IVEM Bèta 2012-03 EES-2012-134T ISBN (boek): 978-90-367-5528-3 ISBN (digitaal): 978-90-367-5529-0 Bèta Wetenschapswinkel Rijksuniversiteit Groningen Nijenborgh 4 9747 AG Groningen T: 050-363 41 32 E: c.m.ree@rug.nl W: www.rug.nl/wewi Be

  3. Stress-based Variable-inductor for Electronic Ballasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lihui; Xia, Yongming; Lu, Kaiyuan;

    2015-01-01

    Current-controlled variable inductors adjust the inductance of an alternating current (ac) coil by applying a controlled dc current to saturate the iron cores of the ac coil. The controlled dc current has to be maintained during operation, which results in increased power losses. This paper prese...

  4. Desempenho de um trator agrícola equipado com pneus radiais e diagonais com três níveis de lastros líquidos Performance of an agricultural tractor equipped with radial and bias ply tires on three levels of liquid ballast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de A. Monteiro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização correta de pneus em tratores, tanto em relação ao seu tipo quanto à calibração de sua pressão interna, e a lastragem ideal para cada condição de carga são fatores que influem significativamente no desempenho do trator. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo comparar o desempenho de um trator equipado com pneus radiais e com pneus diagonais, para três condições de lastragem líquida (0%, 40% e 75% de água, em três condições superficiais de um Nitossolo Vermelho distrófico (superfície firme, preparada e com cobertura vegetal de resto de milho e em três velocidades teóricas de deslocamento (4 km h-1, 5 km h-1 e 7 km h-1, informadas no painel do trator, correspondendo às marchas B1, B2 e C1. O melhor desempenho do trator, equipado com pneu diagonal, ocorreu na condição de 75% de água nos pneus, apresentando maior velocidade de deslocamento, menor patinhagem do trator, menor consumo horário de combustível e gerando maior potência na barra de tração. Com pneus radiais, o melhor desempenho do trator ocorreu na condição de 40% de água nos pneus, proporcionando maiores velocidades de deslocamento do trator, menores patinhagens, menores consumos, horário e específico de combustível, e maiores potência e rendimento na barra de tração.The correct use of tires, as for its construction type as for internal pressure calibration and the optimal weighting for each load condition are factors that impact significantly on their performance. This study aimed to compare the performance of a tractor equipped with radial tires and bias ply tires in three conditions of liquid ballast (0%, 40% and 75% water, three surface conditions of a Dystrophic Red Alfisol (firm surface, tillage surface and surface with corn residues coverage and three theoretical traveling speeds (4 km h-1, 5 km h-1 and 7 km h-1, as indicated at the tractor display, related to the gear boxes B1, B2 and C1. The best tractor's performance, equipped with

  5. Presurgical management of a child with missing lower lip using a new design of fixed lower tongue crib

    OpenAIRE

    S Safeena; M. Najmuddin; Reddy, K.

    2012-01-01

    Missing of any perioral structure can result in imbalance of muscular forces leading to loss of structure and function along with esthetics especially in a growing individual and can result in permanent damage. Rehabilitation of such children is a challenge and requires an integrated multidisciplinary approach not only to correct the defect, but also to ensure normal development with minimal handicap. Here is a case report of a 10-year-old child with missing lower lip due to childhood infecti...

  6. 78 FR 73692 - Revisions to Safety Standards for Infant Bath Seats, Toddler Beds, and Full-Size Baby Cribs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... third party conformity assessment bodies for testing infant bath seats (75 FR 31688 (June 4, 2010... to make the standard more stringent. (75 FR 31691). On May 16, 2012, ASTM notified the CPSC that ASTM... FR 4542 (July 31, 2012). Subsequently, ASTM notified us on September 25, 2013, that ASTM has...

  7. Ethical codes. Fig leaf argument, ballast or cultural element for radiation protection?; Ethik-Codes. Feigenblatt, Ballast oder Kulturelement fuer den Strahlenschutz?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gellermann, Rainer [Nuclear Control and Consulting GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The international association for radiation protection (IRPA) adopted in May 2004 a Code of Ethics in order to allow their members to hold an adequate professional level of ethical line of action. Based on this code of ethics the professional body of radiation protection (Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz) has developed its own ethical code and adopted in 2005.

  8. Current-injection in a ballastic multiterminal superconductor/two-dimensional electron gas Josephson junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schäpers, Th.; Guzenko, V.A.; Müller, R.P.; Golubov, A.A.; Brinkman, A.; Crecelius, G.; Kaluza, A.; Lüth, H.

    2003-01-01

    We study the suppression of the critical current in a multi-terminal superconductor/two-dimensional electron gas/superconductor Josephson junction by means of hot carrier injection. As a superconductor Nb is used, while the two-dimensional electron gas is located in a strained InGaAs/InP heterostruc

  9. 76 FR 20089 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... environments; product class divisions; MSPs and overall pricing methodology; markups; the maximum... . Include the docket number and/or RIN in the subject line of the message. 3. Mail: Ms. Brenda Edwards, U.S... Interstate Rule (CAIR, 70 FR 25162 (May 12, 2005)), but not the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR, 70 FR...

  10. Ethical codes. Fig leaf argument, ballast or cultural element for radiation protection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international association for radiation protection (IRPA) adopted in May 2004 a Code of Ethics in order to allow their members to hold an adequate professional level of ethical line of action. Based on this code of ethics the professional body of radiation protection (Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz) has developed its own ethical code and adopted in 2005.

  11. EIS study of MIC in three different zones derived from ship ballast tank model system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyer, A.; Mol, J.M.C.; D'Souza, F.; Wit, J.H.W. de; Ferrari, G.

    2011-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a well known phenomenon in aquatic environments [1]. The presence of a biofilm on metal surface often establishes new electrochemical reaction pathways, or promotes reactions which are not normally favored in the absence of microorganisms, resulting in

  12. 76 FR 52892 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... three standard deviation spread was equal to five percent of the mean efficiency (2.5 percent for design... factor (for sample sizes of four and five) by inserting this standard deviation into the certification... four or more tested samples. They stated that the large standard deviation in efficiency among...

  13. Association of bacteria with marine invertebrates: Implications for ballast water management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, L.; Anil, A.C.

    >. Computation of bacterial contribution based on biovolume indicated that despite being the smallest zooplankton tested, veliger larvae harbored the highest number of bacteria, while barnacle nauplii, the largest of the zooplankton, tested in terms of volume...

  14. Difficulties in obtaining representative samples for compliance with the Ballast Water Management Convention

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Carney, K.J.; Basurko, O.C.; Pazouki, K.; Marsham, S.; Delany, J.E.; Desai, D.V.; Anil, A.C.; Mesbahi, E.

    of Tetraselmis suecica was added to a storage tank and sampled at discharge. The factors holding period, initial cell density and sampling interval affected representativeness. Most samples underestimated cell density, and some tanks with an initial cell density...

  15. TO PROVIDE RESISTANCE OF BALLASTED SECTION (ON WEAK BASIS DURING RAILWAY MODERNIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Nikolaichuk

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the issue of provision of stability of road bed on weak basis with application of geosynthetics is considered. Due to calculations of earthfill with bearing capacity, deformations and stability the substantiated application of geosynthetics to strengthen the soils of basement and slopes of deep embankments is possible.

  16. Ship ballast tanks a review from microbial corrosion and electrochemical point of view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyer, A.; D'Souza, F.; Morales, C.F.L.; Ferrari, G.; Mol, J.M.C.; Wit, J.H.W. de

    2013-01-01

    Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) is the term used for the phenomenon in which corrosion is initiated and/or accelerated by the activities of microorganisms. MIC is a very serious problem for the ship industry as it reduces structural lifetime in combination with safety risks for crewmemb

  17. Lamp-Ballast Compatibility Index for Efficient Ceramic Metal Halide Lamp Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Sourish Chatterjee

    2013-01-01

    Development of energy efficient products and exploration of energy saving potential are major challenges for present day’s technology. Ceramic Metal Halide lamp is the latest improved version of metal halide lamp that finds its wide applications in indoor commercial lighting especially in retail shop lighting. This lamp shows better performance in terms of higher lumen per watt and colour constancy in comparison to conventional metal halide lamp. The inherent negative incremental impedance of...

  18. Upgrading of vibrating compactor of the railway track ballast of VPO-3000 machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey LEE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of work a new vibrating compactor with single-direction inertial forces according to the authors’ innovative license is applied. Examination of possible dependence on substantiation of the new vibrating device parameters is shown. The new single-direction vibrating device for road crushed rock compaction allows decreasing vibration to the machine frame and increasing its working capacity. The new vibrating device’s efficiency to 11,7% increases the existing ones.

  19. Interaction of subway LIM vehicle with ballasted track in polygonal wheel wear development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Li; Xin-Biao Xiao; Xue-Song Jin

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a coupled dynamics model for a linear induction motor (LIM) vehicle and a subway track to investigate the influence of polygonal wheels of the vehicle on the dynamic behavior of the system. In the model,the vehicle is modeled as a multi-body system with 35 degrees of freedom. A Timoshenko beam is used to model the rails which are discretely supported by sleepers. The sleepers are modeled as rigid bodies with their vertical, lateral,and rolling motions being considered. In order to simulate the vehicle running along the track, a moving sleeper support model is introduced to simulate the excitation by the discrete sleeper supporters, in which the sleepers are assumed to move backward at a constant speed that is the same as the train speed. The Hertzian contact theory and the ShenHedrick-Elkins' model are utilized to deal with the normal dynamic forces and the tangential forces between wheels and rails, respectively. In order to better characterize the linear metro system (LMS), Euler beam theory based on modal superposition method is used to model LIM and RP. The vertical electric magnetic force and the lateral restoring force between the LIM and RP are also taken into consideration.The former has gap-varying nonlinear characteristics, whilst the latter is considered as a constant restoring force of 1 kN.The numerical analysis considers the effect of the excitation due to polygonal wheels on the dynamic behavior of the system at different wear stages, in which the used data regarding the polygonal wear on the wheel tread are directly measured at the subway site.

  20. Study of MIC impact in a full-scale ship ballast tank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyer, A.; Mol, J.M.C.; D'Souza, F.; Wit, J.H.W. de; Ferrari, G.

    2012-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of steel is a serious problem in the marine environment and many industries, such as the shipping industry. While electrochemical measurements such as impedance have been used in corrosion monitoring for several years, the true capabilities of the techniq

  1. Richness-abundance relationships for zooplankton in ballast water: temperate versus Arctic comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, F T; Briski, Elizabeta; S. A. Bailey; MacIsaac, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    Species richness and abundance are two commonly measured parameters used to characterize invasion risk associated with transport vectors, especially those capable of transferring large species assemblages. Understanding the relationship between these two variables can further improve our ability to predict future invasions by identifying conditions where high-risk (i.e. species-rich or high abundance or both) and low-risk (i.e. species-poor and low abundance) introduction events are expected....

  2. Improvement of train-track interaction in transition zones via reduction of ballast damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Markine, V.L.; Dollevoet, R.P.B.J.; Shevtsov, I.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Transition zones in railway tracks are locations with considerable changes in the vertical stiffness of the rail support. Typically they are located near engineering structures, such as bridges, culverts, tunnels and level crossings. In such locations, the differential settlement always exists and c

  3. Evaluating the effects of sevelamer carbonate on cardiovascular structure and function in chronic renal impairment in Birmingham: the CRIB-PHOS randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Steeds Richard P; Townend Jonathan N; Chue Colin D; Ferro Charles J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Serum phosphate is an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease and the general population. There is accumulating evidence that phosphate promotes arterial stiffening through structural vascular alterations such as medial calcification, which are already apparent in the early stages of chronic kidney disease. Aim To determine the effects of phosphate binding with sevelamer carbonate on left ventricular mass and ...

  4. Evaluating the effects of sevelamer carbonate on cardiovascular structure and function in chronic renal impairment in Birmingham: the CRIB-PHOS randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steeds Richard P

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum phosphate is an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease and the general population. There is accumulating evidence that phosphate promotes arterial stiffening through structural vascular alterations such as medial calcification, which are already apparent in the early stages of chronic kidney disease. Aim To determine the effects of phosphate binding with sevelamer carbonate on left ventricular mass and function together with arterial stiffness in patients with stage 3 chronic kidney disease. Methods/Design A single-centre, prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 120 subjects with stage 3 chronic kidney disease recruited from University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust. Baseline investigations include transthoracic echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to assess ventricular mass, volumes and function, applanation tonometry to determine pulse wave velocity and pulse wave analysis as surrogate measures of arterial stiffness and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning to determine bone density. During an open-label run in phase, subjects will receive 1600 mg sevelamer carbonate with meals for four weeks. They will then be randomised to either continue sevelamer carbonate or receive an identical placebo (60 subjects per arm for the remaining 36 weeks. Four-weekly monitoring of serum electrolytes and bone biochemistry will be performed. All baseline investigations will be repeated at the end of the treatment period. The primary endpoint of the study is a reduction in left ventricular mass after 40 weeks of treatment. Secondary endpoints are: i change in aortic compliance; ii change in arterial stiffness; iii change in arterial elastance; iv change in left ventricular systolic and diastolic elastance; v change in left ventricular function; and vi change in bone density. Trial Registration This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00806481 and Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN35254279.

  5. 75 FR 81789 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Full-Size Baby Cribs and Non-Full-Size Baby...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... . In the Federal Register of October 22, 2008 (73 FR 62965), the Commission published a notice of... Commission (IEC) Standard 17025:2005, ``General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration... and content of the ILAC-MRA approach and of the requirements of the ISO/IEC 17025:2005...

  6. 16 CFR 1510.2 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... scope of this definition are: dolls, stuffed animals, crib exercisers, crib mobiles, pull toys, shoe... RATTLES § 1510.2 Definition. For the purposes of this part 1510, a rattle is an infant's toy, intended...

  7. Fate of Enteromorpha flexuosa (Wulfen) J. Agardh and its spores in darkness: Implications for ballast water management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kolwalkar, J.P.; Sawant, S.S.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    Effects of darkness on the filaments and spores of a marine alga, Enteromorpha flexuosa (Wulfen) J. Agardh was evaluated through incubation experiments. Sporulation in the algal filaments was observed even after dark exposure of 108 days...

  8. The effects of prolonged darkness on temperate and tropical marine phytoplankton, and their implications for ballast water risk management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Carney, K.J.; Delany, J.E.; Sawant, S.S.; Mesbahi, E.

    Phytoplankton assemblages from tropical (Goa) and temperate (UK) locations were exposed to a 28 day dark period, followed by a period of re-exposure to light. During this time phytoplankton survival and changes in nutrient concentrations were mapped...

  9. Interactions between diatom aggregates, minerals, particulate organic carbon, and dissolved organic matter: Further implications for the ballast hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    De La Rocha, Christina,; Nowald, N.; Passow, Uta

    2008-01-01

    Correlations of particulate organic carbon (POC) and mineral fluxes into sediment traps in the deep sea have previously suggested that interactions between organic matter and minerals play a key role in organic matter flux to the deep. Here experiments were carried out in rolling tanks to observe the incorporation of suspended biogenic minerals ( calcium carbonate coccoliths or silica diatom frustules) into diatom aggregates and examine their influence on aggregate character. Addition of high...

