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Sample records for balkans

  1. Des Balkans About the Balkans

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    Predrag Matvejević

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Les Balkans témoignent de contradictions géographiques et politiques, perceptibles dans le changement d’appellation des lieux au cours de l’Histoire : de la péninsule illyrienne, grecque, byzantine à la « Turquie d’Europe » plus récente. Il est resté une dénomination venue des Turcs, les « Balkans ». Cette presqu’île n’offre pas de frontières naturelles difficiles à franchir. Les délimitations des géographes et historiens sont relatives et souvent arbitraires, et donc contestées. Sa définition est difficile, car, étant associée à la progression des troupes ottomanes, cette « zone de turbulences » garde aux yeux de certains un caractère négatif. Marqués par les bouleversements telluriques et historiques, les Balkans témoignent d’une pluralité et d’une variété démographiques, ce qui pose un grand nombre de questions en termes de rapports ethniques, de constructions identitaires et territoriales. Les revendications s’appuient aussi bien sur le mythe que sur l’Histoire. L’apparition de l’État-nation a constitué dans ces régions de multiples fractures à l’image du schisme chrétien de 1054, divisant Églises et croyances, empires et pouvoirs, styles et écritures. L’islam a engendré de nouvelles oppositions ou intolérances. Les puissances étrangères sont intervenues dans ce jeu pour tenter de le stabiliser tout en déterminant leurs sphères d’influence, figeant par le jeu des traités une multitude de questions irrésolues ou conflictuelles, sans apporter de réponse durable. Cet inachevé, dans une histoire faite de partages, suscite des frustrations, et nécessite une réécriture qui tarde à se faire jour, faute d’apaisement entre les différentes sensibilités. La littérature se fait l’écho de ces situations par l’évocation de la cruauté, sous l’occupation ottomane (cf. Ivo Andrić notamment, mais aussi dans l’actualité récente. « Cet espace qui produit

  2. Internal globalization of Western Balkan

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    Vukotić Veselin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available What are potential and real effects of the globalization process on the economic connection between Western Balkan countries? What is the crucial change in relations between Western Balkan countries and its economies inexorably brought by globalization? What are the elements of political economy of Western Balkan globalization? What are reflections of the conflict between political and economic areas of Western Balkan? These are some of the issues discuses in this paper.

  3. Internal Globalization of Western Balkan

    OpenAIRE

    Vukotić Veselin

    2006-01-01

    What are potential and real effects of the globalization process on the economic connection between Western Balkan countries? What is the crucial change in relations between Western Balkan countries and its economies inexorably brought by globalization? What are the elements of political economy of Western Balkan globalization? What are reflections of the conflict between political and economic areas of Western Balkan? These are some of the issues discuses in this paper.

  4. Balkan Print Forum – Dynamic Balkan Print Media Community

    OpenAIRE

    Rossitza Velkova

    2011-01-01

    Founded in October 2006, the Balkan Print Forum is gradually becoming an important regional institution. Its main targets are to share experiences and know-how,to initiate and intensify contacts and to support joint projects in the Balkan region.Since drupa 2008 there are 11 member countries of the Balkan Print Forum:Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Greece, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and Turkey. Partners of BPF are some compani...

  5. Balkan environmental atlas

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    Cekić Nikola

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper points out an extremely delicate urbarchitectonic-environemental drama, with innumerable global complex situations. There seems to be little hope for improvement in the actual living environment where the condition, in the developmental sense of the term, grows less and less sustainable. Very frequent conferences organized at all quarters of the world, with important declarations and recommendation do not manage to curb the increasingly evident crisis. The author points out to the need to create new action conditions in the Balkans and argues for the creation of a singular coordinated, environmental Atlas of the Balkans, an important document, with bases of key data, so that a better quality of life in micro and macro ambience units could be achieved. Therefore, striving for a different, new reality which will not be based on the declarative principles, but on the scientific research and academic education.

  6. Balkan Print Forum – Dynamic Balkan Print Media Community

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    Rossitza Velkova

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Founded in October 2006, the Balkan Print Forum is gradually becoming an important regional institution. Its main targets are to share experiences and know-how,to initiate and intensify contacts and to support joint projects in the Balkan region.Since drupa 2008 there are 11 member countries of the Balkan Print Forum:Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Greece, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and Turkey. Partners of BPF are some companies and universities from Russia and Ukraine.

  7. Balkans as the cultural subcontinent of Europe

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    Grčić Mirko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available New world order and rearrangement of Europe transform the position of Balkan region -instead as the "crossroad" between East and West, it is more often included into the area of Western influence. In European relations developed "core" is gradually spreading toward "periphery" removing the traditional Balkan culture. The europeisation of Balkans and spreading of Western European civilization's circle gives the arguments that the term Balkans should be replaced with the term Southeastern Europe. The europeisation or balkanization is not geopolitical but civilization choice in front of all Balkan nations.

  8. Balkans as the cultural subcontinent of Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Grčić Mirko

    2005-01-01

    New world order and rearrangement of Europe transform the position of Balkan region -instead as the "crossroad" between East and West, it is more often included into the area of Western influence. In European relations developed "core" is gradually spreading toward "periphery" removing the traditional Balkan culture. The europeisation of Balkans and spreading of Western European civilization's circle gives the arguments that the term Balkans should be replaced with the term Southeastern Europ...

  9. Mobile Balkans: Temporality, types, trends

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    Krasteva Anna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to scrutunize the Balkan migration phenomenon, highlightening the alloy between continuity and discontinuity in the explanation of migrations; the former expressed in the trends, the latter - in breakthroughs, ruptures, changes. Four periods are articulated and characterized through the major trends. The typology of Balkan migrations identifies ten types, classified in three larger categories. The article distinguishes and compares the national migration models and draws a panoramic picture of the major trends during the last quarter of a century.

  10. Feminist troubles with the Balkans

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    Drezgić Rada

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses writings of Slavenka Drakulić and certain number of other feminist writers from ex-Yugoslavia aiming to answer to the following questions: first, how much and in what way the discourses on ex-Yugoslavia Balkans, (postsocialism, nationalism and war have been produced by local feminists and/or imported from the West; second, have these discourses been overlapping with local feminist discourses about masculinity and femininity and how.

  11. Lattice QCD and the Balkan physicists contribution

    CERN Document Server

    Borici, Artan

    2015-01-01

    This is a paper based on the invited talk the author gave at the 9th Balkan Physical Union conference. It contains some of the main achievements of lattice QCD simulations followed by a list of Balkan physicists who have contributed to the project.

  12. Boosting Job Growth in the Western Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitriy Kovtun; Alexis Mayer Cirkel; Zuzana Murgasova; Dustin Smith; Suchanan Tambunlertchai

    2014-01-01

    Labor markets in the Western Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia) are characterized by some of the highest unemployment and low employment rates in Europe. We analyze the poor labor market outcomes in these countries by comparison with the New Member States of the European Union and advanced European economies. Our findings suggest that long-lasting labor market weaknesses in the Western Balkans have structural roots: the institutional ...

