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Sample records for ball milling process

  1. Process intensification effect of ball milling on the hydrothermal pretreatment for corn straw enzymolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Zhengqiu; Long, Jinxing; Wang, Tiejun; Shu, Riyang; Zhang, Qi; Ma, Longlong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel pretreatment of ball milling combined with hydrothermal method was presented. • Intensification effect of ball milling was significant for corn straw enzymolysis. • Ball milling destroyed the physical structure of corn straw. • Chemical (liquid mixture) method removed lignin and hemicellulose. • Glucose yield increased from 0.41 to 13.86 mg mL −1 under the optimized condition. - Abstract: Enhancement of the cellulose accessibility is significant for biomass enzymatic hydrolysis. Here, we reported an efficient combined pretreatment for corn straw enzymolysis using ball milling and dilute acid hydrothermal method (a mixture solvent of H 2 O/ethanol/sulfuric acid/hydrogen peroxide liquid). The process intensification effect of ball milling on the pretreatment of the corn straw was studied through the comparative characterization of the physical–chemical properties of the raw and pretreated corn straw using FT-IR, BET, XRD, SEM, and HPLC analysis. The effect of the pretreatment temperature was also investigated. Furthermore, various pretreatment methods were compared as well. Moreover, the pretreatment performance was measured by enzymolysis. The results showed that ball milling had a significant process intensification effect on the corn straw enzymolysis. The glucose concentration was dramatically increased from 0.41 to 13.86 mg mL −1 after the combined treatment of ball milling and hydrothermal. The efficient removal of lignin and hemicellulose and the enlargement of the surface area were considered to be responsible for this significant increase based on the intensive analysis on the main components and the physical–chemical properties of the raw and pretreated corn straw

  2. Matrix model of the grinding process of cement clinker in the ball mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharapov, Rashid R.

    2018-02-01

    In the article attention is paid to improving the efficiency of production of fine powders, in particular Portland cement clinker. The questions of Portland cement clinker grinding in closed circuit ball mills. Noted that the main task of modeling the grinding process is predicting the granulometric composition of the finished product taking into account constructive and technological parameters used ball mill and separator. It is shown that the most complete and informative characterization of the grinding process in a ball mill is a grinding matrix taking into account the transformation of grain composition inside the mill drum. Shows how the relative mass fraction of the particles of crushed material, get to corresponding fraction. Noted, that the actual task of reconstruction of the matrix of grinding on the experimental data obtained in the real operating installations. On the basis of experimental data obtained on industrial installations, using matrix method to determine the kinetics of the grinding process in closed circuit ball mills. The calculation method of the conversion of the grain composition of the crushed material along the mill drum developed. Taking into account the proposed approach can be optimized processing methods to improve the manufacturing process of Portland cement clinker.

  3. Processing of magnetically anisotropic MnBi particles by surfactant assisted ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanari, K. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Sarafidis, C., E-mail: hsara@physics.auth.gr [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Gjoka, M.; Niarchos, D. [INN, NCSR Demokritos, Athens 15310 (Greece); Kalogirou, O. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2017-03-15

    MnBi particles are obtained from bulk MnBi using mechanochemical processing. The structure and magnetic properties of the MnBi particles are investigated by means of X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy and magnetometry. Surfactant assisted high energy ball milling results to the samples’ degradation even after one hour of milling. In the case of surfactant assisted low energy ball milling the increase of ball milling duration decreases the average particle size while the particles seem to be more separated. The saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) was found to decrease for large milling times beginning from 61 Am{sup 2}/kg, while the coercivity (μ{sub 0}H{sub c}) increases with the increase of ball milling duration up to 35 min where it reaches 1.62 T and thereafter it decreases. - Highlights: • Effect of surfactants in processing of MnBi. • Magnetization degradation due to air storage and due to processing. • Coercivity of 1.6 T in epoxy resin oriented material.

  4. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF ENERGY-EFFICIENT GRINDING PROCESS OF CEMENT CLINKER IN A BALL MILL

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    Kuznetsova M.M.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of theoretical and experimental research of grinding process of bulk materials in a ball mill. The new method of determination of energy efficiently mode of operation of ball mills in a process of a cement clinker grinding is proposed and experimentally tested.

  5. A vertical ball mill as a new reactor design for biomass hydrolysis and fermentation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Assis Castro, Rafael Cunha; Mussatto, Solange I.; Conceicao Roberto, Inês

    2017-01-01

    A vertical ball mill (VBM) reactor was evaluated for use in biomass conversion processes. The effects of agitation speed (100–200 rpm), number of glass spheres (0–30 units) and temperature (40–46 °C) on enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw and on glucose fermentation by a thermotolerant Kluyveromyces...

  6. Scale-up of organic reactions in ball mills: process intensification with regard to energy efficiency and economy of scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolle, Achim; Schmidt, Robert; Jacob, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    The scale-up of the Knoevenagel-condensation between vanillin and barbituric acid carried out in planetary ball mills is investigated from an engineering perspective. Generally, the reaction proceeded in the solid state without intermediate melting and afforded selectively only one product. The reaction has been used as a model to analyze the influence and relationship of different parameters related to operation in planetary ball mills. From the viewpoint of technological parameters the milling ball diameter, dMB, the filling degree with respect to the milling balls' packing, ΦMB,packing, and the filling degree of the substrates with respect to the void volume of the milling balls' packing, ΦGS, have been investigated at different reaction scales. It was found that milling balls with small dMB lead to higher yields within shorter reaction time, treaction, or lower rotation frequency, rpm. Thus, the lower limit is set considering the technology which is available for the separation of the milling balls from the product after the reaction. Regarding ΦMB,packing, results indicate that the optimal value is roughly 50% of the total milling beakers' volume, VB,total, independent of the reaction scale or reaction conditions. Thus, 30% of VB,total are taken by the milling balls. Increase of the initial batch sizes changes ΦGS significantly. However, within the investigated parameter range no negative influence on the yield was observed. Up to 50% of VB,total can be taken over by the substrates in addition to 30% for the total milling ball volume. Scale-up factors of 15 and 11 were realized considering the amount of substrates and the reactor volume, respectively. Beside technological parameters, variables which influence the process itself, treaction and rpm, were investigated also. Variation of those allowed to fine-tune the reaction conditions in order to maximize the yield and minimize the energy intensity.

  7. A morphological evaluation of a duplex stainless steel processed by high energy Ball Mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonekubo, Ariane Emi; Cintho, Osvaldo Mitsuyuki; Aguiar, Denilson Jose Marcolino de; Capocchi, Jose Deodoro Trani

    2009-01-01

    The duplex stainless steels are formed by a ferrite and austenite mixture, giving them a combination of properties. Commercially, these steels are hot rolled, developing an anisotropic, alternated ferrite and austenite elongated lamellae microstructure. In this work, a duplex stainless steel was produced by the mixture of elementary powders with the composition Fe-19.5Cr-5Ni processed in an ATTRITOR ball mill during periods up to 15 hours. The powders obtained were compressed in specimens and were heat treated in the temperatures of 900, 1050 and 1200 °C during 1 hour and analysed by x ray diffraction, optic microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion spectroscopy. An optimized microstructure with ultrafine, equiaxial and regular duplex microstructure was obtained in the 15 hour milling and 1200 °C heat treatment. Afterwards, a commercially super duplex stainless steel UNS S32520 was aged at 800 °C aiming the precipitation of σ phase in order to reduce its toughness and then, milled in SPEX mill. The resulting microstructure was a very fine duplex type with irregular grain boundary morphology duo to the grain growth barrier promoted by the renascent σ phase particles during sintering process. (author)

  8. Moessbauer Study of the Ball Milling Disordering Process of FeAl Intermetallic Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleszak, Dariusz; Bruna, Pere; Crespo, Daniel; Pradell, Trinitat

    2005-01-01

    Structural changes during ball milling of ordered Fe50Al50 intermetallic compounds were studied. X-Ray diffraction allowed the computation of a Long Range Order parameter (LRO) which dropped to zero after a short milling time. The initial B2 ordered structure gradually transforms into a disordered BCC structure, with a final crystallite size of about 25 nm. Moessbauer spectroscopy was used for obtaining a Chemical Short Range Order parameter (CSRO). Using a semiempirical n-body noncentral potential a model of the partially disordered B2 structure was built allowing computing the distribution of Quadrupole Splitting during the disordering process. Comparison between experimental and simulated Moessbauer spectra shows a maximum of disorder in the system for 5h milling, related to the highest value of the lattice spacing and the broader quadrupole hyperfine distribution. However, after milling for times longer than 5h, there is a change on the behavior of the experimental data that cannot be explained by the simple disordering process

  9. Raman spectroscopy fingerprint of stainless steel-MWCNTs nanocomposite processed by ball-milling

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    Marcos Allan Leite dos Reis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Stainless steel 304L alloy powder and multiwalled carbon nanotubes were mixed by ball-milling under ambient atmosphere and in a broad range of milling times, which spans from 0 to 120 min. Here, we provided spectroscopic signatures for several distinct composites produced, to show that the Raman spectra present interesting splittings of the D-band feature into two main sub-bands, D-left and D-right, together with several other secondary features. The G-band feature also presents multiple splittings that are related to the outer and inner diameter distributions intrinsic to the multiwalled carbon nanotube samples. A discussion about the second order 2D-band (also known as G′-band is also provided. The results reveal that the multiple spectral features observed in the D-band are related to an increased chemical functionalization. A lower content of amorphous carbon at 60 and 90 min of milling time is verified and the G-band frequencies associated to the tubes in the outer diameters distribution is upshifted, which suggests that doping induced by strain is taking place in the milled samples. The results indicate that Raman spectroscopy can be a powerful tool for a fast and non-destructive characterization of carbon nanocomposites used in powder metallurgy manufacturing processes.

  10. Raman spectroscopy fingerprint of stainless steel-MWCNTs nanocomposite processed by ball-milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Marcos Allan Leite; Barbosa Neto, Newton Martins; de Sousa, Mário Edson Santos; Araujo, Paulo T.; Simões, Sónia; Vieira, Manuel F.; Viana, Filomena; Loayza, Cristhian R. L.; Borges, Diego J. A.; Cardoso, Danyella C. S.; Assunção, Paulo D. C.; Braga, Eduardo M.

    2018-01-01

    Stainless steel 304L alloy powder and multiwalled carbon nanotubes were mixed by ball-milling under ambient atmosphere and in a broad range of milling times, which spans from 0 to 120 min. Here, we provided spectroscopic signatures for several distinct composites produced, to show that the Raman spectra present interesting splittings of the D-band feature into two main sub-bands, D-left and D-right, together with several other secondary features. The G-band feature also presents multiple splittings that are related to the outer and inner diameter distributions intrinsic to the multiwalled carbon nanotube samples. A discussion about the second order 2D-band (also known as G'-band) is also provided. The results reveal that the multiple spectral features observed in the D-band are related to an increased chemical functionalization. A lower content of amorphous carbon at 60 and 90 min of milling time is verified and the G-band frequencies associated to the tubes in the outer diameters distribution is upshifted, which suggests that doping induced by strain is taking place in the milled samples. The results indicate that Raman spectroscopy can be a powerful tool for a fast and non-destructive characterization of carbon nanocomposites used in powder metallurgy manufacturing processes.

  11. Fabrication mechanism of FeSe superconductors with high-energy ball milling aided sintering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shengnan; Liu, Jixing; Feng, Jianqing; Wang, Yao; Ma, Xiaobo; Li, Chengshan; Zhang, Pingxiang

    2015-01-01

    FeSe Superconducting bulks with high content of superconducting PbO-type β-FeSe phase were prepared with high-energy ball milling (HEBM) aided sintering process. During this process, precursor powders with certain Fe/Se ratio were ball milled first then sintered. The influences of HEBM process as well as initial Fe/Se ratio on the phase evolution process were systematically discussed. With HEBM process and proper initial Fe/Se ratio, the formation of non-superconducting hexagonal δ-FeSe phase were effectively avoided. FeSe bulk with the critical temperature of 9.0 K was obtained through a simple one-step sintering process with lower sintering temperature. Meanwhile, the phase evolution mechanism of the HEBM precursor powders during sintering was deduced based on both the thermodynamic analysis and step-by-step sintering results. The key function of the HEBM process was to provide a high uniformity of chemical composition distribution, thus to successfully avoide the formation of intermediate product during sintering, including FeSe 2 and Fe 7 Se 8 . Therefore, the fundamental principal for the synthesis of FeSe superconductors were concluded as: HEBM aided sintering process, with the sintering temperature of >635 °C and a slow cooling process. - Highlights: • A novel synthesis technique was developed for FeSe based superconductors. • FeSe bulks with high Tc and high β-FeSe phase content has been obtained. • Phase evolution process for the HEBM aided sintering process was proposed

  12. Preparation of natural pyrite nanoparticles by high energy planetary ball milling as a nanocatalyst for heterogeneous Fenton process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fathinia, Siavash [Department of Mining Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Laboratory of Advanced Water and Wastewater Treatment Processes, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fathinia, Mehrangiz [Research Laboratory of Advanced Water and Wastewater Treatment Processes, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahmani, Ali Akbar [Department of Mining Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khataee, Alireza, E-mail: a_khataee@tabrizu.ac.ir [Research Laboratory of Advanced Water and Wastewater Treatment Processes, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pyrite nanoparticles were successfully produced by planetary ball milling process. • The physical and chemical properties of pyrite nanoparticles were fully examined. • The degradation of AO7 was notably enhanced by pyrite nanoparticles Fenton system. • The influences of basic operational parameters were investigated using CCD. - Abstract: In the present study pyrite nanoparticles were prepared by high energy mechanical ball milling utilizing a planetary ball mill. Various pyrite samples were produced by changing the milling time from 2 h to 6 h, in the constant milling speed of 320 rpm. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) linked with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) were performed to explain the characteristics of primary (unmilled) and milled pyrite samples. The average particle size distribution of the produced pyrite during 6 h milling was found to be between 20 nm and 100 nm. The catalytic performance of the different pyrite samples was examined in the heterogeneous Fenton process for degradation of C.I. Acid Orange 7 (AO7) solution. Results showed that the decolorization efficiency of AO7 in the presence of 6 h-milled pyrite sample was the highest. The impact of key parameters on the degradation efficiency of AO7 by pyrite nanoparticles catalyzed Fenton process was modeled using central composite design (CCD). Accordingly, the maximum removal efficiency of 96.30% was achieved at initial AO7 concentration of 16 mg/L, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration of 5 mmol/L, catalyst amount of 0.5 g/L and reaction time of 25 min.

  13. A combination method of the theory and experiment in determination of cutting force coefficients in ball-end mill processes

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    Yung-Chou Kao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the cutting force calculation of ball-end mill processing was modeled mathematically. All derivations of cutting forces were directly based on the tangential, radial, and axial cutting force components. In the developed mathematical model of cutting forces, the relationship of average cutting force and the feed per flute was characterized as a linear function. The cutting force coefficient model was formulated by a function of average cutting force and other parameters such as cutter geometry, cutting conditions, and so on. An experimental method was proposed based on the stable milling condition to estimate the cutting force coefficients for ball-end mill. This method could be applied for each pair of tool and workpiece. The developed cutting force model has been successfully verified experimentally with very promising results.

  14. Determination of rational parameters for process of grinding materials pre-crushed by pressure in ball mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovich, A. A.; Romanovich, L. G.; Chekhovskoy, E. I.

    2018-03-01

    The article presents the results of experimental studies on the grinding process of a clinker preliminarily ground in press roller mills in a ball mill equipped with energy exchange devices. The authors studied the influence of the coefficients of loading for grinding bodies of the first and second mill chambers, their lengths, angles of inclination, and the mutual location of energy exchange devices (the ellipse segment and the double-acting blade) on the output parameters of the grinding process (productivity, drive power consumption and specific energy consumption). It is clarified that the best results of the disaggregation and grinding process, judging by the minimum specific energy consumption in the grinding of clinker with an anisotropic texture after force deformation between the rolls of a press roller shredder, are achieved at a certain angle of ellipse segment inclination; the length of the first chamber and the coefficients of loading the chambers with grinding bodies.

  15. Integrated modeling and analysis of ball screw feed system and milling process with consideration of multi-excitation effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Liang, Tao; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Wanhua

    2018-01-01

    The present researches about feed drive system and milling process are almost independent with each other, and ignore the interaction between the two parts, especially the influence of nonideal motion of feed drive system on milling process. An integrated modeling method of ball screw feed system and milling process with multi-excitation effect is proposed in this paper. In the integrated model, firstly an analytical model of motor harmonic torque with consideration of asymmetrical drive circuit and asymmetrical permanent magnet is given. Then, the numerical simulation procedure of cutter/workpiece engagement during milling process with displacement fluctuation induced by harmonic torque is put forward, which is followed by the solving flow for the proposed integrated model. Based on the integrated model, a new kind of quality defect shown as contour low frequency oscillation on machined surface is studied by experiments and simulations. The results demonstrate that the forming mechanism of the contour oscillation can be ascribed to the multi-excitation effect with motor harmonic torque and milling force. Moreover, the influence of different milling conditions on the contour oscillation characteristics, particularly on surface roughness, are further discussed. The results indicate that it is necessary to explain the cause of the new kind of quality defect with a view of system integration.

  16. Effect of process variables on synthesis of MgB2 by a high energy ball mill

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    Kurama Haldun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of superconductivity of MgB2 in 2001, with a critical temperature of 39 K, offered the promise of important large-scale applications at around 20 K. Except than the other featured synthesis methods, mechanical activation performed by high energy ball mills, as bulk form synthesis or as a first step of wire and thin film productions, has considered as an effective alternative production route in recent years. The process of mechanical activation (MA starts with mixing the powders in the right proportion and loading the powder mixture into the mill with the grinding media. The milled powder is then consolidated into a bulk shape and heat-treated to obtain desired microstructure and properties. Thus, the important components of the MA process are the raw materials, mill type and process variables. During the MA process, heavy deformation of particles occure. This is manifested by the presence of a variety of crystal defects such as dislocations, vacancies, stacking faults and increased number of particle boundaries. The presence of this defect structure enhances the diffusivity of solute hence the critical currents and magnetic flux pinning ability of MgB2 are improved. The aim of the present study is to determine the effects of process variables such as ball-to-powder mass ratio, size of balls, milling time, annealing temperature and contribution of process control agent (toluene on the product size, morphology and conversion level of precursor powders to MgB2 after subsequent heat treatment. The morphological analyses of the samples were performed by a high vacuum electron microscope ZEISS SUPRA VP 50. The phase compositions of the samples were performed with an Rigaku-Rint 2200 diffractometer, with nickel filtered Cu Kα radiation and conversion level. The MgB2 phase wt % was calculated by the Rietveld refinement method. The obtained results were discussed according to the process variables to find out their affect on the structure

  17. CVD carbon powders modified by ball milling

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    Kazmierczak Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon powders produced using a plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD methods are an interesting subject of research. One of the most interesting methods of synthesizing these powders is using radio frequency plasma. This method, originally used in deposition of carbon films containing different sp2/sp3 ratios, also makes possible to produce carbon structures in the form of powder. Results of research related to the mechanical modification of these powders have been presented. The powders were modified using a planetary ball mill with varying parameters, such as milling speed, time, ball/powder mass ratio and additional liquids. Changes in morphology and particle sizes were measured using scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Phase composition was analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. The influence of individual parameters on the modification outcome was estimated using statistical method. The research proved that the size of obtained powders is mostly influenced by the milling speed and the amount of balls. Powders tend to form conglomerates sized up to hundreds of micrometers. Additionally, it is possible to obtain nanopowders with the size around 100 nm. Furthermore, application of additional liquid, i.e. water in the process reduces the graphitization of the powder, which takes place during dry milling.

  18. Influence of emulsifiers on the optimization of processing parameters of refining milk chocolate in the ball mill

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    Pajin Biljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate manufacture is a complex process which includes a large number of technology operations. One of the obligatory phases is milling, called refining, which aims at obtaining the appropriate distribution of particle size, resulting in the chocolate with optimal physical and sensory characteristics. The aim of this work was to define and optimize the process parameters for the production of milk chocolate by a non-conventional procedure, using the ball mill. The quality of chocolate mass, produced on this way, is determined by measuring the following parameters: moisture, size of the largest cocoa particle, yield flow, and Casson plastic viscosity. A special consideration of this study is the optimization of the types and amounts of emulsifiers, which are responsible for achieving the appropriate rheological and physical characteristics of the chocolate mass. The obtained parameters are compared with those which are typical for the standard procedure.

  19. Effect of the milling conditions on the degree of amorphization of selenium by milling in a planetary ball mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksiazek, K; Wacke, S; Gorecki, T; Gorecki, Cz

    2007-01-01

    The effect of the milling parameters (rotation speed of the milling device and duration of milling) on the phase composition of the products of milling of fully crystalline selenium has been investigated. The milling was conducted using a planetary micromill and the phase composition of the milling products was determined by differential thermal analysis. It has been found that ball milling leads to the partial amorphization of the starting crystalline material. The content of amorphous phase in the milling products depends, in a rather complicated way, on the milling parameters. At the milling parameters adopted in the present study, the milling product was never fully amorphous. The complicated way the milling parameters affect the content of amorphous phase in the milling products is a result of competition of two processes: amorphization due to deformation and refinement of grains of milled material and crystallization of the already produced amorphous material at the cost of heat evolved in the milling vial during the milling process

  20. High-efficient production of boron nitride nanosheets via an optimized ball milling process for lubrication in oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepika; Li, Lu Hua; Glushenkov, Alexey M; Hait, Samik K; Hodgson, Peter; Chen, Ying

    2014-12-03

    Although tailored wet ball milling can be an efficient method to produce a large quantity of two-dimensional nanomaterials, such as boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, milling parameters including milling speed, ball-to-powder ratio, milling ball size and milling agent, are important for optimization of exfoliation efficiency and production yield. In this report, we systematically investigate the effects of different milling parameters on the production of BN nanosheets with benzyl benzoate being used as the milling agent. It is found that small balls of 0.1-0.2 mm in diameter are much more effective in exfoliating BN particles to BN nanosheets. Under the optimum condition, the production yield can be as high as 13.8% and the BN nanosheets are 0.5-1.5 μm in diameter and a few nanometers thick and of relative high crystallinity and chemical purity. The lubrication properties of the BN nanosheets in base oil have also been studied. The tribological tests show that the BN nanosheets can greatly reduce the friction coefficient and wear scar diameter of the base oil.

  1. Si@SiOx/Graphene nanosheet anode materials for lithium-ion batteries synthesized by ball milling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Xiaoyong; Han, Qianyan; Liang, Chunyan; Li, Bo; Zai, Jiantao; Qian, Xuefeng

    2017-12-01

    Si@SiOx/Graphene nanosheet (GNS) nanocomposites as high performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries are synthesized by mechanically blending the mixture of expanded graphite with Si nanoparticles, and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectrum, field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. During the ball milling process, the size of Si nanoparticles will decrease, and the layer of expanded graphite can be peeled off to thin multilayers. Electrochemical performances reveal that the obtained Si@SiOx/GNS nanocomposites exhibit improved cycling stability, high reversible lithium storage capacity and superior rate capability, e.g. the discharge capacity is kept as high as 1055 mAh g-1 within 50 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g-1, retaining 63.6% of the initial value. The high performance of the obtained nanocomposites can be ascribed to GNS prepared through heat-treat and ball-milling methods, the decrease in the size of Si nanoparticles and SiOx layer on Si surface, which enhance the interactions between Si and GNS.

  2. Characterization of structures and novel magnetic response of Fe87.5Si7Al5.5 alloy processed by ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Yuping; Gu, Shuchao; Zhang, Zhonglun; Wen, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The water atomized Fe 87.5 Si 7 Al 5.5 (Wt.%) alloy was processed by ball-milling. ► The microstructure and magnetic properties of alloy changed following milling. ► The powders milled for 10 h have the largest M s and strongest reflection loss. ► The permeability of the powders milled for 2 h is the largest. ► The charge exchange between Fe and Si is discussed base on first-principles. - Abstract: The water atomized Fe 87.5 Si 7 Al 5.5 (Wt.%) alloy was processed by a high-energy planetary ball-milling. The characterization of morphology, microstructure, and electromagnetic properties were measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffractometer, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), vector network analyzer and the first principle method. The analysis results showed that the powders shape became flaky from fusiform. The powders showed a reduction of the average grain size and the increase of the internal strain, and then presented an adverse variation trend after 55 h milling. The powders that milled 10 h had the largest saturation magnetization M S (131 emu/g). The value μ′ of the powders decreased with increasing milling time at relatively lower frequency (2–8 GHz), but opposite variation tendency happened at higher frequency (8–18 GHz). Also, only short time milling can enhance the value of μ″ in the test frequency. The powders after 10 h milling showed excellent microwave absorption (RL < −10 dB) at the frequency 9.0–15.6 GHz and the absorption peak shifted regularly to the high frequency as the increased milling time. Furthermore, the effect of charge exchange between the Fe and Si on the saturation magnetization in the ball-milling process was also investigated by using density functional theory (DFT) of first principle.

  3. Multifractal properties of ball milling dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budroni, M. A., E-mail: mabudroni@uniss.it; Pilosu, V.; Rustici, M. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, Università degli Studi di Sassari, Via Vienna 2, Sassari 07100 (Italy); Delogu, F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Chimica, e dei Materiali, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, via Marengo 2, Cagliari 09123 (Italy)

    2014-06-15

    This work focuses on the dynamics of a ball inside the reactor of a ball mill. We show that the distribution of collisions at the reactor walls exhibits multifractal properties in a wide region of the parameter space defining the geometrical characteristics of the reactor and the collision elasticity. This feature points to the presence of restricted self-organized zones of the reactor walls where the ball preferentially collides and the mechanical energy is mainly dissipated.

  4. Comparison of particle sizes between 238PuO2 before aqueous processing, after aqueous processing, and after ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulford, Roberta Nancy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-06

    Particle sizes determined for a single lot of incoming Russian fuel and for a lot of fuel after aqueous processing are compared with particle sizes measured on fuel after ball-milling. The single samples of each type are believed to have particle size distributions typical of oxide from similar lots, as the processing of fuel lots is fairly uniform. Variation between lots is, as yet, uncharacterized. Sampling and particle size measurement methods are discussed elsewhere.

  5. Colloidal Precursors from 'Ball-Milling in Liquid Medium' Process for CuInSe{sub 2} Thin Film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Jae Hoon; Kim, Seung Joo [Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    CIS thin film can be fabricated by using the precursor obtained through ball-milling the elemental reagents in liquid media. The amorphous colloidal precursor with good dispersity was prepared in the medium that contains strong base and polar solvent (2 M ethylenediamine in DMF solution as used in this study). The 'ball-milling in liquid medium' method requires only elemental sources as starting materials and a proper solution so that it can be employed without additional processes for separation and purification. As a simple and less-toxic preparative route, this method would be practically available to prepare CIS-related solar cells. CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) and related chalcopyrite compounds are very promising materials for thin film solar cells due to their favorable band gap, high optical absorption coefficient and long-term stability. CIS-based solar cells have shown the highest conversion efficiency reaching a value of 20%. However, the vacuum-based processes that are used to fabricate CIS thin-films have some drawbacks such as the complexity in process, high production cost and difficulty in scaling up. Recently, several research groups have proposed different non-vacuum deposition processes for CIS solar cell. For example, H. W. Hillhouse et al. prepared the CIS absorber layer by using 'nanocrystal ink method' in which a colloidal nanocrystal ink was obtained from reaction of CuCl, InCl{sub 3} and Se in oleylamine. D. B. Mitzi et al. used a solution-based precursor that was prepared by dissolution of Cu{sub 2}Se, In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}, Ga{sub 2}Se{sub 3} and Se in hydrazine to fabricate the Ga-containing absorber layer, Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}.

  6. Influence of Process Control Agent on Characterization and Structure of Micron Chitosan Powders Prepared by Ball Milling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Chuan-jie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With ethyl alcohol or distilled water as process control agent (PCA, micron chitosan powder was prepared by ball milling method. The yield rate, particle size distribution, micro morphology, viscosity average molecular mass, chemical and crystal structures, and thermal properties of these different micron chitosan powders were measured. The results indicate that the yield rate of micron chitosan powders prepared with ethyl alcohol as PCA increases significantly, and improves to 94.7% from 25% while the amount of ethyl alcohol is 0.75mL/g. The particle size distribution of micron chitosan powder prepared with ethyl alcohol as PCA is concentrated, while the D50 and D90 in size are 824nm and 1629nm respectively. Chitosan do not react with ethyl alcohol used as PCA, but the viscosity average molecular mass of prepared micron chitosan powder decreases by 23%, the crystal structures are destroyed slightly, and its thermal stability is slightly weakened.

  7. Superthermostability of nanoscale TIC-reinforced copper alloys manufactured by a two-step ball-milling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fenglin; Li, Yunping; Xu, Xiandong; Koizumi, Yuichiro; Yamanaka, Kenta; Bian, Huakang; Chiba, Akihiko

    2015-12-01

    A Cu-TiC alloy, with nanoscale TiC particles highly dispersed in the submicron-grained Cu matrix, was manufactured by a self-developed two-step ball-milling process on Cu, Ti and C powders. The thermostability of the composite was evaluated by high-temperature isothermal annealing treatments, with temperatures ranging from 727 to 1273 K. The semicoherent nanoscale TiC particles with Cu matrix, mainly located along the grain boundaries, were found to exhibit the promising trait of blocking grain boundary migrations, which leads to a super-stabilized microstructures up to approximately the melting point of copper (1223 K). Furthermore, the Cu-TiC alloys after annealing at 1323 K showed a slight decrease in Vickers hardness as well as the duplex microstructure due to selective grain growth, which were discussed in terms of hardness contributions from various mechanisms.

  8. Solvent-Free Biginelli Reactions Catalyzed by Hierarchical Zeolite Utilizing a Ball Mill Technique: A Green Sustainable Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameen Shahid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable, green one-pot process for the synthesis of dihydropyrimidinones (DHPMs derivatives by a three-component reaction of β-ketoester derivatives, aldehyde and urea or thiourea over the alkali-treated H-ZSM-5 zeolite under ball-milling was developed. Isolation of the product with ethyl acetate shadowed by vanishing of solvent was applied. The hierachical zeolite catalyst (MFI27_6 showed high yield (86%–96% of DHPMs in a very short time (10–30 min. The recyclability of the catalyst for the subsequent reactions was examined in four subsequent runs. The catalyst was shown to be robust without a detectable reduction in catalytic activity, and high yields of products showed the efficient protocol of the Biginelli reactions.

  9. Suppressing Heavy Metal Leaching through Ball Milling of Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ball milling is investigated as a method of reducing the leaching concentration (often termed stablilization of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI fly ash. Three heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb loose much of their solubility in leachate by treating fly ash in a planetary ball mill, in which collisions between balls and fly ash drive various physical processes, as well as chemical reactions. The efficiency of stabilization is evaluated by analysing heavy metals in the leachable fraction from treated fly ash. Ball milling reduces the leaching concentration of Cu, Cr, and Pb, and water washing effectively promotes stabilization efficiency by removing soluble salts. Size distribution and morphology of particles were analysed by laser particle diameter analysis and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals significant reduction of the crystallinity of fly ash by milling. Fly ash particles can be activated through this ball milling, leading to a significant decrease in particle size, a rise in its BET-surface, and turning basic crystals therein into amorphous structures. The dissolution rate of acid buffering materials present in activated particles is enhanced, resulting in a rising pH value of the leachate, reducing the leaching out of some heavy metals.

  10. Tungsten-nanodiamond composite powders produced by ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, D., E-mail: daniela.nunes@ist.utl.pt [Associacao Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); LNEG, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Livramento, V. [Associacao Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); LNEG, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Mardolcar, U.V. [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Centro de Ciencias Moleculares e Materiais, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Correia, J.B. [LNEG, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Carvalho, P.A. [ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Departamento de Bioengenharia, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2012-07-15

    The major challenge in producing tungsten-nanodiamond composites by ball milling lies in successfully dispersing carbon nanoparticles in the metallic matrix while keeping carbide formation at a minimum. Processing windows for carbide minimization have been established through systematic variation of the nanodiamond fraction, milling energy and milling time. Materials characterization has been carried out by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and microhardness testing. Nanostructured matrices with homogeneously dispersed particles that preserved the diamond structure have been produced. Differential thermal analysis has been used to evaluate the composites thermal stability.

  11. Reduced graphene oxide synthesis by high energy ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, O. [Department of Physics, M.U.C Women' s College, Burdwan 713104 (India); Mitra, S. [MLS Prof' s Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata 700032 (India); Pal, M. [CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata 700032 (India); Datta, A. [University School of Basic and Applied Science (USBAS), Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi 110075 (India); Dhara, S. [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Chakravorty, D., E-mail: mlsdc@iacs.res.in [MLS Prof' s Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2015-07-01

    Graphene oxide is transformed to reduced graphene oxide by high energy ball milling in inert atmosphere. The process of ball milling introduces defects and removes oxygen functional groups, thereby creating the possibility of fine tuning the band gap of all intermediate stages of the structural evolution. A limit of the backbone sp{sup 2} network structure has been found which should be able to accommodate defects, before amorphization sets in. The amorphization of graphene oxide is achieved rather quickly in comparison to that of graphite. From thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetric analysis along with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopic studies, it is found that the number of oxygen-containing groups decreases at a faster rate than that of aromatic double bonds with increasing ball milling time with a maximum limit of 3 h. Several characterization techniques (FTIR, Raman, UV–Visible and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) have confirmed that the material synthesized is, indeed, reduced graphene oxide. - Highlights: • Graphene oxide is transformed to reduced graphene oxide by high energy ball milling in inert atmosphere. • Fine tuning the band gap by introducing defects and removing oxygen functional groups. • Introduction of excess defects leads to amorphization. • Photoluminescence has been observed in the UV-blue region.

  12. Preparation of tungsten-iron carbide by ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, G.M.; Campbell, S.J.; Calka, A.; Kaczmarek, W.A.

    1996-01-01

    Several sets of elemental powder mixtures of Fe-W-C (W 46 Fe 46 C 8 , W 60 Fe 20 C 20 and W 34 Fe 33 C 33 ) were ball milled using Uni-Ball mill for periods of up to 550 h in vacuum with a ball - to - powder ratio of about 35:1. Depending on the milling time, the main component of the as-milled materials was found to be solid solutions of Fe-W-C or Fe-C. Ternary phase W 3 Fe 3 C was obtained on annealing the as-milled materials at about 700 deg C. This product was then found to transfer to (FeW) 6 C on heat treatment at about 800 deg C. The resultant products of the annealing processes were found to depend not only on the annealing temperature, but also the starting composition, especially the initial carbon concentration. Detailed information on the structural and phase evolution during thermal treatment as measured using x-ray diffraction, Moessbauer spectroscopy and thermal analysis is presented. Special interest is focused on the competition for formation in this system between the Fe-C, W-Fe and W-C phases

  13. The Tool Life of Ball Nose end Mill Depending on the Different Types of Ramping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vopát Tomáš

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the cutting tool wear measurement process and tool life of ball nose end mill depending on upward ramping and downward ramping. The aim was to determine and compare the wear (tool life of ball nose end mill for different types of copy milling operations, as well as to specify particular steps of the measurement process. In addition, we examined and observed cutter contact areas of ball nose end mill with machined material. For tool life test, DMG DMU 85 monoBLOCK 5-axis CNC milling machine was used. In the experiment, cutting speed, feed rate, axial depth of cut and radial depth of cut were not changed. The cutting tool wear was measured on Zoller Genius 3s universal measuring machine. The results show different tool life of ball nose end mills depending on the copy milling strategy.

  14. The Tool Life of Ball Nose end Mill Depending on the Different Types of Ramping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vopát, Tomáš; Peterka, Jozef; Kováč, Martin

    2014-12-01

    The article deals with the cutting tool wear measurement process and tool life of ball nose end mill depending on upward ramping and downward ramping. The aim was to determine and compare the wear (tool life) of ball nose end mill for different types of copy milling operations, as well as to specify particular steps of the measurement process. In addition, we examined and observed cutter contact areas of ball nose end mill with machined material. For tool life test, DMG DMU 85 monoBLOCK 5-axis CNC milling machine was used. In the experiment, cutting speed, feed rate, axial depth of cut and radial depth of cut were not changed. The cutting tool wear was measured on Zoller Genius 3s universal measuring machine. The results show different tool life of ball nose end mills depending on the copy milling strategy.

  15. Comparative Study by MS and XRD of Fe50Al50 Alloys Produced by Mechanical Alloying, Using Different Ball Mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas Martinez, Y.; Perez Alcazar, G. A.; Bustos Rodriguez, H.; Oyola Lozano, D.

    2005-01-01

    In this work we report a comparative study of the magnetic and structural properties of Fe 50 Al 50 alloys produced by mechanical alloying using two different planetary ball mills with the same ball mass to powder mass relation. The Fe 50 Al 50 sample milled during 48 h using the Fritsch planetary ball mill pulverisette 5 and balls of 20 mm, presents only a bcc alloy phase with a majority of paramagnetic sites, whereas that sample milled during the same time using the Fritsch planetary ball mill pulverisette 7 with balls of 15 mm, presents a bcc alloy phase with paramagnetic site (doublet) and a majority of ferromagnetic sites which include pure Fe. However for 72 h of milling this sample presents a bcc paramagnetic phase, very similar to that prepared with the first system during 48 h. These results show that the conditions used in the first ball mill equipment make more efficient the milling process.

  16. Recycling process for recovery of gallium from GaN an e-waste of LED industry through ball milling, annealing and leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Basudev; Mishra, Chinmayee; Kang, Leeseung; Park, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Chan Gi; Hong, Hyun Seon

    2015-04-01

    Waste dust generated during manufacturing of LED contains significant amounts of gallium and indium, needs suitable treatment and can be an important resource for recovery. The LED industry waste dust contains primarily gallium as GaN. Leaching followed by purification technology is the green and clean technology. To develop treatment and recycling technology of these GaN bearing e-waste, leaching is the primary stage. In our current investigation possible process for treatment and quantitative leaching of gallium and indium from the GaN bearing e-waste or waste of LED industry dust has been developed. To recycle the waste and quantitative leaching of gallium, two different process flow sheets have been proposed. In one, process first the GaN of the waste the LED industry dust was leached at the optimum condition. Subsequently, the leach residue was mixed with Na2CO3, ball milled followed by annealing, again leached to recover gallium. In the second process, the waste LED industry dust was mixed with Na2CO3, after ball milling and annealing, followed acidic leaching. Without pretreatment, the gallium leaching was only 4.91 w/w % using 4M HCl, 100°C and pulp density of 20g/L. After mechano-chemical processing, both these processes achieved 73.68 w/w % of gallium leaching at their optimum condition. The developed process can treat and recycle any e-waste containing GaN through ball milling, annealing and leaching. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An analytical model for force prediction in ball nose micro milling of inclined surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    Ball nose micro milling is a key process for the generation of free form surfaces and inclined surfaces often present in mould inserts for micro replication. This paper presents a new cutting force model for ball nose micro milling that is capable of taking into account the effect of the edge...

  18. Removal of fluoride from drinking water using modified ultrafine tea powder processed using a ball-mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Huimei; Xu, Lingyun; Chen, Guijie; Peng, Chuanyi [School of Tea & Food Science and Technology, Anhui Agricultural University/State Key Laboratory of Tea Plant Biology and Utilization, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, Anhui (China); Ke, Fei [School of Tea & Food Science and Technology, Anhui Agricultural University/State Key Laboratory of Tea Plant Biology and Utilization, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, Anhui (China); School of Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Liu, Zhengquan; Li, Daxiang; Zhang, Zhengzhu [School of Tea & Food Science and Technology, Anhui Agricultural University/State Key Laboratory of Tea Plant Biology and Utilization, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, Anhui (China); Wan, Xiaochun, E-mail: xcwan@ahau.edu.cn [School of Tea & Food Science and Technology, Anhui Agricultural University/State Key Laboratory of Tea Plant Biology and Utilization, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, Anhui (China)

    2016-07-01

    Highlights: • Ultrafine tea powder (UTP) was prepared by ball-milling. • A novel and high efficient biosorbent from ultrafine tea powder (UTP) for the removal of fluoride from drinking water was prepared. • Loaded ultrafine tea powder adsorbed more fluoride adsorption than loaded tea waste. • UTP-Zr performed well over a considerably wide pH range, from 3.0 to 10.0. • UTP-Zr retains Zr metal ion during defluoridation, limiting secondary pollution. - Abstract: A low-cost and highly efficient biosorbent was prepared by loading zirconium(IV) onto ball-milled, ultrafine tea powder (UTP-Zr) for removal of fluoride from drinking water. To evaluate the fluoride adsorption capacity of UTP-Zr over a wide range of conditions, the biosorbent dosage, contact time, initial pH, initial fluoride concentration and presence of other ions were varied. UTP-Zr performed well over the considerably wide pH range of 3–10. The residual concentration of Zr in the treated water was below the limit of detection (0.01 mg/L). Fluoride adsorption by the UTP-Zr biosorbent followed the Langmuir model, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 12.43 mgF/g at room temperature. The fluoride adsorption kinetics fit the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The synthesized biosorbent was characterized by BET, SEM, EDS, XRD and XPS to reveal how UTP-Zr interacts with fluoride. Results from this study demonstrated that UTP-based biosorbents will be useful and safe for the removal of fluoride from drinking water.

  19. Removal of fluoride from drinking water using modified ultrafine tea powder processed using a ball-mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Huimei; Xu, Lingyun; Chen, Guijie; Peng, Chuanyi; Ke, Fei; Liu, Zhengquan; Li, Daxiang; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Wan, Xiaochun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ultrafine tea powder (UTP) was prepared by ball-milling. • A novel and high efficient biosorbent from ultrafine tea powder (UTP) for the removal of fluoride from drinking water was prepared. • Loaded ultrafine tea powder adsorbed more fluoride adsorption than loaded tea waste. • UTP-Zr performed well over a considerably wide pH range, from 3.0 to 10.0. • UTP-Zr retains Zr metal ion during defluoridation, limiting secondary pollution. - Abstract: A low-cost and highly efficient biosorbent was prepared by loading zirconium(IV) onto ball-milled, ultrafine tea powder (UTP-Zr) for removal of fluoride from drinking water. To evaluate the fluoride adsorption capacity of UTP-Zr over a wide range of conditions, the biosorbent dosage, contact time, initial pH, initial fluoride concentration and presence of other ions were varied. UTP-Zr performed well over the considerably wide pH range of 3–10. The residual concentration of Zr in the treated water was below the limit of detection (0.01 mg/L). Fluoride adsorption by the UTP-Zr biosorbent followed the Langmuir model, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 12.43 mgF/g at room temperature. The fluoride adsorption kinetics fit the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The synthesized biosorbent was characterized by BET, SEM, EDS, XRD and XPS to reveal how UTP-Zr interacts with fluoride. Results from this study demonstrated that UTP-based biosorbents will be useful and safe for the removal of fluoride from drinking water.

  20. Structure and magnetism of SmCo5 nanoflakes prepared by surfactant-assisted ball milling with different ball sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, Junwu; Han, Xianghua; Du, Juan; Xia, Weixing; Zhang, Jian; Guo, Zhaohui; Yan, Aru; Li, Wei; Ping Liu, J.

    2013-01-01

    Anisotropic magnetic SmCo 5 nanoflakes have been fabricated by surfactant-assisted ball milling (SABM) using hardened steel balls of one of the following sizes: 4, 6.5, 9.5 and 12.7 mm in diameters. The magnetic properties of SmCo 5 particles prepared by SABM with different milling ball sizes in diameters were investigated systematically. It was showed that the nanoflakes milled by amount of small size balls had a higher coercivity and lower anisotropy, i.e., worse grain orientation although in a short milling time while the nanoflakes prepared with same weight of big balls tend to have a lower coercivity, better grain orientation. The coercivity mechanism of the nanoflake was studied and it was mainly dominated with the domain-wall pinning. The SEM analysis shows that the morphology of nanoflakes prepared with different ball sizes are almost the same when the balls to powder weight ratio is fixed. The different magnetic properties caused by different ball sizes are mainly due to the different microstructure changes, i.e, grain refinement and c-axis orientation, which are demonstrated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Based on the experiments above, a combined milling process was suggested and done to improve magnetic properties as your need. - Highlights: • We fabricated anisotropic magnetic SmCo 5 nanoflakes by surfactant-assisted ball milling (SABM). • We investigated the magnetic properties of SmCo 5 particles systematically. It was showed that the coercivity, high or low, and grain orientation, good or bad, were influenced strongly by balls size. The different magnetisms caused by different ball sizes is mainly due to the different microstructure changes. • The coercivity mechanism of the nanoflake was studied and it was mainly dominated with the domain-wall pinning

  1. Structural and magnetic properties of ball milled copper ferrite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goya, G.F.; Rechenberg, H.R.; Jiang, Jianzhong

    1998-01-01

    The structural and magnetic evolution in copper ferrite (CuFe2O4) caused by high-energy ball milling are investigated by x-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and magnetization measurements. Initially, the milling process reduces the average grain size of CuFe2O4 to about 6 nm and induces....... The canted spin configuration is also suggested by the observed reduction in magnetization of particles in the blocked state. Upon increasing the milling time, nanometer-sized CuFe2O4 particles decompose, forming alpha-Fe2O3 and other phases, causing a further decrease of magnetization. After a milling time...... of 98 h, alpha-Fe2O3 is reduced to Fe3O4, and magnetization increases accordingly to the higher saturation magnetization value of magnetite. Three sequential processes during high-energy ball milling are established: (a) the synthesis of partially inverted CuFe2O4 particles with a noncollinear spin...

  2. Phase transition of Ni-Mn-Ga alloy powders prepared by vibration ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, B.; Chen, F.; Tong, Y.X.; Li, L.; Zheng, Y.F.; Liu, Y.; Li, Q.Z.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The vibration ball milling with a high milling energy introduces the atomic disorder and large lattice distortion in the alloy during milling and makes the formation of disordered fcc structure phase in the alloy. → The transition temperature and activation energy for disordered fcc → disordered bcc are ∼320 o C and 209 ± 8 kJ/mol, respectively. → The alloy powders annealed at 800 o C for 1 h show a one-stage martensitic transformation with quite lower latent heat compared to the bulk alloy. - Abstract: This study investigated the phase transformation of the flaky shaped Ni-Mn-Ga powder particles with thickness around 1 μm prepared by vibration ball milling and post-annealing. The SEM, XRD, DSC and ac magnetic susceptibility measurement techniques were used to characterize the Ni-Mn-Ga powders. The structural transition of Heusler → disordered fcc occurred in the powders prepared by vibration ball milling (high milling energy) for 4 h, which was different from the structural transition of Heusler → disordered fct of the powders fabricated by planetary ball milling (low milling energy) for 4 h. The two different structures after ball milling should be due to the larger lattice distortion occurred in the vibration ball milling process than in the planetary ball milling process. The structural transition of disordered fcc → disordered bcc took place at ∼320 o C during heating the as-milled Ni-Mn-Ga powders, which was attributed to the elimination of lattice distortion caused by ball milling. The activation energy for this transition was 209 ± 8 kJ/mol. The Ni-Mn-Ga powder annealed at 800 o C mainly contained Heusler austenite phase at room temperature and showed a low volume of martensitic transformation upon cooling. The inhibition of martensitic transformation might be attributed to the reduction of grain size in the annealed Ni-Mn-Ga particles.

  3. Heterogeneous sono-Fenton-like process using martite nanocatalyst prepared by high energy planetary ball milling for treatment of a textile dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindarsafa, Mahsa; Khataee, Alireza; Kaymak, Baris; Vahid, Behrouz; Karimi, Atefeh; Rahmani, Amir

    2017-01-01

    High energy planetary ball milling was applied to prepare sono-Fenton nanocatalyst from natural martite (NM). The NM samples were milled for 2-6h at the speed of 320rpm for production of various ball milled martite (BMM) samples. The catalytic performance of the BMMs was greater than the NM for treatment of Acid Blue 92 (AB92) in heterogeneous sono-Fenton-like process. The NM and the BMM samples were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, EDX and BET analyses. The particle size distribution of the 6h-milled martite (BMM 3 ) was in the range of 10-90nm, which had the highest surface area compared to the other samples. Then, the impact of main operational parameters was investigated on the process. Complete removal of the dye was obtained at the desired conditions including initial pH 7, 2.5g/L BMM 3 dosage, 10mg/L AB92 concentration, and 150W ultrasonic power after 30min of treatment. The treatment process followed pseudo-first order kinetic. Environmentally-friendly modification of the NM, low leached iron amount and repeated application at milder pH were the significant benefits of the BMM 3 . The GC-MS was successfully used to identify the generated intermediates. Eventually, an artificial neural network (ANN) was applied to predict the AB92 removal efficiency based upon the experimental data with a proper correlation coefficient (R 2 =0.9836). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ball Milling Treatment of Black Dross for Selective Dissolution of Alumina in Sodium Hydroxide Leaching

    OpenAIRE

    Thi Thuy Nhi Nguyen; Man Seung Lee; Thi Hong Nguyen

    2018-01-01

    A process consisting of ball milling followed by NaOH leaching was developed to selectively dissolve alumina from black dross. From the ball milling treatment, it was found that milling speed greatly affected the leaching behavior of silica and the oxides of Ca, Fe, Mg, and Ti present in dross. The leaching behavior of the mechanically activated dross was investigated by varying NaOH concentration, leaching temperature and time, and pulp density. In most of the leaching conditions, only alumi...

  5. Simulation of ball motion and energy transfer in a planetary ball mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Sheng-Yong; Mao Qiong-Jing; Li Xiao-Dong; Yan Jian-Hua; Peng Zheng

    2012-01-01

    A kinetic model is proposed for simulating the trajectory of a single milling ball in a planetary ball mill, and a model is also proposed for simulating the local energy transfer during the ball milling process under no-slip conditions. Based on the kinematics of ball motion, the collision frequency and power are described, and the normal impact forces and effective power are derived from analyses of collision geometry. The Hertzian impact theory is applied to formulate these models after having established some relationships among the geometric, dynamic, and thermophysical parameters. Simulation is carried out based on two models, and the effects of the rotation velocity of the planetary disk Ω and the vial-to-disk speed ratio ω/Ω on other kinetic parameters is investigated. As a result, the optimal ratio ω/Ω to obtain high impact energy in the standard operating condition at Ω = 800 rpm is estimated, and is equal to 1.15. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  6. Attempted - to -Phase Conversion of Croconic Acid via Ball Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-18

    ARL-TN-0824 MAY 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Attempted α- to β-Phase Conversion of Croconic Acid via Ball Milling by...Laboratory Attempted α- to β-Phase Conversion of Croconic Acid via Ball Milling by Steven W Dean, Rose A Pesce-Rodriguez, and Jennifer A Ciezak...

  7. Improved hydrogen sorption kinetics in wet ball milled Mg hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Li

    2011-05-04

    In this work, wet ball milling method is used in order to improve hydrogen sorption behaviour due to its improved microstructure of solid hydrogen materials. Compared to traditional ball milling method, wet ball milling has benefits on improvement of MgH{sub 2} microstructure and further influences on its hydrogen sorption behavior. With the help of solvent tetrahydrofuran (THF), wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder has much smaller particle size and its specific surface area is 7 times as large as that of dry ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder. Although after ball milling the grain size is decreased a lot compared to as-received MgH{sub 2} powder, the grain size of wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder is larger than that of dry ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder due to the lubricant effect of solvent THF during wet ball milling. The improved particle size and specific surface area of wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder is found to be determining its hydrogen sorption kinetics especially at relatively low temperatures. And it also shows good cycling sorption behavior, which decides on its industrial applicability. With three different catalysts MgH{sub 2} powder shows improved hydrogen sorption behavior as well as the cyclic sorption behavior. Among them, the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalyst is found to be the most effective one in this work. Compared to the wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder, the particle size and specific surface area of the MgH{sub 2} powder with catalysts are similar to the previous ones, while the grain size of the MgH{sub 2} with catalysts is much finer. In this case, two reasons for hydrogen sorption improvement are suggested: one is the reduction of the grain size. The other may be as pointed out in some literatures that formation of new oxidation could enhance the hydrogen sorption kinetics, which is also the reason why its hydrogen capacity is decreased compared to without catalysts. After further ball milling, the specific surface area of wet ball milled Mg

  8. Grinding arrangement for ball nose milling cutters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, C. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A grinding arrangement for spiral fluted ball nose end mills and like tools includes a tool holder for positioning the tool relative to a grinding wheel. The tool is mounted in a spindle within the tool holder for rotation about its centerline and the tool holder is pivotably mounted for angular movement about an axis which intersects that centerline. A follower arm of a cam follower secured to the spindle cooperates with a specially shaped cam to provide rotation of the tool during the angular movement of the tool holder during the grinding cycle, by an amount determined by the cam profile. In this way the surface of the cutting edge in contact with the grinding wheel is maintained at the same height on the grinding wheel throughout the angular movement of the tool holder during the grinding cycle.

  9. Recycling process for recovery of gallium from GaN an e-waste of LED industry through ball milling, annealing and leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, Basudev, E-mail: swain@iae.re.kr; Mishra, Chinmayee; Kang, Leeseung; Park, Kyung-Soo, E-mail: kspark@iae.re.kr; Lee, Chan Gi; Hong, Hyun Seon, E-mail: hshong@iae.re.kr

    2015-04-15

    Waste dust generated during manufacturing of LED contains significant amounts of gallium and indium, needs suitable treatment and can be an important resource for recovery. The LED industry waste dust contains primarily gallium as GaN. Leaching followed by purification technology is the green and clean technology. To develop treatment and recycling technology of these GaN bearing e-waste, leaching is the primary stage. In our current investigation possible process for treatment and quantitative leaching of gallium and indium from the GaN bearing e-waste or waste of LED industry dust has been developed. To recycle the waste and quantitative leaching of gallium, two different process flow sheets have been proposed. In one, process first the GaN of the waste the LED industry dust was leached at the optimum condition. Subsequently, the leach residue was mixed with Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, ball milled followed by annealing, again leached to recover gallium. In the second process, the waste LED industry dust was mixed with Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, after ball milling and annealing, followed acidic leaching. Without pretreatment, the gallium leaching was only 4.91 w/w % using 4 M HCl, 100 °C and pulp density of 20 g/L. After mechano-chemical processing, both these processes achieved 73.68 w/w % of gallium leaching at their optimum condition. The developed process can treat and recycle any e-waste containing GaN through ball milling, annealing and leaching. - Highlights: • Simplest process for treatment of GaN an LED industry waste developed. • The process developed recovers gallium from waste LED waste dust. • Thermal analysis and phase properties of GaN to Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} and GaN to NaGaO{sub 2} revealed. • Solid-state chemistry involved in this process reported. • Quantitative leaching of the GaN was achieved.

  10. Surface modification of titanium hydride with epoxy resin via microwave-assisted ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning, Rong; Chen, Ding; Zhang, Qianxia; Bian, Zhibing; Dai, Haixiong; Zhang, Chi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • TiH 2 was modified with epoxy resin by microwave-assisted ball milling. • The epoxy ring was opened under the coupling effect of microwave and ball milling. • Microwave-assisted ball milling improved the compatibility of TiH 2 with epoxy. - Abstract: Surface modification of titanium hydride with epoxy resin was carried out via microwave-assisted ball milling and the products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermo-gravimetry (TG) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). A sedimentation test was performed to investigate the compatibility of the modified nano titanium hydride with the epoxy resin. The results show that the epoxy resin molecules were grafted on the surface of nano titanium hydride particles during the microwave-assisted ball milling process, which led to the improvement of compatibility between the nanoparticles and epoxy resin. According to the FT-IR, the grafting site was likely to be located around the epoxy group due to the fact that the epoxy ring was opened. However, compared with microwave-assisted ball milling, the conventional ball milling could not realize the surface modification, indicating that the coupling effect of mechanical force and microwave played a key role during the process

  11. Micro structrual characterization and analysis of ball milled silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusudan, B. M.; Raju, H. P.; Ghanaraja., S.

    2018-04-01

    Mechanical alloying has been one of the prominent methods of powder synthesis technique in solid state involving cyclic deformation, cold welding and fracturing of powder particles. Powder particles in this method are subjected to greater mechanical deformation due to the impact of ball-powder-ball and ball-powder-container collisions that occurs during mechanical alloying. Strain hardening and fracture of particles decreases the size of the particles and creates new surfaces. The objective of this Present work is to use ball milling of SiC powder for different duration of 5, 10, 15 and 20 hours by High energy planetary ball milling machine and to evaluate the effect of ball milling on SiC powder. Micro structural Studies using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and EDAX has been investigated.

  12. Reactive-inspired ball-milling synthesis of an ODS steel: study of the influence of ball-milling and annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocq, M.

    2010-10-01

    In the context of the development of new ODS (Oxide Dispersion Strengthened) steels as core materials in future nuclear reactors, we investigated a new process inspired by reactive ball-milling which consists in using YFe 3 andFe 2 O 3 as starting reactants instead of Y 2 O 3 to produce a dispersion of nano-oxides in a steel matrix and the influence of synthesis conditions on the nano-oxide characteristics were studied. For that aim, ODS steels were prepared by ball-milling and then annealed. Multi-scale characterizations were performed after each synthesis step, using notably atom probe tomography and small angle neutron scattering. The process inspired by reactive ball-milling was shown to be efficient for ODS steel synthesis, but it does not modify the nano-oxide characteristics as compared to those of oxides directly incorporated in the matrix by ball-milling. Broadly speaking, the nature of the starting oxygen bearing reactants has no influence on nano-oxide formation. Moreover, we showed that the nucleation of nano-oxides nucleation can start during milling and continues during annealing with a very fast kinetic. The final characteristics of nano-oxides formed in this way can be monitored through ball-milling parameters (intensity, temperature and atmosphere) and annealing parameters (duration and temperature). (author)

  13. Flank wear and I-kaz 3D correlation in ball end milling process of Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.S.M. Tahir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tool wear may deteriorate the machine product quality due to high surface roughness, dimension exceeding tolerance and also to machine tool itself. Tool wear monitoring system is vital to be used in machining process to achieve high quality of the machined product and at the same time improve the productivity. Nowadays, many monitoring system developed using various sensor and statistical technique to analyze the signals being used. In this paper, I-kaz 3D method is used to analyze cutting force signal in milling process of Inconel 718 for monitoring the status of tool wear in milling process. The results from analyzing cutting force show that I-kaz 3D coefficient has a correlation with cutting tool condition. Tool wear will generate high value of I-kaz 3D coefficient than the sharp cutting tool. Furthermore, the three dimension graphical representation of I-kaz 3D for all cutting condition shown that the degree of scattering data increases with tool wear progression.

  14. Effect of high-energy ball milling in the structural and textural properties of kaolinite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Leonel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Through the process of high-energy ball milling it is possible to obtain solid materials with higher surface area and different particle sizes. These characteristics are very important for some application such as adsorption. Besides, applications of some clays depend on the functionalization which, for kaolinite, takes place in the aluminol groups. Modification in the structural and textural properties of kaolinite by high-energy milling can improve functionalization of kaolinite due to the exposure of aluminol groups. In this work studies were done on the influence of high-energy ball milling on the morphological properties of kaolinite, taking into account parameters such as filling of the miller, number of balls and amount of mass to be milled. Moreover, studies involving milling kinetics of purified kaolinite were carried out to verify modification in the morphology of kaolinite with milling time.

  15. Colloidal Precursors from 'Ball-Milling in Liquid Medium' Process for CuInSe2 Thin Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jae Hoon; Kim, Seung Joo

    2010-01-01

    CIS thin film can be fabricated by using the precursor obtained through ball-milling the elemental reagents in liquid media. The amorphous colloidal precursor with good dispersity was prepared in the medium that contains strong base and polar solvent (2 M ethylenediamine in DMF solution as used in this study). The 'ball-milling in liquid medium' method requires only elemental sources as starting materials and a proper solution so that it can be employed without additional processes for separation and purification. As a simple and less-toxic preparative route, this method would be practically available to prepare CIS-related solar cells. CuInSe 2 (CIS) and related chalcopyrite compounds are very promising materials for thin film solar cells due to their favorable band gap, high optical absorption coefficient and long-term stability. CIS-based solar cells have shown the highest conversion efficiency reaching a value of 20%. However, the vacuum-based processes that are used to fabricate CIS thin-films have some drawbacks such as the complexity in process, high production cost and difficulty in scaling up. Recently, several research groups have proposed different non-vacuum deposition processes for CIS solar cell. For example, H. W. Hillhouse et al. prepared the CIS absorber layer by using 'nanocrystal ink method' in which a colloidal nanocrystal ink was obtained from reaction of CuCl, InCl 3 and Se in oleylamine. D. B. Mitzi et al. used a solution-based precursor that was prepared by dissolution of Cu 2 Se, In 2 Se 3 , Ga 2 Se 3 and Se in hydrazine to fabricate the Ga-containing absorber layer, Cu(In,Ga)Se 2

  16. Mechanical and Microstructure Study of Nickel-Based ODS Alloys Processed by Mechano-Chemical Bonding and Ball Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amare, Belachew N.

    Due to the need to increase the efficiency of modern power plants, land-based gas turbines are designed to operate at high temperature creating harsh environments for structural materials. The elevated turbine inlet temperature directly affects the materials at the hottest sections, which includes combustion chamber, blades, and vanes. Therefore, the hottest sections should satisfy a number of material requirements such as high creep strength, ductility at low temperature, high temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance. Such requirements are nowadays satisfied by implementing superalloys coated by high temperature thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems to protect from high operating temperature required to obtain an increased efficiency. Oxide dispersive strengthened (ODS) alloys are being considered due to their high temperature creep strength, good oxidation and corrosion resistance for high temperature applications in advanced power plants. These alloys operating at high temperature are subjected to different loading systems such as thermal, mechanical, and thermo-mechanical combined loads at operation. Thus, it is critical to study the high temperature mechanical and microstructure properties of such alloys for their structural integrity. The primary objective of this research work is to investigate the mechanical and microstructure properties of nickel-based ODS alloys produced by combined mechano-chemical bonding (MCB) and ball milling subjected to high temperature oxidation, which are expected to be applied for high temperature turbine coating with micro-channel cooling system. Stiffness response and microstructure evaluation of such alloy systems was studied along with their oxidation mechanism and structural integrity through thermal cyclic exposure. Another objective is to analyze the heat transfer of ODS alloy coatings with micro-channel cooling system using finite element analysis (FEA) to determine their feasibility as a stand-alone structural

  17. Ball-milling-induced crystallization and ball-milling effect on thermal crystallization kinetics in an amorphous FeMoSiB alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, F.Q.; Lu, K.

    1997-01-01

    Microstructure evolution in a melt-spun amorphous Fe 77.2 Mo 0.8 Si 9 B 13 alloy subjected to high-energy ball milling was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), a transmission electron microscope (TEM), and a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). It was found that during ball milling, crystallization occurs in the amorphous ribbon sample with precipitation of an α-Fe solid solution, and the amorphous sample crystallizes completely into a single α-Fe nanostructure (rather than α-Fe and borides as in the usual thermal crystallization products) when the milling time exceeds 135 hours. The volume fraction of material crystallized was found to be approximately proportional to the milling time. The fully crystallized sample with a single α-Fe nanophase exhibits an intrinsic thermal stability against phase separation upon annealing at high temperatures. The ball-milling effect on the subsequent thermal crystallization of the amorphous phase in an as-milled sample was studied by comparison of the crystallization products and kinetic parameters between the as-quenched amorphous sample and the as-milled sample was studied by comparison of the crystallization products and kinetic parameters between the as-quenched amorphous sample and the as-milled partially crystallized samples. The crystallization temperatures and activation energies for the crystallization processes of the residual amorphous phase were considerably decreased due to ball milling, indicating that ball milling has a significant effect on the depression of thermal stability of the residual amorphous phase

  18. High-Energy Ball-Milling of Alloys and Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Caer, G.; Delcroix, P.; Begin-Colin, S.; Ziller, T.

    2002-01-01

    After outlining some characteristics of high-energy ball-milling, we discuss selected examples of phase transformation and of alloy synthesis which focus on deviations from archetypal behaviours and throw light on the milling mechanisms. Some contributions of Moessbauer spectrometry to the characterization of ground materials are described.

  19. The effect of intermediate stop and ball size in fabrication of recycled steel powder using ball milling from machining steel chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitri, M.W.M.; Shun, C.H.; Rizam, S.S.; Shamsul, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    A feasibility study for producing recycled steel powder from steel scrap by ball milling was carried out. Steel scrap from machining was used as a raw material and was milled using planetary ball milling. Three samples were prepared in order to study the effect of intermediate stop and ball size. Sample with intermediate stop during milling process showed finer particle size compared to the sample with continuous milling. Decrease in the temperature of the vial during the intermediate stop milling gives less ductile behaviour to the steel powder, which is then easily work-hardened and fragmented to fine powder. Mixed small and big size ball give the best production of recycled steel powder where it gives higher impact force to the scrap and accelerate the fragmentation of the steel scrap into powder. (author)

  20. Ball milling of chalcopyrite: Moessbauer spectroscopy and XRD studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollak, H.; Fernandes, M.; Levendis, D.; Schonig, L.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this project is to study the behavior of chalcopyrite under ball milling for extended periods in order to determine how it's decompose or transform. Tests were done with chalcopyrite mixed with iron and zinc with and without surfactant. The use of surfactants has various effects such as avoiding oxidation and clustering of the fine particles. In all case magnetic chalcopyrite is transformed into a paramagnetic component showing a disordered structure, thus revealing that Cu atoms have replaced Fe atoms. In the case of ball milling in air, chalcopyrite is decomposed with the lost of iron, while in milling under surfactants, iron enters into the chalcopyrite structure. (author)

  1. Hydrophilic functionalized silicon nanoparticles produced by high energy ball milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmann, Steffen

    The mechanochemical synthesis of functionalized silicon nanoparticles using High Energy Ball Milling (HEBM) is described. This method facilitates the fragmentation of mono crystalline silicon into the nanometer regime and the simultaneous surface functionalization of the formed particles. The surface functionalization is induced by the reaction of an organic liquid, such as alkynes and alkenes with reactive silicon sites. This method can be applied to form water soluble silicon nanoparticles by lipid mediated micelle formation and the milling in organic liquids containing molecules with bi-functional groups, such as allyl alcohol. Furthermore, nanometer sized, chloroalkyl functionalized particles can be synthesized by milling the silicon precursor in the presence of an o-chloroalkyne with either alkenes or alkynes as coreactants. This process allows tuning of the concentration of the exposed, alkyl linked chloro groups, simply by varying the relative amounts of the coreactant. The silicon nanoparticles that are formed serve as the starting point for a wide variety of chemical reactions, which may be used to alter the surface properties of the functionalized nanoparticles. Finally, the use of functionalized silicon particles for the production of superhydrophobic films is described. Here HEBM proves to be an efficient method to produce functionalized silicon particles, which can be deposited to form a stable coating exhibiting superhydrophobic properties. The hydrophobicity of the silicon film can be tuned by the milling time and thus the resulting surface roughness of the films.