  10. Model-based control of a ballast-stabilized floating wind turbine exposed to wind and waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, Soeren

    2013-01-15

    The wind turbine is a commercial product which is competing against other sources of energy, such as coal and gas. This competition drives a constant development to reduce costs and improve efficiency in order to reduce the total cost of the energy. The latest offshore development is the floating wind turbine, for water depths beyond 50 meters where winds are stronger and less turbulent. A floating wind turbine is subject to not only aerodynamics and wind induced loads, but also to hydrodynamics and wave induced loads. In contrast to a bottom fixed wind turbine, the floating structure, the hydrodynamics and the loads change the dynamic behavior of a floating wind turbine. Consequently, conventional wind turbine control cause instabilities on floating wind turbines. This work addresses the control of a floating spar buoy wind turbine, and focuses on the impact of the additional platform dynamics. A time varying control model is presented based on the wind speed and wave frequency. Estimates of the wind speed and wave frequency are used as scheduling variables in a gain scheduled linear quadratic controller to improve the electrical power production while reducing fatigue. To address the problem of negative damped fore-aft tower motion, additional control loops are suggested which stabilize the response of the onshore controller and reduce the impact of the wave induced loads. This research is then extended to model predictive control, to further address wave disturbances. In the context of control engineering, the dynamics and disturbances of a floating wind turbine have been identified and modeled. The objectives of maximizing the production of electrical power and minimizing fatigue have been reached by using advanced methods of estimation and control. (Author)

  11. 压载舱涂层保护新工艺%The New Techniques of Ballast Tanks Coating Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆信浩

    2012-01-01

    介绍海水压载舱涂层性能保护所采取的新技术、新工艺,讨论从设计到平台总组、搭载各阶段的具体实施方法.通过前期的技术准备和工艺试行,使涂层得到了有效的保护,降低了机械损伤引起的破损,也满足了船舶压载舱保护涂层性能标准(PSPC)中的严格要求.

  12. Model-Based Control of a Ballast-Stabilized Floating Wind Turbine Exposed to Wind and Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Søren

    2013-01-01

    The wind turbine is a commercial product which is competing against other sources of energy, such as coal and gas. This competition drives a constant development to reduce costs and improve effi-ciency in order to reduce the total cost of the energy. The latest offshore development is the floating...... wind turbine, for water depths beyond 50 meters where winds are stronger and less turbulent. A floating wind turbine is subject to not only aerodynamics and wind induced loads, but also to hy-drodynamics and wave induced loads. In contrast to a bottom fixed wind turbine, the floating structure......, the hydrodynamics and the loads change the dynamic behavior of a floating wind turbine. Consequently, conventional wind turbine control cause instabilities on floating wind turbines. This work addresses the control of a floating spar buoy wind turbine, and focuses on the impact of the additional platform dynamics...

  13. 16 CFR 1508.6 - Hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hardware. 1508.6 Section 1508.6 Commercial... FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1508.6 Hardware. (a) A crib shall be designed and constructed in a manner that eliminates from any hardware accessible to a child within the crib the possibility of the...

  14. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-36, 108-F Biological Laboratory, and for the 116-F-15, 108-F Radiation Crib, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-05-24

    The 100-F-36 waste site is the location of the former 108-F Biological Laboratory. The building was closed in 1973, decontaminated, decommissioned, and eventually demolished in 1999. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to No Action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  15. Carbon Tetrachloride Flow and Transport in the Subsurface of the 216-Z-18 Crib and 216-Z-1A Tile Field at the Hanford Site: Multifluid Flow Simulations and Conceptual Model Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oostrom, Mart; Rockhold, Mark L.; Thorne, Paul D.; Last, George V.; Truex, Michael J.

    2006-10-31

    Carbon tetrachloride (CT) was discharged to the 216-Z-9, Z-1A, and Z-18 waste sites that are included in the 200-PW-1 Operable Unit in Hanford 200 West Area. Fluor Hanford, Inc. is conducting a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 200-PW-1 Operable Unit. As part of this overall effort, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted to improve the conceptual model of how CT is distributed in the Hanford 200 West Area subsurface through use of numerical flow and transport modeling. This work supports the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) efforts to characterize the nature and distribution of CT in the 200 West Area and subsequently select an appropriate final remedy.

  16. Controllable high intensity-discharge lamps ballast system with 400 Hz bus%一种可控的400Hz母线的HID镇流器系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕晓东; 杨国仁; 何湘宁

    2005-01-01

    为了解决高压气体放电灯(HID)电子镇流器的声学谐振和可靠性问题,提出一种基于400 Hz母线的可控的HID镇流器系统.采用一个总的变频装置把电网的50 Hz转换成400 Hz,通过400 Hz母线供给N个缩小的镇流单元,每个镇流单元采用大大缩小了的电抗器.其中变频装置可以改变输出电压和频率,从而调节HID的亮度,也可以控制HID的开与关.与传统的50 Hz镇流器系统相比,该系统具有灯头镇流器轻小、易调光、易控制、电流波峰比小等优点;与近年所研制的电子镇流器相比,该系统具有无声谐振、高可靠性的优点.

  17. QS-650型清筛机点动挂挡系统的改进%Improving of gears shifting system for QS 650-type ballast cleaning coach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔安田

    2008-01-01

    良好的点动挂挡系统对保护液压走行系统的齿轮至关重要.通过对QS-650清筛机原有点动挂挡系统改进方案的介绍,以较小的改造费用提升了设备的使用安全性,简化了点动挂挡操作的程序,提高了设备的使用效率.

  18. 浅谈电子镇流器外壳温度的测量%Discussion about Measuring of Temperature of Electronic Ballast Shell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周海敏

    2009-01-01

    分析了电子镇流器额定最高温度的定义,建立了电子镇流器额定最高温度测量的热阻模型.通过对可能影响测量结果的几个因素使用热仿真软件Flotherm进行仿真试验,指出了影响镇流器外壳温度特别是额定最高温度测量的关键因素,即环境温度和风速.最后,对测量电子镇流器额定最高温度的试验设备等提出了一些建议,以保证测量结果的一致性.

  19. Isolation of a mutant MDBK cell line resistant to bovine viral diarrhea virus infection due to a block in viral entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, E F; Donis, R O

    1995-04-20

    A cell line, termed CRIB, resistant to infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has been derived from the MDBK bovine kidney cell line. CRIB cells were obtained by selection and cloning of cells surviving infection with a highly cytolytic BVDV strain. CRIB cells contain no detectable infectious or defective BVDV as ascertained by cocultivation, animal inoculation, indirect immunofluorescence, Western immunoblot, Northern hybridization, and RNA PCR. Inoculation of CRIB cells with 24 cytopathic and noncytopathic BVDV strains does not result in expression of viral genes or amplification of input virus. Karyotype and isoenzyme analyses demonstrated that CRIB are genuine bovine cells. CRIB cells are as susceptible as the parental MDBK cells to 10 other bovine viruses, indicating that these cells do not have a broad defect blocking viral replication. Transfection of CRIB cells with BVDV RNA or virus inoculation in the presence of polyethylene-glycol results in productive infection, indicating that the defect of CRIB cells is at the level of virus entry. CRIB cells are the first bovine cells reported to be resistant to BVDV infection in vitro and may be a useful tool for studying the early interactions of pestiviruses with host cells.

  20. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 2, Fluorescent lamp ballasts, television sets, room air conditioners, and kitchen ranges and ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This document is divided into ``volumes`` B through E, dealing with individual classes of consumer products. Chapters in each present engineering analysis, base case forecasts, projected national impacts of standards, life-cycle costs and payback periods, impacts on manufacturers, impacts of standards on electric utilities, and environmental effects. Supporting appendices are included.

  1. 16 CFR 1509.7 - Hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hardware. 1509.7 Section 1509.7 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1509.7 Hardware. (a) The hardware in a non-full-size baby crib shall...

  2. Abundance of pollution indicator and pathogenic bacteria in Mumbai waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Kolhe, V.; Sadhasivan, A.

    As a part of environmental assessment in the Mumbai Harbour region, where large numbers of ships either take in ballast from- or discharge their ballast, many groups of indicator and human pathogenic bacteria were quantified. Samples (water...

  3. Preventing Maritime Transfer of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaten, Douglas D.; Marano, Nina; Tappero, Jordan W.; Wellman, Michael; Albert, Ryan J.; Hill, Vincent R.; Espey, David; Handzel, Thomas; Henry, Ariel; Tauxe, Robert V.

    2012-01-01

    Organisms, including Vibrio cholerae, can be transferred between harbors in the ballast water of ships. Zones in the Caribbean region where distance from shore and water depth meet International Maritime Organization guidelines for ballast water exchange are extremely limited. Use of ballast water treatment systems could mitigate the risk for organism transfer. PMID:23017338

  4. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station City of Toledo Water Intake Crib by LimnoTech and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2015-05-20 to 2016-06-30 (NCEI Accession 0130548)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0130548 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  5. 400W太阳能高压钠灯电子镇流器的研制%Research of solar energy electronic ballast for 400W high pressure sodium lamp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂臣; 苏建徽; 张国荣

    2005-01-01

    针对太阳能高压钠灯电子镇流器的特点和高压钠灯在高频下的缺陷,设计了一种基于廉价驱动芯片SG3525A为基础的新颖太阳能高压钠灯电子镇流器,采用频率调制技术消除了声共振.并且设计了可靠的启动电路及过流、过压和异常保护电路,且能实现恒功率控制,最后给出了实验结果.

  6. 肾盂切开气压弹道碎石治疗鹿角形肾结石(附46例报告)%Treatment of staghorn calculi with pyelolithotomy and ballast lithotripsy(report of 46 cases)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董洪海; 郭晓辉; 周均洪; 陈志雄; 唐炎权

    2006-01-01

    目的探讨肾盂切开气压弹道碎石治疗鹿角形肾结石的疗效.方法对46例鹿角形肾结石采用肾盂切开气压弹道碎石,将结石分解成数块,再逐一取出.双侧肾结石采用一次分侧手术取石.结果46例鹿角形肾结石均较顺利取出,无黏膜撕脱、出血等并发症.25例肾功不全者均显著改善.结论肾盂切开结合气压弹道碎石是治疗鹿角形肾结石较好方法;双侧肾结石多有梗阻致肾功能受损,应双侧一次取石,有利于双肾功能恢复.

  7. Research on ballast production craft and equipment allocation at Xuanxing Mine Plant in Muchuan%沐川玄兴矿厂道砟生产工艺及设备配套的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余华超

    2012-01-01

    分别介绍了沐川玄兴矿厂地质概况、矿体特征及开采条件,针对该厂现行生产工艺及设备配置进行了分析,提出了提高产能和产品质量的具体措施并作了详尽描述,以指导实践。%The study introduces the geological survey, the ore body characteristics, and exploitation conditions of Xuanxing Mine Plant in Muchuan, analyzes the current production craft and equipment allocation, and points out the factual measures to improve the productivity and product quality and has the detailed description, so as to direct the practice.

  8. 有砟客运专线CPⅢ控制网测量方法与实践%The CPⅢ Control Network Mehtod and Practice in Ballasted Track of Passenger Special Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石峰

    2014-01-01

    有砟客运专线的列车运营速度较一般列车快,对轨道的平顺度要求较高,借鉴无砟客运专线CPⅢ控制测量技术对有砟客运专线进行CPⅢ控制网测量.以胶济铁路为例,详细论述平面控制测量、高程控制测量和数据处理方法,实践验证该方法可行,能够为类似工程提供借鉴.

  9. 浅析双块式无砟轨道Ⅱ线施工物流运输方案%On Logistics Transportation Scheme of Line Ⅱ Construction of Double-block Type Non-ballast Track

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭钰锋

    2010-01-01

    以武广客运专线为例,阐述在客运专线双块式无砟轨道Ⅱ线道床板施工中如何利用Ⅰ线组织物流运输,重点对设备配置作了说明,并对几种方案进行了对比分析,可为类似工程提供参考.

  10. Desempenho de um trator em função do tipo de pneu, da lastragem e da velocidade de trabalho Performance of an tractor as a function of tire type, ballasting and forward speed

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso Lopes; Kléber Pereira Lanças; Rouverson Pereira da Silva; Carlos Eduardo Angeli Furlani; Alberto Kazushi Nagaoka; Gustavo Naves dos Reis

    2005-01-01

    O trabalho comparou o desempenho de um trator agrícola 4x2 TDA de 89 kW (121cv) em função do tipo de pneus (radial, diagonal e de baixa pressão), a condição de lastragem (com e sem água nos pneus) e quatro velocidades [V1 (1,84km h-1), V2 (3,18km h-1, V3 (4,57km h-1), V4 (5,04km h-1)]. O experimento foi realizado na UNESP-Jaboticabal-SP, em condição de preparo do solo com escarificador de sete hastes a 30cm de profundidade. Os pneus foram do tipo R1, com as seguintes características: [radial ...

  11. 张河湾抽水蓄能电站上水库主堆石料生产性碾压试验%In - situ compaction test of stone ballast for Zhanghewan Pomped - Storage Power Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷敬伟

    2005-01-01

    通过进行石渣料生产性碾压试验,了解分析石渣料的压实特性,核实设计填筑标准的合理性,推荐达到设计填筑标准的经济合理的压实方法,包括压实机械类型、机械参数、施工参数等.

  12. Energy optimised lighting in buildings with simultaneous improvement of quality of life by daylight utilisation and innovative lamps and ballast techniques; Energieoptimierte Beleuchtung bei gleichzeitiger Verbesserung der Lebensqualitaet durch Nutzung von Tageslicht und neuer Lampen- und Vorschalttechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaase, Heinrich; Aydinli, Sirri; Gramm, Stefan; Thiel, Stefan [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Fakultaet IV Elektrotechnik und Informatik, FG Lichttechnik, Berlin (Germany); De Boer, Jan; Erhorn, Hans [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Bauphysik, Stuttgart (Germany); Kuhn, Tilman; Wienold, Jan [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany); Hillmann, Gustav; Korolkow, Margarethe [IBUS GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Piazena, Helmut [Universitaetsklinikum Charite, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    The scientific and technical goals of this project were developed in five parts. The individual topics arising from current issues, they still have a generally applicable nature. The consortium has worked on the following subprojects: (1) Development of a measurement technique to determine energy and photometric key figures of daylight components with a round robin test with three institutes. (2) Implementation of a detailed evaluation and documentation process for daylighting of interior spaces in different climate zones. (3) For lighting control in private living areas a ''Power Line Carrier Communication'' system has been evaluated and the advantages of a wireless transmission system were identified. (4) In a home for elderly quantitative studies on the well-being, for the fulfillment of visual tasks and the capability of melatonin suppression at different scenarios of general lighting with two different color temperatures of lamps (''warm white'' with TCP = 3000 K and ''cold white daylight'' with TCP = 6500 K) and vertical illuminance at the eyes of the subjects between 100 lx and 700 lx were performed. (5) For two school buildings in Berlin, the final energy consumption of the existing lighting system, the reference building and a re-planning were determined. It became clear in both examples that the existing lighting system exceeds the permitted value (EnEV 2009) by far. A good redesign, however, can be significantly less than the maximum allowed value. These studies were accompanied by a one-year monitoring of energy consumption. A cross-sectional analysis of 48 schools with a total of 86 buildings shows a substantial need for renovation of school buildings that were built before 1990.

  13. Design and Experimental Analysis of Experimental Device of Ballast Water Sterilizer of UV & US%UV+US的压载水杀菌器实验装置设计与实验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘建国; 孟宪振; 陈宁; 柯林华

    2013-01-01

    针对压载水携带有害微生物所造成的危害日益严重,在分析了紫外线协同超声波杀菌技术的可行性的基础上,对杀菌装置进行了设计,其中包括灯管的选型、紫外线照射剂量的计算、简体的设计、超声波功率和频率的设计、超声波换能器的选型等.通过灭活藻类实验、分析杀菌效果,验证了该技术在处理压载水方面的可行性.

  14. 压载水处理UV模块的CFD数值模拟及实验研究%Ballast water system of the UV sterilizer CFD numerical simulation and experimental research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宁; 焦晨; 陈刚

    2014-01-01

    针对船舶压载水系统对紫外(UV)杀菌器腔体设计技术水平要求高的特点,应用计算流体动力学(CFD)方法对UV杀菌器中压载水的杀菌过程建立数值模拟模型,并以300 m3/h处理量的UV杀菌器为对象,对其内部流场进行了模拟计算,重点对水力、辐射、剂量进行了模拟分析,获得了腔体内辐射剂量分布情况,并通过生物实验来检测实验装置是否满足IMO标准。%Ultraviolet light disinfection is an important kind of sewage depth processing method.By using compu-tational fluid dynamics (CFD)methods,the internal flow field in the uv tube is simulated and computaed,using Fluent software for hydraulic,radiation,dose of simulation analysis to obtain the distribution of radiation in the cylinder.And biological experiments were done to test whether it meet the standard of IMO.