  13. Proceedings of papers. 3. Balkan Metallurgical Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Conference aims to be a central event in the metallurgy research of Balkan, fulfilling the goals to present the most outstanding relevant developments in modern metallurgy; to inspire high standards of excellence in pure and applied metallurgy research; to attract outstanding scientists to present central lectures on modem metallurgical research, and on the challenges imposed by the needs of society; to inspire the young generation of metallurgists in Balkan and other countries. Following these lines, the 3. Balkan Conference on Metallurgy will provide a unique opportunity for academic and industrial metallurgists from the Balkan countries and wider, to exchange ideas, expertise, and experience on topics related to the theme of the Conference - Balkan Metallurgy in Search for New Ways of Development. The aim of the organizers was to bring together distinguished experts, not only to present their work, but also to discuss the major scientific and technological challenges facing metallurgy in this millennium.The 6 sections of the conference were entitled: Section A: Extractive metallurgy; Section B: Physical metallurgy and materials science - ferrous metals and non ferrous metals; Section C: Management, maintenance control and optimization of metallurgical processes; Section D: New technologies and techniques; Section E: Refractory and powder; Section F: Corrosion and protection of metals. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  14. International Balkan and Near Eastern Social Sciences Conference

    OpenAIRE

    YILMAZ, Rasim

    2016-01-01

    International Balkan and Near Eastern Social Sciences Conference Series (IBANESS) Conference series are held in different Balkan Countries with hosting Universities in Balkan countries. The organization committee includes respected scientists from all over the world. International Balkan and Near Eastern Social Sciences Conference Series is held in Plovdiv, Bulgaria on March 12-13, 2016. The conference is hosted by University of Agribusiness and Rural Development-Plovdiv.

  15. Intercultural and Interreligious Communication in the Balkan

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    Arta Musaraj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The desire to belong in a individual culture means to possess a clear vision for the world, a road map that guides its followers towards the proper understanding of the planet’s past present and future. An established mythology of apparent national identities in the Balkans is somewhat unnaturally reinforced to justify conflicts between religious and ethnic groups, caused as a result of the national identities intertwined among themselves, an element essentially more influential than existence of national identities. For centuries Christians and Muslims in the Balkans have been living in peace, however a few Balkan Societies continue to use violence, national extremism, xenophobia as well as a contemporary practice to solve their problems. A legitimate question can be raised in relation to how common is religious influence used to cause violent and armed conflicts as compared to violence originating from ethnic cleansing, control over territory, political ideology and regional hegemony?

  16. The Western Balkans Geopolitics and Russian Energy Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Mulalic, Muhidin; Karic, Mirsad

    2014-01-01

    The Energy politics is today at the center of the Russian and the Western Balkans relations. It is widely known that Russia has been playing significant role in world energy supply. Therefore, Russian energy companies have taken a leading role in the promotion of their businesses in the Western Balkans. The Western Balkans region has become geostrategic partner as a transit route for the integration of Russia into the global energy world market. With regards to the transportation of gas Weste...

  17. Balkan variations of Orientalism and Occidentalism

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    Nikolay Aretov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Summarizing, the aim of this paper was to provoke scrutinizing in a Balkan context the notions of Orientalism and Occidentalism – two forms of demonizing the Other, coined in the age of Enlightenment, two phenomena that are ambivalent and imported from other cultures. They interact in a curious manner and took critical place in the mythologues of all the nations in the region although in different ways.

  18. European Dimension of the Balkan Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Rodin, Davor

    1995-01-01

    In this text the Balkan crisis caused by the break-up of the Yugoslav federation is analysed in the international context. The author inquires into the causes of the dissolution of Yugoslavia, which as well demonstrated the crisis of the European Union (EU). The basis for both developments is the end of the Cold war, although Yugoslavian disintegreation also stems from adition international factors which have been present from the very beggining of this state in 1918. The diagnosis is that th...

  19. Intercultural and Interreligious Communication in the Balkan

    OpenAIRE

    Arta Musaraj

    2013-01-01

    The desire to belong in a individual culture means to possess a clear vision for the world, a road map that guides its followers towards the proper understanding of the planet’s past present and future. An established mythology of apparent national identities in the Balkans is somewhat unnaturally reinforced to justify conflicts between religious and ethnic groups, caused as a result of the national identities intertwined among themselves, an element essentially more influential than existenc...

  20. The German heritage in Balkan languages

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    Helmut Wilhelm Schaller

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The German heritage in Balkan languagesAll Balkan languages show some German elements in their vocabulary, beginning with Old Bulgarian Bible texts up to modern Balkan languages, including Bulgarian, Macedonian, Serbian, Albanian, Romanian and Modern Greek. Etymologies of Balkan words and German words must be distinguished. Loanwords in Balkan languages are confined to words which are traceable back to Germanic languages, e. g. Gothic, Old and Middle High German and contemporary German. Not only the word store but also onomastics were occasionally influenced by German languages, but it is not possible to speak of a German substrat or adstrat in the way we can speak of a Thracian or Illyrian substrat, or Greek or Romance adstrat. Dziedzictwo germańskie w językach bałkańskichW słownictwie każdego z języków bałkańskich występują pewne germańskie elementy, poczynając od starobułgarskich tekstów biblijnych, a kończąc na współczesnych językach bałkańskich, jakimi są: bułgarski, macedoński, serbski, albański, rumuński i nowogrecki. W badaniach nad etymologią należy wyraźnie rozgraniczać dwa nurty rozwojowe: germański i bałkański. Katalog zapożyczeń ograniczamy do wyrazów obecnych w językach bałkańskich, których etymologię możemy prześledzić wstecz do gockiego, staro- i środkowo-wysoko-niemieckiego oraz współczesnego niemieckiego. Nie tylko słownictwo, lecz także onomastyka wykazują okazjonalnie wpływy niemieckie, jednak w żadnym razie nie ma podstaw, by mówić o germańskim substracie czy adstracie w takim sensie, w jakim mówimy o substracie trackim czy iliryjskim, bądź adstracie romańskim lub greckim.