  2. Nanocrystalline TiAl powders synthesized by high-energy ball milling: effects of milling parameters on yield and contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Prajina; Bellon, Pascal; Averback, Robert S.; Hales, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    High-energy ball milling was employed to produce nanocrystalline Ti-Al powders. As sticking of the powders can be sufficiently severe to result in a near zero yield, emphasis was placed on varying milling conditions so as to increase the yield, while avoiding contamination of the powders. The effects of milling parameters such as milling tools, initial state of the powders and addition of process control agents (PCA's) were investigated. Cyclohexane, stearic acid and titanium hydride were used as PCA's. Milling was conducted either in a Cr-steel vial with C-steel balls, or in a tungsten carbide (WC) vial with WC balls, using either elemental or pre-alloyed powders. Powder samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. In the absence of PCA's mechanical alloying in a WC vial and attrition milling in a Cr-steel vial were shown to lead to satisfactory yields, about 65-80%, without inducing any significant contamination of the powders. The results suggest that sticking of the powders on to the milling tools is correlated with the phase evolution occurring in these powders during milling

  3. Preparation of iron sulphides by high energy ball milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, R.; Jiang, Jianzhong; Larsen, R.K.

    1998-01-01

    The reaction of a powder mixture consisting of 50 a.% Fe and 50 a.% S during high energy ball milling has been studied by x-ray diffraction and Mossbauer spectroscopy. After around 19 h of milling FeS2 and FeS havebeen formed. By further milling the FeS compound becomes dominating and only Fe......S with an average crystallite size of about 10 nm was observed after milling times longer than 67 h. Mossbauer spectra obtained with applied fields show that the particles are antiferromagnetic or have a strongly canted spin structure....

  4. High-energy ball milling of powder B-C mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Alfeu S.; Taguchi, Simone P.; Ramos, Erika C.T.; Arantes, Vera L.; Ribeiro, Sebastiao

    2006-01-01

    The present work reports on the preparation of B-10 at.% C and B-18 at.% C powders by high-energy ball milling and further heat treatment. The milling process was carried out in a planetary ball mill. Following the milling process, powder samples were heat-treated at 1200 deg. C for 4 h using inert atmosphere. The milled and heat-treated B-10C and B-18C powders were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. A reduction on the intensity of B and C peaks was noticed after milling for 2 h, probably due the fine powder particle sizes because the pronounced fracture mechanism during ball milling of brittle starting components. The XRD patterns of B-10C and B-18C powders milled for 6 h indicated the presence of other peaks, suggesting that a metastable structure could have been formed. After milling for 90 h, these unknown peaks were still present. A large amount of B 4 C was formed after heat treatment at 1200 deg. C for 4 h beside these unknown peaks

  5. A study on a new algorithm to optimize ball mill system based on modeling and GA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Heng; Jia Minping; Huang Peng; Chen Zuoliang

    2010-01-01

    Aiming at the disadvantage of conventional optimization method for ball mill pulverizing system, a novel approach based on RBF neural network and genetic algorithm was proposed in the present paper. Firstly, the experiments and measurement for fill level based on vibration signals of mill shell was introduced. Then, main factors which affected the power consumption of ball mill pulverizing system were analyzed, and the input variables of RBF neural network were determined. RBF neural network was used to map the complex non-linear relationship between the electric consumption and process parameters and the non-linear model of power consumption was built. Finally, the model was optimized by genetic algorithm and the optimal work conditions of ball mill pulverizing system were determined. The results demonstrate that the method is reliable and practical, and can reduce the electric consumption obviously and effectively.

  6. Dry grinding of talc in a stirred ball mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cayirli Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate micro fine size dry grindability of talc in a stirred ball mill. The effects of various parameters such as grinding time, stirrer speed, powder filling ratio and ball filling ratio were investigated. Alumina balls were used as grinding media. Experiments were carried out using the 24 full factorial design. The main and interaction effects were evaluated using the Yates method. Test results were evaluated on the basis of product size and surface area.

  7. The grinding behavior of ground copper powder for Cu/CNT nanocomposite fabrication by using the dry grinding process with a high-speed planetary ball mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Heekyu; Bor, Amgalan; Sakuragi, Shiori; Lee, Jehyun; Lim, Hyung-Tae

    2016-01-01

    The behavior of ground copper powder for copper-carbon nanotube (copper-CNT) nanocomposite fabrication during high-speed planetary ball milling was investigated because the study of the behavior characteristics of copper powder has recently gained scientific interest. Also, studies of Cu/CNT composites have widely been done due to their useful applications to enhanced, advanced nano materials and components, which would significantly improve the properties of new mechatronics-integrated materials and components. This study varied experimental conditions such as the rotation speed and the grinding time with and without CNTs, and the particle size distribution, median diameter, crystal structure and size, and particle morphology were monitored for a given grinding time. We observed that pure copper powders agglomerated and that the morphology changed with changing rotation speed. The particle agglomerations were observed with maximum experiment conditions (700 rpm, 60 min) in this study of the grinding process for mechanical alloys in the case of pure copper powders because the grinding behavior of Cu/CNT agglomerations was affected by the addition of CNTs. Indeed, the powder morphology and the crystal size of the composite powder could be changed by increasing the grinding time and the rotation speed.

  8. Barium Ferrite Ball Milled in Vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, S.J.; Wu, E.; Kaczmarek, W.A.; Wang, G.

    1998-01-01

    The structural and magnetic behaviour of BaFe 12 O 19 subjected to milling in vacuum for 1000 h has been investigated by x-ray powder diffraction and Moessbauer effect spectroscopy techniques. Pronounced structural disorder is obtained along with partial decomposition of BaFe 12 O 19 to α-Fe 2 O 3 and evidence for superparamagnetic relaxation effects due to the fine particles produced on milling. Restoration of the fully crystallised BaFe 12 O 19 structure on annealing at 1000 deg. C is accompanied by a six fold enhancement in the magnetic coercivity. This behaviour is linked with the fine crystallites

  9. Comprehensive characterization of ball-milled powders simulating a tribofilm system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Häusler, I., E-mail: ines.haeusler@bam.de; Dörfel, I., E-mail: Ilona.doerfel@bam.de; Peplinski, B., E-mail: Burkhard.peplinski@bam.de; Dietrich, P.M., E-mail: Paul.dietrich@yahoo.de; Unger, W.E.S., E-mail: Wolfgang.Unger@bam.de; Österle, W., E-mail: Werner.Oesterle@bam.de

    2016-01-15

    A model system was used to simulate the properties of tribofilms which form during automotive braking. The model system was prepared by ball milling of a blend of 70 vol.% iron oxides, 15 vol.% molybdenum disulfide and 15 vol.% graphite. The resulting mixture was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and various transmission electron microscopic (TEM) methods, including energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), high resolution investigations (HRTEM) with corresponding simulation of the HRTEM images, diffraction methods such as scanning nano-beam electron diffraction (SNBED) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). It could be shown that the ball milling caused a reduction of the grain size of the initial components to the nanometer range. Sometimes even amorphization or partial break-down of the crystal structure was observed for MoS{sub 2} and graphite. Moreover, chemical reactions lead to a formation of surface coverings of the nanoparticles by amorphous material, molybdenum oxides, and iron sulfates as derived from XPS. - Highlights: • Ball milling of iron oxides, MoS{sub 2}, and graphite to simulate a tribofilm • Increasing coefficient of friction after ball milling of the model blend • Drastically change of the diffraction pattern of the powder mixture • TEM & XPS showed the components of the milled mixture and the process during milling. • MoS{sub 2} and graphite suffered a loss in translation symmetry or became amorphous.

  10. Performance Study of Graphite Anode Slurry in Lithium-ion Flow Battery by Ball Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FENG Cai-mei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Graphite anode slurry of lithium-ion flow battery was prepared by the method of ball milling. The morphology, conductivity, specific capacity and cycle performance of graphite anode slurry were studied. Results show that the addition of conductive carbon material can improve the suspension stability of the electrode slurry; the ball milling process can not only improve the suspension stability but also reduce the resistivity of the mixed powders of graphite and conductive carbon materials, the ball milling effect is satisfactory when the mass ratio of the balls and the solid particles is 5:1, but too high ratio of the milling ball and the solid materials can destroy the layer structure of the graphite and affect the stability of the slurry. Increasing the fraction of the graphite and conductive carbon materials can form stable electrical network structure in the slurry and improve the reversible capacity; at the premise of keeping the flowability of the electrode slurry, the reversible specific capacity can be more than 40mAh/g. The capacity loss of graphite anode slurry mainly occurs in the first charging-discharging process, as the increase of the cycles, the capacity loss rate decreases, the capacity goes stable after 5 cycles.

  11. Microstructural Evolution, Thermodynamics, and Kinetics of Mo-Tm2O3 Powder Mixtures during Ball Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Luo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The microstructural evolution, thermodynamics, and kinetics of Mo (21 wt % Tm2O3 powder mixtures during ball milling were investigated using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Ball milling induced Tm2O3 to be decomposed and then dissolved into Mo crystal. After 96 h of ball milling, Tm2O3 was dissolved completely and the supersaturated nanocrystalline solid solution of Mo (Tm, O was obtained. The Mo lattice parameter increased with increasing ball-milling time, opposite for the Mo grain size. The size and lattice parameter of Mo grains was about 8 nm and 0.31564 nm after 96 h of ball milling, respectively. Ball milling induced the elements of Mo, Tm, and O to be distributed uniformly in the ball-milled particles. Based on the semi-experimental theory of Miedema, a thermodynamic model was developed to calculate the driving force of phase evolution. There was no chemical driving force to form a crystal solid solution of Tm atoms in Mo crystal or an amorphous phase because the Gibbs free energy for both processes was higher than zero. For Mo (21 wt % Tm2O3, it was mechanical work, not the negative heat of mixing, which provided the driving force to form a supersaturated nanocrystalline Mo (Tm, O solid solution.

  12. Facile synthesis technology of Li_3V_2(PO_4)_3/C adding H_2O_2 in ball mill process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Xiujuan; Mu, Deying; Li, Ruhong; Dai, Changsong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sintering time of Li_3V_2(PO_4)_3 reduced to 6 hours by adding hydrogen peroxide. • Electrochemical performance of Li_3V_2(PO_4)_3 was improved by reducing sintering time. • The Li_3V_2(PO_4)_3 production process was simplified during material synthesis stage. - Abstract: Li_3V_2(PO_4)_3/C has stable structure, high theory specific capacity and good safety performance, therefore it has become the research focus of lithium-ion batteries in recent years. The facile synthesis technology of Li_3V_2(PO_4)_3/C was characterized by adding different amounts of H_2O_2. Structure and morphology characteristics were examined by XRD, TG, Raman Spectroscopy, XPS and SEM. Electrochemical performance was investigated by constant current charging and discharging test. The results revealed that the Li_3V_2(PO_4)_3/C electrochemical performance of adding 15 mL H_2O_2 was better after sintering during 6 h. At the charge cut-off voltage of 4.3 V, the first discharge capacity at 0.2 C rate reached 127 mAh g"−"1. Because of adding H_2O_2 in the ball-mill dispersant, the vanadium pentoxide formed the wet sol. The molecular-leveled mixture increased the homogeneity of raw materials. Therefore, the addition of H_2O_2 shortened the sintering time and significantly improved the electrochemical performance of Li_3V_2(PO_4)_3/C.

  13. Magnetoresistivity and microstructure of YBa2Cu3Oy prepared using planetary ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrita, A.; Ben Azzouz, F.; Madani, A.; Ben Salem, M.

    2012-01-01

    Superconducting properties of YBa 2 Cu 3 O y prepared using planetary ball milling were studied. Y-deficient YBa 2 Cu 3 O y nanoparticles are embedded in the superconducting matrix. Ball milled sample exhibits a large magnetoresistivity in weak magnetic fields at 77 K. We have studied the microstructure and the magnetoresistivity of polycrystalline YBa 2 Cu 3 O y (YBCO or Y-123 for brevity) embedded with nanoparticles of Y-deficient YBCO, generated by the planetary ball milling technique. Bulk samples were synthesized from a precursor YBCO powder, which was prepared from commercial high purity Y 2 O 3 , Ba 2 CO 3 and CuO via a one-step annealing process in air at 950 °C. After planetary ball milling of the precursor, the powder was uniaxially pressed and subsequently annealed at 950 °C in air. Phase analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD), granular structure examination by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), microstructure investigation by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) were carried out. TEM analyses show that nanoparticles of Y-deficient YBCO, generated by ball milling, are embedded in the superconducting matrix. Electrical resistance as a function of temperature, ρ(T), revealed that the zero resistance temperature, T co , is 84.5 and 90 K for the milled and unmilled samples respectively. The milled ceramics exhibit a large magnetoresistance in weak magnetic fields at liquid nitrogen temperature. This attractive effect is of high significance as it makes these materials promising candidates for practical application in magnetic field sensor devices.

  14. Magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Fe–10%Ni alloy obtained by planetary ball mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzaoui, Rabah; Elkedim, Omar

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Solid solution formation accompanied by a grain refinement for nanocrystalline Fe-Ni. •The shock mode process (SMP) prevails when Ω > >ω. •The friction mode process (FMP) is stronger when Ω < <ω. •The FMP leads to the formation of alloys exhibiting a soft magnetic behavior. -- Abstract: Planetary ball mill PM 400 from Retsch (with different milling times for Ω = 400 rpm, ω = 800 rpm) and P4 vario ball mill from Fritsch (with different milling conditions (Ω/ω), Ω and ω being the disc and the vial rotation speeds, respectively) are used for obtaining nanocrystalline Fe–10wt% Ni. The structure and magnetic properties are studied by using X-ray diffraction, SEM and hysteresis measurements, respectively. The bcc-Fe(Ni) phase formation is identified by X-ray diffraction. The higher the shock power and the higher milling time are, the larger the bcc lattice parameter and the lower the grain size. The highest value of the coercivity is 1600 A/m for Fe–10 wt.%Ni (with shock mode (424 rpm/100 rpm) after 36 h of milling), while the lowest value is 189 A/m for (400 rpm/800 rpm) after 72 h of milling. The milling performed in the friction mode has been found to lead the formation of alloys exhibiting a soft magnetic behavior for nanocrystalline Fe–10%Ni

  15. Synthesis of Randomly Substituted Anionic Cyclodextrins in Ball Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Jicsinszky

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A number of influencing factors mean that the random substitution of cyclodextrins (CD in solution is difficult to reproduce. Reaction assembly in mechanochemistry reduces the number of these factors. However, lack of water can improve the reaction outcomes by minimizing the reagent’s hydrolysis. High-energy ball milling is an efficient, green and simple method for one-step reactions and usually reduces degradation and byproduct formation. Anionic CD derivatives have successfully been synthesized in the solid state, using a planetary ball mill. Comparison with solution reactions, the solvent-free conditions strongly reduced the reagent hydrolysis and resulted in products of higher degree of substitution (DS with more homogeneous DS distribution. The synthesis of anionic CD derivatives can be effectively performed under mechanochemical activation without significant changes to the substitution pattern but the DS distributions were considerably different from the products of solution syntheses.

  16. Effect of additional nickel on crystallization degree evolution of expanded graphite during ball-milling and annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liqin; Yue Xueqing; Zhang Fucheng; Zhang Ruijun

    2010-01-01

    Expanded graphite (EG) and a mixture of EG and nickel (EG-Ni system) were ball-milled and subsequently annealed, respectively. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). After 100 h milling, the average crystallite thickness (L c ) of EG and EG-Ni system deceases from 14.5 to 8.0 and 9.6 nm, respectively, while the interlayer spacing (d 002 ) increases from 0.3341 to 0.3371 and 0.3348 nm, respectively. It can be concluded that ball-milling decreases the crystallization degree of EG, while the additional nickel restrains this process. For the samples ball-milled for 80 h, the disorder parameter I D /(I D + I G ) ratio of EG and EG-Ni system is in the range of 20.7-55.8% and 31.7-45.8%, respectively, implying that the presence of nickel is beneficial to more homogeneous ball-milling of EG. When the samples after ball-milling for 80 h were annealed for 4 h, the average crystallite thickness of EG and EG-Ni system increases from 8.5 to 9.0 nm and from 11.8 to 15.5 nm, respectively. It is deduced that annealing improves the crystallization degree of ball-milled EG, and the additional nickel is helpful for this process.

  17. FePt magnetic particles prepared by surfactant-assisted ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco, V., E-mail: vvjimeno@fis.ucm.es [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-ADIF-CSIC, P.O. Box 155, Las Rozas 28230 (Spain); Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Hernando, A.; Crespo, P. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-ADIF-CSIC, P.O. Box 155, Las Rozas 28230 (Spain); Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    High-energy ball milling of Fe and Pt elemental powders has been carried out under dry and wet (in presence of solvent and surfactants) conditions. Dry milling leads to the formation of the disordered FCC-FePt alloy whereas by the wet milling procedure the main process is the decrease of Fe and Pt particle size, although some dissolution of Pt into Fe grains cannot be ruled out, and no hint of the formation of the FCC-FePt phase is observed even to milling times up to 20 h, as X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy indicates. The as-milled particles were annealed at 600 °C for 2 h under Ar atmosphere. It is noticed that the disordered fcc-FePt phase observed in particles milled under dry conditions transform to ordered fct phase characterized by a hard magnetic behavior with a coercive field up to 10,000 Oe. However, those particles milled in the surfactant/solvent medium exhibit a soft magnetic behavior with a coercive field of 600 Oe. These results indicate that wet high-energy ball milling is not an adequate technique for obtaining single-phase FePt particles. - Highlights: • FePt particles have been obtained by high-energy ball milling. • In the presence of surfactants and solvents, almost no alloying process takes place. • After annealing, the coercive field of the FePt alloy particles increases from 150 Oe to 10,000 Oe.

  18. Mechanically Induced Graphite-Nanodiamonds-Phase Transformations During High-Energy Ball Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Eskandarany, M. Sherif

    2017-05-01

    Due to their unusual mechanical, chemical, physical, optical, and biological properties, nearly spherical-like nanodiamonds have received much attention as desirable advanced nanomaterials for use in a wide spectrum of applications. Although, nanodiamonds can be successfully synthesized by several approaches, applications of high temperature and/or high pressure may restrict the real applications of such strategic nanomaterials. Distinct from the current preparation approaches used for nanodiamonds preparation, here we show a new process for preparing ultrafine nanodiamonds (3-5 nm) embedded in a homogeneous amorphous-carbon matrix. Our process started from high-energy ball milling of commercial graphite powders at ambient temperature under normal atmospheric helium gas pressure. The results have demonstrated graphite-single wall carbon nanotubes-amorphous-carbon-nanodiamonds phase transformations carried out through three subsequent stages of ball milling. Based on XRD and RAMAN analyses, the percentage of nanodiamond phase + C60 (crystalline phase) produced by ball milling was approximately 81%, while the amorphous phase amount was 19%. The pressure generated on the powder together the with temperature increase upon the ball-powder-ball collision is responsible for the phase transformations occurring in graphite powders.

  19. Effect of expansion temperature of expandable graphite on microstructure evolution of expanded graphite during high-energy ball-milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Xueqing; Li Liang; Zhang Ruijun; Zhang Fucheng

    2009-01-01

    Two expanded graphites (EG), marked as EG-1 and EG-2, were prepared by rapid heating of expandable graphite to 600 and 1000 deg. C, respectively, and ball milled in a high-energy mill (planetary-type) under air atmosphere. The microstructure evolution of the ball-milled samples was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). XRD analysis shows that the evolution degree of the average crystallite thickness along the c-axis (L c ) of EG-2 is lower than that of EG-1 during the milling process. From the HRTEM images of the samples after 100 h ball-milling, slightly curved graphene planes can be frequently observed both in the two EGs, however, EG-1 and EG-2 exhibit sharply curved graphene planes and smoothly curved graphene planes with high bending angles, respectively.

  20. Surface Generation Modeling in Ball Nose End Milling: a review of relevant literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano

    One of the most common metal removal operation used in industry is the milling process. This machining process is well known since the beginning of last century and has experienced, along the years, many improvements of the basic technology, as concerns tools, machine tools, coolants...... to be adjusted afterwards. Nevertheless, many efforts have been done during the last 50 years in order to realize prediction tools for machining processes and particularly for conventional turning and milling operations. Most of these models aim at prediction of cutting forces tool wear and tool life. However...... been addressed in this direction. Among all the machining operations, ball nose end milling has shown great potentials, particularly in machining of sculptured surfaces with high requirements in terms of surface finish; this is due to the good spatial agreement of the mill shape with the geometry...

  1. Synthesis of Ni-YSZ cermet for an electrode of high temperature electrolysis by high energy ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, H.S.; Chae, U.S.; Park, K.M.; Choo, S.T.

    2005-01-01

    Ni/YSZ composites for a cathode that can be used in high temperature electrolysis were prepared by ball milling of Ni and YSZ powder. Ball milling was performed in a dry process and in ethanol. The microstructure and electrical conductivity of the composites were examined by XRD, SEM, TEM and a 4-point probe. XRD patterns for both the dry and wet ball-milled powders showed that the composites were composed of crystalline Ni and YSZ particles. The patterns did not change with increases in the milling time up to 48 h. Dry-milling slightly increased the average particle size compared to starting Ni particles, but little change in the particle size was observed with the increase in milling time. On the other hand, the wet-milling reduced the average size and the increasing milling time induced a further decrease in the particle size. After cold-pressing and annealing at 900 C for 2 h, the dry-milled powder exhibited high stability against Ni sintering so that the particle size changed little, but the particle size increased in the wet-milled powder. The electrical conductivity increased after sintering at 900 C. Particles from the dry and wet process became denser and contacted closer after sintering, providing better electron migration paths. (orig.)

  2. Residual stresses analysis in ball end milling of nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Junteng; Zhang, Dinghua; Wu, Baohai; Luo, Ming [Key Laboratory of Contemporary Design and Integrated Manufacturing Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University (China)

    2017-11-15

    Inconel 718 is widely used in the aviation, space, automotive and biomedical industries because of its outstanding properties. Near-surface residual stresses that are induced by ball end milling in Inconel 718 can be crucial for the performance and service time of the machined parts. In this paper, the influences of cutting conditions, including the use of cutting parameters, cutting fluid and spindle angles, on the residual stresses in the ball end milling process of Inconel 718 alloy were investigated experimentally. X-ray diffraction measurements reveal that residual stress distributions are highly influenced by cutting parameters, especially the depth of cut and cutting speed. The milling operation with cooling induces more compressive stresses trend and the magnitude of the residual stresses increases in the tensile direction with the increase of spindle angles. These cutting induced effects were further discussed with respect to thermal- mechanical coupling theory and some observations made by optical microscopy. From this investigation, it is suggested that the machining process parameters are not the smaller the better for the control of residual stresses in the ball end milling process of Inconel 718. (author)

  3. Polycrystalline Nd2Fe14B/α-Fe nanocomposite flakes with a sub-micro/nanometre thickness prepared by surfactant-assisted high-energy ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xin; Chen, Xi; Chen, Renjie; Yan, Aru

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nd 2 Fe 14 B/α-Fe flakes are formed by peeling along preferential planes. • (0 0 l) planes are found to be preferential cleavage planes. • Magnetic properties degrade with increasing ball milling time. • Anisotropic nanocomposite magnets are fabricated. - Abstract: A surfactant-assisted high-energy ball milling technique was employed to synthesize Nd 2 Fe 14 B/α-Fe nanoparticles and nanoflakes from melt-spun nanocrystalline powders. The microstructure evolution in ball milling process was investigated. In the beginning stage (0–4 h) of ball milling, raw powders were crushed into micrometre-sized particles. While flakes were mainly formed by reducing thickness of particles via peeling layer by layer along preferential planes in the late stage (8–16 h). The selected area electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images show that preferential cleavage planes are basal planes. With ball milling proceeding, more and more defects were induced by ball milling. As a result, the coercivity and remanence decreased to 1.6 kOe and 3.2 kGs, respectively. After 16 h ball milling, the exchange decoupling occurred due to severe amorphorization. A weakly-textured nanocomposite magnet was fabricated after 12 h ball milling and the anisotropy in magnetic properties can be further improved by employing settling down process to select particle size and aligning particles in external field

  4. Ball Milling Assisted Solvent and Catalyst Free Synthesis of Benzimidazoles and Their Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Taghreed H; Aboelnaga, Asmaa; Hagar, Mohamed

    2016-08-24

    Benzoic acid and o-phenylenediamine efficiently reacted under the green solvent-free Ball Milling method. Several reaction parameters were investigated such as rotation frequency; milling balls weight and milling time. The optimum reaction condition was milling with 56.6 g weight of balls at 20 Hz frequency for one hour milling time. The study was extended for synthesis of a series of benzimidazol-2-one or benzimidazol-2-thione using different aldehydes; carboxylic acids; urea; thiourea or ammonium thiocyanate with o-phenylenediamine. Moreover; the alkylation of benzimidazolone or benzimidazolthione using ethyl chloroacetate was also studied.

  5. Discrete element method based scale-up model for material synthesis using ball milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, Priya Radhi

    Mechanical milling is a widely used technique for powder processing in various areas. In this work, a scale-up model for describing this ball milling process is developed. The thesis is a combination of experimental and modeling efforts. Initially, Discrete Element Model (DEM) is used to describe energy transfer from milling tools to the milled powder for shaker, planetary, and attritor mills. The rolling and static friction coefficients are determined experimentally. Computations predict a quasisteady rate of energy dissipation, E d, for each experimental configuration. It is proposed that the milling dose defined as a product of Ed and milling time, t, divided by the mass of milled powder, mp characterizes the milling progress independently of the milling device or milling conditions used. Once the milling dose is determined for one experimental configuration, it can be used to predict the milling time required to prepare the same material in any milling configuration, for which Ed is calculated. The concept is validated experimentally for DEM describing planetary and shaker mills. For attritor, the predicted Ed includes substantial contribution from milling tool interaction events with abnormally high forces (>103 N). The energy in such events is likely dissipated to heat or plastically deform milling tools rather than refine material. Indeed, DEM predictions for the attritor correlate with experiments when such events are ignored in the analysis. With an objective of obtaining real-time indicators of milling progress, power, torque, and rotation speed of the impeller of an attritor mill are measured during preparation of metal matrix composite powders in the subsequent portion of this thesis. Two material systems are selected and comparisons made between in-situ parameters and experimental milling progress indicators. It is established that real-time measurements can certainly be used to describe milling progress. However, they need to be interpreted carefully

  6. Synthesis of free standing nanocrystalline Cu by ball milling at cryogenic temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barai, K. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Bengal Engineering College, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India); Tiwary, C.S. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Chattopadhyay, P.P. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Bengal Engineering College, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India); Chattopadhyay, K., E-mail: kamanio@materials.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2012-12-15

    This paper reports for the first time synthesis of free standing nano-crystalline copper crystals of a {approx}30-40 nm by ball milling of copper powder at 150 K under Argon atmosphere in a specially designed cryomill. The detailed characterization of these particles using multiple techniques that includes transmission electron microscopy confirms our conclusion. Careful analysis of the chemistry of these particles indicates that these particles are essentially contamination free. Through the analysis of existing models of grain size refinements during ball milling and low temperature deformation, we argue that the suppression of thermal processes and low temperature leads to formation of free nanoparticles as the process of fracture dominates over possible cold welding at low temperatures.

  7. Rock Characteristics and Ball Mill Energy Requirements at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These changes can have great impact on milling operations. ... Goldfields Ghana Limited, Tarkwa Gold Mine (TGM), processes ores which occur in ... The parameters examined had deviated from the design; Work Index (WI) for example was ...

  8. Ammonia synthesis over multi-promoted iron catalysts obtained by high-energy ball-milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, C.J.H.; Jiang, Jianzhong; Mørup, Steen

    1999-01-01

    The feasibility of producing ammonia synthesis catalysts from high-energy ball-milling of a simple mixture of the constituent oxides has been investigated. The effect of ball-milling the fused oxidic precursor of the industrial KM1 ammonia synthesis catalyst has also been studied. The results show...

  9. Effects of processing parameters on the synthesis of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 nanopowders by reactive high-energy ball milling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc Van

    2014-01-01

    The effects of ball milling parameters, namely, the ball-to-powder mass ratio and milling speed, on the synthesis of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 nanopowders by high-energy ball milling method from a stoichiometric mixture containing Na2CO3, K2CO3, and Nb2O5 were investigated in this paper. The results indicated that the single crystalline phase of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 was received in as-milled samples synthesized using optimized ball-to-powder mass ratio of 35 : 1 and at a milling speed of 600 rpm for 5 h. In the optimized as-milled samples, no remaining alkali carbonates that can provide the volatilizable potassium-containing species were found and (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 nanopowders were readily obtained via the formation of an intermediate carbonato complex. This complex was mostly transformed into (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 at temperature as low as 350°C and its existence was no longer detected at spectroscopic level when calcination temperature crossed over 700°C.

  10. Characterization of Al2O3NP–Al2024 and AgCNP–Al2024 composites prepared by mechanical processing in a high energy ball mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreño-Gallardo, C.; Estrada-Guel, I.; Romero-Romo, M.; Cruz-García, R.; López-Meléndez, C.; Martínez-Sánchez, R.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Mechanical alloying was used to produce two kinds of metal matrix composites based on 2024 aluminum alloy, the nanocomposites were reinforced with different percentages of Al 2 O 3 and Ag C nanoparticles. The content of nanoparticles has a role important on the mechanical properties of the nanocomposite. 10 h of milling time are enough to former the Al 2024 nanocomposites. The results obtained by differential scanning calorimeter show the temperatures of intermetallic precipitation, which were identified by X-ray diffraction. The results revealed that mechanical alloying is an excellent route to incorporate and distribute NP into Al 2024 . Highlights: ► Aluminum-based nanocomposites were synthesized bay milling process. ► An homogeneous nanoparticles dispersion was reached and mechanical properties were enhanced. ► Phase transformation during heating was characterized by XRD. - Abstract: Mechanical alloying was used to produce two kinds of metal matrix composites based on 2024 aluminum alloy. The nanocomposites were reinforced with different percentages of Al 2 O 3 and Ag C nanoparticles. The content of nanoparticles has an important role on the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites. A milling time of 10 h is enough to form the Al 2024 nanocomposites. The thermograms obtained by differential scanning calorimeter show the temperatures of phase precipitation, which were identified by X-ray diffraction. The results revealed that mechanical alloying is an excellent route for the incorporation and distribution of nanoparticles into Al 2024 .

  11. Ball milled bauxite residue as a reinforcing filler in phosphate-based intumescent system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiat Ibironke Arogundade

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bauxite residue (BR is an alumina refinery waste with a global disposal problem. Of the 120 MT generated annually, only 3 MT is disposed via utilization. One of the significant challenges to sustainable utilization has been found to be the cost of processing. In this work, using ball milling, we achieved material modification of bauxite residue. Spectrometric imaging with FESEM showed the transformation from an aggregate structure to nano, platy particulates, leading to particle size homogeneity. BET analysis showed surface area was increased by 23%, while pH was reduced from 10.8 to 9.1 due to collapsing of the hydroxyl surface by the fracturing action of the ball mill. Incorporation of this into a phosphate-based fire retardant, intumescent formulation led to improved material dispersion and the formation of reinforcing heat shielding char nodules. XRD revealed the formation of ceramic metal phosphates which acted as an additional heat sink to the intumescent system, thereby reducing char oxidation and heat transfer to the substrate. Steel substrate temperature from a Bunsen burner test reduced by 33%. Therefore, ball milling can serve as a simple, low-cost processing route for the reuse of bauxite residue in intumescent composites.

  12. Determination of the boundary conditions of the grinding load in ball mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharapov, Rashid R.

    2018-02-01

    The prospects of application in ball mills for grinding cement clinker with inclined partitions are shown. It is noted that ball mills with inclined partitions are more effective. An algorithm is proposed for calculating the power consumed by a ball mill with inclined inter-chamber partitions in which an axial movement of the ball load takes place. The boundary conditions in which the ball load is located are determined. The equations of bounding the grinding load are determined. The behavior of a grinding load is considered in view of the characteristic cross sections. The coordinates of the centers of gravity of the grinding load with a definite step and the shape of the cross sections are determined. It is theoretically shown that grinding load in some parts of the ball mill not only consumes, but also helps to rotate the ball mill. Methods for calculating complex analytical expressions for determining the coordinates of the centers of gravity of the grinding load under the conditions of its longitudinal motion have developed. The carried out researches allow to approach from the general positions to research of behavior of a grinding load in the ball mills equipped with various in-mill devices.

  13. Comparative Study by MS and XRD of Fe{sub 50}Al{sub 50} Alloys Produced by Mechanical Alloying, Using Different Ball Mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas Martinez, Y., E-mail: yarojas@ut.edu.co [University of Tolima, Department of Physics (Colombia); Perez Alcazar, G. A. [University of Valle, Department of Physics (Colombia); Bustos Rodriguez, H.; Oyola Lozano, D., E-mail: doyolalozano@yahoo.com.mx [University of Tolima, Department of Physics (Colombia)

    2005-02-15

    In this work we report a comparative study of the magnetic and structural properties of Fe{sub 50}Al{sub 50} alloys produced by mechanical alloying using two different planetary ball mills with the same ball mass to powder mass relation. The Fe{sub 50}Al{sub 50} sample milled during 48 h using the Fritsch planetary ball mill pulverisette 5 and balls of 20 mm, presents only a bcc alloy phase with a majority of paramagnetic sites, whereas that sample milled during the same time using the Fritsch planetary ball mill pulverisette 7 with balls of 15 mm, presents a bcc alloy phase with paramagnetic site (doublet) and a majority of ferromagnetic sites which include pure Fe. However for 72 h of milling this sample presents a bcc paramagnetic phase, very similar to that prepared with the first system during 48 h. These results show that the conditions used in the first ball mill equipment make more efficient the milling process.

  14. Memory effect of ball-milled and annealed nanosized hematite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bercoff, P.G.; Bertorello, H.R.; Oliva, M.I.

    2007-01-01

    Fine particles of hematite (mean size 55 nm) were produced by ball milling a mixture of hematite and pure Fe and annealing at 1000 o C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Moessbauer spectroscopy show that only α-Fe 2 O 3 is present in the final product, with lattice and Moessbauer parameters that correspond to bulk hematite. ZFC and FC magnetization measurements were performed from 5 to 300 K, at different applied fields. Two magnetic regimes were observed: one at low temperatures (≤100 K) that we ascribe to the magnetic moments in the outer shell of the particles that couple to the magnetic moments in the core, and another at higher temperature that corresponds to the Morin transition, finding that the Morin temperature is T M =246 K. The memory effect is clearly observed in magnetic measurements that start from different remanence states and explained as dependent on the ordering of the magnetic moments within the particles

  15. The reduction of optimal heat treatment temperature and critical current density enhancement of ex situ processed MgB2 tapes using ball milled filling powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hiroki; Iwanade, Akio; Kawada, Satoshi; Kitaguchi, Hitoshi

    2018-01-01

    The optimal heat treatment temperature (Topt) at which best performance in the critical current density (Jc) property at 4.2 K is obtained is influenced by the quality or reactivity of the filling powder in ex situ processed MgB2 tapes. Using a controlled fabrication process, the Topt decreases to 705-735 °C, which is lower than previously reported by more than 50 °C. The Topt decrease is effective to suppress both the decomposition of MgB2 and hence the formation of impurities such as MgB4, and the growth of crystallite size which decreases upper critical filed (Hc2). These bring about the Jc improvement and the Jc value at 4.2 K and 10 T reaches 250 A/mm2. The milling process also decreases the critical temperature (Tc) below 30 K. The milled powder is easily contaminated in air and thus, the Jc property of the contaminated tapes degrades severely. The contamination can raise the Topt by more than 50 °C, which is probably due to the increased sintering temperature required against contaminated surface layer around the grains acting as a barrier.

  16. Microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of carbon nanotube reinforced aluminum alloy composites produced by ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raviathul Basariya, M.; Srivastava, V.C.; Mukhopadhyay, N.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 6082 Al alloy composite with 2 wt% multiwalled carbon nanotubes prepared by milling. • Effect of milling time on structure and property evolution has been studied. • The reinforced composite powders showed a drastic crystallite size refinement. • The presence of carbon nanotube led to a two fold increase in the hardness and modulus. • The composite powder showed good thermal stability studied by DTA. - Abstract: The influence of milling time on the structure, morphology and thermal stability of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) reinforced EN AW6082 aluminum alloy powders has been studied. After structural and microstructural characterization of the mechanically milled powders micro- and nano-hardness of the composite powder particles were evaluated. The morphological and X-ray diffraction studies on the milled powders revealed that the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were uniformly distributed and embedded within the aluminum matrix. No reaction products were detected even after long milling up to 50 h. Nanotubes became shorter in length as they fractured under the impact and shearing action during the milling process. A high hardness of about 436 ± 52 HV is achieved for the milled powders, due to the addition of MWCNTs, after milling for 50 h. The increased elastic modulus and nanohardness can be attributed to the finer grain size evolved during high energy ball milling and to the uniform distribution of hard CNTs in the Al-alloy matrix. The hardness values of the composite as well as the matrix alloy compares well with that predicted by the Hall–Petch relationship

  17. Synthesis of the Mg2Ni alloy prepared by mechanical alloying using a high energy ball mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iturbe G, J. L.; Lopez M, B. E.; Garcia N, M. R.

    2010-01-01

    Mg 2 Ni was synthesized by a solid state reaction from the constituent elemental powder mixtures via mechanical alloying. The mixture was ball milled for 10 h at room temperature in an argon atmosphere. The high energy ball mill used here was fabricated at ININ. A hardened steel vial and three steel balls of 12.7 mm in diameter were used for milling. The ball to powder weight ratio was 10:1. A small amount of powder was removed at regular intervals to monitor the structural changes. All the steps were performed in a little lucite glove box under argon gas, this glove box was also constructed in our Institute. The structural evolution during milling was characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The hydrogen reaction was carried out in a micro-reactor under controlled conditions of pressure and temperature. The hydrogen storage properties of mechanically milled powders were evaluated by using a thermogravimetric analysis system. Although homogeneous refining and alloying take place efficiently by repeated forging, the process time can be reduced to one fiftieth of the time necessary for conventional mechanical milling and attrition. (Author)

  18. Synthesis of the Mg{sub 2}Ni alloy prepared by mechanical alloying using a high energy ball mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iturbe G, J. L.; Lopez M, B. E. [ININ, Departamento de Quimica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Garcia N, M. R., E-mail: joseluis.iturbe@inin.gob.m [UNAM, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza, Batalla 5 de Mayo s/n, Esq. Fuerte de Loreto, Col. Ejercito de Oriente, 09230 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    Mg{sub 2}Ni was synthesized by a solid state reaction from the constituent elemental powder mixtures via mechanical alloying. The mixture was ball milled for 10 h at room temperature in an argon atmosphere. The high energy ball mill used here was fabricated at ININ. A hardened steel vial and three steel balls of 12.7 mm in diameter were used for milling. The ball to powder weight ratio was 10:1. A small amount of powder was removed at regular intervals to monitor the structural changes. All the steps were performed in a little lucite glove box under argon gas, this glove box was also constructed in our Institute. The structural evolution during milling was characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The hydrogen reaction was carried out in a micro-reactor under controlled conditions of pressure and temperature. The hydrogen storage properties of mechanically milled powders were evaluated by using a thermogravimetric analysis system. Although homogeneous refining and alloying take place efficiently by repeated forging, the process time can be reduced to one fiftieth of the time necessary for conventional mechanical milling and attrition. (Author)

  19. Structural and Magnetic Properties Evolution of Co-Nd Substituted M-type Hexagonal Strontium Ferrites Synthesized by Ball-Milling-Assisted Ceramic Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Wu, Wenwei; Zhou, Chong; Zhou, Shifang; Li, Miaoyu; Ning, Yu

    2018-03-01

    M-type hexagonal Sr1- x Co x Nd x Fe12- x O19 ( x = 0, 0.08, 0.16, and 0.24) has been synthesized by ball milling, followed by calcination in air. The calcined products have been characterized by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectra, and vibrating sample magnetometry. XRD and SEM analyses confirm the formation of M-type Sr hexaferrite with platelet-like morphology when Sr1- x Co x Nd x Fe12- x O19 ( x = 0, 0.08, 0.16, and 0.24) precursors are calcined at 950°C in air for 2.5 h. Lattice parameters " a" and " c" values of Sr1- x Co x Nd x Fe12- x O19 reflect a very small variation after doping of Nd3+ and Co2+ ions. Average crystallite size of Sr1- x Co x Nd x Fe12- x O19 sample, calcined at 1150°C, decreased obviously after doping of Co2+ and Nd3+ ions. This is because the bond energy of Nd3+-O2- is much larger than that of Sr2+-O2-. Magnetic characterization indicates that all the samples exhibit good magnetic properties. Substitution of Sr2+ and Fe3+ ions by Nd3+ and Co2+ ions can improve the specific saturation magnetizations and remanence of Sr1- x Co x Nd x Fe12- x O19. Sr0.84Co0.16Nd0.16Fe11.84O19, calcined at 1050°C, has the highest specific saturation magnetization value (74.75 ± 0.60 emu/g), remanence (45.15 ± 0.32 emu/g), and magnetic moment (14.34 ± 0.11 μ B); SrFe12O19, calcined at 1150°C, has the highest coercivity value (4037.01 ± 42.39 Oe). These magnetic parameters make this material a promising candidate for applications such as high-density magnetic recording and microwave absorbing materials.

  20. Effect of milling time on microstructure and properties of Nano-titanium polymer by high-energy ball milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Wei, Shicheng; Wang, Yujiang; Liang, Yi; Guo, Lei; Xue, Junfeng; Pan, Fusheng; Tang, Aitao; Chen, Xianhua; Xu, Binshi

    2018-03-01

    Nano-titanium (Nano-Ti) was prepared by high-energy ball milling from pure Ti power and grinding agents (Epoxy resin) at room temperature. The effect of milling time on structure and properties of Nano-Ti polymer were investigated systematically. The results show that high-energy ball milling is an effective way to produce Nano-Ti polymer. The dispersion stability and compatibility between Ti power and grinding agents are improved by prolonging the milling time at a certain degree, that is to say, the optimization milling time is 240 min. The particle size of Ti powder and the diffraction peaks intensity of Ti decrease obviously as the milling time increases due to the compression stress, shear friction and other mechanical forces are formed during ball milling. FT-IR result displays that the wavenumber of all the bands move to lower wavenumber after ball milling, and the epoxy ring is open. The system internal energy rises owing to the broken epoxy group and much more Nano-Ti is formed to promote the grafting reaction between Nano-Ti and epoxy resin. The results from TEM and XPS also prove that. And the grafting ration is maximum as the milling time is 240 min, the mass loss ratio is 17.53%.

  1. Response to Thermal Exposure of Ball-Milled Aluminum-Borax Powder Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birol, Yucel

    2013-04-01

    Aluminum-borax powder mixtures were ball milled and heated above 873 K (600 °C) to produce Al-B master alloys. Ball-milled powder blends reveal interpenetrating layers of deformed aluminum and borax grains that are increasingly refined with increasing milling time. Thermal exposure of the ball-milled powder blends facilitates a series of thermite reactions between these layers. Borax, dehydrated during heating, is reduced by Al, and B thus generated reacts with excess Al to produce AlB2 particles dispersed across the aluminum grains starting at 873 K (600 °C). AlB2 particles start to form along the interface of the aluminum and borax layers. Once nucleated, these particles grow readily to become hexagonal-shaped crystals that traverse the aluminum grains with increasing temperatures as evidenced by the increase in the size as well as in the number of the AlB2 particles. Ball milling for 1 hour suffices to achieve a thermite reaction between borax and aluminum. Ball milling further does not impact the response of the powder blend to thermal exposure. The nucleation-reaction sites are multiplied, however, with increasing milling time and thus insure a higher number of smaller AlB2 particles. The size of the AlB2 platelets may be adjusted with the ball milling time.

  2. Reversible a-Fe2O3 to Fe3O4 transformation during ball milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderoth, Søren; Jiang, Jianzhong; Mørup, Steen

    1997-01-01

    The transformation of hematite to magnetite by high-energy ball milling in a sealed container has been studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. Mechanisms for this transformation are critically discussed. The dominant mechanism is concluded to be due to bond breaking during the high...... energy ball milling followed by release of the oxygen from the vial. The reverse transformation, magnetite to hematite, is demonstrated to occur by ball milling in air. Mechanisms for this reverse transformation are also put forward....

  3. Ferromagnetic behavior of nanocrystalline Cu–Mn alloy prepared by ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, B.N., E-mail: bholanath_mondal@yahoo.co.in [Department of Central Scientific Services, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Sardar, G. [Department of Zoology, Baruipur College, South 24 parganas 743 610 (India); Nath, D.N. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Chattopadhyay, P.P. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711 103 (India)

    2014-12-15

    50Cu–50Mn (wt%) alloy was produced by ball milling. The milling was continued up to 30 h followed by isothermal annealing over a four interval of temperature from 350 to 650 °C held for 1 h. Crystallite size, lattice strain, lattice parameter were determined by Rietveld refinement structure analysis of X-ray diffraction data. The amount of dissolved/precipitated Mn (wt%) after ball milling/milling followed by annealing was calculated by quantative phase analysis (QPA). The increase of coercivity could be attributed to the introduction of lattice strain and reduction of crystallite size as a function of milling time. Electron paramagnetic resonance and superconducting quantum interface device analysis indicate that soft ferromagnetic behavior has been achieved by ball milled and annealed Cu–Mn alloy. The maximum coercivity value of Cu–Mn alloy obtained after annealing at 350 °C for 1 h is 277 Oe. - Highlights: • A small amount of Mn has dissolved in Cu after ball milling for 30 h. • Coercivity of the Cu–Mn alloy has increased with an increase in milling time. • Substantial MnO has formed after annealing at 650 °C for 1 h. • The ball milled and annealed alloy have revealed soft ferromagnetic behavior. • The alloy annealed at 350 °C shows the maximum value of coercivity.

  4. Effects of ball milling on microstructures and thermoelectric properties of higher manganese silicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xi; Shi, Li; Zhou, Jianshi; Goodenough, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The already low κ L of HMS can be suppressed further by decreasing the grain size. • The ball milling process can lead to the formation of secondary MnSi and W/C-rich phases. • The formation of the MnSi ad W/C rich phases is found to suppress the thermoelectric power factor. - Abstract: Bulk nanostructured higher manganese silicide (HMS) samples with different grain size are prepared by melting, subsequent ball milling (BM), and followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The effects of BM time on the microstructures and thermoelectric properties of these samples are investigated. It is found that BM effectively reduces the grain size to about 90 nm in the sample after SPS, which leads to a decrease in both the thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity. By prolonging the BM time, MnSi and tungsten/carbon-rich impurity phases are formed due to the impact-induced decomposition of HMS and contamination from the tungsten carbide jar and balls during the BM, respectively. These impurities result in a reduced Seebeck coefficient and increased thermal conductivity above room temperature. The measured size-dependent lattice thermal conductivities agree qualitatively with the reported calculation results based on a combined phonon and diffuson model. The size effects are found to be increasingly significant as temperature decreases. Because of the formation of the impurity phases and a relatively large grain size, the ZT values are not improved in the ball-milled HMS samples. These findings suggest the need of alternative approaches for the synthesis of pure HMS with further reduced grain size and controlled impurity doping in order to enhance the thermoelectric figure-of-merit of HMS via nanostructuring

  5. Effects of ball milling on microstructures and thermoelectric properties of higher manganese silicides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xi [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas Materials Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Shi, Li, E-mail: lishi@mail.utexas.edu [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas Materials Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Zhou, Jianshi; Goodenough, John B. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas Materials Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2015-08-25

    Highlights: • The already low κ{sub L} of HMS can be suppressed further by decreasing the grain size. • The ball milling process can lead to the formation of secondary MnSi and W/C-rich phases. • The formation of the MnSi ad W/C rich phases is found to suppress the thermoelectric power factor. - Abstract: Bulk nanostructured higher manganese silicide (HMS) samples with different grain size are prepared by melting, subsequent ball milling (BM), and followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The effects of BM time on the microstructures and thermoelectric properties of these samples are investigated. It is found that BM effectively reduces the grain size to about 90 nm in the sample after SPS, which leads to a decrease in both the thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity. By prolonging the BM time, MnSi and tungsten/carbon-rich impurity phases are formed due to the impact-induced decomposition of HMS and contamination from the tungsten carbide jar and balls during the BM, respectively. These impurities result in a reduced Seebeck coefficient and increased thermal conductivity above room temperature. The measured size-dependent lattice thermal conductivities agree qualitatively with the reported calculation results based on a combined phonon and diffuson model. The size effects are found to be increasingly significant as temperature decreases. Because of the formation of the impurity phases and a relatively large grain size, the ZT values are not improved in the ball-milled HMS samples. These findings suggest the need of alternative approaches for the synthesis of pure HMS with further reduced grain size and controlled impurity doping in order to enhance the thermoelectric figure-of-merit of HMS via nanostructuring.

  6. Preparation of 50Ni-45Ti-5Zr powders by high-energy ball milling and hot pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinzeck de Alcantara Abdala, Julia, E-mail: juabdala@yahoo.com.b [Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Av. Shishima Hifumi, 2911, 12244-000 Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil); Bacci Fernandes, Bruno, E-mail: brunobacci@yahoo.com.b [Divisao de Engenharia Mecanica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Praca Marechal-do-Ar Eduardo Gomes, 50, 12228-904 Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil); Santos, Dalcy Roberto dos, E-mail: dalcy@iae.cta.b [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco, Centro Tecnologico Aeroespacial, Praca Marechal-do-Ar Eduardo Gomes, 50, 12228-904 Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil); Rodrigues Henriques, Vinicius Andre, E-mail: vinicius@iae.cta.b [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco, Centro Tecnologico Aeroespacial, Praca Marechal-do-Ar Eduardo Gomes, 50, 12228-904 Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil); Moura Neto, Carlos de, E-mail: mneto@ita.b [Divisao de Engenharia Mecanica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Praca Marechal-do-Ar Eduardo Gomes, 50, 12228-904 Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil); Saraiva Ramos, Alfeu, E-mail: alfeu@univap.b [Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Av. Shishima Hifumi, 2911, 12244-000 Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)

    2010-04-16

    This study reports on the preparation of the 50Ni-45Ti-5Zr (at.%) alloy by high-energy ball milling and hot pressing. The elemental powder mixture was processed in silicon nitride and hardened steel vials, and samples were collected after different milling times. To recover the previous powders in addition wet milling isopropyl alcohol (for 20 min) was adopted. The mechanically alloyed powders were hot-pressed under vacuum at 900 {sup o}C for 1 h using pressure levels close to 200 MPa. The milled powders were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive spectrometry techniques. It was noted that the ductile starting powders were continuously cold-welded during ball milling. This fact was more pronounced during the processing of 50Ni-45Ti-5Zr powders in hardened steel vial. After milling for 5 h, the results suggested that amorphous and nanocrystalline structures were achieved. The complete consolidation was found after hot pressing of mechanically alloyed 50Ni-45Ti-5Zr powders, and a large amount of the B2-NiTi phase was formed mainly after processing in stainless steel balls and vial.

  7. Record critical current densities in IG processed bulk YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} fabricated using ball-milled Y{sub 2}Ba{sub 1}Cu{sub 1}O{sub 5} phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidhar, Miryala; Kenta, Nakazato; Murakami, Masato [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Superconducting Materials Laboratory, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Zeng, XianLin; Koblischka, Michael R. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Saarland University, Saarbruecken (Germany); Diko, Pavel [Institute of Experimental Physics, Material Physics Laboratory, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia)

    2016-02-15

    The infiltration-growth (IG) technique enables the uniform and controllable Y{sub 2}BaCuO{sub 5} (Y211) secondary phase particles formation within the YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} (Y123) matrix. Recent results clarified that the flux pinning performance of the Y123 material was dramatically improved by optimizing the processing conditions during the IG process. In this paper, we adapted the IG technique and produced several samples with addition of nanometer-sized Y211 secondary phase particles, which were produced by a ball milling technique. We found that the performance of the IG processed Y123 material dramatically improved in the low field region for a ball milling time of 12 h as compared to the samples without a ball milling step. Magnetization measurements showed a sharp superconducting transition with an onset T{sub c} at around 92 K. The critical current density (J{sub c}) at 77 K and zero field was determined to be 224 022 Acm{sup -2}, which is higher than the not ball-milled sample. Furthermore, microstructural observations exhibited a uniform microstructure with homogenous distribution of nanosized Y-211 inclusions within the Y-123 matrix. The improved performance of the Y-123 material can be understood in terms of fine distribution of the secondary phases. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Transforming from paramagnetism to room temperature ferromagnetism in CuO by ball milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daqiang Gao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we experimentally demonstrate that it is possible to induce ferromagnetism in CuO by ball milling without any ferromagnetic dopant. The magnetic measurements indicate that paramagnetic CuO is driven to the ferromagnetic state at room temperature by ball milling gradually. The saturation magnetization of the milled powders is found to increase with expanding the milling time and then decrease by annealing under atmosphere. The fitted X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicate that the observed induction and weaken of the ferromagnetism shows close relationship with the valence charged oxygen vacancies (Cu1+-VO in CuO.

  9. Efficiency of ball milled South African bentonite clay for remediation of acid mine drainage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masindi, Vhahangwele

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using vibratory ball milled South African bentonite clay for neutralization and attenuation of inorganic contaminants from acidic and metalliferous mine effluents has been evaluated. Treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD...

  10. Crystallite sizes of LiH before and after ball milling and thermal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Angel L.; Osborn, William; Markmaitree, Tippawan; Shaw, Leon L.

    2008-01-01

    The powder characteristics of lithium hydride (LiH) as a function of high-energy ball milling condition are systematically investigated via quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The results obtained from the XRD analysis are compared with those attained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and specific surface area (SSA) analyses. The thermal stability of the ball-milled LiH is also investigated in order to provide physical insights into its cyclic stability in hydrogen sorption and desorption cycles. The results indicate that ball milling is effective in obtaining nano-crystalline LiH powder which is relatively stable with retention of nano-crystals after thermal exposure at 285 deg. C (equivalent to 0.58T m ) for 1 h. The good thermal stability observed is attributed to the presence of many pores in the agglomerates at the ball-milled condition. These pores effectively prevent crystal growth during the thermal exposure

  11. Nano-oxide nucleation in a 14Cr-ODS steel elaborated by reactive-inspired ball-milling: Multiscale characterizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocq, M.; Legendre, F.; Sakasegawa, H.; Radiguet, B.; Cuvilly, F.; Pareige, P.; Mathon, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are promising structural materials for both fusion and fission Generation IV reactors. Indeed, they exhibit excellent mechanical and creep properties and radiation resistance thanks to a fine and dense dispersion of complex nanometric oxides. ODS steels are usually elaborated by ball-milling iron based and yttrium oxide powders and then by thermomechanical treatments. It is expected that ball-milling dissolves yttrium oxides in the metallic matrix and that annealing induces nano-oxide precipitation. However the formation mechanism remains unclear and as a consequence the process is still uncontrolled. In this context, we proposed a new approach based on reactive ball milling of iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ), yttria (YFe 3 ) and iron based alloy in a dedicated instrumented ball-milling device. Also, a fine scale characterization, after each step of the process including ball-milling, is performed. A Fe-14Cr-2W-1Ti-0.8Y-0.2O (%wt) ODS steel was synthesized by reactive ball-milling and was characterized at very fine scale in both as-milled and as-annealed state. Atom Probe Tomography (APT) and Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) were combined. After ballmilling, most of Y and O were, as expected, in solution in the ferritic matrix but some complex Y-Ti nano-oxides were also observed, indicating that oxide nucleation can start during ball-milling. With annealing the number of nano-oxides increases. In this presentation, experimental results of APT and SANS will be detailed and compared with what is usually observed in ODS steels elaborated by conventional ball milling. Finally, a formation mechanism of nano-oxides deduced from these results will be proposed. (author)

  12. Reliable Mechanochemistry: Protocols for Reproducible Outcomes of Neat and Liquid Assisted Ball-mill Grinding Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenguer, Ana M; Lampronti, Giulio I; Sanders, Jeremy K M

    2018-01-23

    The equilibrium outcomes of ball mill grinding can dramatically change as a function of even tiny variations in the experimental conditions such as the presence of very small amounts of added solvent. To reproducibly and accurately capture this sensitivity, the experimentalist needs to carefully consider every single factor that can affect the ball mill grinding reaction under investigation, from ensuring the grinding jars are clean and dry before use, to accurately adding the stoichiometry of the starting materials, to validating that the delivery of solvent volume is accurate, to ensuring that the interaction between the solvent and the powder is well understood and, if necessary, a specific soaking time is added to the procedure. Preliminary kinetic studies are essential to determine the necessary milling time to achieve equilibrium. Only then can exquisite phase composition curves be obtained as a function of the solvent concentration under ball mill liquid assisted grinding (LAG). By using strict and careful procedures analogous to the ones here presented, such milling equilibrium curves can be obtained for virtually all milling systems. The system we use to demonstrate these procedures is a disulfide exchange reaction starting from the equimolar mixture of two homodimers to obtain at equilibrium quantitative heterodimer. The latter is formed by ball mill grinding as two different polymorphs, Form A and Form B. The ratio R = [Form B] / ([Form A] + [Form B]) at milling equilibrium depends on the nature and concentration of the solvent in the milling jar.

  13. Controlling the number of walls in multi walled carbon nanotubes/alumina hybrid compound via ball milling of precipitate catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosbi, Norlin [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Akil, Hazizan Md, E-mail: hazizan@usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Cluster for Polymer Composite (CPC), Science and Engineering Research Centre, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We report that, to manipulate carbon nanotubes geometry and number of walls are by controlling the precipitate catalyst size. • Number of walls and geometry effects depend on the milling time of the precipitate catalyst. • Increasing milling of time will decrease the carbon nanotubes number of walls. • Increasing milling of time will increase the carbon nanotubes thermal conductivity. - Abstract: This paper reports the influence of milling time on the structure and properties of the precipitate catalyst of multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)/alumina hybrid compound, produced through the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process. For this purpose, light green precipitate consisted of aluminium, nickel(II) nitrate hexahydrate and sodium hydroxide mixture was placed in a planetary mill equipped with alumina vials using alumina balls at 300 rpm rotation speed for various milling time (5–15 h) prior to calcinations and CVD process. The compound was characterized using various techniques. Based on high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis, increasing the milling time up to 15 h decreased the diameter of MWCNT from 32.3 to 13.1 nm. It was noticed that the milling time had a significant effect on MWCNT wall thickness, whereby increasing the milling time from 0 to 15 h reduced the number of walls from 29 to 12. It was also interesting to note that the carbon content increased from 23.29 wt.% to 36.37 wt.% with increasing milling time.

  14. Utilization of aluminum to obtaining a duplex type stainless steel using high energy ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlak, I.E.; Cintho, O.M.; Capocchi, J.D.T.

    2010-01-01

    The obtaining of stainless steel using aluminum in its composition - FeMnAl system, has been researches subject since the sixties, by good mechanical properties and resistance to oxidation presented, when compared with conventional FeNiCr stainless steel system. In another point, the aluminum and manganese are low cost then traditional elements. This work, metallic powders of iron, manganese and pure aluminum, were processed in a Spex type high-energy ball mill in nitrogen atmosphere. The milling products were compressed into pastille form and sintered under inert atmosphere. The final products were characterized by optical and electronic microscopy and microhardness test. The metallographic analysis shows a typical austenite and ferrite duplex type microstructure. The presence of these phases was confirmed according X ray diffraction analysis. (author)

  15. Structural evolution of Ni-20Cr alloy during ball milling of elemental powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez B, I.; Trapaga M, L. G.; Martinez F, E.; Zoz, H.

    2011-01-01

    The ball milling (B M) of blended Ni and Cr elemental powders was carried out in a Simoloyer performing on high-energy scale mode at maximum production to obtain a nano structured Ni-20Cr alloy. The phase transformations and structural changes occurring during mechanical alloying were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical microscopy (Om). A gradual solid solubility of Cr and the subsequent formation of crystalline metastable solid solutions described in terms of the Avrami-Ero fe ev kinetics model were calculated. The XRD analysis of the structure indicates that cumulative lattice strain contributes to the driving force for solid solution between Ni and Cr during B M. Microstructure evolution has shown, additionally to the lamellar length refinement commonly observed, the folding of lamellae in the final processing stage. Om observations revealed that the lamellar spacing of Ni rich zones reaches a steady value near 500 nm and almost disappears after 30 h of milling. (Author)

  16. Structural evolution of Ni-20Cr alloy during ball milling of elemental powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez B, I.; Trapaga M, L. G. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Unidad Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente No. 2000, Juriquilla, 76230 Queretaro (Mexico); Martinez F, E. [Centro de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica, Cerrada de Cecati s/n, Col. Santa Catarina Azcapotzalco, 02250 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Zoz, H., E-mail: israelbaez@gmail.co [Zoz GmbH, D-57482, Wenden (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The ball milling (B M) of blended Ni and Cr elemental powders was carried out in a Simoloyer performing on high-energy scale mode at maximum production to obtain a nano structured Ni-20Cr alloy. The phase transformations and structural changes occurring during mechanical alloying were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical microscopy (Om). A gradual solid solubility of Cr and the subsequent formation of crystalline metastable solid solutions described in terms of the Avrami-Ero fe ev kinetics model were calculated. The XRD analysis of the structure indicates that cumulative lattice strain contributes to the driving force for solid solution between Ni and Cr during B M. Microstructure evolution has shown, additionally to the lamellar length refinement commonly observed, the folding of lamellae in the final processing stage. Om observations revealed that the lamellar spacing of Ni rich zones reaches a steady value near 500 nm and almost disappears after 30 h of milling. (Author)

  17. Partial amorphization of an α-FeCr alloy by ball-milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, J. M.; Costa, B. F. O.; Caer, G. Le; Delcroix, P.

    2008-01-01

    The structural changes of near-equiatomic α-FeCr alloys, ground in a vibratory mill in vacuum and in argon, were followed as a function of milling time. An amorphous phase forms in both cases but at a much faster rate when milling in argon than when milling in vacuum. Amorphisation by ball-milling of α-FeCr alloys is deduced to be an intrinsic phenomenon which is however speeded-up by oxygen. The amorphous phase crystallizes into a bcc Cr-rich phase and a bcc Fe-rich phase when annealed for short times.

  18. Kinetic parameters of grinding media in ball mills with various liner design and mill speed based on DEM modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakhalev, P. A.; Bogdanov, VS; Kovshechenko, V. M.

    2018-03-01

    The article presents analysis of the experiments in the ball mill of 0.5x0.3 m with four different liner types based on DEM modeling. The numerical experiment always complements laboratory research and allow obtaining high accuracy output data. An important property of the numerical experiment is the possibility of visualization of the results. The EDEM software allows calculating trajectory of the grinding bodies and kinetic parameters of each ball for the relative mill speed and the different types of mill’s liners.

  19. A co-production of sugars, lignosulfonates, cellulose, and cellulose nanocrystals from ball-milled woods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lanxing; Wang, Jinwu; Zhang, Yang; Qi, Chusheng; Wolcott, Michael P; Yu, Zhiming

    2017-08-01

    This study demonstrated the technical potential for the large-scale co-production of sugars, lignosulfonates, cellulose, and cellulose nanocrystals. Ball-milled woods with two particle sizes were prepared by ball milling for 80min or 120min (BMW 80 , BMW 120 ) and then enzymatically hydrolyzed. 78.3% cellulose conversion of BMW 120 was achieved, which was three times as high as the conversion of BMW 80 . The hydrolyzed residues (HRs) were neutrally sulfonated cooking. 57.72g/L and 88.16g/L lignosulfonate concentration, respectively, were harvested from HR 80 and HR 120 , and 42.6±0.5% lignin were removed. The subsequent solid residuals were purified to produce cellulose and then this material was acid-hydrolyzed to produce cellulose nanocrystals. The BMW 120 maintained smaller particle size and aspect ratio during each step of during the multiple processes, while the average aspect ratio of its cellulose nanocrystals was larger. The crystallinity of both materials increased with each step of wet processing, reaching to 74% for the cellulose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of steel 70XL used in the manufacture of balls for the clinker's milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eider Gresesqui-Lobaina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with the wear of the balls used for the grinding of the clinker in the processes of obtaining cement. Three specimens of different steel were made: one of steel AISI 4140, with which balls are forged for the milling process; another 70XL steel (70 XL with normalized, tempered and tempered thermal treatments; and the third, of equal material that the second but without treatment. For the metallographic observation the samples were made with dimensions of 10 mm in diameter and 8 mm in thickness, revealing for AISI 4140 steel a structure of martensitic type with some presence of acicular ferrite. For the 70XL steel without heat treatment the presence of ferrite and cementite was observed, while the steel 70XL with heat treatment showed in the limits of free cementite grain in a pearly matrix, which resulted in a higher hardness (up to HRC 59 , 8 and lower gravimetric wear compared to other materials. Therefore it is recommended as the most suitable for the manufacture of balls for grinding minerals 70XL steel with heat treatment.

  1. Synthesis of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} crystals using a crank ball mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Suzuka; Noji, Hideki; Akaki, Yoji [Miyakonojo National College of Technology, 473-1 Yoshio, Miyakonojo Miyazaki 885-8567 (Japan); Okamoto, Tomoichiro [Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) crystals were synthesized by a mechanochemical (MC) process using a crank ball mill. The molar ratios of starting materials were Cu:In:Ga:Se=1:1-x:x:2 (0≤x≤1) and Cu:In:Ga:Se=1:0.7:0.3:y (2≤y≤3). The reaction time reduced with decreasing Se and Ga molar ratios. The collection rate decreased with longer reaction times. From XRD patterns, we confirmed that the CuInSe{sub 2} and/or CuGaSe{sub 2}crystals were successfully grown when the powders reacted. Although the crystals grown with a selenium molar ration of 2 were Se-poor, those grown at a molar ratio of 3 were Se-rich. When Se increasing molar ratio, Cu, In, and Ga were away from the stoichiometric. With a molar ratio of Cu:In:Ga:Se=1:0.7:0.3:2.5∝2.7, their composition became stoichiometric. Crystal morphology was varied. CIGS crystals were thus successfully synthesized using a crank ball mill. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Fabrication of Ti-Ni-Cu shape memory alloy powders by ball milling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S.; Nam, T.