  15. Pop / Bertil Tüvi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tüvi, Bertil

    2007-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Bonde Do Role "With Lasers", Cribs "Men's Needs Women's Needs Whatever", Dylan Donkin "Food for Thoughtlessness", Dream Theater "Systematic Chaos", Smashing Pumpkins "Zeitgeist", Suzanne Vega "Beauty and Crime", The Beach Boys "The Warmth Of The Sun"

  16. 18 CFR 1304.411 - Fish attractor, spawning, and habitat structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL OF CONSTRUCTION IN THE TENNESSEE RIVER SYSTEM AND REGULATION OF... constructed of anchored brush piles, log cribs, and/or spawning benches, stake beds, vegetation, or rock...

  17. SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF SX TANK FARM AT THE HANFORD SITE RESULTS OF BACKGROUND CHARACTERIZATION WITH MAGNETICS AND ELECTROMAGNETICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MYERS DA; RUCKER D; LEVIT M; CUBBAGE B; HENDERSON C

    2009-09-24

    This report presents the results of the background characterization of the cribs and trenches surrounding the SX tank farm prepared by HydroGEOPHYSICS Inc, Columbia Energy & Environmental Services Inc and Washington River Protection Solutions.

  18. 欧盟荧光灯、高强度气体放电灯及配套镇流器与灯具生态设计要求法规解析%Interpretation & Analysis to EU Commission Regulation (EC) No 245/2009 on Ecodesign Requirements for Fluorescent Lamps without Integrated Ballast, for High Intensity Discharge Lamps,and for Ballasts and Luminaires Able to Operate Such Lamps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊斌

    2009-01-01

    欧盟为贯彻用能产品生态设计指令(EuP指令),已出台两个针对照明电器的法规.本文介绍了编号为(EC)No 245/2009法规的要求,解析了这些要求的用意.最后对两个法规的异同进行了小结和点评.

  19. Feasibility study report for the 200-BP-1 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This feasibility study examines a range of alternatives and provides recommendations for selecting a preferred alternative for remediating contamination at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 operable unit is located in the center of the Hanford Site along the northern boundary of the 200 East Area. The 241-BY Tank Farm is located immediately to the south of the operable unit. 200-BP-1 is a source operable unit with contaminated soils associated primarily with nine inactive cribs (known as the 216-B cribs). These cribs were used for disposal of low-level radioactive liquid waste from U Plant uranium recovery operations, and waste storage tank condensate from the adjacent 241-BY Tank Farm. The cribs used for disposal of U Plant waste were in operation from 1955--1965, and the cribs used for disposal of tank condensate were in operation from 1965--1975. In addition to the cribs, four unplanned releases of radioactive materials have occurred within the operable unit. Contaminated surface soils associated with the unplanned releases have been consolidated over the cribs and covered with clean soil to reduce contaminant migration and exposure. Discharge of wastes to the cribs has resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. The groundwater is being addressed as part of the 200 East Aggregate Area, groundwater operable unit. Contaminated soils at the site can be categorized by the types of contaminants, their distribution in the soil column, and the risk posed by the various potential exposure pathways. Below the clean soil cover, the near surface soils contain low-levels of contamination with cesium-137, radium-226, strontium-90, thorium-228, and uranium. The lifetime incremental cancer risk associated with these soils if they were exposed at the surface is 9x10-5

  20. Feasibility study report for the 200-BP-1 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This feasibility study (FS) examines a range of alternatives and provides recommendations for selecting a preferred altemative for remediating contamination at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 operable unit is located in the center of the Hanford Site along the northern boundary of the 200 East Area. The 241-BY Tank Farm is located immediately to the south of the operable unit. 200-BP-1 is a source operable unit with contaminated soils associated primarily with nine inactive cribs (known as the 216-B cribs). These cribs were used for disposal of low-level radioactive liquid waste from U Plant uranium recovery operations, and waste storage tank condensate from the adjacent 241-BY Tank Farm. The cribs used for disposal of U Plant waste were in operation from 1955--1965, and the cribs used for disposal of tank condensate were in operation from 1965-1975. In addition to the cribs, four unplanned releases of radioactive materials have occurred within the operable unit. Contaminated surface soils associated with the unplanned releases have been consolidated over the cribs and covered with clean soil to reduce contaminant migration and exposure. Discharge of wastes to the cribs has resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. The groundwater is being addressed as part of the 200 East Aggregate Area groundwater operable unit. Contaminated soils at the site can be categorized by the types of contaminants, their distribution in the soil column, and the risk posed by the various potential exposure pathways. Below the clean soil cover, the near surface soils contain low-:levels of contamination with cesium-137, radium-226, strontium-90, thorium-228 and uranium. The lifetime incremental cancer risk associated with these soils if they were exposed at the surface is 9 x 105

  1. Correlation between retinopathy of prematurity and clinical risk index for babies score

    OpenAIRE

    Mousa Ahmadpour-kacho; Yadollah Zahed Pasha; Seyed Ahmad Rasoulinejad; Mahmoud Hajiahmadi; Parisa Pourdad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several risk factors like prematurity, hyperoxia, hyperglycemia, duration of mechanical ventilation and supplemental oxygen use have been attributed to the occurrence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in low birth weight infants. Clinical Risk Index for Babies (CRIB) score have been used to assess the severity of the newborn's disease and neonatal mortality. The relation between the CRIB score and the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity is less assessed. This study was carri...

  2. Feasibility study report for the 200-BP-1 operable unit. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This feasibility study (FS) examines a range of alternatives and provides recommendations for selecting a preferred altemative for remediating contamination at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 operable unit is located in the center of the Hanford Site along the northern boundary of the 200 East Area. The 241-BY Tank Farm is located immediately to the south of the operable unit. 200-BP-1 is a source operable unit with contaminated soils associated primarily with nine inactive cribs (known as the 216-B cribs). These cribs were used for disposal of low-level radioactive liquid waste from U Plant uranium recovery operations, and waste storage tank condensate from the adjacent 241-BY Tank Farm. The cribs used for disposal of U Plant waste were in operation from 1955--1965, and the cribs used for disposal of tank condensate were in operation from 1965-1975. In addition to the cribs, four unplanned releases of radioactive materials have occurred within the operable unit. Contaminated surface soils associated with the unplanned releases have been consolidated over the cribs and covered with clean soil to reduce contaminant migration and exposure. Discharge of wastes to the cribs has resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. The groundwater is being addressed as part of the 200 East Aggregate Area groundwater operable unit. Contaminated soils at the site can be categorized by the types of contaminants, their distribution in the soil column, and the risk posed by the various potential exposure pathways. Below the clean soil cover, the near surface soils contain low-:levels of contamination with cesium-137, radium-226, strontium-90, thorium-228 and uranium. The lifetime incremental cancer risk associated with these soils if they were exposed at the surface is 9 {times} 10{sup 5}.

  3. A Comparison of Community and Clinic Baby Showers to Promote Safe Sleep for Populations at High Risk for Infant Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlers-Schmidt, Carolyn R.; Schunn, Christy; Lopez, Venessa; Kraus, Stacey; Blackmon, Sheila; Dempsey, Millicent; Sollo, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Community baby showers have provided education and free portable cribs to promote safe sleep for high-risk infants. We evaluated knowledge gained at these showers and the effectiveness of holding baby showers at a primary care clinic as an alternative to traditional community venues. Participants at the community venue were more likely to exhibit risk factors associated with unsafe sleep and to report an unsafe sleep location for their infant without the provided portable crib. Following the ...

  4. Modernizing the handling of ear corn. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleptz, C.F.

    1980-01-01

    The goal of the project was to modernize the handling of ear corn. The corn was picked with a three row JD 300 picker pulled by a tractor. Pulled behind the picker was a side dump wagon with a capacity of 150 bushels of ear corn. When the dump wagon was full, a grain truck was driven along side of the wagon and the dump wagon, controlled by the tractor driver, was emptied into the truck. After two dumps of the wagon, the truck was driven to the storage area. The storage area consisted of ten (ten) 2000 bushel corn cribs set in a semi circle so that the elevator that filled the cribs could be moved from one crib to the next without changing the fill point. At the storage area, the truck full of corn was dumped into the platform feeder. By using a platform feeder to feed the elevator, all ten (10) cribs could be filled without moving it. After the harvest was complete, the corn remains in the cribs until needed for feed or until the corn is sold. During the time that the corn remains in the cribs, the turbine ventilator draws air through the corn and dries it.

  5. 33 CFR 151.07 - Delegations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER... Office, is delegated the authority to— (a) Issue International Oil Pollution Prevention...

  6. 33 CFR 158.210 - Ports and terminals loading crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RECEPTION FACILITIES FOR OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, AND GARBAGE... (CBT), segregated ballast tanks (SBT), or crude oil washing (COW) meeting part 157 of this...

  7. 10 CFR 431.282 - Test Procedures [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) The arc tube wall loading is in excess of 3 Watts/cm2, including such lamps that are mercury vapor, metal halide, and high-pressure sodium lamps. Mercury vapor lamp means a high intensity discharge lamp... EQUIPMENT Mercury Vapor Lamp Ballasts § 431.282 Definitions concerning mercury vapor lamp ballasts....

  8. Study on Treating Halobios Pollution by Hydroxyl Radical

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The high ratio concentration hydroxyl solution is produced by strong discharge, and applied to the prevention of invasive species in ship ballast water and red tide. This paper introduces the plasma process of hydroxyl radical production, the production process of high ratio hydroxyl solution, and the application to treating ballast water and red tide.

  9. 75 FR 10949 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Test Procedure for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ..., or other energy descriptor for each covered product for which DOE's current test procedures do not... established by EISA 2007 does not apply to all ballasts. 74 Federal Register (FR) 33171, 33174 (July 10, 2009... ballasts, and tentatively concluded that off mode is not applicable. 74 FR 33171, 33172-73 (July 10,...

  10. 40 CFR 761.50 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-leaking are regulated for disposal as PCB bulk product waste under § 761.62(a) or (c). (i) Fluorescent light ballasts containing PCBs only in an intact and non-leaking PCB Small Capacitor are regulated for disposal under § 761.60(b)(2)(ii). (ii) Fluorescent light ballasts containing PCBs in the potting...

  11. Compact fluorescent lamp using horizontal and vertical insulating septums and convective venting geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siminovitch, Michael

    1998-01-01

    A novel design for a compact fluorescent lamp, including a lamp geometry which will increase light output and efficacy of the lamp in a base down operating position by providing horizontal and vertical insulating septums positioned in the ballast compartment of the lamp to provide a cooler coldspot. Selective convective venting provides additional cooling of the ballast compartment.

  12. The ribose and glycine Maillard reaction in the interstellar medium (ISM): A theoretical study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abraham F Jalbout; Md Abul Haider Shipar

    2008-05-01

    Possibility of the Maillard reaction to take place in the gaseous phase in the interstellar medium was investigated by using Density Functional Theory (DFT) computations. Cyclic ribose (c-Rib)/open-chain ribose (c-Rib) and glycine were taken as the model. Mechanisms have been proposed, and possibility of the formation of different compounds have been evaluated through calculating the Gibb’s free energy changes for different steps of the reaction by following the total mass balance. The result reveals that both c-Rib and Rib can participate in the reaction, and c-Rib is more efficient than Rib. The reactions under basic and neutral conditions are supposed to be the first and second most favourable. Acidic conditions and the isoelectric point of glycine were unfeasible for the reaction. The kinetics of the mechanics are briefly addressed in this work.

  13. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trojanowski, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wei, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  14. Successive Refinement with Decoder Cooperation and its Channel Coding Duals

    CERN Document Server

    Asnani, Himanshu; Weissman, Tsachy

    2012-01-01

    We study cooperation in multi terminal source coding models involving successive refinement. Specifically, we study the case of a single encoder and two decoders, where the encoder provides a common description to both the decoders and a private description to only one of the decoders. The decoders cooperate via cribbing, i.e., the decoder with access only to the common description is allowed to observe, in addition, a deterministic function of the reconstruction symbols produced by the other. We characterize the fundamental performance limits in the respective settings of non-causal, strictly-causal and causal cribbing. We use a new coding scheme, referred to as Forward Encoding and Block Markov Decoding, which is a variant of one recently used by Cuff and Zhao for coordination via implicit communication. Finally, we use the insight gained to introduce and solve some dual channel coding scenarios involving Multiple Access Channels with cribbing.

  15. BABY MONITORING SYSTEM USING WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rajesh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS is marked by the sudden death of an infant during sleep that is not predicted by the medical history and remains unexplained even after thorough forensic autopsy and detailed death investigation. In this we developed a system that provides solutions for the above problems by making the crib smart using the wireless sensor networks (WSN and smart phones. The system provides visual monitoring service through live video, alert services by crib fencing and awakens alert, monitoring services by temperature reading and light intensity reading, vaccine reminder and weight monitoring.

  16. GEOPHYSICS AND SITE CHARACTERIZATION AT THE HANFORD SITE THE SUCCESSFUL USE OF ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY TO POSITION BOREHOLES TO DEFINE DEEP VADOSE ZONE CONTAMINATION - 11509

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GANDER MJ; LEARY KD; LEVITT MT; MILLER CW

    2011-01-14

    Historic boreholes confirmed the presence of nitrate and radionuclide contaminants at various intervals throughout a more than 60 m (200 ft) thick vadose zone, and a 2010 electrical resistivity survey mapped the known contamination and indicated areas of similar contaminants, both laterally and at depth; therefore, electrical resistivity mapping can be used to more accurately locate characterization boreholes. At the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in eastern Washington, production of uranium and plutonium resulted in the planned release of large quantities of contaminated wastewater to unlined excavations (cribs). From 1952 until 1960, the 216-U-8 Crib received approximately 379,000,000 L (100,000,000 gal) of wastewater containing 25,500 kg (56,218 lb) uranium; 1,029,000 kg (1,013 tons) of nitrate; 2.7 Ci of technetium-99; and other fission products including strontium-90 and cesium-137. The 216-U-8 Crib reportedly holds the largest inventory of waste uranium of any crib on the Hanford Site. Electrical resistivity is a geophysical technique capable of identifying contrasting physical properties; specifically, electrically conductive material, relative to resistive native soil, can be mapped in the subsurface. At the 216-U-8 Crib, high nitrate concentrations (from the release of nitric acid [HNO{sub 3}] and associated uranium and other fission products) were detected in 1994 and 2004 boreholes at various depths, such as at the base of the Crib at 9 m (30 ft) below ground surface (bgs) and sporadically to depths in excess of 60 m (200 ft) bgs. These contaminant concentrations were directly correlative with the presence of observed low electrical resistivity responses delineated during the summer 2010 geophysical survey. Based on this correlation and the recently completed mapping of the electrically conductive material, additional boreholes are planned for early 2011 to identify nitrate and radionuclide contamination: (a) throughout the entire vertical length of the

  17. New Design of a Low Cost Analogue Current Supply for Power LEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Bogdan Dragomir

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes an innovative and inductive ballast-based power LED supply. This new design LED powering solution is a cost-efficient alternative to high-end switching mode power supply (SMPS used to feed LED clusters. The current supply circuit topology will be explained. The AC component of the LED current is analysed both from the ballast inductance and the value of the DC filtering capacitor standpoint. The PSIM and MATLAB tools have been used to simulate the circuit output when different ballast voltage conditions will be applied. Transitory and steady-state driver performances have been taken into account.

  18. Technical Control on Plugging Spread of Railway Business Lines of Ballast High-Speed Turnout in P60-1\\42%P60-1/42有砟高速道岔铁路营业线插铺工艺控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛

    2015-01-01

    国内铁路营业线插铺的道岔型号以9号、12号道岔居多,目前小型号道岔的插铺工艺已比较成熟.随着高速铁路建设日益加快,为提高铁路的运行质量,提高道岔侧向通过速度,18号、38号、42号等大号码道岔的使用已越来越多,铁路营业线道岔插铺工艺已由传统的小号码道岔逐渐向大号码道岔趋势方向发展,所以有必要研究P60-1/42有砟高速道岔插铺施工工艺,将对同类铁路营业线道岔插铺具有一定的指导意义.