  1. Towards Common Balkan Lexical Evidential Markers

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    Maxim M. Makartsev

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple listing of lexical evidential markers in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Albanian uncovers unusual problems, because a significant part of the markers are common, both due to genetic relations between the languages (e.g. Bulg. and Maced. spored and to areal factors (e.g. Turk. word güya / gûya was loaned into Bulg. dialectal gyoa, Maced. ǵoa and Alb. gjoja; this marker also exists in Serb.. But these common markers with the same etymology do not necessarily have similar meanings, which is both a theoretical problem for the description of the language data and a practical issue for translation between the languages. As Bulgarian, Macedonian and Albanian have grammatical evidential systems as well, there is a question how the lexical evidential markers interact with evidential forms. Here the distinction between analytic and holistic reading can be quite helpful, as it clarifies the role of each of the components in constructions. In the article it is analysed on the basis of translations between the Balkan languages. The definition of evidentiality I employ in this article is the one stated by A. Aikhenvald: “evidentiality is a linguistic category whose primary meaning is [the] source of information. […] [T]his covers the way in which the information was acquired, without necessarily relating to the degree of [the] speaker’s certainty concerning the statement or whether it is true or not” [Aikhenvald 2004: 3]. It is well known that there is a certain variety of domains for expressing evidentiality; first and foremost there is a distinction between lexical and grammatical markers.1 In the following article I will concentrate on the common lexical evidential markers in Albanian, Bulgarian, and Macedonian, with a short introduction to grammatical evidentiality in these languages._______________________1 As for the grammatical evidential markers in the Balkan languages, there is a tradition of their analysis dating back to the second

  2. Turkish Foreign Policy towards the Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrovic, Marija

    2014-01-01

    Das Ziel dieser Arbeit ist die strukturellen Determinanten der türkischen Politik auf dem Balkan in der letzten Zeit zu erklären. Es wird versucht, mit einem konstruktivistischen Ansatz der internationalen Beziehungen und Alexander Wendts Auffassung über die Agentur-Struktur-Beziehungen in der internationalen Politik fol-gende Fragen zu beantworten: Ob und inwieweit werden das traditionelle Verständnis der Außenpolitik, die Identität und das Verhalten der neuen Akteure in der türkischen Außen...

  3. A third Balkan war: France and the allied attempts at creating a new Balkan alliance 1914-1915

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    Pavlović Vojislav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The initial phase of the First World War in the Balkans 1914-1915 was a natural continuation of the conflicts opened during the Balkan Wars, but national fervor now encompassed all of the Balkans, from Rijeka and Ljubljana to Athens, Sofia and Bucharest, because the role of the Dual Monarchy had changed from that of an arbiter to that of a participant in the conflict. With the demise of the Ottoman Empire, the further survival of the Habsburg Monarchy was challenged by the Serbian government's Yugoslav project, creating conditions for implementing the nationality principle in all of the Balkans. It seemed that, in support of the alliances that were being created in the Balkans and in Europe as a whole, the time had come for the final fulfillment of the national aspirations of the Balkan peoples. The outcome of this third Balkan war no longer depended solely on the balance of power inside the Balkans, but also on the overall course of the war. After the initial victories in 1914, Serbia suffered a defeat in 1915 and her armies were forced to retreat southward to Albania and Greece, but her Yugoslav project was the foundation of her future policies and the basis for materializing the concept of a common South-Slavic state.

  4. Aristotle vs. Plato: The Balkans' Paradoxical Enlightenment

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    D. Michalopoulos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available As it occurred in West, Aristotle’s thought was in Byzantium the main organon of philosophical meditation within the frame of the Christian Faith. Nonetheless, from the ninth century on it was a revival of Platonism that took place – of Neo-Platonism at the beginning and of Platonism itself at the end. The Church, initially indifferent, became suspicious only when, at the turning of the fourteenth to the fifteenth century, the Platonism seemed to engender somewhat a latent paganism; but the Patriarchate was not then able to fight that tendency. So only after the 1453 capture of Constantinople by the Ottomans, Gennadius Scholarius managed to root out from the Greek lands Platonism and its crypto-pagan extension. Be that as it may; the main paradox of the Balkan history is that in the early seventeenth century some leading Greek scholars endorsed the materialist interpretation of Aristotle’s thought – as it was taught in the University of Padua by Cesare Cremonini; and as a corollary this materialistic philosophical system began being taught in both Constantinople and Athens. It was that very way that the Enlightenment took birth in the Balkans – and somehow became a State ideology - long before its prevalence in France. And of course all this had as a result a turn toward Physics and Chemistry with far-reaching consequences

  5. Balkan nephropathy: evolution of our knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamias, Giorgos; Boletis, John

    2008-09-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), originally described in the late 1950s as a chronic tubulointerstitial kidney disease, is identified by its unique epidemiological features. The most remarkable characteristic of BEN is the focal topographical nature that characterizes its occurrence at the global, national, and even household level. BEN affects only certain endemic rural foci along tributaries of the Danube River in the Balkan countries of Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania, and Serbia. The spatial distribution has remained astonishingly unchanged with time because the disease affects the same endemic clusters as 50 years ago. The natural course of the disease is characterized by universal development of end-stage renal disease and the frequent development of upper urinary tract tumors, posing a substantial disease burden to the afflicted areas. The greatest challenge in the study of BEN has been the elucidation of its cause. The unique features of the disease, in particular its endemic nature and the long incubation period required for the disease to develop, have led to the proposal that BEN represents a unique environmental disease. The quest for the responsible environmental factor has been long and diverse, and although no definitive answer has been provided to date, converging lines of evidence support the theory that long-term consumption of food contaminated with aristolochic acid underlies the pathogenesis of BEN. The present review describes the evolution of our knowledge of BEN in relation to the development of the main theories for its pathogenesis. PMID:18725017

  6. INVESTMENTS AND INVESTMENT INCENTIVES IN THE BALKAN STATES

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    MEHMET YÜCE

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Balkan region, located in the south eastern part of the European Continent, is composed Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Montenegro, Kosovo, Macedonia, Greece with a portion of the Croatia, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and Turkey. Southeast Europe are composed of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo, Macedonia and Albania which known as the Western Balkans countries. That international investments are assessed on a regional and global scale in the Balkans, these investments gained importance after the 1990s with political, social and geographical variation. In the 2000s, after legal and administrative framework oriented reforms of investments which are continuations of global integration efforts, development of the investment opportunities in Balkans have been considered positively. While the investment incentive structures and rates differ on the basis of the countries, they are of capital importance for investors. After the 2008 global economic crisis which has happened because of the economic shrinkage on global scale, despite the worries for political and economic unsteadiness in specific countries, development of investments in Balkans has not been affected in a negative way. In this study development of investment in Balkans is analysed with negative and positive factors, investment opportunities and incentives are examined on the basis of countries. The Balkans gain acceleration positively thanks to the reforms of investment opportunities on the national scope. As to the need of investment development oriented local and international coordinated programme and approach is an important issue that should be analysed.