    2001-01-01

    Ti-Ni and Ti-Ni-Cu shape memory alloy powders have been fabricated by ball milling method, and then alloying behavior and transformation behavior were investigated by means of optical microscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. As milled Ti-Ni powders fabricated with milling time less than 20 hrs was a mixture of pure elemental Ti and Ni, and therefore it was unable to obtain alloy powders because the combustion reaction between Ti and Ni occurred during heat treatment. Since those fabricated with milling time more than 20 hrs was a mixture of Ti-rich and Ni-rich Ti-Ni solid solution, however, it was possible to obtain alloy powders without the combustion reaction during heat treatment. Clear exothermic and endothermic peaks appeared in the cooling and heating curves, respectively in DSC curves of 20 hrs and 30 hrs milled Ti-Ni powders. On the other hand, in DSC curves of 1 hr, 10 hrs, 50 hrs and 100 hrs, the thermal peaks were almost discernible. The most optimum ball milling time for fabricating Ti-Ni alloy powders was 30 hrs. Ti-40Ni-10Cu(at%) alloy powders were fabricated successfully by ball milling conditions with rotating speed of 100 rpm and milling time of 30 hrs. (author)

  3. Polycrystalline Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B/α-Fe nanocomposite flakes with a sub-micro/nanometre thickness prepared by surfactant-assisted high-energy ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Xin, E-mail: tangshincn@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Chen, Xi [Mechanical and Electrical Engineering College, Xinxiang University, No. 192, Jinsui Road, Xinxiang, Henan 453003 (China); Chen, Renjie; Yan, Aru [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2015-09-25

    Highlights: • Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B/α-Fe flakes are formed by peeling along preferential planes. • (0 0 l) planes are found to be preferential cleavage planes. • Magnetic properties degrade with increasing ball milling time. • Anisotropic nanocomposite magnets are fabricated. - Abstract: A surfactant-assisted high-energy ball milling technique was employed to synthesize Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B/α-Fe nanoparticles and nanoflakes from melt-spun nanocrystalline powders. The microstructure evolution in ball milling process was investigated. In the beginning stage (0–4 h) of ball milling, raw powders were crushed into micrometre-sized particles. While flakes were mainly formed by reducing thickness of particles via peeling layer by layer along preferential planes in the late stage (8–16 h). The selected area electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images show that preferential cleavage planes are basal planes. With ball milling proceeding, more and more defects were induced by ball milling. As a result, the coercivity and remanence decreased to 1.6 kOe and 3.2 kGs, respectively. After 16 h ball milling, the exchange decoupling occurred due to severe amorphorization. A weakly-textured nanocomposite magnet was fabricated after 12 h ball milling and the anisotropy in magnetic properties can be further improved by employing settling down process to select particle size and aligning particles in external field.

  4. Study on the bonding state for carbon-boron nitrogen with different ball milling time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Y.H.; Xiong, C.S.; Wei, S.Q.; Yang, H.W.; Mai, Y.T.; Xu, W.; Yang, S.; Dai, G.H.; Song, S.J.; Xiong, J.; Ren, Z.M.; Zhang, J.; Pi, H.L.; Xia, Z.C.; Yuan, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    The varied bonding state and microstructure characterization were discussed for carbon-boron nitrogen (CBN) with abundant phase structure and nanostructure, which were synthesized directly by mechanical alloying technique at room temperature. According to the results of SEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of CBN with different ball milling time, it is substantiated that the bonding state and microstructure for CBN were closely related to the ball milling time. With the increase of the ball milling time, some new chemical bonding states of CBN were observed, which implies that some new bonding state and microstructures have been formed. The results of XPS are accordance with that of X-ray diffraction of CBN

  5. Nitrogen-doped graphene by ball-milling graphite with melamine for energy conversion and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Yuhua; Chen, Hao; Qu, Jia; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    N-doped graphene was prepared by ball milling of graphite with melamine. It was found that ball-milling reduced the size of graphite particles from 30 to 1 μm and facilitated the exfoliation of the resultant small particles into few-layer N-doped graphene nanosheets under ultrasonication. The as-prepared N-doped graphene nanoplatelets (NGnPs) exhibited a nitrogen content as high as 11.4 at.%, making them attractive as efficient electrode materials in supercapacitors for energy storage and as highly-active metal-free catalysts for oxygen reduction in fuel cells for energy conversion. (paper)

  6. A software tool for simulation of surfaces generated by ball nose end milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano

    2004-01-01

    , for prediction of surface topography of ball nose end milled surfaces, was developed. Such software tool is based on a simplified model of the ideal tool motion and neglects the effects due to run-out, static and dynamic deflections and error motions, but has the merit of generating in output a file in a format...... readable by a surface processor software (SPIP [2]), for calculation of a number of surface roughness parameters. In the next paragraph a description of the basic features of ball nose end milled surfaces is given, while in paragraph 3 the model is described....

  7. Effect of ball milling time on thermoelectric properties of bismuth telluride nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khade, Poonam; Bagwaiya, Toshi; Bhattacharaya, Shovit; Singh, Ajay; Jha, Purushottam; Shelke, Vilas

    2018-04-01

    The effect of different milling time on thermoelectric properties of bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) was investigated. The nanomaterial was prepared by varying the ball milling time and followed by hot press sintering. The crystal structure and phase formation were verified by X-ray diffraction and Raman Spectroscopy. The experimental results show that electrical conductivity increases whereas thermal conductivity decreases with increasing milling time. The negative sign of seebeck coefficient indicate the n-type nature with majority charge carriers of electrons. A maximum figure of merit about 0.55 is achieved for l5hr ball milled Bi2Te3 sample. The present study demonstrates the simple and cost-effective method for synthesis of Bi2Te3 thermoelectric material at large scale thermoelectric applications.

  8. Hydrogen sorption properties of ball-milled Mg-C nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spassov, Tony; Zlatanova, Zlatina; Spassova, Maya; Todorova, Stanislava [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Sofia ' ' St.Kl.Ohridski' ' , 1 James Bourchier str. 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2010-10-15

    MgH{sub 2} 75 at.%-C 25 at.% composites are synthesized by ball milling using different kinds of carbon additives: carbon black (CB), nanodiamonds (ND) and amorphous carbon soot (AC). X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the MgH{sub 2} phase in the as-obtained composite powders is nanocrystalline (80-100 nm). The SEM observations revealed that the samples consist of 5-15 {mu}m MgH{sub 2} particles, surrounded and in some cases coated by carbon flakes. The composite containing nanodiamonds revealed strong decrease of the MgH{sub 2} decomposition temperature with more than 100 C, compared to ball-milled pure MgH{sub 2}. Important issue of the present study is also the low temperature hydriding of the ball-milled Mg-C nanocomposites, investigated by high-pressure DSC. The process starts at about 200 C for all materials studied, but the hydriding mechanism looks different for the composites with different kinds of carbon additives. Whereas for Mg-carbon black it takes place in a relatively narrow temperature range, expressed by a single exothermic peak (200-300 C) for the other two composites the hydriding is a multi-step process, featured by two overlapped exothermic peaks for Mg-nanodiamonds and by two well separated exothermic effects (at about 300 C and 400 C) for Mg-amorphous carbon soot. The observed difference in the hydriding behavior of the Mg-C composites is attributed to the different kind of carbon component, which is supposed to play a catalytic role as well as protects magnesium from oxidation. The incorporation of carbon into the MgH{sub 2} particles results in the formation of high density of defects (dislocations and grain boundaries), which is supposed to be among the most possible reasons for the decreased hydride decomposition temperature. The Mg-C nanocomposites show reproducible hydriding/dehydriding behavior (thermodynamics and kinetics) during multiple cycling. Among the composites in the present study ''Mg-carbon black

  9. Facile synthesis technology of Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C adding H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in ball mill process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Xiujuan [MIIT Key Laboratory of Critical Materials Technology for New Energy Conversion and Storage, Harbin Institute of Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin 150001 (China); Mu, Deying [MIIT Key Laboratory of Critical Materials Technology for New Energy Conversion and Storage, Harbin Institute of Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin 150001 (China); Department of Environmental Engineering, Harbin University of Commerce, Harbin 150076 (China); Li, Ruhong [MIIT Key Laboratory of Critical Materials Technology for New Energy Conversion and Storage, Harbin Institute of Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin 150001 (China); Dai, Changsong, E-mail: changsd@hit.edu.cn [MIIT Key Laboratory of Critical Materials Technology for New Energy Conversion and Storage, Harbin Institute of Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Sintering time of Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} reduced to 6 hours by adding hydrogen peroxide. • Electrochemical performance of Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} was improved by reducing sintering time. • The Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} production process was simplified during material synthesis stage. - Abstract: Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C has stable structure, high theory specific capacity and good safety performance, therefore it has become the research focus of lithium-ion batteries in recent years. The facile synthesis technology of Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C was characterized by adding different amounts of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Structure and morphology characteristics were examined by XRD, TG, Raman Spectroscopy, XPS and SEM. Electrochemical performance was investigated by constant current charging and discharging test. The results revealed that the Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C electrochemical performance of adding 15 mL H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was better after sintering during 6 h. At the charge cut-off voltage of 4.3 V, the first discharge capacity at 0.2 C rate reached 127 mAh g{sup −1}. Because of adding H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the ball-mill dispersant, the vanadium pentoxide formed the wet sol. The molecular-leveled mixture increased the homogeneity of raw materials. Therefore, the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} shortened the sintering time and significantly improved the electrochemical performance of Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C.

  10. Study of the preparation of Cu-TiC composites by reaction of soluble Ti and ball-milled carbon coating TiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuexia; Li, Wenbin; Wang, Yong; Dong, Guozhen; Jing, Shangqian; Wang, Qing; Feng, Yanting; Fan, Xiaoliang; Ding, Haimin

    2018-06-01

    In this work, Cu-TiC composites have been successfully prepared by reaction of soluble Ti and carbon coating TiC. Firstly, the ball milling of graphite and TiC mixtures is used to obtain the carbon coating TiC which has fine size and improved reaction activity. After adding the ball milled carbon coating TiC into Cu-Ti melts, the soluble Ti will easily react with the carbon coating to form TiC. This process will also improve the wettability between Cu melts and TiC core. As a result, besides the TiC prepared by reaction of soluble Ti and carbon coating, the ball milled TiC will also be brought into the melts. Some of these ball-milled TiC particles will go on being coated by the formed TiC from the reaction of Ti and the coating carbon and left behind in the composites. However, most of TiC core will be further reacted with the excessive Ti and be transformed into the newly formed TiC with different stoichiometry. The results indicate that it is a feasible method to synthesize TiC in Cu melts by reaction of soluble Ti and ball-milled carbon coating TiC.

  11. Thermogravimetric and Differential Scanning Calorimetric Behavior of Ball-Milled Nuclear Graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eung Seon; Kim, Min Hwan; Kim, Yong Wan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yi Hyun; Cho, Seung Yon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    An examination was made to characterize the oxidation behavior of ball-milled nuclear graphite powder through a TG-DSC analysis. With the ball milling time, the BET surface area increased with the reduction of particle size, but decreased with the chemisorptions of O{sub 2} on the activated surface. The enhancement of the oxidation after the ball milling is attributed to both increases in the specific surface area and atomic scale defects in the graphite structure. In a high temperature gas-cooled reactor, nuclear graphite has been widely used as fuel elements, moderator or reflector blocks, and core support structures owing to its excellent moderating power, mechanical properties and machinability. For the same reason, it will be used in a helium cooled ceramic reflector test blanket module for the ITER. Each submodule has a seven-layer breeding zone, including three neutron multiplier layers packed with beryllium pebbles, three lithium ceramic pebbles packed tritium breeder layers, and a reflector layer packed with 1 mm diameter graphite pebbles to reduce the volume of beryllium. The abrasion of graphite structures owing to relative motion or thermal cycle during operation may produce graphite dust. It is expected that graphite dust will be more oxidative than bulk graphite, and thus the oxidation behavior of graphite dust must be examined to analyze the safety of the reactors during an air ingress accident. In this study, the thermal stability of ball-milled graphite powder was investigated using a simultaneous thermogravimeter-differential scanning calorimeter.

  12. Crystallite sizes of LiH before and after ball milling and thermal exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Angel L. [Departamento de Electronica e Ingenieria Electromecanica, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain); Osborn, William; Markmaitree, Tippawan [Department of Chemical, Materials and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Connecticut, 97 North Eagleville Road, U-3136 Storrs, CT 06269-3136 (United States); Shaw, Leon L. [Department of Chemical, Materials and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Connecticut, 97 North Eagleville Road, U-3136 Storrs, CT 06269-3136 (United States)], E-mail: leon.shaw@uconn.edu

    2008-04-24

    The powder characteristics of lithium hydride (LiH) as a function of high-energy ball milling condition are systematically investigated via quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The results obtained from the XRD analysis are compared with those attained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and specific surface area (SSA) analyses. The thermal stability of the ball-milled LiH is also investigated in order to provide physical insights into its cyclic stability in hydrogen sorption and desorption cycles. The results indicate that ball milling is effective in obtaining nano-crystalline LiH powder which is relatively stable with retention of nano-crystals after thermal exposure at 285 deg. C (equivalent to 0.58T{sub m}) for 1 h. The good thermal stability observed is attributed to the presence of many pores in the agglomerates at the ball-milled condition. These pores effectively prevent crystal growth during the thermal exposure.

  13. Effect of ball-milling time on the structural characteristics of biomedical porous Ti-Sn-Nb alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouri, Alireza, E-mail: alireza_nouri@yahoo.com [CQM-Centro de Quimica da Madeira, MMRG, Universidade da Madeira, Campus Universitario da Penteada, 9000-390 Funchal (Portugal); Institute for Technology Research and Innovation, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3217 (Australia); Hodgson, Peter D. [Institute for Technology Research and Innovation, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3217 (Australia); Wen Cuie [IRIS, Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, 543-454 Burwood Road, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 Australia (Australia)

    2011-07-20

    The structural characteristics of biomedical porous materials are crucial for bone tissue to grow into a porous structure and can also influence the fixation and remodeling between the implant and the human tissues. The current study has been investigating the effect of the ball-milling variable of time on the structural characteristics and pore morphology of a biomedical porous Ti-16Sn-4Nb (wt.%) alloy. The alloy was synthesized using high-energy ball milling for different periods of time, and the porous Ti-16Sn-4Nb alloy was fabricated by using a space holder sintering process. The resultant powder particles, bulk, and porous samples were characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), laser particle-size analyzer, chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), and the Vickers hardness test. The results indicated that the inner pore surface, pore wall architecture, degree of porosity, pore size and the inter-pore connectivity of the sintered porous alloy are all considerably affected by ball-milling time.

  14. Ball mill tool for crushing coffee and cocoa beans base on fraction size sieving results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, B.; Sirait, M.; Azalea, M.; Alvin; Cahyani, S. E.

    2018-02-01

    Crushing is one of the operation units that aimed to convert the size of solid material to be smoother particle’s size. The operation unit that can be used in this crushing is ball mill. The purpose of this study is to foresee the effect of raw material mass, grinding time, and the number of balls that are used in the ball mill tool related to the amount of raw material of coffee and cocoa beans. Solid material that has become smooth is then sieved with sieve mesh with size number: 50, 70, 100, and 140. It is in order to obtain the mass fraction that escaped from each sieve mesh. From the experiment, it can be concluded that mass percentage fraction of coffee powder is bigger than cocoa powder that escaped from the mesh. Hardness and humidity of coffee beans and cocoa beans have been the important factors that made coffee beans is easier to be crushed than cocoa beans.

  15. Defect induced electronic states and magnetism in ball-milled graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milev, Adriyan; Dissanayake, D M A S; Kannangara, G S K; Kumarasinghe, A R

    2013-10-14

    The electronic structure and magnetism of nanocrystalline graphite prepared by ball milling of graphite in an inert atmosphere have been investigated using valence band spectroscopy (VB), core level near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy and magnetic measurements as a function of the milling time. The NEXAFS spectroscopy of graphite milled for 30 hours shows simultaneous evolution of new states at ~284.0 eV and at ~290.5 eV superimposed upon the characteristic transitions at 285.4 eV and 291.6 eV, respectively. The modulation of the density of states is explained by evolution of discontinuities within the sheets and along the fracture lines in the milled graphite. The magnetic measurements in the temperature interval 2-300-2 K at constant magnetic field strength show a correlation between magnetic properties and evolution of the new electronic states. With the reduction of the crystallite sizes of the graphite fragments, the milled material progressively changes its magnetic properties from diamagnetic to paramagnetic with contributions from both Pauli and Curie paramagnetism due to the evolution of new states at ~284 and ~290.5 eV, respectively. These results indicate that the magnetic behaviour of ball-milled graphite can be manipulated by changing the milling conditions.

  16. Design and Testing of UMM Vertical Ball Mill (UVBM) for producing Aluminium Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisyah, I. S.; Caesarendra, Wahyu; Suprihanto, Agus

    2018-04-01

    UMM Vertical Ball Mill (UVBM) was intended to be the apparatus to produce metal powder with superior characteristic in production rate while retaining good quality of metal powder. The concept of design was adopting design theory of Phal and Beitz with emphasis on increasing of probability of success in engineering and economy aspects.Since it was designed as vertical ball mill, a new way to produce powder, then it need to be tested for the performance after manufactured. The test on UVBM was carried out by milling of aluminium chip for 5 (five) different milling time of 0.5 hours, 1 hour, 3 hours, 5 hours and 7 hours, and the powder product then be characterized for it morphology and size using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Sieve.The results of the study were the longer of the milling time, the finer of the powder. From the test results of SEM, the morphology of the powder with 5 variations of milling time were most of the powder in form of flake (flat), small round and angular (irregular). The distribution of powder size was best obtained on the variation of milling time 3 hours, 5 hours, and 7 hours with percentage of 200 mesh in size of 22.14 %, 64 % and 91.25 % respectively.

  17. Effect of ball-milling to the surface morphology of CaCO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulimai, N. H.; Rani, Rozina Abdul; Khusaimi, Z.; Abdullah, S.; Salifairus, M. J.; Alrokayan, Salman; Khan, Haseeb; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Calcium Carbonate can be synthesized in many approaches. This work studied on the physical changes to Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) by ball-milling activity in different parameters; number of ball; collision duration; revolution per minute (RPM). Zirconia balls were used in the work because it has the best durability to withstand ball-milling conditions set. Industrial grade CaCO3 particles that were run in aforementioned parameters were characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM) to study the physical changes on the size and surface of the CaCO3. They were also characterized with Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy (FTIR) were fingerprint of CaCO3 regions were identified and any changes in the band position and intensity were discussed. Number of Zirconia balls and collision duration is directly proportional to the absorbance intensity whereas it is inversely proportional for the rpm. The best number of parameters producing the highest Absorbance is 100 Zirconia balls in duration of 1 hour and 100rpm.

  18. Easily recycled Bi2O3 photocatalyst coatings prepared via ball milling followed by calcination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lijun; Hu, Xumin; Hao, Liang

    2017-06-01

    Bi2O3 photocatalyst coatings derived from Bi coatings were first prepared by a two-step method, namely ball milling followed by the calcination process. The as-prepared samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, XPS and UV-Vis spectra, respectively. The results showed that monoclinic Bi2O3 coatings were obtained after sintering Bi coatings at 673 or 773 K, while monoclinic and triclinic mixed phase Bi2O3 coatings were obtained at 873 or 973 K. The topographies of the samples were observably different, which varied from flower-like, irregular, polygonal to nanosized particles with the increase in calcination temperature. Photodegradation of malachite green under simulated solar irradiation for 180 min showed that the largest degradation efficiency of 86.2% was achieved over Bi2O3 photocatalyst coatings sintered at 873 K. The Bi2O3 photocatalyst coatings, encapsulated with Al2O3 ball with an average diameter around 1 mm, are quite easily recycled, which provides an alternative visible light-driven photocatalyst suitable for practical water treatment application.

  19. Low Thermal Conductivity of Bulk Amorphous Si1- x Ge x Containing Nano-Sized Crystalline Particles Synthesized by Ball-Milling Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, Omprakash; Nishino, Shunsuke; Ghodke, Swapnil; Inukai, Manabu; Sobota, Robert; Adachi, Masahiro; Kiyama, Makato; Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Takeuchi, Tsunehiro; Santhanakrishnan, Harish; Ikeda, Hiroya; Hayakawa, Yasuhiro

    2018-06-01

    Amorphous Si0.65Ge0.35 powder containing a small amount of nano-sized crystalline particles was synthesized by means of the mechanical alloying process. Hot pressing for 24 h under the pressure of 400 MPa at 823 K, which is below the crystallization temperature, allowed us to obtain bulk amorphous Si-Ge alloy containing a small amount of nanocrystals. The thermal conductivity of the prepared bulk amorphous Si-Ge alloy was extremely low, showing a magnitude of less than 1.35 Wm-1 K-1 over the entire temperature range from 300 K to 700 K. The sound velocity of longitudinal and transverse waves for the bulk amorphous Si0.65Ge0.35 were measured, and the resulting values were 5841 m/s and 2840 m/s, respectively. The estimated mean free path of phonons was kept at the very small value of ˜ 4.2 nm, which was mainly due to the strong scattering limit of phonons in association with the amorphous structure.

  20. Low-temperature magnetic behavior of ball-milled copper ferrite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goya, G.F.; Rechenberg, H.R.; Jiang, Jianzhong

    1999-01-01

    We present a study on magnetic properties of CuFe2O4 nanoparticles, produced by high-energy ball milling. The series of samples obtained, with average particle sizes LFAN alpha d RTAN ranging from 61 nm to 9 nm, display increasing relaxation effects at room temperature. Irreversibility of the mag......We present a study on magnetic properties of CuFe2O4 nanoparticles, produced by high-energy ball milling. The series of samples obtained, with average particle sizes LFAN alpha d RTAN ranging from 61 nm to 9 nm, display increasing relaxation effects at room temperature. Irreversibility...... of the magnetization and shifts to negative fields in the hysteresis loops are observed below T-f APEQ 55 K, indicating unidirectional magnetic anisotropy in milled samples. These features could be explained by assuming the formation of a spin-disordered surface layer, which is exchange-coupled to the ferrimagnetic...

  1. Reactive-inspired ball-milling synthesis of an ODS steel: study of the influence of ball-milling and annealing; Synthese et caracterisation d'un acier ODS prepare par un procede inspiredu broyage reactif: etude de l'influence des conditions de broyage et recuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brocq, M.

    2010-10-15

    In the context of the development of new ODS (Oxide Dispersion Strengthened) steels as core materials in future nuclear reactors, we investigated a new process inspired by reactive ball-milling which consists in using YFe{sub 3} andFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} as starting reactants instead of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} to produce a dispersion of nano-oxides in a steel matrix and the influence of synthesis conditions on the nano-oxide characteristics were studied. For that aim, ODS steels were prepared by ball-milling and then annealed. Multi-scale characterizations were performed after each synthesis step, using notably atom probe tomography and small angle neutron scattering. The process inspired by reactive ball-milling was shown to be efficient for ODS steel synthesis, but it does not modify the nano-oxide characteristics as compared to those of oxides directly incorporated in the matrix by ball-milling. Broadly speaking, the nature of the starting oxygen bearing reactants has no influence on nano-oxide formation. Moreover, we showed that the nucleation of nano-oxides nucleation can start during milling and continues during annealing with a very fast kinetic. The final characteristics of nano-oxides formed in this way can be monitored through ball-milling parameters (intensity, temperature and atmosphere) and annealing parameters (duration and temperature). (author)

  2. Microstructures, Mechanical Properties and Thermal Conductivities of W-0.5 wt.%TiC Alloys Prepared via Ball Milling and Wet Chemical Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Shaoting; Yan, Qingzhi; Sun, Ningbo; Zhang, Xiaoxin; Ge, Changchun

    2017-10-01

    Two kinds of W-0.5 wt.%TiC alloys were prepared, one by ball milling and the other by the wet chemical method. For comparison, pure tungsten powders were chemically prepared and sintered by the same process. The microstructures, mechanical properties and thermal conductivities of the prepared samples were characterized. It has been found that the wet chemical method resulted in finer sizes and more uniform distribution of TiC particles in the sintered tungsten matrix than the ball milling method. The W-TiC alloy prepared by the wet chemical method achieved the highest bending strength (1065.72 MPa) among the samples. Further, it also exhibited obviously higher thermal conductivities in the temperature range of room temperature to 600°C than did the W-TiC alloy prepared by ball milling, but the differences in their thermal conductivities could be ignored in the range of 600-800°C.

  3. Production of pyrite nanoparticles using high energy planetary ball milling for sonocatalytic degradation of sulfasalazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khataee, Alireza; Fathinia, Siavash; Fathinia, Mehrangiz

    2017-01-01

    Sonocatalytic performance of pyrite nanoparticles was evaluated by the degradation of sulfasalazine (SSZ). Pyrite nanoparticles were produced via a high energy mechanical ball milling (MBM) in different processing time from 2h to 6h, in the constant milling speed of 320rpm. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) confirmed the production of pyrite nanoparticles during 6h of ball milling with the average size distribution of 20-80nm. The effects of various operational parameters including pH value, catalyst amount (mg/L), SSZ concentration (mg/L), ultrasonic frequency (kHz) and reaction time on the SSZ removal efficiency were examined. The obtained results showed that the maximum removal efficiency of 97.00% was obtained at pH value of 4, catalyst dosage of 0.5g/L, SSZ concentration of 10mg/L and reaction time of 30min. Experimental results demonstrated that the kinetic of the degradation process can be demonstrated using Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) kinetic model. The effect of different inorganic ions such as Cl - , CO 3 2- and SO 4 2- was investigated on the L-H reaction rate (k r ) and adsorption (K s ) constants. Results showed that the presence of the mentioned ions significantly influenced the L-H constants. The impact of ethanol as a OH radical scavenger and some enhancers including H 2 O 2 and K 2 S 2 O 8 was investigated on the SSZ removal efficiency. Accordingly, the presence of ethanol suppressed SSZ degradation due to the quenching of OH radicals and the addition of K 2 S 2 O 8 and H 2 O 2 increased the SSZ removal efficiency, due to the formation of SO 4 - and additional OH radicals, respectively. Under the identical conditions of operating parameters, pyrite nanoparticles maintained their catalytic activity during four consecutive runs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Catalytic effect of halide additives ball milled with magnesium hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malka, I.E.; Bystrzycki, J. [Department of Advanced Materials and Technologies, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Czujko, T. [Department of Advanced Materials and Technologies, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); CanmetENERGY, Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Transportation Energy, Natural Resources (Canada)

    2010-02-15

    The influence of various halide additives milled with magnesium hydride (MgH{sub 2}) on its decomposition temperature was studied. The optimum amount of halide additive and milling conditions were evaluated. The MgH{sub 2} decomposition temperature and energy of activation reduction were measured by temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The difference in catalytic efficiency between chlorides and fluorides of the various metals studied is presented. The effects of oxidation state, valence and position in the periodic table for selected halides on MgH{sub 2} decomposition temperature were also studied. The best catalysts, from the halides studied, for magnesium hydride decomposition were ZrF{sub 4}, TaF{sub 5}, NbF{sub 5}, VCl{sub 3} and TiCl{sub 3}. (author)

  5. Highly anisotropic SmCo5 nanoflakes by surfactant-assisted ball milling at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Lidong; Zhang, Songlin; Zhang, Jian; Ping Liu, J.; Xia, Weixing; Du, Juan; Yan, Aru; Yi, Jianhong; Li, Wei; Guo, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    Surfactant-assisted ball milling (SABM) has been shown to be a promising method for preparing rare earth-transition metal (RE-TM) nanoflakes and nanoparticles. In this work, we prepared SmCo 5 nanoflakes by SABM at low temperature, and 2-methyl pentane and trioctylamine were specially selected as solvent and surfactant, respectively, due to their low melting points. The effects of milling temperature on the morphology, microstructure and magnetic performance of SmCo 5 nanoflakes were investigated systematically. Comparing with the samples milled at room temperature, the SmCo 5 nanoflakes prepared at low temperature displayed more homogeneous morphology and lower oxygen content. Remarkably, better crystallinity, better grain alignment and larger remanence ratio were shown in the samples milled at low temperature, which resulted from the distinct microstructure caused by low milling temperature. The differences in structural evolution between the SmCo 5 nanoflakes milled at room temperature and low temperature, including the formation of nanocrystalline, grain boundary sliding, grain rotation, et al., were discussed. It was found that lowering the temperature of SABM was a powerful method for the fabrication of RE-TM nanoflakes, which showed better hard magnetic properties and lower oxygen content. This was important for the preparation of high-performance sintered magnets, bonded magnets and nanocomposite magnets. - Highlights: • We prepare SmCo 5 nanoflakes by surfactant-assisted ball milling at low temperature. • Better grain alignment and higher remanence ratio are achieved. • The oxygen content is reduced by lowering the milling temperature. • A distinct microstructural evolution caused by low milling temperature is clarified

  6. Sintered Fe-Ni-Cu-Sn-C Alloys Made of Ball-Milled Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romański A.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper was to perform sinterability studies of ball-milled Fe-12%Ni-6.4%Cu-1.6%Sn-0.6%C powders. A mixture of precisely weighed amounts of elemental iron, nickel and graphite, and pre-alloyed 80/20 bronze powders was ball-milled for 8, 30 and 120 hours. After cold-pressing at 400 MPa the specimens were sintered at 900oC for 30 minutes in a reducing atmosphere and subsequently tested for density and hardness as well as subjected to structural studies using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis.

  7. Fe-Al2O3 nanocomposites prepared by high-energy ball milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderoth, Søren; Pedersen, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    Nanocomposites of alpha-Fe and alpha-Al2O3, prepared by high-energy ball milling, exhibit coercivities which are enhanced by about two orders of magnitude with respect to the bulk value. The degree of enhancement depends on the volume fraction (x(upsilon)) of Fe, with a maximum for x(upsilon) alm......Nanocomposites of alpha-Fe and alpha-Al2O3, prepared by high-energy ball milling, exhibit coercivities which are enhanced by about two orders of magnitude with respect to the bulk value. The degree of enhancement depends on the volume fraction (x(upsilon)) of Fe, with a maximum for x...

  8. Excess lithium storage in LiFePO4-Carbon interface by ball-milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hua; Song, Xiaohe; Zheng, Jiaxin; Pan, Feng

    2016-07-01

    As one of the most popular cathode materials for high power lithium ion batteries (LIBs) of the electrical-vehicle (EV), lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4 (LFP)) is limited to its relatively lower theoretical specific capacity of 170mAh g-1. To break the limits and further improve the capacity of LFP is promising but challenging. In this study, the ball-milling method is applied to the mixture of LFP and carbon, and the effective capacity larger than the theoretical one by 30mAh g-1 is achieved. It is demonstrated that ball-milling leads to the LFP-Carbon interface to store the excess Li-ions.

  9. Characterization of prealloyed copper powders treated in high energy ball mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajkovic, Viseslava; Bozic, Dusan; Jovanovic, Milan T.

    2006-01-01

    The inert gas atomised prealloyed copper powders containing 3.5 wt.% Al were milled up to 20 h in the planetary ball mill in order to oxidize aluminium in situ with oxygen from the air. In the next procedure compacts from milled powder were synthesized by hot-pressing in argon atmosphere. Compacts from as-received Cu-3.5 wt.% Al powder and electrolytic copper powder were also prepared under the same conditions. Microstructural and morphological changes of high energy milled powder as well as changes of thermal stability and electrical conductivity of compacts were studied as a function of milling time and high temperature exposure at 800 deg. C. Optical, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed for microstructural characterization, whereas thermal stability and electrical conductivity were evaluated by microhardness measurements and conductometer Sigmatest, respectively. The prealloyed 5 h-milled and compacted powder showed a significant increase in microhardness reaching the value of 2600 MPa, about 4 times greater than that of compacts synthesized from as-received electrolytic copper powder (670 MPa). The electrical conductivity of compacts from 5 h-milled powder was 52% IACS. The results were discussed in terms of the effect of small grain size and finely distributed alumina dispersoids on hardening and thermal stability of compacts

  10. Reverse martensitic transformation in alumina-15 vol% zirconia nanostructured powder synthesized by high energy ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maneshian, M.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Avenue, P.O. Box 11365-9466, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mh_maneshian@yahoo.com; Banerjee, M.K. [National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology, Hatia, Ranchi 834003 (India)

    2008-07-14

    In the present work, three alumina-15 vol% zirconia composites with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO as dopants and without oxide as dopant have been investigated. High energy ball milling (HEBM) provides the positive thermodynamic driving force for monoclinic to tetragonal transformation and it reduces starting temperature for the reverse martensitic transformation, meanwhile mobility of zirconium cations and oxygen anions are enhanced in zirconia by HEBM. The general, albeit heuristic, reasoning is corroborated by nanocrystallity, particle size and also the retained monoclinic seem to play an important role. After 10 h HEBM, approximately 28% zirconia tetragonal phase is achieved. Non-stoichiometric tetragonal zirconia phase; Zr{sub 0.95}O{sub 2} is seen to have been achieved by high energy ball milling (HEBM). The structural and compositional evolutions during HEBM have been investigated using X-ray diffraction method (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). High resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) is also used for further understanding about the phenomenological changes taking place during high energy ball milling.

  11. Optimum condition determination of Rirang uranium ores grinding using ball mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affandi, Kosim; Waluyo, Sugeng; Sarono, Budi; Sujono; Muhammad

    2002-01-01

    The grinding experiment on Rirang Uranium ore has been carried out with the aim is to find out the optimum condition of wet grinding using ball mill to produce particle size -325, -200 and -100 mesh. This will be used for decomposition feed the test was done by examine the parameters comparison of ore's weight against ball's weight and time of grinding. The test shown that the product of particle size -325 meshes was achieved optimum condition at the comparison ore's weight: ball = 1:3, grinding time 150 minutes, % solid 60, speed rotation of ball mill 60 rpm and recovery of grinding was 93.51 % of -325 mesh. The product of particle size -200 mesh was achieved optimum condition at comparison ore's weight: ball = 1:2, time of grinding 60 minutes, the fraction of + 200 mesh was regrind, the recovery of grinding 6.82% at particle size of (-200 + 250) mesh, 5.75 % at (-250 + 325)m mesh and, 47.93 % -325 mesh. The product of particle size -100 mesh was achieved the optimum condition at comparison ore's weight: ball = 1:2, time of grinding at 30 minutes particle size +100 mesh regrinding using mortar grinder, recovery of grinding 30.10% at particle size (-100 + 150) m, 12.28 % at (-150 + 200) mesh, 15.92 % at (-200 + 250) mesh, 12.44 % at (-250 + 325) mesh and 29.26 % -325 mesh. The determination of specific gravity of Rirang uranium ore was between 4.15 - 4.55 g/cm 3

  12. Functional nanometers for hydrogen storage produced by ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czujko, T. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering]|[Military Univ. of Technology, Warsaw (Poland). Dept. of Advanced Materials and Technologies; Varin, R.A. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering; Wronski, Z.S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Transportation; Zaranski, Z. [Military Univ. of Technology, Warsaw (Poland). Dept. of Advanced Materials and Technologies

    2008-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly important to switch to cleaner alternative energy carriers such as hydrogen, as environmental concerns over greenhouse gas emissions from the burning of fossil fuel increase. Specifically, there is a need for efficient on-board hydrogen storage technologies for vehicular applications. This paper discussed three different methods of hydrogen desorption temperature reduction and desorption kinetics of nanostructured hydrides. The first method was based on substantial hydride particle size refinement. The second method utilized catalytic effects of nanometric n-alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), n-yttrium oxide powder (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and n-nickel (Ni) additives. The third method was based on a composite of nanohydride mixtures. The composite approach was applied to the magnesium hydride (MgH{sub 2}) plus sodium tetrahydridoborate (NaBH{sub 4}) and lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH{sub 4}) systems. The paper presented the effects of nanostructuring and nanocatalytic additives on Mg hydride desorption properties as well as a composite behaviour of nanostructured complex hydrides. It was concluded that milling of commercial MgH{sub 2} with the nano-oxide additives had a limited effect on improving the hydrogen storage properties. The addition of specialty Inco nanometric Ni reduced the hydrogen desorption temperature considerably. 28 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  13. Hydrogen storage in Mg-Ni-Fe compounds prepared by melt spinning and ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palade, P. [Settore Materiali, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy); National Institute for Physics of Materials, Atomistilor 105 bis, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Sartori, S. [Settore Materiali, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy); Maddalena, A. [Settore Materiali, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy); Principi, G. [Settore Materiali, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy)]. E-mail: giovanni.principi@unipd.it; Lo Russo, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Lazarescu, M. [National Institute for Physics of Materials, Atomistilor 105 bis, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Schinteie, G. [National Institute for Physics of Materials, Atomistilor 105 bis, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Kuncser, V. [National Institute for Physics of Materials, Atomistilor 105 bis, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Filoti, G. [National Institute for Physics of Materials, Atomistilor 105 bis, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2006-05-18

    Magnesium-rich Mg-Ni-Fe intermetallic compounds have been prepared by two different routes: (a) short time ball milling of ribbons obtained by melt spinning; (b) long time ball milling of a mixture of MgH{sub 2}, Ni and Fe powders. The first type of samples displays an hydrogen desorption kinetics better than the second one. Pressure composition isotherm measurements exhibit for both type of samples two plateaux, the lower and wider corresponding to the MgH{sub 2} phase and the upper and shorter corresponding to the Mg{sub 2}NiH{sub 4} phase. The presence of the two types of hydrides is confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Moessbauer spectroscopy shows that in melt spun and subsequently milled samples iron is mainly in a disordered structure and segregates after hydrogenation, while in directly milled powders remains mainly unalloyed. After multiple hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles the main part of iron is in metallic state in samples of both types, those of first type preserving better hydrogen desorption kinetics.

  14. Hydroamination reactions of alkynes with ortho-substituted anilines in ball mills: synthesis of benzannulated N-heterocycles by a cascade reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiße, Maik; Zille, Markus; Jacob, Katharina; Schmidt, Robert; Stolle, Achim

    2015-04-20

    It was demonstrated that ortho-substituted anilines are prone to undergo hydroamination reactions with diethyl acetylenedicarboxylate in a planetary ball mill. A sequential coupling of the intermolecular hydroamination reaction with intramolecular ring closure was utilized for the syntheses of benzooxazines, quinoxalines, and benzothiazines from readily available building blocks, that is, electrophilic alkynes and anilines with OH, NH, or SH groups in the ortho position. For the heterocycle formation, it was shown that several stress conditions were able to initiate the reaction in the solid state. Processing in a ball mill seemed to be advantageous over comminution with mortar and pestle with respect to process control. In the latter case, significant postreaction modification occurred during solid-state analysis. Cryogenic milling proved to have an adverse effect on the molecular transformation of the reagents. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Transformation of Goethite to Hematite Nanocrystallines by High Energy Ball Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Lemine

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available α-Fe2O3 nanocrystallines were prepared by direct transformation via high energy ball milling treatment for α-FeOOH powder. X-ray diffraction, Rietveld analysis, TEM, and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM are used to characterize the samples obtained after several milling times. Phase identification using Rietveld analysis showed that the goethite is transformed to hematite nanocrystalline after 40 hours of milling. HRTEM confirm that the obtained phase is mostly a single-crystal structure. This result suggested that the mechanochemical reaction is an efficient way to prepare some iron oxides nanocrystallines from raw materials which are abundant in the nature. The mechanism of the formation of hematite is discussed in text.

  16. Rock Characteristics and Ball Mill Energy Requirements at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... Mineral processing plants often experience changes in throughput; blending ... Samples taken at the same depth from each of the pits showed that Akontasi Pit has the most ... All these factors contribute to vast variation of.

  17. Mechanocatalytic Production of Lactic Acid from Glucose by Ball Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyang Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A solvent-free process was developed for the direct production of lactic acid from glucose in a mechanocatalytic process in the presence of Ba(OH2, and a moderate lactic acid yield of 35.6% was obtained. Glucose conversion and lactic acid formation were favorable at higher catalyst/glucose mass ratios. However, at relatively lower catalyst/glucose mass ratios, they were greatly inhibited, and the promotion of fructose formation was observed. The mechanocatalytic process was applicable for various carbohydrates such as C5 sugars, C6 sugars, and disaccharides with 20–36% lactic acid yields achieved. This work provides a new pathway for the production of value-added chemicals from biomass resources.

  18. Effect of Milling Time on the Microstructure, Physical and Mechanical Properties of Al-Al2O3 Nanocomposite Synthesized by Ball Milling and Powder Metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Toozandehjani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of milling time on the morphology, microstructure, physical and mechanical properties of pure Al-5 wt % Al2O3 (Al-5Al2O3 has been investigated. Al-5Al2O3 nanocomposites were fabricated using ball milling in a powder metallurgy route. The increase in the milling time resulted in the homogenous dispersion of 5 wt % Al2O3 nanoparticles, the reduction of particle clustering, and the reduction of distances between the composite particles. The significant grain refining during milling was revealed which showed as a reduction of particle size resulting from longer milling time. X-Ray diffraction (XRD analysis of the nanocomposite powders also showed that designated ball milling contributes to the crystalline refining and accumulation of internal stress due to induced severe plastic deformation of the particles. It can be argued that these morphological and microstructural variations of nanocomposite powders induced by designated ball milling time was found to contribute to an improvement in the density, densification, micro-hardness (HV, nano-hardness (HN, and Young’s modulus (E of Al-5Al2O3 nanocomposites. HV, HN, and E values of nanocomposites were increased by ~48%, 46%, and 40%, after 12 h of milling, respectively.

  19. Effect of Milling Time on the Microstructure, Physical and Mechanical Properties of Al-Al2O3 Nanocomposite Synthesized by Ball Milling and Powder Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matori, Khamirul Amin; Ostovan, Farhad; Abdul Aziz, Sidek; Mamat, Md Shuhazlly

    2017-01-01

    The effect of milling time on the morphology, microstructure, physical and mechanical properties of pure Al-5 wt % Al2O3 (Al-5Al2O3) has been investigated. Al-5Al2O3 nanocomposites were fabricated using ball milling in a powder metallurgy route. The increase in the milling time resulted in the homogenous dispersion of 5 wt % Al2O3 nanoparticles, the reduction of particle clustering, and the reduction of distances between the composite particles. The significant grain refining during milling was revealed which showed as a reduction of particle size resulting from longer milling time. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the nanocomposite powders also showed that designated ball milling contributes to the crystalline refining and accumulation of internal stress due to induced severe plastic deformation of the particles. It can be argued that these morphological and microstructural variations of nanocomposite powders induced by designated ball milling time was found to contribute to an improvement in the density, densification, micro-hardness (HV), nano-hardness (HN), and Young’s modulus (E) of Al-5Al2O3 nanocomposites. HV, HN, and E values of nanocomposites were increased by ~48%, 46%, and 40%, after 12 h of milling, respectively. PMID:29072632

  20. Effect of Milling Time on the Microstructure, Physical and Mechanical Properties of Al-Al₂O₃ Nanocomposite Synthesized by Ball Milling and Powder Metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toozandehjani, Meysam; Matori, Khamirul Amin; Ostovan, Farhad; Abdul Aziz, Sidek; Mamat, Md Shuhazlly

    2017-10-26

    The effect of milling time on the morphology, microstructure, physical and mechanical properties of pure Al-5 wt % Al₂O₃ (Al-5Al₂O₃) has been investigated. Al-5Al₂O₃ nanocomposites were fabricated using ball milling in a powder metallurgy route. The increase in the milling time resulted in the homogenous dispersion of 5 wt % Al₂O₃ nanoparticles, the reduction of particle clustering, and the reduction of distances between the composite particles. The significant grain refining during milling was revealed which showed as a reduction of particle size resulting from longer milling time. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the nanocomposite powders also showed that designated ball milling contributes to the crystalline refining and accumulation of internal stress due to induced severe plastic deformation of the particles. It can be argued that these morphological and microstructural variations of nanocomposite powders induced by designated ball milling time was found to contribute to an improvement in the density, densification, micro-hardness ( HV ), nano-hardness ( HN ), and Young's modulus ( E ) of Al-5Al₂O₃ nanocomposites. HV , HN , and E values of nanocomposites were increased by ~48%, 46%, and 40%, after 12 h of milling, respectively.

  1. One step conversion of wheat straw to sugars by simultaneous ball milling, mild acid, and fungus Penicillium simplicissimum treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Li; Chen, Zhenhua; Zhu, Yonghua; Liu, Xuanming; Liao, Hongdong; Chen, Ding

    2012-05-01

    Wheat straw is one of the major lignocellulosic plant residues in many countries including China. An attractive alternative is the utilization of wheat straw for bioethanol production. This article mainly studies a simple one-step wet milling with Penicillium simplicissimum and weak acid to hydrolysis of wheat straw. The optimal condition for hydrolysis was ball milling 48 h in citrate solvent (pH = 4) with P. simplicissimum H5 at the speed of 500 rpm and the yield of sugar increased with increased milling time. Corresponding structure transformations before and after milling analyzed by X-ray diffraction, transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and environmental scanning electron microscopy clearly indicated that this combined treatment could be attributed to the crystalline and chemical structure changes of cellulose in wheat straw during ball milling. This combined treatment of ball milling, mild acid, and fungus hydrolysis enabled the conversion of the wheat straw. Compared with traditional method of ball milling, this work showed a more simple, novel, and environmentally friendly way in mechanochemical treatment of wheat straw.

  2. Atomic disorder and amorphization of B2-structure CoZr by ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, G.F.; Bakker, H.

    1996-01-01

    For a considerable number of intermetallic compounds it has been found that ball milling introduces atomic (chemical) disorder. Disorder due to milling was demonstrated by x-ray diffraction in AlRu, crystallizing in the B2 structure (ordered b.c.c.) by a decrease of the intensity of superlattice reflections relative to fundamental reflections. The same technique was used to investigate disordering by milling in Ni 3 Al, crystallizing in the L1 2 structure (ordered f.c.c.). In both cases the disorder is anti-site disorder of both components, i.e. both atomic species substitute on the wrong sublattices. Besides x-ray diffraction measurements of magnetic properties turned out to be useful in monitoring structural changes due to milling. The change in the superconducting transition temperature, measured by magnetic a.c. susceptibility, was used to demonstrate atomic disordering by milling in Nb 3 Sn and Nb 3 Au. The type of disorder turned out to be anti-site disorder. Such a type of disorder occurs in the same materials also at high temperatures or after irradiation by neutrons. The disordering was accompanied by an increase of the lattice parameter. An increase in high-field magnetization accompanied by a decrease of the lattice parameter during milling was found in B2 CoGa and B2 CoAl. In principle in the completely ordered state both compounds are non-magnetic, because the CO atoms are shielded from one another by Ga and Al atoms, respectively. However, when a Co atom is transferred to the wrong sublattice, it is surrounded by Co atoms as nearest neighbors and bears a magnetic moment. This explains the strong increase of the magnetization due to milling

  3. Conductometry and Size Characterization of Polypyrrole Nanoparticles Produced by Ball Milling

    OpenAIRE

    Abbasi, Abdul Malik Rehan; Marsalkova, Miroslava; Militky, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy), one of the most extensively investigated conducting polymers, has attracted a great deal of interest because of its good electrical conductivity, environmental stability, and easy synthesis. PPy films were produced by polymerization of pyrrole and tosylate (TsO−) as dopants in the presence of oxidant FeCl3 and polyethylene glycol (Mw 8000) at −5°C for 48 h. High energy milling was carried out at 850 rpm in the dry media with the balls of 10 mm. Particles were then character...

  4. Generation of drugs coated iron nanoparticles through high energy ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhika Devi, A.; Murty, B. S. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Chelvane, J. A. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500058 (India); Prabhakar, P. K.; Padma Priya, P. V.; Doble, Mukesh [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2014-03-28

    The iron nanoparticles coated with oleic acid and drugs such as folic acid/Amoxicillin were synthesized by high energy ball milling and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron microscope, zeta potential, dynamic light scattering, Fourier Transform Infra red (FT-IR) measurements, and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). FT-IR and TGA measurements show good adsorption of drugs on oleic acid coated nanoparticles. Magnetic measurements indicate that saturation magnetization is larger for amoxicillin coated particles compared to folic acid coated particles. The biocompatibility of the magnetic nanoparticles prepared was evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity assay using L929 cells as model cells.

  5. Ferromagnetic resonance parameters of ball-milled Ni-Zn ferrite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, B. Parvatheeswara; Caltun, Ovidiu; Dumitru, Ioan; Spinu, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    Ferrite nanoparticles of the size about 6 nm have been made by using high-energy ball mill on the sintered pellets of the system Ni 0.65 Zn 0.375 In x Ti 0.025 Fe 1.95- x O 4 . XRD, VSM and FMR techniques were used for structural and magnetic characterizations of the samples. The magnetic characteristics of indium-doped samples are compared with those for bulk samples. The differences are discussed in terms of the particle size and small-particle magnetism

  6. The crystallization of amorphous Fe2MnGe powder prepared by ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.; Brueck, E.; Tegus, O.; Buschow, K.H.J.; Boer, F.R. de

    2003-01-01

    We synthesized for the first time the intermetallic compound Fe 2 MnGe. To avoid preferential evaporation of volatile components we exploited mechanical alloying. Amorphous Fe 2 MnGe alloy powder was prepared by planetary ball milling elemental starting materials. The amorphous-to-crystalline transition was studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). A cubic D0 3 phase is formed at low temperature and transforms to a high-temperature hexagonal D0 19 phase. The apparent activation energy was determined by means of the Kissinger method

  7. ZnO nanoparticles obtained by ball milling technique: Structural, micro-structure, optical and photo-catalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balamurugan, S., E-mail: scandium.chemistry@gmail.com; Joy, Josny; Godwin, M. Anto; Selvamani, S.; Raja, T. S. Gokul [Advanced Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Department of Nanotechnology, Noorul Islam Centre for Higher Education, Thuckalay, Kumaracoil - 629 180 (India)

    2016-05-23

    The ZnO nanoparticles were obtained by ball milling of commercial grade ZnO powder at 250 rpm for 20 h and studied their structural, micro-structure, optical and photo-catalytic properties. Due to ball milling significant decrease in lattice parameters and average crystalline size is noticed for the as-milled ZnO nano powder. The HRSEM images of the as-milled powder consist of agglomerated fine spherical nanoparticles in the range of ~10-20 nm. The room temperature PL spectrum of as-milled ZnO nano powder excited under 320 nm reveals two emission bands at ~406 nm (violet emission) and ~639 nm (green emission). Interestingly about 98 % of photo degradation of methylene (MB) by the ZnO catalyst is achieved at 100 minutes of solar light irradiation.

  8. Electrochemical properties of the ball-milled LaMg10NiMn alloy with Ni powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yi; Wang Xin; Gao Xueping; Shen Panwen

    2008-01-01

    The electrochemical characteristics of the ball-milled LaMg 10 NiMn alloys with Ni powders were investigated. It was found that the ball-milled LaMg 10 NiMn + 150 wt.% Ni composite exhibited higher first discharge capacity and better cycle performance. By means of the analysis of electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS), it was shown that the existence of manganese in LaMg 10 NiMn alloy increased the electrocatalytic activity due to its catalytic effect, and destabilized metal hydrides, and so reduced the hydrogen diffusion resistance. These contributed to the higher discharge capacity of the ball-milled LaMg 10 NiMn-Ni composite. According to the analytical results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), EIS and steady-state polarization (SSP) experiments, the inhibition of metal corrosion is not the main reason for the better cycle performance. The main reason is that the electrochemical reaction resistance of the ball-milled LaMg 10 NiMn-Ni composite is always lower than that of the ball-milled LaMg 10 Ni 2 -Ni composite because the former one contains manganese, which is a catalyst for the electrode reaction

  9. Refinement of Crystalline Boron and the Superconducting Properties of MgB2 by Attrition Ball Milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. H.; Shin, S. Y.; Park, H. W.; Jun, B. H.; Kim, C. J.

    2008-01-01

    We report refinement of crystalline boron by an attrition ball milling system and the superconducting properties of the MgB 2 pellets prepared from the refined boron. In this work, we have conducted the ball milling with only crystalline boron powder, in order to improve homogeneity and control the grain size of the MgB 2 that is formed from it. We observed that the crystalline responses in the ball-milled boron became broader and weaker when the ball-milling time was further increased. On the other hand, the B 2 O 3 peak became stronger in the powders, resulting in an increase in the amount of MgO within the MgB 2 volume. The main reason for this is a greater oxygen uptake. From the perspective of the superconducting properties, however, the sample prepared from boron that was ball milled for 5 hours showed an improvement of critical current density (J c ), even with increased MgO phase, under an external magnetic field at 5 and 20 K.

  10. Preparation, characterization and optoelectronic properties of nanodiamonds doped zinc oxide nanomaterials by a ball milling technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Hameed; Sohail, Muhammad; Malik, Uzma; Ali, Naveed; Bangash, Masroor Ahmad; Nawaz, Mohsan

    2016-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is one of the very important metal oxides (MOs) for applications in optoelectronic devices which work in the blue and UV regions. However, to meet the challenges of obtaining ZnO nanomaterials suitable for practical applications, various modifications in physico-chemical properties are highly desirable. One of the ways adopted for altering the properties is to synthesize composite(s) of ZnO with various reinforcements. Here we report on the tuning of optoelectronic properties of ZnO upon doping by nanodiamonds (NDs) using the ball milling technique. A varying weight percent (wt.%) of NDs were ball milled for 2 h with ZnO nanoparticles prepared by a simple precipitation method. The effects of different parameters, the calcination temperature of ZnO, wt.% of NDs and mechanical milling upon the optoelectronic properties of the resulting ZnO-NDs nanocomposites have been investigated. The ZnO-NDs nanocomposites were characterized by IR spectroscopy, powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The UV-vis spectroscopy revealed the alteration in the bandgap energy (Eg ) of ZnO as a function of the calcination temperature of ZnO, changing the concentration of NDs, and mechanical milling of the resulting nanocomposites. The photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy showed a decrease in the deep level emission (DLE) peaks and an increase in near-band-edge transition peaks as a result of the increasing concentration of NDs. The decrease in DLE and increase in band to band transition peaks were due to the strong interaction between the NDs and the Zn+; consequently, the Zn+ concentration decreased on the interstitial sites.

  11. Long-Term Effects on Graphene Supercapacitors of Using a Zirconia Bowl and Zirconia Balls for Ball-Mill mixing of Active Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dae-Hoon; Kim, Jin-Young; Kahng, Yung Ho; Cho, Hoonsung; Kim, Eung-Sam

    2018-04-01

    Improving the energy storage performance of supercapacitor electrodes based on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) is one of the main subjects in this research field. However, when a zirconia bowl and zirconia balls were used for ball-mill mixing of the active materials for RGO supercapacitors, the energy storage performance deteriorated over time. Our study revealed that the source of the problem was the inclusion of zirconia bits from abrasion of the bowl and the balls during the ballmill mixing, which increased during a period of 1 year. We probed two solutions to this problem: 1) hydrofluoric (HF) acid treatment of the RGO supercapacitors and 2) use of a tempered steel bowl and tempered steel balls for the mixing. For both cases, the energy storage performance was restored to near the initial level, showing a specific capacitance ( C sp ) of 200 F/g. Our results should lead to progress in research on RGO supercapacitors.

  12. Cold compaction behavior and pressureless sinterability of ball milled WC and WC/Cu powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi Seyed R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, cold compaction behavior and pressureless sinterability of WC, WC-10%wtCu and WC-30%wtCu powders were investigated. WC and WC/Cu powders were milled in a planetary ball mill for 20h. The milled powders were cold compacted at 100, 200, 300 and 400 MPa pressures. The compressibility behavior of the powders was evaluated using the Heckel, Panelli-Ambrosio and Ge models. The results showed that the Panelli-Ambrosio was the preferred equation for description the cold compaction behavior of the milled WC and WC-30%wtCu powders. Also, the most accurate model for describing the compressibility of WC-10%wtCu powders was the Heckel equation. The cold compacts were sintered at 1400°C. It was found that by increasing the cold compaction pressure of powder compacts before sintering, the sinterability of WC-30%wtCu powder compacts was enhanced. However, the cold compaction magnitude was not affected significantly on the sinterability of WC and WC-10%wtCu powders. The microstructural investigations of the sintered samples by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM confirmed the presence of porosities at the interface of copper-tungsten carbide phases.

  13. Effect of ball mill treatment on kinetics of amorphous Ni78Si10B12 alloy crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomilin, I.A.; Mochalova, T.Yu.; Kaloshkin, S.D.; Kostyukovich, T.G.; Lopatina, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of the parameters of Ni 78 Si 10 B 12 alloy amorphous strip milling in a ball planetary mill on the stability of powder amorphous state, crytallization kinetics and dispersity is studied by the methods of differential scanning microcaloremetry and X-ray diffraction analysis. Energy intensity of milling conditions is assessed. An increase of input energy results in a decrease of activation energy of powder crystallization. Strip milling parameters which enable to avaintain the amorphous state of the material are determined

  14. Fabrication of lanthanum-doped thorium dioxide by high-energy ball milling and spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Spencer M.; Yao, Tiankai [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Lu, Fengyuan [Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Xin, Guoqing; Zhu, Weiguang [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Lian, Jie, E-mail: lianj@rpi.edu [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Abstract: High-energy ball milling was used to synthesize Th{sub 1-x}La{sub x}O{sub 2-0.5x} (x = 0.09, 0.23) solid solutions, as well as improve the sinterability of ThO{sub 2} powders. Dense La-doped ThO{sub 2} pellets with theoretical density above 94% were consolidated by spark plasma sintering at temperatures above 1400 °C for 20 min, and the densification behavior and the non-equilibrium effects on phase and structure were investigated. A lattice contraction of the SPS-densified pellets occurred with increasing ball milling duration, and a secondary phase with increased La-content was observed in La-doped pellets. A dependence on the La-content and sintering duration for the onset of localized phase segregation has been proposed. The effects of high-energy ball milling, La-content, and phase formation on the thermal diffusivity were also studied for La-doped ThO{sub 2} pellets by laser flash measurement. Increasing La-content and high energy ball milling time decreases thermal diffusivity; while the sintering peak temperature and holding time beyond 1600 °C dramatically altered the temperature dependence of the thermal diffusivity beyond 600 °C. - Highlights: • Lanthanum incorporation into ThO{sub 2} by high energy ball milling and rapid consolidation by spark plasma sintering. • Elucidation of phase behavior of the La-doped ThO{sub 2} and the contributions of La incorporation and SPS sintering conditions. • Investigation of the effects of La incorporation and high energy ball milling on the thermal behavior of La-doped ThO{sub 2}.

  15. Characterization of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}NP-Al{sub 2024} and Ag{sub C}NP-Al{sub 2024} composites prepared by mechanical processing in a high energy ball mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreno-Gallardo, C. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia-Chihuahua, Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua (Mexico); Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Departamento de Materiales, Av. San Pablo No. 180, Col Reynosa-Tamaulipas, CP 02200, D.F. (Mexico); Estrada-Guel, I. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia-Chihuahua, Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua (Mexico); Romero-Romo, M. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Departamento de Materiales, Av. San Pablo No. 180, Col Reynosa-Tamaulipas, CP 02200, D.F. (Mexico); Cruz-Garcia, R. [Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua (UACH), Facultad de Ingenieria, Circuito No. 1 Nuevo Campus Universitario, C.P. 31125, Chihuahua (Mexico); Lopez-Melendez, C. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia-Chihuahua, Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua (Mexico); Universidad La Salle Chihuahua, Prol. Lomas de Majalca No. 11201, C.P. 31020, Chihuahua (Mexico); Martinez-Sanchez, R., E-mail: roberto.martinez@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia-Chihuahua, Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2012-09-25

    Graphical abstract: Mechanical alloying was used to produce two kinds of metal matrix composites based on 2024 aluminum alloy, the nanocomposites were reinforced with different percentages of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ag{sub C} nanoparticles. The content of nanoparticles has a role important on the mechanical properties of the nanocomposite. 10 h of milling time are enough to former the Al{sub 2024} nanocomposites. The results obtained by differential scanning calorimeter show the temperatures of intermetallic precipitation, which were identified by X-ray diffraction. The results revealed that mechanical alloying is an excellent route to incorporate and distribute NP into Al{sub 2024}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminum-based nanocomposites were synthesized bay milling process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An homogeneous nanoparticles dispersion was reached and mechanical properties were enhanced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phase transformation during heating was characterized by XRD. - Abstract: Mechanical alloying was used to produce two kinds of metal matrix composites based on 2024 aluminum alloy. The nanocomposites were reinforced with different percentages of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ag{sub C} nanoparticles. The content of nanoparticles has an important role on the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites. A milling time of 10 h is enough to form the Al{sub 2024} nanocomposites. The thermograms obtained by differential scanning calorimeter show the temperatures of phase precipitation, which were identified by X-ray diffraction. The results revealed that mechanical alloying is an excellent route for the incorporation and distribution of nanoparticles into Al{sub 2024}.

  16. Chevron's Panna Maria mill process description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Key features of Chevron's Uranium Mill located near Panna Maria, Texas, are described. The mill is designed to process a nominal 2500 dry tons/day of uranium bearing ore containing 15% uncombined moisture. The following operations at the mill are highlighted: ore receiving, grinding, leaching, countercurrent decantation and tailings disposal, filtering, solvent extraction, solvent stripping, precipitation, drying, and packaging

  17. Niobium Carbide-Reinforced Al Matrix Composites Produced by High-Energy Ball Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travessa, Dilermando Nagle; Silva, Marina Judice; Cardoso, Kátia Regina

    2017-06-01

    Aluminum and its alloys are key materials for the transportation industry as they contribute to the development of lightweight structures. The dispersion of hard ceramic particles in the Al soft matrix can lead to a substantial strengthening effect, resulting in composite materials exhibiting interesting mechanical properties and inspiring their technological use in sectors like the automotive and aerospace industries. Powder metallurgy techniques are attractive to design metal matrix composites, achieving a homogeneous distribution of the reinforcement into the metal matrix. In this work, pure aluminum has been reinforced with particles of niobium carbide (NbC), an extremely hard and stable refractory ceramic. Its use as a reinforcing phase in metal matrix composites has not been deeply explored. Composite powders produced after different milling times, with 10 and 20 vol pct of NbC were produced by high-energy ball milling and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and by X-ray diffraction to establish a relationship between the milling time and size, morphology, and distribution of the particles in the composite powder. Subsequently, an Al/10 pct NbC composite powder was hot extruded into cylindrical bars. The strength of the obtained composite bars is comparable to the commercial high-strength, aeronautical-grade aluminum alloys.

  18. Biodistribution of nanoparticles of hydrophobic gadopentetic-acid derivative prepared with a planetary ball mill for neutron-capture therapy of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabeta, Chika; Ichikawa, Hideki; Fukumori, Yoshinobu

    2006-01-01

    Nanoparticles of hydrophobic gadopentetic-acid derivatives (Gd-nanoGR) were prepared with a wet ball-milling process for gadolinium neutron-capture therapy. Ball-milling of solid mass of gadopentetic acid distearylamide with soybean lecithin as a dispersant in the presence of water and subsequent sonication at 70degC resulted in the Gd-nanoGR with the particle size of 63 nm. Biodistribution study using melanoma-bearing hamsters demonstrated that the i.v. injection of the Gd-nanoGR made a higher gadolinium accumulation in tumor (109 μg Gd/g wet tumor at 6h after administration), when compared with the gadolinium-loaded micellar-like nanoparticles previously reported. (author)

  19. Influence of milling process on efavirenz solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erizal Zaini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the milling process on the solubility of efavirenz. Materials and Methods: Milling process was done using Nanomilling for 30, 60, and 180 min. Intact and milled efavirenz were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, spectroscopy infrared (IR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and solubility test. Results: The X-ray diffractogram showed a decline on peak intensity of milled efavirenz compared to intact efavirenz. The SEM graph depicted the change from crystalline to amorphous habit after milling process. The IR spectrum showed there was no difference between intact and milled efavirenz. Thermal analysis which performed by DSC showed a reduction on endothermic peak after milling process which related to decreasing of crystallinity. Solubility test of intact and milled efavirenz was conducted in distilled water free CO2with 0.25% sodium lauryl sulfate media and measured using high-performance liquid chromatography method with acetonitrile: distilled water (80:20 as mobile phases. The solubility was significantly increased (P < 0.05 after milling processes, which the intact efavirenz was 27.12 ± 2.05, while the milled efavirenz for 30, 60, and 180 min were 75.53 ± 1.59, 82.34 ± 1.23, and 104.75 ± 0.96 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: Based on the results, the solubility of efavirenz improved after milling process.

  20. Magnetic and mechanical properties of Cu (75 wt%) – 316L grade stainless steels synthesized by ball milling and annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Bholanath, E-mail: bholanath_mondal@yahoo.co.in [Department of Central Scientific Services, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Chabri, Sumit [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India); Sardar, Gargi [Department of Zoology, Baruipur College, South 24 Parganas, 743610 (India); Bhowmik, Nandagopal [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India); Sinha, Arijit, E-mail: arijitsinha2@yahoo.co.in [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India); Chattopadhyay, Partha Protim [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India)

    2015-05-01

    Elemental powders of Cu (75 wt%) and 316-stainless steel (25 wt%) has been subjected to ball milling upto 70 h followed by isothermal annealing at the temperature range of 350–750 °C for 1 h to investigate the microstructural evolution along with magnetic and mechanical properties. After 40 h of milling, the bcc Fe is almost dissolved in the solid solution of Cu but no significant change has been observed in the XRD pattern after 70 h of milling, Annealing of the alloy has resulted in precipitation of nanocrystalline bcc-Fe in Cu which triggers the soft ferromagnetic properties. The extensive mechanical characterization has been done at the microstructural scale by nanoindentation technique which demonstrates a hardening behavior of the compacted and annealed alloys due to possible precipitation of nanocrystalline bcc-Fe in Cu. - Highlights: • Nanocrystalline phases with partial amorphorization obtained after 70 h of milling. • Precipitation and grain coarsening of Fe and Cu after annealing as observed by XRD. • Annealing of the ball milled sample upto 550 {sup o}C has evolved ferromagnetic behavior. • Nanoindentation predicts a hardening behavior of annealed ball milled samples.

  1. Physicochemical properties of direct compression tablets with spray dried and ball milled solid dispersions of tadalafil in PVP-VA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodarski, K; Tajber, L; Sawicki, W

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this research was to develop immediate release tablets comprising solid dispersion (IRSDTs) of tadalafil (Td) in a vinylpyrrolidone and vinyl acetate block copolymer (PVP-VA), characterized by improved dissolution profiles. The solid dispersion of Td in PVP-VA (Td/PVP-VA) in a weight ratio of 1:1 (w/w) was prepared using two different processes i.e. spray drying and ball milling. While the former process has been well established in the formulation of IRSDTs the latter has not been exploited in these systems yet. Regardless of the preparation method, both Td/PVP-VA solid dispersions were amorphous as confirmed by PXRD, DSC and FTIR. However, different morphology of particles (SEM) resulted in differences in water apparent solubility and disk intrinsic dissolution rate (DIDR). Both solid dispersions and crystalline Td were successfully made into directly compressible tablets at three doses of Td, i.e. 2.5mg, 10mgand20mg, yielding nine different formulations (D 1 -D 9 ). Each of the lots met the requirements set by Ph.Eur. and was evaluated with respect to appearance, diameter, thickness, mass, hardness, friability, disintegration time and content of Td. IRSDTs performed as supersaturable formulations and had significantly improved water dissolution profiles in comparison with equivalent tablets containing crystalline Td and the marketed formulations. Tablets with both spray dried and ball milled Td/PVP-VA revealed the greatest improvement in dissolution depending on the investigated doses, i.e. 2.5mgand20mg, respectively. Also, dissolution of Td from Td/PVP-VA delivered in different forms occurred in the following order: powders>tablets>capsules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The incredible shrinking ball

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Maurice

    2011-12-15

    In the oil and gas industry, the implementation of fracture systems using ball and seat technology helped make multistage fracturing possible. However, frac balls can obstruct later production flow by staying in the well. Baker Hughes Inc. developed a technology to solve this problem: IN-Tallic frac balls. The unique feature of these frac balls is that they are made of an electrolytic metallic nanostructured material which is light and strong and which melts away with salt water or brine through a decomposition process governed by electrochemical reactions controlled by nanoscale coatings. These balls need to be kept away from moisture in order to prevent degradation. This technology is more expensive than traditional frac balls but it prevents the need to mill out obstructions created by the balls. The IN-Tallic frac balls are a new technology which provides operators with peace of mind.