  19. Effect Comparison between Nephrolithotomy and Pyelolithotomy with Ballast Lithotripsy for Anatrophic Renal Staghorn Calculi%肾实质切开取石与肾盂切开气压弹道碎石术治疗无萎缩肾巨大肾结石疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李进; 杨罗艳; 吴洪涛; 姚干

    2008-01-01

    目的 比较肾盂切开气压弹道碎石与肾实质切开取石术治疗无肾萎缩巨大肾结石的效果.方法 160例无肾萎缩巨大肾结石患者,随机分为两组,采用肾盂切开气压弹道碎石术(A组,80例)与肾实质切开取石术(B组,80例)治疗.结果 A组平均手术时间、平均出血量均较B组明显减少,术后肾功能恢复较好.结论肾盂切开气压弹道碎石术治疗无肾萎缩巨大肾结石,手术时间短,出血少,肾功能损害小,效果满意.

  20. Desempenho de um trator agrícola equipado com pneus radiais e diagonais com três níveis de lastros líquidos Performance of an agricultural tractor equipped with radial and bias ply tires on three levels of liquid ballast

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo A. Monteiro; Kléber P. Lanças; Saulo P. S. Guerra

    2011-01-01

    A utilização correta de pneus em tratores, tanto em relação ao seu tipo quanto à calibração de sua pressão interna, e a lastragem ideal para cada condição de carga são fatores que influem significativamente no desempenho do trator. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo comparar o desempenho de um trator equipado com pneus radiais e com pneus diagonais, para três condições de lastragem líquida (0%, 40% e 75% de água), em três condições superficiais de um Nitossolo Vermelho distrófico (superfície fi...

  1. STR-B5450 Series Combination IC with Ballast Controller/Driver and Power MOSFET%集镇流器控制、驱动及功率MOSFET于一体的STR-B5450系列组合IC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛兴武; 祝大卫; 法文清; 解学军

    2000-01-01

    STR-B5450是日本三肯公司生产的集控制电路、高压驱动器及两只功率开关MOSFET于一体的系列SankenTM组合IC,使用该IC能使荧光灯电子镇流器元件数量减少约40%.并具有预热、点火、调光、自动再启动、开/关与复位及故障/失效保护等功能.工作可靠,最大输出功率达200W.本文介绍了该器件的内部结构、工作原理及典型应用.

  2. Consumo de combustível de um trator em função do tipo de pneu, da lastragem e da velocidade de trabalho Fuel consumption of a tractor as a function of the tyre type, ballasting and forward speed

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso Lopes; Kléber P. Lanças; Carlos E. A. Furlani; Alberto K. Nagaoka; Pedro Castro Neto; Danilo Cesar C. Grotta

    2003-01-01

    Com o presente trabalho, teve-se como objetivo comparar o consumo de combustível de um trator agrícola operando com pneus (radial, diagonal e de baixa pressão) em duas condições de lastragem (com e sem água nos pneus) e quatro velocidades de deslocamento. O experimento foi realizado na FCAV-UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP, em condição de preparo do solo com escarificador. Utilizou-se um trator 4x2 TDA, com potência de 89 kW (121 CV) no motor. Os pneus foram do tipo R1, com as seguintes características...

  3. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 3, Water heaters, pool heaters, direct heating equipment, and mobile home furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This is Volume 3 in a series of documents on energy efficiency of consumer products. This volume discusses energy efficiency of water heaters. Water heaters are defined by NAECA as products that utilize oil, gas, or electricity to heat potable water for use outside the heater upon demand. These are major appliances, which use a large portion (18% on average) of total energy consumed per household (1). They differ from most other appliances in that they are usually installed in obscure locations as part of the plumbing and are ignored until they fail. Residential water heaters are capable of heating water up to 180{degrees}F, although the setpoints are usually set lower.

  4. Cloning and characterization of PAK5, a novel member of mammalian p21-activated kinase-II subfamily that is predominantly expressed in brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, A.; Dan, I.; Kristiansen, T.Z.;

    2002-01-01

    that PAK5 preferentially binds to CDC42 in the presence of GTP and that CRIB motif is essential for this interaction. PAK5 is a functional protein kinase but unlike PAK-I family kinases (PAK1, 2, and 3), the kinase activity of PAK5 does not seem to require the binding of CDC42. Overexpression of PAK5...

  5. Auditory Context and Memory Retrieval in Young Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagen, Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    Trained 3-month olds to move an overhead crib mobile while one of two musical selections was played, and assessed retention one or seven days later in presence of same or different music. Found that infants displayed one-day retention regardless of musical selection. At seven days, retention was seen only when test music matched training music.…

  6. Auditory-Visual Context and Memory Retrieval in 3-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daman-Wasserman, Michelle; Brennan, Barbara; Radcliffe, Fiona; Prigot, Joyce; Fagen, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    In 3 experiments, 3-month-old infants were trained to move an overhead mobile by kicking 1 of their feet in the presence of a distinctive visual (crib bumpers) and auditory (music) context. In Experiment 1A, 5-day but not 1-day retention was disrupted if either or both elements of the context present during the retention test were novel. In…

  7. B. F. Skinner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Barry C.

    1984-01-01

    The life and work of B.F. Skinner is reviewed. His interest in education is explored as well as his work and influence in such areas as: the development of the Air-Crib, the Write and See, writing program, Project Pigeon, aging and behavior modification. (Author/CL)

  8. 75 FR 16453 - Domtar Maine LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order and Soliciting Comments, Protests, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: (1) A concrete section approximately 69 feet long, including a spillway section with two tainter... Grand Lake development: (1) West Grand Lake Dam, earth embankment and gravel-filled timber crib... feet high, with a concrete cut-off wall and rock masonry downstream face, containing a gated...

  9. 49 CFR 176.74 - On deck stowage of break-bulk hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (a) Packages containing hazardous materials must be secured by enclosing in boxes, cribs or cradles... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false On deck stowage of break-bulk hazardous materials... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  10. 77 FR 52220 - Safety Standard for Play Yards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    .... In the Federal Register of September 20, 2011 (76 FR 58167), we published a notice of proposed... tables. C. Incident Data The preamble to the NPR (76 FR 58168) summarized the data for incidents related... apply to non-full-size cribs. 1. Summary of ASTM F406-12a In the NPR (76 FR 58169 through 58170),...

  11. 49 CFR 393.116 - What are the rules for securing logs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... unless the logs: (i) are transported in a crib-type log trailer (as defined in 49 CFR 393.5), and (ii... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the rules for securing logs? 393.116... Securement Requirements by Commodity Type § 393.116 What are the rules for securing logs? (a)...

  12. 16 CFR 1508.7 - Construction and finishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Construction and finishing. 1508.7 Section 1508.7 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1508.7 Construction and finishing. (a) All wood...

  13. 16 CFR 1509.8 - Construction and finishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Construction and finishing. 1509.8 Section 1509.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1509.8 Construction and finishing. (a) All...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1508 - Figure 3 to Part 1508

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1508 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1508, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 EC03OC91.063...

  15. 21 CFR 880.5140 - Pediatric hospital bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pediatric hospital bed. 880.5140 Section 880.5140... Devices § 880.5140 Pediatric hospital bed. (a) Identification. A pediatric hospital bed is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of a bed or crib designed for the use of a pediatric...

  16. Mittal bonded tongue thrusting appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Mittal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available These days majority of orthodontist includes bonded molar attachment in their inventory to eliminate the discomfort of molar separation during initial appointment and band spaces left at the end of treatment. This article describes a innovative and economical method of attachment of bonded tongue crib if required during the initial or later stages of treatment along with bonded molar tubes.

  17. Forms, Factors and Consequences of Cheating in University Examinations: Insight from Open and Distance Learning Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokula, Lebeloane Lazarus Donald; Lovemore, Nyaumwe

    2014-01-01

    The present study narrated the forms, factors and consequences of cheating in university examinations by UNISA Open and Distance learning students from anecdotal data. The results showed that the perpetrators mostly used crib materials on paper, ruler and calculator cover. The factors that influenced examination cheating were gender, age range and…

  18. Everything and the Kitchen Sink (Ideas for Making Toys from Household Items). Baby Buggy Book No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilers, Ulinda

    Designed for parents of handicapped and high risk infants and toddlers in rural areas, the booklet discusses ideas for making toys from household items. Toys are grouped into five levels of developmental difficulty from the neonate stage (e.g., using yarn as crib mobiles) to the stage where the child is trying to figure out how things work and fit…

  19. 77 FR 45242 - Revisions to Safety Standards for Durable Infant or Toddler Products: Infant Bath Seats and Full...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... promulgate consumer product safety standards for durable infant or toddler products. The law requires that... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY...: Infant Bath Seats and Full-Size Cribs AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Direct...

  20. रोग्जनक सूक्ष्मजीवों का गिट्टी पानी व्दारा स्थानांतरण

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, L.; Gaonkar, C.C.; Vengurlekar, A.A.; Nayak, S.; Ranjeet, E.

    RR (2000) Global spread of microorganisms by ships. Nature 408:49-50 9.� Subba Rao DV, Sprules WG, Locke , Carlton JT (1994) Exotic phytoplankton from ships' ballast waters: risk of potential spread to mariculture sites on Canada's East...

  1. 33 CFR 151.75 - Grinders or comminuters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Garbage Pollution and Sewage § 151.75 Grinders...

  2. 33 CFR 151.04 - Penalties for violation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships General § 151.04 Penalties for violation. (a) A person...

  3. 33 CFR 151.25 - Oil Record Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Oil Pollution § 151.25 Oil Record Book. (a) Each oil...

  4. 33 CFR 151.57 - Waste management plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Garbage Pollution and Sewage § 151.57 Waste...

  5. 33 CFR 151.28 - Plan review and revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Oil Pollution § 151.28 Plan review and revision. (a)...

  6. First record of the freshwater puffer Tetraodon fluviatilis fluviatilis from the coastal waters of Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Padate, V.P.; Rivonker, C.U.; Anil, A.C.; Sawant, S.S.; Venkat, K.

    Authors are grateful to the Ballast Water Management Programme, India executed by the National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa for Directorate General of Shipping, Government of India and is a joint contribution of the Goa University...

  7. 16 CFR 305.4 - Prohibited acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conditioners, pulse combustion and condensing furnaces, fluorescent lamp ballasts, showerheads, faucets, water... central air conditioner or any pulse combustion or condensing furnace if its manufacture was completed... printed material pertaining to any central air conditioners or pulse combustion or condensing...

  8. Raging water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, J.

    2014-01-01

    At TU Delft neighbour Deltares, the Ballast construction company is putting the finishing touches on the world’s largest wave channel. Last month, a group of science journalists were invited to take a peek.

  9. Track Loading Vehicle - TLV

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The TLV is designed to apply forces close to the strength limits of the rails and other track structure components, such as ties, rail fasteners, and ballast, while...

  10. 46 CFR 178.230 - Stability letter or Certificate of Inspection stability details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... an emergency; (6) Location, type and amount of fixed ballast; (7) Location and details of foam flotation material; and (8) Maximum weight of portable equipment permitted on the vessel including...

  11. Contribution à l'évolution des méthodologies de caractérisation et d'amélioration des voies ferrées

    OpenAIRE

    Rhayma, Noureddine

    2010-01-01

    The theme of the proposed research is part of an understanding of the behavior of the ballasted track in commercial traffic. The main goals of this research are then, first understand the mechanisms leading to this deterioration, the characterization of different track parameters and their variability and also the prediction of mechanical behavior of a ballasted track by numerical modelling to optimize maintenance operations and reduce maintenance costs. This work is based primarily on an exp...

  12. Effect of the chemical cycle on the energy use when producing sulfate pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maripuu, M.

    1982-09-01

    The influence of the chemical cycle on the energy conservation of a sulfate pulp factory has been investigated. The problem concerning ballast (non-load running) is crucial. The operational problems of causticizing and lime reburning have been looked into. Energy use could be reduced by a closer control of ballast, which is difficult to calculate. Heavy losses are found to take place when plant operetions are interfered with.

  13. Effect of fine particles on the hydraulic behavior of interlayer soil in railway substructure

    OpenAIRE

    DUONG, Trong Vinh; Cui, Yu-Jun; Tang, Anh Minh; Dupla, Jean Claude; Calon, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The conventional railway substructure in France was built by emplacing ballast directly on subgrade. Over years of operation, the interpenetration of ballast and subgrade created a soil layer between them. Under different conditions, this naturally formed layer, namely interlayer, can contain different quantities of fine particles, becoming more or less sensitive to changes in water content. As the water content changes are governed by the hydraulic behavior of the interlayer soil, assessing ...

  14. The contribution of maternal psychological functioning to infant length of stay in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherry AS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Amanda S Cherry,1 Melissa R Mignogna,1 Angela Roddenberry Vaz,1 Carla Hetherington,2 Mary Anne McCaffree,2 Michael P Anderson,3 Stephen R Gillaspy1 1Section of General and Community Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, 2Neonatal Perinatal Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Oklahoma, College of Medicine, Oklahoma City, OK, 3Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, College of Public Health, Oklahoma City, OK, USA Objective: Assess maternal psychological functioning within the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU and its contribution to neonate length of stay (LOS in the NICU.Study design: Mothers of infants admitted to the NICU (n=111 were assessed regarding postpartum depression, postpartum social support, postpartum NICU stress, and maternal anxiety at 2 weeks postpartum. Illness severity was assessed with the Clinical Risk Index for Babies (CRIB.Results: Postpartum depression was not significantly correlated with LOS, but was significantly correlated with trait anxiety (r=0.620, which was significantly correlated with LOS (r=0.227. Among mothers with previous mental health history, substance abuse history and CRIB score were the best predictors of LOS. For mothers without a prior mental health issues, delivery type, stress associated with infant appearance, and CRIB scores were the best predictors of LOS. In this group, LOS was found to increase on average by 7.06 days per one unit increase in stress associated with infant appearance among mothers with the same delivery type and CRIB score.Conclusion: Significant correlations of trait anxiety, stress associated with infant appearance, and parental role with LOS support the tenet that postpartum psychological functioning can be associated with NICU LOS. Keywords: NICU, postpartum depression, postpartum anxiety, parental stress, CRIB

  15. Remediation plan for fluorescent light fixtures containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-04-30

    This report describes the remedial action to achieve compliance with 29 CFR 1910 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements of fluorescent light fixtures containing PCBs at K-25 site. This remedial action is called the Remediation Plan for Fluorescent Light Fixtures Containing PCBs at the K-25 Site (The Plan). The Plan specifically discusses (1) conditions of non-compliance, (2) alternative solutions, (3) recommended solution, (4) remediation plan costs, (5) corrective action, (6) disposal of PCB waste, (7) training, and (8) plan conclusions. The results from inspections by Energy Systems personnel in 2 buildings at K-25 site and statistical extension of this data to 91 selected buildings at the K-25 site indicates that there are approximately 28,000 fluorescent light fixtures containing 47,036 ballasts. Approximately 38,531 contain PCBs and 2,799 of the 38,531 ballasts are leaking PCBs. Review of reportable occurrences at K-25 for the 12 month period of September 1990 through August 1991 shows that Energy Systems personnel reported 69 ballasts leaking PCBs. Each leaking ballast is in non-compliance with 29 CFR 1910 - Table Z-1-A. The age of the K-25 facilities indicate a continued and potential increase in ballasts leaking PCBs. This report considers 4 alternative solutions for dealing with the ballasts leaking PCBs. The advantages and disadvantages of each alternative solution are discussed and ranked using cost of remediation, reduction of health risks, and compliance with OSHA as criteria.

  16. Transporting Ocean Viromes: Invasion of the Aquatic Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yiseul; Aw, Tiong Gim; Rose, Joan B.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of marine viromes (viral metagenomes) have revealed that DNA viruses are highly diverse and exhibit biogeographic patterns. However, little is known about the diversity of RNA viruses, which are mostly composed of eukaryotic viruses, and their biogeographic patterns in the oceans. A growth in global commerce and maritime traffic may accelerate spread of diverse and non-cosmopolitan DNA viruses and potentially RNA viruses from one part of the world to another. Here, we demonstrated through metagenomic analyses that failure to comply with mid-ocean ballast water exchange regulation could result in movement of viromes including both DNA viruses and RNA viruses (including potential viral pathogens) unique to geographic and environmental niches. Furthermore, our results showed that virus richness (known and unknown viruses) in ballast water is associated with distance between ballast water exchange location and its nearest shoreline as well as length of water storage time in ballast tanks (voyage duration). However, richness of only known viruses is governed by local environmental conditions and different viral groups have different responses to environmental variation. Overall, these results identified ballast water as a factor contributing to ocean virome transport and potentially increased exposure of the aquatic bioshpere to viral invasion. PMID:27055282

  17. Effects of Battery Voltage in Fluorescent Lamps for Use in Photovoltaic Systems; Efectos de la Tension de Bateria en Lamparas Fluorescentes para Uso en Instalaciones Fotovoltaicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Rosillo, F.; Egido Aguilera, M. A.