  7. The vegetational history of the Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, K. J.

    The vegetational history of the Balkans from the last glacial through to present features a dynamic system not subject to immigration of additional taxa. Many temperate taxa appear to have survived in this region during the last glacial in low but persistent populations. Evidence suggests that a greater diversity of taxa existed in the mid to high altitude sites probably where the climate was more humid. At the lateglacial/Holocene transition many tree taxa expanded simultaneously with no evidence of the time-transgressive appearance of taxa which is taken to be indicative of differential immigration in northern Europe. Expansion of temperate woodland was at least 1000 years earlier than in northern Europe suggesting that this was the minimum time for migration of temperate trees into northern Europe. Changes in the composition of the early Holocene woodland included expansion of Pistacia between 9000 and 8000 14C BP, a change in the forest dominants between 8000 and 7000 14C BP, and the appearance and increase of Carpinus orient./Ostrya, Abies. Carpinus betulus and Fagus between 7500 and 5000 14C BP. Since all types were present in the region from the lateglacial, it is suggested that factors other than migration are responsible for their population increase. These factors are considered and include climate, soil development, establishment time and anthropogenic disturbance. Development of the present day landscape started at approximately 4500 14C BP with the onset of anthropogenic disturbance. Clearance resulted in the increase of open ground herbaceous types with grasses, Cerealia-type and Plantago lanceolata. New trees also to become established included Juglans, Olea, Castanea and Platanus. At least two of these types ( Juglans and Castanea) were present in the Balkans during the lateglacial suggesting that although some types were imported by the Greeks/Romans others may have expanded in situ as a result of a favourable niche being created by anthropogenic

  8. Mafia links between the Balkans and Scandinavia. State of affairs

    OpenAIRE

    Matteo Albertini

    2012-01-01

    The last twenty years has seen an increasing presence of Balkan organized crime groups in security reports and newspapers' headlines. This does not mean that mafia groups did not exist during Socialist Yugoslavia – even if its collapse and the following war made criminals and smugglers useful for politicians and leaders to maintain their power; it rather means that Balkan organized crime came outside its traditional areas of action in Serbia, Montenegro and Albania: less territorial and natio...

  9. Tephrostratigraphy and tephrochronology of lakes Ohrid and Prespa, Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Sulpizio, R.; G. Zanchetta; M. D'Orazio; H. Vogel; Wagner, B.

    2010-01-01

    Four cores from Balkans lakes Ohrid and Prespa were studied for recognition of tephra layers and cryptotephras, and the results presented along with the review of data from other two already published cores from Lake Ohrid. The six cores provide a previously unrealised tephrostratigraphic framework of the two lakes, and supply the first detailed tephrochronologic profile (composite) for the Balkans, which spans from the end of the Middle Pleistocene to the end of the Ancient Age (AD 47...

  10. Tephrostratigraphy and tephrochronology of lakes Ohrid and Prespa, Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Sulpizio, R.; G. Zanchetta; M. D'Orazio; H. Vogel; Wagner, B.

    2010-01-01

    Four cores from Balkans lakes Ohrid and Prespa were examined for recognition of tephra layers and cryptotephras, and the results presented along with the review of data from other two already published cores from Lake Ohrid. The six cores provide a previously unrealised tephrostratigraphic framework of the two lakes, and provide a new tephrostratigraphic profile (composite) for the Balkans, which spans from the end of the Middle Pleistocene to the AD 472. A total of 12 tephra layers and crypt...

  11. Visa liberalisation and economic implication for the Western Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Ylber Sela

    2011-01-01

    When in April, 2007, western Balkan countries started the facilitation of the visa agreement that will allow them extremely simplified procedures for visa application in order to enter EU countries, many of the citizens of this region that historically has been isolated were skeptical this will really happen. This article analyses in detail the process of visa liberalization for the western Balkan countries and argues that visa facilitation is shown to be very useful despite the fact that onl...

  12. Traditional Food in Western Balkan Countries Consumers’ Perceptions and Habits

    OpenAIRE

    Barjolle, Dominique; Brecic, Ruzica; Cerjak, Marija; Giraud, Georges

    2015-01-01

    Te aim of this paper is to explore consumers' perceptions and habits regarding traditional food in the Western Balkan Countries. In each Western Balkan country, two focus groups were carried-out (total twelve focus groups; eight to ten participants per each – total sample of 104 participants). Results of this study show that consumer motives for the choice of traditional products pertain to higher health, safety, sensory and increasingly also sustainability beliefs and expectation. Results of...

  13. Banking Regulation Of Western Balkan Countries

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    Denada Hafizi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The current global economic crisis has affected the development of banking system in Western Balkan Countries, including Italy and Greece. These effects are expressed with the contraction of lending, fallen of foreign direct investments, fallen of the volume of remittances and fallen of international trade. The banking system continually faces new challenges in a dynamically changing financial system, and this makes difficult theimplementation of bank regulation and supervision.All the countries have improved their banking regulation in order to avoid the contagion effect among banks and banking system in general, effects that get increased especially when banks are engaged in international banking. The standardization of regulatory requirements provides potential solution to the problems of regulating international banking. So, there is a moving through agreements like Basel Accords.For all these countries will be a comparison of regulatory capital to risk-weighted assets ratio and of capital to assets ratio in order to find out how well is capitalized their bankingsystem. The sources of data are the reports of International Monetary Fund for a time series of 2008-2013. In the end there are some conclusions for the main problems that theimplementation of supervision and bank regulation faces.Keywords: Basel Accords, Capital Ratio, Banking Regulation

  14. Anglophiles in Balkan Christian states (1862-1920

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    Markovich Slobodan G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The life stories of five Balkan Anglophiles emerging in the nineteenth century - two Serbs, Vladimir Jovanović (Yovanovich and Čedomilj Mijatović (Chedomille Mijatovich; two Greeks, Ioannes (John Gennadios and Eleutherios Venizelos; and one Bulgarian, Ivan Evstratiev Geshov - reflect, each in its own way, major episodes in relations between Britain and three Balkan Christian states (Serbia, the Hellenic Kingdom and Bulgaria between the 1860s and 1920. Their education, cultural patterns, relations and models inspired by Britain are looked at, showing that they acted as intermediaries between British culture and their own and played a part in the best and worst moments in the history of mutual relations, such as the Serbian-Ottoman crisis of 1862, the Anglo-Hellenic crisis following the Dilessi murders, Bulgarian atrocities and the Eastern Crisis, unification of Bulgaria and the Serbo-Bulgarian War of 1885, the Balkan Wars 1912-13, the National Schism in Greece. Their biographies are therefore essential for understanding Anglo-Balkan relations in the period under study. The roles of two British Balkanophiles (a Bulgarophile, James David Bourchier, and a Hellenophile, Ronald Burrows are looked at as well. In conclusion, a comparison of the Balkan Anglophiles is offered, and their Britain-inspired cultural and institutional legacy to their countries is shown in the form of a table.

  15. Marketing of the Balkans as à tourist destination for cultural tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Stoyan Marinov

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to outline possibilities for the marketing of the Balkans as à tourist destination for cultural tourism. It gives à definition of the Balkan region as à tourist destination. The target cultural tourist segments of the region are indicated. The strategic marketing mix is drawn for the positioning of the Balkans on the market of cultural tourism. The possible organizational platform for the marketing of the Balkans as à tourist destination is shown.