  3. Influence of spark plasma sintering conditions on the sintering and functional properties of an ultra-fine grained 316L stainless steel obtained from ball-milled powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, C., E-mail: clement.keller@insa-rouen.fr [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, CNRS-UMR 6634, Université de Rouen, INSA de Rouen, Avenue de l' Université, 76800 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France); Tabalaiev, K.; Marnier, G. [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, CNRS-UMR 6634, Université de Rouen, INSA de Rouen, Avenue de l' Université, 76800 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France); Noudem, J. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie des Matériaux, CNRS-UMR 6508, Université de Caen, ENSICAEN, 7 bd du Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Sauvage, X. [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, CNRS-UMR 6634, Université de Rouen, INSA de Rouen, Avenue de l' Université, 76800 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France); Hug, E. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie des Matériaux, CNRS-UMR 6508, Université de Caen, ENSICAEN, 7 bd du Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen (France)

    2016-05-17

    In this work, 316L samples with submicrometric grain size were sintered by spark plasma sintering. To this aim, 316L powder was first ball-milled with different conditions to obtain nanostructured powder. The process control agent quantity and milling time were varied to check their influence on the crystallite size of milled powder. Samples were then sintered by spark plasma sintering using different sets of sintering parameters (temperature, dwell time and pressure). For each sample, grain size and density were systematically measured in order to investigate the influence of the sintering process on these two key microstructure parameters. Results show that suitable ball-milling and subsequent sintering can be employed to obtain austenitic stainless steel samples with grain sizes in the nanometer range with porosity lower than 3%. However, ball-milling and subsequent sintering enhance chromium carbides formation at the sample surface in addition to intragranular and intergranular oxides in the sample as revealed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. It has been shown that using Boron nitride together with graphite foils to protect the mold from powder welding prevent such carbide formation. For mechanical properties, results show that the grain size refinement strongly increases the hardness of the samples without deviation from Hall-Petch relationship despite the oxides formation. For corrosion resistance, grain sizes lower than a few micrometers involve a strong decrease in the pitting potential and a strong increase in passivation current. As a consequence, spark plasma sintering can be considered as a promising tool for ultra-fine grained austenitic stainless steel.

  4. Influence of cation disorder on the magnetic properties of ball-milled ilmenite (FeTiO3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Rasmussen, Helge Kildahl; Brok, Erik

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the evolution of crystal structure, cation disorder and magnetic properties of ilmenite (FeTiO3) after increasing time of high-energy ball-milling in an inert atmosphere. Refinement of X-ray diffraction data show that the hexagonal crystal structure of ilmenite is maintained...

  5. Structural study of ball-milled sodium alanate under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selva Vennila, R. [Center for Study of Matter at Extreme Conditions, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States)], E-mail: selva.raju@fiu.edu; Drozd, Vadym; George, Lyci; Saxena, Surendra K. [Center for Study of Matter at Extreme Conditions, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Liermann, Hanns-Peter [High Pressure Collaboration Access Team (HPCAT) and Geophysical Laboratory, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Liu, H.Z. [HPCAT, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Building 434E, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Stowe, Ashley C.; Berseth, Polly; Anton, Donald; Zidan, Ragaiy [Savannah River National Laboratory, Energy Security Department, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2009-04-03

    Ball-milled NaAlH{sub 4} was studied up to 15 GPa in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) by X-ray diffraction using a synchrotron radiation source. Lattice parameters were determined from the X-ray diffraction data at various pressures up to 6.5 GPa. Intensity of the powder diffraction patterns decreased with increasing pressure. Amorphisation started at a pressure of {approx}6.5 GPa and completed at 13.5 GPa. Reversible phase transformation from amorphous phase to the tetragonal phase was observed. A fit to the pressure-volume data equation of state was obtained using the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state and the bulk modulus was found to be 52.16 {+-} 0.9 GPa which is twice higher than the unmilled NaAlH{sub 4}.

  6. Hydrogen storage materials discovery via high throughput ball milling and gas sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Kaye, Steven S; Riley, Conor; Greenberg, Doron; Galang, Daniel; Bailey, Mark S

    2012-06-11

    The lack of a high capacity hydrogen storage material is a major barrier to the implementation of the hydrogen economy. To accelerate discovery of such materials, we have developed a high-throughput workflow for screening of hydrogen storage materials in which candidate materials are synthesized and characterized via highly parallel ball mills and volumetric gas sorption instruments, respectively. The workflow was used to identify mixed imides with significantly enhanced absorption rates relative to Li2Mg(NH)2. The most promising material, 2LiNH2:MgH2 + 5 atom % LiBH4 + 0.5 atom % La, exhibits the best balance of absorption rate, capacity, and cycle-life, absorbing >4 wt % H2 in 1 h at 120 °C after 11 absorption-desorption cycles.

  7. Structural study of ball-milled sodium alanate under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selva Vennila, R.; Drozd, Vadym; George, Lyci; Saxena, Surendra K.; Liermann, Hanns-Peter; Liu, H.Z.; Stowe, Ashley C.; Berseth, Polly; Anton, Donald; Zidan, Ragaiy

    2009-01-01

    Ball-milled NaAlH 4 was studied up to 15 GPa in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) by X-ray diffraction using a synchrotron radiation source. Lattice parameters were determined from the X-ray diffraction data at various pressures up to 6.5 GPa. Intensity of the powder diffraction patterns decreased with increasing pressure. Amorphisation started at a pressure of ∼6.5 GPa and completed at 13.5 GPa. Reversible phase transformation from amorphous phase to the tetragonal phase was observed. A fit to the pressure-volume data equation of state was obtained using the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state and the bulk modulus was found to be 52.16 ± 0.9 GPa which is twice higher than the unmilled NaAlH 4

  8. Magnetic Properties of Nanocrystalline FexCu1-x Alloys Prepared by Ball Milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousif, A.; Bouziane, K.; Elzain, M. E.; Ren, X.; Berry, F. J.; Widatallah, H. M.; Al Rawas, A.; Gismelseed, A.; Al-Omari, I. A.

    2004-01-01

    X-ray diffraction, Moessbauer and magnetization measurements were used to study Fe x Cu 1-x alloys prepared by ball-milling. The X-ray data show the formation of a nanocrystalline Fe-Cu solid solution. The samples with x≥0.8 and x≤0.5 exhibit bcc or fcc phase, respectively. Both the bcc and fcc phases are principally ferromagnetic for x≥0.2, but the sample with x=0.1 remains paramagnetic down to 78 K. The influence of the local environment on the hyperfine parameters and the local magnetic moment are discussed using calculations based on the discrete-variational method in the local density approximation.

  9. Morphology and magnetic properties of CeCo5 submicron flakes prepared by surfactant-assisted high-energy ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.J.; Gao, H.M.; Yan, Y.; Bai, X.; Su, F.; Wang, W.Q.; Du, X.B.

    2012-01-01

    CeCo 5 permanent magnetic alloy has been processed by surfactant assisted high energy ball milling. Heptane and oleic acid were used as the solvent and surfactant, respectively. The amount of surfactant used was 50% by weight of the starting powder. The produced particles were deposited on a piece of copper (4 mm in length and width) under a magnetic field of 27 kOe applied along the copper surface and immobilized by ethyl α-cyanoacrylate. Scanning electron microscope pictures show that the particles are flakes, several μm in length and width and tens of nm in thickness. X-ray diffraction patterns and magnetic measurements prove that the flakes are crystalline with c-axes magnetic anisotropy. The easy magnetization axis is oriented perpendicular to the surface of the flake. A maximum coercivity of 3.3 kOe was obtained for the sample milled for 40 min. - Highlights: ► CeCo 5 permanent magnetic alloy has been processed by surfactant assisted high energy ball milling (HEBM). ► The particles show a flake-like morphology with several μm in length and width and tens nm in thickness. ► The flakes are crystallographic and magnetic anisotropic and the c-axes, also the easy magnetization directions are oriented perpendicular to the surface of the flake. ► Maximum coercivity of 3.3 kOe has been obtained for the sample milled for 40 min.

  10. Investigation of nanostructured Al-10 wt.% Zr material prepared by ball milling for high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosviryakov, A.S.; Shcherbachev, K.D.; Tabachkova, N.Yu.

    2017-01-01

    Ground chips of as-cast Al-10 wt.% Zr alloy were subjected to mechanical alloying (MA) with 5 vol.% of nanodiamond addition in a high energy planetary ball-mill. The aim of this work was to investigate the microstructure, phase transformation and mechanical properties of the material both after MA and after subsequent annealing. Optical and transmission electron microscopes were used for morphological and microstructural analysis. The effect of milling time on powder microhardness, Al lattice parameter, lattice microstrain and crystallite size was determined. It was shown that mechanical alloying of as-cast Al-10wt.%Zr alloy during 20 h leads to a complete dissolution of the primary tetragonal Al 3 Zr crystals in aluminum. At the same time, the powder microhardness increases to 370 HV. Metastable cubic Al 3 Zr phase nanoparticles precipitate from the Al solution due to its decomposition after annealing, however, the Al solid solution remains supersaturated and nanocrystalline. Compression tests at room temperature and at 300 °C showed that the strength values of the hot-pressed samples reach 822 MPa and 344 MPa, respectively. - Highlights: •As-cast Al-10 wt.% Zr alloy was mechanically alloyed with 5 vol.% nanodiamond. •The primary tetragonal Al 3 Zr crystals were completely dissolved in Al after 20 h. •Cubic Al 3 Zr phase nanoparticles precipitated from Al solution after aging. •The aged bulk material showed a high strength at room and elevated temperatures.

  11. Effect of process control agent on the structural and magnetic properties of nano/amorphous Fe0.7Nb0.1Zr0.1Ti0.1 powders prepared by high energy ball milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei Feizabad, Mohammad Hossein; Sharafi, Shahriar; Khayati, Gholam Reza; Ranjbar, Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    In this study, amorphous Fe0.7Nb0.1Zr0.1Ti0.1 alloy without metalloids was produced by mechanical alloying of pure mixture elements. Miedema's semi-empirical model was employed to predict the possibility of amorphous phase formation in proposed alloying system. The effect of Hexane as process control agent (PCA) on the structural, magnetic, morphological and thermal properties of the products was investigated. The results showed that the presence of PCA was necessary for the formation of amorphous phase as well as improved its soft magnetic properties. The PCA addition causes an increase of the saturation magnetization (about 43%) and decrease of the coercivity (about 50%). Moreover, the sample milled without PCA, showed a wide particle size distribution as well as relatively spherical geometry. While, in the presence of PCA the powders were aspherical and Polygon. In addition, the crystallization and Curie temperatures were found to be around 800 °C and 650 °C, respectively which are relatively high values for these kinds of alloys.

  12. Highly anisotropic SmCo{sub 5} nanoflakes by surfactant-assisted ball milling at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lidong; Zhang, Songlin [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Science, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Science, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhang, Jian, E-mail: zhangj@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Science, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Science, Ningbo 315201 (China); Ping Liu, J. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Xia, Weixing; Du, Juan; Yan, Aru [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Science, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Science, Ningbo 315201 (China); Yi, Jianhong [Institute of Material Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500 (China); Li, Wei; Guo, Zhaohui [Division of Functional Materials, Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Surfactant-assisted ball milling (SABM) has been shown to be a promising method for preparing rare earth-transition metal (RE-TM) nanoflakes and nanoparticles. In this work, we prepared SmCo{sub 5} nanoflakes by SABM at low temperature, and 2-methyl pentane and trioctylamine were specially selected as solvent and surfactant, respectively, due to their low melting points. The effects of milling temperature on the morphology, microstructure and magnetic performance of SmCo{sub 5} nanoflakes were investigated systematically. Comparing with the samples milled at room temperature, the SmCo{sub 5} nanoflakes prepared at low temperature displayed more homogeneous morphology and lower oxygen content. Remarkably, better crystallinity, better grain alignment and larger remanence ratio were shown in the samples milled at low temperature, which resulted from the distinct microstructure caused by low milling temperature. The differences in structural evolution between the SmCo{sub 5} nanoflakes milled at room temperature and low temperature, including the formation of nanocrystalline, grain boundary sliding, grain rotation, et al., were discussed. It was found that lowering the temperature of SABM was a powerful method for the fabrication of RE-TM nanoflakes, which showed better hard magnetic properties and lower oxygen content. This was important for the preparation of high-performance sintered magnets, bonded magnets and nanocomposite magnets. - Highlights: • We prepare SmCo{sub 5} nanoflakes by surfactant-assisted ball milling at low temperature. • Better grain alignment and higher remanence ratio are achieved. • The oxygen content is reduced by lowering the milling temperature. • A distinct microstructural evolution caused by low milling temperature is clarified.

  13. Microstructural evolution of nanostructured Ti0.9Al0.1N prepared by reactive ball-milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskar, U.K.; Bid, S.; Pradhan, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Nanocrystalline stoichiometric Ti 0.9 Al 0.1 N powder has been prepared by ball-milling the 0.9 mol fraction of α-Ti (hcp) and 0.1 mol fraction of aluminum (fcc) powders under N 2 at room temperature. Initially, α-Ti phase partially transformed to the transient β-Ti phase and Ti 0.9 Al 0.1 N (fcc) phase is noticed to form after 3 h of milling. Nanocrystalline stoichiometric Ti 0.9 Al 0.1 N phase is formed after 7 h of milling. The main features which are observed in the present study are stated below: 1.During ball-milling of α-Ti, the α-Ti phase partially converted to transient cubic β-Ti phase within 1 h of milling. 2.Ti 0.9 Al 0.1 N (fcc) phase is noticed to form after 3 h of milling. Complete formation of Ti 0.9 Al 0.1 N (fcc) is obtained at 7 h of milling which is lesser than complete formation time (9 h) of TiN. Doping Al atoms accelerates the formation of (TiAl)N phase. 3.The particle size of Ti 0.9 Al 0.1 N decrease rapidly up to 3 h and then increase slightly due to agglomeration effect. 4.The particle size of Ti 0.9 Al 0.1 N estimated from X-ray is in good agreement with that measured from HRTEM. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline stoichiometric Ti 0.9 Al 0.1 N powder has been prepared by ball-milling the α-Ti (hcp) and aluminum (fcc) powders under N 2 at room temperature. Initially, α-Ti phase partially transformed to the transient cubic β-Ti phase and Ti 0.9 Al 0.1 N (fcc) phase is noticed to form after 3 h of milling. Nanocrystalline stoichiometric Ti 0.9 Al 0.1 N phase is formed after 7 h of milling. After 1 h of milling, all Al atoms are diffused into the α-Ti matrix. The transient β-Ti phase is noticed to form after 1 h of milling and disappears completely after 7 h of milling. Microstructure characterization of unmilled and ball-milled powders by analyzing XRD patterns employing the Rietveld structure refinement reveals the inclusion of Al and nitrogen atoms into the Ti lattice on the way to formation of Ti 0.9 Al 0.1 N

  14. Fabrication, characterization and application of Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4} absorber layer via a hybrid ink containing ball milled powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chunran [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials and College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Key Laboratory of Physics and Technology for Advanced Batteries (Ministry of Education), College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); College of Mathematics and Physics, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Yao, Bin, E-mail: binyao@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials and College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Key Laboratory of Physics and Technology for Advanced Batteries (Ministry of Education), College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Li, Yongfeng, E-mail: liyongfeng@jlu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Physics and Technology for Advanced Batteries (Ministry of Education), College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Xiao, Zhenyu [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials and College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Ding, Zhanhui [Key Laboratory of Physics and Technology for Advanced Batteries (Ministry of Education), College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Zhao, Haifeng; Zhang, Ligong; Zhang, Zhenzhong [State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 3888 Dongnanhu Road, Changchun 130033 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • CZTS powders are prepared from binary sulfides by a low cost ball milling process. • Elaborated on phase evolution and formation mechanism of CZTS. • Proposed a hybrid ink approach to resolve difficulty in deposition of CZTS film. • CZTSSe solar cells with highest efficiency of 4.2% are fabricated. • Small-grained CZTS layer hinders the collection of minority carriers. - Abstract: Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) powder with kesterite structure was prepared by ball milling of mixture of Cu{sub 2}S, ZnS and SnS{sub 2} powders for more than 15 h. By dispersing the milled CZTS powder in a Cu-, Zn- and Sn-chalcogenide precursor solution, a hybrid ink was fabricated. With the hybrid ink, a precursor CZTS film was deposited on Mo coated soda-lime glass by spin-coating. In order to obtain Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4} (CZTSSe) absorber film with kesterite structure, the CZTS film was annealed at 560 °C for 15 min in Se ambient. It is demonstrated that the annealed film is dominated by a thick layer of kesterite CZTSSe with larger grain size and Cu{sub 8}Fe{sub 3}Sn{sub 2}(S,Se){sub 12} impurity phase with the exception of a very thin layer of kesterite CZTS with smaller grain size at interface between the CZTSSe and Mo layers. Solar cell device was fabricated by using the annealed CZTSSe film as absorber layer, and its conversion efficiency reached 4.2%. Mechanism of formation of the kesterite CZTS powder and CZTSSe film as well as effect of impurity phases on conversion efficiency are discussed in the present paper. The present results suggest that the hybrid ink approach combining with ball milling is a simple, low cost and promising method for preparation of kesterite CZTSSe absorber film and CZTSSe-based solar cell.

  15. Si/C composite lithium-ion battery anodes synthesized from coarse silicon and citric acid through combined ball milling and thermal pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Peng; Cai Rui; Zhou Yingke; Shao Zongping

    2010-01-01

    Silicon and related materials have recently received considerable attention as potential anodes in Li-ion batteries for their high theoretical specific capacities. To overcome the problem of volume variations during the Li insertion/extraction process, in this work, Si/C composites with low carbon content were synthesized from cheap coarse silicon and citric acid by simple ball milling and subsequent thermal treatment. The effects of ball milling time and calcination temperature on the structure, composition and morphology of the composites were systematically investigated by the determination of specific surface area (BET) and particle-size distribution, X-ray diffraction (XRD), O 2 -TPO, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The capacity and cycling stability of the composites were systematically evaluated by electrochemical charge/discharge tests. It was found that both the initial capacity and the cycling stability of the composites were dependent on the milling and calcination conditions, and attractive overall electrochemical performance could be obtained by optimizing the synthesis process.

  16. Investigation of nanostructured Al-10 wt.% Zr material prepared by ball milling for high temperature applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosviryakov, A.S., E-mail: pro.alex@mail.ru; Shcherbachev, K.D.; Tabachkova, N.Yu.

    2017-01-15

    Ground chips of as-cast Al-10 wt.% Zr alloy were subjected to mechanical alloying (MA) with 5 vol.% of nanodiamond addition in a high energy planetary ball-mill. The aim of this work was to investigate the microstructure, phase transformation and mechanical properties of the material both after MA and after subsequent annealing. Optical and transmission electron microscopes were used for morphological and microstructural analysis. The effect of milling time on powder microhardness, Al lattice parameter, lattice microstrain and crystallite size was determined. It was shown that mechanical alloying of as-cast Al-10wt.%Zr alloy during 20 h leads to a complete dissolution of the primary tetragonal Al{sub 3}Zr crystals in aluminum. At the same time, the powder microhardness increases to 370 HV. Metastable cubic Al{sub 3}Zr phase nanoparticles precipitate from the Al solution due to its decomposition after annealing, however, the Al solid solution remains supersaturated and nanocrystalline. Compression tests at room temperature and at 300 °C showed that the strength values of the hot-pressed samples reach 822 MPa and 344 MPa, respectively. - Highlights: •As-cast Al-10 wt.% Zr alloy was mechanically alloyed with 5 vol.% nanodiamond. •The primary tetragonal Al{sub 3}Zr crystals were completely dissolved in Al after 20 h. •Cubic Al{sub 3}Zr phase nanoparticles precipitated from Al solution after aging. •The aged bulk material showed a high strength at room and elevated temperatures.

  17. Fabrication of Al/A206–Al2O3 nano/micro composite by combining ball milling and stir casting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahamtan, S.; Halvaee, A.; Emamy, M.; Zabihi, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Uniform distribution of alumina particles in molten Al alloy by using MMMC. ► Improvement in wettability of alumina particles with molten Al alloy by using MMMC. ► Porosity content in Al/A206-alumina composite decreased by using MMMC. ► Improvement in tensile strength of Al/A206-alumina composite by using MMMC. ► Decrease in interfacial reaction product by incorporating MMMC in semi-solid state. - Abstract: Al206/5vol.%Al 2 O 3p cast composites were fabricated by the injection of reinforcing particles into molten Al alloy in two different forms, i.e. as Al 2 O 3 particles and milled particulates of alumina with Al and Mg powders. The resultant milled powders (Master Metal Matrix Composite (MMMC)) were then added into the molten Al alloy both in semi-solid state and above liquidus temperature. Effects of powder addition technique, reinforcement particle size and casting temperature on distribution and incorporation of reinforcing particles into molten Al alloy were investigated. Morphology evolution of powders during milling, microscopic examinations of composite and matrix alloy were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was also used to determine the possible interaction between powders after ball milling process. Results showed that injection of powders in the form of MMMC leads to considerable improvement in incorporation and distribution of Al 2 O 3p in the Al206 matrix alloy leading to the improvement in tensile properties. Improvement in tensile properties is attributed to the better wetting of Al 2 O 3p by melt as well as removing microchannels and roughness on alumina particles as a consequence of ball milling process

  18. Synthesis and characterization of FePt nanoparticles by high energy ball milling with and without surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco, V.; Martinez, A.; Recio, J.; Hernando, A.; Crespo, P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fe and Pt powders in the presence of surfactants don’t alloyed by HEBM technique. ► FePt alloys obtained by dry milling exhibit particle sizes of around 10 μm. ► FePt alloys obtained by dry milling exhibit soft magnetic behavior. ► A thermal treatment induces a phase transformation from FCC to FCT. - Abstract: FePt nanoparticles were prepared by high energy ball milling (HEBM) in two different ways. In the first one, elemental powders were mixed and milled whereas in the second one the milling was performed in the presence of oleyl amine and oleic acid as surfactants and hexane as a solvent. X-ray diffraction shows that when the milling is performed in dry conditions, Fe and Pt are alloyed after 5 h, whereas in the wet milling procedure alloying does not take place. In the first case, the diffraction pattern corresponds to the disordered FCC phase. This behavior is also corroborated by the evolution of the magnetic characteristics. In the case of the alloy obtained in dry conditions, the powder was heat treated in order to induce the transformation to the ordered phase. Coercivities of 2.5 kOe are obtained after 650 °C for 2 h.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of FePt nanoparticles by high energy ball milling with and without surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco, V., E-mail: vvjimeno@fis.ucm.es [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-ADIF-CSIC, 28230 Las Rozas (Spain); Martinez, A.; Recio, J. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-ADIF-CSIC, 28230 Las Rozas (Spain); Hernando, A.; Crespo, P. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-ADIF-CSIC, 28230 Las Rozas (Spain); Dpto. de Fisica de Materiales, UCM, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe and Pt powders in the presence of surfactants don't alloyed by HEBM technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FePt alloys obtained by dry milling exhibit particle sizes of around 10 {mu}m. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FePt alloys obtained by dry milling exhibit soft magnetic behavior. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A thermal treatment induces a phase transformation from FCC to FCT. - Abstract: FePt nanoparticles were prepared by high energy ball milling (HEBM) in two different ways. In the first one, elemental powders were mixed and milled whereas in the second one the milling was performed in the presence of oleyl amine and oleic acid as surfactants and hexane as a solvent. X-ray diffraction shows that when the milling is performed in dry conditions, Fe and Pt are alloyed after 5 h, whereas in the wet milling procedure alloying does not take place. In the first case, the diffraction pattern corresponds to the disordered FCC phase. This behavior is also corroborated by the evolution of the magnetic characteristics. In the case of the alloy obtained in dry conditions, the powder was heat treated in order to induce the transformation to the ordered phase. Coercivities of 2.5 kOe are obtained after 650 Degree-Sign C for 2 h.

  20. Surface modification of calcined kaolin with toluene diisocyanate based on high energy ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Yongbing; Chen, Hongling; Lin, Jinbin; Ji, Yan

    2013-01-01

    The surface of calcined kaolin particle was modified with toluene diisocyanate (TDI) by using high energy ball milling. The prepared hybrids were characterized by FT-IR, MAS NMR, thermal analysis (TGA-DSC), static water contact angle (CA), apparent viscosity and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). FT-IR and MAS NMR spectra demonstrated that TDI molecules were chemically anchored to kaolin surface after modification. The results of thermal analysis showed that the maximum grafting ratio reached up to 446.61% when the mass ratio of TDI/kaolin was 0.5:1.0, and CA measurements revealed that the resultant hybrids exhibited strong hydrophobicity (148.82°). Apparent viscosity and TEM were employed to examine the dispersion properties of blank and modified kaolin particles in poly (dimenthylsiloxane) matrix. The results illustrated that the dispersion stability depended strongly on the grafting ratio of TDI, neither too low nor too high achieved uniform and stable dispersion, and the favorable grafting ratio was obtained when the mass ratio of TDI/kaolin was 0.2:1.0. Further modification of TDI/kaolin (mass ration of TDI/kaolin, 1.0:1.0) particles with bis(aminopropyl)-terminated-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (APS) was also investigated. TEM evidenced that the dispersion properties of the obtained TDI/APS/kaolin particles were remarkably improved in octamethyl cyclotetrasiloxane compared with the original TDI/kaolin particles.

  1. Surface modification of calcined kaolin with toluene diisocyanate based on high energy ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Yongbing; Chen, Hongling, E-mail: hlchen@njut.edu.cn; Lin, Jinbin; Ji, Yan

    2013-11-01

    The surface of calcined kaolin particle was modified with toluene diisocyanate (TDI) by using high energy ball milling. The prepared hybrids were characterized by FT-IR, MAS NMR, thermal analysis (TGA-DSC), static water contact angle (CA), apparent viscosity and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). FT-IR and MAS NMR spectra demonstrated that TDI molecules were chemically anchored to kaolin surface after modification. The results of thermal analysis showed that the maximum grafting ratio reached up to 446.61% when the mass ratio of TDI/kaolin was 0.5:1.0, and CA measurements revealed that the resultant hybrids exhibited strong hydrophobicity (148.82°). Apparent viscosity and TEM were employed to examine the dispersion properties of blank and modified kaolin particles in poly (dimenthylsiloxane) matrix. The results illustrated that the dispersion stability depended strongly on the grafting ratio of TDI, neither too low nor too high achieved uniform and stable dispersion, and the favorable grafting ratio was obtained when the mass ratio of TDI/kaolin was 0.2:1.0. Further modification of TDI/kaolin (mass ration of TDI/kaolin, 1.0:1.0) particles with bis(aminopropyl)-terminated-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (APS) was also investigated. TEM evidenced that the dispersion properties of the obtained TDI/APS/kaolin particles were remarkably improved in octamethyl cyclotetrasiloxane compared with the original TDI/kaolin particles.

  2. Reduction of hydrogen desorption temperature of ball-milled MgH2 by NbF5 addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recham, N.; Bhat, V.V.; Kandavel, M.; Aymard, L.; Tarascon, J.-M.; Rougier, A.

    2008-01-01

    Enhanced sorption properties of ball-milled MgH 2 are reported by adding NbF 5 . Among various catalyst amounts, 2 mol% of NbF 5 reveals to be the optimum concentration leading to significant reduction of the desorption temperature as well as faster kinetics of ball-milled MgH 2 . At 200 deg. C, temperature at which MgH 2 does not show any activity, MgH 2NbF 5 /2mol% composite desorbs 3.2 wt.% of H 2 in 50 mins. Interestingly, the addition of NbF 5 is also associated with an increase in the desorption pressure. At 300 deg. C, MgH 2NbF 5 /2mol% composite starts to desorb hydrogen at 600 mbar in comparison with 1 mbar for MgH 2 . Further improvements were successfully achieved by pre-grinding NbF 5 prior to ball-milling the catalyst with MgH 2 . Such pre-ground NbF 5 catalyzed MgH 2 composite desorbs 3 wt.% of H 2 at 150 deg. C. Improved properties are associated with smaller activation energies down to values close to the enthalpy of formation of MgH 2 . Finally, the mechanism at the origin of the enhancement is discussed in terms of catalyst stability, MgF 2 formation and electronic density localization

  3. CNTs/Al5083 Composites of High-performance Uniform and Dispersion Fabricated by High-energy Ball-milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUO Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs, mass fraction of 0%-2% reinforced Al5083 composites were fabricated by horizontal high-energy ball milling. The effects of ball milling time and CNTs contents on the properties of composite materials were studied. The micro morphology of CNTs/Al5083 composites was characterized by scanning electron microscopy(SEM and transmission electron microscopy(TEM, the tensile strength and microhardness of the composites were tested. The results indicate that after high-energy ball milling for 1.5h, the carbon nanotubes are dispersed homogeneously in the Al5083 matrix, and good interfacial bonding strength between CNTs and Al5083 is obtained at the addition of 1.5%CNTs. Under these conditions, the tensile strength and microhardness of CNTs/Al5083 composites are 188.8MPa and 136HV, respectively. Compared to Al5083 matrix without CNTs reinforcement, tensile strength and microhardness of CNTs/Al5083 composites are increased by 32.2% and 36%, respectively.

  4. Magnetic properties of ball-milled Fe0.6Mn0.1Al0.3 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebolledo, A.F.; Romero, J.J.; Cuadrado, R.; Gonzalez, J.M.; Pigazo, F.; Palomares, F.J.; Medina, M.H.; Perez Alcazar, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    The FeMnAl-disordered alloy system exhibits, depending on the composition and the temperature, a rich variety of magnetic phases including the occurrence of ferromagnetism, antiferromagnetism, paramagnetism and spin-glass and reentrant spin glass behaviors. These latter phases result from the presence of atomic disorder and magnetic dilution and from the competing exchange interactions taking place between an Fe atom and its Mn and Fe first neighbors. The use of mechanical alloying in order to prepare these alloys is specially interesting since it allows to introduce in a progressive way large amounts of disorder. In this work, we describe the evolution with the milling time of the temperature dependence of the magnetic properties of mechanically alloyed Fe 0.6 Mn 0.1 Al 0.3 samples. The materials were prepared in a planetary ball mill using a balls-to-powder mass ratio of 15:1 and pure (99.95 at%) Fe, Mn and Al powders for times up to 19 h. The X-rays diffraction (XRD) spectra show the coexistence of three phases at short milling times. For milling times over 6 h, only the FeMnAl ternary alloy BCC phase is observed. Moesbauer spectroscopy reveals the complete formation of the FeMnAl alloy after 9 h milling time. The magnetic characterization showed that all the samples were ferromagnetic at room temperature with coercivities decreasing from 105 Oe (3 h milled sample) down to 5 Oe in the case of the sample milled for 19 h

  5. Processing of Polysulfone to Free Flowing Powder by Mechanical Milling and Spray Drying Techniques for Use in Selective Laser Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Mys

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Polysulfone (PSU has been processed into powder form by ball milling, rotor milling, and spray drying technique in an attempt to produce new materials for Selective Laser Sintering purposes. Both rotor milling and spray drying were adept to make spherical particles that can be used for this aim. Processing PSU pellets by rotor milling in a three-step process resulted in particles of 51.8 μm mean diameter, whereas spray drying could only manage a mean diameter of 26.1 μm. The resulting powders were characterized using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC and X-ray Diffraction measurements (XRD. DSC measurements revealed an influence of all processing techniques on the thermal behavior of the material. Glass transitions remained unaffected by spray drying and rotor milling, yet a clear shift was observed for ball milling, along with a large endothermic peak in the high temperature region. This was ascribed to the imparting of an orientation into the polymer chains due to the processing method and was confirmed by XRD measurements. Of all processed powder samples, the ball milled sample was unable to dissolve for GPC measurements, suggesting degradation by chain scission and subsequent crosslinking. Spray drying and rotor milling did not cause significant degradation.

  6. A study of the mechanism of microwave-assisted ball milling preparing ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yingzhe; Wu, Yujiao [College of materials and metallurgical engineering, Guizhou Institute of Technology, Guiyang 550003 (China); 2011 Collaborative Innovation Center of Guizhou Province, Guiyang 550003 (China); Qin, Qingdong [College of materials and metallurgical engineering, Guizhou Institute of Technology, Guiyang 550003 (China); Wang, Fuchun [College of materials and metallurgical engineering, Guizhou Institute of Technology, Guiyang 550003 (China); 2011 Collaborative Innovation Center of Guizhou Province, Guiyang 550003 (China); Chen, Ding [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China)

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, well dispersed ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nano-particles with high magnetization saturation of 82.23 emu/g were first synthesized by microwave assisted ball milling and then the influences of pre-treatments and microwave powers to the progress were studied. It was found that under the both function of crack effect induced by ball milling and rotary motion induced by microwave the synthesized ferrtie nano-particles were well dispersed that is much different from the powders synthesized by normal high energy ball milling. The pre-treatment of ball milling can only enhance the reaction rate in the first several hours but the pre-irradiation of microwave can enhance the hole reaction rate. Further more, it was also been found that with increasing the microwave power, the more raw materials will converted into zinc ferrite in the first 5 h. 5 h latter the microwave power of 720 W is high enough for the coupling effect of microwave and ball milling with stirrer rotation speed of 256 rpm. - Highlights: • ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with 82.23 emu/g were synthesized without heat treatment. • The produced powder dispersed very well without any dispersant. • The pre-treatment of microwave enhanced the reaction rate much. • The pre-treatment of ball milling enhance chemical rate at beginning.

  7. Fabrication of Al-20 wt%Si powder using scrap Si by ultra high-energy milling process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Won-Kyung [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering and Institute for Rare Metals, Kongju National University, 275, Budae-dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of); Y Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I lmaz, Fikret [Department of Physics, Faculty of Art and Science, Gaziosmanpasa University, Tasliciftlik Campus, 60240 Tokat (Turkey); Kim, Hyo-Seob; Koo, Jar-Myung [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering and Institute for Rare Metals, Kongju National University, 275, Budae-dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Soon-Jik, E-mail: hongsj@kongju.ac.kr [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering and Institute for Rare Metals, Kongju National University, 275, Budae-dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High energy ball milling process has been successfully employed to produce Al-20Si alloy using scrap Si powders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fully finer and homogenous structure could be achieved after 60 min of milling time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Si particles were not dissolved but uniformly dispersed in the Al matrix in a milled state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hardness of as-milled Al-20Si powder increased steadily with the increase of milling time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Grain size and dispersion strengthening are two mechanisms being responsible for hardness increment. - Abstract: In this study, microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of Al-20 wt%Si and pure Al powders fabricated by ultra high-energy ball milling technique were investigated as a function of milling time. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the as-milled powders were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Vickers hardness tester. SEM observation showed that the particle size increased at an early stage of milling, and then decreased drastically with further milling. XRD and cross-sectional EDS-mapping analyses revealed that Si particles were not dissolved but uniformly dispersed in the Al matrix in a milled state. Vickers hardness of both pure Al and Al-Si powder increases with milling time, which attributes to the grain size strengthening and dispersion strengthening.

  8. High anisotropic NdFeB submicro/nanoflakes prepared by surfactant-assisted ball milling at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xiaoxin; Jin, Kunpeng; Abbas, Nadeem; Fang, Qiuli; Wang, Fang; Du, Juan; Xia, Weixing; Yan, Aru; Liu, J. Ping; Zhang, Jian

    2017-11-01

    Hard magnetic NdFeB submicro/nanoflakes were successfully prepared by surfactant-assisted ball milling at low temperature (SABMLT) by specially using 2-methyl pentane and trioctylamine (TOA) as solvent and surfactant, respectively. Influences of the amount of TOA and milling temperature on the crystal structure, morphology and magnetic performances of the as-prepared NdFeB powders were investigated systematically. There is significant difference on morphology between the NdFeB powders milled at room and low temperature. The NdFeB powders with flaky morphology could be obtained even with a small amount of TOA by SABMLT, which could not be achieved by surfactant-assisted ball milling at room temperature (SABMRT). The better crystallinity, better grain alignment, higher coercivity, larger saturation magnetization and remanence ratio were achieved in the samples prepared by SABMLT. Furthermore, the final NdFeB powders prepared by SABMLT possessed a lower amount of residual TOA than those prepared by SABMRT. It was demonstrated that SABMLT is a promising way to fabricate rare-earth-transition metal nanoflakes with high anisotropy for permanent magnetic materials. The effective method of preparing NdFeB flakes by lowering temperature will be also useful to fabricate flakes of other functional materials.

  9. Magnetic properties of Ni nanoparticles dispersed in silica prepared by high-energy ball milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, E. M.; Montero, M. I.; Cebollada, F.; de Julián, C.; Vicent, J. L.; González, J. M.

    1998-04-01

    We analyze the magnetic properties of mechanically ground nanosized Ni particles dispersed in a SiO2 matrix. Our magnetic characterization of the as-milled samples show the occurrence of two blocking processes and that of non-monotonic milling time evolutions of the magnetic-order temperature, the high-field magnetization and the saturation coercivity. The measured coercivities exhibit giant values and a uniaxial-type temperature dependence. Thermal treatment carried out in the as-prepared samples result in a remarkable coercivity reduction and in an increase of the high-field magnetization. We conclude, on the basis of the consideration of a core (pure Ni) and shell (Ni-Si inhomogeneous alloy) particle structure, that the magnetoelastic anisotropy plays the dominant role in determining the magnetic properties of our particles.

  10. Morphology and magnetic properties of CeCo5 submicron flakes prepared by surfactant-assisted high-energy ball milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. J.; Gao, H. M.; Yan, Y.; Bai, X.; Su, F.; Wang, W. Q.; Du, X. B.

    2012-10-01

    CeCo5 permanent magnetic alloy has been processed by surfactant assisted high energy ball milling. Heptane and oleic acid were used as the solvent and surfactant, respectively. The amount of surfactant used was 50% by weight of the starting powder. The produced particles were deposited on a piece of copper (4 mm in length and width) under a magnetic field of 27 kOe applied along the copper surface and immobilized by ethyl α-cyanoacrylate. Scanning electron microscope pictures show that the particles are flakes, several μm in length and width and tens of nm in thickness. X-ray diffraction patterns and magnetic measurements prove that the flakes are crystalline with c-axes magnetic anisotropy. The easy magnetization axis is oriented perpendicular to the surface of the flake. A maximum coercivity of 3.3 kOe was obtained for the sample milled for 40 min.

  11. Dependence of rates of breakage on fines content in wet ball mill grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Anirban

    The following research fundamentally deals with the cause and implications of nonlinearities in breakage rates of materials in wet grinding systems. The innate dependence of such nonlinearities on fines content and the milling environment during wet grinding operations is also tested and observed. Preferential breakage of coarser size fractions as compared to the finer size fractions in a particle population were observed and discussed. The classification action of the pulp was deemed to be the probable cause for such a peculiarity. Ores with varying degrees of hardness and brittleness were used for wet grinding experiments, primarily to test the variations in specific breakage rates as a function of varying hardness. For this research, limestone, quartzite, and gold ore were used. The degree of hardness is of the order of: limestone, quartzite, gold ore. Selection and breakage function parameters were determined in the course of this research. Functional forms of these expressions were used to compare experimentally derived parameter estimates. Force-fitting of parameters was not done in order to examine the realtime behavior of particle populations in wet grinding systems. Breakage functions were established as being invariant with respect to such operating variables like ball load, mill speed, particle load, and particle size distribution of the mill. It was also determined that specific selection functions were inherently dependent on the particle size distribution in wet grinding systems. Also, they were consistent with inputs of specific energy, according to grind time. Nonlinearity trends were observed for 1st order specific selection functions which illustrated variations in breakage rates with incremental inputs of grind time and specific energy. A mean particle size called the fulcrum was noted below which the nonlinearities in the breakage trends were observed. This magnitude of the fulcrum value varied with percent solids and slurry filling, indicating

  12. Influence of Temperature on the Performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 Prepared by High-Temperature Ball-Milling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Tian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the preparation of high electrochemical performance LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode material for lithium-ion battery, LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 was prepared with lithium carbonate, nickel (II oxide, cobalt (II, III oxide, and manganese dioxide as raw materials by high-temperature ball-milling method. Influence of ball-milling temperature was investigated in this work. It was shown that the fine LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 powder with high electrochemical performance can be produced by the high-temperature ball-milling process, and the optimal ball-milling temperature obtained in the current study was 750°C. Its initial discharge capacity was 146.0 mAhg−1 at the rate of 0.1 C, and over 50 cycles its capacity retention rate was 90.2%.

  13. The coercivity mechanism of Pr–Fe–B nanoflakes prepared by surfactant-assisted ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Wen-Liang, E-mail: wlzuo@iphy.ac.cn; Zhang, Ming; Niu, E.; Shao, Xiao-Ping; Hu, Feng-Xia; Sun, Ji-Rong; Shen, Bao-Gen, E-mail: shenbg@aphy.iphy.ac.cn

    2015-09-15

    The strong (00l) textured Pr{sub 12+x}Fe{sub 82−x}B{sub 6} (x=0, 1, 2, 3, 4) nanoflakes with high coercivity were prepared by surfactant-assisted ball milling (SABM). The thickness and length of the flakes are mainly in the range of 50−200 nm and 0.5−2 μm, respectively. A coercivity of 4.16 kOe for Pr{sub 15}Fe{sub 79}B{sub 6} nanoflakes was obtained, which is the maximum coercivity of R{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B (R=Pr, Nd) nanoflakes or nanoparticles reported up to now. The results of XRD and SEM for the aligned Pr{sub 15}Fe{sub 79}B{sub 6} nanoflakes indicate that a strong (00l) texture is obtained and the easy magnetization direction is parallel to the surface of the flakes. The angular dependence of coercivity for aligned sample indicates that the coercivity mechanism of the as-milled nanoflakes is mainly dominated by domain wall pinning. Meanwhile, the field dependence of coercivity, isothermal (IRM) and dc demagnetizing (DCD) remanence curves also indicate that the coercivity is mainly determined by domain wall pinning, and nucleation also has an important effect. In addition, the mainly interaction of flakes is dipolar coupling. The research of coercivity mechanism for Pr{sub 15}Fe{sub 79}B{sub 6} nanoflakes is important for guidance the further increase its value, and is useful for the future development of the high performance nanocomposite magnets and soft/hard exchange spring magnets. - Highlights: • A coercivity of 4.16 kOe for Pr{sub 15}Fe{sub 79}B{sub 6} nanoflakes was obtained. • The strong (00l) textured is obtained for Pr{sub 15}Fe{sub 79}B{sub 6} nanoflakes. • The interaction of nanoflakes is mainly dipolar coupling. • Domain wall pinning is the mainly coercivity mechanism.

  14. Morphology and magnetic properties of CeCo{sub 5} submicron flakes prepared by surfactant-assisted high-energy ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.J.; Gao, H.M.; Yan, Y.; Bai, X.; Su, F.; Wang, W.Q. [State key Laboratory for Superhard Materials and Department of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Du, X.B., E-mail: duxb@jlu.edu.cn [State key Laboratory for Superhard Materials and Department of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2012-10-15

    CeCo{sub 5} permanent magnetic alloy has been processed by surfactant assisted high energy ball milling. Heptane and oleic acid were used as the solvent and surfactant, respectively. The amount of surfactant used was 50% by weight of the starting powder. The produced particles were deposited on a piece of copper (4 mm in length and width) under a magnetic field of 27 kOe applied along the copper surface and immobilized by ethyl {alpha}-cyanoacrylate. Scanning electron microscope pictures show that the particles are flakes, several {mu}m in length and width and tens of nm in thickness. X-ray diffraction patterns and magnetic measurements prove that the flakes are crystalline with c-axes magnetic anisotropy. The easy magnetization axis is oriented perpendicular to the surface of the flake. A maximum coercivity of 3.3 kOe was obtained for the sample milled for 40 min. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CeCo{sub 5} permanent magnetic alloy has been processed by surfactant assisted high energy ball milling (HEBM). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The particles show a flake-like morphology with several {mu}m in length and width and tens nm in thickness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The flakes are crystallographic and magnetic anisotropic and the c-axes, also the easy magnetization directions are oriented perpendicular to the surface of the flake. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maximum coercivity of 3.3 kOe has been obtained for the sample milled for 40 min.

  15. Structure and electrochemical hydrogen storage properties of Ti2Ni alloy synthesized by ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosni, B.; Li, X.; Khaldi, C.; ElKedim, O.; Lamloumi, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The Ti 2 Ni alloy activation requires only one cycle of charge and discharge, regardless of the temperature. • By increasing the temperature the capacity loss, undergoes an increase and it is more pronounced for the 60 °C. • A good correlation is found between the evolutions of the different electrochemical parameters according to the temperature. - Abstract: The structure and the electrochemical hydrogen storage properties of amorphous Ti 2 Ni alloy synthesized by ball milling and used as an anode in nickel–metal hydride batteries were studied. Nominal Ti 2 Ni was synthesized under argon atmosphere at room temperature using a planetary high-energy ball mill. The structural and morphological characterization of the amorphous Ti 2 Ni alloy is carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrochemical characterization of the Ti 2 Ni electrodes is carried out by the galvanostatic charging and discharging, the constant potential discharge, the open circuit potential and the potentiodynamic polarization techniques. The Ti 2 Ni alloy activation requires only one cycle of charge and discharge, regardless of the temperature. The electrochemical discharge capacity of the Ti 2 Ni alloy, during the first eight cycles, and at a temperature of 30 °C, remained practically unchanged and a good held cycling is observed. By increasing the temperature, the electrochemical discharge capacity loss after eight cycles undergoes an increase and it is more pronounced for the temperature 60 °C. At 30 °C, the anodic corrosion current density is 1 mA cm −2 and then it undergoes a rapid drop, remaining substantially constant (0.06 mA cm −2 ) in the range 40–60 °C, before undergoing a slight increase to 70 °C (0.3 mA cm −2 ). This variation is in good agreement with the maximum electrochemical discharge capacity values found for the different temperatures. By increasing the

  16. Lignocellulose fermentation and residual solids characterization for senescent switchgrass fermentation by Clostridium thermocellum in the presence and absence of continuous in situ ball-milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balch, Michael L.; Holwerda, Evert K.; Davis, Mark F.; Sykes, Robert W.; Happs, Renee M.; Kumar, Rajeev; Wyman, Charles E.; Lynd, Lee R.

    2017-04-12

    Milling during lignocellulosic fermentation, henceforth referred to as cotreatment, is investigated as an alternative to thermochemical pretreatment as a means of enhancing biological solubilization of lignocellulose. We investigate the impact of milling on soluble substrate fermentation by Clostridium thermocellum with comparison to yeast, document solubilization for fermentation of senescent switchgrass with and without ball milling, and characterize residual solids. Soluble substrate fermentation by C. thermocellum proceeded readily in the presence of continuous ball milling but was completely arrested for yeast. Total fractional carbohydrate solubilization achieved after fermentation of senescent switchgrass by C. thermocellum for 5 days was 0.45 without cotreatment or pretreatment, 0.81 with hydrothermal pretreatment (200 degrees C, 15 minutes, severity 4.2), and 0.88 with cotreatment. Acetate and ethanol were the main fermentation products, and were produced at similar ratios with and without cotreatment. Analysis of solid residues was undertaken using molecular beam mass spectrometry (PyMBMS) and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) in order to provide insight into changes in plant cell walls during processing via various modes. The structure of lignin present in residual solids remaining after fermentation with cotreatment appeared to change little, with substantially greater changes observed for hydrothermal pretreatment - particularly with respect to formation of C-C bonds. The observation of high solubilization with little apparent modification of the residue is consistent with cotreatment enhancing solubilization primarily by increasing the access of saccharolytic enzymes to the feedstock, and C. thermocellum being able to attack all the major linkages in cellulosic biomass provided that these linkages are accessible.

  17. Influence of octanoic acid on SmCo{sub 5} nanoflakes prepared by surfactant-assisted high-energy ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Liyun, E-mail: zheng@udel.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); College of Electromechanical Engineering, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan, Hebei 056038 (China); Cui Baozhi; Akdogan, Nilay G.; Li Wanfeng; Hadjipanayis, George C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2010-08-20

    High-energy ball milling (HEBM) of magnetically hard SmCo{sub 5} was conducted in heptane with octanoic acid as the surfactant. The effects of octanoic acid on the morphology and magnetic properties of the powders were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometry. The results show an interesting unexpected fact that the SmCo{sub 5} powders processed by octanoic acid-assisted HEBM were in form of nanoflakes with aspect-ratio of 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} without the presence of nanoparticles. The thickness of nanoflakes decreases with increasing milling time. X-ray diffraction patterns did not show the sign of oxidation and the diffraction peaks of SmCo{sub 5} were getting broader with the increase of milling time. The nanoflakes were magnetically anisotropic and had a higher coercivity than the micro-particles prepared by HEBM without surfactant. The coercivity of SmCo{sub 5} increased initially with the milling time and then it decreased after reaching the maximum value of 15.2 kOe. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy image showed that the SmCo{sub 5} nanoflakes are nanocrystalline with an average crystallite size approximately 12 nm.

  18. Research kinetic of motion of milling bodies in ball mill, outfit heat-exchange unit and calculation of its energy performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovich, A. A.; Romanovich, M. A.; Apukhtina, I. V.

    2018-03-01

    The article considers topical issues of energy saving in cement production with the use of a technological grinding complex, which includes a press roller grinder and a ball mill. Rational conditions of grinding are proposed for pre-shredded material through the installation of blade energy exchange devices (BEED) in the mill drum. The loading level in the first chamber varies periodically depending on the drum rotation angle, equipped with BEED. In the zone of BEED’s active action, there is a “scooping” of a part of grinding bodies together with crushed material, raising them to a height and giving them a longitudinally transverse movement, which is different from movement created in the mill without BEED. At the same time, additional work that consumes engine power is being done. A technique is proposed for calculating the additional engine power consumption of a mill, equipped with a BEED. This power is spent on creating a longitudinal-transverse motion of grinding bodies and its first and second chambers in areas of active influence of the BEED. Comparative analysis of results obtained experimentally and calculations of proposed equations show a high convergence of results. These analytical dependencies may be interest to Russian and foreign organizations that carry out their activities in the field of design and manufacture of cement equipment, as well as to cement producers.

  19. Mechanical ball-milling preparation of fullerene/cobalt core/shell nanocomposites with high electrochemical hydrogen storage ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Di; Gao, Peng; Shen, Xiande; Chang, Cheng; Wang, Longqiang; Wang, Ying; Chen, Yujin; Zhou, Xiaoming; Sun, Shuchao; Li, Guobao; Yang, Piaoping

    2014-02-26

    The design and synthesis of new hydrogen storage nanomaterials with high capacity at low cost is extremely desirable but remains challenging for today's development of hydrogen economy. Because of the special honeycomb structures and excellent physical and chemical characters, fullerenes have been extensively considered as ideal materials for hydrogen storage materials. To take the most advantage of its distinctive symmetrical carbon cage structure, we have uniformly coated C60's surface with metal cobalt in nanoscale to form a core/shell structure through a simple ball-milling process in this work. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Raman spectra, high-solution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) elemental mappings, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements have been conducted to evaluate the size and the composition of the composites. In addition, the blue shift of C60 pentagonal pinch mode demonstrates the formation of Co-C chemical bond, and which enhances the stability of the as-obtained nanocomposites. And their electrochemical experimental results demonstrate that the as-obtained C60/Co composites have excellent electrochemical hydrogen storage cycle reversibility and considerably high hydrogen storage capacities of 907 mAh/g (3.32 wt % hydrogen) under room temperature and ambient pressure, which is very close to the theoretical hydrogen storage capacities of individual metal Co (3.33 wt % hydrogen). Furthermore, their hydrogen storage processes and the mechanism have also been investigated, in which the quasi-reversible C60/Co↔C60/Co-Hx reaction is the dominant cycle process.

  20. Optimization of chemical composition in the manufacturing process of flotation balls based on intelligent soft sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dučić Nedeljko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of computational intelligence in modeling and optimization of parameters of two related production processes - ore flotation and production of balls for ore flotation. It is proposed that desired chemical composition of flotation balls (Mn=0.69%; Cr=2.247%; C=3.79%; Si=0.5%, which ensures minimum wear rate (0.47 g/kg during copper milling is determined by combining artificial neural network (ANN and genetic algorithm (GA. Based on the results provided by neuro-genetic combination, a second neural network was derived as an ‘intelligent soft sensor’ in the process of white cast iron production. The proposed ANN 12-16-12-4 model demonstrated favourable prediction capacity, and can be recommended as a ‘intelligent soft sensor’ in the alloying process intended for obtaining favourable chemical composition of white cast iron for production of flotation balls. In the development of intelligent soft sensor data from the two real production processes was used. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35037 i br. TR35015

  1. Fabrication and characterization of Cu/YSZ cermet high temperature electrolysis cathode material prepared by high-energy ball-milling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sungkyu; Kim, Jong-Min; Hong, Hyun Seon; Woo, Sang-Kook

    2009-01-01

    Cu/YSZ cermet (40 and 60 vol.% Cu powder with balance YSZ) is a more economical cathode material than the conventional Ni/YSZ cermet for high temperature electrolysis (HTE) of water vapor and it was successfully fabricated by high-energy ball-milling of Cu and YSZ powders, pressing into pellets (o 13 mm x 2 mm) and subsequent sintering process at 700 deg. C under flowing 5%-H 2 /Ar gas. The Cu/YSZ composite material thus fabricated was characterized using various analytical tools such as XRD, SEM, and laser diffraction and scattering method. Electrical conductivity of sintered Cu/YSZ cermet pellets thus fabricated was measured by using 4-probe technique for comparison with that of conventional Ni/YSZ cermets. The effect of composite composition on the electrical conductivity was investigated and a marked increase in electrical conductivity for copper contents greater than 40 vol.% in the composite was explained by percolation threshold. Also, Cu/YSZ cermet was selected as a candidate for HTE cathode of self-supporting planar unit cell and its electrochemical performance was investigated, paving the way for preliminary correlation of high-energy ball-milling parameters with observed physical and electrochemical performance of Cu/YSZ cermets

  2. Improved critical current densities in bulk FeSe superconductor using ball milled powders and high temperature sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidhar, M.; Furutani, K.; Murakami, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Superconducting Materials Laboratory, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Kumar, Dinesh; Rao, M.S. Ramachandra [Department of Physics, Nano Functional Materials Technology Centre and Materials Science Research Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India); Koblischka, M.R. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Saarland University, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    The present study is investigating the effect of high temperature sintering combined with ball milled powders for the preparation of FeSe material via solid state sintering technique. The commercial powders of Fe (99.9% purity) and Se (99.9% purity) were mixed in a nominal ratio Fe:Se = 1:1 and thoroughly ground and ball-milled in a glove box during 6 h. Then, the powder mixture was pressed into pellets of 5 mm in diameter and 2 mm thickness using an uniaxial pressure of 100 MPa. The samples were sealed in quartz tubes and sintered at 600 C for 24 h. Then, the pellets were again thoroughly ground and ball-milled in the glove box and pressed into pellets, and the final sintering was performed at two different temperatures, namely at 900 C for 24 h and at 950 C for 24 h. X-ray diffraction results confirmed that both samples showed mainly of the β-FeSe with tetragonal structure. The temperature dependence of magnetization (M-T) curves revealed a sharp superconducting transition T{sub c,} {sub onset} = 8.16 K for the sample sintered at 900 C. Further, scanning electron microscopy observations proved that samples sintered at 900 C show a platelike grain structure with high density. As a result, improved irreversibility fields around 5 T and the critical current density (J{sub c}) values of 6252 A cm{sup -2} at 5 K and self-field are obtained. Furthermore, the normalized volume pinning force versus the reduced field plots indicated a peak position at 0.4 for the sample sintered at 900 C. Improved flux pinning and the high J{sub c} values are attributed to the textured microstructure of the material, produced by a combination of high temperature sintering and ball milling. (copyright 2016 The Authors. Phys. Status Solidi A published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes from acetylene on the FeCoMgO catalytic system obtained by ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biris, A R; Simon, S; Lupu, D; Misan, I [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Biris, A S; Dervishi, E; Li, Z; Watanabe, F [UALR Nanotechnology Center, University of Arkansas, 2801 S University Ave, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Lucaci, M, E-mail: alexandru.biris@itim-cj.r [National Institute for Research and Development in Electrical Engineering ICPE-CA 313 Splaiul Unirii, 030138 Bucharest (Romania)

    2009-08-01

    Highly crystalline multi wall carbon nanotubes have been synthesized by RF-CVD from acetylene at 850{sup 0}C over a Fe:Co:MgO catalyst. The catalytic system was obtained by mixing for 100 h Fe, Co and MgO powders in a ball milling device under petroleum ether environment, followed by oxidation in air at 500{sup 0}C for 24 h. Most of the nanotubes had external diameters in order of dozens of nm and lengths of microns, resulting in an aspect ration of over 1000. Their external to internal diameter ratio varied between 2.5 and 3.

  4. Bismuth-ceramic nanocomposites through ball milling and liquid crystal synthetic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellinger, Timothy Michael

    Three methods were developed for the synthesis of bismuth-ceramic nanocomposites, which are of interest due to possible use as thermoelectric materials. In the first synthetic method, high energy ball milling of bismuth metal with either MgO or SiO2 was found to produce nanostructured bismuth dispersed on a ceramic material. The morphology of the resulting bismuth depended on its wetting behavior with respect to the ceramic: the metal wet the MgO, but did not wet on the SiO2. Differential Scanning Calorimetry measurements on these composites revealed unusual thermal stability, with nanostructure retained after multiple cycles of heating and cooling through the metal's melting point. The second synthesis methodology was based on the use of lyotropic liquid crystals. These mixtures of water and amphiphilic molecules self-assemble to form periodic structures with nanometer-scale hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains. A novel shear mixing methodology was developed for bringing together reactants which were added to the liquid crystals as dissolved salts. The liquid crystals served to mediate synthesis by acting as nanoreactors to confine chemical reactions within the nanoscale domains of the mesophase, and resulted in the production of nanoparticles. By synthesizing lead sulfide (PbS) and bismuth (Bi) particles as proof-of-concept, it was shown that nanoparticle size could be controlled by controlling the dimensionality of the nanoreactors through control of the liquid crystalline phase. Particle size was shown to decrease upon going from three-dimensionally percolating nanoreactors, to two dimensional sheet-like nanoreactors, to one dimensional rod-like nanoreactors. Additionally, particle size could be controlled by varying the precursor salt concentration. Since the nanoparticles did not agglomerate in the liquid crystal immediately after synthesis, bismuth-ceramic nanocomposites could be prepared by synthesizing Bi nanoparticles and mixing in SiO2 particles which

  5. Recycling of mill scale in sintering process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Hussiny N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation deals with the effect of replacing some amount of Baharia high barite iron ore concentrate by mill scale waste which was characterized by high iron oxide content on the parameters of the sintering process., and investigation the effect of different amount of coke breeze added on sintering process parameters when using 5% mill scale waste with 95% iron ore concentrate. The results of this work show that, replacement of iron ore concentrate with mill scale increases the amount of ready made sinter, sinter strength and productivity of the sinter machine and productivity at blast furnace yard. Also, the increase of coke breeze leads to an increase the ready made sinter and productivity of the sintering machine at blast furnace yard. The productivity of the sintering machine after 5% decreased slightly due to the decrease of vertical velocity.

  6. Highly Al-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles produced by Ball Mill Method: structural and electronic characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Desireé M. de los, E-mail: desire.delossantos@uca.es; Navas, Javier, E-mail: javier.navas@uca.es; Sánchez-Coronilla, Antonio; Alcántara, Rodrigo; Fernández-Lorenzo, Concha; Martín-Calleja, Joaquín

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Highly Al-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized using a Ball Mill Method. • Al doping delayed anatase to rutile phase transformation. • Al doping allow controlling the structural and electronic properties of nanoparticles. - Abstract: This study presents an easy method for synthesizing highly doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The Ball Mill method was used to synthesize pure and Al-doped titanium dioxide, with an atomic percentage up to 15.7 at.% Al/(Al + Ti). The samples were annealed at 773 K, 973 K and 1173 K, and characterized using ICP-AES, XRD, Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR, TG, STEM, XPS, and UV–vis spectroscopy. The effect of doping and the calcination temperature on the structure and properties of the nanoparticles were studied. The results show high levels of internal doping due to the substitution of Ti{sup 4+} ions by Al{sup 3+} in the TiO{sub 2} lattice. Furthermore, anatase to rutile transformation occurs at higher temperatures when the percentage of doping increases. Therefore, Al doping allows us to control the structural and electronic properties of the nanoparticle synthesized. So, it is possible to obtain nanoparticles with anatase as predominant phase in a higher range of temperature.

  7. Highly Al-doped TiO2 nanoparticles produced by Ball Mill Method: structural and electronic characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Desireé M. de los; Navas, Javier; Sánchez-Coronilla, Antonio; Alcántara, Rodrigo; Fernández-Lorenzo, Concha; Martín-Calleja, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Highly Al-doped TiO 2 nanoparticles were synthesized using a Ball Mill Method. • Al doping delayed anatase to rutile phase transformation. • Al doping allow controlling the structural and electronic properties of nanoparticles. - Abstract: This study presents an easy method for synthesizing highly doped TiO 2 nanoparticles. The Ball Mill method was used to synthesize pure and Al-doped titanium dioxide, with an atomic percentage up to 15.7 at.% Al/(Al + Ti). The samples were annealed at 773 K, 973 K and 1173 K, and characterized using ICP-AES, XRD, Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR, TG, STEM, XPS, and UV–vis spectroscopy. The effect of doping and the calcination temperature on the structure and properties of the nanoparticles were studied. The results show high levels of internal doping due to the substitution of Ti 4+ ions by Al 3+ in the TiO 2 lattice. Furthermore, anatase to rutile transformation occurs at higher temperatures when the percentage of doping increases. Therefore, Al doping allows us to control the structural and electronic properties of the nanoparticle synthesized. So, it is possible to obtain nanoparticles with anatase as predominant phase in a higher range of temperature

  8. Fabrication of a Micro-Lens Array Mold by Micro Ball End-Milling and Its Hot Embossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Gao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hot embossing is an efficient technique for manufacturing high-quality micro-lens arrays. The machining quality is significant for hot embossing the micro-lens array mold. This study investigates the effects of micro ball end-milling on the machining quality of AISI H13 tool steel used in the micro-lens array mold. The micro ball end-milling experiments were performed under different machining strategies, and the surface roughness and scallop height of the machined micro-lens array mold are measured. The experimental results showed that a three-dimensional (3D offset spiral strategy could achieve a higher machining quality in comparison with other strategies assessed in this study. Moreover, the 3D offset spiral strategy is more appropriate for machining the micro-lens array mold. With an increase of the cutting speed and feed rate, the surface roughness of the micro-lens array mold slightly increases, while a small step-over can greatly reduce the surface roughness. In addition, a hot embossing experiment was undertaken, and the obtained results indicated higher-quality production of the micro-lens array mold by the 3D offset spiral strategy.

  9. Quenching ilmenite with a high-temperature and high-pressure phase using super-high-energy ball milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashishin, Takeshi; Tan, Zhenquan; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Qiu, Nan; Kim, Jungeum; Numako, Chiya; Naka, Takashi; Valmalette, Jean Christophe; Ohara, Satoshi

    2014-04-25

    The mass production of highly dense oxides with high-temperature and high-pressure phases allows us to discover functional properties that have never been developed. To date, the quenching of highly dense materials at the gramme-level at ambient atmosphere has never been achieved. Here, we provide evidence of the formation of orthorhombic Fe2TiO4 from trigonal FeTiO3 as a result of the high-temperature (>1250 K) and high-pressure (>23 GPa) condition induced by the high collision energy of 150 gravity generated between steel balls. Ilmenite was steeply quenched by the surrounding atmosphere, when iron-rich ilmenite (Fe2TiO4) with a high-temperature and high-pressure phase was formed by planetary collisions and was released from the collision points between the balls. Our finding allows us to infer that such intense planetary collisions induced by high-energy ball milling contribute to the mass production of a high-temperature and high-pressure phase.

  10. Bioethanol production from ball milled bagasse using an on-site produced fungal enzyme cocktail and xylose-fermenting Pichia stipitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buaban, Benchaporn; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Yano, Shinichi; Tanapongpipat, Sutipa; Ruanglek, Vasimon; Champreda, Verawat; Pichyangkura, Rath; Rengpipat, Sirirat; Eurwilaichitr, Lily

    2010-07-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is one of the most promising agricultural by-products for conversion to biofuels. Here, ethanol fermentation from bagasse has been achieved using an integrated process combining mechanical pretreatment by ball milling, with enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Ball milling for 2 h was sufficient for nearly complete cellulose structural transformation to an accessible amorphous form. The pretreated cellulosic residues were hydrolyzed by a crude enzyme preparation from Penicillium chrysogenum BCC4504 containing cellulase activity combined with Aspergillus flavus BCC7179 preparation containing complementary beta-glucosidase activity. Saccharification yields of 84.0% and 70.4% for glucose and xylose, respectively, were obtained after hydrolysis at 45 degrees C, pH 5 for 72 h, which were slightly higher than those obtained with a commercial enzyme mixture containing Acremonium cellulase and Optimash BG. A high conversion yield of undetoxified pretreated bagasse (5%, w/v) hydrolysate to ethanol was attained by separate hydrolysis and fermentation processes using Pichia stipitis BCC15191, at pH 5.5, 30 degrees C for 24 h resulting in an ethanol concentration of 8.4 g/l, corresponding to a conversion yield of 0.29 g ethanol/g available fermentable sugars. Comparable ethanol conversion efficiency was obtained by a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process which led to production of 8.0 g/l ethanol after 72 h fermentation under the same conditions. This study thus demonstrated the potential use of a simple integrated process with minimal environmental impact with the use of promising alternative on-site enzymes and yeast for the production of ethanol from this potent lignocellulosic biomass. 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. On the bistable zone of milling processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombovari, Zoltan; Stepan, Gabor

    2015-09-28

    A modal-based model of milling machine tools subjected to time-periodic nonlinear cutting forces is introduced. The model describes the phenomenon of bistability for certain cutting parameters. In engineering, these parameter domains are referred to as unsafe zones, where steady-state milling may switch to chatter for certain perturbations. In mathematical terms, these are the parameter domains where the periodic solution of the corresponding nonlinear, time-periodic delay differential equation is linearly stable, but its domain of attraction is limited due to the existence of an unstable quasi-periodic solution emerging from a secondary Hopf bifurcation. A semi-numerical method is presented to identify the borders of these bistable zones by tracking the motion of the milling tool edges as they might leave the surface of the workpiece during the cutting operation. This requires the tracking of unstable quasi-periodic solutions and the checking of their grazing to a time-periodic switching surface in the infinite-dimensional phase space. As the parameters of the linear structural behaviour of the tool/machine tool system can be obtained by means of standard modal testing, the developed numerical algorithm provides efficient support for the design of milling processes with quick estimates of those parameter domains where chatter can still appear in spite of setting the parameters into linearly stable domains. © 2015 The Authors.