    2008-07-01

    It is known the importance of lighting systems with fluorescent lamps and electronic ballast in isolated photo-voltaic systems. The positive characteristics of the fluorescent lamps sometimes are not developed in full, due to the incorrect choice of ballast The failure of a lamp in the photovoltaic system can have great significance in the subjective perception of the user for the complete system. The purpose of this study is to analyze the behavior of two very similar fluorescent lamps, fed with different electronic ballasts, showing the great influence of the electronic ballast topology in the operation of the fluorescent lamp. In particular, this work aims to analyze the effect of variations of the input voltage to the ballast in the electrical and luminous characteristics of the lamp, as well as to understand the influence of electrical parameters in the life time of the fluorescent lamp. It is also analyzed the operating temperature of the electrode and the time necessary for electrode cooling after switching off the lamp. (Author) 23 refs.

  18. Experimental study on fire extinguishing with a newly prepared multi-component compressed air foam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XiShi; LIAO YaoJian; LIN Lin

    2009-01-01

    A multi-component compressed air foam system (MCAFS) was developed with newly prepared multi-component foaming agents. Extinguishing of wood crib and oil pool fires was performed under different conditions, such as foam concentration, mixing chamber forepart structure and working pressure. It was found that the foam concentration had sufficient effects on fire extinguishing efficiency, and an optimized concentration value exists. For instance, for diesel oil pool fires, this value is about 2.2% while it is about 4.0% for wood crib fires. The results also show that the system with a coaxial mixing chamber has greater efficiency than a T-shape. The effects of working pressure on fire extin-guishing are evident in experiments, i.e., the higher the working pressure is, the more readily the fire is extinguished.

  19. Akuna - Integrated Toolsets Supporting Advanced Subsurface Flow and Transport Simulations for Environmental Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuchardt, Karen L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Agarwal, Deborah A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Finsterle, Stefan A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gable, Carl W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gorton, Ian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gosink, Luke J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Keating, Elizabeth H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lansing, Carina S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meyer, Joerg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Moeglein, William A.M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pau, George S.H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Porter, Ellen A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Purohit, Sumit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rockhold, Mark L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shoshani, Arie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sivaramakrishnan, Chandrika [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-04-24

    A next generation open source subsurface simulator and user environment for environmental management is being developed through a collaborative effort across Department of Energy National Laboratories. The flow and transport simulator, Amanzi, will be capable of modeling complex subsurface environments and processes using both unstructured and adaptive meshes at very fine spatial resolutions that require supercomputing-scale resources. The user environment, Akuna, provides users with a range of tools to manage environmental and simulator data sets, create models, manage and share simulation data, and visualize results. Underlying the user interface are core toolsets that provide algorithms for sensitivity analysis, parameter estimation, and uncertainty quantification. Akuna is open-source, cross platform software that is initially being demonstrated on the Hanford BC Cribs remediation site. In this paper, we describe the emerging capabilities of Akuna and illustrate how these are being applied to the BC Cribs site.

  20. Review of selected 100-N waste sites related to N-Springs remediation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document has been prepared in support of the environmental restoration program at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, by the Bechtel Hanford, Inc. Facility and Waste Site Research Office. It provides historical information that documents and characterizes selected waste sites that are related to the N-Springs remediation projects. The N-Springs are a series of small, inconspicuous groundwater seepage springs located along the Columbia River shoreline near the 100-N Reactor. The spring site is hydrologically down-gradient from several 100-N Area liquid waste sites that are believed to have been the source(s) of the effluents being discharged by the springs. This report documents and characterizes these waste sites, including the 116-N-1 Crib and Trench, 116-N-3 Crib and Trench, unplanned releases, septic tariks, and a backwash pond

  1. Proposed Plan for Interim Remedial Action and Dangerous Waste Modified Closure of the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Units and Associated Sites in the 100-NR-1 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Proposed Plan identifies the preferred alternatives for interim remedial action and dangerous waste unit modified closure and corrective action of the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) units and their associated sites in the 100-NR-1 Operable Unit, located at the Hanford Site (Figure S-1). The TSD units consist of contaminated soils, structures, and pipelines. There are four Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) TSD units: the 116-N-1 Crib and Trench, the 116-N-3 Crib and Trench, the 120-N-1 Percolation Pond, and the 120-N-2 Surface Impoundment. There are two associated sites: the UPR-100-N-31 unplanned release (UPR) spill site and the 100-N-58 South Settling Pond. This Proposed Plan also summarizes the other remedial alternatives analyzed for remedial action. The intent of the remedial action is to address contaminated areas that pose potential threats to human health and the environment

  2. Effectiveness of measures to prevent unintentional deaths of infants and children from suffocation and strangulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, J F

    1985-01-01

    Unintentional deaths from suffocation and strangulation account for about 20 percent of all nontransport-related infant and child fatalities in the United States. In the late 1950s, some preventive countermeasures were introduced to reduce the number of deaths resulting from refrigerator or freezer entrapment. A few years later, countermeasures were introduced to prevent deaths resulting from suffocation by plastic bags, inhumation, and mechanical strangulation from wedging in infant cribs. For three of these major causes of suffocation and strangulation deaths among infants and children (refrigerator or freezer entrapment, suffocation by plastic bag, and inhumation at construction sites), there appears to have been a significant decline in incidence; however, there is no evidence of a significant reduction in deaths from mechanical strangulation in cribs. The impact of current countermeasures is discussed, and some suggestions for new or modified approaches are made. PMID:3920722

  3. Sidescan sonar examination of deteriorated revetments and bulkheads along Chicago's lake front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzastowski, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Lakefill for parks along Chicago's lake front is primarily defended with aged, deteriorated revetments. Survey by 100- and 500-kHz sidescan sonar documents that structural failure of the revetments is not related to lake-bottom undermining. The size and weight of the rock fill in the cribs is identified as a critical factor. Long-term effects of wave surge combined with ice action and gravity can remove rock fill either through breaks in the timber crib wall, or where revetment design offers lakeward exposure of the rock fill. Capstones are displaced when they lose underlying support. Revetments with a lakeward face of steel sheetpile, or toe protection mounded high against the structure, have no significant capstone displacement and are models for improved design. This study supports a rebuilding project that will bury the old revetments with new structures having a lakeward face of either steel sheetpile or a rubble mound.

  4. Experimental Study of Stellar Reactions at CNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief review on low-energy RI beam production technology, nuclear astrophysics programs at CNS are presented including a scope of the field in the Wako campus. The CRIB project involves a total development of the whole facility to maximize the low-energy RI beam intensities, including the ion source, the AVF cyclotron and the low-energy RI beam separator CRIB, Some recent nuclear astrophysics experiments performed with the RI beams were discussed, including the measurement of the 14O(α,p)17F reaction, the key stellar reaction for the onset of the high-temperature rp-process. The first experiment performed with a newly installed high-resolution magnetic spectrograph PA of CNS was also presented. Collaboration possibilities for nuclear astrophysics in the RIKEN campus are also touched

  5. A Comparison of Community and Clinic Baby Showers to Promote Safe Sleep for Populations at High Risk for Infant Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers-Schmidt, Carolyn R; Schunn, Christy; Lopez, Venessa; Kraus, Stacey; Blackmon, Sheila; Dempsey, Millicent; Sollo, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Community baby showers have provided education and free portable cribs to promote safe sleep for high-risk infants. We evaluated knowledge gained at these showers and the effectiveness of holding baby showers at a primary care clinic as an alternative to traditional community venues. Participants at the community venue were more likely to exhibit risk factors associated with unsafe sleep and to report an unsafe sleep location for their infant without the provided portable crib. Following the showers, both groups showed improvement in knowledge and intentions regarding safe sleep. However, to connect with the highest risk groups, showers held at community venues appeared to be preferable to those held at high-risk clinics. PMID:27335991

  6. Fire exposed facades: Numerical modelling of the LEPIR2 testing facility

    OpenAIRE

    Dréan Virginie; Schillinger Renaud; Auguin Gildas

    2016-01-01

    LEPIR2 testing facility is aimed to evaluate the fire behaviour of construction solutions implemented on facade according with the experimental evaluation required by the French Technical Specification 249 (IT249) of the safety regulation. It aims to limit the risks of fire spreading by facades to upper levels. This facility involves a wood crib fire in the lower compartment of a full scale two levels high structure. Flames are coming outside from the compartment through windows openings and ...

  7. Quilting: An American Craft

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2006-01-01

    A quilt can warm a bed, decorate a wall, comfort a child in her crib or a soldier at war. A quilt also can tell a story, commemorate an event, honor the dead, unite a community, and reflect a culture. This article is an introduction to the American craft of quilting. The article describes what quilting is and the different types of quilts. It also…

  8. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site Facilities: Progress report for the period April 1--June 30, 1988: Volume 1, Text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume set of documents that describes the progress of 10 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period April 1 to June 30, 1988. This volume discusses the projects; Volume 2 provides as-built diagrams, drilling logs, and geophysical logs for wells drilled during this period in the 100-N Area and near the 216-A-36B Crib

  9. Effectiveness of measures to prevent unintentional deaths of infants and children from suffocation and strangulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Kraus, J F

    1985-01-01

    Unintentional deaths from suffocation and strangulation account for about 20 percent of all nontransport-related infant and child fatalities in the United States. In the late 1950s, some preventive countermeasures were introduced to reduce the number of deaths resulting from refrigerator or freezer entrapment. A few years later, countermeasures were introduced to prevent deaths resulting from suffocation by plastic bags, inhumation, and mechanical strangulation from wedging in infant cribs. F...

  10. Residual insecticides, inert dusts and botanicals for the protection of durable stored products against pest infestation in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Obeng-Ofori, D.

    2010-01-01

    Insect pests associated with durable grains and processed food cause considerable quantitative and qualitative losses throughout the world. Insect infestation can occur just prior to harvest, during storage in traditional storage structures, cribs, metal or concrete bins, and in warehouses, food handling facilities, retail grocery stores as well as in-transit. Many tools are available for managing insects associated with grains and processed food. Although pest management strategies are chang...

  11. Diets and habitat analyses of mule deer on the 200 areas of the Hanford Site in southcentral Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-four food items were identified in the fecal pellets of the mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) on three areas of the Hanford Site. Microscopic analysis of plant fragments indicated that bitterbrush was the most common species occurring in the diets of deer from the B-C Cribs area. Russian thistle (Salsola kali) and goldenrod (Solidago sp.) were the most abundant plants found in the fecal pellets collected from B Pond and Gable Mountain Pond habitats, respectively. The similarity in diets among the habitats was low, ranging from 10% to 16%. Preference indices of forage plants among sites were not similar (7% to 19%). The B-C Cribs, B Pond and Gable Mountain Pond habitats were characterized for canopy cover and frequency of occurrence of plant species. Twelve species were sampled in the B-C Cribs and B Pond areas; 22 species were identified on the Gable Mountain site. The most commonly occurring plant was cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) in all three sites. The similarity in frequency and canopy cover of plants was low among sites. Mule deer inhabiting the Hanford site can serve as a pathway for movement of radioactive material from low-level radioactive waste management areas to man. Maximum levels of 137Cs found in deer pellet groups collected from B Pond and Gable Mountain Pond areas were 100 pCi/g and 128 pCi/g, respectively. Background levels were reported at B-C Cribs area. Maximum 90Sr values found in deer pellets at B Pond were 107 pCi/g and 184 pCi/g at Gable Mountain Pond

  12. Equine stereotypic behavior as related to horse welfare: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Sarrafchi, Amir

    2012-01-01

    There are strong suggestions that equine stereotypies are being connected to poor welfare and a sub-optimal management and/or stabling environment. Until today different forms of equine stereotypic behaviors have been described. Crib-biting, weaving, and box-walking are considered the most prevalent. Several studies have been conducted to establish links between the underlying causes and potential function of such behaviors. Both experimental and epidemiological studies have indicated managem...

  13. FIRE RESISTANCE OF DOUGLAS FIR [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco] WOOD TREATED WITH SOME CHEMICALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kemal YALINKILIÇ

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Combustible properties of treated douglas wood specimens and fire-retardancy of some preservatives were tested in this study. Crib test of ASTM E 160-150 was followed. Results indicated that, aqueous solutions of boric acid (BA, borax (Bx (Na2BO7 10H2O or BA + Bx mixture (7: 3, w: w had fire retardant efficacy (FRE over untreated wood and reduced the combustibility of vinil monomers (Styrene and methylmetacrylate which were applied as secondary treatment.

  14. Neonatal infrared axillary thermometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, J; Terry, K

    1999-01-01

    The authors compared axillary skin temperatures (AT) measured with an infrared (IR) thermometer (Lightouch Neonate, Exergen Corp) with rectal temperatures (RT) in 16 newly born term infants under radiant warmers (RW) and in cribs. Twelve stable, growing premature infants in incubators were also studied. This new device may be useful because of safety and rapid results (1 second), but clinical accuracy is unknown. For term infants, mean (SD) RT-AT difference was 0.1 (0.48) degree C under RW and 0.25 (0.17) degree C 2 hours later in cribs. For premature infants in incubators the mean RT-AT difference was 0.09 (0.16) degree C. Axillary temperatures measured by IR thermometer approximate RT for newly born term infants in cribs and stable premature infants in incubators. For newly born term infants under RW, RT-AT differences vary more widely, limiting clinical usefulness in this setting. The device, the unique age of this population, and the RW environment may play a role. PMID:9924640

  15. Preliminary engineering assessment of treatment alternatives for groundwater from the Hanford 200 Area 200-BP-5 plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of the Preliminary Engineering Assessment of Treatment Alternatives (PEATA), an engineering evaluation of potential treatment alternatives for groundwater extracted from the 200-BP-5 Area's 216-BY Cribs and 216-B-5 Reverse Well plumes. The primary objective of the PEATA was to identify treatment technologies that are worth further consideration (i.e., treatability testing or a more refined engineering evaluation). It will also provide a basis for evaluating the results of the treatability testing that is currently being conducted on the presumptive remedy of ion exchange with disposal of spent resin and will serve as a guide for selection of other technologies for additional testing. Because there are little data or past experience with groundwater similar to the BY-Crib and B-5 Reverse Well Plumes, treatment efficiencies cannot be predicted with certainty and rigorous treatment system designs and costs cannot be developed. This applies to all alternatives, including the presumptive remedy of ion exchange. The approach for this study was to develop conceptual designs and approximate costs for the treatment technologies that were most likely to be effective on the BY-Crib and B-5 Reverse Well groundwater

  16. Biomassa Bibit Tanaman Jambu Mete (Anacardium occidentale L. yang Ditanam pada Tanah Pascatambang Emas Bombana dengan Variasi Pupuk Kandang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Ambardini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Research to back up ex gold mining  restoration must  been done with  productive plant so gets to answer about problem environmental one arises mining industry effect and can get to increase economy of plant exploit facet. This research aims was to know plant seed growth Cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L. with biomassa accumulation on organ comes to root, bar, and plant seed leaf of Cashew nut ( Anacardium occidentale L. that old three-month after implant. Experiment research utilize fledged random design (RAL, consisting tree manures (crib manures, goat den manures, and henhouse manures with same dose, which is 150 ha-1 tons, and control (without manures with five replicated. Experimental procedure consisting of plant media preparation utilize ex mining land, preparation organic and an organic manure seed instilling, manuring, preserve, and cropping. Instilling and plant preserve is done in green house FMIPA UHO'S Biological. Result observationaling to point out that biomassa allocation plant tends to be presented at by leaf then bar organ and root, well on control and also on conduct by manures den. Biomassa allocation percentage in plant organ that is given manures greater crib than deep plant organ on conduct manures henhouse, goat den manure and control. Biomassa allocation most little on organ comes to root with percentage most little on conduct manures crib then on henhouse manure and supreme on goat den manure.