  16. SECURING FRAGILE DEMOCRACIES IN THE BALKANS: THE EUROPEAN DIMENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Pridham

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union faces unprecedented difficulties in its integration of the Western Balkans in terms of the requirements for change by countries in that region wishing to join. In order to meet this challenge, the EU’s political conditionality has moved significantly beyond its demands made on the post-Communist entrants of 2004 and 2007. But its effort to bridge the gap between the ability or political will of Balkan countries to adapt to European modernisation and uncertainties about EU commitment created by “enlargement fatigue” among Member States is vulnerable to weak consensus on both sides. Accordingly, the dynamic behind further enlargement is not comparable with the historic drive that impelled the enlargement of 2004. At the same time, there are strong geopolitical arguments on grounds of stabilising the Balkans for going ahead with integrating the Western half of this region.

  17. Lichens as biomonitors of uranium in the Balkan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loppi, S.; Riccobono, F.; Zhang, Z.H.; Savic, S.; Ivanov, D.; Pirintsos, S.A

    2003-09-01

    Widespread contamination by depleted uranium was not detected in the Balkan area. - The contribution of the conflict of 1999 to the environmental levels of uranium in the Balkan area was evaluated by means of lichens used as biomonitors. The average U concentration found in lichens in the present study was in line with the values reported for lichens from other countries and well below the levels found in lichens collected in areas with natural or anthropogenic sources of U. Measurement of isotopic ratios {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U allowed to exclude the presence of depleted uranium. According to these results, we could not detect widespread environmental contamination by depleted uranium in the Balkan area.

  18. The future path of lignite production in the Balkan countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future development of the European Union and Balkan lignite industry is examined in this paper. Lignite in some countries represents for the last decade by far the most important fuel for electricity generation. The economically recoverable lignite reserves of the Balkans (21.36 x 109 t) and Greece (4.0 x 109 t) are sufficient to meet their energy demand for the next decades (50-100 years). The Balkan countries intended to increase their lignite production, in the near future, as result of the increase of their primary energy demand and their efforts to meet their energy requirements by using domestic resources. Greece also plans to increase lignite production. On the contrary, the remaining of the European Union countries intend to decrease their lignite production. Nevertheless, the countries of Balkan region which are presently in a transition period to the market economy, have to deal with a decrease of people employed in the lignite mining industry. However, Balkan region seems to be the most promising area for the future development of the lignite industry in the enlarged EU, after making the following alterations in the lignite sector: Rehabilitation of the lignite open-pit mines, closure of the most underground mines, privatization of the most prosperous mines, modification of the existing technology, introduction of the 'clean' coal technology, etc. New opportunities for the development and modernization of the lignite industry in Balkan countries arise, after their possible entrance into the European Union, considering also that lignite is one of their most important indigenous energy source. For the necessary modernization of the lignite industry, development of collaborations for the capital and know-how transferring is required. (Author)

  19. „Pseudo-yat“ in Dalmato-Romance and Balkan Latin (On Balkan Latin VIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligorio Orsat L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Article discusses the origins and the development of the so-called pseudo-yat in Dalmatian Romance and Balkan Latin. (E.g. SCr. mrčela-murtila-murtela from Lat. *MYRTICELLA or tovijerna-tovirna-toverna from TABERNA. Pseudo-yat is derived from -ECC-, in short syllables, and in long syllables from -ERR-, -ERC-. This suggestion is tried on 58 Dalmatian loans in Serbo-Croatian. The fact that pseudo-yat is found only in a part of these is of particular significance for the stratification of Dalmatian loans in Serbo-Croatian since loans with pseudo-yat are ostensibly older than the ones without it. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 178007

  20. Record Balkan floods of 2014 linked to planetary wave resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadtherr, Lisa; Coumou, Dim; Petoukhov, Vladimir; Petri, Stefan; Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    In May 2014, the Balkans were hit by a Vb-type cyclone that brought disastrous flooding and severe damage to Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, and Croatia. Vb cyclones migrate from the Mediterranean, where they absorb warm and moist air, to the north, often causing flooding in central/eastern Europe. Extreme rainfall events are increasing on a global scale, and both thermodynamic and dynamical mechanisms play a role. Where thermodynamic aspects are generally well understood, there is large uncertainty associated with current and future changes in dynamics. We study the climatic and meteorological factors that influenced the catastrophic flooding in the Balkans, where we focus on large-scale circulation. We show that the Vb cyclone was unusually stationary, bringing extreme rainfall for several consecutive days, and that this situation was likely linked to a quasi-stationary circumglobal Rossby wave train. We provide evidence that this quasi-stationary wave was amplified by wave resonance. Statistical analysis of daily spring rainfall over the Balkan region reveals significant upward trends over 1950-2014, especially in the high quantiles relevant for flooding events. These changes cannot be explained by simple thermodynamic arguments, and we thus argue that dynamical processes likely played a role in increasing flood risks over the Balkans. PMID:27152340

  1. Terfezia terfezioides - a new hypogeous fungus for Balkan Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ławrynowicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Terfezia terfezioides (Matt. Trappe was found for the first time in FR Yugoslavia in 1991. Description of the specimens, its mycorrhizal association with Robinta pseudoacacia and distribution in Europe are discussed in the paper. This is the first locality of T. terfezioides on Balkan Peninsula.

  2. The Balkans - the most erosive part of Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blinkov Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion has been occurring over the geological time. Inappropriate human activities accelerate this process. Soil erosion by water is a widespread problem throughout Europe. The South and Southeast regions of Europe are significantly prone to water erosion. In parts of the region, erosion has reached a stage of irreversibility and in some places erosion has practically ceased because there is no soil left. Scientists from the Balkan countries faced with the erosion problem for years, paid significant attention to solving problems with erosion. The aim of this study is to compare the results of water erosion intensity in the Balkan countries with other European countries. The basic methodological approach in this paper is an analysis of secondary data, using the method of “content analyses” of various data sources. Inductive and deductive qualitative analysis was used and finally the method of “comparative analysis” is applied too. Through the analysis of national researches, it was estimated that erosion intensity in Balkan countries is 548 m3km-2 (similar to 5.48 tha-1 and the total amount of annual produced erosive material is 419.9 *106 m3. The mean European average annual erosion intensity is 3.13tha-1. The most erosive countries in Europe are the Balkan countries, Albania and Montenegro where the mean annual intensity of erosion is > 10 tha-1.

  3. Karyotypic variation in mammals of the Balkan Peninsula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zima, Jan

    Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic, 2004 - (Griffiths, H.; Kryštufek, B.; Reed, J.), s. 109-133 ISBN 1-4020-2853-9 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/01/0562 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : karyotypes * Balkan Peninsula * Mammalia Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  4. Western Balkans: sixth enlargement of the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Monzonis-Vilallonga, Jorge Fuentes

    2005-01-01

    After the enlargement to Central and Eastern Europe, the process of European integration has advanced, but it is still not complete. Twenty countries are still not members of the EU. The republics of Western Balkans are likely candidates for the next wave of enlargement.