  12. Effect of Stiffness of Rolling Joints on the Dynamic Characteristic of Ball Screw Feed Systems in a Milling Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dazhong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic characteristic of ball screw feed system in a milling machine is studied numerically in this work. In order to avoid the difficulty in determining the stiffness of rolling joints theoretically, a dynamic modeling method for analyzing the feed system is discussed, and a stiffness calculation method of the rolling joints is proposed based on the Hertz contact theory. Taking a 3-axis computer numerical control (CNC milling machine set ermined as a research object, the stiffness of its fixed joint between the column and the body together with the stiffness parameters of the rolling joints is evaluated according to the Takashi Yoshimura method. Then, a finite element (FE model is established for the machine tool. The correctness of the FE model and the stiffness calculation method of the rolling joints are validated by theoretical and experimental modal analysis results of the machine tool’s workbench. Under the two modeling methods of joints incorporating the stiffness parameters and rigid connection, a theoretical modal analysis is conducted for the CNC milling machine. The natural frequencies and modal shapes reveal that the joints’ dynamic characteristic has an important influence on the dynamic performance of a whole machine tool, especially for the case with natural frequency and higher modes.

  13. Effects of high energy ball milling on synthesis and characteristics of Ti-Mg alloys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chikwanda, HK

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of Ti-Mg alloys using mechanical alloying method has been investigated. Effects of the mechanical alloying parameters on the resultant microstructural features have been studied. This work presents the effects of milling speed...

  14. XRD and HREM studies from the decomposition of icosahedral AlCuFe single-phase by high-energy ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patino-Carachure, C.; Tellez-Vazquez, O.; Rosas, G.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Point defects induced during milling leading to an order-disorder quasicrystal transition. → Nanoquasicrystalline regions of 12 nm are obtained. → Highly ordered i-phase with high symmetry transforms to a crystalline phase of intermetallic character and lower symmetry. - Abstract: In this investigation the Al 64 Cu 24 Fe 12 alloy was melted in an induction furnace and solidified under normal casting conditions. In order to obtain the icosahedral phase (i-phase) in a single-phase region, the as-cast sample was subject to a heat treatment at 700 deg. C under argon atmosphere. Subsequently, the i-phase was milled for different times in order to evaluate phase stability under heavy deformation. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) analysis were conducted to the structural characterization of ball-milled powders. XRD results indicated a reduction in quasicrystal size during mechanical ball milling to about 30 h. HREM analysis revealed the presence of aperiodic nano-domains, for example, with apparent fivefold symmetry axis. Therefore, the i-phase remains stable over the first 30 h of ball-milling time. However, among 30-50 h of mechanical milling the i-phase transforms progressively into β-cubic phase.

  15. XRD and HREM studies from the decomposition of icosahedral AlCuFe single-phase by high-energy ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patino-Carachure, C.; Tellez-Vazquez, O. [Instituto de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, UMSNH, Edificio U, Ciudad Universitaria, Morelia, Michoacan 58000 (Mexico); Rosas, G., E-mail: grtrejo@umich.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, UMSNH, Edificio U, Ciudad Universitaria, Morelia, Michoacan 58000 (Mexico)

    2011-10-13

    Highlights: > Point defects induced during milling leading to an order-disorder quasicrystal transition. > Nanoquasicrystalline regions of 12 nm are obtained. > Highly ordered i-phase with high symmetry transforms to a crystalline phase of intermetallic character and lower symmetry. - Abstract: In this investigation the Al{sub 64}Cu{sub 24}Fe{sub 12} alloy was melted in an induction furnace and solidified under normal casting conditions. In order to obtain the icosahedral phase (i-phase) in a single-phase region, the as-cast sample was subject to a heat treatment at 700 deg. C under argon atmosphere. Subsequently, the i-phase was milled for different times in order to evaluate phase stability under heavy deformation. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) analysis were conducted to the structural characterization of ball-milled powders. XRD results indicated a reduction in quasicrystal size during mechanical ball milling to about 30 h. HREM analysis revealed the presence of aperiodic nano-domains, for example, with apparent fivefold symmetry axis. Therefore, the i-phase remains stable over the first 30 h of ball-milling time. However, among 30-50 h of mechanical milling the i-phase transforms progressively into {beta}-cubic phase.

  16. Microstructural changes and effect of variation of lattice strain on positron annihilation lifetime parameters of zinc ferrite nanocomposites prepared by high enegy ball-milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Banerjee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Zn-ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized at room temperature by mechanical alloying the stoichiometric (1:1 mol% mixture of ZnO and α-Fe2O3 powder under open air. Formation of both normal and inverse spinel ferrite phases was noticed after 30 minutes and 2.5 hours ball milling respectively and the content of inverse spinel phase increased with increasing milling time. The phase transformation kinetics towards formation of ferrite phases and microstructure characterization of ball milled ZnFe2O4 phases was primarily investigated by X-ray powder diffraction pattern analysis. The relative phase abundances of different phases, crystallite size, r.m.s. strain, lattice parameter change etc. were estimated from the Rietveld powder structure refinement analysis of XRD data. Positron annihilation lifetime spectra of all ball milled samples were deconvoluted with three lifetime parameters and their variation with milling time duration was explained with microstructural changes and formation of different phases with increase of milling time duration.

  17. Fabrication of Fe1.1Se0.5Te0.5 bulk by a high energy ball milling technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jixing; Li, Chengshan; Zhang, Shengnan; Feng, Jianqing; Zhang, Pingxiang; Zhou, Lian

    2017-11-01

    Fe1.1Se0.5Te0.5 superconducting bulks were successfully synthesized by a high energy ball milling (HEBM) aided sintering technique. Two advantages of this new technique have been revealed compared with traditional solid state sintering method. One is greatly increased the density of sintered bulks. It is because the precursor powders with β-Fe(Se, Te) and δ-Fe(Se, Te) were obtained directly by the HEBM process and without formation of liquid Se (and Te), which could avoid the huge volume expansion. The other is the obvious decrease of sintering temperature and dwell time due to the effective shortened length of diffusion paths. The superconducting critical temperature Tc of 14.2 K in our sample is comparable with those in previous reports, and further optimization of chemical composition is on the way.

  18. The Structure and Mechanical Properties of High-Strength Bulk Ultrafine-Grained Cobalt Prepared Using High-Energy Ball Milling in Combination with Spark Plasma Sintering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marek, I.; Vojtěch, D.; Michalcová, A.; Kubatík, Tomáš František

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 5 (2016), č. článku 391. ISSN 1996-1944 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : ultrafine-grained material * cobalt * ball milling * spark plasma sintering * mechanical properties Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 2.654, year: 2016 www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/9/5/391/pdf

  19. Synthesis of Ni3Ta, Ni2Ta and NiTa by high-energy ball milling and subsequent heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benites, H.S.N.; Silva, B.P da; Ramos, A.S.; Silva, A.A.A.P.; Coelho, G.C.; Lima, B.B. de

    2014-01-01

    The tantalum has relevance for the development of multicomponent Ni-based superalloys which are hardened by solid solution and precipitation mechanisms. Master alloys are normally used in the production step in order to produce refractory metals and alloys. The present work reports on the synthesis of Ni_3Ta, Ni_2Ta and NiTa by high-energy ball milling and subsequent heat treatment. The elemental Ni-25Ta, Ni-33Ta and Ni-50Ta (at.-%) powder mixtures were ball milled under Ar atmosphere using stainless steel balls and vials, 300 rpm and a ball-to-powder weight ratio of 10:1. Following, the as-milled samples were uniaxially compacted and heat-treated at 1100 deg C for 4h under Ar atmosphere. The characterization of as-milled and heat-treated samples was conducted by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry. A large amount of Ni_3Ta, Ni_2Ta and NiTa was formed in the mechanically alloyed heat-treated Ni-25Ta, Ni-33Ta and Ni-50Ta alloys. (author)

  20. Correlation of gas sensitivite properties with microstructure of Fe2O3-SnO2 ceramics prepared by high energy ball milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Lu, S.W.; Zhou, Y.X.

    1997-01-01

    A remarkable gas sensitivity to ethnaol gas has been observed in nanostructured Fe2O3-SnO2 materials with a composition of 6.4 mol% SnO2 prepared by high energy ball milling. The microstructure of the materials has been examined by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mossbauer spectroscopy. It was found...

  1. Unraveling the synthesis of homoleptic [Ag(N,N-diaryl-NHC)2]Y (Y = BF4, PF6) complexes by ball-milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beillard, Audrey; Bantreil, Xavier; Métro, Thomas-Xavier; Martinez, Jean; Lamaty, Frédéric

    2016-11-28

    A user-friendly and general mechanochemical method was developed to access rarely described NHC (N-heterocyclic carbene) silver(i) complexes featuring N,N-diarylimidazol(idin)ene ligands and non-coordinating tetrafluoroborate or hexafluorophosphate counter anions. Comparison with syntheses in solution clearly demonstrated the superiority of the ball-milling conditions.

  2. The influence of ball-milling time on the dehydrogenation properties of the NaAlH4-MgH2 composite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bendyna, J.K.; Dyjak, S.M.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2015-01-01

    The recently developed NaAlH4eMgH2 composite shows improved hydrogen-storage properties compared to MgH2 and NaAlH4. However, the dehydrogenation reaction rates are still too limited, hampering practical applications. Mechanical ball milling is broadly used to improve the dehydrogenation reaction

  3. Synthesis, thermal properties and recrystallization of ball-milled high Tc superconductors. (Topological stabilization of metastable phases)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.; Lanteigne, J.; Simoneau, M.; Tessier, P.; Neste, A. van; Strom Olsen, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    Amorphous and nanocrystalline phases have been formed by ball-milling Y-Ba-Cu-O and Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O. The strong mechanical deformations induce disorder on the oxygen sublattice and on the cation sites. These order-disorder transformations often produce simple cubic perovskite structures. During recrystallization, the chemical order is restored. Small ordered regions nucleate, grow and produce particular metastable configurations which minimize the total elastic strain energy. The sequence of events giving rise to the various metastable phases has been followed by x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry and is explained in terms of free energy diagrams. The stress and strain fields associated with the Y-Ba disorder are calculated using the elastic properties of the Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductor. A simple model is proposed to explain the stability of the structures observed after thermal treatments. (orig.)

  4. Magnetic Properties of Nanocrystalline Fe{sub x}Cu{sub 1-x} Alloys Prepared by Ball Milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousif, A.; Bouziane, K., E-mail: bouzi@squ.edu.om; Elzain, M. E. [Sultan Qaboos University, Physics Department, College of Science (Oman); Ren, X.; Berry, F. J. [The Open University, Department of Chemistry (United Kingdom); Widatallah, H. M. [Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Institute of Nuclear Research (Sudan); Al Rawas, A.; Gismelseed, A.; Al-Omari, I. A. [Sultan Qaboos University, Physics Department, College of Science (Oman)

    2004-12-15

    X-ray diffraction, Moessbauer and magnetization measurements were used to study Fe{sub x}Cu{sub 1-x} alloys prepared by ball-milling. The X-ray data show the formation of a nanocrystalline Fe-Cu solid solution. The samples with x{>=}0.8 and x{<=}0.5 exhibit bcc or fcc phase, respectively. Both the bcc and fcc phases are principally ferromagnetic for x{>=}0.2, but the sample with x=0.1 remains paramagnetic down to 78 K. The influence of the local environment on the hyperfine parameters and the local magnetic moment are discussed using calculations based on the discrete-variational method in the local density approximation.

  5. Effect of grain size on structural and dielectric properties of barium titanate piezoceramics synthesized by high energy ball milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Narendra Kumar; Patel, Sandeep Kumar Singh; Kumar, Dinesh; Singh, Chandra Bhal; Singh, Akhilesh Kumar

    2018-05-01

    We have investigated the effect of sintering temperature on the densification behaviour, grain size, structural and dielectric properties of BaTiO3 ceramics, prepared by high energy ball milling method. The Powder x-ray diffraction reveals the tetragonal structure with space group P4mm for all the samples. The samples were sintered at four different temperatures, (T = 900°C, 1000°C, 1100°C, 1200°C and 1300°C). Density increased with increasing sintering temperature, reaching up to 97% at 1300°C. A grain growth was observed with increasing sintering temperature. Impedance analyses of the sintered samples at various temperatures were performed. Increase in dielectric constant and Curie temperature is observed with increasing sintering temperature.

  6. Use of high energy ball milling to study the role of graphene nanoplatelets and carbon nanotubes reinforced magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashad, Muhammad, E-mail: rashadphy87@gmail.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Pan, Fusheng, E-mail: fspan@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Chongqing Academy of Science and Technology, Chongqing, Chongqing 401123 (China); Zhang, Jianyue [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Asif, Muhammad [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Graphene nanoplatelets (few layer graphene) and carbon nanotubes were used as reinforcement fillers to enhance the mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy through high energy ball milling, sintering, and hot extrusion techniques. Experimental results revealed that tensile fracture strain of AZ31 magnesium alloy was enhanced by +49.6% with 0.3 wt.% graphene nanoplatelets compared to −8.3% regression for 0.3 wt.% carbon nanotubes. The tensile strength of AZ31 magnesium alloy was decreased (−11.2%) with graphene nanoplatelets addition, while increased (+7.7%) with carbon nanotubes addition. Unlike tensile test, compression tests showed different trend. The compression strength of carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composite was +51.2% greater than AZ31 magnesium alloy as compared to +0.6% increase for graphene nanoplatelets. The compressive fracture strain of carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composite was decreased (−14.1%) while no significant change in fracture strain of graphene nanoplatelets-AZ31 composite was observed. The X-ray diffraction results revealed that addition of reinforcement particles weaken the basal textures which affect the composite's yield asymmetry. Microstructure evaluation revealed the absence of intermetallic phase formation between reinforcements and matrix. The carbon reinforcements in AZ31 magnesium alloy dissolve and isolate β phases throughout the matrix. The increased fracture strain and mechanical strength of graphene nanoplatelets and carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composites are attributed to large specific surface area of graphene nanoplatelets and stiffer nature of carbon nanotubes respectively. - Highlights: • Powder metallurgy method was used to fabricate magnesium composites. • The AZ31-carbon materials composite were blended using ball milling. • The reinforcement particles weaken the basal texture which affects yield asymmetry of composites. • AZ31-graphene nanoplatelets composite exhibited impressive increase in tensile elongation

  7. Use of high energy ball milling to study the role of graphene nanoplatelets and carbon nanotubes reinforced magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashad, Muhammad; Pan, Fusheng; Zhang, Jianyue; Asif, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Graphene nanoplatelets (few layer graphene) and carbon nanotubes were used as reinforcement fillers to enhance the mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy through high energy ball milling, sintering, and hot extrusion techniques. Experimental results revealed that tensile fracture strain of AZ31 magnesium alloy was enhanced by +49.6% with 0.3 wt.% graphene nanoplatelets compared to −8.3% regression for 0.3 wt.% carbon nanotubes. The tensile strength of AZ31 magnesium alloy was decreased (−11.2%) with graphene nanoplatelets addition, while increased (+7.7%) with carbon nanotubes addition. Unlike tensile test, compression tests showed different trend. The compression strength of carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composite was +51.2% greater than AZ31 magnesium alloy as compared to +0.6% increase for graphene nanoplatelets. The compressive fracture strain of carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composite was decreased (−14.1%) while no significant change in fracture strain of graphene nanoplatelets-AZ31 composite was observed. The X-ray diffraction results revealed that addition of reinforcement particles weaken the basal textures which affect the composite's yield asymmetry. Microstructure evaluation revealed the absence of intermetallic phase formation between reinforcements and matrix. The carbon reinforcements in AZ31 magnesium alloy dissolve and isolate β phases throughout the matrix. The increased fracture strain and mechanical strength of graphene nanoplatelets and carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composites are attributed to large specific surface area of graphene nanoplatelets and stiffer nature of carbon nanotubes respectively. - Highlights: • Powder metallurgy method was used to fabricate magnesium composites. • The AZ31-carbon materials composite were blended using ball milling. • The reinforcement particles weaken the basal texture which affects yield asymmetry of composites. • AZ31-graphene nanoplatelets composite exhibited impressive increase in tensile elongation

  8. Structural modifications of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) processed in attritor type mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, Melina C.; Carvalho, Benjamim de M.; Pinheiro, Luis A.; Cintho, Osvaldo M.; Capocchi, Jose D.T.; Kubaski, Evaldo T.

    2009-01-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a polyethylene that has a high melt viscosity, hence its processing becomes very difficult. High-energy mechanical milling provides physical and chemical changes in polymers that have been studied recently. In order to study these changes in UHMWPE, powder of this polymer was mechanical milled in attritor type mill with a ball-to-powder weight ratio of 40:1 for 8 hours, varying the rotation speed: 200, 300, 400, 500 e 600 rpm. The polymer was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and xray diffraction (XRD). From the XRD results it was noted that as the rotation speed increased the monoclinic phase also increased up to 500 rpm. For 600 rpm, the amount of monoclinic phase apparently decreased. At this rotation speed, the deformation rate probably increased the process temperature, allowing the monoclinic phase to return to its initial structural orthorhombic form. (author)

  9. Effect of ball milling time on the hydrogen storage properties of TiF{sub 3}-doped LiAlH{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shu-Sheng [Materials and Thermochemistry Laboratory, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian, Liaoning 116023 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Sun, Li-Xian; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Jian; Chu, Hai-Liang; Fan, Mei-Qiang; Zhang, Tao [Materials and Thermochemistry Laboratory, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian, Liaoning 116023 (China); Xu, Fen [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China); Song, Xiao-Yan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Chinese Education Ministry, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Grolier, Jean Pierre [Laboratory of Thermodynamics of Solutions and Polymers, Blaise Pascal University, 24 Avenue des Landais, 63177-Aubiere Cedex (France)

    2009-10-15

    In the present work, the catalytic effect of TiF{sub 3} on the dehydrogenation properties of LiAlH{sub 4} has been investigated. Decomposition of LiAlH{sub 4} occurs during ball milling in the presence of 4 mol% TiF{sub 3}. Different ball milling times have been used, from 0.5 h to 18 h. With ball milling time increasing, the crystallite sizes of LiAlH{sub 4} get smaller (from 69 nm to 43 nm) and the dehydrogenation temperature becomes lower (from 80 C to 60 C). Half an hour ball milling makes the initial dehydrogenation temperature of doped LiAlH{sub 4} reduce to 80 C, which is 70 C lower than as-received LiAlH{sub 4}. About 5.0 wt.% H{sub 2} can be released from TiF{sub 3}-doped LiAlH{sub 4} after 18 h ball milling in the range of 60 C-145 C (heating rate 2 C min{sup -1}). TiF{sub 3} probably reacts with LiAlH{sub 4} to form the catalyst, TiAl{sub 3}. The mechanochemical and thermochemical reactions have been clarified. However, the rehydrogenation of LiAlH{sub 4}/Li{sub 3}AlH{sub 6} can not be realized under 95 bar H{sub 2} in the presence of TiF{sub 3} because of their thermodynamic properties. (author)

  10. Ball-milling effect on Indonesian natural bentonite for manganese removal from acid mine drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prastistho Widyawanto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The influences of mechanical milling on Indonesian Natural Bentonite (INB characteristics and manganese (Mn removal from acid mine drainage (AMD were investigated. The INB characteristics were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, nitrogen adsorption-desorption for specific surface area (SSA and microporosity measurement, cation exchange capacity (CEC and particle size distribution (PSD analyzer. Four minutes milling with frequency 20 Hz on INB caused morphological change which showed more crumbled and destructed particle, lost the (001 peak but still retained the (100 peak that indicated delamination of montmorillonite mineral without breaking the tetrahedral-octahedral-tetrahedral (T-O-T structure, rose the CEC from 28.49 meq/100g to 35.51 meq/100g, increase in the SSA from 60.63 m2/g to 104.88 m2/g, significant increase in microporosity which described in the t plots and decrease in the mean particle size distribution peak from 49.28 μm to 38.84 μm. The effect of contact time and effect of adsorbent dosage on Mn sorption was studied. Both unmilled and milled samples reached equilibrium at 24 hours and the pH rose from 4 to 7 in first 30 minutes. The Mn removal percentage increased significantly after milling. Using Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorbed metals (qmax also increased from 0.570 to 4.219 mg/g.

  11. Analysis of the influence of two different milling processes in the properties of precursor powder and [Beta]-TCP cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, H.A.I.; Pereira, C.H.R.; Zavaglia, C.A.C.; Motisuke, M.

    2011-01-01

    There are several characteristics that put calcium phosphate cements in evidence, like its bioactivity and in vivo resorption. The influence of two milling processes in the morphological properties of the [beta]-tricalcium phosphate powder, [beta]-TCP, and in the mechanical properties of the cement were analyzed. The powder was obtained by solid state reaction of CaCO_3 and CaHPO_4 at 1050 ° C. It showed high phase purity and absence of toxic elements. The powder was processed in ball mill (A) and high-energy vibratory mill (B), with posterior analyze by SEM and particle size distribution. The powders showed different average and distribution of grain size. Finally, the cement obtained by the process (B) showed values of axial tensile strength significantly greater than that obtained by the process (A). The milling process (B) is much more efficient than the process (A). (author)

  12. Caustic saving potentile in textile processing mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, M.; Rehman, A.; Ghafar, A.; Hafeez, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    The textile processing industry of pakistan has great potential of improvement in resource consumption in various production processes. One major concern is the heavy usage of caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) especially during the mercerization process which incurs a significant cost to a textile processing mill. To reduce the unit fabric production cost and stay competitive, the industry need to minimize the caustic wastage and explore the caustic saving potential. This paper describe the detailed caustic consumption practices and saving potentials in woven textile sector based on the data base of 100 industries. Region wise caustic saving potential is also investigated . Three caustic conservation option including process improvement, reuse and recycling, and caustic recovery plants are discussed. Detailed technical and and financial requirements. saving potentials and paybacks of these options are provided. (author)

  13. Phase evolution during early stages of mechanical alloying of Cu–13 wt.% Al powder mixtures in a high-energy ball mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudina, Dina V.; Lomovsky, Oleg I.; Valeev, Konstantin R.; Tikhov, Serguey F.; Boldyreva, Natalya N.; Salanov, Aleksey N.; Cherepanova, Svetlana V.; Zaikovskii, Vladimir I.; Andreev, Andrey S.; Lapina, Olga B.; Sadykov, Vladislav A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Phase formation during early stages of Cu–Al mechanical alloying was studied. • The products of mechanical alloying are of highly non-equilibrium character. • X-ray amorphous phases are present in the products of mechanical alloying. • An Al-rich X-ray amorphous phase is distributed between the crystallites. - Abstract: We report the phase and microstructure evolution of the Cu–13 wt.% Al mixture during treatment in a high-energy planetary ball mill with a particular focus on the early stages of mechanical alloying. Several characterization techniques, including X-ray diffraction phase analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, differential dissolution, thermal analysis, and electron microscopy/elemental analysis, have been combined to study the evolution of the phase composition of the mechanically alloyed powders and describe the microstructure of the multi-phase products of mechanical alloying at different length scales. The following reaction sequence has been confirmed: Cu + Al → CuAl 2 (+Cu) → Cu 9 Al 4 + (Cu) → Cu(Al). The phase evolution was accompanied by the microstructure changes, the layered structure of the powder agglomerates disappearing with milling time. This scheme is further complicated by the processes of copper oxidation, reduction of copper oxides by metallic aluminum, and by variation of the stoichiometry of Cu(Al) solid solutions with milling time. Substantial amounts of X-ray amorphous phases were detected as well. Differential dissolution technique has revealed that a high content of aluminum in the Cu(Al) solid solution-based powders is due to the presence of Al-rich phases distributed between the Cu(Al) crystallites

  14. Ball-milling and AlB2 addition effects on the hydrogen sorption properties of the CaH2 + MgB2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiavo, B.; Girella, A.; Agresti, F.; Capurso, G.; Milanese, C.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Calcium hydride + magnesium-aluminum borides as candidates for hydrogen storage. → Long time ball milling improves hydrogen sorption kinetics of the CaH 2 +MgB 2 system. → Coexistence of MgB 2 and AlB 2 does not improve hydrogen sorption performances. → Total substitution of MgB 2 with AlB 2 improves the system kinetics and reversibility. → Below 400 deg. C almost the full hydrogen capacity of the CaH 2 + AlB 2 system is reached. - Abstract: Among the borohydrides proposed for solid state hydrogen storage, Ca(BH 4 ) 2 is particularly interesting because of its favourable thermodynamics and relatively cheap price. Composite systems, where other species are present in addition to the borohydride, show some advantages in hydrogen sorption properties with respect to the borohydrides alone, despite a reduction of the theoretical storage capacity. We have investigated the milling time influence on the sorption properties of the CaH 2 + MgB 2 system from which Ca(BH 4 ) 2 and MgH 2 can be synthesized by hydrogen absorption process. Manometric and calorimetric measurements showed better kinetics for long time milled samples. We found that the total substitution of MgB 2 with AlB 2 in the starting material can improve the sorption properties significantly, while the co-existence of both magnesium and aluminum borides in the starting mixture did not cause any improvement. Rietveld refinements of the X-ray powder diffraction spectra were used to confirm the hypothesized reactions.

  15. Experimental and theoretical study of phase transitions under ball milling; Etude experimentale et modelisation des changements de phases sous broyage a haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochet, P

    1998-12-31

    The aim of this work was to determine how phase transition s under ball-milling depend on the milling conditions and to find out if one can rationalize such transitions with the theory of driven alloys. We have chosen two phase transitions: the order-disorder transition in Fe Al and the precipitation-dissolution NiGe. In the case of Fe Al we have found that the steady-state long range order parameter achieved under ball milling intensity; moreover the same degree of order is achieved starting from an ordered alloy or a disordered solid solution. On the way to fully disordered state the degree of order either decreases monotonically or goes through a short lived transient state. This behaviour is reminiscent of a first order transition while the equilibrium transition is second order. All the above features are well reproduced by a simple model of driven alloys, which was originally build for alloys under irradiation. The stationary degree of order results of two competitive atomic jump mechanisms: the forced displacements induced by the shearing of the grains, and the thermally activated jumps caused by vacancies migrations. Finally we have performed atomistic simulations with a Monte Carlo kinetic algorithm, which revealed the role of the fluctuations in the intensity of the forcing. Moreover we have shown that specific atomistic mechanisms are active in a dilute NiGe solid solution which might lead to ball milling induced precipitation in under-saturated solid solution. (author). 149 refs.

  16. Experimental and theoretical study of phase transitions under ball milling; Etude experimentale et modelisation des changements de phases sous broyage a haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochet, P

    1997-12-31

    The aim of this work was to determine how phase transition s under ball-milling depend on the milling conditions and to find out if one can rationalize such transitions with the theory of driven alloys. We have chosen two phase transitions: the order-disorder transition in Fe Al and the precipitation-dissolution NiGe. In the case of Fe Al we have found that the steady-state long range order parameter achieved under ball milling intensity; moreover the same degree of order is achieved starting from an ordered alloy or a disordered solid solution. On the way to fully disordered state the degree of order either decreases monotonically or goes through a short lived transient state. This behaviour is reminiscent of a first order transition while the equilibrium transition is second order. All the above features are well reproduced by a simple model of driven alloys, which was originally build for alloys under irradiation. The stationary degree of order results of two competitive atomic jump mechanisms: the forced displacements induced by the shearing of the grains, and the thermally activated jumps caused by vacancies migrations. Finally we have performed atomistic simulations with a Monte Carlo kinetic algorithm, which revealed the role of the fluctuations in the intensity of the forcing. Moreover we have shown that specific atomistic mechanisms are active in a dilute NiGe solid solution which might lead to ball milling induced precipitation in under-saturated solid solution. (author). 149 refs.

  17. Degradation of Trichloroethene with a Novel Ball Milled Fe–C Nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Jie; Wang, Wei [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Rondinone, Adam J. [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); He, Feng, E-mail: fenghe@zjut.edu.cn [College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032 (China); Liang, Liyuan [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Novel, inexpensive iron–carbon (Fe–C) nanocomposite was obtained by milling. • Fe–C instantaneously sorbed >90% of trichloroethene and continuously degraded them. • The carbon reduced the generation of C{sub 3}−C{sub 6} intermediates and mainly produced C{sub 2}H{sub 4}. • Fe–C can attach to the DNAPL phase thus enhancing degradation efficiency. - Abstract: Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) is effective in reductively degrading dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), such as trichloroethene (TCE), in groundwater (i.e., dechlorination) although the NZVI technology itself still suffers from high material costs and inability to target hydrophobic contaminants in source zones. To address these problems, we developed a novel, inexpensive iron–carbon (Fe–C) nanocomposite material by simultaneously milling micron-size iron and activated carbon powder. Microscopic and X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization of the composite material revealed that nanoparticles of Fe were dispersed in activated carbon and a new iron carbide phase was formed. Bench-scale studies showed that this material instantaneously sorbed >90% of TCE from aqueous solutions and subsequently decomposed TCE into non-chlorinated products. Compared to milled Fe, Fe–C nanocomposite dechlorinated TCE at a slightly slower rate and favored the production of ethene over other TCE degradation products such as C{sub 3}−C{sub 6} compounds. When placed in hexane-water mixture, the Fe–C nanocomposite materials are preferentially partitioned into the organic phase, indicating the ability of the composite materials to target DNAPL during remediation.

  18. Effect of zirconium on grain growth and mechanical properties of a ball-milled nanocrystalline FeNi alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotan, Hasan, E-mail: hkotan@ncsu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, NC State University, 911 Partners Way, Room 3078, Raleigh, NC 27606-7907 (United States); Darling, Kris A. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, RDRL-WMM-F, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5069 (United States); Saber, Mostafa; Koch, Carl C.; Scattergood, Ronald O. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, NC State University, 911 Partners Way, Room 3078, Raleigh, NC 27606-7907 (United States)

    2013-02-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pure Fe, Fe{sub 92}Ni{sub 8}, and Fe{sub 91}Ni{sub 8}Zr{sub 1} powders were hardened up to 10 GPa by ball milling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Annealing of Fe and Fe{sub 92}Ni{sub 8} leads to reduced hardness and extensive grain growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The addition of Zr to Fe{sub 92}Ni{sub 8} increases its stability and strength by second phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The second phases are found to promote the stability of Fe{sub 91}Ni{sub 8}Zr{sub 1} by Zener pinning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Zr-containing precipitates contribute to the overall strength of the material. - Abstract: Grain growth of ball-milled pure Fe, Fe{sub 92}Ni{sub 8}, and Fe{sub 91}Ni{sub 8}Zr{sub 1} alloys has been studied using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), focused ion beam (FIB) microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Mechanical properties with respect to compositional changes and annealing temperatures have been investigated using microhardness and shear punch tests. We found the rate of grain growth of the Fe{sub 91}Ni{sub 8}Zr{sub 1} alloy to be much less than that of pure Fe and the Fe{sub 92}Ni{sub 8} alloy at elevated temperatures. The microstructure of the ternary Fe{sub 91}Ni{sub 8}Zr{sub 1} alloy remains nanoscale up to 700 Degree-Sign C where only a few grains grow abnormally whereas annealing of pure iron and the Fe{sub 92}Ni{sub 8} alloy leads to extensive grain growth. The grain growth of the ternary alloy at high annealing temperatures is coupled with precipitation of Fe{sub 2}Zr. A fine dispersion of precipitated second phase is found to promote the microstructural stability at high annealing temperatures and to increase the hardness and ultimate shear strength of ternary Fe{sub 91}Ni{sub 8}Zr{sub 1} alloy drastically when the grain size is above nanoscale.

  19. Influence of B4C-doping and high-energy ball milling on phase formation and critical current density of (Bi,Pb)-2223 HTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margiani, N. G.; Mumladze, G. A.; Adamia, Z. A.; Kuzanyan, A. S.; Zhghamadze, V. V.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the combined effects of B4C-doping and planetary ball milling on the phase evolution, microstructure and transport properties of Bi1.7Pb0.3Sr2Ca2Cu3Oy(B4C)x HTS with x = 0 ÷ 0.125 were studied through X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), resistivity and critical current density measurements. Obtained results have shown that B4C additive leads to the strong acceleration of high-Tc phase formation and substantial enhancement in Jc. High-energy ball milling seems to produce a more homogeneous distribution of refined doped particles in the (Bi,Pb)-2223 HTS which results in an improved intergranular flux pinning and better self-field Jc performance.

  20. Mechanism of nanostructure formation in ball-milled Cu and Cu–3wt%Zn studied by X-ray diffraction line profile analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoshkhoo, M. Samadi; Scudino, S.; Bednarcik, J.; Kauffmann, A.; Bahmanpour, H.; Freudenberger, J.; Scattergood, R.; Zehetbauer, M.J.; Koch, C.C.; Eckert, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanostructured powders of Cu and Cu–3wt%Zn were produced using ball milling. • During cryomilling, nanostructure was formed by structural decomposition. • Dynamic recrystallization happened in room–temperature milling of Cu–3wt%Zn. • Structural decomposition took place during room–temperature milling of Cu. -- Abstract: The mechanism of nanostructure formation during cryogenic and room-temperature milling of Cu and Cu–3wt%Zn was investigated using X-ray diffraction line profile analysis. For that, the whole powder pattern modeling approach (WPPM) was used to analyze the evolution of microstructural features including coherently scattering domain size, dislocation density, and density of planar faults. It was found that for all sets of experiments, structural decomposition is the dominant mechanism of nanostructure formation during cryomilling. During subsequent RT-milling, grain refinement still occurs by structural decomposition for pure copper. On the other hand, discontinuous dynamic recrystallization is responsible for nanostructure formation during RT-milling of Cu–3wt%Zn. This is attributed to lower stacking-fault energy of Cu–3wt%Zn compared to pure copper. Finally, room temperature milling reveals the occurrence of a detwinning phenomenon

  1. A novel fabrication technology of in situ TiB2/6063Al composites: High energy ball milling and melt in situ reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S.-L.; Yang, J.; Zhang, B.-R.; Zhao, Y.-T.; Chen, G.; Shi, X.-X.; Liang, Z.-P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents a novel technology to fabricate the TiB 2 /6063Al composites. • The novel technology decreases in situ reaction temperature and shortens the time. • The reaction mechanism of in situ reaction at the low temperature is discussed. • Effect of ball milling time and in situ reaction time on the composites is studied. - Abstract: TiB 2 /6063Al matrix composites are fabricated from Al–TiO 2 –B 2 O 3 system by the technology combining high energy ball milling with melt in situ reaction. The microstructure and tensile properties of the composites are investigated by XRD, SEM, EDS, TEM and electronic tensile testing. The results indicate that high energy ball milling technology decreases the in situ reaction temperature and shortens the reaction time for Al–TiO 2 –B 2 O 3 system in contrast with the conventional melt in situ synthesis. The morphology of in situ TiB 2 particles is exhibited in irregular shape or nearly circular shape, and the average size of the particles is less than 700 nm, thereinto the minimum size is approximately 200 nm. In addition, the morphology and size of the reinforced particles are affected by the time of ball milling and in situ reaction. TEM images indicate that the interface between 6063Al matrix and TiB 2 particles is clear and no interfacial outgrowth is observed. Tensile testing results show that the as-cast TiB 2 /6063Al composites exhibit a much higher strength, reaching 191 MPa, which is 1.23 times as high as the as-cast 6063Al matrix. Besides, the tensile fracture surface of the composites displays the dimple-fracture character

  2. A novel fabrication technology of in situ TiB{sub 2}/6063Al composites: High energy ball milling and melt in situ reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S.-L.; Yang, J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Zhang, B.-R. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, Shandong 250022 (China); Zhao, Y.-T., E-mail: 278075525@qq.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Chen, G.; Shi, X.-X.; Liang, Z.-P. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China)

    2015-08-05

    Highlights: • This paper presents a novel technology to fabricate the TiB{sub 2}/6063Al composites. • The novel technology decreases in situ reaction temperature and shortens the time. • The reaction mechanism of in situ reaction at the low temperature is discussed. • Effect of ball milling time and in situ reaction time on the composites is studied. - Abstract: TiB{sub 2}/6063Al matrix composites are fabricated from Al–TiO{sub 2}–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} system by the technology combining high energy ball milling with melt in situ reaction. The microstructure and tensile properties of the composites are investigated by XRD, SEM, EDS, TEM and electronic tensile testing. The results indicate that high energy ball milling technology decreases the in situ reaction temperature and shortens the reaction time for Al–TiO{sub 2}–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} system in contrast with the conventional melt in situ synthesis. The morphology of in situ TiB{sub 2} particles is exhibited in irregular shape or nearly circular shape, and the average size of the particles is less than 700 nm, thereinto the minimum size is approximately 200 nm. In addition, the morphology and size of the reinforced particles are affected by the time of ball milling and in situ reaction. TEM images indicate that the interface between 6063Al matrix and TiB{sub 2} particles is clear and no interfacial outgrowth is observed. Tensile testing results show that the as-cast TiB{sub 2}/6063Al composites exhibit a much higher strength, reaching 191 MPa, which is 1.23 times as high as the as-cast 6063Al matrix. Besides, the tensile fracture surface of the composites displays the dimple-fracture character.

  3. Effect of metal ion and ball milling on the electrochemical properties of M0.5TiOPO4 (M = Ni, Cu, Mg)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godbole, Vikram A.; Villevieille, Claire; Novák, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Various metal titanium oxyphosphates, M 0.5 TiOPO 4 (M = Ni, Cu, Mg) were synthesized via modified solution route synthesis. The as synthesized M 0.5 TiOPO 4 (M = Ni, Cu, Mg) were electrochemically tested using galvanostatic cycling, cyclic voltammetry, and rate performance measurements in order to investigate the effect of metal ion (M) on the electrochemical performance of this family of materials. All the studied materials reacted with 3 Li + during the 1st lithiation showing reaction plateaus at different potentials versus Lithium. Similar studies were performed on M 0.5 TiOPO 4 (M = Ni, Cu, Mg) samples with smaller particle size, obtained via ball milling, in order to understand the effect of particle size on the electrochemistry of the materials. The ball milled samples delivered higher specific charge during the 1st cycle showing reaction plateaus at different potentials, poorer capacity retention, and poorer rate capability as compared to the as synthesized ones. This was attributed to a change in morphology and particle size of the samples upon ball milling. Amongst all the tested materials, the as synthesized Cu 0.5 TiOPO 4 showed the best electrochemistry. The ball milled Mg 0.5 TiOPO 4 reacted with ∼5.5 Li + during 1st lithiation (as compared to 3 Li + expected from this family of compounds) and 3.3 Li + during the 1st delithiation (rather than the expected 2 Li + ). This suggests a reaction mechanism where Mg 0.5 TiOPO 4 undergoes a phase transformation forming Mg 0 , which reversibly alloys with 2.5 extra Li + . Thus the electrochemical cycling of Mg 0.5 TiOPO 4 gives insights into the reaction mechanism in this family of materials

  4. High surface area niobium oxides as catalysts for improved hydrogen sorption properties of ball milled MgH2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, V.V.; Rougier, A.; Aymard, L.; Nazri, G.A.; Tarascon, J.-M.

    2008-01-01

    We report, high surface area (up to 200 m 2 /g) nanocrystalline niobium oxide (so called p-Nb 2 O 5 ) synthesized by 'chimie douce' route and its importance in enhancing the hydrogen sorption properties of MgH 2 . p-Nb 2 O 5 induces faster kinetics than commonly used commercial Nb 2 O 5 (c-Nb 2 O 5 ) when ball milled with MgH 2 (named (MgH 2 ) catalyst ) by reducing the time of desorption from 35 min in (MgH 2 ) c-Nb 2 O 5 to 12 min in (MgH 2 ) p-Nb 2 O 5 at 300 deg. C. The BET surface area of as-prepared Nb 2 O 5 was tuned by heat treatment and its effect on sorption properties was studied. Among them, both p-Nb 2 O 5 and Nb 2 O 5 :350 (p-Nb 2 O 5 heated to 350 deg. C with a BET specific surface area of 46 m 2 /g) desorb 5 wt.% within 12 min, exhibiting the best catalytic activity. Furthermore, thanks to the addition of high surface area Nb 2 O 5 , the desorption temperature was successfully lowered down to 200 deg. C, with a significant amount of desorbed hydrogen (4.5 wt.%). In contrast, the composite (MgH 2 ) c-Nb 2 O 5 shows no desorption at this 'low' temperature

  5. DEM modeling of ball mills with experimental validation: influence of contact parameters on charge motion and power draw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boemer, Dominik; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Discrete element method simulations of a 1:5-scale laboratory ball mill are presented in this paper to study the influence of the contact parameters on the charge motion and the power draw. The position density limit is introduced as an efficient mathematical tool to describe and to compare the macroscopic charge motion in different scenarios, i.a. with different values of the contact parameters. While the charge motion and the power draw are relatively insensitive to the stiffness and the damping coefficient of the linear spring-slider-damper contact law, the coefficient of friction has a strong influence since it controls the sliding propensity of the charge. Based on the experimental calibration and validation by charge motion photographs and power draw measurements, the descriptive and predictive capabilities of the position density limit and the discrete element method are demonstrated, i.e. the real position of the charge is precisely delimited by the respective position density limit and the power draw can be predicted with an accuracy of about 5 %.

  6. Encaging palladium(0 in layered double hydroxide: A sustainable catalyst for solvent-free and ligand-free Heck reaction in a ball mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the synthesis of a cheap, reusable and ligand-free Pd catalyst supported on MgAl layered double hydroxides (Pd/MgAl-LDHs by co-precipitation and reduction methods is described. The catalyst was used in Heck reactions under high-speed ball milling (HSBM conditions at room temperature. The effects of milling-ball size, milling-ball filling degree, reaction time, rotation speed and grinding auxiliary category, which would influence the yields of mechanochemical Heck reactions, were investigated in detail. The characterization results of XRD, ICP–MS and XPS suggest that Pd/MgAl-LDHs have excellent textural properties with zero-valence Pd on its layers. The reaction results indicate that the catalyst could be utilized in HSBM systems to afford a wide range of Heck coupling products in satisfactory yields. Furthermore, this catalyst could be easily recovered and reused for at least five times without significant loss of catalytic activity.

  7. Dehydriding and re-hydriding properties of high-energy ball milled LiBH{sub 4}+MgH{sub 2} mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, Kyle; Shaw, Leon L. [Department of Chemical, Materials and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Connecticut, 97 North Eagleville Road, U-3136, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Here we report the first investigation of the dehydriding and re-hydriding properties of 2LiBH{sub 4} + MgH{sub 2} mixtures in the solid state. Such a study is made possible by high-energy ball milling of 2LiBH{sub 4}+MgH{sub 2} mixtures at liquid nitrogen temperature with the addition of graphite. The 2LiBH{sub 4}+MgH{sub 2} mixture ball milled under this condition exhibits a 5-fold increase in the released hydrogen at 265 C when compared with ineffectively ball milled counterparts. Furthermore, both LiBH{sub 4} and MgH{sub 2} contribute to hydrogen release in the solid state. The isothermal dehydriding/re-hydriding cycles at 265 C reveal that re-hydriding is dominated by re-hydriding of Mg. These unusual phenomena are explained based on the formation of nanocrystalline and amorphous phases, the increased defect concentration in crystalline compounds, and possible catalytic effects of Mg,MgH{sub 2} and LiBH{sub 4} on their dehydriding and re-hydriding properties. (author)

  8. Spark-plasma sintering and mechanical property of mechanically alloyed NiAl powder compact and ball-milled (Ni+Al) mixed powder compact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.S.; Jang, Y.I.; Kwon, Y.S.; Kim, Y.D.; Ahn, I.S.

    2001-01-01

    Mechanically-alloyed NiAl powder and (Ni+Al) powder mixture prepared by ball-milling were sintered by spark-plasma sintering (SPS) process. Densification behavior and mechanical property were determined from the experimental results and analysis such as changes in linear shrinkage, shrinkage rate, microstructure, and phase during sintering process, Vicker's hardness and transverse rupture strength tests. Densification mechanisms for MA-NiAl powder compact and (Ni+Al) powder mixture were different from each other. While the former showed a rapid increase in densification rate only at higher temperature region of 800-900 o C, the latter revealed firstly a rapid increase in densification rate even at low temperature of 300 o C and a subsequent increase up to 500 o C. Densities of both powder compact (MA and mixture) sintered at 1150 o C for 5 min were 98 and above 99 %, respectively. Sintered bodies were composed mainly of NiAl phase with Ni 3 Al as secondary phase for both powders. Sintered body of MA-NiAl powder showed a very fine grain structure. Crystallite size determined by XRD result and the Sherrer's equation was approximately 80 nm. Vicker's hardness for the sintered bodies of (Ni+Al) powder mixture and MA-NiAl powder were 410±12 H v and 555±10 H v , respectively, whereas TRS values 1097±48 MPa and 1393±75 MPa. (author)

  9. The Effect of Powder Ball Milling on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Sintered Fe-Cr-Mo-Mn-(Cu) Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulecki, P.; Lichańska, E.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of ball milling powder mixtures of Höganäs pre-alloyed iron Astaloy CrM, low-carbon ferromanganese Elkem, elemental electrolytic Cu and C-UF graphite on the sintered structure and mechanical properties was evaluated. The mixing was conducted using Turbula mixer for 30 minutes and CDI-EM60 frequency inverter for 1 and 2 hours. Milling was performed on 150 g mixtures with (in weight %) CrM + 1% Mn, CrM + 2% Mn, CrM + 1% Mn + 1% Cu and CrM + 2% Mn + 1% Cu, all with 0.6%C. The green compacts were single pressed at 660 MPa according to PN-EN ISO 2740. Sintering was carried out in a laboratory horizontal furnace Carbolite STF 15/450 at 1250°C for 60 minutes in 5%H2 - 95%N2 atmosphere with a heating rate of 75°C/min, followed by sintering hardening at 60°C/min cooling rate. All the steels were characterized by martensitic structures. Mechanical testing revealed that steels based on milled powders have slightly higher mechanical properties compared to those only mixed and sintered. The best combination of mechanical properties, for ball milled CrM + 1% Mn + 1% Cu was UTS 1046 MPa, TRS 1336 MPa and A 1.94%.

  10. Performance enhancement of NdFeB nanoflakes prepared by surfactant-assisted ball milling at low temperature by using different surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xiaoxin; Jin, Kunpeng; Wang, Fang; Fang, Qiuli; Du, Juan; Xia, Weixing; Yan, Aru; Liu, J. Ping; Zhang, Jian

    2017-02-01

    Hard magnetic NdFeB submicron and nanoflakes were successfully prepared by surfactant-assisted ball milling at room temperature (SABMRT) and low temperature (SABMLT) by using oleic acid (OA), oleylamine (OLA) and trioctylamine (TOA) as surfactant, respectively. Among the surfactants used, OA and OLA have similar effects on the morphology of the NdFeB nanoflakes milled at both room and low temperature. In the case of TOA, irregular micron-sized particles and submirco/nanoflakes were obtained for the NdFeB powders prepared by SABMRT and SABMLT, respectively. Samples prepared by SABMLT show better crystallinity and better degree of grain alignment than that prepared by SABMRT with the same surfactant. Comparing with the samples milled at RT, higher coercivity and larger remanence ratio were achieved in the NdFeB samples prepared at LT. The amounts of residual surfactants in final NdFeB powders were also calculated, which reveals that the final NdFeB powders milled at LT possess lower amount of residual surfactants than those milled at RT. It was found that lowering milling temperature of SABM would be a promising way for fabricating permanent magnetic materials with better hard magnetic properties.

  11. Utilization of aluminum to obtaining a duplex type stainless steel using high energy ball milling; Obtencao de um aco inoxidavel de estrutura duplex do sistema FeMnAl processado por moagem de alta energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlak, I.E.; Cintho, O.M., E-mail: eng.igorpavlak@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil); Capocchi, J.D.T. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The obtaining of stainless steel using aluminum in its composition - FeMnAl system, has been researches subject since the sixties, by good mechanical properties and resistance to oxidation presented, when compared with conventional FeNiCr stainless steel system. In another point, the aluminum and manganese are low cost then traditional elements. This work, metallic powders of iron, manganese and pure aluminum, were processed in a Spex type high-energy ball mill in nitrogen atmosphere. The milling products were compressed into pastille form and sintered under inert atmosphere. The final products were characterized by optical and electronic microscopy and microhardness test. The metallographic analysis shows a typical austenite and ferrite duplex type microstructure. The presence of these phases was confirmed according X ray diffraction analysis. (author)

  12. Fe-FeS2 adsorbent prepared with iron powder and pyrite by facile ball milling and its application for arsenic removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Xiaobo; Li, Yangwenjun; Ke, Yong; Shi, Meiqing; Chai, Liyuan; Xue, Ke

    2017-07-01

    Arsenic is one of the major pollutants and a worldwide concern because of its toxicity and chronic effects on human health. An adsorbent of Fe-FeS 2 mixture for effective arsenic removal was successfully prepared by mechanical ball milling. The products before and after arsenic adsorption were characterized with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The adsorbent shows high arsenic removal efficiency when molar ratio of iron to pyrite is 5:5. The experimental data of As(III) adsorption are fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model with a maximal adsorption capacity of 101.123 mg/g. And As(V) data were described perfectly by the Freundlich model with a maximal adsorption capacity of 58.341 L/mg. As(III) is partial oxidized to As(V) during the adsorption process. High arsenic uptake capability and cost-effectiveness of waste make it potentially attractive for arsenic removal.

  13. Fabrication and characterization of Cu/YSZ cermet high-temperature electrolysis cathode material prepared by high-energy ball-milling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sungkyu; Kang, Kyoung-Hoon; Kim, Jong-Min; Hong, Hyun Seon; Yun, Yongseung; Woo, Sang-Kook

    2008-01-01

    Cu/YSZ composites (40 and 60 vol.% Cu powder with balance YSZ) was successfully fabricated by high-energy ball-milling of Cu and YSZ powders at 400 rpm for 24 h, pressing into pellets (O 13 mm x 2 mm) and subsequent sintering process at 900 deg. C under flowing 5%-H 2 /Ar gas for use as cermet cathode material of high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) of water vapor in a more economical way compared with conventional Ni/YSZ cermet cathode material. The Cu/YSZ composite powders thus synthesized and sintered were characterized using various analytical tools such as XRD, SEM, and laser diffraction and scattering method. Electrical conductivity of sintered Cu/YSZ cermet pellets thus fabricated was measured using 4-probe technique and compared with that of Ni/YSZ cermets. The effect of composites composition on the electrical conductivity was investigated and marked increase in electrical conductivity for copper contents greater than 40 vol.% in the composite was explained by percolation threshold

  14. Structure and electrochemical hydrogen storage properties of Ti{sub 2}Ni alloy synthesized by ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosni, B. [Equipe des Hydrures Métalliques, Laboratoire de Mécanique, Matériaux et Procédés, Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Ingénieurs de Tunis, ENSIT Ex ESSTT, Université de Tunis, 5 Avenue Taha Hussein, 1008 Tunis (Tunisia); Li, X. [FEMTO-ST, MN2S, Université de Technologie de Belfort-Montbéliard, Site de Sévenans, 90010 Belfort cedex (France); Khaldi, C., E-mail: chokri.khaldi@esstt.rnu.tn [Equipe des Hydrures Métalliques, Laboratoire de Mécanique, Matériaux et Procédés, Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Ingénieurs de Tunis, ENSIT Ex ESSTT, Université de Tunis, 5 Avenue Taha Hussein, 1008 Tunis (Tunisia); ElKedim, O. [FEMTO-ST, MN2S, Université de Technologie de Belfort-Montbéliard, Site de Sévenans, 90010 Belfort cedex (France); Lamloumi, J. [Equipe des Hydrures Métalliques, Laboratoire de Mécanique, Matériaux et Procédés, Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Ingénieurs de Tunis, ENSIT Ex ESSTT, Université de Tunis, 5 Avenue Taha Hussein, 1008 Tunis (Tunisia)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • The Ti{sub 2}Ni alloy activation requires only one cycle of charge and discharge, regardless of the temperature. • By increasing the temperature the capacity loss, undergoes an increase and it is more pronounced for the 60 °C. • A good correlation is found between the evolutions of the different electrochemical parameters according to the temperature. - Abstract: The structure and the electrochemical hydrogen storage properties of amorphous Ti{sub 2}Ni alloy synthesized by ball milling and used as an anode in nickel–metal hydride batteries were studied. Nominal Ti{sub 2}Ni was synthesized under argon atmosphere at room temperature using a planetary high-energy ball mill. The structural and morphological characterization of the amorphous Ti{sub 2}Ni alloy is carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrochemical characterization of the Ti{sub 2}Ni electrodes is carried out by the galvanostatic charging and discharging, the constant potential discharge, the open circuit potential and the potentiodynamic polarization techniques. The Ti{sub 2}Ni alloy activation requires only one cycle of charge and discharge, regardless of the temperature. The electrochemical discharge capacity of the Ti{sub 2}Ni alloy, during the first eight cycles, and at a temperature of 30 °C, remained practically unchanged and a good held cycling is observed. By increasing the temperature, the electrochemical discharge capacity loss after eight cycles undergoes an increase and it is more pronounced for the temperature 60 °C. At 30 °C, the anodic corrosion current density is 1 mA cm{sup −2} and then it undergoes a rapid drop, remaining substantially constant (0.06 mA cm{sup −2}) in the range 40–60 °C, before undergoing a slight increase to 70 °C (0.3 mA cm{sup −2}). This variation is in good agreement with the maximum electrochemical discharge capacity values found for the

  15. The effect of Cu addition and milling contaminations on the microstructure evolution of ball milled Al-Pb alloy during sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, M.; Ouyang, L.Z.; Wu, Z.F.; Zeng, M.Q.; Li, Y.Y.; Zou, J.

    2006-01-01

    Al-10 wt.%Pb and Al-10 wt.%Pb-x wt.%Cu (x = 0-7.0) bulk alloys were prepared by sintering the mechanically alloyed powders at various temperatures. The microstructure changes of the as consolidated powders in the course of sintering were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy. It has been found that, with respect to the Al-10 wt.%Pb-x wt.%Cu alloy, CuAl 2 and Cu 9 Al 4 phases formed in the milling process, and the amount of CuAl 2 phase increased while the Cu 9 Al 4 phase disappeared gradually in the sintering process. In both Al-10 wt.%Pb and Al-10 wt.%Pb-x wt.%Cu alloys, the sintering process results in the coarsening of Pb phase and the growth rate of Pb phase fulfills the Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner equation even though the size of the Pb phase was in nanometer range. The Pb particle exhibits cuboctahedral morphology and has a cubic to cubic orientation relationship with the Al matrix. The addition of Cu strongly depressed the growth rate of Pb. Contamination induced by milling has apparent influence on the microstructure of the sintered alloys. Al 7 Cu 2 Fe and aluminium oxide phases were identified in the sintered alloys. The cuboctahedral morphology of Pb particles was broken up by the presence of the oxide phase

  16. Dispersion of silicon carbide nanoparticles in a AA2024 aluminum alloy by a high-energy ball mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreño-Gallardo, C.; Estrada-Guel, I.; López-Meléndez, C.; Martínez-Sánchez, R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of 2024-SiC NP nanocomposite by mechanical milling process. • SiC nanoparticles improved mechanical properties of aluminum alloy 2024 matrix. • A homogeneous distribution of SiC nanoparticles were observed in the matrix • Compressive and hardness properties of the composite are improved significantly. -- Abstract: Al 2024 alloy was reinforced with silicon carbide nanoparticles (SiC NP ), whose concentration was varied in the range from 0 to 5 wt.%; some composites were synthesized with the mechanical milling (MM) process. Structure and microstructure of the consolidated samples were studied by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, while mechanical properties were investigated by compressive tests and hardness measurements. The microstructural evidence shows that SiC NP were homogeneously dispersed into the Al 2024 alloy using high-energy MM after 2 h of processing. On the other hand, an increase of the mechanical properties (yield stress, maximum strength and hardness) was observed in the synthesized composites as a direct function of the SiC NP content. In this research several strengthening mechanisms were observed, but the main was the obstruction of dislocations movement by the addition of SiC NP

  17. Bifurcation and stability analysis of a nonlinear milling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weremczuk, Andrzej; Rusinek, Rafal; Warminski, Jerzy

    2018-01-01

    Numerical investigations of milling operations dynamics are presented in this paper. A two degree of freedom nonlinear model is used to study workpiece-tool vibrations. The analyzed model takes into account both flexibility of the tool and the workpiece. The dynamics of the milling process is described by the discontinuous ordinary differential equation with time delay, which can cause process instability. First, stability lobes diagrams are created on the basis of the parameters determined in impact test of an end mill and workpiece. Next, the bifurcations diagrams are performed for different values of rotational speeds.

  18. Ball-milled nano-colloids of rare-earth compounds as liquid gain media for capillary optical amplifiers and lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Darayas; Blockmon, Avery; Ochieng, Vanesa; Lewis, Ashley; Wright, Donald M.; Lewis, Danielle; Valentine, Rueben; Valentine, Maucus; Wesley, Dennis; Sarkisov, Sergey S.; Darwish, Abdalla M.; Sarkisov, Avedik S.

    2017-02-01

    Nano-colloids and nano-crystals doped with ions of rare-earth elements have recently attracted a lot of attention in the scientific community due to their potential applications as biomarkers, fluorescent inks, gain media for lasers and optical amplifiers. Many rare-earth doped materials of different compositions, shapes and size distribution have been prepared by different synthetic methods, such as chemical vapor deposition, sol-gel process, micro-emulsion techniques, gas phase condensation methods, hydrothermal methods and laser ablation. In this paper micro-crystalline powder of the rare-earthdoped compound NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+ was synthesized using a simple wet process followed by baking in open air. Under 980 nm diode laser excitation strong fluorescence in the 100 nm band around 1531-nm peak was observed from the synthesized micro-powder. The micro-powder was pulverized using a ball mill and prepared in the form of nano-colloids in different liquids. The particle size of the obtained nano-colloids was measured using an atomic force microscope and a dynamic light scatterometer. The size of the nano-particles was close to 100-nm. The nano-colloids were utilized as a filling media in capillary optical amplifiers and lasers. The gain of a 7-cm-long capillary optical amplifier (150-micron inner diameter) was as high as 6 dB at 200 mW pump power. The synthesized nano-colloids and the active optical components using them can be potentially used in optical communication, signal processing, optical computing, and other applications.

  19. SnSe/carbon nanocomposite synthesized by high energy ball milling as an anode material for sodium-ion and lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhian; Zhao, Xingxing; Li, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A homogeneous nanocomposite of SnSe and carbon black was synthesised by high energy ball milling and empolyed as an anode material for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) and lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The nanocomposite anode exhibits excellent electrochemical performances in both SIBs and LIBs. - Highlights: • A homogeneous nanocomposite of SnSe and carbon black was fabricated by high energy ball milling. • SnSe and carbon black are homogeneously mixed at the nanoscale level. • The SnSe/C anode exhibits excellent electrochemical performances in both SIBs and LIBs. - Abstract: A homogeneous nanocomposite of SnSe and carbon black, denoted as SnSe/C nanocomposite, was fabricated by high energy ball milling and empolyed as a high performance anode material for both sodium-ion batteries and lithium-ion batteries. The X-ray diffraction patterns, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations confirmed that SnSe in SnSe/C nanocomposite was homogeneously distributed within carbon black. The nanocomposite anode exhibited enhanced electrochemical performances including a high capacity, long cycling behavior and good rate performance in both sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) and lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In SIBs, an initial capacitiy of 748.5 mAh g −1 was obtained and was maintained well on cycling (324.9 mAh g −1 at a high current density of 500 mA g −1 in the 200 th cycle) with 72.5% retention of second cycle capacity (447.7 mAh g −1 ). In LIBs, high initial capacities of approximately 1097.6 mAh g −1 was obtained, and this reduced to 633.1 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles at 500 mA g −1

  20. Band gap-engineered ZnO and Ag/ZnO by ball-milling method and their photocatalytic and Fenton-like photocatalytic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young In [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 38541 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hye Jin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Weon Gyu, E-mail: wgshin@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Youngku, E-mail: youngkusohn@ynu.ac.kr [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 38541 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ag/ZnO hybrid materials were prepared by a ball-milling method. • Adsorption and photocatalytic dye degradation were tested for pure RhB under visible light. • Adsorption and photocatalytic dye degradation were tested for mixed dye (MO + RhB + MB) under visible light. • Fenton-like photocatalytic activity (H{sub 2}O{sub 2} addition effects) was examined. - Abstract: The hybridization of ZnO with Ag has been performed extensively to increase the efficiency of ZnO in various applications, including catalysis. In this study, a wet (w) and dry (d) ball-milling method was used to hybridize Ag with ZnO nanoparticles, and their physicochemical properties were examined. Visible light absorption was enhanced and the band gap was engineered by ball-milling and Ag hybridization. Their photocatalytic activities were tested with rhodamine B (RhB) and a mixed dye (methyl orange + RhB + methylene blue) under visible light irradiation. For pure RhB, the photocatalytic activity was decreased by ball-milling and was observed in the order of ZnO(d) < Ag/ZnO(d) < ZnO(w) < Ag/ZnO(w) ≤ ZnO(ref). For the degradation of RhB and methylene blue (MB) in the mixed dye (or the simulated real contaminated water), the photocatalytic activity was observed in the order of Ag/ZnO(d) < ZnO(d) < ZnO(w) < Ag/ZnO(w) ≤ ZnO(ref). When the photodegradation tested with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} addition, however, the Fenton-like photocatalytic activity was reversed and the ZnO(ref) showed the poorest activity for the degradation of RhB and methylene blue (MB). In the mixed dye over all the catalysts, methyl orange (MO) was degraded most rapidly. The relative degradation rates of RhB and MB were found to be dependent on the catalyst and reaction conditions.

  1. Band gap-engineered ZnO and Ag/ZnO by ball-milling method and their photocatalytic and Fenton-like photocatalytic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young In; Jung, Hye Jin; Shin, Weon Gyu; Sohn, Youngku

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ag/ZnO hybrid materials were prepared by a ball-milling method. • Adsorption and photocatalytic dye degradation were tested for pure RhB under visible light. • Adsorption and photocatalytic dye degradation were tested for mixed dye (MO + RhB + MB) under visible light. • Fenton-like photocatalytic activity (H 2 O 2 addition effects) was examined. - Abstract: The hybridization of ZnO with Ag has been performed extensively to increase the efficiency of ZnO in various applications, including catalysis. In this study, a wet (w) and dry (d) ball-milling method was used to hybridize Ag with ZnO nanoparticles, and their physicochemical properties were examined. Visible light absorption was enhanced and the band gap was engineered by ball-milling and Ag hybridization. Their photocatalytic activities were tested with rhodamine B (RhB) and a mixed dye (methyl orange + RhB + methylene blue) under visible light irradiation. For pure RhB, the photocatalytic activity was decreased by ball-milling and was observed in the order of ZnO(d) < Ag/ZnO(d) < ZnO(w) < Ag/ZnO(w) ≤ ZnO(ref). For the degradation of RhB and methylene blue (MB) in the mixed dye (or the simulated real contaminated water), the photocatalytic activity was observed in the order of Ag/ZnO(d) < ZnO(d) < ZnO(w) < Ag/ZnO(w) ≤ ZnO(ref). When the photodegradation tested with H 2 O 2 addition, however, the Fenton-like photocatalytic activity was reversed and the ZnO(ref) showed the poorest activity for the degradation of RhB and methylene blue (MB). In the mixed dye over all the catalysts, methyl orange (MO) was degraded most rapidly. The relative degradation rates of RhB and MB were found to be dependent on the catalyst and reaction conditions.

  2. Effect of soya milk on nutritive, antioxidative, reological and textural properties of chocolate produced in a ball mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarić Danica B.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is a complex rheological system in which non-fat cocoa particles and sugar particles are enveloped by crystal matrix of cocoa butter. Physical properties of chocolate depend on ingredient composition, method of production and properly performed pre-crystallization phase. In this work, chocolate was produced in an unconventional way, i.e. in a ball mill applying variable refining time (30, 60 and 90 min and pre-crystallization temperature in chocolate masses (26, 28 and 30⁰C. Two types of chocolate were produced: chocolate with 20% of powdered cow’s milk (R1 and chocolate with 20% of soya milk powder (R2. The quality of chocolate was followed by comparing nutritive composition, 23 polyphenol content, hardness of chocolate, solid triglyceride content (SFC and rheological parameters (Casson yield flow (Pa, Casson viscosity (Pas, the area of the thixotropic loop, elastic modulus and creep curves. The aim of this paper is determining changes caused by replacing cow’s milk with soya milk powder in respect of nutritive, rheological and sensory properties, as well as defining optimal parameters: precrystallization temperature and refining time of soya milk chocolate in order to obtain suitable sensory and physical properties identical to those of milk chocolate mass. The results show that replacing powdered cow’s milk with soya milk powder affects the increase in nutritive value of soya milk chocolate. R2 chocolate mass showed the increase in essential amino acids and fatty acids. This chocolate mass also showed the increase in total polyphenols by 28.1% comparing to R1 chocolate mass. By comparing viscosity, yield stress, shear stress and the area of the thixotropic loop, it can be observed that R1 chocolate mass represents a more organized and simpler system than the mass with soya milk (R2, as it shows lower values for all the above mentioned parameters, regardless of the refining time and pre-crystallization temperature

  3. The progress in the researches for uranium mill tailings cleaning treatment and no-waste uranium ore milling processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jintang

    1990-01-01

    The production of uranium mill tailings and their risk assessment are described. The moethods of uranium mill tailings disposal and management are criticized and the necessity of the researches for uranium mill tailings cleaning treatment and no-wasle uranium ore milling process are demonstrated. The progress for these researches in China and other countries with uranium production is reviewed, and the corresponding conclusions are reported

  4. Formation of ultra-fine grained TiC-dispersed SUS316L by ball-milling and their consolidation by hot isostatic pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Yongjia; Yamasaki, Tohru; Fukami, Takeshi; Mitamura, Tohru; Terasawa, Mititaka

    2003-01-01

    In order to overcome the irradiation embrittlement in austenitic stainless steels, ultra-fine grained SUS316L steels with very fine TiC particles have been developed. The SUS316-TiC nanocomposite powders having 1.0 to 2.0 mass%TiC were prepared by ball-milling SUS316-TiC powder mixtures for 125h in an argon gas atmosphere. The milled powders were consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) under a pressure of 200 MPa at temperature between 700-1000degC, and the bulk materials with crystallite size ranging between 100-400 nm have been produced. The possibility of using fine-grained TiC particles for pinning grain boundaries and thereby to maintain the ultra-fine grained structures has been discussed. (author)

  5. An assessment of dioxin levels in processed ball clay from the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrario, J.; Byrne, C. [USEPA, Stennis Space Ctr. Mississippi (United States); Schaum, J. [USEPA, Washington, DC (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Introduction The presence of dioxin-like compounds in ball clay was discovered in 1996 as a result of an investigation to determine the sources of elevated levels of dioxin found in two chicken fat samples from a national survey of poultry. The investigation indicated that soybean meal added to chicken feed was the source of dioxin contamination. Further investigation showed that the dioxin contamination came from the mixing of a natural clay known as ''ball clay'' with the soybean meal as an anti-caking agent. The FDA subsequently discontinued the use of contaminated ball clay as an anti-caking agent in animal feeds. The source of the dioxins found in ball clay has yet to be established. A comparison of the characteristic dioxin profile found in ball clay to those of known anthropogenic sources from the U.S.EPA Source Inventory has been undertaken, and none of those examined match the features found in the clays. These characteristic features together with the fact that the geologic formations in which the clays are found are ancient suggest a natural origin for the dioxins. The plasticity of ball clays makes them an important commercial resource for a variety of commercial uses. The percentage of commercial uses of ball clay in 2000 included: 29% for floor and wall tile, 24% for sanitary ware, 10% pottery, and 37% for other industrial and commercial uses. The total mining of ball clay in the U.S. for 2003 was 1.12 million metric tons. EPA is examining the potential for the environmental release of dioxins from the processing/use of ball clays and evaluating potential exposure pathways. Part of this overall effort and the subject of this study includes the analysis of dioxin levels found in commercially available ball clays commonly used in ceramic art studios.