  17. Transuranic distribution beneath a retired underground disposal facility, Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Past liquid waste disposal practices at the Hanford Site included the discharge of solutions containing low-level concentrations of transuranics directly to the ground via structures collectively termed cribs. A study was conducted to determine the present spatial distribution of plutonium and americium beneath the retired 216-Z-1A Crib, which contains one of the highest cumulative plutonium inventories, 57 kilograms. Sixteen shallow wells were drilled in the unsaturated sediments underlying the facility using specialized, totally contained drilling techniques. Samples from each well were analyzed to obtain profiles of both sediment type and plutonium and americium concentrations as a function of depth beneath the facility. The results of the study show that the highest concentration of plutonium (>104 nCi/g of sediment) occurs within the first 3 meters of sediment beneath the central distribution pipe. The high activity at this position is tentatively attributed to the removal of solid particles from the waste stream by sediment filtration. The distributions of plutonium and americium in the sediments are similar. Peak transuranic activity in the sediment profile is generally associated with silt lenses or with major sedimentary unit interfaces (ie, sand to gravel). The maximum vertical extent of transuranic activity found is approximately 30 meters below the bottom of the crib or approximately 25 meters above the regional water table. No contamination greater than the instrumental limit of detection of 10-5 nCi/g of sediment was found from a depth of 30 to 40 meters, the maximum depth of sampling

  18. Spectrally Enhanced Lighting Program Implementation for Energy Savings: Field Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Kelly L.; Sullivan, Gregory P.; Armstrong, Peter R.; Richman, Eric E.; Matzke, Brett D.

    2006-08-22

    This report provides results from an evaluation PNNL conducted of a spectrally enhanced lighting demonstration project. PNNL performed field measurements and occupant surveys at three office buildings in California before and after lighting retrofits were made in August and December 2005. PNNL measured the following Overhead lighting electricity demand and consumption, Light levels in the workspace, Task lighting use, and Occupant ratings of satisfaction with the lighting. Existing lighting, which varied in each building, was replaced with lamps with correlated color temperature (CCT) of 5000 Kelvin, color rendering index (CRI) of 85, of varying wattages, and lower ballast factor electronic ballasts. The demonstrations were designed to decrease lighting power loads in the three buildings by 22-50 percent, depending on the existing installed lamps and ballasts. The project designers hypothesized that this reduction in electrical loads could be achieved by the change to higher CCT lamps without decreasing occupant satisfaction with the lighting.

  19. Experimental Study on A Pendulum Wave Energy Converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Shou-qiang; YE Jia-wei; WANG Dong-jiao; LIANG Fu-lin

    2013-01-01

    Many of the existing wave energy converters (WEC) are of oscillating water column (OWC) and point absorber (PA) types.Fewer references have been published in public on the pendulum type WEC.A series of experimental tests on a bottom-hinged pendulum WEC model are carried out and some results are revealed in the present study.The purpose of this paper is to present a detailed description of the tests.It is found that wave energy conversion efficiency varies with the applied damping and wave conditions.In addition,special attention is given to the effect of the water ballast on the efficiency of the wave energy converter.It is demonstrated that the ballast plays an important role in energy extraction.Better understanding on how the performance of the device is influenced by damping,wave height,wave period and ballast is shown.

  20. Corrosion characteristics of steel in seawater containing various chloride concentrations generated by electrochemical method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seong-Jong KIM; Seok-Ki JANG

    2009-01-01

    The electro-clean system (ECS), a ballast water management system that eliminates harmful aquatic organisms in ship ballast water via electrochemically produced chloride, was developed. The current density for potentiostatic experiments subjected to seawater with an applied potential (-0.1 V) at various TRC concentrations (2×10-6, 6×10-6, 10×10-6, and 15×10-6) have similar results. The current density at -0.1 V has the highest value compared with that at -0.7 V and -0.4 V. For all concentrations, the current density increases with increasing applied potential.

  1. Utilization of washery dirt and mine refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leininger, D.; Schieder, T.

    1975-10-02

    Washery dirt and mine refuse may be used without processing as road ballast, embankments and dykes, and for filling gravel pits and subsidence areas. The properties required in road ballast are outlined. For the top portions of embankments and for frost protection layers, washery dirt must be processed to remove particles of the wrong size. Methods of heat treatment are listed, and the chemical composition of the dirt is discussed. Because of its different chemical composition, large particles are preferable to fine dirt for some applications, even if they have to be crushed. Tree planting experiments on spoilbanks are described.

  2. Treatment of Invasive Marine Species on Board by Using Micro-gap Discharge Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A pilot-scale experiment of 20 t/h for the treatment of ship's ballast water is reexperiment, the rate of destroying bacteria, mono-algae, protozoan reached 100% within 2.67 s.The effect of hydroxyl radicals on biochemical processes was also studied. The attenuation rate of photosynthesis pigment was 100%. And the main reason for the cells' death was the strong destruction of the monose, amylose, protein, DNA and RNA in the cells. As an advanced oxidation method, the procedure can destroy invasive marine species when a ship is in the process of discharging its ballast water.

  3. Merchant ships discharging unwanted marine species in close proximity of a French aquaculture area: risks involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Daniel; Thomas, Gerard; Genauzeau, Sylvie; Le Moine, Olivier; Derrien, Annick

    2013-12-15

    The most important oyster farming area in Europe is in a close proximity of two medium size merchant ports. Cargo ships deballast in this area before loading, releasing unwanted or noxious marine species. During a sampling campaign aboard these arriving ships, we found in some ballast water samples a huge number of potentially toxic dinoflagellates and some potentially pathogenic bacteria. A model was applied to find the potential geographical spread of the discharged ballast water. This model predicts the water to reach highly vulnerable shellfish farmed areas in six to eight days. PMID:24210010

  4. Dynamic analysis of rail transit elevated bridge with ladder track

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He XIA; Yushu DENG; Yongwei ZOU; Guido DE ROECK; Geert DEGRANDE

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a dynamic analysis model of an elevated bridge with ladder tracks under moving train load is established. The whole process of a train running through an elevated bridge at different speeds is simulated.The dynamic responses of the elevated bridge with ladder track and the running safety and comfort index of train vehicles are evaluated. Compared with the dynamic responses of an elevated bridge with ordinary non-ballasted slab track, the ladder track's effect on reducing the vibration of an elevated bridge is analyzed. The analysis results show that the ladder track has good vibration reduction characteristics as compared to ordinary non-ballasted track.

  5. Distribution and status of marine invasive species in and bordering the West Coast National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B. Robinson

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available On a global scale, species are constantly being moved from their areas of origin to new locales. Such range extensions can occur naturally, but are frequently aided (intentionally or non-intentionally by humans (Mack et al. 2000. As a result, the marked world-wide increase in animal, plant, and microbial immigrations, has been found to roughly track the increase in human commerce (Mack et al. 2000. The principal vectors of human-mediated marine invasions are ballast water (Williams et al. 1988, mariculture (Minchin 1996, sediment held in ballast tanks (Carlton 1985, and ship hull fouling (Minchin 1996.

  6. Tank 241-Z-361 process and characterization history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.A.

    1998-08-06

    An Unreviewed Safety Question (Wagoner, 1997) was declared based on lack of adequate authorization basis for Tank 241-Z-361 in the 200W Area at Hanford. This document is a summary of the history of Tank 241-Z-361 through December 1997. Documents reviewed include engineering files, laboratory notebooks from characterization efforts, waste facility process procedures, supporting documents and interviews of people`s recollections of over twenty years ago. Records of transfers into the tank, past characterization efforts, and speculation were used to estimate the current condition of Tank 241-Z-361 and its contents. Information about the overall waste system as related to the settling tank was included to help in understanding the numbering system and process relationships. The Plutonium Finishing Plant was built in 1948 and began processing plutonium in mid-1949. The Incinerator (232-Z) operated from December 1961 until May 1973. The Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF, 236-Z) began operation in May 1964. The Waste Treatment Facility (242-Z) operated from August 1964 until August 1976. Waste from some processes went through transfer lines to 241-Z sump tanks. High salt and organic waste under normal operation were sent to Z-9 or Z-18 cribs. Water from the retention basin may have also passed through this tank. The transfer lines to 241-Z were numbered D-4 to D-6. The 241-Z sump tanks were numbered D-4 through D-8. The D-4, 5, and 8 drains went to the D-6 sump tank. When D-6 tank was full it was transferred to D-7 tank. Prior to transfer to cribs, the D-7 tank contents was sampled. If the plutonium content was analyzed to be more than 10 g per batch, the material was (generally) reprocessed. Below the discard limit, caustic was added and the material was sent to the cribs via the 241-Z-361 settling tank where solids settled out and the liquid overflowed by gravity to the cribs. Waste liquids that passed through the 241-Z-361 settling tank flowed from PFP to ground in

  7. The Buffer and Backfill Handbook. Part 2: Materials and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Roland [Geodevelopment AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2001-12-01

    Improved technology and prospection yielding more pure and homogeneous raw materials for preparing buffers and backfills will ultimately outdate the clays and ballast materials described in the present part of the Handbook. It describes experimentally investigated materials of potential use in repositories but other, more suitable materials will replace them in the future. The Handbook will hence have to be reviewed regularly, making room for superior materials in future, upgraded Handbook versions. Buffer is the term for dense clay used for embedment of canisters with highly radioactive waste, while backfill is soil used for filling tunnels and shafts in repositories. Examples of soil materials of potential use as buffers and backfills in repositories of KBS-3 type are described in this part of the Handbook. They are: smectitic clay materials intended for preparation of buffers (canister-embedding clay) and used as clay component in artificially prepared tunnel and shaft backfills consisting of mixtures of clay and ballast. Ballast materials intended for backfilling of tunnels and shafts and used as components of artificially prepared backfills. Smectitic natural clay soils intended for use as buffers and backfills. Very fine-grained smectite clay used as grout for sealing rock fractures. In this part of the Handbook for Buffers and Backfills, description of various candidate materials will be made with respect to their mineral composition and physical properties, with respect to the groundwater chemistry that can be expected in a deep repository in Swedish bedrock. Chapter 3 deals with smectitic clay materials intended for embedment of heat-producing canisters with highly radioactive waste. Focus is on the nature of the buffer constituents, i. e. the smectite content, the non-expanding clay minerals colloidal and the accessory non-clay minerals as well as amorphous matter and organic substances. The dominant part of the chapter describes the occurrence and origin

  8. The Buffer and Backfill Handbook. Part 2: Materials and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improved technology and prospection yielding more pure and homogeneous raw materials for preparing buffers and backfills will ultimately outdate the clays and ballast materials described in the present part of the Handbook. It describes experimentally investigated materials of potential use in repositories but other, more suitable materials will replace them in the future. The Handbook will hence have to be reviewed regularly, making room for superior materials in future, upgraded Handbook versions. Buffer is the term for dense clay used for embedment of canisters with highly radioactive waste, while backfill is soil used for filling tunnels and shafts in repositories. Examples of soil materials of potential use as buffers and backfills in repositories of KBS-3 type are described in this part of the Handbook. They are: smectitic clay materials intended for preparation of buffers (canister-embedding clay) and used as clay component in artificially prepared tunnel and shaft backfills consisting of mixtures of clay and ballast. Ballast materials intended for backfilling of tunnels and shafts and used as components of artificially prepared backfills. Smectitic natural clay soils intended for use as buffers and backfills. Very fine-grained smectite clay used as grout for sealing rock fractures. In this part of the Handbook for Buffers and Backfills, description of various candidate materials will be made with respect to their mineral composition and physical properties, with respect to the groundwater chemistry that can be expected in a deep repository in Swedish bedrock. Chapter 3 deals with smectitic clay materials intended for embedment of heat-producing canisters with highly radioactive waste. Focus is on the nature of the buffer constituents, i. e. the smectite content, the non-expanding clay minerals colloidal and the accessory non-clay minerals as well as amorphous matter and organic substances. The dominant part of the chapter describes the occurrence and origin

  9. Bivalve aquaculture transfers in Atlantic Europe. Part B: Environmental impacts of transfer activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenner, M.; Fraser, D.; Nieuwenhove, van K.; Kamermans, P.

    2014-01-01

    For centuries human populations have moved live shellfish around the world for consumption or aquaculture purposes; being relayed from their area of origin for growout or sale. This is in contrast to the inadvertent anthropogenic spreading of species via e.g. ballast waters. There are inherent risks

  10. Riding the Sea and Chasing the Wave Chinese Ceramics Sold to Europe in the Ming and Qing Dynasties(II)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正Orders from Europe: Features of Chinese Export Porcelain Chinese porcelain was first imported to Europe by Portuguese traders. However, the glossy ware was not supposed to be profitable and was bought as ballast for silk, lacquer ware, spice, and other dearly cargos.

  11. 77 FR 55482 - Public Workshop on Marine Technology and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... ballast water treatment systems Regulatory and classification society updates and other ``hot topics... Natural Gas (CNG) and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)) Retrofit of legacy engines Wastewater treatment system..., July 25, 2013. The deadline for advance registration is Monday, July, 1, 2013. If you are interested...

  12. 33 CFR 151.15 - Reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Oil Pollution § 151.15 Reporting requirements. (a) The... instantaneous rate permitted in §§ 151.10 or 151.13 of this chapter, or NLS in bulk, in 46 CFR 153.1126 or...

  13. 33 CFR 151.08 - Denial of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships General § 151.08 Denial of entry. (a) Unless a ship is... prewashed under 46 CFR part 153, may enter any port or terminal under § 158.110(a) of this chapter...

  14. Biogeochemical significance of transport exopolymer particles in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Ramaiah, N.; Gauns, M.; DeSousa, S.N.

    sub-oxic layers in the Arabian Sea. Results support the mineral ballast theory in the Bay of Bengal and also reveal the hitherto not noticed organic matter reservoir, which seems to be in surplus, to meet the higher carbon demand by bacteria...

  15. 33 CFR 151.17 - Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER... International Oil Pollution Prevention (IOPP) Certificate on board and to which this part applies, except as... that the oily-water separating equipment and associated pumps and piping systems remain...

  16. 33 CFR 158.120 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... as cargo tank washings, oily waste, and oily refuse); (3) Oil residue; and (4) Oily ballast water... Guard form USCG-CG-5401C. “Garbage” means all kinds of victual, domestic, and operational waste... least 60 mPa.s at the time it is unloaded. MARPOL 73/78 means the International Convention for...

  17. 78 FR 26935 - Data Requirements for Antimicrobial Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... be about $588,000 for wood preservatives, $284,000 for food and indirect food uses, and $260,000 for... (NAICS 32532), antifoulants (NAICS 32551), antimicrobial pesticides (NAICS 32561) or wood preservatives... antimicrobial, antifoulant coating, ballast water treatment, or wood preservative pesticide or to obtain...

  18. Experimental study of the effect of high porewater salinity on the physical properties of a natural smectitic clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Roland [Geodevelopment AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    Natural smectitic clays for backfilling tunnels and shafts in deep repositories may be an alternative to mixtures of bentonite and ballast. Very salt groundwater is known to raise the hydraulic conductivity and reduce the expandability of clay materials in general and of bentonite/ballast mixtures in particular and the present study aimed at determining the impact of salt water on the major physical properties of natural smectitic clays, represented by the German Friedland Ton. The investigation showed that the compactability of the investigated clay is not significantly affected by the water content in contrast to bentonite/ballast fills, and that the conductivity and expandability are acceptable even at salt contents of up to 20 % if the bulk density at saturation is slightly higher than 2000 kg/m{sup 3} . For salt contents up to 3. 5 % the corresponding density is around 1900 kg/m{sup 3}. In general, the investigated clay offers better physical properties than mixtures of bentonite/ballast mixtures with up to 30 % bentonite content.

  19. High purity limestone quest

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Clive

    2011-01-01

    Limestone probably has the largest number of commercial applications of all the industrial minerals. These include construction (aggregate, rail ballast and dimension stone), mineral fillers (in paper, paint, plastic, rubber and pharmaceuticals), adhesives, abrasives, fertilisers, food additives, environmental applications (acidity neutralisation, flue gas desulphurisation, soil conditioning and stabilisation), and production of cement, lime and calcium chemicals. ‘High-purity’ limestone i...