  5. Record Balkan floods of 2014 linked to planetary wave resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadtherr, Lisa; Coumou, Dim; Petoukhov, Vladimir; Petri, Stefan; Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In May 2014, the Balkans were hit by a Vb-type cyclone that brought disastrous flooding and severe damage to Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, and Croatia. Vb cyclones migrate from the Mediterranean, where they absorb warm and moist air, to the north, often causing flooding in central/eastern Europe. Extreme rainfall events are increasing on a global scale, and both thermodynamic and dynamical mechanisms play a role. Where thermodynamic aspects are generally well understood, there is large uncertainty associated with current and future changes in dynamics. We study the climatic and meteorological factors that influenced the catastrophic flooding in the Balkans, where we focus on large-scale circulation. We show that the Vb cyclone was unusually stationary, bringing extreme rainfall for several consecutive days, and that this situation was likely linked to a quasi-stationary circumglobal Rossby wave train. We provide evidence that this quasi-stationary wave was amplified by wave resonance. Statistical analysis of daily spring rainfall over the Balkan region reveals significant upward trends over 1950–2014, especially in the high quantiles relevant for flooding events. These changes cannot be explained by simple thermodynamic arguments, and we thus argue that dynamical processes likely played a role in increasing flood risks over the Balkans. PMID:27152340

  6. Balkan – Pestens første udbrud?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Karsten

    Artiklen behandler den religiøst farvede nationalismes udvikling i Jugoslavien efter præsident Titos død i 1980 og dens virkninger på Balkan-landene, samt EU's muligheder for at danne modvægt mod aggressiv nationalistisk-religiøs chauvinisme...

  7. Low altitudinal distribution of Salamandra salamandra from the Balkan Peninsula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jablonski, D.; Balej, P.; Jůna, F.; Homolka, Miloslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 6 (2013), s. 563-566. ISSN 2071-5773 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : fire salamander * Balkan Peninsula Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://www.herpetologynotes.seh-herpetology.org/Volume6_PDFs/Jablonski_HerpetologyNotes_volume6_pages563-566.pdf

  8. Bibliography of Balkan demography: the contribution of Italian studies

    OpenAIRE

    Di Cesare, Rosa; Roberti, Matteo

    2010-01-01

    The working paper presents a selected bibliography on Balkan demography on featuring books and chapter from books, scientific articles, conference proceedings and conference papers, reports and other grey materials. The bibliography includes Italian authors who published both in Italian and a language other than Italian as well as foreign authors who published their works in Italian and/or in Italian journals

  9. The Balkans: Between Economic Crisis And European Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei RĂDULESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Balkans region (also known as the „Powder keg of Europe” has always been an European question, a Western question, as underlined by Arnold Toynbee, in 1922. At present, European Union is confronted with the fifth enlargement, also known as the “post-conflict” enlargement – the integration of Balkan states. Bulgaria joined European Union in 2007. Croatia signed the Accession Treaty in 2011 and is expected to become an EU member in 2013. The other countries encounter in different stages of European integration. However, this process presents several challenges and dilemmas, either for European Union, or for the Balkan enclave. The main challenge in the case of this enlargement is to reconcile the nation-state building and the European integration. From the economic point of view, the Balkans region is underdeveloped. Several factors determined this stance of the region: the poor endowment in terms of natural resources, the political situation over the centuries (the military conflicts – impeding the economic development, the cultural factors. At present, the region is confronted with the consequences of the worst economic and financial crisis o global economy since the end of World War II.

  10. Mafia links between the Balkans and Scandinavia. State of affairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Albertini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The last twenty years has seen an increasing presence of Balkan organized crime groups in security reports and newspapers' headlines. This does not mean that mafia groups did not exist during Socialist Yugoslavia – even if its collapse and the following war made criminals and smugglers useful for politicians and leaders to maintain their power; it rather means that Balkan organized crime came outside its traditional areas of action in Serbia, Montenegro and Albania: less territorial and nationalist than it was before, it is now gaining prominence in an international scenario, making agreements with Italian and South American mafias – the so-called Holy Alliance – to manage drug routes towards Western Europe. One of the most interesting factors concerning Balkan mafia groups today is their presence in countries which traditionally do not have a history of organized crime, such as the Scandinavian states. One of the reasons lies in the wide percentage of immigrants moving from Balkan countries to Sweden or Norway. Since the wars of the 1990s in the former Yugoslavia, war-crimes fugitives were able to become common criminals in these countries, such as the infamous Želiko Raznjatović (“Arkan”. However, year by year, these gangs grew larger, taking advantage of the “expertise” and the resources gained during the war. In particular, the most spectacular case – the Våstberga helicopter robbery in 2009 – showed how these groups operate with military-style precision, utilize a wide number of participants, and have at their disposal laerge amounts of weapons and money. This paper will draw on the importance of Scandinavian – Balkan mafia relations in relation to three main criminal areas: drug and weapon smuggling and human trafficking, in order to underline the role of diasporas in enforcing organized crime groups and the extent to which these mafias could be a threat for the stability in both Eastern and Western Europe.

  11. International virtual e-hospital: the Balkans journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Rifat

    2008-01-01

    What started in Berlin in May of 2000 as an idea to create the telemedicine program of Kosova in order to help the country rebuild the broken medical system and change the miserable face of medicine, has now spread to other countries in the Balkans. Today, June 29, 2007, as I am rewriting this chapter, ten doctors and engineers from Kosova, Montenegro and Macedonia graduated from a three weeks intensive course on telemedicine, e-health and medical electronic library. This international telemedicine fellowship is organized by the very entity that was created in Berlin 7 years ago: The International Virtual e-Hospital (IVEH). This time, however they are part of a project called "Improving Health Care in the Balkans Using Telemedicine, Advanced Technologies and Cultural Exchange Programs as a Platform" funded by the Bureau of Education and Cultural Exchange of the State department of USA, and is being implemented in collaboration with Arizona Telemedicine Program and University of Arizona Health Science Center Library, as well as Alaska Telemedicine program in Anchorage. The goal of the program is to create the medical and technical leadership that will significantly enhance health care access and quality in the region. This program is creating a powerful international medical education network in the Balkans for further collaboration and development. As part of the project, 48 physicians, nurses and engineers from Kosova, Montenegro, Macedonia and Albania are being trained in telemedicine, e-health, electronic library management, trauma and surgical critical care. A group of experts in these same medical disciplines will conduct workshops, seminars and other cultural and educational activities in the Balkan region. We can say now with certainty that the Telemedicine Program of Kosova is having an impact in the region that goes far beyond telemedicine applications and advanced technologies in the Balkans. It is creating leadership that will take the future in their

  12. INTERNET ADDICTION IN BALKAN AND SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis PETASAKIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of Internet has increased dramatically in recent years. Although there is no standardized definition of Internet addiction, there is acknowledgement among researchers that this phenomenon does exist. In this study, we identify various similarities and differences among people in the Balkan and South-Eastern European countries about Internet addiction. There are many factors such as cultural differences, gender differences, psychosocial variables, computer attitudes and time.We present the experience from studies concerning Internet addiction in all over the world. A specific research with the use of Young's 20-scale was also conducted in five Balkan and South-Eastern European countries (Republic of Moldova, Romania, Republic of Bulgaria, Hellenic Republic, Republic of Cyprus.The findings are interesting. Although there is a need for Interest using, there are also cases where the addiction, dependence and abuse is apparent.