  6. Effect of ball milling and dynamic compaction on magnetic properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Co(P) composite particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisova, E. A. [Kirensky Institute of Physics SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Krasnoyarsk Institute of Railways Transport, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Kuzovnikova, L. A. [Krasnoyarsk Institute of Railways Transport, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Iskhakov, R. S., E-mail: rauf@iph.krasn.ru; Eremin, E. V. [Kirensky Institute of Physics SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Bukaemskiy, A. A. [Institut fur Sicherheitsforschung und Reaktortechnik, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Nemtsev, I. V. [Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-07

    The evolution of the magnetic properties of composite Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Co(P) particles during ball milling and dynamic compaction is investigated. To prepare starting composite particles, the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} granules were coated with a Co{sub 95}P{sub 5} shell by electroless plating. The magnetic and structural properties of the composite particles are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and the use of the Physical Property Measurement System. The use of composite core-shell particles as starting powder for mechanoactivation allows to decrease treatment duration to 1 h and to produce a more homogeneous bulk sample than in the case of the mixture of Co and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders. The magnetic properties of the milled composite particles are correlated with changes in the microstructure. Reduction in grain size of Co during milling leads to an increase of the volume fraction of superparamagnetic particles and to a decrease of the saturation magnetization. The local magnetic anisotropy field depends on the amount of hcp-Co phase in sample. The anisotropy field value decreases from 8.4 kOe to 3.8 kOe with an increase in milling duration up to 75 min. The regimes of dynamic compaction were selected so that the magnetic characteristics—saturation magnetization and coercive field—remained unchanged.

  7. Magneto-optical properties of α-Fe2O3@ZnO nanocomposites prepared by the high energy ball-milling technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Chandana Roy; Roychowdhury, Anirban; Das, Anusree; Das, Dipankar

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic-fluorescent nanocomposites (NCs) with 10 wt% of α-Fe2O3 in ZnO have been prepared by the high energy ball-milling. The crystallite sizes of α-Fe2O3 and ZnO in the NCs are found to vary from 65 nm to 20 nm and 47 nm to 15 nm respectively as milling time is increased from 2 to 30 h. XRD analysis confirms presence of α-Fe2O3 and ZnO in pure form in all the NCs. UV-vis study of the NCs shows a continuous blue-shift of the absorption peak and a steady increase of band gap of ZnO with increasing milling duration that are assigned to decreasing particle size of ZnO in the NCs. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the NCs reveal three weak emission bands in the visible region at 421, 445 and 485 nm along with the strong near band edge emission at 391 nm. These weak emission bands are attributed to different defect - related energy levels e.g. Zn-vacancy, Zn interstitial and oxygen vacancy. Dc and ac magnetization measurements show presence of weakly interacting superparamagnetic (SPM) α-Fe2O3 particles in the NCs. 57Fe-Mössbauer study confirms presence of SPM hematite in the sample milled for 30 h. Positron annihilation lifetime measurements indicate presence of cation vacancies in ZnO nanostructures confirming results of PL studies.

  8. Real/binary co-operative and co-evolving swarms based multivariable PID controller design of ball mill pulverizing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menhas, Muhammad Ilyas; Fei Minrui; Wang Ling; Qian Lin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We extend the concept of co-operation and co-evolution in some PSO variants. ► We use developed co-operative PSOs in multivariable PID controller design/tuning. ► We find that co-operative PSOs converge faster and give high quality solutions. ► Dividing the search space among swarms improves search efficiency. ► The proposed methods allow the practitioner for heterogeneous problem formulation. - Abstract: In this paper, multivariable PID controller design based on cooperative and coevolving multiple swarms is demonstrated. A simplified multi-variable MIMO process model of a ball mill pulverizing system with steady state decoupler is considered. In order to formulate computational models of cooperative and coevolving multiple swarms three different algorithms like real coded PSO, discrete binary PSO (DBPSO) and probability based discrete binary PSO (PBPSO) are employed. Simulations are carried out on three composite functions simultaneously considering multiple objectives. The cooperative and coevolving multiple swarms based results are compared with the results obtained through single swarm based methods like real coded particle swarm optimization (PSO), discrete binary PSO (DBPSO), and probability based discrete binary PSO (PBPSO) algorithms. The cooperative and coevolving swarms based techniques outperform the real coded PSO, PBPSO, and the standard discrete binary PSO (DBPSO) algorithm in escaping from local optima. Furthermore, statistical analysis of the simulation results is performed to calculate the comparative reliability of various techniques. All of the techniques employed are suitable for controller tuning, however, the multiple cooperative and coevolving swarms based results are considerably better in terms of mean fitness, variance of fitness, and success rate in finding a feasible solution in comparison to those obtained using single swarm based methods.

  9. Effects of surfactant addition and high-speed ball milling on magnetic powders based on Pr-Fe-B obtained by HDDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Patricia Brissi

    2011-01-01

    This work verified the effect caused by adding the surfactant in the high speed/energy milling in order to obtain Pr 12 Fe 65.9 Co 16 B 6 Nb 0.1 magnetic nano powders. The first part of this work involved the magnetic powder obtainment through the process of hydrogenation, disproportionation, desorption and recombination (HDDR). The pressure of H2 during the hydrogenation and disproportion steps was 930 mbar and the temperature of desorption and recombination was 840 deg C. Initially, the HDDR powders were subjected a high speed milling process at 900 rpm, with quantity variations of the milling medium (cyclohexane) and without the addition of oleic acid. Then, the HDDR powders were subjected to the milling process with the addition of oleic acid and with milling time variations. After the milling process, heat treatments of the powder were carried out at 700 deg C or 800 deg C for 30 minutes in order to obtain the crystallization of the powder. By performing the procedures, it was verified that the milling efficiency improved with the addition of 6.6 ml of cyclohexane as the milling medium and with the addition of oleic acid. It was determined that for the surfactant additions of 0.02 ml to 0.05 ml, with a milling time of up to 360 minutes, powder agglomeration does not occur in the milling pot and the milling efficiency is higher than 90%. The second stage of this work involved the magnetic powder's characterization obtained by using vibrating sample magnetometer, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Through the characterizations it was found that the powder's magnetic properties improved when the addition of oleic acid in a high-speed /energy milling occurred. It was also verified that the α-Fe phase, present in the powder, shows a crystallite size decrease (from 35 nm to ∼ 10 nm) when the time milling variation occurred; meanwhile, the crystallinity degree was lower in the Pr 2 Fe 14 B phase when the time

  10. Investigation of physical properties and stability of indomethacin-cimetidine and naproxen-cimetidine co-amorphous systems prepared by quench cooling, coprecipitation and ball milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Ai Wei; Löbmann, Korbinian; Grohganz, Holger

    2016-01-01

    the samples. Structural relaxation (i.e. molecular mobility) behaviour was obtained from the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) relationship. KEY FINDINGS: A glass transition temperature (Tg ), on average 20 °C higher than the predicted Tg (calculated from the Fox equation), was observed in all samples....... The structural relaxation was dependent on the preparative methods. At a storage temperature of 40 °C, a comparatively higher molecular mobility was observed in indomethacin-cimetidine samples prepared by ball milling (ln τ(β) = 0.8), while similar molecular mobility was found for the same sample prepared...... by quench cooling (ln τ(β) = 2.4) and co-evaporation (ln τ(β) = 2.5). In contrast, molecular mobility of the naproxen-cimetidine samples followed the order co-evaporation (ln τ(β) = 0.8), quench cooling (ln τ(β) = 1.6) and ball milling (ln τ(β) = 1.8). CONCLUSION: The estimated relaxation times by the DSC...

  11. Synthesis of stoichiometric Ca{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanoparticles by high-energy ball milling and thermal annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, B.F.; Morales, M.A.; Bohn, F.; Carriço, A.S. [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil); Medeiros, S.N. de, E-mail: sndemedeiros@gmail.com [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil); Dantas, A.L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, 59610-210 Mossoró, RN (Brazil)

    2016-05-01

    We report the synthesis of Ca{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanoparticles by high-energy ball milling and thermal annealing from α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaCO{sub 3}. Magnetization measurements, Mössbauer and X-ray spectra reveal that annealing at high temperatures leads to better quality samples. Our results indicate nanoparticles produced by 10 h high-energy ball milling and thermal annealing for 2 h at 1100 °C achieve improved stoichiometry and the full weak ferromagnetic signal of Ca{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 5}. Samples annealed at lower temperatures show departure from stoichiometry, with a higher occupancy of Fe{sup 3+} in octahedral sites, and a reduced magnetization. Thermal relaxation for temperatures in the 700–1100 °C range is well represented by a Néel model, assuming a random orientation of the weak ferromagnetic moment of the Ca{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanoparticles.

  12. Microstructures and Dehydrogenation Properties of Ball-milled MgH2-K2Ti6O13-Ni Composite Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Jian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The K2Ti6O13 whisker separate-doped and K2Ti6O13 whisker and Ni powder multi-doped MgH2 hydrogen storage composite systems were prepared by mechanical milling method. The microstructures and dehydrogenation properties of the prepared samples were characterized by some testing methods such as X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC. The results show that the K2Ti6O13 whisker not only plays the roles in refining the MgH2 crystalline grain, but also inhibit the agglomeration of MgH2 particles in K2Ti6O13 whisker separate-doped system, which results in the decreased dehydrogenation temperature of MgH2 matrix. When the mass ratio of K2Ti6O13 to MgH2 is 3:7, the improvement effect on dehydrogenation properties of MgH2 is the most remarkable. As compared with pure ball-milled MgH2, the dehydrogenation temperature of MgH2 in K2Ti6O13 whisker separate-doped system is decreased by nearly 75℃. For K2Ti6O13 whisker and Ni powder multi-dopedsystem, the dehydrogenation temperature of MgH2 matrix is further decreased compared to K2Ti6O13 whisker separate-doped one due to the dual effects of refined MgH2 crystalline grain by K2Ti6O13 whisker and destabilized MgH2 lattice by Ni solution. As compared with pure ball-milled MgH2, the dehydrogenation temperature of MgH2 in K2Ti6O13 whisker and Ni powder multi-doped system is decreased by nearly 87℃.

  13. Study of the aluminothermic reduction of niobium pentoxide through thermal analysis experiments and high energy milling processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Parra De Lazzari

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminothermic reduction of niobium pentoxide was studied through thermal analysis techniques such as differential thermal analysis (DTA and thermogravimetry (TG as well as through high energy milling processing. Reactants mixtures were composed by powders of Nb2O5 and Al. In the case of DTA-TG experiments, different molar ratios Nb2O5:Al were heated in a dynamic atmosphere of synthetic air under controlled conditions. The high energy milling runs were carried out via SPEX vibratory mill under argon atmosphere and with milling power equal to 7:1 (ratio of mass of balls to mass of mixture with 10 pct excess of Al over the stoichiometric mass of aluminum necessary. In both kinds of experiments, X ray diffraction was used in order to identify the products of reaction. From DTA-TG experiments, it was possible to determine the experimental value of the enthalpy change (-595.9 kJ.mol-1, which is near to the theoretical one. From the milling experiments, it was possible to verify the possibility of the occurance of aluminothermic reducion of niobium pentoxide via this kind of processing.

  14. Crystallographic alignment evolution and magnetic properties of anisotropic Sm{sub 0.6}Pr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 5} nanoflakes prepared by surfactant-assisted ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, M.L.; Wu, Q.; Li, Y.Q.; Liu, W.Q.; Lu, Q.M.; Yue, M., E-mail: yueming@bjut.edu.cn

    2015-08-01

    The microstructure, crystal structure and magnetic properties were studied for Sm{sub 0.6}Pr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 5} nanoflakes prepared by surfactant-assisted high-energy ball milling (SAHEBM). Effect of ball-milling time on the c-axis crystallographic alignment, morphology and magnetic properties of Sm{sub 0.6}Pr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 5} nanoflakes was systematically investigated. With increasing milling time from 1 h to 7 h, the intensity ratio between (002) and (111) reflection peaks indicating degree of c-axis crystal texture of the (Sm, Pr)Co{sub 5} phase increases first, peaks at 3 h, then drops again, revealing that the strongest c-axis crystal texture was obtained in the nanoflakes milled for 3 h. On the other hand, the coercivity (H{sub ci}) of the flakes increases gradually from 1.71 to 14.65 kOe with the increase of ball milling time. As a result, an optimal magnetic properties of M{sub r} of 10.23 kGs, H{sub ci} of 11.45 kOe and (BH){sub max} of 24.40 MGOe was obtained in Sm{sub 0.6}Pr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 5} nanoflakes milled for 3 h, which also displayed a high aspect ratio, small in-plane size, pronounced (001) out-of-plane texture. - Highlights: • Anisotropic Sm{sub 0.6}Pr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 5} nanoflakes with strong c-axis texture were prepared. • Effects of ball-milling time on structure and magnetic properties were studied. • (BH){sub max} value of Sm{sub 0.6}Pr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 5} nanoflakes is larger than that of SmCo{sub 5} nanoflakes.

  15. Optimization of CNC end milling process parameters using PCA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of CNC end milling process parameters using PCA-based Taguchi method. ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... To meet the basic assumption of Taguchi method; in the present work, individual response correlations have been eliminated first by means of Principal Component ...

  16. Phase transformation and magnetic properties of MnAl powders prepared by elemental-doping and salt-assisted ball milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hui-Dong; Si, Ping-Zhan; Choi, Chul-Jin; Park, Jihoon; Cho, Kyung Mox

    2018-05-01

    The effects of elemental doping of Si and Fe on the ɛ→τ phase transformation and the magnetic properties of MnAl were studied. The magnetic powders of Si- and Fe-doped MnAl were prepared by using induction melting followed by water-quenching, annealing, and salt-assisted ball-milling. The Fe-doped MnAl powders are mainly composed of the L10-structured τ-phase, while the Si-doped MnAl are composed of τ-phase and a small fraction of γ2- and β-phases. A unique thin leaves-like morphology with thickness of several tens of nanometers and diameter size up to 500 nm were observed in the Si-doped MnAl powders. The Fe-doped MnAl powders show irregular shape with much larger dimensions in the range from several to 10 μm. The morphology difference of the samples was ascribed to the variation of the mechanical properties affected by different doping elements. The phase transformation temperatures of the ɛ-phase of the samples were measured. The doping of Fe decreases the onset temperature of the massive phase transformation in MnAl, while the Si-doping increases the massive phase transformation temperature. Both Fe and Si increase the Curie temperature of MnAl. A substantially enhanced coercivity up to 0.45 T and 0.42 T were observed in the ball-milled MnAl powders doped with Si and Fe, respectively.

  17. Future CO2 removal from pulp mills - Process integration consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hektor, Erik; Berntsson, Thore

    2007-01-01

    Earlier work has shown that capturing the CO 2 from flue gases in the recovery boiler at a pulp mill can be a cost-effective way of reducing mill CO 2 emissions. However, the CO 2 capture cost is very dependent on the fuel price. In this paper, the potential for reducing the need for external fuel and thereby the possibility to reduce the cost for capturing the CO 2 are investigated. The reduction is achieved by using thermal process integration. In alternative 1, the mill processes are integrated and a steam surplus made available for CO 2 capture, but still there is a need for external fuel. In alternative 2, the integration is taken one step further, the reboiler is fed with MP steam, and the heat of absorption from the absorption unit is used for generation of LP steam needed at the mill. The avoidance costs are in both cases lower than before the process integration. The avoidance cost in alternative 1 varies between 25.4 and 30.7 EUR/tonne CO 2 depending on the energy market parameters. For alternative 2, the cost varies between 22.5 and 27.2 EUR/tonne CO 2 . With tough CO 2 reduction targets and correspondingly high CO 2 emission costs, the annual earnings can be substantial, 18.6 MEUR with alternative 1 and 21.2 MEUR with alternative 2

  18. Formation of ultra-fine grained SUS316L steels by ball-milling and their mechanical properties after neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Y.J.; Yamasaki, T.; Fukami, T.; Terasawa, M.; Mitamura, T.

    2003-01-01

    In order to overcome the irradiation embrittlement in austenitic stainless steels, ultra-fine grained SUS316L steels with very fine TiC particles have been developed. The SUS316L-TiC nanocomposite powders having 1.0 to 2.0 mass% TiC were prepared by ball-milling SUS316L-TiC powder mixtures for 125 h in an argon gas atmosphere. The milled powders were consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) under a pressure of 200 MPa at temperatures between 700 and 1000 C, and the bulk materials with grain sizes between 100 and 400 nm have been produced. The possibility of using fine-grained TiC particles to pin grain boundaries and thereby maintain the ultra-fine grained structures has been discussed. In order to clarify the effects of the neutron irradiation on mechanical properties of the ultra-fine grained SUS316L steels, Vickers microhardness measurements were performed before and after the irradiation of 1.14 x 10 23 n/m 2 and 1.14 x 10 24 n/m 2 . The hardness increased with increasing the dose of the irradiation. However, these increasing rates of the ultra-fine grained steels were much smaller than those of the coarse-grained SUS316L steels having grain sizes between 13 and 50 μm. (orig.)

  19. Mathematical modelling and numerical simulation of forces in milling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turai, Bhanu Murthy; Satish, Cherukuvada; Prakash Marimuthu, K.

    2018-04-01

    Machining of the material by milling induces forces, which act on the work piece material, tool and which in turn act on the machining tool. The forces involved in milling process can be quantified, mathematical models help to predict these forces. A lot of research has been carried out in this area in the past few decades. The current research aims at developing a mathematical model to predict forces at different levels which arise machining of Aluminium6061 alloy. Finite element analysis was used to develop a FE model to predict the cutting forces. Simulation was done for varying cutting conditions. Different experiments was designed using Taguchi method. A L9 orthogonal array was designed and the output was measure for the different experiments. The same was used to develop the mathematical model.

  20. Modelling Of Residual Stresses Induced By High Speed Milling Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmaison, Olivier; Mocellin, Katia; Jardin, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Maintenance processes used in heavy industries often include high speed milling operations. The reliability of the post-process material state has to be studied. Numerical simulation appears to be a very interesting way to supply an efficient residual stresses (RS) distribution prediction.Because the adiabatic shear band and the serrated chip shaping are features of the austenitic stainless steel high speed machining, a 2D high speed orthogonal cutting model is briefly presented. This finite element model, developed on Forge registered software, is based on data taken from Outeiro and al.'s paper [1]. A new behaviour law fully coupling Johnson-Cook's constitutive law and Latham and Cockcroft's damage model is detailed in this paper. It ensures results that fit those found in literature.Then, the numerical tools used on the 2D model are integrated to a 3D high speed milling model. Residual stresses distribution is analysed, on the surface and into the depth of the material. Various revolutions and passes of the two teeth hemispheric mill on the workpiece are simulated. Thus the sensitivity of the residual stresses generation to the cutting conditions can be discussed. In order to validate the 3D model, a comparison of the cutting forces measured by EDF R and D to those given by numerical simulations is achieved.

  1. A Mössbauer and magnetic study of ball milled Fe-doped ZnO Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora, Ligia E., E-mail: ligia.zamora@correounivalle.edu.co; Paz, J. C.; Piamba, J. F.; Tabares, J. A.; Alcázar, G. A. Pérez [Universidad del Valle, Departamento de física (Colombia)

    2015-06-15

    The structural and magnetic properties of Fe-doped ZnO are reported in this study, as obtained by mechanical alloying from elemental powders of ZnO and Fe. The properties of Zn{sub 0.90}Fe{sub 0.10}O samples alloying while varying the milling time (6, 12, 24 and 36 h) are also reported. The Rietveld refinement of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns revealed that the system presents two structures: the würtzite structure of ZnO and the bcc structure of α-Fe. The Mössbauer spectra show that the samples present three components: a ferromagnetic component, associated with the Fe phase and two paramagnetic components, associated with the Fe atoms, which penetrate inside the ZnO matrix behaving as Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+}. The milling time contributes to an increase in the paramagnetic sites, and a solubility limit of the Fe atoms in the ZnO lattice was detected. The VSM measurements at room temperature detected ferromagnetic behavior with a saturation magnetization of 11 emu/g and a coercive field of 330 Oe for the sample alloyed over 24 h. A similar behavior was shown by the other samples.

  2. Efek Waktu Wet Milling dan Suhu Annealing Terhadap Sifat Fisis, Mikrostruktur dan Magnet dari Flakes NdFeB

    OpenAIRE

    Sipahutar, Wahyu Solafide

    2015-01-01

    Had made research manufacture NdFeB magnets of flakes of wet milling process using a ball mill to the physic properties, microstructure, and magnetic properties with variations milling time is 16 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours. Powder result of mechanical milling using a ball mill and then analyzed the resulting particle size by using PSA and XRD. Then do the manufacture of test samples in the form of pellets by compaction process through print isotropy. Having obtained a sample of pelle...

  3. Magnetic properties of Co{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by starch-assisted sol–gel autocombustion method and its ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Raghvendra Singh, E-mail: yadav@fch.vutbr.cz [Materials Research Centre, Brno University of Technology, Purkyňova 464/118, 61200 Brno (Czech Republic); Havlica, Jaromir [Materials Research Centre, Brno University of Technology, Purkyňova 464/118, 61200 Brno (Czech Republic); Hnatko, Miroslav; Šajgalík, Pavol [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, SK-845 36 Bratislava (Slovakia); Alexander, Cigáň [Institute of Measurement Science, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, SK-841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Palou, Martin; Bartoníčková, Eva; Boháč, Martin; Frajkorová, Františka; Masilko, Jiri; Zmrzlý, Martin; Kalina, Lukas; Hajdúchová, Miroslava; Enev, Vojtěch [Materials Research Centre, Brno University of Technology, Purkyňova 464/118, 61200 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2015-03-15

    In this article, Co{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x=0.0 and 0.5) spinel ferrite nanoparticles were achieved at 800 °C by starch-assisted sol–gel autocombustion method. To further reduce the particle size, these synthesized ferrite nanoparticles were ball-milled for 2 h. X-ray diffraction patterns demonstrated single phase formation of Co{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x=0.0 and 0.5) spinel ferrite nanoparticles. FE-SEM analysis indicated the nanosized spherical particles formation with spherical morphology. The change in Raman modes and relative intensity were observed due to ball milling and consequently decrease of particle size and cationic redistribution. An X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) result indicated that Co{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} exist in octahedral and tetrahedral sites. The cationic redistribution of Zn{sup 2+} and consequently Fe{sup 3+} occurred between octahedral and tetrahedral sites after ball-milling. The change in saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) and coercivity (H{sub c}) with decrease of nanocrystalline size and distribution of cations in spinel ferrite were observed. - Highlights: • Co{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel ferrite nanoparticles. • Starch-assisted sol–gel auto-combustion method. • Effect of ball-milling on particle size and cation distribution. • Magnetic property dependent on cations and particle size.

  4. The synthesis of Cu/Fe/Fe3O4 catalyst through the aqueous solution ball milling method assisted by high-frequency electromagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingzhe, Zhang; Yuxing, He; Qingdong, Qin; Fuchun, Wang; Wankun, Wang; Yongmei, Luo

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, nano-magnetic Cu/Fe/Fe3O4 catalyst was prepared by a new aqueous solution ball milling method assisted by high-frequency electromagnetic field at room temperature. The products were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Microwave induced catalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) was carried out in the presence of Cu/Fe/Fe3O4. The concentration of methylene blue was determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The solid catalyst showed high catalytic activity of degrade MB and considerable saturation magnetization, lower remanence and coercivity. It indicate that the catalyst can be effectively separated for reuse by simply applying an external magnetic field and it can greatly promote their potential industrial application to eliminate organic pollutants from waste-water. Finally, we found that it is the non-thermal effect of microwave that activated the catalytic activity of Cu/Fe/Fe3O4 to degrade MB.

  5. Magnetic interactions in high-energy ball-milled NiZnFe2O4/SiO2 composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozo Lopez, G.; Silvetti, S.P.; Urreta, S.E.; Cabanillas, E.D.

    2007-01-01

    Composites Ni 0.5 Zn 0.5 Fe 2 O 4 /SiO 2 are obtained after high-energy ball milling precursor oxides, in stoichiometric proportions, for 200 h at room temperature and further isothermal annealing for 1 h at 1273 K, under air and argon atmosphere, respectively. After 200 h grinding, a complex microstructure develops with small hematite crystals mixed with SiO 2 and remanent NiO and ZnO particles, and very small NiZn ferrite clusters, reaching a mean size of ∼9 nm. The high temperature treatments remove the hematite grains from the powder and promote the growth of NiZn ferrite grains to reach mean sizes nearly ∼20 nm. For treatments in oxidizing atmospheres, the major phases are SiO 2 and NiZn ferrite, while for annealing in Ar a new phase appears, fayalite, which is paramagnetic at room temperature. The M-H loops are all well described by the sum of a ferromagnetic and a superparamagnetic-like contribution. The observed properties are interpreted considering the different magnetic phases obtained, their crystal sizes and their mutual interactions

  6. Non-isothermal synergetic catalytic effect of TiF{sub 3} and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} on dehydrogenation high-energy ball milled MgH{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tiebang, E-mail: tiebangzhang@nwpu.edu.cn; Hou, Xiaojiang; Hu, Rui; Kou, Hongchao; Li, Jinshan

    2016-11-01

    MgH{sub 2}-M (M = TiF{sub 3} or Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} or both of them) composites prepared by high-energy ball milling are used in this work to illustrate the dehydrogenation behavior of MgH{sub 2} with the addition of catalysts. The phase compositions, microstructures, particle morphologies and distributions of MgH{sub 2} with catalysts have been evaluated. The non-isothermal synergetic catalytic-dehydrogenation effect of TiF{sub 3} and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry gives the evidences that the addition of catalysts is an effective strategy to destabilize MgH{sub 2} and reduce hydrogen desorption temperatures and activation energies. Depending on additives, the desorption peak temperatures of catalyzed MgH{sub 2} reduce from 417 °C to 341 °C for TiF{sub 3} and from 417 °C to 336 °C for Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, respectively. The desorption peak temperature reaches as low as 310 °C for MgH{sub 2} catalyzed by TiF{sub 3} coupling with Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The non-isothermal synergetic catalytic effect of TiF{sub 3} and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} is mainly attributed to electronic exchange reactions with hydrogen molecules, which improve the recombination of hydrogen atoms during dehydrogenation process of MgH{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Catalytic surface for MgH{sub 2} is achieved by high-energy ball milling. • Non-isothermal dehydrogenation behavior of MgH{sub 2} with TiF{sub 3} and/or Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} is illustrated. • Dehydrogenation activation energies of synergetic catalyzed MgH{sub 2} are obtained. • Synergetic catalytic-dehydrogenation mechanism of TiF{sub 3} and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} is proposed.

  7. Nanograin formation in milled MoO3 powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero-Paz, J; Dorantes-Rosales, H; Aguilar-Martínez, J A; Garibay-Febles, V

    2013-01-01

    Powder of Molybdenum trioxide was milled for different times in horizontal ball mills. Such powder was characterized by TEM and XRD. Powder was rapidly de-agglomerated and fragmented up to attain nanoplates of two types, amorphous and crystalline. Finally, cold-welding of nanoplates occurred permitting some relaxation process to obtain a more stable energized structure consisting of equiaxial crystalline nanograins after 16 hours of milling.

  8. Optimization of the Enzymatic Saccharification Process of Milled Orange Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Velasco

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Orange juice production generates a very high quantity of residues (Orange Peel Waste or OPW-50–60% of total weight that can be used for cattle feed as well as feedstock for the extraction or production of essential oils, pectin and nutraceutics and several monosaccharides by saccharification, inversion and enzyme-aided extraction. As in all solid wastes, simple pretreatments can enhance these processes. In this study, hydrothermal pretreatments and knife milling have been analyzed with enzyme saccharification at different dry solid contents as the selection test: simple knife milling seemed more appropriate, as no added pretreatment resulted in better final glucose yields. A Taguchi optimization study on dry solid to liquid content and the composition of the enzymatic cocktail was undertaken. The amounts of enzymatic preparations were set to reduce their impact on the economy of the process; however, as expected, the highest amounts resulted in the best yields to glucose and other monomers. Interestingly, the highest content in solid to liquid (11.5% on dry basis rendered the best yields. Additionally, in search for process economy with high yields, operational conditions were set: medium amounts of hemicellulases, polygalacturonases and β-glucosidases. Finally, a fractal kinetic modelling of results for all products from the saccharification process indicated very high activities resulting in the liberation of glucose, fructose and xylose, and very low activities to arabinose and galactose. High activity on pectin was also observed, but, for all monomers liberated initially at a fast rate, high hindrances appeared during the saccharification process.

  9. Study of the influence of thermal treatment on the magnetic properties of lithium ferrite prepared by wet ball-milling using nitrates as raw material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, S. Soreto, E-mail: silvia.soreto@ua.pt; Graça, M.P.F., E-mail: mpfg@ua.pt; Costa, L.C., E-mail: kady@ua.pt; Valente, M.A., E-mail: mav@ua.pt

    2014-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The saturation magnetization increases with heat-treatment temperature until 1200 °C. • 1200 °C sample presents, at 5 K, a magnetic moment of 73 emu/g and 66 emu/g at 300 K. • Heat-treatment promotes the formation of lithium ferrate and hematite, decreasing the magnetic moment. - Abstract: Lithium ferrite (LiFe{sub 5}O{sub 8}) is an attractive material for several potential technological applications. Critical to such attractiveness are its physical properties, such as high Curie temperature, square hysteresis loop and high magnetization. Knowing that the properties of these crystals depend on the preparation method and raw materials, in this work LiFe{sub 5}O{sub 8} crystallites were obtained by controlled heat-treatments, between 200 and 1400 °C, of homogeneous Li{sub 2}O-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders prepared by wet ball-milling method and using lithium and iron nitrates as raw materials. LiFe{sub 5}O{sub 8} crystal phase was formed through heat-treatments at temperatures above 500 °C. At higher temperatures the formation of lithium ferrate and hematite is promoted, leading to a decrease in the magnetic moment. Heat-treated the sample at 1200 °C results in the highest levels of magnetic saturation, presenting a magnetic moment of 73 emu/g at 5 K and 66 emu/g at 300 K, respectively.

  10. Processes for extracting radium from uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nirdosh, I.; Baird, M.H.; Muthuswami, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a process for the extraction of radium from uranium mill tailings solids including the steps of contacting the tailings with a liquid leaching agent, leaching the tailings therewith and subsequently separating the leachate liquid and the leached solids. The improvement described here is wherein the leaching agent comprises: (a) a complexing agent in an amount of from 2 to 10 times the stoichiometric amount needed to complex the metal ions to be removed thereby from the tailings; and (b) a reducing agent reducing the hydrolysable ions of the metal ions to be removed to their lower oxidation states, the reduction agent being present in an amount from 2 to 10 times the stoichiometric amount needed for reducing the hydrolysable metals present in the tailings

  11. Converting the Key Lake mill process for McArthur River ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, C. [McArthur River Operation, Cameco Corporation, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The Key Lake mill was commissioned in 1983 to process the two Key Lake ore deposits. With the depletion of these ore bodies in 1999, the plant was converted to mill the exceptionally rich McArthur River deposit located seventy eight kilometers northeast of the Key Lake mine site. This paper describes in detail the Key Lake milling process. The mill consists of a grinding circuit, a leach/counter current decantation circuit, a solvent extraction circuit, a yellowcake precipitation/calciner circuit, an ammonium sulphate crystallization circuit, and a waste treatment circuit. The paper also describes process changes to handle McArthur River ore, including the ore receiving station. (author)

  12. Mathematical modeling of olive mill waste composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadou, Ioanna A; Muktadirul Bari Chowdhury, Abu Khayer Md; Akratos, Christos S; Tekerlekopoulou, Athanasia G; Pavlou, Stavros; Vayenas, Dimitrios V

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed at developing an integrated mathematical model for the composting process of olive mill waste. The multi-component model was developed to simulate the composting of three-phase olive mill solid waste with olive leaves and different materials as bulking agents. The modeling system included heat transfer, organic substrate degradation, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, water content change, and biological processes. First-order kinetics were used to describe the hydrolysis of insoluble organic matter, followed by formation of biomass. Microbial biomass growth was modeled with a double-substrate limitation by hydrolyzed available organic substrate and oxygen using Monod kinetics. The inhibitory factors of temperature and moisture content were included in the system. The production and consumption of nitrogen and phosphorous were also included in the model. In order to evaluate the kinetic parameters, and to validate the model, six pilot-scale composting experiments in controlled laboratory conditions were used. Low values of hydrolysis rates were observed (0.002841/d) coinciding with the high cellulose and lignin content of the composting materials used. Model simulations were in good agreement with the experimental results. Sensitivity analysis was performed and the modeling efficiency was determined to further evaluate the model predictions. Results revealed that oxygen simulations were more sensitive on the input parameters of the model compared to those of water, temperature and insoluble organic matter. Finally, the Nash and Sutcliff index (E), showed that the experimental data of insoluble organic matter (E>0.909) and temperature (E>0.678) were better simulated than those of water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Performance of Disk Mill Type Mechanical Grinder for Size Reducing Process of Robusta Roasted Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mulato

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One of improtant steps in secondary coffee processing that influence on final product quality such as consistency and uniformity is milling process. Usually, Indonesian smallholder used "lumpang" for milling coffee roasted beans to coffee powder product which caused the final product not uniformed and consistent, and low productivity. Milling process of coffee roasted beans can be done by disk mill type mechanical grinder which is used by smallholder for milling several cereals. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute have developed disk mill type grinding machine for milling coffee roasted beans. Objective of this research is to find performance of disk mill type grinding machine for size reducing process of Robusta roasted beans from several size dried beans and roasting level treatments. Robusta dried beans which are taken from dry processing method have 13—14% moisture content (wet basis, 680—685 kg/m3 density, and classified in 3 sizes level. The result showed that the disk mill type of grinding machine could be used for milling Robusta roasted beans. Machine hascapacity 31—54 kg/h on 5,310—5,610 rpm axle rotation and depend on roasting level. Other technical parameters were 91—98% process efficientcy, 19—31 ml/ kg fuel consumption, 0.3—1% slips, 50—55% particles had diameter less than 230 mesh and 38—44% particles had diameter bigger than 100 mesh, 32—38% lightness was increased, 0.6—12.6% density was decreased, and solubility of coffee powder between 28—30%. Cost milling process per kilogram of Robusta roasted beans which light roast on capacity 30 kg/hour was Rp362.9. Key words : Coffee roasted, Robusta, disk mill, mechanical grinder, size reduction.

  14. In situ Fabrication of Fe-TiB{sub 2} Nanocomposite Powder by Planetary Ball Milling and Subsequent Heat-treatment of FeB and TiH{sub 2} Powder Mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, Xuan-Khoa [Hanoi Uneversity of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Bae, Sun-Woo; Kim, Ji Soon [University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Fe-TiB{sub 2} powder was synthesized in-situ by the planetary ball milling and subsequent heat-treatment of an iron boride (FeB) and titanium hydride (TiH{sub 2}) powder mixture. Mechanical activation of the (FeB+TiH{sub 2}) powder mixtures was observed after a milling time of 3 hours at 700 rpm of rotation speed, but activation was not the same after 1 hour milling time. The particle size of the (FeB+ TiH{sub 2}) powder mixture was reduced to the nanometer scale, and each constituent was homogeneously distributed. A sharp exothermic peak was observed at a lower temperature (749 ℃) on the DSC curves for the (FeB+TiH{sub 2}) powder mixture milled for 3 hours, compared to the one milled for 1 hour (774 ℃). These peaks were confirmed to have resulted from the formation reaction of the TiB{sub 2} phase, from Ti and B elements in the FeB. The Fe-TiB{sub 2} composite powder fabricated in situ exhibited only two phases of Fe and TiB{sub 2} with homogeneous distribution. The size of the TiB{sub 2} particulates in the Fe matrix was less than 5 nm.

  15. Moessbauer spectroscopy study of the synthesis of SnFe2O4 by high energy ball milling (HEBM) of SnO and α-Fe2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uwakweh, Oswald N C; Perez Moyet, Richard; Mas, Rita; Morales, Carolyn; Vargas, Pedro; Silva, Josue; Rossa, Angel; Lopez, Neshma

    2010-01-01

    The formation of single phase nanoparticles of spinel structured ferrite, SnFe 2 O 4 , by mechanochemical syntheses using HEBM of stoichiometric amounts of solid SnO and α-Fe 2 O 3 with acetone as surfactant was achieved progressively as function of ball milling time. Single phase SnFe 2 O 4 formation commenced from five hours of continuous ball milling, and reached completion after 22 hours, thereby yielding a material with a lattice parameter of 8.543 A, and particle size of 10.91 nm. The coercivity was 4.44 mT, magnetic saturation value of 17.75 Am 2 /kg, and remanent magnetizations of 1.50 Am 2 /kg, correspondingly. The nanosized particles exhibited superparamagnetic behavior phenomenon based on Moessbauer spectroscopy measurements. The kinetic analyses based on the modified Kissinger method yielded four characteristic stages during the thermal evolution of the 22 hours milled state with activation energies of 0.23 kJ/mol, 2.52 kJ/mol, 0.024 kJ/mol, and 1.57 kJ/mol respectively.

  16. Synthesis of ferrite nanoparticle by milling process for preparation of single domain magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryadi; Hasbiyallah; Agus S W; Nurul TR; Budhy Kurniawan

    2009-01-01

    Study of ferrite nanoparticle synthesis for preparation of single domain magnet by milling of scrap magnet material have been done. Sample preparation were done using disk mill continued with high energy milling (HEM). Some powder were taken after 5, 10 dan 20 hours milling using HEM-E3D. The powder were then characterized using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). XRF characterization result, confirmed by XRD analysis result, showed that the sample are of Strontium ferrite phase. Microstructure analysis result showed the occurrence of grain refining process of ferrite particle with increasing of milling time. Particle having size of nanometers successfully obtained, although in unhomogeneous distribution. Magnetic properties characterization result showed the increasing of hysteresis curve area of sample for longer milling time and sintering process. (author)

  17. Ball clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Part of the 2000 annual review of the industrial minerals sector. A general overview of the ball clay industry is provided. In 2000, sales of ball clay reached record levels, with sanitary ware and tile applications accounting for the largest sales. Ball clay production, consumption, prices, foreign trade, and industry news are summarized. The outlook for the ball clay industry is also outlined.

  18. Treatment of olive mill wastewater by the combination of ultrafiltration and bipolar electrochemical reactor processes

    KAUST Repository

    Yahiaoui, O.; Lounici, Hakim; Abdi, Nadia; Drouiche, Nadjib; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Pauss, André ; Mameri, Nabil

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the removal of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) from olive mill wastewater (OMW) by the combination of ultrafiltration with electrocoagulation process. Ultrafiltration process equipped with CERAVER

  19. The Influence of Milling on the Dissolution Performance of Simvastatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Rades

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Particle size reduction is a simple means to enhance the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble BCS-class II and IV drugs. However, the major drawback of this process is the possible introduction of process induced disorder. Drugs with different molecular arrangements may exhibit altered properties such as solubility and dissolution rate and, therefore, process induced solid state modifications need to be monitored. The aim of this study was two-fold: firstly, to investigate the dissolution rates of milled and unmilled simvastatin; and secondly, to screen for the main milling factors, as well as factor interactions in a dry ball milling process using simvastatin as model drug, and to optimize the milling procedure with regard to the opposing responses particle size and process induced disorder by application of a central composite face centered design. Particle size was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and image analysis. Process induced disorder was determined by partial least squares (PLS regression modeling of respective X-ray powder diffractograms (XRPD and Raman spectra. Valid and significant quadratic models were built. The investigated milling factors were milling frequency, milling time and ball quantity at a set drug load, out of which milling frequency was found to be the most important factor for particle size as well as process induced disorder. Milling frequency and milling time exhibited an interaction effect on the responses. The optimum milling settings using the maximum number of milling balls (60 balls with 4 mm diameter was determined to be at a milling frequency of 21 Hz and a milling time of 36 min with a resulting primary particle size of 1.4 μm and a process induced disorder of 6.1% (assessed by Raman spectroscopy and 8.4% (assessed by XRPD, at a set optimization limit of < 2 μm for particle size and < 10% for process induced disorder. This optimum was tested experimentally and the process induced disorder

  20. 29 CFR 788.11 - “Transporting [such] products to the mill, processing plant, railroad, or other transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âTransporting [such] products to the mill, processing plant... EMPLOYED § 788.11 “Transporting [such] products to the mill, processing plant, railroad, or other transportation terminal.” The transportation or movement of logs or other forestry products to a “mill processing...

  1. C, N co-doped TiO_2/TiC_0_._7N_0_._3 composite coatings prepared from TiC_0_._7N_0_._3 powder using ball milling followed by oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Liang; Wang, Zhenwei; Zheng, Yaoqing; Li, Qianqian; Guan, Sujun; Zhao, Qian; Cheng, Lijun; Lu, Yun; Liu, Jizi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO_2/TiC_0_._7N_0_._3 coatings were prepared by ball milling followed by oxidation. • In situ co-doping of C and N with simultaneous TiO_2 formation was observed. • Improved photocatalytic activity under UV/visible light was noticed. • Synergism in co-doping and heterojunction formation promoted carrier separation. - Abstract: Ball milling followed by heat oxidation was used to prepared C, N co-doped TiO_2 coatings on the surfaces of Al_2O_3 balls from TiC_0_._7N_0_._3 powder. The as-prepared coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer (UV–vis). The results show that continuous TiC_0_._7N_0_._3 coatings were formed after ball milling. C, N co-doped TiO_2/TiC_0_._7N_0_._3 composite coatings were prepared after the direct oxidization of TiC_0_._7N_0_._3 coatings in the atmosphere. However, TiO_2 was hardly formed in the surface layer of TiC_0_._7N_0_._3 coatings within a depth less than 10 nm during the heat oxidation of TiC_0_._7N_0_._3 coatings in carbon powder. Meanwhile, the photocatalytic activity evaluation of these coatings was conducted under the irradiation of UV and visible light. All the coatings showed photocatalytic activity in the degradation of MB no matter under the irradiation of UV or visible light. The C, N co-doped TiO_2/TiC_0_._7N_0_._3 composite coatings showed the most excellent performance. The enhancement under visible light irradiation should attribute to the co-doping of carbon and nitrogen, which enhances the absorption of visible light. The improvement of photocatalytic activity under UV irradiation should attribute to the synergistic effect of C, N co-doping, the formation of rutile-anatase mixed phases and the TiO_2/TiC_0_._7N_0_._3 composite microstructure.

  2. Experimental Study on Meso-Scale Milling Process Using Nanofluid Minimum Quantity Lubrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P. H.; Nam, T. S.; Li, Cheng Jun; Lee, S. W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper present the characteristics of micro- and meso-scale milling processes in which compressed cold air, minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) and MoS 2 nanofluid MQL are used. For process characterization, the micro and meso-scale milling experiments are conducted using desktop meso-scale machine tool system and the surface roughness is measured. The experimental results show that the use of compressed chilly air and nanofluid MQL in the micro- and meso-scale milling processes is effective in improving the surface finish

  3. Evaluation of optical functional surfaces on the injection moulding insert by micro milling process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Dongya; Davoudinejad, Ali; Zhang, Yang

    2017-01-01

    This study presents the optimization of micro milling process for manufacturing injection moulding inserts with an optical functionalsurface. The objective is the optimal surface functionality. Micro ridges were used as the microstructures to realize the function to generate contrast between...

  4. Modification of medium-range order in silica glass by ball-milling: real- and reciprocal-space structural correlations for the first sharp diffraction peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Akira; Kohara, Shinji; Uchino, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    We have carried out high-energy x-ray diffraction measurements on mechanically milled silica glass. It has been found that the first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) in the structure factor S(Q) of silica glass appreciably decreases in intensity as a result of mechanical milling, whereas the observed features of the other peaks in S(Q) almost remain unchanged. The corresponding real-space correlation function of the milled samples shows a marked decrease in intensity at r∼5 A. This gives an experimental manifestation that the dominant real-space structural correlation pertaining to the FSDP occurs at r∼5 A

  5. Modification of medium-range order in silica glass by ball-milling: real- and reciprocal-space structural correlations for the first sharp diffraction peak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukai, Akira [Department of Chemistry, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Kohara, Shinji [SPring-8, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Uchino, Takashi [Department of Chemistry, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2007-11-14

    We have carried out high-energy x-ray diffraction measurements on mechanically milled silica glass. It has been found that the first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) in the structure factor S(Q) of silica glass appreciably decreases in intensity as a result of mechanical milling, whereas the observed features of the other peaks in S(Q) almost remain unchanged. The corresponding real-space correlation function of the milled samples shows a marked decrease in intensity at r{approx}5 A. This gives an experimental manifestation that the dominant real-space structural correlation pertaining to the FSDP occurs at r{approx}5 A.

  6. Powder production of U-Mo alloy, HMD process (Hydriding- Milling- Dehydriding)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqualini, E. E.; Garcia, J.H.; Lopez, M.; Cabanillas, E.; Adelfang, P. [Dept. Combustibles Nucleares. Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2002-07-01

    Uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) alloys can be hydrided massively in metastable {gamma} (gamma) phase. The brittle hydride can be milled and dehydrided to acquire the desired size distributions needed for dispersion nuclear fuels. The developments of the different steps of this process called hydriding-milling- dehydriding (HMD Process) are described. Powder production scales for industrial fabrication is easily achieved with conventional equipment, small man-power and low investment. (author)

  7. Powder production of U-Mo alloy, HMD process (Hydriding- Milling- Dehydriding)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasqualini, E. E.; Garcia, J.H.; Lopez, M.; Cabanillas, E.; Adelfang, P.

    2002-01-01

    Uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) alloys can be hydrided massively in metastable γ (gamma) phase. The brittle hydride can be milled and dehydrided to acquire the desired size distributions needed for dispersion nuclear fuels. The developments of the different steps of this process called hydriding-milling- dehydriding (HMD Process) are described. Powder production scales for industrial fabrication is easily achieved with conventional equipment, small man-power and low investment. (author)

  8. Behaviour of CaO coating of gas atomized Mg powders using mechanical milling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun-Mi; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Young Do; Kim, Taek-Soo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → This work is very new, since behaviour of CaO coating with milling time as desulfurizer is not frequently reported. → The manuscript reports the new manner of Mg powders desulfurizer development by the innovative process. - Abstract: In order to synthesize a thermally stable Mg powder as a desulfurizer of iron, pure Mg was gas atomized to powders and coated by CaO powders, to produce a thermally stable desulfurizer using a mechanical milling process. Since the effect of desulfurization is dependent on the degree of surface modification, coating behaviours such as the size, morphology and layer thickness were investigated as a function of milling condition. As the milling conducted from 10 min to 30 min, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, CaO particles began to stick on the surface of Mg powders. The layer of CaO formed from 1 h milling was about 17 μm thick and gradually thickened to be 28 μm, 32 μm and 37 μm with increasing the milling time to 3 h, 6 h and 12 h, respectively. The shape of coated powder became more spherical after 1 h milling, being mostly spherical after 6 h. Desulfurization rate and uniformity were evaluated for the various thickness of the coating layer.

  9. Process optimization and particle engineering of micronized drug powders via milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunaugh, A; Smyth, H D C

    2017-11-13

    Process control and optimization is a critical aspect of process analytical technology (PAT), quality by design (QbD), and the implementation of continuous manufacturing procedures. While process control and optimization techniques have been utilized in other manufacturing industries for decades, the pharmaceutical industry has only recently begun to adopt these procedures. Micronization, particularly milling, is a generally low-yield, high-energy consumption process that is well suited for a process optimization mindset. This review discusses optimization of the pharmaceutical milling process through design space development, theoretical and empirical modeling, and monitoring of critical quality attributes.

  10. Processing of palm oil mill wastes based on zero waste technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvan

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia is currently the main producer of palm oil in the world with a total production reached 33.5 million tons per year. In the processing of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) besides producing palm oil and kernel oil, palm oil mills also produce liquid and solid wastes. The increase of palm oil production will be followed by an increase in the production of waste generated. It will give rise to major environmental issues especially the discharge of liquid waste to the rivers, the emission of methane from digestion pond and the incineration of empty fruit bunches (EFB). This paper describes a zero waste technology in processing palm oil mill waste after the milling process. The technology involves fermentation of palm oil mill effluent (POME) to biogas by using continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) in the presence of thermophilic microbes, producing activated liquid organic fertilizer (ALOF) from discharge of treated waste effluent from biogas digester, composting EFB by spraying ALOF on the EFB in the composter, and producing pellet or biochar from EFB by pyrolysis process. This concept can be considered as a promising technology for palm oil mills with the main objective of eliminating the effluent from their mills.

  11. Interim report on task 1.2: near equilibrium processing requirements - attrition milling part 1 of 2 to Lawrence Livermore National for contract b345772

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M W A; Vance, E R; Day, R A; Eddowes, T; Moricca, S

    2000-01-01

    The objective of Task 1.2 has only partly been achieved as the work on Pu/U-formulations and to a significant degree on Th/U-formulations has been performed under grinding/blending conditions that did not replicate plant-like fabrication processes, particularly in the case with the small glovebox attritor. Nevertheless the results do show that actinide-rich particles, not present in specimens made via the alkoxide-route (equilibrium conditions), occur when the grinding process is not efficient enough to ensure that high-fired PuO 2 , ThO 2 and UO 2 particles are below a critical size. Our current perception is that the critical size for specimens sintered at 1350 C for 4 hours is about 5 (micro)m in diameter. The critical size is difficult to estimate, as it is equal to the starting diameter of actinide oxides just visible within brannerite regions. Our larger scale attritor experiments as well as experience with wet and dry ball milling suggests that acceptable mineralogy and microstructure can be obtained by dry milling via attritor and ball mills. This is provided that appropriate attention is paid to the size and density of the grinding media, grinding additives that reduce caking of the powder, and in the case of attritors the grinding speed and pot setup. The ideal products for sintering are free flowing granules of ∼ 100 (micro)m containing constituents ground to about 1 (micro)m to ensure homogeneity and equilibrium mineralogy

  12. Media milling process optimization for manufacture of drug nanoparticles using design of experiments (DOE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekkanti, Vijaykumar; Marwah, Ashwani; Pillai, Raviraj

    2015-01-01

    Design of experiments (DOE), a component of Quality by Design (QbD), is systematic and simultaneous evaluation of process variables to develop a product with predetermined quality attributes. This article presents a case study to understand the effects of process variables in a bead milling process used for manufacture of drug nanoparticles. Experiments were designed and results were computed according to a 3-factor, 3-level face-centered central composite design (CCD). The factors investigated were motor speed, pump speed and bead volume. Responses analyzed for evaluating these effects and interactions were milling time, particle size and process yield. Process validation batches were executed using the optimum process conditions obtained from software Design-Expert® to evaluate both the repeatability and reproducibility of bead milling technique. Milling time was optimized to process variables by applying DOE resulted in considerable decrease in milling time to achieve the desired particle size. The study indicates the applicability of DOE approach to optimize critical process parameters in the manufacture of drug nanoparticles.

  13. The DSM revision process: needing to keep an eye on the empirical ball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    First, M B

    2017-01-01

    From DSM-III onward, successive DSM editions have strived to ground the diagnostic definitions in empirical evidence. DSM-IV established a three-stage process of empirical review, consisting of comprehensive and systematic literature reviews, secondary analyses of datasets, and field trials to provide reliability and validity data for the most substantial or controversial proposals. DSM-IV Work Group members were required to review the empirical literature to document explicitly the evidence supporting the text and criteria published in DSM-IV. As noted by Kendler and Solomon (2016), in contrast to the emphasis on systematic reviews in medicine which is a manifestation of the evidence-based medicine movement, such systematic evidence-based reviews have not been consistently integrated into the development of DSM-5, raising questions about empirical rigor underlying the DSM-5 revision. It is likely that this regression in terms of anchoring the revision process in a comprehensive review of empirical data stemmed from the emphasis during the DSM-5 revision process on trying to move DSM-5 from its categorical descriptive approach towards a more etiological dimensional approach. Although such a shift ultimately did not occur, the effort spent on trying to achieve a paradigm shift likely came at the expense of the hard work of conducting systematic empirical reviews. For the DSM to continue to remain credible in the current era of evidence-based medicine, it is essential that the developers of future editions of the DSM avoid taking their eye off the empirical ball and insure that the manual remains grounded in solid empirical evidence.

  14. Synthesis of the hydride mixtures (1 - x)AlH3/xMgH2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.3) by ball milling and their hydrogen storage properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iosub, V.; Matsunaga, T.; Tange, K.; Ishikiriyama, M.; Miwa, K.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to thermodynamically stabilize the alane (i.e., to increase the desorption enthalpy), partial substitution of Mg for Al was investigated by ball milling the mixtures (1 - x)AlH 3 /xMgH 2 (x = 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3). Rietveld analysis of the XRD profiles showed that the cell volume of α-AlH 3 increased with the Mg substitution rate, and thereby formation of solid solutions was assumed (x ≤ 0.05). In agreement with the experimental results, theoretical calculations indicated that a hypothetical supercell structure (MgAl 15 )H 47 (x = 0.0625), which contained a hydrogen vacancy, was at least metastable. However, the effect of alane stabilization by Mg substitution for Al was not observed, either by experiment or by simulation, and only an increase in the activation energy was measured.

  15. Ball-milling synthesis of ZnO@sulphur/carbon nanotubes and Ni(OH)_2@sulphur/carbon nanotubes composites for high-performance lithium-sulphur batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Xingxing; Tong, Chuan-jia; Wen, Bo; Liu, Li-min; Lai, Chao; Zhang, Shanqing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Metal oxides or hydroxides coating sulfur-based composite are successfully prepared. • Large-scale synthesis can be realized via the facile wet ball-milling strategy. • Density functional theory (DFT) calculation is applied to calculate adsorption energy. • ZnO exhibits a higher adsorption energy for Li_2S_8 than that Ni(OH)_2. • ZnO@sulphur/carbon nanotubes composite show excellent cycle and discharge performance. - Abstract: Zinc oxide wrapped sulphur/carbon nanotubes (ZnO@S/CNT) and nickel hydroxide wrapped sulphur/carbon nanotubes (Ni(OH)_2@S/CNT) nanocomposites are prepared using a simple, low cost and scalable ball-milling method. As the cathodes in Li-S batteries, the as-prepared ZnO@S/CNT composite illustrates a superior high initial capacity of 1663 mAh g"−"1 at a charge/discharge rate of 160 mA g"−"1, and maintains a reversible capacity at approximately 942 mAh g"−"1 after 70 cycles. While for Ni(OH)_2@S/CNT composites, its initial capacity is also as high as 1331 mAh g"−"1, but a poorer cycling stability is presented. When the charge/discharge current is increased to 1600 mA g"−"1, a high reversible capacity of 698 mAh g"−"1 after 200 cycles still can be obtained for the ZnO@S/CNT composite, far better than that of Ni(OH)_2@S/CNT composites. The better cycling performance and high discharge capacity can be attributed to the strong interactions between ZnO and S_x"2"− species, which is verified by the density functional theory (DFT) calculation result that the ZnO exhibits a higher adsorption energy for Li_2S_8 than the Ni(OH)_2.

  16. Coexistence of short- and long-range ferromagnetic order in nanocrystalline Fe2Mn1−xCuxAl (x=0.0, 0.1 and 0.3) synthesized by high-energy ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thanh, Tran Dang; Nanto, Dwi; Tuyen, Ngo Thi Uyen; Nan, Wen-Zhe; Yu, YiKyung; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Yu, S.C.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we prepared nanocrystalline Fe 2 Mn 1−x Cu x Al (x=0.0, 0.1 and 0.3) powders by the high energy ball milling technique, and then studied their critical properties. Our analysis reveals that the increase of Cu-doping concentration (up to x=0.3) in these powders leads to a gradual increase of the ferromagnetic–paramagnetic transition temperature from 406 to 452 K. The Banerjee criterion suggests that all the samples considered undergo a second-order phase transition. A modified Arrott plot and scaling analysis indicate that the critical exponents (β=0.419 and 0.442, γ=1.082 and 1.116 for x=0.0 and 0.1, respectively) are located in between those expected for the 3D-Heisenberg and the mean-field models; the values of β=0.495 and γ=1.046 for x=0.3 sample are very close to those of the mean-field model. These features reveal the coexistence of the short- and long-range ferromagnetic order in the nanocrystalline Fe 2 Mn 1−x Cu x Al powders. Particularly, as the concentration of Cu increases, values of the critical exponent shift towards those of the mean-field model. Such results prove the Cu doping favors establishing a long-range ferromagnetic order. - Highlights: • Fe 2 Mn 1−x Cu x Al nanocrystals were prepared by a high energy ball milling method. • A coexistence of the short- and long-range FM order in the nanocrystals. • Cu doping favors establishing a long-range FM order in the nanocrystals. • All the ΔS m (T, H) data are followed a universal master curve

  17. Quantification of process induced disorder in milled samples using different analytical techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimper, Ulrike; Aaltonen, Jaakko; McGoverin, Cushla M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare three different analytical methods to detect and quantify the amount of crystalline disorder/ amorphousness in two milled model drugs. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Raman spectroscopy were used as analytical methods...... and indomethacin and simvastatin were chosen as the model compounds. These compounds partly converted from crystalline to disordered forms by milling. Partial least squares regression (PLS) was used to create calibration models for the XRPD and Raman data, which were subsequently used to quantify the milling......-induced crystalline disorder/ amorphousness under different process conditions. In the DSC measurements the change in heat capacity at the glass transition was used for quantification. Differently prepared amorphous indomethacin standards (prepared by either melt quench cooling or cryo milling) were compared...

  18. Influence of milling process in the surface energy of glass tile frits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamayo, A.; Rubio, F.; Otero, J. L.; Rubio, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this work has been studied the influence of the milling process of two ceramic frits used in the ceramic tile industry. Both glass frits were of similar chemical composition changing SiO 2 by 5% of B 2 O 3 and both of them were water or dry milled. Glass frit surfaces were characterized by FT-IR, Karl-Fischer (K-F) titration and Inverse Gas Chromatography at Infinite Dilution (IGC-ID). By K-F titration it was observed that water milled frits presented 28 and 26 OH groups for 100 A 2 if they do not contain or contain boron, respectively. These surface changes are also observed by IGC-ID. Thus, the glass frit without boron and dry milled presented the highest dispersive surface energy (44 mJ.m - 2) and the less acidic constant (0.13 kJ.mol - 1). Both glass frits are amphoteric with acidic and base surface active sites, and that frit without boron presents the higher basicity. Milling process influences in the acid-base surface characteristics of both frits by increasing the basicity for the one without boron and increasing for the other one. This has been assigned to the different location of hydroxyl groups where the higher interaction is the one that does not contain boron and dry milled as K-F results. (Author)

  19. The influence of milling on the dissolution performance of simvastatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimper, Ulrike; Aaltonen, Jaakko; Krauel-Goellner, Karen

    2012-01-01

    properties such as solubility and dissolution rate and, therefore, process induced solid state modifications need to be monitored. The aim of this study was two-fold: firstly, to investigate the dissolution rates of milled and unmilled simvastatin; and secondly, to screen for the main milling factors......, as well as factor interactions in a dry ball milling process using simvastatin as model drug, and to optimize the milling procedure with regard to the opposing responses particle size and process induced disorder by application of a central composite face centered design. Particle size was assessed...... by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image analysis. Process induced disorder was determined by partial least squares (PLS) regression modeling of respective X-ray powder diffractograms (XRPD) and Raman spectra. Valid and significant quadratic models were built. The investigated milling factors were...

  20. Uranium milling costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    Basic process flowsheets are reviewed for conventional milling of US ores. Capital costs are presented for various mill capacities for one of the basic processes. Operating costs are shown for various mill capacities for all of the basic process flowsheets. The number of mills using, or planning to use, a particular process is reviewed. A summary of the estimated average milling costs for all operating US mills is shown

  1. Analyzing the effect of tool edge radius on cutting temperature in micro-milling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y. C.; Yang, K.; Zheng, K. N.; Bai, Q. S.; Chen, W. Q.; Sun, G. Y.

    2010-10-01

    Cutting heat is one of the important physical subjects in the cutting process. Cutting heat together with cutting temperature produced by the cutting process will directly have effects on the tool wear and the life as well as on the workpiece processing precision and surface quality. The feature size of the workpiece is usually several microns. Thus, the tiny changes of cutting temperature will affect the workpiece on the surface quality and accuracy. Therefore, cutting heat and temperature generated in micro-milling will have significantly different effect than the one in the traditional tools cutting. In this paper, a two-dimensional coupled thermal-mechanical finite element model is adopted to determine thermal fields and cutting temperature during the Micro-milling process, by using software Deform-2D. The effect of tool edge radius on effective stress, effective strain, velocity field and cutting temperature distribution in micro-milling of aluminum alloy Al2024-T6 were investigated and analyzed. Also, the transient cutting temperature distribution was simulated dynamically. The simulation results show that the cutting temperature in Micro-milling is lower than those occurring in conventional milling processes due to the small loads and low cutting velocity. With increase of tool edge radius, the maximum temperature region gradually occurs on the contact region between finished surfaced and flank face of micro-cutter, instead of the rake face or the corner of micro-cutter. And this phenomenon shows an obvious size effect.

  2. End point detection in ion milling processes by sputter-induced optical emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, C.; Dorian, M.; Tabei, M.; Elsea, A.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristic optical emission from the sputtered material during ion milling processes can provide an unambiguous indication of the presence of the specific etched species. By monitoring the intensity of a representative emission line, the etching process can be precisely terminated at an interface. Enhancement of the etching end point is possible by using a dual-channel photodetection system operating in a ratio or difference mode. The installation of the optical detection system to an existing etching chamber has been greatly facilitated by the use of optical fibers. Using a commercial ion milling system, experimental data for a number of etching processes have been obtained. The result demonstrates that sputter-induced optical emission spectroscopy offers many advantages over other techniques in detecting the etching end point of ion milling processes

  3. The influence of milling-burnishing successive and simultaneous processes on the material hardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoraş, C. C.; Brabie, G.; Chirita, B.

    2016-08-01

    Recent developments in the field of bio-engineering allow the use of magnesium alloys as a substitute for medical implants. The issue with such alloys is the degradation rate witch has to be improved in order to provide the necessary support for the entire duration of the bone fraction healing. For improving the bone shielding heat treatment does not represent a solution, but chemical and/or mechanical do. One mechanical process that has excellent result is burnishing, but this process is difficult to be implemented on a milling machine. Therefore, it was necessary that a new tool and tool holder to be developed, that allow the simultaneous process to take place. A high-pressure hydraulic roller burnishing tool with a special tool holder was used on a CNC milling machine. The material used for this study is magnesium alloy AZ31B-F, and one of the main purposes was to improve the material hardness (HV). The milling-burnishing parameters that where varied are the speed and feed, burnishing pressure and depth, type of process (successive or simultaneous), machining direction and the material hardness after milling. The results were analyzed as percentage improvement between the milling and burnishing measured values.

  4. AN ASSESSMENT OF DIOXIN LEVELS IN PROCESSED BALL CLAY FROM THE U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of dioxin-like compounds in ball clay was discovered in 1996 as a result of an investigation to determine the sources of elevated levels of dioxin found in two chicken fat samples from a national survey of poultry. The investigation indicated that soybean meal added...

  5. Analysis of Startup Process and Its Optimization for a Two-Stand Reversible Cold Rolling Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangming Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic characteristic analysis of a two-stand reversible cold rolling mill in the startup process was carried out. The delay algorithm of the interstand thickness was proposed. A new method combined with the accelerated secant and the tangent methods was established to solve the simultaneous equations. The thickness and interstand tension transition processes with different static tension establishing processes were analyzed. Both mills were operated under constant rolling force control mode in the above process. The results show that the strip thickness in the rolling gap reduces in the static mill screwdown process. The entry stand runs inversely to establish the static interstand tension. This area becomes an abnormal thickness reduction area of the incoming strip. It results in several abnormal interstand tension increases in the subsequent startup process. The tension increase leads to an impact force on the strip that is the main reason of the strip breakage in the startup process. So the static tension establishing process was optimized, and the interstand tension fluctuation and the strip breakage accidents both reduced significantly. The results are beneficial to the startup process of the two-stand reversible cold rolling mill.

  6. An argon ion beam milling process for native AlOx layers enabling coherent superconducting contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünhaupt, Lukas; von Lüpke, Uwe; Gusenkova, Daria; Skacel, Sebastian T.; Maleeva, Nataliya; Schlör, Steffen; Bilmes, Alexander; Rotzinger, Hannes; Ustinov, Alexey V.; Weides, Martin; Pop, Ioan M.

    2017-08-01

    We present an argon ion beam milling process to remove the native oxide layer forming on aluminum thin films due to their exposure to atmosphere in between lithographic steps. Our cleaning process is readily integrable with conventional fabrication of Josephson junction quantum circuits. From measurements of the internal quality factors of superconducting microwave resonators with and without contacts, we place an upper bound on the residual resistance of an ion beam milled contact of 50 mΩ μm2 at a frequency of 4.5 GHz. Resonators for which only 6% of the total foot-print was exposed to the ion beam milling, in areas of low electric and high magnetic fields, showed quality factors above 106 in the single photon regime, and no degradation compared to single layer samples. We believe these results will enable the development of increasingly complex superconducting circuits for quantum information processing.