  20. 14 CFR 23.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... gravity. 23.29 Section 23.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Flight General § 23.29 Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must be determined by weighing the airplane with— (1) Fixed ballast;...

  1. Oil spill off Goa coast - News

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fondekar, S.P.

    in ballast water, has begun a new phase, following the initial, successful, execution of the five-year $10.2 million pro- ject by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The main objective of the new phase is to assist particularly vulnerable countries...

  2. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ve cleared off the aorta up to the level of the renal vessels and the second and third parts of the duodenum. And just using instruments to open up this endo bag to store the lymph nodes in. And Sara is going to do a little bit of a water ballast there to keep that in the pelvis ...

  3. GPR Laboratory Tests For Railways Materials Dielectric Properties Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca De Chiara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In railways Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR studies, the evaluation of materials dielectric properties is critical as they are sensitive to water content, to petrographic type of aggregates and to fouling condition of the ballast. Under the load traffic, maintenance actions and climatic effects, ballast condition change due to aggregate breakdown and to subgrade soils pumping, mainly on existing lines with no sub ballast layer. The main purpose of this study was to validate, under controlled conditions, the dielectric values of materials used in Portuguese railways, in order to improve the GPR interpretation using commercial software and consequently the management maintenance planning. Different materials were tested and a broad range of in situ conditions were simulated in laboratory, in physical models. GPR tests were performed with five antennas with frequencies between 400 and 1800 MHz. The variation of the dielectric properties was measured, and the range of values that can be obtained for different material condition was defined. Additionally, in situ GPR measurements and test pits were performed for validation of the dielectric constant of clean ballast. The results obtained are analyzed and the main conclusions are presented herein.

  4. Feasibility of an appliance energy testing and labeling program for Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermayer, Peter; Busch, John; Hakim, Sajid; Turiel, Issac; du Pont, Peter; Stone, Chris

    2000-04-01

    A feasibility study evaluated the costs and benefits of establishing a program for testing, labeling and setting minimum efficiency standards for appliances and lighting in Sri Lanka. The feasibility study included: refrigerators, air-conditioners, flourescent lighting (ballasts & CFls), ceiling fans, motors, and televisions.

  5. 76 FR 24043 - Buy American Exceptions Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ..., 2009) (Recovery Act), and implementing guidance of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), this... installation of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and energy efficient fluorescent electronic light ballasts for... published on April 23, 2009 (74 FR 18449), this notice advises the public that, on April 1, 2011,...

  6. Numerical Study on the Effect of Buffer Bow Structure in Ship-to-ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Endo, Hisayoshi; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2005-01-01

    a very large crude oil carrier (VLCC) in ballast condition collides with the midship region of a D/H VLCC in a laden condition. Fracture of fillet welds, elastic-plastic material properties and strain rate effects, are taken into account in the simulations. The effect of the equivalent failure strain (FS...

  7. The role of the invasive bivalve Ensis directus as food source for fish and birds in the Dutch coastal zone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulp, I.Y.M.; Craeymeersch, J.A.M.; Leopold, M.F.; Damme, van C.J.G.; Fey-Hofstede, F.E.; Verdaat, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    The razor clam Ensis directus was introduced to Europe presumably as larvae in ballast water around 1978. Starting in the German Bight it spread northward and southward along the continental coastline. Currently it is the most common shellfish species in the Dutch coastal zone, where it mainly occur

  8. 33 CFR 150.15 - What must the operations manual include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... personnel responsible for managing and carrying out the following port activities and functions: (1) Vessel... managing cargo transfers, including ballasting operations if applicable to the port, in accordance with... response teams for specific contingencies. (w) Individual and team training for incident response,...

  9. 17.5万吨散货船布置特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶颖

    2003-01-01

    The first 175000dwt bulk carrier of environment friendly type is designed and built by Waigaoqiao Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. It was delivered in June this year and is also the biggest bulk carrier ever designed and constructed by China itself by now. This paper describes the major characteristics of the arrangements on its fuel tanks and ballast tanks etc.

  10. Air Structures: Inflatable Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Joseph M.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Describes and evaluates several avant garde'' examples of air structures. Included are a soft'' child's playpen, a pneudome that employs a water ballast for anchoring, a one-acre enclosed campus, an instant city'' constructed for an industrial design conference, and the Fuji Pavilion, at Expo '70 in Osaka, Japan, that was large enough to cover…

  11. Historical invasions of the intertidal zone of Atlantic North America associated with distinctive patterns of trade and emigration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brawley, S.H.; Coyer, J.A.; Blakeslee, A.M.H.; Hoarau, G.G.; Johnson, L.E.; Byers, J.E.; Stam, W.T.; Olsen, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Early invasions of the North American shore occurred mainly via deposition of ballast rock, which effectively transported pieces of the intertidal zone across the Atlantic. From 1773- 1861, > 880 European ships entered Pictou Harbor, Nova Scotia, as a result of emigration and trade from Europe. The

  12. 49 CFR 1039.11 - Miscellaneous commodities exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ......do Gravel (aggregate or ballast). 20 ......do Food or kindred products except 20 143 Grease or..., concrete, glass or stone products except 32 411 Hydraulic cement, natural, portland or masonry. 32 741 Lime... this Board. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 1039.11, see the List of...

  13. 46 CFR 10.107 - Definitions in subchapter B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... officer. Ballast control operator or BCO means an officer restricted to service on mobile offshore... 13 only, means a person designated as such under 29 CFR 1915.7. Conviction means that the applicant... attend classes, make contributions of time or money, receive treatment, submit to any manner of...

  14. 77 FR 15298 - Rule Concerning Disclosures Regarding Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ..., 1987) (central air conditioners and heat pumps); 54 FR 28031 (Jul. 5, 1989) (fluorescent lamp ballasts..., refrigerators, and refrigerator- freezers), room air conditioners, and water heaters. The examination did not... leave labels unattached when shipping units. \\26\\ 72 FR 49948 (Aug. 27, 2007). C. Room Air...

  15. 33 CFR 158.240 - Ship repair yards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship repair yards. 158.240... Facilities: Oily Mixtures § 158.240 Ship repair yards. The reception facility that services oceangoing ships using a ship repair yard must have a capacity for receiving— (a) An amount of ballast from bunker...

  16. 19 CFR 10.59 - Exemption from customs duties and internal-revenue tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 1930, as amended, for which class of trade the vessel is suitable and substantially ready for service... already installed on its departure in ballast for service in a class of trade specified in section 309 and... vessels of 5 net tons or over may be allowed to withdraw distilled spirits (including alcohol), wines,...

  17. Indications of marine bioinvasion from network theory. An analysis of the global cargo ship network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kölzsch, A.; Blasius, B.

    2011-01-01

    The transport of huge amounts of small aquatic organisms in the ballast tanks and at the hull of large cargo ships leads to ever increasing rates of marine bioinvasion. In this study, we apply a network theoretic approach to examine the introduction of invasive species into new ports by global shipp

  18. 33 CFR 156.120 - Requirements for transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; except when used to receive or discharge ballast in compliance with 33 CFR part 157; (i) Each transfer...; (v) At least one person is at the site of the transfer operation who fluently speaks the language or languages spoken by both persons in charge; (w) The person in charge of the transfer on the...

  19. 出口沙特石碴漏斗车研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟

    2011-01-01

    Described are the technical parameters, main features, main structure, calculation and testing of ballast hopper cars exported to Saudi Arabia.%介绍了出口沙特石碴漏斗车的技术参数、主要特点、主要结构、计算及试验情况.

  20. 10 CFR 431.326 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy conservation standards and their effective dates. 431.326 Section 431.326 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Metal Halide Lamp Ballasts and Fixtures Energy...

  1. 10 CFR 431.286 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy conservation standards and their effective dates. 431.286 Section 431.286 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Mercury Vapor Lamp Ballasts Energy Conservation...

  2. 46 CFR 56.01-10 - Plan approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....) (xii) Cargo piping. (xiii) Hot water heating systems if the temperature is greater than 121 °C(250 °F... ballast piping. (vii) Tank cleaning piping. (viii) Condenser circulating water piping. (ix) Vent, sound and overflow piping. (x) Sanitary drains, soil drains, deck drains, and overboard discharge...

  3. 33 CFR 157.49 - Instruction manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Instruction manual. 157.49... Vessel Operation § 157.49 Instruction manual. The master of a tank vessel shall ensure that the instruction manual under § 157.23 is available and used when the cargo or ballast systems are operated....

  4. The Status of Benthos in Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benthic community of Lake Ontario was dominated by an amphipod (Diporeia spp.) prior to the 1990’s. Two dreissenid mussel species D. polymorpha (zebra) and D. bugensis (quagga) were introduced in 1989 and 1991 via ballast water exchange. D. bugensis was observed as deep as 85...

  5. 77 FR 1942 - Collection of Information Under Review by Office of Management and Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ..., Course Approval and Records for Merchant Marine Training Schools and 1625-0069, Ballast Water Management... approved collection. Respondents: Merchant marine training schools. Abstract: The information is needed to ensure that merchant marine training schools meet minimal statutory requirements. The information is...

  6. 76 FR 68772 - Information Collection Requests to Office of Management and Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... Records for Merchant Marine Training Schools and 1625-0069, Ballast Water Management for Vessels with...: Course Approval and Records for Merchant Marine Training Schools. OMB Control Number: 1625-0028. Summary: The information is needed to ensure that merchant marine training schools meet minimal...

  7. 21 CFR 1040.30 - High-intensity mercury vapor discharge lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mercury and that is contained within an outer envelope. (2) Advertisement means any catalog, specification... ballast is an inductive reactor designed to have the operating characteristics as listed in Section 7 in... advertisement. Advertising for any high-intensity mercury vapor discharge lamp that does not comply...

  8. 46 CFR 119.500 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General. 119.500 Section 119.500 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems §...

  9. TRADABLE RISK PERMITS TO PREVENT FUTURE INTRODUCTIONS OF ALIEN INVASIVE SPECIES INTO THE GREAT LAKES

    OpenAIRE

    Horan, Richard D.; Lupi, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Alien invasive species contribute to biodiversity loss and cause billions of dollars of economic damage in the Great Lakes. We examine the design and efficiency of a tradeable permit system for biological pollution due to alien species that invade the Great Lakes through the ballast water of commercial ships.

  10. 26 CFR 1.45G-1 - Railroad track maintenance credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... accounts in 49 CFR Part 1201, Subpart A: (i) Property Account 3, Grading. (ii) Property Account 4, Other... following STB property accounts in 49 CFR Part 1201, Subpart A: (A) Property Account 3, Grading; (B... other track material), and 11 (ballast) in 49 CFR part 1201, Subpart A. Double track is treated...

  11. 46 CFR 169.642 - Vital systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vital systems— (a) A marine engineering system identified by the OCMI as being crucial to the survival... feet in length— (1) Bilge system; (2) Ballast system; (3) Fire protection system; (4) Fuel oil system; and (5) Steering and steering control system. Bilge Systems...

  12. The Pivotal Role of Education in the Association between Ability and Social Class Attainment: A Look across Three Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendy; Brett, Caroline E.; Deary, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have established that family social background and individual mental ability and educational attainment contribute to adult social class attainment. We propose that social class of origin acts as ballast, restraining otherwise meritocratic social class movement, and that education is the primary means through which social class…

  13. The effect of low temperatures on the toxicity of PERACLEAN Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaag, N.H.B.M.; Sneekes, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Ballast water treatment systems are routinely tested for efficacy and residual toxicity at spring and summer temperatures in temperate areas, as that is the period when biological production is sufficiently high to match IMO testing requirements (guideline G8). Shipping, however, continues throughou

  14. Dynamic Axle Loads as a Main Source of Railway Track Degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, M.J.M.M.; De Jong, E.; Zoeteman, A.

    2015-01-01

    During train operation, geometrical irregularities develop in soil-supported ballasted railway tracks as a function of born tonnage. This form of degradation is combatted by periodic maintenance in the form of tamping by specially equipped trains in order to guarantee predefined levels of structural

  15. 46 CFR 154.7 - Definitions, acronyms, and terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... building contract, has a keel laid or is at a similar stage of construction after December 31, 1976; (c) Is... isolating space between two adjacent steel bulkheads or decks, which could be a void space or a ballast... Carriage of Liquefied Gases in Bulk issued under the IMO— (a) “Code for the Construction and Equipment...

  16. Latest developments of a tire-derived aggregate underlayment to reduce groundborne vibration from light rail transit track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Steven

    2005-09-01

    Groundborne vibration reduction for light rail transit (LRT) tracks usually takes the form of some type of soft or special track fastener, or a type of isolation system built under or incorporated as part of the track structure. Two well-known types of track isolation systems are the ballast mat and the floating slab trackbed. A more recent and less-expensive type of track isolation system involves tire-derived aggregate (TDA or shredded scrap tires) used as an underlayment beneath ballast and tie tracks. Field tests have been performed to determine the vibration attenuation and damping properties of TDA for use beneath rail lines and other possible applications. The most recent tests were conducted at an existing LRT system with the trains operating at speed on several sections of revenue ballast and tie track, and where the TDA was installed under ballast and tie rail transit track. Details of the field tests are presented with a focus on the most recent test results, which indicate the performance of the TDA underlayment in comparison with other track isolation methods.

  17. Exotic harmful algae in marine ecosystems : an integrated biological-economic-legal analysis of impacts and policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, JCJM; Nunes, PALD; Dotinga, HM; Kooistra, WHCF; Vrieling, EG; Peperzak, L

    2002-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are the cause of important damages to marine living resources and human beings. HABs are generated by micro-algae. These marine species are primarily introduced through ballast water of ships and, to a lesser extent, through import of living fish, in particular shellfish.

  18. 16 CFR 305.15 - Labeling for lighting products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... which standards are applicable under section 325 of the Act, shall be marked conspicuously, in color-contrasting ink, with a capital letter “E” printed within a circle. Packaging for such fluorescent lamp ballasts, as well as packaging for luminaires into which they are incorporated, shall also be...

  19. 77 FR 5614 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Maritime Labour Convention, 2006; Development of guidelines on port State control under the 2004 Ballast... this meeting up to the seating capacity of the room. To facilitate the building security process, and... made after March 7, 2012 might not be able to be accommodated. Please note that due to...

  20. 75 FR 27856 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... Maritime Labour Convention, 2006; --Development of guidelines on port State control under the 2004 Ballast... of the room. To facilitate the building security process and to request reasonable accommodation... be accommodated. Please note that due to security considerations, two valid, government issued...

  1. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 625 - Standard Sales Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Oil, Noxious Liquid Substances, Garbage, Municipal or Commercial Waste, and Ballast Water (33 CFR part... Louisiana and Texas responsible for the operation of the SPR. Purchaser. The term “purchaser” means any... Energy Policy and Conservation Act, 42 U.S.C. 6201, as amended. Vessel. The term “vessel” means...

  2. Improving work load and comfort of operators on modified hydraulic excavators in rail road maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grinten, M.P. van der; Houtman, I.I.D.

    2000-01-01

    In small-scale projects of mechanized maintenance of rail roads special equipped hydraulic excavators (HE) are used in several maintenance tasks. One task concerns the exchange of the old crossbars and ballast under the rails by new materials (MCE-task). This task requires high precision of the HE-o

  3. 15 CFR 762.2 - Records to be retained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Export clearance; (31) § 754.2(j)(3), Recordkeeping requirements for deep water ballast exchange. (32... minimis calculation (method). (c) Special recordkeeping requirement—(1) Libya. Persons in receipt of a... the export to Libya of any item subject to the EAR must maintain a record of those items...

  4. 16 CFR 305.10 - Ranges of comparability on the required labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the introduction of a new or changed model, the manufacturer shall: (1) Omit placement of such product... efficiency ratings for each covered product (except fluorescent lamp ballasts, metal halide lamp fixtures... appropriate appendix to this part in effect at the time the labels are affixed to the product. The...