  13. The Balkans at the turn of the century: challenges for Greece and European Security Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Milas, Adamantios

    2000-01-01

    The changes that occurred in the Balkans since 1991, following Soviet Union's dissolution and the breakup of Yugoslavia, revived the violent history of the Balkan Peninsula. The Kosovo war in 1998 aggravated the situation and increased fears among countries in the region for more ethnic strife, military operations and a massive exodus of refugees. As a Balkan country, Greece was affected by the evolving situation, which was reflected in its foreign security policy towards its northern neighbo...

  14. The Burdens of History: Problems Invoked by Occidental Travel Writing on the Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Boynton, Eric Grayson

    2011-01-01

    Works on the Balkans currently face a crisis of representation--from Ivo Andric's fictionalized memory to Joe Sacco's humanitarian witnessing, the occidental reader must examine the Balkans within a historical context of colonialism to avoid misrepresentation. The goal of this study is threefold: to provide a firm historical grounding while observing the instruments of colonialism, to give an overview of Occidental travel writing on the Balkans with a particular focus on the formation and d...

  15. Phylogeny of European Bullhead (Cottus sp.) in Western Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Jernej Bravničar; Anja Palandačić; Saša Marić; Radek Šanda

    2015-01-01

    European bullhead sensus lato is a species complex, in which lineage determination based on morphology has proven to be extremely difficult, probably due to low interspecific and high intraspeciefic morphological variation. Therefore, major evolutionary lineages across Europe have been determined based on molecular data, which also to some extent corresponds to known morphological variation. Cottus populations on the Balkan Peninsula have not yet been thoroughly studied. Thus we used mole...

  16. Names of plants of Mediterranean and Balkan origin in Burushaski

    OpenAIRE

    Čašule, Ilija

    2014-01-01

    After a brief overview of studies that correlate the Burushaski language with Indo-European, the article goes on to examine the close and specific semantic and phonological correspondence between eight plant names shared by Burushaski and the Indo-European languages of the Mediterranean and Southern Europe. On the strength of this correlation it is proposed that these plant names may point to the Eastern Mediterranean and the Balkans as the original area of inhabitation of the Burushaski people.

  17. INTERNET ADDICTION IN BALKAN AND SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis PETASAKIS; Athanasios MANDILAS; Stavros VALSAMIDIS

    2012-01-01

    The use of Internet has increased dramatically in recent years. Although there is no standardized definition of Internet addiction, there is acknowledgement among researchers that this phenomenon does exist. In this study, we identify various similarities and differences among people in the Balkan and South-Eastern European countries about Internet addiction. There are many factors such as cultural differences, gender differences, psychosocial variables, computer attitudes and time. We presen...

  18. Visual material evidence of viking presence in the Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantin Kolev Jr

    2015-01-01

    The Swedish and Norwegian Vikings were present in the Balkans including in Bulgaria. The archaeological and visual materials found on the Romanian, Bulgarian and Turkish territory support this statement. The majority of the objects constitute parts of weapons and tools related to the Scandinavian warfare. Most of these artifacts were discovered in North East of Bulgaria close to the Romanian border. They can be attributed to the Rus princes (father and son): Igor I (912-945) and Svyatoslav I ...

  19. SECURITY PROBLEM IN THE BALKANS: VIEW FROM ITALY AND RUSSIA (LATE XX – EARLY XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. RATUSHNYAK

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article relevance is proved by the importance of studying of a security problem in the Balkans which takes a significant place in the foreign policy of Russia and Italy. The article gives short excursus to the security problem in the Balkans and discovers geostrategic value of the Balkan Peninsula. It also describes turmoil factors in this South-Eastern European region. The author examines the impact of the Balkan crisis on the Common European security and also the Balkans’ place on the modern geopolitical world map. The article analyzes disintegrating processes in the Balkan Peninsula, particularly break-up of Yugoslavia, Italian and Russian views of this problem and their role in resolution of the Balkan crisis. It is considered the Balkan security problem within the framework of maintenance of national security by Italy and Russia and also the Balkans’ position in the foreign policy of Italy and Russia in late XX – early XXI. Finally it is made a conclusion that the Balkan vector is of great priority in the foreign policy line of Italy and Russia and that geopolitical stability of the Balkans takes a heavy toll on the security of Italy and Russia.

  20. The Balkan gurbet/pečalbarstvo - past and present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Petko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an observation on the various traditional forms of cross-border seasonal labour mobility on the Balkans, both as agricultural works away from the home place, and as large-scale temporary craftsmen’s migrations of builders, bakers, dairy workers, confectioners and so on. In countries like Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia and Serbia, traditional cultural models of trans-border labour mobility that encompasses the majority of the male population of entire regions have existed for centuries. These migrant groups created the specific subculture of gurbet, which the men carried with them in the big city, at the same time altering the entire model of traditional culture in their home regions. The annual journeys of men from the various mountain parts of the Balkans “at work” and “for gain” (pečalba in the course of the years developed specific features of the feast-ritual system and folklore in the villages of these regions. At the same time, the traditional Balkan gurbet is an important condition for mutual penetration between various cultures and peoples and for creating new cultural patterns and various multidimentional identities.

  1. Visual material evidence of viking presence in the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Kolev Jr

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish and Norwegian Vikings were present in the Balkans including in Bulgaria. The archaeological and visual materials found on the Romanian, Bulgarian and Turkish territory support this statement. The majority of the objects constitute parts of weapons and tools related to the Scandinavian warfare. Most of these artifacts were discovered in North East of Bulgaria close to the Romanian border. They can be attributed to the Rus princes (father and son: Igor I (912-945 and Svyatoslav I Igorevich (942-972 who passed by the Bulgarian lands in the 10-th century and the Norwegian prince Harald who supported the Byzantine Empire to cause the downfall of the First Bulgarian kingdom at the beginning of the next century. Despite this sorrowful reputation, though, the Viking material culture in Bulgaria, Romania and Istanbul gives evidence to the multicultural mosaic of our region. It also enriches the Balkan history and culture. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to outline the Viking objects discovered in the Balkans.