  7. A post-processing study on aluminum surface by fiber laser: Removing face milling patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayahan, Ersin

    2018-05-01

    The face milling process of the metal surface is a well-known machining process of using rotary cutters to remove material from a workpiece. Flat metal surfaces can be produced by a face milling process. However, in practice, visible, traced marks following the motion of points on the cutter's face are usually apparent. In this study, it was shown that milled patterns can be removed by means of 20 W fiber laser on the aluminum surface (AA7075). Experimental results also showed that roughened and hydrophobic surface can be produced with optimized laser parameters. It is a new approach to remove the patterns from the metal surface and can be explained through roughening by re-melting instead of ablation. The new method is a strong candidate to replace sandblasting the metal surface. It is also cheap and environmentally friendly.

  8. Mesophilic and thermophilic activated sludge post-treatment of paper mill process water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelaar, J.C.T.; Bouwhuis, E.; Klapwijk, A.; Spanjers, H.; Lier, van J.B.

    2002-01-01

    Increasing system closure in paper mills and higher process water temperatures make the applicability of thermophilic treatment systems increasingly important. The use of activated sludge as a suitable thermophilic post-treatment system for anaerobically pre-treated paper process water from a paper

  9. Model-based Process Monitoring and Control of Micro-milling using Active Magnetic Bearings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    The process of micro-milling is a promising technology for the fabrication of micro-parts with arbitrary 3D features in a wide range of materials. However, as a result of the reduced dimensions, the susceptibility of the process for machine tool errors and vibrations is higher, having adverse

  10. Comparison of various milling modes combined to the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass for bioenergy production: Glucose yield and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licari, A.; Monlau, F.; Solhy, A.; Buche, P.; Barakat, A.

    2016-01-01

    Bagasse is an abundant by-product from sugarcane production that can be used for conversion into biofuels. Nonetheless, the recalcitrant structures of lignocellulosic fibers required a pretreatment prior conversion into biofuels. In this study, four mechanical deconstruction methods were compared in terms of energy demand and energy efficiency at lab scale: BM (ball mill), VBM (vibratory ball mill), CM (centrifugal mill) and JM (jet mill). Results indicate that VBM was more effective compared to BM, JM and CM in enzymatic accessibility and sugars solubilization: VBM-3h > BM-72 h > JM-5000 rpm > CM-0.12 mm. However, preliminary energetic assessment showed that at lab scale, the CM (centrifugal mill) as mechanical fractionation process appears to be the most efficient in terms of energy-efficiency (kg glucose/kWh) compared to BM, VBM and JM. A comparison with literature pretreatments data highlighted that fine and/or ultrafine milling process (BM, VBM, CM) are simpler saccharification technologies, which not required any chemical or water inputs, thus minimizing waste generation and treatment. - Highlights: • VBM (vibro ball milling) was the most effective in decreasing of cellulose crystallinity. • BM (ball milling) was the most effective in increasing surface area. • The highest energy efficiency was obtained with CM (centrifugal milling).

  11. Challenges with modifications of the McClean Lake mill to process midwest ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.T.; Backham, L.

    2010-01-01

    Midwest is a unique uranium deposit with exceptionally high arsenic content. The ore body is located 17 km west of the McClean Lake operation. The McClean Lake mill will be modified to process Midwest ore and handle solid wastes from the Midwest water treatment plant. This paper describes the modifications required of the McClean Lake mill, process challenges associated with treatment of the arsenic, and the possibility of recovering nickel and cobalt as a by-product. It also reviews the complexity in the design of the Midwest water treatment facility which incorporates reverse osmosis technology with conventional physical-chemical water treatment. (author)

  12. Obtention of the TiFe compound by high-energy milling of Ti+Fe and TiH{sub 2}+Fe powder mixtures; Obtencao do composto TiFe a partir da moagem de alta energia de misturas Ti+Fe e TiH{sub 2}+Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcao, R.B.; Dammann, E.D.C.C.; Rocha, C.J.; Leal Neto, R.M., E-mail: railson.falcao@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologia de Materiais. Lab. de Intermetalicos

    2010-07-01

    In this work TiFe compound was obtained by two process routes involving high-energy ball milling: mechanical alloying from Ti and Fe powders (route 1) and mechanical milling from TiH{sub 2} and Fe powders, both followed by an annealing heat treatment. Shaker and planetary ball mills were utilized for times varying from 1-25 hours. Milled and annealed powders were characterized by SEM and X-ray diffraction analyses. TiFe compound was formed in both routes. A strong powder adherence in the milling vial and balls occurred with route 1 in both mills. Powder adherence was significantly reduced by using TiH{sub 2} (route 2) mainly in the planetary mill, in spite of TiFe formation has only occurred after the annealing treatment. (author)

  13. An integrated condition-monitoring method for a milling process using reduced decomposition features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jie; Wu, Bo; Hu, Youmin; Wang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Complex and non-stationary cutting chatter affects productivity and quality in the milling process. Developing an effective condition-monitoring approach is critical to accurately identify cutting chatter. In this paper, an integrated condition-monitoring method is proposed, where reduced features are used to efficiently recognize and classify machine states in the milling process. In the proposed method, vibration signals are decomposed into multiple modes with variational mode decomposition, and Shannon power spectral entropy is calculated to extract features from the decomposed signals. Principal component analysis is adopted to reduce feature size and computational cost. With the extracted feature information, the probabilistic neural network model is used to recognize and classify the machine states, including stable, transition, and chatter states. Experimental studies are conducted, and results show that the proposed method can effectively detect cutting chatter during different milling operation conditions. This monitoring method is also efficient enough to satisfy fast machine state recognition and classification. (paper)

  14. Process for purification of waste water produced by a Kraft process pulp and paper mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, M. F. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    The water from paper and pulp wastes obtained from a mill using the Kraft process is purified by precipitating lignins and lignin derivatives from the waste stream with quaternary ammonium compounds, removing other impurities by activated carbon produced from the cellulosic components of the water, and then separating the water from the precipitate and solids. The activated carbon also acts as an aid to the separation of the water and solids. If recovery of lignins is also desired, then the precipitate containing the lignins and quaternary ammonium compounds is dissolved in methanol. Upon acidification, the lignin is precipitated from the solution. The methanol and quaternary ammonium compound are recovered for reuse from the remainder.

  15. Numerical simulation study on rolling-chemical milling process of aluminum-lithium alloy skin panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z. B.; Sun, Z. G.; Sun, X. F.; Li, X. Q.

    2017-09-01

    Single curvature parts such as aircraft fuselage skin panels are usually manufactured by rolling-chemical milling process, which is usually faced with the problem of geometric accuracy caused by springback. In most cases, the methods of manual adjustment and multiple roll bending are used to control or eliminate the springback. However, these methods can cause the increase of product cost and cycle, and lead to material performance degradation. Therefore, it is of significance to precisely control the springback of rolling-chemical milling process. In this paper, using the method of experiment and numerical simulation on rolling-chemical milling process, the simulation model for rolling-chemical milling process of 2060-T8 aluminum-lithium alloy skin was established and testified by the comparison between numerical simulation and experiment results for the validity. Then, based on the numerical simulation model, the relative technological parameters which influence on the curvature of the skin panel were analyzed. Finally, the prediction of springback and the compensation can be realized by controlling the process parameters.

  16. Efficient production of nanoparticle-loaded orodispersible films by process integration in a stirred media mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Denise; Finke, Jan Henrik; Kwade, Arno

    2016-09-25

    Orodispersible films possess a great potential as a versatile platform for nanoparticle-loaded oral dosage forms. In this case, poorly water-soluble organic materials were ground in a stirred media mill and embedded into a polymer matrix. The aim of this study was the shortening of this manufacturing process by the integration of several process steps into a stirred media mill without facing disadvantages regarding the film quality. Furthermore, this process integration is time conserving due to the high stress intensities provided in the mill and applicable for high solids contents and high suspension viscosities. Two organic materials, the model compound Anthraquinone and the active pharmaceutical ingredient Naproxen were investigated in this study. Besides the impact of the film processing on the crystallinity of the particles in the orodispersible film, a particle load of up to 50% was investigated with the new developed processing route. Additionally, a disintegration test was developed, combining an appropriate amount of saliva substitute and a clear endpoint determination. In summary, high nanoparticle loads in orodispersible films with good particle size preservation after film redispersion in water as well as a manufacturing of the film casting mass within a few minutes in a stirred media mill was achieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Golf Ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The Ultra 500 Series golf balls, introduced in 1995 by Wilson Sporting Goods Company, has 500 dimples arranged in a pattern of 60 spherical triangles. The design employs NASA's aerodynamics technology analysis of air loads of the tank and Shuttle orbiter that was performed under the Space Shuttle External Tank program. According to Wilson, this technology provides 'the most symmetrical ball surface available, sustaining initial velocity longer and producing the most stable ball flight for unmatched accuracy and distance.' The dimples are in three sizes, shapes and depths mathematically positioned for the best effect. The selection of dimples and their placement optimizes the interaction of opposing forces of lift and drag. Large dimples reduce air drag, enhance lift, and maintain spin for distance. Small dimples prevent excessive lift that destabilizes the ball flight and the medium size dimples blend the other two.

  18. Preliminary study of sintering of metallic niobium processed for mechanical milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, H.M.; Vurobi Junior, S.; Cintho, O.M.; Sandim, H.R.Z.; Leite, G.S.

    2010-01-01

    In present study was preliminary study of mechanical milling influence on preparing of metallic niobium powder for sintering. Sample of metallic niobium in powder passing in sieve no. 635 mesh was processed by mechanical milling in SPEX mill for 8 hours using power grinding of 7:1 and a nitrogen atmosphere. The powder was annealed at different temperatures, 900 deg C, 1000 deg C, 1100 deg C and 1200 deg C for 1 hour in an atmosphere of hydrogen and argon to study their crystallization, which then were formed into blank for analysis of the curves compressibility. These samples were also subjected to x-ray diffraction in that their data were compared between the annealing temperatures. We also evaluate the compressibility curves of niobium samples with and without grinding these samples were subjected to x-ray diffraction and fluorescence. (author)

  19. Frictional performance of ball screw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Katuhiro; Takafuji, Kazuki

    1985-01-01

    As feed screws, ball screws have become to be adopted in place of trapezoidal threads. The structure of ball screws is complex, but those are the indispensable component of NC machine tools and machining centers, and are frequently used for industrial robots. As the problems in the operation of ball screws, there are damage, life and the performance related to friction. As to the damage and life, though there is the problem of the load distribution on balls, the results of the research on rolling bearings are applied. The friction of ball screws consists of the friction of balls and a spiral groove, the friction of a ball and a ball, the friction in a ball-circulating mechanism and the viscous friction of lubricating oil. It was decided to synthetically examine the frictional performance of ball screws, such as driving torque, the variation of driving torque, efficiency, the formation of oil film and so on, under the working condition of wide range, using the screws with different accuracy and the nuts of various circuit number. The experimental setup and the processing of the experimental data, the driving performance of ball screws and so on are reported. (Kako, I.)

  20. Assessment of heavy metals introduced into food through milling process: health implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeti, P.J.

    2015-07-01

    The present study was conducted to characterised and assesss heavy metal contamination in food through milling process and their health implications. Grinding plate made from Ghana, India and Nigeria purchased from the Ghanaian open market were used for this work. Maize from the same farm was milled into flour using the three grinding plate inserted into three different corn milling machines operating on commercial bases. Th first grinding was done immediately after the insertion of the newly sharpened plates into the machines. The plates were left for continuous daily usage. Subsequent milling of the maize was done after intervals of one month. The grinding plates and maize flour was analysed using Atomic absorption spectrophometer (AAS). The resultes recorded indicated that the heavy metals content o the Ghanaian, Indian and Nigerian made plates had the e similar metal contents but varied in terms of the individual metal concentrations. Flour from the Ghanaian made plates had the highest level of contaminants with the least from that of the Indian made plates. Generally, the highest levels of contamination were observed in the fist milling for the three plates as compared to the three subsequent milling at monthly interval. The contamination levels showed a decreasing trend from the first month (first milling ) to the fourth month (fourth milling). Cu, Cr and Ni showed concentrations above the permissible limit set by FAO/WHO in milled maize using Ghanaian made plate. Copper (Cu) recorded a concentration value between 15.04 mg/kg to 10.21mg.kg, 11.25 mg/kg to 9.13mg/kg and 10.36mg/kg and 9.68mg/kg using the Ghanaian-, Indian and Nigerian made plate respectively. Chromium (Cr) recorded a concentration between 1.51 mg/kg to 0.96 mg/kg, 1.03mg/kg to 0.91 mg/kg and 0.98mg/kg to 0.80 mg/kg using Ghanaian-, Indian and Nigerian made plates respectively. Nickel (Ni) recorded a concentration value between 23.23 mg/kg to 10.43 mg/kg, 11.46mg/kg to 10.43 mg/kg and 12.55 mg

  1. Automatic in-process chatter avoidance in the high-speed milling process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van N.J.M.; Doppenberg, E.J.J.; Faassen, R.P.H.; Wouw, van de N.; Oosterling, J.A.J.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2010-01-01

    High-speed milling is often used in industry to maximize productivity of the manufacturing of high-technology components, such as aeronautical components, mold, and dies. The occurrence of chatter highly limits the efficiency and accuracy of high-speed milling operations. In this paper, two control

  2. Unravelling the relationship between degree of disorder and the dissolution behavior of milled glibenclamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mah, Pei T; Laaksonen, Timo; Rades, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Milling is an attractive method to prepare amorphous formulations as it does not require the use of solvents and is suitable for thermolabile drugs. One of the key critical quality attributes of milled amorphous formulations is their dissolution behavior. However, there are limited studies...... that have investigated the relationship between degree of disorder induced by milling and dissolution behavior. The main aim of this study was to identify the analytical technique used to characterize degree of disorder that correlates best with the recrystallization behavior during dissolution of milled...... glibenclamide samples. Solid state and surface changes during dissolution of milled glibenclamide samples were monitored in order to elucidate the processes that influence the dissolution behavior of milled glibenclamide samples. Glibenclamide was ball milled for different durations and analyzed using X...

  3. Mechanical properties of bovine cortical bone based on the automated ball indentation technique and graphics processing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Airong; Zhang, Song; Bian, Cuirong

    2018-02-01

    Cortical bone provides the main form of support in humans and other vertebrates against various forces. Thus, capturing its mechanical properties is important. In this study, the mechanical properties of cortical bone were investigated by using automated ball indentation and graphics processing at both the macroscopic and microstructural levels under dry conditions. First, all polished samples were photographed under a metallographic microscope, and the area ratio of the circumferential lamellae and osteons was calculated through the graphics processing method. Second, fully-computer-controlled automated ball indentation (ABI) tests were performed to explore the micro-mechanical properties of the cortical bone at room temperature and a constant indenter speed. The indentation defects were examined with a scanning electron microscope. Finally, the macroscopic mechanical properties of the cortical bone were estimated with the graphics processing method and mixture rule. Combining ABI and graphics processing proved to be an effective tool to obtaining the mechanical properties of the cortical bone, and the indenter size had a significant effect on the measurement. The methods presented in this paper provide an innovative approach to acquiring the macroscopic mechanical properties of cortical bone in a nondestructive manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Forward and reverse mapping for milling process using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi L. Malghan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The data set presented is related to the milling process of AA6061-4.5%Cu-5%SiCp composite. The data primarily concentrates on predicting values of some machining responses, such as cutting force, surface finish and power utilization utilizing using forward back propagation neural network based approach, i.e. ANN based on three process parameters, such as spindle speed, feed rate and depth of cut.The comparing reverse model is likewise created to prescribe the ideal settings of processing parameters for accomplishing the desired responses as indicated by the necessities of the end clients. These modelling approaches are very proficient to foresee the benefits of machining responses and also process parameter settings in light of the experimental technique. Keywords: ANN, Forward mapping, Reverse mapping, Milling process

  5. Low-temperature synthesis of MgB{sub 2} via powder metallurgy processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birol, Yucel [Dokuz Eylul University, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Buca, Izmir (Turkey)

    2016-12-15

    Ball-milled Mg/B{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder blends reveal interpenetrating layers of deformed magnesium and boron oxide grains that are increasingly refined with increasing milling time. Boron oxide is reduced by Mg and MgO thus formed reacts with the remaining B{sub 2}O{sub 3} to produce Mg{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} during ball milling for 30 min. Both B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Mg{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} react with Mg to produce MgB{sub 2} upon further ball milling. An annealing treatment can be employed when ball milling is performed for less than 1 h as thermal exposure of the ball-milled Mg/B{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder blends also leads to the formation of MgB{sub 2}. The above reactions take place between 500 and 700 C when the Mg/B{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder blend is ball milled for 30 min, and between 450 and 550 C, after ball milling for 1 h. This is a very attractive route owing to processing temperatures where the volatility of Mg is no longer a problem. (orig.)

  6. Microstructure and gas sensitive properties of alpha-Fe2O3-MO2 (M: Sn and Ti) materials prepared by ball milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Lin, R.; Mørup, Steen

    1998-01-01

    Metastable alpha-Fe2O3-MO2 (M: Sn and Ti) solid solutions can be synthesized by mechanical alloying. The alloy formation, microstructure, and gas sensitive properties of mechanically milled alpha-Fe2O3-SnO2 materials are discussed. Tin ions in alpha-Fe2O3 are found to occupy the empty octahedral...... holes in the alpha-Fe2O3 lattice. This interstitial model can also describe the structure of alpha-Fe2O3-TiO2 solid solutions. Finally, a correlation of gas sensitive properties with microstructure of alpha-Fe2O3-SnO2 materials is presented....

  7. Analysis on Accuracy of Bias, Linearity and Stability of Measurement System in Ball screw Processes by Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-Yun Pai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To consistently produce high quality products, a quality management system, such as the ISO9001, 2000 or TS 16949 must be practically implemented. One core instrument of the TS16949 MSA (Measurement System Analysis is to rank the capability of a measurement system and ensure the quality characteristics of the product would likely be transformed through the whole manufacturing process. It is important to reduce the risk of Type I errors (acceptable goods are misjudged as defective parts and Type II errors (defective parts are misjudged as good parts. An ideal measuring system would have the statistical characteristic of zero error, but such a system could hardly exist. Hence, to maintain better control of the variance that might occur in the manufacturing process, MSA is necessary for better quality control. Ball screws, which are a key component in precision machines, have significant attributes with respect to positioning and transmitting. Failures of lead accuracy and axial-gap of a ball screw can cause negative and expensive effects in machine positioning accuracy. Consequently, a functional measurement system can incur great savings by detecting Type I and Type II errors. If the measurement system fails with respect to specification of the product, it will likely misjudge Type I and Type II errors. Inspectors normally follow the MSA regulations for accuracy measurement, but the choice of measuring system does not merely depend on some simple indices. In this paper, we examine the stability of a measuring system by using a Monte Carlo simulation to establish bias, linearity variance of the normal distribution, and the probability density function. Further, we forecast the possible area distribution in the real case. After the simulation, the measurement capability will be improved, which helps the user classify the measurement system and establish measurement regulations for better performance and monitoring of the precision of the ball screw.

  8. Modeling and Analysis of CNC Milling Process Parameters on Al3030 based Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anand; Soni, P. K.; Krishna, C. M.

    2018-04-01

    The machining of Al3030 based composites on Computer Numerical Control (CNC) high speed milling machine have assumed importance because of their wide application in aerospace industries, marine industries and automotive industries etc. Industries mainly focus on surface irregularities; material removal rate (MRR) and tool wear rate (TWR) which usually depends on input process parameters namely cutting speed, feed in mm/min, depth of cut and step over ratio. Many researchers have carried out researches in this area but very few have taken step over ratio or radial depth of cut also as one of the input variables. In this research work, the study of characteristics of Al3030 is carried out at high speed CNC milling machine over the speed range of 3000 to 5000 r.p.m. Step over ratio, depth of cut and feed rate are other input variables taken into consideration in this research work. A total nine experiments are conducted according to Taguchi L9 orthogonal array. The machining is carried out on high speed CNC milling machine using flat end mill of diameter 10mm. Flatness, MRR and TWR are taken as output parameters. Flatness has been measured using portable Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM). Linear regression models have been developed using Minitab 18 software and result are validated by conducting selected additional set of experiments. Selection of input process parameters in order to get best machining outputs is the key contributions of this research work.

  9. Influence of the milling time in the microstructural parameters of TA2O5-Al powder refined by Rietveld method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, R.A.; Mendes, M.W.D.; Alves Junior, C.; Costa, F.A. da; Gomes, U.U.

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical alloying (MA) is a solid-state powder processing technique involving repeated welding, fracturing, and re-welding of powder particles in a high energy mill. This process is used for producing of fine powders containing unique microstructures. The process starts with mixing of the powders in the desired proportion. Then, the mixture is milled using the established time in the high-energy mill. The powder particles are submitted to repeated cycles of cold working and fracture, and the final product correspond to a composite powder, containing characteristics different of the initial constituents. Ta 2 O 5 -Al powders were milled in a planetary ball mill for different times in order to evaluate the influence of the milling time in their microstructural parameters like crystallite size and micro deformation. The microstructural parameters were obtained by the Rietveld Method. The results showed that the microstructural parameters were influenced by the increase of the milling time. (author)

  10. Influence of nanomechanical crystal properties on the comminution process of particulate solids in spiral jet mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zügner, Sascha; Marquardt, Karin; Zimmermann, Ingfried

    2006-02-01

    Elastic-plastic properties of single crystals are supposed to influence the size reduction process of bulk materials during jet milling. According to Pahl [M.H. Pahl, Zerkleinerungstechnik 2. Auflage. Fachbuchverlag, Leipzig (1993)] and H. Rumpf: [Prinzipien der Prallzerkleinerung und ihre Anwendung bei der Strahlmahlung. Chem. Ing. Tech., 3(1960) 129-135.] fracture toughness, maximum strain or work of fracture for example are strongly dependent on mechanical parameters like hardness (H) and young's modulus of elasticity (E). In addition the dwell time of particles in a spiral jet mill proved to correlate with the hardness of the feed material [F. Rief: Ph. D. Thesis, University of Würzburg (2001)]. Therefore 'near-surface' properties have a direct influence on the effectiveness of the comminution process. The mean particle diameter as well as the size distribution of the ground product may vary significantly with the nanomechanical response of the material. Thus accurate measurement of crystals' hardness and modulus is essential to determine the ideal operational micronisation conditions of the spiral jet mill. The recently developed nanoindentation technique is applied to examine subsurface properties of pharmaceutical bulk materials, namely calcite, sodium ascorbate, lactose and sodium chloride. Pressing a small sized tip into the material while continuously recording load and displacement, characteristic diagrams are derived. The mathematical evaluation of the force-displacement-data allows for calculation of the hardness and the elastic modulus of the investigated material at penetration depths between 50-300 nm. Grinding experiments performed with a modified spiral jet mill (Type Fryma JMRS 80) indicate the strong impact of the elastic-plastic properties of a given substance on its breaking behaviour. The fineness of milled products produced at constant grinding conditions but with different crystalline powders varies significantly as it is dependent on the

  11. Investigation on Effect of Material Hardness in High Speed CNC End Milling Process

    OpenAIRE

    Dhandapani, N. V.; Thangarasu, V. S.; Sureshkannan, G.

    2015-01-01

    This research paper analyzes the effects of material properties on surface roughness, material removal rate, and tool wear on high speed CNC end milling process with various ferrous and nonferrous materials. The challenge of material specific decision on the process parameters of spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut, coolant flow rate, cutting tool material, and type of coating for the cutting tool for required quality and quantity of production is addressed. Generally, decision made by the...

  12. Magnetic properties and coercivity mechanism of Sm{sub 1-x}Pr{sub x}Co{sub 5} (x=0-0.6) nanoflakes prepared by surfactant-assisted ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, M. L.; Yue, M., E-mail: yueming@bjut.edu.cn; Wu, Q.; Li, Y. Q.; Lu, Q. M. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Sm{sub 1-x}Pr{sub x}Co{sub 5} (x=0-0.6) nanoflakes with CaCu{sub 5} structure were successfully prepared by surfactant-assisted high-energy ball milling (SAHEBM). The crystal structure and magnetic properties of Sm{sub 1-x}Pr{sub x}Co{sub 5} (x=0-0.6) nanoflakes were studied by X-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometer. Effects of Pr addition on the structure, magnetic properties and coercivity mechanism of Sm{sub 1-x}Pr{sub x}Co{sub 5} nanoflakes were systematically investigated. XRD results show that all the nanoflakes have a hexagonal CaCu{sub 5}-type (Sm, Pr){sub 1}Co{sub 5} main phase and the (Sm, Pr){sub 2}Co{sub 7} impurity phase, and all of the samples exhibit a strong (00l) texture after magnetic alignment. As the Pr content increases, remanence firstly increases, then slightly reduced, while anisotropy field (H{sub A}) and H{sub ci} of decrease monotonically. Maximum energy product [(BH){sub max}] of the flakes increases first, peaks at 24.4 MGOe with Pr content of x = 0.4, then drops again. Magnetization behavior analysis indicate that the coercivity mechanism is mainly controlled by inhomogeneous domain wall pinning, and the pinning strength weakens with the increased Pr content, suggesting the great influence of H{sub A} on the coercivity of flakes.

  13. Process Debottlenecking and Retrofit of Palm Oil Milling Process via Inoperability Input-Output Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Tan May

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increase in crude palm oil (CPO demand, resulting in palm oil mills (POMs seizing the opportunity to increase CPO production to make more profits. A series of equipment are designed to operate in their optimum capacities in the current existing POMs. Some equipment may be limited by their maximum design capacities when there is a need to increase CPO production, resulting in process bottlenecks. In this research, a framework is developed to provide stepwise procedures on identifying bottlenecks and retrofitting a POM process to cater for the increase in production capacity. This framework adapts an algebraic approach known as Inoperability Input-Output Modelling (IIM. To illustrate the application of the framework, an industrial POM case study was solved using LINGO software in this work, by maximising its production capacity. Benefit-to-Cost Ratio (BCR analysis was also performed to assess the economic feasibility. As results, the Screw Press was identified as the bottleneck. The retrofitting recommendation was to purchase an additional Screw Press to cater for the new throughput with BCR of 54.57. It was found the POM to be able to achieve the maximum targeted production capacity of 8,139.65 kg/hr of CPO without any bottlenecks.

  14. ANALYZING THE PROCESS OF PRODUCTION IN LOGISTICS SUGARCANE MILL: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Tognoli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to present and analyze the physical arrangement of logistics and production process plant in a sugarcane mill, in order to expose the processes involved, analyzing them more deeply and thus collaborate in a more efficient production. The relevance of this presentation is linked to the benefits that the plant and professionals can get through this work, enabling the development of methods and production alternatives. The research method used was case study based on interviews, on-site observation and document analysis, which was very appropriate as it could examine and cross checking. This work will allow a better understanding of the production process of the logistics of the plant in a sugarcane mill and working with suggestions and methods for more efficient production.

  15. DETERMINATION OF DIETARY FIBRE – THE INFLUENCE OF MILLING FRACTION AND MIXING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž FERJANČIČ

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fibre is an important constituent of a healthy diet, composed of non-digestible carbohydrates and lignin. Over the last decades dietary fibre has gained importance for human nutrition, due to its beneficial effects on health. In addition to classical enzyme-gravimetric methods, new methods for the determination of total, insoluble and soluble dietary fibres in foods have recently been developed, but have not yet been fully implemented for use. For the purpose of creating food composition databases and for food labelling, the classical AOAC 985.29 and 991.43 methods are still widely used. The methods are enzyme-gravimetric and therefore sensitive to enzyme kinetics. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of milling fraction and mixing of the sample on dietary fibre content determined with the AOAC method 991.43. The results showed that milling fraction significantly influences the content of dietary fibre, especially in unprocessed or slightly processed cereals, the mixing acts synergistically with milling. According to the results it is proposed to mill the sample between 200 and 500 μm. For accurate determination of dietary fibre content, it is necessary to prepare the sample correctly, since the AOAC 991.43 method is, despite its robustness, sensitive during the sample preparation step.

  16. Integrated Approach for a Knowledge-Based Process Layout for Simultaneous 5-Axis Milling of Advanced Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Klocke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced materials, like nickel-based alloys, gain importance in turbomachinery manufacturing, where creating complex surfaces constitute a major challenge. However, milling strategies that provide high material removal rates at acceptable tooling costs demand optimized tool geometry and process parameter selection. In this paper, a description of circular milling is given, focusing on resulting engagement conditions. Regarding this, a test bench was designed to investigate the chip formation process in an analogy milling process. Furthermore, the methodology for the approach in the analogy process was developed. Results of a first test run in Inconel 718 verify the presented approach.

  17. Thermodynamic and structural properties of ball-milled mixtures composed of nano-structural graphite and alkali(-earth) metal hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaoka, Hiroki; Ichikawa, Takayuki; Fujii, Hironobu

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen desorption properties of mechanically milled materials composed of nano-structural hydrogenated-graphite (C nano H x ) and alkali(-earth) metal hydride (MH; M = Na, Mg and Ca) were investigated from the thermodynamic and structural points of view. The hydrogen desorption temperature for all the C nano H x and MH composites was obviously lower than that of the corresponding each hydride. In addition, the desorption of hydrocarbons from C nano H x was significantly suppressed by making composite of C nano H x with MH, even though C nano H x itself thermally desorbs a considerably large amount of hydrocarbons. These results indicate that an interaction exists between C nano H x and MH, and hydrogen in both the phases is destabilized by a close contact between polar C-H groups in C nano H x and the MH solid phase. Moreover, a new type of chemical bonding between the nano-structural carbon (C nano ) and the Li, Ca, or Mg metal atoms may be formed after hydrogen desorption. Thus, the above metal-C-H system would be recognized as a new family of H-storage materials

  18. Development of Six Sigma methodology for CNC milling process improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, M. N.; Rose, A. N. M.; Mohammed, N. Z.; Rashid, M. F. F. Ab

    2017-10-01

    Quality and productivity have been identified as an important role in any organization, especially for manufacturing sectors to gain more profit that leads to success of a company. This paper reports a work improvement project in Kolej Kemahiran Tinggi MARA Kuantan. It involves problem identification in production of “Khufi” product and proposing an effective framework to improve the current situation effectively. Based on the observation and data collection on the work in progress (WIP) product, the major problem has been identified related to function of the product which is the parts can’t assemble properly due to dimension of the product is out of specification. The six sigma has been used as a methodology to study and improve of the problems identified. Six Sigma is a highly statistical and data driven approach to solving complex business problems. It uses a methodical five phase approach define, measure, analysis, improve and control (DMAIC) to help understand the process and the variables that affect it so that can be optimized the processes. Finally, the root cause and solution for the production of “Khufi” problem has been identified and implemented then the result for this product was successfully followed the specification of fitting.

  19. A model biorefinery for avocado (Persea americana mill.) processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, Javier A; Rosenberg, Moshe; Castro, Eulogio; Cardona, Carlos A

    2017-11-01

    This research investigated and evaluated a biorefinery for processing avocado Hass variety into microencapsulated phenolic compounds extract, ethanol, oil and xylitol. Avocado was first characterized for its potential valuable compounds; then, the techno-economic and environmental aspects of the biorefinery were developed and finally the total production costs and potential environmental impact of the proposed biorefinery were investigated. Four scenarios of the biorefinery were evaluated with different extent of mass and energy integration as well as the incorporation of a cogeneration system. Results indicated that the main fatty acid in the pulp of the investigated avocado variety was oleic acid (50.96%) and that this fruit contained significant amount of holocellulose (52.88% and 54.36% in the peel and seed, respectively). Techno-economic and environmental assessment suggested an attractive opportunity for a biorefinery for complete utilization of the avocado fruit as well the importance of the level of integration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Modeling of Surface Geometric Structure State After Integratedformed Milling and Finish Burnishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berczyński, Stefan; Grochała, Daniel; Grządziel, Zenon

    2017-06-01

    The article deals with computer-based modeling of burnishing a surface previously milled with a spherical cutter. This method of milling leaves traces, mainly asperities caused by the cutting crossfeed and cutter diameter. The burnishing process - surface plastic treatment - is accompanied by phenomena that take place right in the burnishing ball-milled surface contact zone. The authors present the method for preparing a finite element model and the methodology of tests for the assessment of height parameters of a surface geometrical structure (SGS). In the physical model the workpieces had a cuboidal shape and these dimensions: (width × height × length) 2×1×4.5 mm. As in the process of burnishing a cuboidal workpiece is affected by plastic deformations, the nonlinearities of the milled item were taken into account. The physical model of the process assumed that the burnishing ball would be rolled perpendicularly to milling cutter linear traces. The model tests included the application of three different burnishing forces: 250 N, 500 N and 1000 N. The process modeling featured the contact and pressing of a ball into the workpiece surface till the desired force was attained, then the burnishing ball was rolled along the surface section of 2 mm, and the burnishing force was gradually reduced till the ball left the contact zone. While rolling, the burnishing ball turned by a 23° angle. The cumulative diagrams depict plastic deformations of the modeled surfaces after milling and burnishing with defined force values. The roughness of idealized milled surface was calculated for the physical model under consideration, i.e. in an elementary section between profile peaks spaced at intervals of crossfeed passes, where the milling feed fwm = 0.5 mm. Also, asperities after burnishing were calculated for the same section. The differences of the obtained values fall below 20% of mean values recorded during empirical experiments. The adopted simplification in after-milling

  1. Measuring Timber Truck Loads With Image Processing In Paper Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M. Santos; Carvalho, Fernando D.; Rodrigues, F. Carvalho; Goncalves, Ana N. R.

    1989-04-01

    The raw material for the paper industry is wood. To have an exact account of the stock of piled sawn tree trunks every truck load entering the plant's stockyard must be measured as to the amount of wood being brought in. Weighting down the trucks has its own problems, mainly, due to the high capacity of the tree trunks to absorb water. This problem is further enhanced when calculations must be made to arrive at the mass of sawn tree trunks which must go into the process of producing a certain quantity of paper pulp. The method presented here is based on two fixed cameras which take the image of the truck load. One takes a view of the trunks in order to get information on the average length of the tree trunks. The other obtains a side view which is digitised and by just discriminating against a grey level the area covered by the tree trunk cross section is measured. A simple arithmetic operation gives the volume of wood in the trunk. The same computer, a PC, will register the trucks particulars is almost independent of weather the wood is wet or dry and it serves trucks of any size.

  2. Simplification of the processing of milled aluminium powder and mechanical evaluation properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cintas, J.; Rodriguez, J. A.; Gallardo, J. M.; Herrera, E. J.

    2001-01-01

    An alternative powder.metallurgy consolidation method of milled aluminium (M Al) powder, consisting in a double cycle of cold pressing and vacuum sintering, has been developed. The aim of the present investigation is to simplify this consolidation method, from the original five steps to only three steps. This would be possible since milled powders soften during desassing, at high temperature. The mechanical properties of compacts (hardness at room and high temperature, ultimate tensile strength and elongation) obtained by the three-step and the five-step processing are comparable. This process could be ol special interest for the manufacturing of large series of small parts, such as are used in the automotive industry. (Author) 10 refs

  3. Finding of No Significant Impact, proposed remediation of the Maybell Uranium Mill Processing Site, Maybell, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0347) on the proposed surface remediation of the Maybell uranium mill processing site in Moffat County, Colorado. The mill site contains radioactively contaminated materials from processing uranium ore that would be stabilized in place at the existing tailings pile location. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, Public Law 91-190 (42 U.S.C. section 4321 et seq.), as amended. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  4. Research on on-line monitoring technology for steel ball's forming process based on load signal analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-jun; Ai, Chang-sheng; Men, Xiu-hua; Zhang, Cheng-liang; Zhang, Qi

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a novel on-line monitoring technology to obtain forming quality in steel ball's forming process based on load signal analysis method, in order to reveal the bottom die's load characteristic in initial cold heading forging process of steel balls. A mechanical model of the cold header producing process is established and analyzed by using finite element method. The maximum cold heading force is calculated. The results prove that the monitoring on the cold heading process with upsetting force is reasonable and feasible. The forming defects are inflected on the three feature points of the bottom die signals, which are the initial point, infection point, and peak point. A novel PVDF piezoelectric force sensor which is simple on construction and convenient on installation is designed. The sensitivity of the PVDF force sensor is calculated. The characteristics of PVDF force sensor are analyzed by FEM. The PVDF piezoelectric force sensor is fabricated to acquire the actual load signals in the cold heading process, and calibrated by a special device. The measuring system of on-line monitoring is built. The characteristics of the actual signals recognized by learning and identification algorithm are in consistence with simulation results. Identification of actual signals shows that the timing difference values of all feature points for qualified products are not exceed ±6 ms, and amplitude difference values are less than ±3%. The calibration and application experiments show that PVDF force sensor has good static and dynamic performances, and is competent at dynamic measuring on upsetting force. It greatly improves automatic level and machining precision. Equipment capacity factor with damages identification method depends on grade of steel has been improved to 90%.

  5. Fatty acid composition of maize germ oil from high-oil hybrids wet-milling processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Petar Lj.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize germ was obtained by wet-milling laboratory processing of domestic high-oil maize hybrids. After separation, the germ was subjected to extraction of maize oil. Fatty acid composition of maize germ oil was determined by gas chromatography. The results showed very high levels of unsaturated fatty acids and a constant sum of oleic and linoleic acids in oils of different maize hybrids.

  6. ANALYSIS OF THE ROLE OF AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES' IN FUNDING PROCESSING MILLS IN CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Adinya, I.B; Odey S.O.; Oniah M.O; Umeh G.N; Agiopu, B.F; Ogbonna ,K.I.

    2008-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the role of agricultural co-operative societies as institutional source of finance to processing mills in Cross River State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from a random sample of 150 respondents in the study area by means of structured questionnaire. The first stage involved random selection of fifteen local government areas from eighteen local government areas in Cross River State. This was followed by random selection of one village in each of the fifteen l...

  7. Tar balls are processed, weakly absorbing, primary aerosol particles formed downwind of boreal forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlacek, A. J., III; Buseck, P. R.; Adachi, K.; Kleinman, L. I.; Onasch, T. B.; Springston, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    Biomass burning is a major source of light-absorbing black and brown carbonaceous aerosols Brown carbon is a poorly characterized mixture that includes tar balls (TBs), a type of carbonaceous particle unique to biomass burning. Here we describe the first atmospheric observations of the formation and evolution of TBs Aerosol particles were collected on TEM grids during individual aircraft transects at varying downwind distances from the Colockum Tarp wildland fire. The TEM images show primary particles transforming from viscous, impact-deformed particles to spherical TBs. The number fraction of TBs in the wildfire smoke plume increased from less than 5% in samples collected close to the emission source to greater than 40% after 3 hours of aging, with little change in downwind TB diameters. The TB mass fraction increased from 2% near the fire to 23±9% downwind. Single-scatter albedo determined from scattering and absorption measurements increased slightly with downwind distance. Mie calculations show this observation is consistent with weak light absorbance by TBs (m=1.56 - 0.02i) but not consistent with order-of-magnitude stronger absorption observed in different settings. The field-derived TB mass fractions reported here indicate that this particle type should be accounted for in biomass-burn emission inventories.

  8. Processing of an AISI D2 tool steel by high-energy milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spagnol, N.J.R.; Araujo, G.F.; Vurobi Junior, S.; Cintho, O.M.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Chips of machining of AISI D2 steel were processed in Spex high-energy mill. The powder obtained was analyzed by x-ray diffraction, and then compressed in the form of discs of 8mm in diameter. The samples were treated at 1200 deg C for 1 hour under vacuum atmosphere for sintering. Then specimens were subjected to annealing, quenching and tempering at 400°C and 525 deg C. Along with each disc, a sample of as-received steel was subjected to the same heat treatment to evaluate the final microstructures. After metallographic preparation, samples were etched with Berah's reagent, characterized by optical microscopy, Vickers hardness, quantitative metallography and scanning electron microscopy with micro analysis and mapping by EDS. Specimens from high energy milling had reduction in prior austenitic grain size and more refined carbides and better distributed in the microstructure of steel. (author)

  9. Ultrafiltration of thin stillage from conventional and e-mill dry grind processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Amit; Dien, Bruce S; Belyea, Ronald L; Wang, Ping; Singh, Vijay; Tumbleson, M E; Rausch, Kent D

    2011-05-01

    We used ultrafiltration (UF) to evaluate membrane filtration characteristics of thin stillage and determine solids and nutrient compositions of filtered streams. To obtain thin stillage, corn was fermented using laboratory methods. UF experiments were conducted in batch mode under constant temperature and flow rate conditions. Two regenerated cellulose membranes (10 and 100 kDa molecular weight cutoffs) were evaluated with the objective of retaining solids as well as maximizing permeate flux. Optimum pressures for 10 and 100 kDa membranes were 207 and 69 kPa, respectively. Total solids, ash, and neutral detergent fiber contents of input TS streams of dry grind and E-Mill processes were similar; however, fat and protein contents were different (p stillage fractionation had higher mean total solids contents (27.6% to 27.8%) compared to E-Mill (22.2% to 23.4%). Total solids in retentate streams were found similar to those from commercial evaporators used in industry (25% to 35% total solids). Fat contents of retentate streams ranged from 16.3% to 17.5% for the conventional process. A 2% increment in fat concentration was observed in the E-Mill retentate stream. Thin stillage ash content was reduced 60% in retentate streams.

  10. Color, TOC and AOX removals from pulp mill effluent by advanced oxidation processes: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalkaya, Ebru Cokay; Kargi, Fikret

    2007-01-01

    Pulp mill effluent containing toxic chemicals was treated by different advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) consisting of treatments by hydrogen peroxide, Fenton's reagent (H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ ), UV, UV/H 2 O 2 , photo-Fenton (UV/H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ ), ozonation and peroxone (ozone/H 2 O 2 ) in laboratory-scale reactors for color, total organic carbon (TOC) and adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) removals from the pulp mill effluent. Effects of some operating parameters such as the initial pH, oxidant and catalyst concentrations on TOC, color, AOX removals were investigated. Almost every method used resulted in some degree of color removal from the pulp mill effluent. However, the Fenton's reagent utilizing H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ resulted in the highest color, TOC and AOX removals under acidic conditions when compared with the other AOPs tested. Approximately, 88% TOC, 85% color and 89% AOX removals were obtained by the Fenton's reagent at pH 5 within 30 min. Photo-Fenton process yielded comparable TOC (85%), color (82%) and AOX (93%) removals within 5 min due to oxidations by UV light in addition to the Fenton's reagent. Fast oxidation reactions by the photo-Fenton treatment makes this approach more favorable as compared to the others used

  11. Effect of Milling Condition on the Microstructure and the Properties of Nano structured Copper Tungsten Carbide Composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahani Yusoff; Zuhailawati Hussain

    2011-01-01

    In this work, in-situ Cu-WC composite has been fabricated by high energy milling followed by sintering. Cu, W and C mixture were mechanically alloyed in a planetary ball mill for 40 h at various milling speeds. Cu-W-C composite powders were cold compacted and sintered in argon ambient. Milled powder and sintered Cu-W-C composite were characterized in terms of Xray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and its properties. The result showed that carbide phases are only detected after sintering process. Greater amount of grain refinement during milling generates very high internal strain which reduced Cu crystallite size. It was found that formation of metastable, W 2 C has taken place before the formation of WC. With the presence of WC, the composite become increasingly harden with the increased of milling speed. Increasing milling speed also found to lower the electrical conductivity. (author)

  12. Synthesis behavior of nanocrystalline Al-Al2O3 composite during low time mechanical milling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alizadeh, Mostafa; Aliabadi, Morteza Mirzaei

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → In the low time milling the effect of Al 2 O 3 amount is investigated → Al 2 O 3 particles are distributed uniformly in the Al matrix → In the low time milling it is possible to produce nanostructured composite powder → Median size and bulk density measurements demonstrate reaching the steady state. - Abstract: In this work, four different volume fractions of Al 2 O 3 (10, 20, 30 and 40 vol.%) were mixed with the fine Al powder and the powder blends were milled for 5 h. Scanning electron microscopy analysis, particle size analysis and bulk density measurements were used to investigate the morphological changes and achieving the steady state conditions. The results showed that increasing the Al 2 O 3 content can provide the steady state particle size in 5 h milling process. It was found that increasing the volume fraction of Al 2 O 3 leads to increasing the uniformity of Al 2 O 3 . Standard deviations of microhardness measurements confirmed this result. The XRD pattern and XRF investigations depicted that increasing the Al 2 O 3 content causes an increase in the crystal defects, micro-strain and Fe contamination during 5 h milling process of nanocrystalline composite powders while the grain size is decreased. To investigate the effect of milling time, Al-30 vol.% Al 2 O 3 (which achieved steady state during 5 h milling process) was milled for 1-4 h. The results depicted that the milling time lower than 5 h, do not achieve to steady state conditions.

  13. Artificial intelligence versus statistical modeling and optimization of continuous bead milling process for bacterial cell lysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafiul Haque

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFor a commercially viable recombinant intracellular protein production process, efficient cell lysis and protein release is a major bottleneck. The recovery of recombinant protein, cholesterol oxidase (COD was studied in a continuous bead milling process. A full factorial Response Surface Model (RSM design was employed and compared to Artificial Neural Networks coupled with Genetic Algorithm (ANN-GA. Significant process variables, cell slurry feed rate (A, bead load (B, cell load (C and run time (D, were investigated and optimized for maximizing COD recovery. RSM predicted an optimum of feed rate of 310.73 mL/h, bead loading of 79.9% (v/v, cell loading OD600 nm of 74, and run time of 29.9 min with a recovery of ~3.2 g/L. ANN coupled with GA predicted a maximum COD recovery of ~3.5 g/L at an optimum feed rate (mL/h: 258.08, bead loading (%, v/v: 80%, cell loading (OD600 nm: 73.99, and run time of 32 min. An overall 3.7-fold increase in productivity is obtained when compared to a batch process. Optimization and comparison of statistical vs. artificial intelligence techniques in continuous bead milling process has been attempted for the very first time in our study. We were able to successfully represent the complex non-linear multivariable dependence of enzyme recovery on bead milling parameters. The quadratic second order response functions are not flexible enough to represent such complex non-linear dependence. ANN being a summation function of multiple layers are capable to represent complex non-linear dependence of variables in this case; enzyme recovery as a function of bead milling parameters. Since GA can even optimize discontinuous functions present study cites a perfect example of using machine learning (ANN in combination with evolutionary optimization (GA for representing undefined biological functions which is the case for common industrial processes involving biological moieties.

  14. Flat Milling Process Simulation Taking into Consideration a Dependence of Dynamic Characteristics of the Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Zavarzin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The milling process inherently is on/off, and therefore inevitably there is vibration excitation in the Machine/Fixture/Tool/Part (MFTP system, which results in a different quality of the treated surface, depending on the machining conditions. The objective is to identify effective operation conditions to cut a part on the 3-way easy class machines when there is no unwanted regenerative self-oscillation, leading to a significant deterioration in the quality of the surface machined. The paper describes vibrations arising during a milling process and their effect on the surface shape and the working tool. To solve this problem we apply a numerical simulation method of cutting dynamics, which consist of 4 modules. The main module is an algorithm of the geometric simulation. The second module is a phenomenological model of the cutting forces. Two remaining modules are responsible for dynamics simulation of the part machined and the cutting tool under time-varying cutting forces. The calculated values are transferred back to the geometric modelling algorithm at each step in time. Thus, the model is closed and allows us to take into account an effect of delay in a dynamic system. A finite element machine model to perform calculation in 3DCUT software has been a selected and compiled. The paper presents geometrical mapping of the machining process and natural frequencies and shapes found for the finite element model. Conducting multivariate calculations allowed us to analyse the dependences of a dynamic behaviour of the system on changing spindle speed. The multivariate modelling results are presented as the Poincare maps for a moving free end of the tool. These Poincare maps allow us to select the operation conditions domains coming both with forced vibration and with self-excited oscillations. On the Poincaré map for two operation conditions of different domains there are graphics of the cutting forces, a thickness of the cutting layer, tool

  15. Investigation of planetary milling for nano-silicon carbide reinforced aluminium metal matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollo, Lauri, E-mail: lauri.kollo@staff.ttu.e [Laboratory of Advanced Materials Processing, EMPA, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, 3602 Thun (Switzerland); Department of Materials Engineering, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia); Leparoux, Marc; Bradbury, Christopher R.; Jaeggi, Christian [Laboratory of Advanced Materials Processing, EMPA, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, 3602 Thun (Switzerland); Carreno-Morelli, Efrain; Rodriguez-Arbaizar, Mikel [University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland, Design and Materials Unit, 1950 Sion (Switzerland)

    2010-01-21

    High-energy planetary milling was used for mixing aluminium powders with 1 vol.% of silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles. A number of milling parameters were modified for constituting the relationship between the energy input from the balls and the hardness of the bulk nanocomposite materials. It was shown that mixing characteristics and reaction kinetics with stearic acid as process control agent can be estimated by normalised input energy from the milling bodies. For this, the additional parameter characterising the vial filling was determined experimentally. Depending on the ball size, a local minimum in filling parameter was found, laying at 25 or 42% filling of the vial volume for the balls with diameter of 10 and 20 mm, respectively. These regions should be avoided to achieve the highest milling efficiency.After a hot compaction, fourfold difference of hardness for different milling conditions was detected. Therewith the hardness of the Al-1 vol.% nanoSiC composite could be increased from 47 HV{sub 0.5} of pure aluminium to 163 HV{sub 0.5} when milling at the highest input energy levels.

  16. A study of Al-Mo powder processing as a possible way to corrosion resistent aluminum-alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Corrêa Rodrigues

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Elementary Al and Mo powder mixtures have been processed by high energy ball milling up to milling times of 100 hours. The shift of the pitting potential and the X ray analysis of green milled samples showed that part of the Mo has formed a supersaturated solid solution of Mo in Al. Elementary Mo powder, however, was still present after 100 hours of milling. Sintering led to the formation of the intermetallic Al12Mo phase.

  17. Investigation on Effect of Material Hardness in High Speed CNC End Milling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Dhandapani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper analyzes the effects of material properties on surface roughness, material removal rate, and tool wear on high speed CNC end milling process with various ferrous and nonferrous materials. The challenge of material specific decision on the process parameters of spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut, coolant flow rate, cutting tool material, and type of coating for the cutting tool for required quality and quantity of production is addressed. Generally, decision made by the operator on floor is based on suggested values of the tool manufacturer or by trial and error method. This paper describes effect of various parameters on the surface roughness characteristics of the precision machining part. The prediction method suggested is based on various experimental analysis of parameters in different compositions of input conditions which would benefit the industry on standardization of high speed CNC end milling processes. The results show a basis for selection of parameters to get better results of surface roughness values as predicted by the case study results.

  18. Investigation on Effect of Material Hardness in High Speed CNC End Milling Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhandapani, N V; Thangarasu, V S; Sureshkannan, G

    2015-01-01

    This research paper analyzes the effects of material properties on surface roughness, material removal rate, and tool wear on high speed CNC end milling process with various ferrous and nonferrous materials. The challenge of material specific decision on the process parameters of spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut, coolant flow rate, cutting tool material, and type of coating for the cutting tool for required quality and quantity of production is addressed. Generally, decision made by the operator on floor is based on suggested values of the tool manufacturer or by trial and error method. This paper describes effect of various parameters on the surface roughness characteristics of the precision machining part. The prediction method suggested is based on various experimental analysis of parameters in different compositions of input conditions which would benefit the industry on standardization of high speed CNC end milling processes. The results show a basis for selection of parameters to get better results of surface roughness values as predicted by the case study results.

  19. Rolling process simulation of a pair-crossed hot strip mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shaojie; Xu Jianzhong; Liu Xianghua; Wang Guodong

    2000-01-01

    Process simulation can help optimize the operating parameters aiming to improve the quality of rolled products. In this paper, software in Visual Basic language is developed to simulate the hot rolling process of a pair-crossed mill. The strip temperature is calculated by considering air cooling, water cooling, heat generation and conduction.The production parameters including rolling speeds, resistance to deformation, rolling forces, drive torques and powers are evaluated by mathematical models and their parameter identification support tools. The deformation of roll stack is calculated by influential function method. The roll temperature and expansion are calculated by finite differential method, and the roll wear is described by empirical formula. Based on these calculations as well as the effect of heredity is taken into account, the strip crown and flatness then can be obtained. The results show that the simulation software has friendly user interface, high accuracy and practicability. It can be served as a basis for the mill design and optimization of process parameters to acquire high quality of hot rolled strip. (author)

  20. Characterization of Irreversible Fouling after Ultrafiltration of Thermomechanical Pulp Mill Process Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuvander, Johan; Zarebska, Agata; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus

    2018-01-01

    process streams is fouling of the membranes. Fouling not only increases operating costs but also reduces the operating time of the membrane plant. When optimizing the membrane cleaning method, it is important to know which compounds cause the fouling. In this work fouling of an ultrafiltration membrane...... was studied. The fouling propensity of untreated process water and microfiltrated process water was compared. Fouled membranes were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Acid hydrolysis of membranes exposed to untreated process......Large volumes of wastewater with dissolved wood components are treated in wastewater treatment plants at thermomechanical pulp mills. It has been shown previously that hemicelluloses in these wastewater streams can be recovered by membrane filtration. A serious obstacle when treating lignocellulose...

  1. Structural and magnetic properties of Fe60Al40 alloys prepared by means of a magnetic mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal-Correa, R.; Rosales-Rivera, A.; Pineda-Gomez, P.; Salazar, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    A study on synthesis, structural and magnetic characterization of Fe 60 Al 40 (at.%) alloys prepared by means of mechanical alloying process is presented. The mechanical alloying was performed using a milling device with magnetically controlled ball movement (Uni-Ball-Mill 5 equipment) at several milling times. The characterization was carried out via X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The effects of milling time on the structural state, morphological evolution and magnetic behaviour of the Fe 60 Al 40 (at.%) alloys are discussed. Besides, in this current study we emphasize the result that indicating a ferro-para-ferromagnetic transition from a correlation between X-ray diffraction and magnetization data.

  2. Reclamation from palm oil mill effluent using an integrated zero discharge membrane-based process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad A.L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research emphasizes eloquently on membrane technology for treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME as it is the Malaysia’s largest and most important agro based industry. Findings established significant quality improvement with an efficient recovery of water from palm oil mill via innovative membrane application. Conventional bio-methods, whilst adhering to the Department of Environment’s (DOE discharge regulations, produces brownish liquid which pales in comparison to the crystal clear water obtained through membrane treatment. The pre-treatment process consists of coagulation-flocculation using green environmental coagulant bases such as Moringa oleifera (MO seeds. The ultrafiltration polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF and thin film composite (TFC reverse osmosis were vital for the membrane processes. The system gave 99% suspended solids reduction in suspended solid and 78% of water present was successfully recovered. This technology guarantees water recovery with drinking water quality; meeting the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA standard or could be recycled into the plant with sludge utilization for palm oil estates, thus enabling the concept of zero discharge to be executed in the industries. In addition, green and healthy antioxidants such as oil and beta-carotene can be recovered from POME further demonstrate. Silica gel showed better performance in separation of carotenes from oil at temperature 40°C using adsorption chromatography with 1154.55 ppm. The attractiveness of this technology, enabling the utilization of reuse of agricultural waste into potentially value added products.

  3. Integrating the processes of a Kraft pulp and paper mill and its supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesfun, Sennai; Toffolo, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A process integration model that establishes material stream connections among typical Nordic forest industries is developed. • Potential benefit of the operating the different industries in one site is studied using pinch analysis. • Different scenarios considered to assess impact of prioritization on how to utilize excess biomass. • Results indicate large potential for improved biomass resource utilization. - Abstract: This paper investigates the possibility of combining different forest industries (a pulp and paper mill, its supply chain, and a wood-pellet plant) into an integrated industrial site in which they share a common heat and power utility. Advanced process integration and optimization techniques are used to study the site from both material and energy viewpoints. An existing pulp and paper mill is used as the site core plant and its pulp and paper production rates are kept fixed as they are in reality, while the other material flow links among the plants are based on the current industrial situation in Sweden. Different scenarios are evaluated in order to reflect the two main objectives that can be pursued (increased electricity production or biomass resource saving) and the two technologies that can be considered for the shared CHP system (boilers and product gas fired gas turbines). The corresponding non-integrated (standalone) configurations are compared to these scenarios to quantify the potential benefits of the integration. Investment opportunity is also calculated for the considered scenarios as an indicator of the economic convenience

  4. Establishing Relationship between Process Parameters and Temperature during High Speed End Milling of Soda Lime Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasima Bagum, Mst.; Konneh, Mohamed; Yeakub Ali, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    In glass machining crack free surface is required in biomedical and optical industry. Ductile mode machining allows materials removal from brittle materials in a ductile manner rather than by brittle fracture. Although end milling is a versatile process, it has not been applied frequently for machining soda lime glass. Soda lime glass is a strain rate and temperature sensitive material; especially around glass transition temperature Tg, ductility increased and strength decreased. Hence, it is envisaged that the generated temperature by high-speed end milling (HSEM) could be brought close to the glass transition temperature, which promote ductile machining. In this research, the objective is to investigate the effect of high speed machining parameters on generated temperature. The cutting parameters were optimized to generate temperature around glass transition temperature of soda lime using response surface methodology (RSM). Result showed that the most influencing process parameter is feed rate followed by spindle speed and depth of cut to generate temperature. Confirmation test showed that combination of spindle speed 30,173 rpm, feed rate 13.2 mm/min and depth of cut 37.68 µm generate 635°C, hence ductile chip removal with machined surface Ra 0.358 µm was possible to achieve.

  5. Converting the Caetité Mill Process to Enhance Uranium Recovery and Expand Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomiero, L. A.; Scassiotti Filho, W.; Veras, A., E-mail: gomiero@inb.gov.br [Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil S/A — INB, Caetité, BA (Brazil); Cunha, J. W. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear-IEN/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Morais, C. A. [Centro do Desenvolvimento da Tec. Nuclear-CDTN/CNEN, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    The Caetité uranium mill was commissioned in 2000 to produce about 340 t U per year from an uranium ore averaging 0.29% U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. This production is sufficient to supply the two operating nuclear power plants in the country. As the Brazilian government has recently confirmed its plan to start building another ones from 2009, the uranium production will have to expand its capacity in the next two years. This paper describes the changes in the milling process that are being evaluated in order to not only increase the production but also the uranium recovery, to fulfil the increasing local demand. The heap leaching process will be changed to conventional tank agitated leaching of ground ore slurry in sulphuric acid medium. Batch and pilot plant essays have shown that the uranium recovery can increase from the 77% historical average to about 93%. As the use of sodium chloride as the stripping agent has presented detrimental effects in the extraction and stripping process, two alternatives are being evaluated for the uranium recovery from the PLS: (a) uranium peroxide precipitation at controlled pH from a PLS that was firstly neutralized and filtered. Batch essays have shown good results with a final calcined precipitate averaging 99% U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. Conversely the results obtained at the first pilot plant essay has shown that the precipitation conditions of the continuous process calls for further evaluation. The pilot plant is being improved and another essay will be carried out. (b) uranium extraction with a tertiary amine followed by stripping with concentrated sulphuric acid solution. Efforts are being made to recover the excess sulphuric acid from the pregnant stripping solution to enhance the economic viability of the process and to avoid the formation of a large quantity of gypsum in the pre-neutralization step before the uranium peroxide precipitation. (author)

  6. Chatter detection in milling process based on VMD and energy entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changfu; Zhu, Lida; Ni, Chenbing

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to detect the milling chatter based on Variational Mode Decomposition (VMD) and energy entropy. VMD has already been employed in feature extraction from non-stationary signals. The parameters like number of modes (K) and the quadratic penalty (α) need to be selected empirically when raw signal is decomposed by VMD. Aimed at solving the problem how to select K and α, the automatic selection method of VMD's based on kurtosis is proposed in this paper. When chatter occurs in the milling process, energy will be absorbed to chatter frequency bands. To detect the chatter frequency bands automatically, the chatter detection method based on energy entropy is presented. The vibration signal containing chatter frequency is simulated and three groups of experiments which represent three cutting conditions are conducted. To verify the effectiveness of method presented by this paper, chatter feather extraction has been successfully employed on simulation signals and experimental signals. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively detect the chatter.

  7. Olive oil enriched in lycopene from tomato by-product through a co-milling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendini, Alessandra; Di Lecce, Giuseppe; Valli, Enrico; Barbieri, Sara; Tesini, Federica; Toschi, Tullia Gallina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to produce an olive oil (OO) naturally enriched with antioxidants, recovering carotenoids, in particular lycopene, using an industrial by-product of tomato seeds and skin. For this purpose, a technological process in a low-scale industrial plant to co-mill olives and tomato by-product in de-frosted or freeze-dried forms was applied and studied with respect to control samples. Preliminary results obtained from two different experiments were carried out by 40 kg of cultivar Correggiolo olives and 60 kg of olive blends from different cultivars. In both the experiments, the co-milling showed significant enrichment in carotenoids, especially in lycopene (mean values of 5.4 and 7.2 mg/kg oil from defrosted and freeze-dried by-products, respectively). The experimental results demonstrated the possibility to obtain a new functional food naturally enriched in antioxidant compounds, which might be marketed as "OO dressing enriched in lycopene" or "condiment produced using olives and tomato by-product".

  8. Prediction of Surface Roughness in End Milling Process Using Intelligent Systems: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Badie Sharkawy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A study is presented to model surface roughness in end milling process. Three types of intelligent networks have been considered. They are (i radial basis function neural networks (RBFNs, (ii adaptive neurofuzzy inference systems (ANFISs, and (iii genetically evolved fuzzy inference systems (G-FISs. The machining parameters, namely, the spindle speed, feed rate, and depth of cut have been used as inputs to model the workpiece surface roughness. The goal is to get the best prediction accuracy. The procedure is illustrated using experimental data of end milling 6061 aluminum alloy. The three networks have been trained using experimental training data. After training, they have been examined using another set of data, that is, validation data. Results are compared with previously published results. It is concluded that ANFIS networks may suffer the local minima problem, and genetic tuning of fuzzy networks cannot insure perfect optimality unless suitable parameter setting (population size, number of generations etc. and tuning range for the FIS, parameters are used which can be hardly satisfied. It is shown that the RBFN model has the best performance (prediction accuracy in this particular case.

  9. Energetic and exergetic assessment of a trass mill process in a cement plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sogut, M.Z.; Oktay, Z.; Hepbasli, A.

    2009-01-01

    Cement production has become one of the most intensive energy industries in the world. For producing it, addition materials have been widely used in cement factories. The main objective of this study is to assess the performance of a trass mill in a cement plant based on the actual operational data using energy and exergy analysis method. In this regard, the values for energy consumption and losses throughout the production process are described. In the process, the overall exergy efficiencies are found to be slightly less than the corresponding energy efficiencies; e.g. 74% and 10.68% for energy and exergy efficiency, respectively. Using energy recovery systems, waste heat energy may be captured, while energy and exergy efficiency values can be improved to 84% and 48%, respectively. It may also be concluded that the analyses reported here will provide the investigators with knowledge about how effectively and efficiently a sector uses its energy resources.

  10. Influence of the worn tool affected by built-up edge (BUE) on micro end-milling process performance: A 3D finite element modeling investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoudinejad, Ali; Tosello, Guido; Annoni, Massimiliano

    2017-01-01

    on the process performance is investigated by comparing the predicted 3d chip flow shape, burr formation and cutting forces with experiments conducted on an ultra-high precision micro milling center. Simulations indicate that BUE has significant impact on the chip shape and chip load for different teeth......Micro milling process has been utilized for several decades due to the flexibility of the process in producing complex components. The small size of the process makes the comprehension of cutting phenomenon details more difficult. This study presents a 3D finite element modeling (3D FEM) approach...... for the micro end-milling process of Aluminum material (Al6082-T6). 3D FEM simulations are carried out in full slot micro end-milling and contour up milling. The model first implements the actual tool geometry and then the effect of typical built-up edge (BUE) on the milling tool. The influence of BUE...

  11. Influence of processing medium on frictional wear properties of ball bearing steel prepared by laser surface melting coupled with bionic principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Hong; Wang Chengtao; Guo Qingchun; Yu Jiaxiang; Wang Mingxing; Liao Xunlong; Zhao Yu; Ren Luquan

    2010-01-01

    Coupling with bionic principles, an attempt to improve the wear resistance of ball bearing steel (GCr15) with biomimetic units on the surface was made using a pulsed Nd: YAG laser. Air and water film was employed as processing medium, respectively. The microstructures of biomimeitc units were examined by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction was used to describe the microstructure and identify the phases as functions of different mediums as well as water film with different thicknesses. The results indicated that the microstructure zones in the biomimetic specimens processed with water film were more refined and had better wear resistance increased by 55.8% in comparison with that processed in air; a significant improvement in microhardness was achieved by laser surface melting. The application of water film provided considerable microstructural changes and much more regular grain shape in biomimetic units, which played a key role in improving the wear resistance of ball bearing steel.

  12. Synthetic olive mill wastewater treatment by Fenton's process in batch and continuous reactors operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Bruno M; Rodrigues, Carmen S D; Madeira, Luís M

    2017-11-04

    Degradation of total phenol (TPh) and organic matter, (expressed as total organic carbon TOC), of a simulated olive mill wastewater was evaluated by the Fenton oxidation process under batch and continuous mode conditions. A mixture of six phenolic acids usually found in these agro-industrial wastewaters was used for this purpose. The study focused on the optimization of key operational parameters of the Fenton process in a batch reactor, namely Fe 2+ dosage, hydrogen peroxide concentration, pH, and reaction temperature. On the assessment of the process efficiency, > 99% of TPh and > 56% of TOC removal were attained when [Fe 2+ ] = 100 ppm, [H 2 O 2 ] = 2.0 g/L, T = 30 °C, and initial pH = 5.0, after 300 min of reaction. Under those operational conditions, experiments on a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) were performed for different space-time values (τ). TOC and TPh removals of 47.5 and 96.9%, respectively, were reached at steady-state (for τ = 120 min). High removal of COD (> 75%) and BOD 5 (> 70%) was achieved for both batch and CSTR optimum conditions; analysis of the BOD 5 /COD ratio also revealed an increase in the effluent's biodegradability. Despite the high removal of lumped parameters, the treated effluent did not met the Portuguese legal limits for direct discharge of wastewaters into water bodies, which indicates that coupled chemical-biological process may be the best solution for real olive mill wastewater treatment.