  5. 76 FR 15302 - Nationwide Categorical Waivers Under Section 1605 (Buy American) of the American Recovery and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ..., Public Law 1115 (Recovery Act) under the authority of section 1605(b)(2) [iron, steel, and the relevant... Circuit Interrupt (GFCI) Receptacles; Pendant Bar Light Fixture; 24'' Bath Vanity Light Fixture; Pendant... Ballast & Satin Aluminum Finish); 48'' Bath Vanity Light Fixture; 20'' Utility Shelf Bracket;...

  6. Simplified Analysis Tool for Ship-Ship Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2007-01-01

    to the collision scenario thatwhere a VLCC in ballast condition collides perpendicularly with the mid part of another D/H VLCC in fully loaded condition. The results obtained from the present tool are compared with those obtained by large scale FEA, and fairy good agreements are achieved. The applicability......, limitation and future enhancement of the present tool are discussed in detail....

  7. Numerical investigation of piled raft foundation in mitigating embankment vibrations induced by high-speed trains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付强; 刘汉龙; 丁选明; 郑长杰

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional dynamic finite element model of track-ballast-embankment and piled raft foundation system is established. Dynamic response of a railway embankment to a high-speed train is simulated for two cases: soft ground improved by piled raft foundation, and untreated soft ground. The obtained results are compared both in time domain and frequency domain to evaluate the effectiveness of the ground improvement in mitigating the embankment vibrations induced by high-speed trains. The results show that ground improving methods can significantly reduce the embankment vibrations at all considered train speeds(36-432 km/h). The ground response to a moving load is dictated largely by the relationship between load speed and characteristic value of wave velocities of the ground medium. At low speeds, the ground response from a moving load is essentially quasi-static. That is, the displacements fields are essential the static fields under the load simply moving with it. For the soft ground, the displacement on the ballast surface is large at all observed train speeds. For the model case where the ground is improved by piled raft foundation, the peak displacement is reduced at all considered train speeds compared with the case without ground improvement. Based on the effect of energy-dissipating of ballast-embankment-ground system with damping, the train-induced vibration waves moving in ballast and embankment are trapped and dissipated, and thus the vibration amplitudes of dynamic displacement outside the embankment are significantly reduced. But for the vibration amplitude of dynamic velocity, the vibration waves in embankment are absorbed or reflected back, and the velocity amplitudes at the ballast and embankment surface are enhanced. For the change of the vibration character of embankment and ballast, the bearing capacity and dynamic character are improved. Therefore, both of the static and dynamic displacements are reduced by ground improvement; the dynamic

  8. Numerical investigation of piled raft foundation in mitigating embankment vibrations induced by high-speed trains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付强; 刘汉龙; 丁选明; 郑长杰

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional dynamic finite element model of track-ballast-embankment and piled raft foundation system is established. Dynamic response of a railway embankment to a high-speed train is simulated for two cases: soft ground improved by piled raft foundation, and untreated soft ground. The obtained results are compared both in time domain and frequency domain to evaluate the effectiveness of the ground improvement in mitigating the embankment vibrations induced by high-speed trains. The results show that ground improving methods can significantly reduce the embankment vibrations at all considered train speeds (36− 432 km/h). The ground response to a moving load is dictated largely by the relationship between load speed and characteristic value of wave velocities of the ground medium. At low speeds, the ground response from a moving load is essentially quasi-static. That is, the displacements fields are essential the static fields under the load simply moving with it. For the soft ground, the displacement on the ballast surface is large at all observed train speeds. For the model case where the ground is improved by piled raft foundation, the peak displacement is reduced at all considered train speeds compared with the case without ground improvement. Based on the effect of energy-dissipating of ballast-embankment-ground system with damping, the train-induced vibration waves moving in ballast and embankment are trapped and dissipated, and thus the vibration amplitudes of dynamic displacement outside the embankment are significantly reduced. But for the vibration amplitude of dynamic velocity, the vibration waves in embankment are absorbed or reflected back, and the velocity amplitudes at the ballast and embankment surface are enhanced. For the change of the vibration character of embankment and ballast, the bearing capacity and dynamic character are improved. Therefore, both of the static and dynamic displacements are reduced by ground improvement; the dynamic

  9. Experimental monitoring of geotechnical response of railway track systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsabhan, Abdullah H.

    An important issue that compromises rail track operations and safety is ballast fouling. Ballast fouling may lead to track deformation, reduction of track load capacity and train speed, and ultimately train derailment. This problem is quite costly for the railway industry thus, assessing and controlling ballast fouling and then preventing train derailment while optimizing maintenance operation is very important for reducing the overall cost of freight and passenger transportation. This study presents a proposed holistic methodology that extends assessing fouling while monitoring rail track deformation. The techniques uses deformation monitoring instruments (e.g., fiber optic (FO) sensors and LVDTs) coupled with Electromagnetic (EM) surveying: Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and a time domain reflectometry (TDR). The methodology aims at gathering data to create an early warning system that would allow railway engineers to develop a symptomatic approach to ballast maintenance procedures. This proposed methodology was tested on a full scale track model (FSTM). This model comprises 2.45 m rail supported by five ties embedded in ballast layer that was fouled under controlled conditions. The testing program considered three common types of fouling: mineral fouling, clay fouling, and silica sand fouling. A comparison between rail settlement measurements measured by LVDTs and rail bending strain measurement measured by FO sensors showed that FO sensors do not provide an indication of track deterioration due to cyclic loading, moisture content, and fouling depth. In addition, results showed a high correlation between rate of plastic settlement and amount of fouling detected by EM survey. Experimental results also showed that EM survey results can be used to determine depth and type of fouling.

  10. Infant Safe Sleep Interventions, 1990-2015: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salm Ward, Trina C; Balfour, Giselle M

    2016-02-01

    Sleep-related infant deaths remain a major public health issue. Multiple interventions have been implemented in efforts to increase adherence to safe sleep recommendations. We conducted a systematic review of the international research literature to synthesize research on interventions to reduce the risk of sleep-related deaths and their effectiveness in changing infant sleep practices. We searched PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar for peer-reviewed articles published between 1990 and 2015 which described an intervention and reported results. Twenty-nine articles were included for review. Studies focused on infant caregivers, health care professionals, peers, and child care professionals. Targeted behaviors included sleep position, location, removing items from the crib, breastfeeding, smoke exposure, clothing, pacifier use, and knowledge of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Most articles described multi-faceted interventions, including: one-on-one or group education, printed materials, visual displays, videos, and providing resources such as cribs, pacifiers, wearable blankets, and infant t-shirts. Two described public education campaigns, one used an educative questionnaire, and one encouraged maternal note taking. Health professional interventions included implementing safe sleep policies, in-service training, printed provider materials, eliciting agreement on a Declaration of Safe Sleep Practice, and sharing adherence data. Data collection methods included self-report via surveys and observational crib audits. Over half of the studies utilized comparison groups which helped determine effectiveness. Most articles reported some degree of success in changing some of the targeted behaviors; no studies reported complete adherence to recommendations. Future studies should incorporate rigorous evaluation plans, utilize comparison groups, and collect demographic and collect follow-up data. PMID:26143241

  11. Infant Safe Sleep Interventions, 1990-2015: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salm Ward, Trina C; Balfour, Giselle M

    2016-02-01

    Sleep-related infant deaths remain a major public health issue. Multiple interventions have been implemented in efforts to increase adherence to safe sleep recommendations. We conducted a systematic review of the international research literature to synthesize research on interventions to reduce the risk of sleep-related deaths and their effectiveness in changing infant sleep practices. We searched PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar for peer-reviewed articles published between 1990 and 2015 which described an intervention and reported results. Twenty-nine articles were included for review. Studies focused on infant caregivers, health care professionals, peers, and child care professionals. Targeted behaviors included sleep position, location, removing items from the crib, breastfeeding, smoke exposure, clothing, pacifier use, and knowledge of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Most articles described multi-faceted interventions, including: one-on-one or group education, printed materials, visual displays, videos, and providing resources such as cribs, pacifiers, wearable blankets, and infant t-shirts. Two described public education campaigns, one used an educative questionnaire, and one encouraged maternal note taking. Health professional interventions included implementing safe sleep policies, in-service training, printed provider materials, eliciting agreement on a Declaration of Safe Sleep Practice, and sharing adherence data. Data collection methods included self-report via surveys and observational crib audits. Over half of the studies utilized comparison groups which helped determine effectiveness. Most articles reported some degree of success in changing some of the targeted behaviors; no studies reported complete adherence to recommendations. Future studies should incorporate rigorous evaluation plans, utilize comparison groups, and collect demographic and collect follow-up data.

  12. EhPAK2, a novel p21-activated kinase, is required for collagen invasion and capping in Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Romero, Luis Enrique; de Jesús Almáraz-Barrera, Ma; Díaz-Valencia, Juan Daniel; Rojo-Domínguez, Arturo; Hernandez-Rivas, Rosaura; Vargas, Miguel

    2006-09-01

    p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are a highly conserved family of enzymes that are activated by Rho GTPases. All PAKs contain an N-terminal Cdc42/Rac interacting binding (CRIB) domain, which confers binding to these GTPases, and a C-terminal kinase domain. In addition, some PAKs such as Cla4p, Skm1p and Pak2p contain an N-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and form a distinct group of PAK proteins involved in cell morphology, cell-cycle and gene transcription. Here, we describe a novel p21-activated kinase, denominated EhPAK2, on the parasitic protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. This is the first reported Entamoeba PAK member that contains a N-terminal PH domain and a highly conserved CRIB domain. EhPAK2 CRIB domain shares 29% of amino acid identity and 53% of amino acid homology with these of DdPAKC from Dictyostelium discoideum and Cla4p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and binds in vitro and in vivo to EhRacA GTPase. This domain also possesses the conserved residues His123, Phe134 and Trp141, which are important for the interaction with the effector loop and strand beta2 of the GTPase; and the residues Met121 and Phe145, which are specific for the interaction of EhPAK2 with EhRacA. Functional studies of EhPAK2 showed that its C-terminal kinase domain had activity toward myelin basic protein. Cellular studies showed that Entamoeba trophozoites transfected with the vector pExEhNeo/kinase-myc, had a 90% decrease in the ability to invade a collagen matrix as well as severe defects in capping, suggesting the involvement of EhPAK2 in these cellular processes.

  13. Indirect measurements of reactions in hot p-p chain and CNO cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y. B.; Guo, B.; Jin, S. J.; Li, Z. H.; Binh, D. N.; Hashimoto, H.; Hayakawa, S.; He, J. J.; Hu, J.; Iwasa, N.; Kahl, D. M.; Kubono, S.; Kume, N.; Li, E. T.; Li, Y. J.; Liu, X.; Su, J.; Xu, S. W.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yan, S. Q. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, PO Box 275 (10), Beijing 102413 (China); Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Wako (Japan); Institute of Modern Physics, China Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Department of Physics, Tohoku university, Sendai (Japan); Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Wako (Japan); Department of Physics, Tohoku university, Sendai (Japan); China Institute of Atomic Energy, PO Box 275 (10), Beijing 102413 (China); Institute of Modern Physics, China Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Wako (Japan); China Institute of Atomic Energy, PO Box 275 (10), Beijing 102413 (China); and others

    2012-11-12

    Several reactions have been experimentally studied, including the {sup 12}N(d,n){sup 13}O and the ones induced by the {sup 3}He+{sup 12}C entrance channel. The former was carried out at the CRIB facility of University of Tokyo, aiming to indirectly determine the astrophysical reaction rates of the {sup 12}N(p,{gamma}){sup 13}O reaction. For the {sup 3}He+{sup 12}C entrance channel, many excited states of several nuclei are populated and the angular distribution of each state is being analyzed.

  14. 100-NR-1 Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Units Engineering Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preferred alternative in the proposed plan for the 1301-N and 1325-N Cribs/Trenches (currently undergoing regulatory review) requires the removal and disposal of contaminated material at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) (DOE-RL 1997). Various methods are available for excavation, transportation, and disposal of the material at ERDF. This study will evaluate the issues associated with the various methods, focusing on radiation exposure and safety hazards. Furthermore, the study will develop and compare options to implement the preferred alternative

  15. 200 Areas soil remediation strategy -- Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The remediation and waste management activities in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site (located in Richland, Washington) currently range from remediating groundwater, remediating source units (contaminated soils), decontaminating and decommissioning of buildings and structures, maintaining facilities, managing transuranic, low-level and mixed waste, and operating tank farms that store high-level waste. This strategy focuses on the assessment and remediation of soil that resulted from the discharge of liquids and solids from processing facilities to the ground (e.g., ponds, ditches, cribs, burial grounds) in the 200 Areas and addresses only those waste sites assigned to the Environmental Restoration Program

  16. Permanent isolation surface barrier: Functional performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wing, N.R.

    1993-10-01

    This document presents the functional performance parameters for permanent isolation surface barriers. Permanent isolation surface barriers have been proposed for use at the Hanford Site (and elsewhere) to isolate and dispose of certain types of waste in place. Much of the waste that would be disposed of using in-place isolation techniques is located in subsurface structures, such as solid waste burial grounds, tanks, vaults, and cribs. Unless protected in some way, the wastes could be transported to the accessible environment via transport pathways, such as water infiltration, biointrusion, wind and water erosion, human interference, and/or gaseous release.

  17. Trojan Horse Method and RIBs: The {sup 18}F(p,{alpha}){sup 15}O reaction at astrophysical energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherubini, S.; Gulino, M.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Spitaleri, C.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Kubono, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Hayakawa, S.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Iwasa, N.; Kato, S.; Komatsubara, H.; Teranishi, T.; Coc, A.; De Sereville, N.; Hammache, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Universita di Catania and INFN-LNS, Catania (Italy); INFN-LNS, Catania (Italy) and UniKORE, Enna (Italy)

    2012-11-12

    The abundance of {sup 18}F in Nova explosions is an important issue for the understanding of this astrophysical phenomenon. For this reason it is necessary to study the nuclear reactions that produce or destroy this isotope in novae. Among these latter processes, the {sup 18}F(p,{alpha}){sup 15}O is one of the main {sup 18}F destruction channels. We report here on the preliminary results of the first experiment that applies the Trojan Horse Method to a Radioactive Ion Beam induced reaction. The experiment was performed using the CRIB apparatus of the Center for Nuclear Study of The Tokyo University.

  18. 200 Areas Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Implementation Plan - Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 200 Areas Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Implementation Plan - Environmental Restoration Program (Implementation Plan) addresses approximately 700 soil waste sites (and associated structures such as pipelines) resulting from the discharge of liquids and solids from processing facilities to the ground (e.g., ponds, ditches, cribs,burial grounds) in the 200 Areas and assigned to the Environmental Restoration Program. The Implementation Plan outlines the framework for implementing assessment activities in the 200 Areas to ensure consistency in documentation, level of characterization, and decision making. The Implementation Plan also consolidates background information and other typical work plan materials, to serve as a single referenceable source for this type of information

  19. Severe Anterior Open Bite during Mixed Dentition Treated with Palatal Spurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Mauro Henrique Andrade; de Araújo, Telma Martins; Machado, Andre Wilson

    2016-01-01

    Deleterious oral habits, such as non-nutritive sucking or tongue thrusting, if not intercepted at an early stage can cause complex malocclusions. This manuscript describes a clinical case report of a successful interception of a severe anterior dental open bite caused by thumb sucking and tongue thrusting habits. The case involved a six-year-old female patient treated with the use of palatal spurs and maxillary removable crib followed by monitoring the development of dental occlusion. At the end of the interceptive phase acceptable results were achieved, showing the efficacy of the treatment undertaken as well the importance of an early intervention to remove harmful oral habits.

  20. Radiobiological studies on the angoumois moth sitotroga cerealella (oliv.) (lepidoptera - Celechiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grain in bins or ear corn in storage has small buff moths flying about the bins or cramling rapidly over the surface of the grain when it is disturbed. One or two small round holes are eaten in the kernels of infested corn or in other grain. This insect is the most destructive grain moth occurring in our country casing great damage to corn in cribs and also destroying ripening grain, especially wheat, in the field. The present study deals with the effects of gamma irradiation on the different developmental stages of the angoumois grain moth sitotroga cerealella (olivier) with special reference to the effects of sterilizing dosage on sexual competition