  13. Improved oral bioavailability of probucol by dry media-milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Yang, Yan; Zhao, Meihui; Xu, Hui; Ma, Junyuan; Wang, Shaoning

    2017-09-01

    The polymer/probucol co-milled mixtures were prepared to improve drug dissolution rate and oral bioavailability. Probucol, a BCS II drug, was co-milled together with Copovidone (Kollidon VA64, VA64), Soluplus, or MCC using the dry media-milling process with planetary ball-milling equipment. The properties of the milled mixtures including morphology, crystal form, vitro drug dissolution and in vivo oral bioavailability in rats were evaluated. Probucol existed as an amorphous in the matrix of the co-milled mixtures containing VA64, which helped to enhance drug dissolution. The ternary mixture composed of VA64, RH40, and probucol showed increased dissolution rates in both sink and non-sink conditions. It also had a higher oral bioavailability compared to the reference formulation. Dry-media milling of binary or ternary mixtures composed of drug, polymer and surfactant possibly have wide applications to improve dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of water-insoluble drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Kinetics of pulp mill effluent treatment by ozone-based processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Chun-Han; Hsieh, Po-Hung; Chang, Meng-Wen; Chern, Jia-Ming; Chiang, Shih-Min; Tzeng, Chewn-Jeng

    2009-01-01

    The wastewaters generated from wood pulping and paper production processes are traditionally treated by biological and physicochemical processes. In order to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color to meet increasingly strict discharge standards, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are being adapted as polishing treatment units. Various ozone-based processes were used in this study to treat simulated wastewaters prepared from black liquor from a hardwood Kraft pulp mill in Taiwan. The experimental results showed that the COD and color were primarily removed by direct ozone oxidation and activated carbon adsorption. While the addition of activated carbon could enhance the COD and color removal during ozonation, the addition of hydrogen peroxide improved the color removal only. For the various ozone-based treatment processes, kinetic models were developed to satisfactorily predict the COD and color removal rates. According to the kinetic parameters obtained from the various ozone-based processes, the enhanced COD and color removal of ozonation in the presence of activated carbon was attributed to the regeneration of the activated carbon by ozonation. These kinetic models can be used for reactor design and process design to treat pulping wastewater using ozone-based processes.

  15. C, N co-doped TiO{sub 2}/TiC{sub 0.7}N{sub 0.3} composite coatings prepared from TiC{sub 0.7}N{sub 0.3} powder using ball milling followed by oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Liang, E-mail: haoliang@tust.edu.cn [Tianjin Key Lab of Integrated Design and On-line Monitoring for Light Industry & Food Machinery and Equipment, Tianjin (China); College of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, No. 1038 Dagu Nanlu, Hexi District, Tianjin 300222 (China); Wang, Zhenwei, E-mail: 1004329228@qq.com [School of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Weihai, No. 2, Wenhua West Road, Weihai 264209 (China); Zheng, Yaoqing, E-mail: 13612177268@163.com [College of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, No. 1038 Dagu Nanlu, Hexi District, Tianjin 300222 (China); Li, Qianqian, E-mail: 1482471595@qq.com [College of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, No. 1038 Dagu Nanlu, Hexi District, Tianjin 300222 (China); Guan, Sujun, E-mail: sujunguan1221@gmail.com [College of Mechanical Engineering & Graduate School, Chiba University, 1-33, Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Zhao, Qian, E-mail: zhaoqian@tust.edu.cn [Tianjin Key Lab of Integrated Design and On-line Monitoring for Light Industry & Food Machinery and Equipment, Tianjin (China); College of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, No. 1038 Dagu Nanlu, Hexi District, Tianjin 300222 (China); Cheng, Lijun, E-mail: chenglijun@tust.edu.cn [Tianjin Key Lab of Integrated Design and On-line Monitoring for Light Industry & Food Machinery and Equipment, Tianjin (China); College of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, No. 1038 Dagu Nanlu, Hexi District, Tianjin 300222 (China); Lu, Yun, E-mail: luyun@faculty.chiba-u.jp [College of Mechanical Engineering & Graduate School, Chiba University, 1-33, Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Liu, Jizi, E-mail: jzliu@njust.edu.cn [Herbert Gleiter Institute of Nanoscience, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, No. 200, Xiaolingwei Street, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}/TiC{sub 0.7}N{sub 0.3} coatings were prepared by ball milling followed by oxidation. • In situ co-doping of C and N with simultaneous TiO{sub 2} formation was observed. • Improved photocatalytic activity under UV/visible light was noticed. • Synergism in co-doping and heterojunction formation promoted carrier separation. - Abstract: Ball milling followed by heat oxidation was used to prepared C, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} coatings on the surfaces of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} balls from TiC{sub 0.7}N{sub 0.3} powder. The as-prepared coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer (UV–vis). The results show that continuous TiC{sub 0.7}N{sub 0.3} coatings were formed after ball milling. C, N co-doped TiO{sub 2}/TiC{sub 0.7}N{sub 0.3} composite coatings were prepared after the direct oxidization of TiC{sub 0.7}N{sub 0.3} coatings in the atmosphere. However, TiO{sub 2} was hardly formed in the surface layer of TiC{sub 0.7}N{sub 0.3} coatings within a depth less than 10 nm during the heat oxidation of TiC{sub 0.7}N{sub 0.3} coatings in carbon powder. Meanwhile, the photocatalytic activity evaluation of these coatings was conducted under the irradiation of UV and visible light. All the coatings showed photocatalytic activity in the degradation of MB no matter under the irradiation of UV or visible light. The C, N co-doped TiO{sub 2}/TiC{sub 0.7}N{sub 0.3} composite coatings showed the most excellent performance. The enhancement under visible light irradiation should attribute to the co-doping of carbon and nitrogen, which enhances the absorption of visible light. The improvement of photocatalytic activity under UV irradiation should attribute to the synergistic effect of C, N co-doping, the formation of rutile-anatase mixed phases and the TiO{sub 2}/TiC{sub 0.7}N{sub 0.3} composite microstructure.

  16. Monitoring alloy formation during mechanical alloying process by x-ray diffraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Kadir Masrom; Noraizam Md Diah; Mazli Mustapha

    2002-01-01

    Monitoring alloying (MA) is a novel processing technique that use high energy impact ball mill to produce alloys with enhanced properties and microscopically homogeneous materials starting from various powder mixtures. Mechanical alloying process was originally developed to produce oxide dispersion strengthened nickel superalloys. In principal, in high-energy ball milling process, alloy is formed by the result of repeated welding, fracturing and rewelding of powder particles in a high energy ball mill. In this process a powder mixture in a ball mill is subjected to high-energy collisions among balls. MA has been shown to be capable of synthesizing a variety of materials. It is known to be capable to prepare equilibrium and non-equilibrium phases starting from blended elemental or prealloyed powders. The process ability to produce highly metastable materials such as amorphous alloys and nanostructured materials has made this process attractive and it has been considered as a promising material processing technique that could be used to produce many advanced materials at low cost. The present study explores the conditions under which aluminum alloys formation occurs by ball milling of blended aluminum and its alloying elements powders. In this work, attempt was made in producing aluminum 2024 alloys by milling of blended elemental aluminum powder of 2024 composition in a stainless steel container under argon atmosphere for up to 210 minutes. X-ray diffraction together with thermal analysis techniques has been used to monitor phase changes in the milled powder. Results indicate that, using our predetermined milling parameters, alloys were formed after 120 minutes milling. The thermal analysis data was also presented in this report. (Author)

  17. Processing radioactive wastes and uranium mill tailings for safe ecologically-acceptable disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manchak, F.

    1985-01-01

    Radioactive and associated chemical contaminants present in uranium mill tailings, for example, are isolated from the environment. A matrix product is formed by combining selected clays and lime with the soluble radioactive and chemical contaminants. The clays absorb the majority of all the contaminants. The lime neutralizes the contaminants and cements the clay silicates and absorbed contaminants. The resulting product is of a matrix-like nature and is reverted into a limestone by the uptake of carbon dioxide in a recarbonization process. The radionuclides and chemical contaminants in the resulting product are converted into insoluble oxides or hydroxides which do not appreciably leach out into the ground water. The release of radon gasses is substantially inhibited in the final product, and the release of radon gasses is virtually nonexistent in the final limestone

  18. Performance of Silicon carbide whisker reinforced ceramic inserts on Inconel 718 in end milling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, M M; Joshua, C X H

    2016-01-01

    An experimental investigation is planned in order to study the machinability of Inconel 718 with silicon carbide whisker reinforced ceramic inserts in end milling process. The relationship between the cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut against the response factors are studied to show the level of significance of each parameter. The cutting parameters are optimized by using Taguchi method. Implementing analysis of variance, the parameter which influences the surface roughness the most is determined to be the cutting speed, followed by the feed rate and depth of cut. Meanwhile, the optimal cutting condition is determined to have high cutting speed, low feed rate, and high depth of cut in the range of selected parameters. (paper)

  19. Nanocrystallite characterization of milled simulated dry process fuel powders by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Ho Jin; Kang, Kwon Ho; Moon, Je Sun; Song, Kee Chan; Choi, Yong Nam

    2003-01-01

    The nano-scale crystallite sizes of simulated spent fuel powders were measured by the neutron diffraction line broadening method in order to analyze the sintering behavior of the dry process fuel. The mixed U0 2 and fission product oxide powders were dry-milled in an attritor for 30, 60, and 120 min. The diffraction patterns of the powders were obtained by using the high resolution powder diffractometer in the HANARO research reactor. Diffraction line broadening due to crystallite size was measured using various techniques such as the Stokes' deconvolution, profile fitting methods using Cauchy function, Gaussian function, and Voigt function, and the Warren-Averbach method. The r.m.s. strain, stacking fault, twin and dislocation density were measured using the information from the diffraction pattern. The realistic crystallite size can be obtained after separation of the contribution from the non-uniform strain, stacking fault and twin

  20. Treatment of olive mill wastewater by the combination of ultrafiltration and bipolar electrochemical reactor processes

    KAUST Repository

    Yahiaoui, O.

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the removal of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) from olive mill wastewater (OMW) by the combination of ultrafiltration with electrocoagulation process. Ultrafiltration process equipped with CERAVER membrane was used as pre-treatment for electrochemical process. The obtained permeate from the ultrafiltration process allowed COD removal efficiency of about 96% from OMW. Obtained permeate with an average COD of about 1.1gdm-3 was treated by electrochemical reactor equipped with a reactor with bipolar iron plate electrodes. The effect of the experimental parameters such as current density, pH, surface electrode/reactor volume ratio and NaCl concentration on COD removal was assessed. The results showed that the optimum COD removal rate was obtained at a current density of 93.3Am-2 and pH ranging from 4.5 to 6.5. At the optimum operational parameters for the experiments, electrocoagulation process could reduce COD from 1.1gdm-3 to 78mgdm-3, allowing direct discharge of the treated OMW as that meets the Algerian wastewater discharge standards (<125mgdm-3). © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Effect of temperature, time, and milling process on yield, flavonoid, and total phenolic content of Zingiber officinale water extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriyani, R.; Kosasih, W.; Ningrum, D. R.; Pudjiraharti, S.

    2017-03-01

    Several parameters such as temperature, time of extraction, and size of simplicia play significant role in medicinal herb extraction. This study aimed to investigate the effect of those parameters on yield extract, flavonoid, and total phenolic content in water extract of Zingiber officinale. The temperatures used were 50, 70 and 90°C and the extraction times were 30, 60 and 90 min. Z. officinale in the form of powder and chips were used to study the effect of milling treatment. The correlation among those variables was analysed using ANOVA two-way factors without replication. The result showed that time and temperature did not influence the yield of extract of Powder simplicia. However, time of extraction influenced the extract of simplicia treated without milling process. On the other hand, flavonoid and total phenolic content were not influenced by temperature, time, and milling treatment.

  2. Preparation of zinc ferrite nano powders by high energy wet-milling method and investigation of Crystallites size variation during this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoudi, H.; Aftabi, A.; Mozafari, M.; Amighian, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this research work ZnFe 2 O 4 nano powders were prepared by high-energy wet-milling process, using metallic Fe and Zn powders. The process was investigated by XRD technique. 10% of the zinc ferrite was formed after 10 h milling. The as-milled sample was annealed at 500, 550 and 600 d egree C . Ultimately a single sample was obtained at 600 d egree C . Using sherrer's formula, the mean crystallite size of the as-milled and annealed powders were calculated. These were in the range of 17.9 to 20.4 nm.

  3. Polishing of treated palm oil mill effluent (POME) from ponding system by electrocoagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Mohammed J K; Mau Han, Tham; Jun Wei, Lim; Choon Aun, Ng; Abu Amr, Salem S

    2016-01-01

    As the ponding system used to treat palm oil mill effluent (POME) frequently fails to satisfy the discharge standard in Malaysia, the present study aimed to resolve this problem using an optimized electrocoagulation process. Thus, a central composite design (CCD) module in response surface methodology was employed to optimize the interactions of process variables, namely current density, contact time and initial pH targeted on maximum removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour and turbidity with satisfactory pH of discharge POME. The batch study was initially designed by CCD and statistical models of responses were subsequently derived to indicate the significant terms of interactive process variables. All models were verified by analysis of variance showing model significances with Prob > F < 0.01. The optimum performance was obtained at the current density of 56 mA/cm(2), contact time of 65 min and initial pH of 4.5, rendering complete removal of colour and turbidity with COD removal of 75.4%. The pH of post-treated POME of 7.6 was achieved, which is suitable for direct discharge. These predicted outputs were subsequently confirmed by insignificant standard deviation readings between predicted and actual values. This optimum condition also permitted the simultaneous removal of NH3-N, and various metal ions, signifying the superiority of the electrocoagulation process optimized by CCD.

  4. Structural and magnetic properties of Fe{sub 60}Al{sub 40} alloys prepared by means of a magnetic mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal-Correa, R. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Manizales (Colombia); Rosales-Rivera, A., E-mail: arosalesr@unal.edu.c [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Manizales (Colombia); Pineda-Gomez, P. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Manizales (Colombia); Universidad de Caldas, Manizales (Colombia); Salazar, N.A. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Manizales (Colombia)

    2010-04-16

    A study on synthesis, structural and magnetic characterization of Fe{sub 60}Al{sub 40} (at.%) alloys prepared by means of mechanical alloying process is presented. The mechanical alloying was performed using a milling device with magnetically controlled ball movement (Uni-Ball-Mill 5 equipment) at several milling times. The characterization was carried out via X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The effects of milling time on the structural state, morphological evolution and magnetic behaviour of the Fe{sub 60}Al{sub 40} (at.%) alloys are discussed. Besides, in this current study we emphasize the result that indicating a ferro-para-ferromagnetic transition from a correlation between X-ray diffraction and magnetization data.

  5. Using the modern CNC controllers capabilities for estimating the machining forces during the milling process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breaz Radu-Eugen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Machining forces can nowadays be measured by using 3D dynamometers, which are usually very expensive devices and hardly available for most of the CNC machine-tools users. On the other hand, modern CNC controllers have nowadays the ability to display and save many outputs within the machining process, such as the currents or even the torques at the shaft's level for the feed motors on each axis. These outputs can be used for estimating the machining forces, but it is to be noticed that the above-mentioned currents and torques are proportional with the overall resistant forces, which includes not only technological forces, but also friction, inertial and pre-tensioning forces. This paper presents an approach for estimating the machining forces during a milling process, by using the outputs stored in the CNC controller and separating the effects of technological forces from the other forces involved in the process. The separation was made by running two sets of experiments, one set for dry-run regime and the other one for machining regime.

  6. Integrating Fenton's process and ion exchange for olive mill wastewater treatment and iron recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Patrícia M; Martins, Pedro J M; Martins, Rui C; Gando-Ferreira, Licínio M; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2018-02-01

    A novel integrated methodology involving Fenton's process followed by ion exchange (IE) was proposed for the treatment of olive mill wastewater. Fenton's process was optimized and it was able to remove up to 81% of chemical oxygen demand when pH 3.5, reaction time 1 h, [Fe 2+ ] = 50 mg L -1 and [Fe 2+ ]/[H 2 O 2 ] = 0.002 were applied. In spite of the potential of this treatment approach, final iron removal from the liquid typically entails pH increase and iron sludge production. The integration of an IE procedure using Lewatit TP 207 resin was found to be able to overcome this important environmental shortcoming. The resin showed higher affinity toward Fe 3+ than to Fe 2+ . However, the iron removal efficiency of an effluent coming from Fenton's was independent of the type of the initial iron used in the process. The presence of organic matter had no significant effect over the resin iron removal efficiency. Even if some efficiency decrease was observed when a high initial iron load was applied, the adsorbent mass quantity can be easily adapted to reach the desired iron removal. The use of IE is an interesting industrial approach able to surpass Fenton's peroxidation drawback and will surely boost its full-scale application in the treatment of bio-refractory effluents.

  7. Ball Nut Preload Diagnosis of the Hollow Ball Screw through Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Cheng Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the diagnostic results of hollow ball screws with different ball nut preload through the support vector machine (SVM process. The method is testified by considering the use of ball screw pretension and different ball nut preload. SVM was used to discriminate the hollow ball screw preload status through the vibration signals and servo motor current signals. Maximum dynamic preloads of 2%, 4%, and 6% ball screws were predesigned, manufactured, and conducted experimentally. Signal patterns with different preload features are separatedby SVM. The irregularity development of the ball screw driving motion current and rolling balls vibration of the ball screw can be discriminated via SVM based on complexity perception. The experimental results successfully show that the prognostic status of ball nut preload can be envisaged by the proposed methodology. The smart reasoning for the health of the ball screw is available based on classification of SVM. This diagnostic method satisfies the purposes of prognostic effectiveness on knowing the ball nut preload status

  8. Application of Ultrafiltration in a Paper Mill: Process Water Reuse and Membrane Fouling Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available High water consumption is a major environmental problem that the pulp and paper industry is facing. Ultrafiltration (UF can be used to remove the dissolved and colloidal substances (DCS concentrated during the recycling of white water (the process water to facilitate the reuse of white water and reduce fresh water consumption. However, membrane fouling limits the application of UF in this industry. In this study, super-clear filtrate obtained from a fine paper mill was purified with a polyethersulfone (PES ultrafiltration membrane to evaluate the reuse performance of the ultrafiltrate. The membrane foulants were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrophotometry, attenuated total reflection-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results indicate that the retention rate of stock and the strength properties of paper increased when the ultrafiltrate was reused in the papermaking process compared to when super-clear filtrate was used. The reversible membrane foulants during ultrafiltration accounted for 85.52% of the total foulants and primarily originated from retention aids, drainage aids, and wet strength resins, while the irreversible adsorptive foulants accounted for 14.48% and mostly came from sizing agents, coating chemicals, and others. Moreover, the presence of dissolved multivalent metal ions, especially Ca2+, accelerated membrane fouling.

  9. Bitter-tasting and kokumi-enhancing molecules in thermally processed avocado (Persea americana Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, Andreas Georg; Hofmann, Thomas

    2010-12-22

    Sequential application of solvent extraction and RP-HPLC in combination with taste dilution analyses (TDA) and comparative TDA, followed by LC-MS and 1D/2D NMR experiments, led to the discovery of 10 C(17)-C(21) oxylipins with 1,2,4-trihydroxy-, 1-acetoxy-2,4-dihydroxy-, and 1-acetoxy-2-hydroxy-4-oxo motifs, respectively, besides 1-O-stearoyl-glycerol and 1-O-linoleoyl-glycerol as bitter-tasting compounds in thermally processed avocado (Persea americana Mill.). On the basis of quantitative data, dose-over-threshold (DoT) factors, and taste re-engineering experiments, these phytochemicals, among which 1-acetoxy-2-hydroxy-4-oxo-octadeca-12-ene was found with the highest taste impact, were confirmed to be the key contributors to the bitter off-taste developed upon thermal processing of avocado. For the first time, those C(17)-C(21) oxylipins exhibiting a 1-acetoxy-2,4-dihydroxy- and a 1-acetoxy-2-hydroxy-4-oxo motif, respectively, were discovered to induce a mouthfulness (kokumi)-enhancing activity in sub-bitter threshold concentrations.

  10. Effect of the milling energy on the production and thermal stability of amorphous Mg50Ni50

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, D.; Ordonez, S.; Serafini, D.; Rojas, P.; Bustos, O.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of milling energy on the amorphisation process and subsequent thermal crystallization of Mg 50 Ni 50 was investigated. The amorphous Mg 50 Ni 50 was produced using a planetary mill (medium energy) with a ball to material weight ratio of 13:1, and a SPEX mill (high energy) with a ball to material weight ratio of 20:1. The results obtained by means of X-ray diffraction showed that it is possible to obtain an amorphous Mg 50 Ni 50 alloy, through both milling processes, starting of Ni powders and Mg turnings. However, the amorphisation process requires more time in the planetary mill (80-90 h) than in the SPEX mill (15-20 h), due to the difference in energy level and milling mechanism between these mills. The phase evolution during the amorphisation process is practically independent of the mill energy. In this way, it was observed that the mill conditions promoted an extensive refinement of the microstructure during the first hours of milling. The defects produced during this time led to the amorphisation of part of the system. This amorphous precursor suffers a mechanically induced crystallization into Mg 2 Ni, which is subsequently destabilized into amorphous Mg 50 Ni 50 . Based on the results obtained, it is proposed that the formation of amorphous precursor during mechanical milling of Mg and Ni is a characteristic of the Mg-Ni system, over a wide composition range, rather than of a particular composition. In relation to the thermal crystallization of the amorphous produced, the results of the differential thermal analysis applied to the amorphous samples showed that the formation enthalpy for both amorphous is the same, however, the amorphous produced in a planetary mill presented higher crystallization temperatures and apparent activation energies than the amorphous produced in a SPEX mill. The last behavior would be related with iron contamination coming from the erosion of the milling media. Finally, it is possible to conclude, that under the

  11. Irrigation model of bleached Kraft mill wastewater through volcanic soil as a pollutants attenuation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navia, R; Inostroza, X; Diez, M C; Lorber, K E

    2006-05-01

    An irrigation process through volcanic soil columns was evaluated for bleached Kraft mill effluent pollutants retention. The system was designed to remove color and phenolic compounds and a simple kinetic model for determining the global mass transfer coefficient and the adsorption rate constant was used. The results clearly indicate that the global mass transfer coefficient values (K(c)a) and the adsorption rate constants are higher for the irrigation processes onto acidified soil. This means that the pretreatment of washing the volcanic soil with an acid solution has a positive effect on the adsorption rate for both pollutant groups. The enhanced adsorption capacity is partially explained by the activation of the metal oxides present in the soil matrix during the acid washing process. Increasing the flow rate from 1.5 to 2.5 ml/min yielded higher (K(c)a) values and adsorption rate constants for both pollutant groups. For instance, regarding color adsorption onto acidified soil, there is an increment of 43% in the (K(c)a) value for the experiment with a flow rate of 2.5 ml/min. Increasing the porosity of the column from 0.55 to 0.59, yielded a decrease in the (K(c)a) values for color and phenolic compounds adsorption processes. Onto natural soil for example, these decreases reached 21% and 24%, respectively. Therefore, the (K(c)a) value is dependent on both the liquid-phase velocity (external resistance) and the soil fraction in the column (internal resistance); making forced convection and diffusion to be the main transport mechanisms involved in the adsorption process. Analyzing the adsorption rate constants (K(c)a)/m, phenolic compounds and color adsorption rates onto acidified soil of 2.25 x 10(-6) and 2.62 x 10(-6) l/mg min were achieved for experiment 1. These adsorption rates are comparable with other adsorption systems and adsorbent materials.

  12. Having a Ball with Fitness Balls

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Betty

    2011-01-01

    Fitness programs can be greatly enhanced with the addition of fitness balls. They are a fun, challenging, economical, and safe way to incorporate a cardiovascular, strength, and stretching program for all fitness levels in a physical education setting. The use of these balls has become more popular during the last decade, and their benefits and…

  13. The Goldenrod Ball Gall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Richard B.

    1974-01-01

    The paper presents a generalized life history of the goldenrod ball gall, a ball-shaped swelling found almost exclusively on the Canada goldenrod, Solidago canadensis, and caused by a peacock fly know as Eurosta soldiaginis. (KM)

  14. Wet Mechanochemical Processing of Celestine using (NH42CO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Bingöl

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, traditional (univariate method of processing to the wet mechanochemical treatment were applied to obtain both SrCO3 and (NH42SO4 from celestite (SrSO4-(NH42CO3-H2O mixtures in a planetary ball mill. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and chemical analysis were used to analyze products formed during wet milling. A hydrometallurgical process was carried out to examine milling time, ball to grinding material mass ratio, (NH42CO3 to SrSO4 mole ratio and rotational speed of the mill in a planetary mill. Under optimum conditions, a conversion approaching 100% of SrCO3 was obtained.

  15. Flux and concentration processes of radioactive elements in the forest industry; dosimetry, biofueled heating plants, the alkaline and the acidic pulp mill processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravila, A.; Holm, E.

    1992-01-01

    A fraction of the radionuclides released to the forest ecosystem will be incorporated into different parts of the trees and the wood. A common factor for both biofueled power plants and pulp mills is that they concentrate the radionuclides initially present in the in the biofuel or wood in ashes or other products. The enrichment of radioactive elements is due to the combustion process or in a pulp mill, the combustion of bark and liquors, and also the processes in the pulp mill recycling system. The radiological impacts to man from forest industry arises form radiation emitted from the radionuclides present in ash and pulp mill liquors and liquor sludge. The quantification and calculation of past, present and future activity concentrations in biofuels, ash and pulp mill waste products are all important when assessments of the radiation dose is done. In order to assess the resulting dose to staff working close to radionuclide containing recycling systems and waste dumps, it is necessary to know the dynamics (inflow rate and residence time) of the radionuclides in that system

  16. Compensation processes of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) to ozone exposure and drought stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inclan, R.; Gimeno, B.S.; Dizengremel, P.; Sanchez, M.

    2005-01-01

    A long-term experiment was performed to study the effects of O 3 and drought-stress (DS) on Aleppo pine seedlings (Pinus halepensis Mill.) exposed in open-top chambers. Ozone reduced gas exchange rates, ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity (Rubisco), aboveground C and needle N concentrations and C/N ratio and Ca concentrations of the twigs under 3 mm (twigs Pd ), C/N ratio, twigs<3 Ca, plant growth, aerial biomass and increased N, twigs with a diameter above 3 mm P and Mg concentrations. The combined exposure to both stresses increased N concentrations of twigs<3 and roots and aboveground biomass K content and decreased root C, maximum daily assimilation rate and instantaneous water use efficiency. The sensitivity of Aleppo pine to both stresses is determined by plant internal resource allocation and compensation mechanisms to cope with stress. - Ozone and drought stress induce the activation of similar processes related to C and N metabolism

  17. Key process parameters involved in the treatment of olive mill wastewater by membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaouad, Y; Villain-Gambier, M; Mandi, L; Marrot, B; Ouazzani, N

    2018-04-18

    The Olive Mill Wastewater (OMWW) biodegradation in an external ceramic membrane bioreactor (MBR) was investigated with a starting acclimation step with a Ultrafiltration (UF) membrane (150 kDa) and no sludge discharge in order to develop a specific biomass adapted to OMWW biodegradation. After acclimation step, UF was replaced by an Microfiltration (MF) membrane (0.1 µm). Sludge Retention Time (SRT) was set around 25 days and Food to Microorganisms ratio (F/M) was fixed at 0.2 kg COD  kg MLVSS -1  d -1 . At stable state, removal of the main phenolic compounds (hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) were successfully reached (95% both). Considered as a predominant fouling factor, but never quantified in MBR treated OMWW, Soluble Microbial Products (SMP) proteins, polysaccharides and humic substances concentrations were determined (80, 110 and 360 mg L -1 respectively). At the same time, fouling was easily managed due to favourable hydraulic conditions of external ceramic MBR. Therefore, OMWW could be efficiently and durably treated by an MF MBR process under adapted operating parameters.

  18. Feed supplemented with byproducts from olive oil mill wastewater processing increases antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Stagos, Dimitrios; Kokkas, Stylianos; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Kantas, Dimitrios; Goulas, Panagiotis; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, a ceramic membrane microfiltration method was used for the separation of two liquid products, the downstream permeate and the upstream retentate, from olive mill wastewater (OMWW). These liquid products were examined for their antioxidant activity by incorporating them into broilers' feed. Twenty four broilers 13 d old were divided into two feeding groups receiving supplementation with OMWW retentate or permeate for 37 d. Blood was drawn at 17, 27 and 37 d, while tissues (muscle, heart, liver) were collected at 37 d. The antioxidant effects were assessed by measuring oxidative stress biomarkers in blood and tissues. The results showed that broilers given feed supplemented with OMWW retentate or permeate had significantly lower protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation levels and higher total antioxidant capacity in plasma and tissues compared to control group. In both OMWW groups, catalase activity in erythrocytes and tissues was significantly increased compared to control group. OMWW retentate administration increased significantly GSH in erythrocytes in broilers with low GSH, although both OMWW products significantly reduced GSH in broilers with high GSH. Thus, it has been demonstrated for the first time that supplementation with OMWW processing residues could be used for enhancing broilers' redox status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ball Screw Actuator Including a Compliant Ball Screw Stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Hanlon, Casey (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An actuator includes a ball nut, a ball screw, and a ball screw stop. The ball nut is adapted to receive an input torque and in response rotates and supplies a drive force. The ball screw extends through the ball nut and has a first end and a second end. The ball screw receives the drive force from the ball nut and in response selectively translates between a retract position and a extend position. The ball screw stop is mounted on the ball screw proximate the first end to translate therewith. The ball screw stop engages the ball nut when the ball screw is in the extend position, translates, with compliance, a predetermined distance toward the first end upon engaging the ball nut, and prevents further rotation of the ball screw upon translating the predetermined distance.

  20. Application of dragonfly algorithm for optimal performance analysis of process parameters in turn-mill operations- A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikram, K. Arun; Ratnam, Ch; Lakshmi, VVK; Kumar, A. Sunny; Ramakanth, RT

    2018-02-01

    Meta-heuristic multi-response optimization methods are widely in use to solve multi-objective problems to obtain Pareto optimal solutions during optimization. This work focuses on optimal multi-response evaluation of process parameters in generating responses like surface roughness (Ra), surface hardness (H) and tool vibration displacement amplitude (Vib) while performing operations like tangential and orthogonal turn-mill processes on A-axis Computer Numerical Control vertical milling center. Process parameters like tool speed, feed rate and depth of cut are considered as process parameters machined over brass material under dry condition with high speed steel end milling cutters using Taguchi design of experiments (DOE). Meta-heuristic like Dragonfly algorithm is used to optimize the multi-objectives like ‘Ra’, ‘H’ and ‘Vib’ to identify the optimal multi-response process parameters combination. Later, the results thus obtained from multi-objective dragonfly algorithm (MODA) are compared with another multi-response optimization technique Viz. Grey relational analysis (GRA).

  1. Coexistence of short- and long-range ferromagnetic order in nanocrystalline Fe{sub 2}Mn{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}Al (x=0.0, 0.1 and 0.3) synthesized by high-energy ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanh, Tran Dang, E-mail: thanhxraylab@yahoo.com [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nanto, Dwi [Physics Education, Syarif Hidayatullah States Islamic University, Jakarta 15412 (Indonesia); Tuyen, Ngo Thi Uyen [Department of Natural Science, Nha Trang Pedagogic College, Nguyen Chanh, Nha Trang, Khanh Hoa (Viet Nam); Nan, Wen-Zhe [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, YiKyung [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093-0411 (United States); Tartakovsky, Daniel M., E-mail: dmt@ucsd.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093-0411 (United States); Yu, S.C., E-mail: scyu@cbnu.ac.kr [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2015-11-15

    In this work, we prepared nanocrystalline Fe{sub 2}Mn{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}Al (x=0.0, 0.1 and 0.3) powders by the high energy ball milling technique, and then studied their critical properties. Our analysis reveals that the increase of Cu-doping concentration (up to x=0.3) in these powders leads to a gradual increase of the ferromagnetic–paramagnetic transition temperature from 406 to 452 K. The Banerjee criterion suggests that all the samples considered undergo a second-order phase transition. A modified Arrott plot and scaling analysis indicate that the critical exponents (β=0.419 and 0.442, γ=1.082 and 1.116 for x=0.0 and 0.1, respectively) are located in between those expected for the 3D-Heisenberg and the mean-field models; the values of β=0.495 and γ=1.046 for x=0.3 sample are very close to those of the mean-field model. These features reveal the coexistence of the short- and long-range ferromagnetic order in the nanocrystalline Fe{sub 2}Mn{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}Al powders. Particularly, as the concentration of Cu increases, values of the critical exponent shift towards those of the mean-field model. Such results prove the Cu doping favors establishing a long-range ferromagnetic order. - Highlights: • Fe{sub 2}Mn{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}Al nanocrystals were prepared by a high energy ball milling method. • A coexistence of the short- and long-range FM order in the nanocrystals. • Cu doping favors establishing a long-range FM order in the nanocrystals. • All the ΔS{sub m}(T, H) data are followed a universal master curve.

  2. Degradation and biodegradability improvement of the olive mill wastewater by peroxi-electrocoagulation/electrooxidation-electroflotation process with bipolar aluminum electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfandyari, Yahya; Mahdavi, Yousef; Seyedsalehi, Mahdi; Hoseini, Mohammad; Safari, Gholam Hossein; Ghozikali, Mohammad Ghanbari; Kamani, Hossein; Jaafari, Jalil

    2015-04-01

    Olive mill wastewater is considered as one of the most polluting effluents of the food industry and constitutes a source of important environmental problems. In this study, the removal of pollutants (chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), polyphenols, turbidity, color, total suspended solids (TSS), and oil and grease) from olive oil mill processing wastewater by peroxi-electrocoagulation/electrooxidation-electroflotation process with bipolar aluminum electrodes was evaluated using a pilot continuous reactor. In the electrochemical unit, aluminum (Al), stainless steel, and RuO2/Ti plates were used. The effects of pH, hydrogen peroxide doses, current density, NaCl concentrations, and reaction times were studied. Under optimal conditions of pH 4, current density of 40 mA/m(2), 1000 mg/L H2O2, 1 g/L NaCl, and 30-min reaction time, the peroxi-electrochemical method yielded very effective removal of organic pollution from the olive mill wastewater diluted four times. The treatment process reduced COD by 96%, BOD5 by 93.6%, total, polyphenols by 94.4%, color by 91.4%, turbidity by 88.7, suspended solids by 97% and oil and grease by 97.1%. The biodegradability index (BOD5/COD) increased from 0.29 to 0.46. Therefore, the peroxi-electrocoagulation/electrooxidation-electroflotation process is considered as an effective and feasible process for pre-treating olive mill wastewater, making possible a post-treatment of the effluent in a biological system.

  3. IMPROVEMENT PROCESS FOR ROLLING MILL THROUGH THE DMAIC SIX SIGMA APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Ganguly

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This project aims to address the problems that are facing a large aluminum company in a Developing Hot Rolling Mill Capabilities for Wider Widths Hard Alloys Rolling and b Eliminate down time due to strip /coil slippage during hard alloys 5xxx rolling at Hot Mill. The challenge for the company was to cater the fast changing export demand for Flat Rolled products with its existing resources. By applying Six Sigma principles, the team identified the current situation that the rolling mills operations were in. Si x Sigma DMAIC methodologies were use d in the project to determine the project's CTQ characteristics, defining the possible causes, Identifying the variation sources, establishing variable relationships and Implementing Control Plans. The project can be useful for any company that needs to fi nd the most cost efficient way to improve and utilize its resources.

  4. Research on the Treatment of Aluminum Alloy Chemical Milling Wastewater with Fenton Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong-liang, Huang; Ru, Li; Peng, Luo; Jun-li, Gu

    2018-03-01

    The aluminum alloy chemical milling wastewater was treated by Fenton method. The effect of pH value, reaction time, rotational speed, H2O2 dosage, Fe2+ dosage and the molar ratio between H2O2 and Fe2+ on the COD removal rate of aluminum alloy chemical milling wastewater were investigated by single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment. The results showed that the optimum operating conditions for Fenton oxidation were as follows: the initial pH value was 3, the rotational speed was 250r/min, the molar ratio of H2O2 and Fe2+ was 8, the reaction time was 90 min. Under the optimum conditions, the removal rate of the wastewater’s COD is about 72.36%. In the reaction kinetics that aluminum alloy chemical milling wastewater was oxidized and degraded by Fenton method under the optimum conditions, the reaction sequence of the initial COD was 0.8204.

  5. A study on thermal and mechanical properties of mechanically milled HDPE and PP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Can, S.; Tan, S.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, mechanical mixing of HDPE and PP was performed via ball milling. Prepared compositions were 75/25 , 50/50 , 25/75 w/w HDPE/PP. Milling time and ball to powder ratio (B/P) were kept constant and system was cooled by adding solid CO 2 to improve the milling efficiency. To compare these systems with traditional methods, mixtures were also melt mixed by Brabender Plasti-Corder. Both milled and melt mixed systems were examined with DSC for thermal properties and tensile testing for mechanical properties Results are discussed by comparing milled , melt mixed and as-received polymers. It is observed that, unlike ball milled systems' in melt mixed systems mechanical properties are composition dependent. In addition , ball milling results in amorphization of both polymers and very high amounts of PP (75wt %) creates very amorphous HDPE structure. (Original)

  6. Methods of evaluating ore processing and effluent treatment for Cigar Lake ore at the Rabbit Lake Mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, C.R.

    2002-01-01

    Cigar Lake is the second-largest, high grade uranium orebody in the world. Mineable reserves for Cigar Lake Phase 1 are estimated at 191 million pounds U 3 O 8 with a grade of 25.6% U 3 O 8 . Subject to regulatory approval, Cameco intends to process the majority of ore from Cigar Lake in the Rabbit Lake mill. Cameco initiated a programme to study the processing of Cigar Lake ore and the treatment of the resulting waste streams. Laboratory and follow-up pilot scale ore leaching tests with Cigar Lake ore samples were performed. Tailings and effluents were generated from the products of the pilot scale leach tests. Mill process tailings were blended with ground waste rock. Using these materials, geotechnical and geochemical properties, including long term tailings pore water characteristics, will be evaluated. In addition, proposed changes to the mill waste treatment operations were developed to deal with increased levels of arsenic and radium in the waste streams. This paper describes the methods and techniques Cameco used in this programme. (author)

  7. Optimization of Process Parameters During End Milling and Prediction of Work Piece Temperature Rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhirud N.L.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available During the machining processes, heat gets generated as a result of plastic deformation of metal and friction along the tool–chip and tool–work piece interface. In materials having high thermal conductivity, like aluminium alloys, large amount of this heat is absorbed by the work piece. This results in the rise in the temperature of the work piece, which may lead to dimensional inaccuracies, surface damage and deformation. So, it is needed to control rise in the temperature of the work piece. This paper focuses on the measurement, analysis and prediction of work piece temperature rise during the dry end milling operation of Al 6063. The control factors used for experimentation were number of flutes, spindle speed, depth of cut and feed rate. The Taguchi method was employed for the planning of experimentation and L18 orthogonal array was selected. The temperature rise of the work piece was measured with the help of K-type thermocouple embedded in the work piece. Signal to noise (S/N ratio analysis was carried out using the lower-the-better quality characteristics. Depth of cut was identified as the most significant factor affecting the work piece temperature rise, followed by spindle speed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was employed to find out the significant parameters affecting the work piece temperature rise. ANOVA results were found to be in line with the S/N ratio analysis. Regression analysis was used for developing empirical equation of temperature rise. The temperature rise of the work piece was calculated using the regression equation and was found to be in good agreement with the measured values. Finally, confirmation tests were carried out to verify the results obtained. From the confirmation test it was found that the Taguchi method is an effective method to determine optimised parameters for minimization of work piece temperature.

  8. Mechanical alloying and reactive milling in a high energy planetary mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xianjin; Trunov, Mikhaylo A.; Schoenitz, Mirko; Dave, Rajesh N.; Dreizin, Edward L.

    2009-01-01

    Powder refinement in a planetary mill (Retsch PM 400-MA) is investigated experimentally and analyzed using discrete element modeling (DEM). Refinement is defined as the average size of the individual components in a composite powder. The specific milling dose, defined as the product of charge ratio and milling time, is used as an experimental parameter tracking the progress of the material refinement. This parameter is determined experimentally for milling of boron and titanium powders, for which the time of initiation of a self-sustained reaction is measured under different milling conditions. It is assumed that the reaction becomes self-sustaining when the same powder refinement is achieved. The DEM calculations established that the milling balls primarily roll along the milling container's perimeter. The inverse of the rate of energy dissipation resulting from this rolling motion is used as the DEM analog of the specific milling dose. The results correlate well with experimental observations.

  9. Influence of the milling process on the structure and morphology of ZnAl_2O_4 and catalytic performance in the methyl transesterification reaction of soybean oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feitosa, A.C.; Dantas, B.B.; Santana, A.; Costa, A.C.M.F.; Costa, D.B.

    2012-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of milling time over the structure and morphology of ZnAl_2O_4, synthesized by combustion reaction, and study the effect of milled samples over the methyl transesterification reaction of soy bean oil. ZnAl_2O_4 was synthesizing, by means combustion reaction, using a electrical resistance plate. The powder was milled over 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes and the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron micrograph, particle size distribution and N_2 adsorption isotherms. Milling process promoted changes over the agglomerate size and textural characteristics of the samples. Catalytic tests were conducted at 160 deg C, with 1% of catalyst, with molar ratio oil:methanol of 1:6 and reaction time of 1 hour. According the results, the sample milled over 30 minutes showed the highest conversion. (author)

  10. Experimental Researches Tribological Properties of Hard-Alloy Blades With a Vacuum-Plasma Coating in the Chipboards Milling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Viktorovič Rudak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While developing effective ion-plasma coatings compositions of woodcutting tools special conditions of its use should be taken into account particularly the force rate acting on the cutting wedge. With the penetration of the blade into the wood material normal pressure and friction appear on the connection surface. For the analysis of the cutting processes the connection surface can be divided into several zones. The cutters with vacuum-plasma coatings based on TiN are characterized by a lower coefficient of friction in comparison to uncoated cutters in real conditions. The developed technique of tribotechnical tool tests of milling woodchip board is of great importance to establish the regularities of chip formation, chips movement and dust in the timber cutting areas as well as wood materials at milling in a wide parameter range of cutting conditions, for the development of methods and devices of chips and dust suppression.

  11. Discrete element method as an approach to model the wheat milling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is a well-known phenomenon that break-release, particle size, and size distribution of wheat milling are functions of machine operational parameters and grain properties. Due to the non-uniformity of characteristics and properties of wheat kernels, the kernel physical and mechanical properties af...

  12. Potential for yield improvement in combined rip-first and crosscut-first rough mill processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ed Thomas; Urs Buehlmann

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, lumber cutting systems in rough mills have either first ripped lumber into wide strips and then crosscut the resulting strips into component lengths (rip-first), or first crosscut the lumber into component lengths, then ripped the segments to the required widths (crosscut-first). Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. Crosscut-first typically...

  13. Effect of Pd Surface Roughness on the Bonding Process and High Temperature Reliability of Au Ball Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.; Kim, H. J.; McCracken, M.; Viswanathan, G.; Pon, F.; Mayer, M.; Zhou, Y. N.

    2011-06-01

    A 0.3- μm-thick electrolytic Pd layer was plated on 1 μm of electroless Ni on 1 mm-thick polished and roughened Cu substrates with roughness values ( R a) of 0.08 μm and 0.5 μm, respectively. The rough substrates were produced with sand-blasting. Au wire bonding on the Ni/Pd surface was optimized, and the electrical reliability was investigated under a high temperature storage test (HTST) during 800 h at 250°C by measuring the ball bond contact resistance, R c. The average value of R c of optimized ball bonds on the rough substrate was 1.96 mΩ which was about 40.0% higher than that on the smooth substrate. The initial bondability increased for the rougher surface, so that only half of the original ultrasonic level was required, but the reliability was not affected by surface roughness. For both substrate types, HTST caused bond healing, reducing the average R c by about 21% and 27%, respectively. Au diffusion into the Pd layer was observed in scanning transmission electron microscopy/ energy dispersive spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) line-scan analysis after HTST. It is considered that diffusion of Au or interdiffusion between Au and Pd can provide chemically strong bonding during HTST. This is supported by the R c decrease measured as the aging time increased. Cu migration was indicated in the STEM-EDS analysis, but its effect on reliability can be ignored. Au and Pd tend to form a complete solid solution at the interface and can provide reliable interconnection for high temperature (250°C) applications.

  14. Real-time particle size analysis using focused beam reflectance measurement as a process analytical technology tool for a continuous granulation-drying-milling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Taylor, Michael K; Mehrotra, Amit; Stagner, William C

    2013-06-01

    Focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) was used as a process analytical technology tool to perform inline real-time particle size analysis of a proprietary granulation manufactured using a continuous twin-screw granulation-drying-milling process. A significant relationship between D20, D50, and D80 length-weighted chord length and sieve particle size was observed with a p value of 0.05).

  15. The spinning ball spiral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupeux, Guillaume; Le Goff, Anne; Quere, David; Clanet, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the trajectory of a fast revolving solid ball moving in a fluid of comparable density. As the ball slows down owing to drag, its trajectory follows an exponential spiral as long as the rotation speed remains constant: at the characteristic distance L where the ball speed is significantly affected by the drag, the bending of the trajectory increases, surprisingly. Later, the rotation speed decreases, which makes the ball follow a second kind of spiral, also described in the paper. Finally, the use of these highly curved trajectories is shown to be relevant to sports.

  16. Annealing optimization in the process of making membrane PSF19%DMFEVA2 for wastewater treatment of palm oil mill effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, A. A.; Mustafa

    2018-02-01

    A small proportion of the Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) treatment has used its wastewater to converted to methane gas which will then be converted again into electrical energy. However, for Palm Oil Mill whose has a value of Chemical Oxygen Demand in its wastewater is less than 60.000 mg / L this can’t so that the purpose wastewater treatment only to reach the standard that can be safe to dispose into the environment. Wastewater treatment systems that are general applied by Palm Oil Mill especially in North Sumatera are aerobic and anaerobic, this method takes a relatively long time due to very dependent on microbial activity. An alternative method for wastewater treatment offered is membrane technology because the process is much more effective, the time is relatively short, and expected to give more optimal result. The optimum membrane obtained is PSF19%DMFEVA2T75 membrane,while the parameter condition of the permeate analysis produced in the treatment of POME wastewater with membrane PSF19%DMFEVA2T75 obtained at pH = 7.0; TSS = 148 mg / L; BOD = 149 mg / L; And COD = 252 mg / L. The results obtained is accordance with the standard of the quality of POME.

  17. Processing of Syndiotactic Polystyrene to Microspheres for Part Manufacturing through Selective Laser Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Mys

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Syndiotactic polystyrene pellets were processed into powder form using mechanical (ball milling, rotor milling and physicochemical (spray drying techniques with the intention of using it as feed material for selective laser sintering. New materials are an important component in broadening the application window for selective laser sintering but must meet strict requirements to be used. Particles obtained were characterized in size and shape using SEM imaging, analyzed by software, and compared to the product obtained by conventional ball milling. Rotor milling and spray drying proved capable of making spherical powders, yet only rotor milling achieved particles with a mean diameter within the desired range of 45–97 µm. Subsequently, the obtained powders were examined for the effect each processing technique imparts on the intrinsic properties of the material. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis revealed amorphization for all methods and a reduction in crystallinity after processing, however, the reduction in crystallinity was acceptably low for the spray-dried and rotor-milled powders. Ball milling displayed an exceptional reduction in crystallinity, suggesting severe degradation. As a final test, the rotor-milled powder was subjected to single-layer test and displayed good coalescence and smooth morphology, albeit with a large amount of warpage.

  18. A process for the treatment of olive mill waste waters by immobilized cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ElYachioui, M.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Mould strains were immobilized on sawdust from woods as a solid material for the treatment of Olive Mill Waste (OMW waters. Assays were carried out in flasks. The treatment process was monitored by physico-chemical determinations including pH, polyphenols and COD, which were followed up during the incubation time. In parallel the chemical inhibitory activity of OMW was confirmed biologically by the determination of some microorganisms in the medium including the plate count, yeasts and lactic acid bacteria. Results indicated that the polyphenol degradation level was 87 %. The COD was also reduced by 60 %. The pH of the effluent increased from 4.5 to 6.6. The microbial profiles showed their best growth during the treatment period indicating a removal of the inhibitory activities from the OMW waters. The growth patterns of all microorganism groups were similar and could reach high levels in the effluent.Cepas de moho fueron inmovilizadas sobre serrín de madera como material sólido para el tratamiento de aguas residuales de un molino de aceituna (OMW. Los ensayos se realizaron en matraces. El proceso de tratamiento se monitorizó mediante determinaciones físico-químicas incluyendo pH, polifenoles y DQO, que también se analizaron durante el tiempo de incubación. En paralelo, la actividad inhibidora química de las OMW se confirma biológicamente mediante su efecto sobre algunos microorganismos incluyendo levaduras y bactérias ácido lácticas. Los resultados indicaron que los polifenoles se degradan hasta un nivel del 87 %. La DQO se redujo también al 60 %. El pH del efluente aumentó de 4.5 a 6.6. Los perfiles microbiológicos mostraron un mejor crecimiento a medida que avanzaba el tratamiento indicando una supresión de las actividades inhibidoras de las aguas (OMW. El comportamiento del crecimiento de todos los grupos de microorganismos fue similar y puede alcanzar altos niveles en el efluente

  19. Obtaining beta phase in Ti through processing in high energy mill powders of Ti and Nb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanez, Mateus; Ferretto, Aline; Rocha, Marcio Roberto da; Arnt, Angela Coelho; Milanez, Alexandre; Schaeffer, Lirio

    2014-01-01

    An orthopedic implant, ideal, must meet the requirements of biocompatibility, have good mechanical properties among others. Titanium and Niobium exhibit biocompatibility and the β-Ti phase relationships have the highest strength / weight among all titanium alloys, presenting lower values of elastic modulus. The alloy has mechanically produced specific microstructural characteristics and improved mechanical properties compared with conventional powder metallurgy. In this study, a titanium alloy with different additions of niobium was used. The metal powders were mixed via mechanical alloy in high energy mill (attritor). The powder samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (X-RD) and property held by adhesive wear testing with a Pin-on-Disk. The present study revealed that through the high-energy milling is possible the atomic interaction between Ti and Nb particles and the mechanical properties are affected by the concentration of Nb. (author)

  20. An evaluation of realization of the production process in the cement mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Krynke

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this chapter there were presented the characteristics of the research object (cement mill and the description of the enterprise products. There was introduced an analysis of the results obtained on the basis of the BOST questionnaire survey and there was made a statistical analysis concerning principle 4 of the Toyota. The structure of evaluation was determined and importance series were built.

  1. Effects of Milling and Cooking Processes on the Deoxynivalenol Content in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayo Kushiro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin is a natural-occuring mycotoxin mainly produced by Fusarium graminearum, a food-borne fungi widely distributed in crops and it is one of the most important mycotoxins in wheat and wheat-based foods and feeds. DON affects animal and human health causing diarrhea, vomiting, gastro-intestinal inflammation, and immunomodulation. Since the rate of the occurrence of DON in wheat is high, effective procedures to remove or eliminate DON from food products is essential to minimize exposures in those who consume large amounts of wheat. Cleaning prior to milling reduced to some extent the concentration of DON in final products. Since DON is distributed throughout the kernels, with higher content in the outer skin, milling is also effective in reducing the DON levels of wheat-based foods if bran and shorts are removed before thermal cooking. DON is water-soluble and cooking with larger amounts of water lowers DON content in products such as spaghetti and noodles. During baking or heating, DON is partially degraded to DON-related chemicals, whose toxicological effects are not studied well. This paper reviews the researches on the effects of milling and cooking on the DON level and discusses the perspectives of further studies.

  2. Trend and current practices of palm oil mill effluent polishing: Application of advanced oxidation processes and their future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Mustapha Mohammed; Abdul Raman, Abdul Aziz

    2017-08-01

    Palm oil processing is a multi-stage operation which generates large amount of effluent. On average, palm oil mill effluent (POME) may contain up to 51, 000 mg/L COD, 25,000 mg/L BOD, 40,000 TS and 6000 mg/L oil and grease. Due to its potential to cause environmental pollution, palm oil mills are required to treat the effluent prior to discharge. Biological treatments using open ponding system are widely used for POME treatment. Although these processes are capable of reducing the pollutant concentrations, they require long hydraulic retention time and large space, with the effluent frequently failing to satisfy the discharge regulation. Due to more stringent environmental regulations, research interest has recently shifted to the development of polishing technologies for the biologically-treated POME. Various technologies such as advanced oxidation processes, membrane technology, adsorption and coagulation have been investigated. Among these, advanced oxidation processes have shown potentials as polishing technologies for POME. This paper offers an overview on the POME polishing technologies, with particularly emphasis on advanced oxidation processes and their prospects for large scale applications. Although there are some challenges in large scale applications of these technologies, this review offers some perspectives that could help in overcoming these challenges. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A comparative study of using spindle motor power and eddy current for the detection of tool conditions in milling processes

    OpenAIRE

    Abbass, JK; Al-Habaibeh, A

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of the power of the driving motor of a CNC spindle in comparison to two perpendicular eddy current sensors for the detection of tool wear in milling processes. Monitoring the power through the current profile is a low cost system which has been utilised in this study as an attempt to detect the fluctuation in the motor load as a result of the conditions of the cutting tool. Eddy current sensors are dedicated sensors that are installed on the spindle to measure ...

  4. Toolpath Strategy and Optimum Combination of Machining Parameter during Pocket Mill Process of Plastic Mold Steels Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Y. T.; Baskoro, S. Y.; Manurung, V. A. T.

    2018-02-01

    Plastic based products spread all over the world in many aspects of life. The ability to substitute other materials is getting stronger and wider. The use of plastic materials increases and become unavoidable. Plastic based mass production requires injection process as well Mold. The milling process of plastic mold steel material was done using HSS End Mill cutting tool that is widely used in a small and medium enterprise for the reason of its ability to be re sharpened and relatively inexpensive. Study on the effect of the geometry tool states that it has an important effect on the quality improvement. Cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and radii are input parameters beside to the tool path strategy. This paper aims to investigate input parameter and cutting tools behaviors within some different tool path strategy. For the reason of experiments efficiency Taguchi method and ANOVA were used. Response studied is surface roughness and cutting behaviors. By achieving the expected quality, no more additional process is required. Finally, the optimal combination of machining parameters will deliver the expected roughness and of course totally reduced cutting time. However actually, SMEs do not optimally use this data for cost reduction.

  5. High resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy characterization of a milled oxide dispersion strengthened steel powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyer-Prost, M., E-mail: marie.loyer-prost@cea.fr [DEN-Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Merot, J.-S. [Laboratoire d’Etudes des Microstructures – UMR 104, CNRS/ONERA, BP72-29, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92 322, Châtillon (France); Ribis, J. [DEN-Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Appliquée, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Le Bouar, Y. [Laboratoire d’Etudes des Microstructures – UMR 104, CNRS/ONERA, BP72-29, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92 322, Châtillon (France); Chaffron, L. [DEN-Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Appliquée, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Legendre, F. [DEN-Service de la Corrosion et du Comportement des Matériaux dans leur Environnement, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-10-15

    Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels are promising materials for generation IV fuel claddings as their dense nano-oxide dispersion provides good creep and irradiation resistance. Even if they have been studied for years, the formation mechanism of these nano-oxides is still unclear. Here we report for the first time a High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy Filtered Transmission Electron Microscopy characterization of an ODS milled powder. It provides clear evidence of the presence of small crystalline nanoclusters (NCs) enriched in titanium directly after milling. Small NCs (<5 nm) have a crystalline structure and seem partly coherent with the matrix. They have an interplanar spacing close to the (011) {sub bcc} iron structure. They coexist with larger crystalline spherical precipitates of 15–20 nm in size. Their crystalline structure may be metastable as they are not consistent with any Y-Ti-O or Ti-O structure. Such detailed observations in the as-milled grain powder confirm a mechanism of Y, Ti, O dissolution in the ferritic matrix followed by a NC precipitation during the mechanical alloying process of ODS materials. - Highlights: • We observed an ODS ball-milled powder by high resolution transmission microscopy. • The ODS ball-milled powder exhibits a lamellar microstructure. • Small crystalline nanoclusters were detected in the milled ODS powder. • The nanoclusters in the ODS milled powder are enriched in titanium. • Larger NCs of 15–20 nm in size are, at least, partly coherent with the matrix.

  6. Model of the material removal function and an experimental study on a magnetorheological finishing process using a small ball-end permanent-magnet polishing head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingjun; Liu, Henan; Cheng, Jian; Yu, Bo; Fang, Zhen

    2017-07-01

    In order to achieve the deterministic finishing of optical components with concave surfaces of a curvature radius less than 10 mm, a novel magnetorheological finishing (MRF) process using a small ball-end permanent-magnet polishing head with a diameter of 4 mm is introduced. The characteristics of material removal in the proposed MRF process are studied. The model of the material removal function for the proposed MRF process is established based on the three-dimensional hydrodynamics analysis and Preston's equation. The shear stress on the workpiece surface is calculated by means of resolving the presented mathematical model using a numerical solution method. The analysis result reveals that the material removal in the proposed MRF process shows a positive dependence on shear stress. Experimental research is conducted to investigate the effect of processing parameters on the material removal rate and improve the surface accuracy of a typical rotational symmetrical optical component. The experimental results show that the surface accuracy of the finished component of K9 glass material has been improved to 0.14 μm (PV) from the initial 0.8 μm (PV), and the finished surface roughness Ra is 0.0024 μm. It indicates that the proposed MRF process can be used to achieve the deterministic removal of surface material and perform the nanofinishing of small curvature radius concave surfaces.

  7. Influence of milling process in the surface energy of glass tile frits; Influencia de la molienda en la energia superficial de fritas para esmaltes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamayo, A.; Rubio, F.; Oteo, J. L.; Rubio, J.

    2013-05-01

    In this work has been studied the influence of the milling process of two ceramic frits used in the ceramic tile industry. Both glass frits were of similar chemical composition changing SiO{sub 2} by 5% of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and both of them were water or dry milled. Glass frit surfaces were characterized by FT-IR, Karl-Fischer (K-F) titration and Inverse Gas Chromatography at Infinite Dilution (IGC-ID). By K-F titration it was observed that water milled frits presented 28 and 26 OH groups for 100 A{sup 2} if they do not contain or contain boron, respectively. These surface changes are also observed by IGC-ID. Thus, the glass frit without boron and dry milled presented the highest dispersive surface energy (44 mJ.m{sup -}2) and the less acidic constant (0.13 kJ.mol{sup -}1). Both glass frits are amphoteric with acidic and base surface active sites, and that frit without boron presents the higher basicity. Milling process influences in the acid-base surface characteristics of both frits by increasing the basicity for the one without boron and increasing for the other one. This has been assigned to the different location of hydroxyl groups where the higher interaction is the one that does not contain boron and dry milled as K-F results. (Author) 30 refs.

  8. Influence of milling process in the surface energy of glass tile frits; Influencia de la molienda en la energia superficial de fritas para esmaltes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamayo, A.; Rubio, F.; Otero, J. L.; Rubio, J.

    2013-06-01

    In this work has been studied the influence of the milling process of two ceramic frits used in the ceramic tile industry. Both glass frits were of similar chemical composition changing SiO{sub 2} by 5% of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and both of them were water or dry milled. Glass frit surfaces were characterized by FT-IR, Karl-Fischer (K-F) titration and Inverse Gas Chromatography at Infinite Dilution (IGC-ID). By K-F titration it was observed that water milled frits presented 28 and 26 OH groups for 100 A{sup 2} if they do not contain or contain boron, respectively. These surface changes are also observed by IGC-ID. Thus, the glass frit without boron and dry milled presented the highest dispersive surface energy (44 mJ.m{sup -}2) and the less acidic constant (0.13 kJ.mol{sup -}1). Both glass frits are amphoteric with acidic and base surface active sites, and that frit without boron presents the higher basicity. Milling process influences in the acid-base surface characteristics of both frits by increasing the basicity for the one without boron and increasing for the other one. This has been assigned to the different location of hydroxyl groups where the higher interaction is the one that does not contain boron and dry milled as K-F results. (Author)

  9. Effect of milling duration on the evolution of shape memory properties in a powder processed Cu-Al-Ni-Ti alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Mohit; Gupta, Gaurav K.; Shafeeq, Muhamed M.; Modi, Om P.; Prasad, Braj K. [CSIR - Advanced Materials and Processes Research Institute, Bhopal (India)

    2013-09-15

    The present work describes the effect of milling duration on the properties of a powder metallurgy processed Cu-Al-Ni-Ti shape memory alloy employing mechanical alloying. Powder mixtures milled for different durations were sintered in order to investigate the formation of solid solution and evolution of martensitic structure. The idea was to optimize the duration of milling (mechanical alloying) to obtain chemical homogeneity as well as shape memory properties in the processed material without undergoing extensive post homogenization treatment. The martensitic structure was noted to evolve in the powder mix milled for at least 16 hrs, whereas complete transformation to martensite occurred after milling for 40 hrs. Interestingly, the dissolution of alloying elements (to form the {beta} phase prior to the formation of martensite) was noted to complete partially only during mechanical alloying for 40 hrs and remaining during subsequent sintering for 1 hr. The hot pressed compacts of the powders milled for 40 hrs were chemically homogeneous and consisted of fully martensite phase, which is essential for the realization of shape memory properties. They also revealed almost 100% shape recovery at the applied pre-strain levels of 1 and 2%. (orig.)

  10. MINIMUM QUANTITY LUBRICANT FLOW ANALYSIS IN END MILLING PROCESSES: A COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Najiha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a two-dimensional steady-state incompressible analysis for the minimum quantity of lubricant flow in milling operations using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD approach. The analysis of flow and heat transfer in a four-teeth milling cutter operation was undertaken. The domain of the rotating cutter along with the spray nozzle is defined. Operating cutting and boundary conditions are taken from the literature. A steady-state, pressure-based, planar analysis was performed with a viscous, realizable k-ε model. A mixture of oils and air were sprayed on the tool, which is considered to be rotating and is at a temperature near the melting temperature of the workpiece. Flow fields are obtained from the study. The vector plot of the flow field shows that the flow is not evenly distributed over the cutter surface, as well as the uneven distribution of the lubricant in the direction of the cutter rotation. It can be seen that the cutting fluid has not completely penetrated the tool edges. The turbulence created by the cutter rotation in the proximity of the tool throws oil drops out of the cutting zone. The nozzle position in relation to the feed direction is very important in order to obtain the optimum effect of the MQL flow.

  11. Compact Q-balls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D., E-mail: bazeia@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-970 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Losano, L.; Marques, M.A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-970 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Menezes, R. [Departamento de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58297-000 Rio Tinto, PB (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, 58109-970 Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Rocha, R. da [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC, 09210-580 Santo André (Brazil)

    2016-07-10

    In this work we deal with non-topological solutions of the Q-ball type in two space–time dimensions, in models described by a single complex scalar field that engenders global symmetry. The main novelty is the presence of stable Q-balls solutions that live in a compact interval of the real line and appear from a family of models controlled by two distinct parameters. We find analytical solutions and study their charge and energy, and show how to control the parameters to make the Q-balls classically and quantum mechanically stable.

  12. Enrichment of the metallic components from waste printed circuit boards by a mechanical separation process using a stamp mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jae-Min; Jeong, Jinki; Yoo, Kyoungkeun; Lee, Jae-chun; Kim, Wonbaek

    2009-01-01

    Printed circuit boards incorporated in most electrical and electronic equipment contain valuable metals such as Cu, Ni, Au, Ag, Pd, Fe, Sn, and Pb. In order to employ a hydrometallurgical route for the recycling of valuable metals from printed circuit boards, a mechanical pre-treatment step is needed. In this study, the metallic components from waste printed circuit boards have been enriched using a mechanical separation process. Waste printed circuit boards shredded to 5.0 mm. The fractions of milled printed circuit boards of size 5.0 mm fraction and the heavy fraction were subjected to two-step magnetic separation. Through the first magnetic separation at 700 Gauss, 83% of the nickel and iron, based on the whole printed circuit boards, was recovered in the magnetic fraction, and 92% of the copper was recovered in the non-magnetic fraction. The cumulative recovery of nickel-iron concentrate was increased by a second magnetic separation at 3000 Gauss, but the grade of the concentrate decreased remarkably from 76% to 56%. The cumulative recovery of copper concentrate decreased, but the grade increased slightly from 71.6% to 75.4%. This study has demonstrated the feasibility of the mechanical separation process consisting of milling/size classification/gravity separation/two-step magnetic separation for enriching metallic components such as Cu, Ni, Al, and Fe from waste printed circuit boards

  13. Effect of milling time on the structure, particle size, and morphology of montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abareshi, M.

    2017-01-01

    In the current research, effect of milling on the structure, particle size and morphology of montmorillonite was investigated. For this purpose, the montmorillonite was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Then the montmorillonite was milled using high energy planetary ball mill at different milling times (1-60 hours). After that, the structure, particle size and morphology of all samples were investigated by XRD, FTIR, SEM, and transmission electron microscopy. Results showed that the ball milling causes the particle size reduction of clay and separation of the clay layers. Moreover, ball milling increases the overall structural disorder and transforms the crystalline structure into an amorphous phase. Also, the morphology of clay particle changes from layered to aggregates of almost rounded particles after 60 hours of milling.

  14. A FLEXIBLE APPROACH TO THE BENEFICIAL USE OF MACHINING POWER IN MILLING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk MENDİ

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a computer program has been developed to calculate the cutting speed (Vc and depth of cut (a under certain cutting condition which will be determined by the user for making maximum use of the various milling machines used presently. In the scope of the study, data related to the cutting speed (Vc and depth of cut (a of St 37 Steel and powers of the machine have been obtained. The aim is to make maximum use of the machines by choosing cutting speed (Vc and depth of cut (a with the help data. The effect of changes in cutting speed (Vc and depth of cut (a on productivity has been studied.

  15. Thermoelastoplastic Deformation of a Multilayer Ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashkin, E. V.; Dats, E. P.

    2017-09-01

    The problem of centrally symmetric deformation of a multilayer elastoplastic ball in the process of successive accretion of preheated layers to its outer surface is considered in the framework of small elastoplastic deformations. The problems of residual stress formation in the elastoplastic ball with an inclusion and a cavity are solved under various mechanical boundary conditions on the inner surface and for prescribed thermal compression distributions. The graphs of residual stress and displacement fields are constructed.

  16. Microstructure and Texture in Surface Deformation Layer of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy Processed by Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Yanxia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The microstructural and crystallographic features of the surface deformation layer in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy induced by milling were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM and precession electron diffraction (PED assisted nanoscale orientation mapping. The result shows that the surface deformation layer is composed by the top surface of equiaxed nanograins/ultrafine grains and the subsurface of lamellar nanograins/ultrafine grains surrounded by coarse grain boundary precipitates (GBPs. The recrystallized nanograins/ultrafine grains in the deformation layer show direct evidence that dynamic recrystallization plays an important role in grain refining process. The GBPs and grain interior precipitates (GIPs show a great difference in size and density with the matrix due to the thermally and mechanically induced precipitate redistribution. The crystallographic texture of the surface deformation layer is proved to be a mixture of approximate copper{112}, rotated cube{001} and F {111}. The severe shear deformation of the surface induced by milling is responsible for the texture evolution.