  2. Surveillance of wildlife zoonotic diseases in the Balkans Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirsada Hukić

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The countries of the Balkan Peninsula have become the region with frequent outbreaks of the emerging and re-emerging diseases during the last decade of the 20th and the first decade of the 21st century. The majority of outbreaks were wildlife zoonotic, and vector-borne diseases, such as brucellosis, leptospirosis, listeriosis, tularemia, Q-fever, Lyme disease, anthrax, rabies, viralhemorrhagic fevers, sandfly fever, tick-borne encephalitis and leishmainiasis. Epidemiological factors determined by ecology ofcausative agents are often the most useful diagnostic clues. The recognition of evolving problems of emerging and re-emergingdiseases emphasizes the need for the development of better laboratory diagnostic methods for the surveillance and tracking ofthe diseases, and for continued research of factors contributing to the transmission of the organisms. The continuous occurrence of previously unidentified infections requires prospective nationalstrategies for timely recognition of the syndromes, causative agent identification, establishment of criteria and methods for the diagnosis, optimization of the treatment regime, and determinationof successful approaches to prevention and control. Wildlife diseasessurveillance in the most of the Balkan countries has been coordinated by the WHO since 1992. Although new technology and communication have extremely improved in the last decade, there is a need for optimal communication lines among the Balkan countries, better exploitation of communication technologies like the Internet and other media in the field of emerging diseases.

  3. THE FINDINGS UPON THE DESIGNATION OF TURKISH WORDS AMONG BALKAN LANGUAGES
    BALKAN DİLLERİNDEKİ TÜRKÇE KELİMELERİN TANIMLANMASI PROBLEMİ ÜZERİNE TESPİTLER

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih İYİYOL; Ahmet M. KESMECİ

    2011-01-01

    The presence of the Turks in the geography of Balkans can betrack back to the centuries before Ottomans. The actual impact of theTurkish language and culture began with the start of Ottomanconquests. With the Ottoman conquest, there have been greatchanges on the structure of the Balkan communities. As a result ofthis comprehensive and large impact, thousands of Turkish wordsentered into the Balkanic Languages. The quantity of Turkish words,their effect of the Balkanic Cultures and Languages h...

  4. Le conflit franco-italien dans les Balkans 1915-1935.: Le rôle de la Yougoslavie

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlović Vojislav

    2005-01-01

    The conflict between France and Italy in the Balkans in fact was an attempt at reorganizing the Balkans and Central Europe following the disappearance of the Habsburg and Romanoff. The two Latin powers now had a unique opportunity to dictate a rearrangement of the Balkans, but their positions were diametrically opposed. Italy sought to establish domination in the Adriatic and the Balkans, whereas France sought to reorganize the region with the view to precluding Germany from recovering its fo...

  5. Helianthemum marmoreum (Cistaceae), a new species from the Central Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Vladimir; Matevski, Vlado; Tan, Kit

    2009-01-01

    Helianthemum marmoreum is described as a new species from the central part of the Balkan peninsula is described as a new species from the central part of the Balkan peninsula (R. Macedonia). It inhabits rocky marble and limestone slopes and pastures at moderate altitudes of 240-1400 m. The closes...

  6. 78 FR 37097 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... With Respect to the Western Balkans #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register... President ] Notice of June 17, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western... respect to the Western Balkans, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50...

  7. International Trends in Health Science Librarianship Part 19: The Balkan States (Bulgaria and Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilova, Savina; Skoric, Lea

    2016-09-01

    This is the 19th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is the Balkan Region (Bulgaria and Croatia). The next regular feature column will investigate two other Balkan states - Serbia and Slovenia. JM. PMID:27384106

  8. Tephrostratigraphy and tephrochronology of lakes Ohrid and Prespa, Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sulpizio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Four cores from Balkans lakes Ohrid and Prespa were examined for recognition of tephra layers and cryptotephras, and the results presented along with the review of data from other two already published cores from Lake Ohrid. The six cores provide a previously unrealised tephrostratigraphic framework of the two lakes, and provide a new tephrostratigraphic profile (composite for the Balkans, which spans from the end of the Middle Pleistocene to the AD 472. A total of 12 tephra layers and cryptotephras were recognised in the cores. One is of Middle Pleistocene age (131 ka and correlated to the marine tephra layer P-11 from Pantelleria Island. Eight volcanic layers are Upper Pleistocene in age, and encompass the period between ca. 107 ka and ca. 31 ka. This interval contains some of the main regional volcanic markers of the central Mediterranean area, including X-6, X-5, Y-5 and Y-3 tephra layers. The other layers of this interval have been related to the marine tephra layers C20, Y-6 and C10, while one was for the first time recognised in distal areas and correlated to the Taurano eruption of probable Vesuvian origin. Three cryptotephras were of Holocene age. Two of which have been correlated to Mercato and AD 472 eruptions of Somma-Vesuvius, while the third has been correlated to the FL eruption from Mount Etna. These recognitions provide a link of the Ohrid and Prespa lacustrine successions to other archives of the central Mediterranean area, like south Adriatic, Ionian, and south Tyrrhenian seas, lakes of southern Italy (Lago Grande di Monticchio, Pantano di San Gregorio Magno and Lago di Pergusa and Balkans (Lake Shkodra.

  9. Tephrostratigraphy and tephrochronology of lakes Ohrid and Prespa, Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sulpizio

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Four cores from Balkans lakes Ohrid and Prespa were studied for recognition of tephra layers and cryptotephras, and the results presented along with the review of data from other two already published cores from Lake Ohrid. The six cores provide a previously unrealised tephrostratigraphic framework of the two lakes, and supply the first detailed tephrochronologic profile (composite for the Balkans, which spans from the end of the Middle Pleistocene to the end of the Ancient Age (AD 472. A total of 12 tephra layers and cryptotephras were recognised in the cores. One is of Middle Pleistocene age (131 ky and correlated to the marine tephra layer P-11 from Pantelleria Island. Eight volcanic layers are Upper Pleistocene in age, and encompass the period between ca. 107 ky and ca. 31 ky. This interval contains some of the main regional volcanic markers of the Central Mediterranean area, including X-6, X-5, Y-5 and Y-3 tephra layers. The other layers of this interval have been related to the marine tephra layers C20, Y-6 and C10, while one was for the first time recognised in distal areas and correlated to the Taurano eruption of probable Vesuvian origin. Three cryptotephras were of Holocene age. Two of which have been correlated to Mercato and AD 472 eruptions of Somma-Vesuvius, while the third has been correlated to the FL eruption from Mount Etna. These recognitions provide a link of the Ohrid and Prespa lacustrine successions to other archives of the Central Mediterranean area, like South Adriatic, Ionian, and South Tyrrhenian Seas, lakes of Southern Italy (Lago Grande di Monticchio, Pantano di San Gregorio Magno and Lago di Pergusa and Balkans (Lake Shkodra.

  10. Tephrostratigraphy and tephrochronology of lakes Ohrid and Prespa, Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; D'Orazio, M.; Vogel, H.; Wagner, B.

    2010-10-01

    Four cores from Balkans lakes Ohrid and Prespa were examined for recognition of tephra layers and cryptotephras, and the results presented along with the review of data from other two already published cores from Lake Ohrid. The six cores provide a previously unrealised tephrostratigraphic framework of the two lakes, and provide a new tephrostratigraphic profile (composite) for the Balkans, which spans from the end of the Middle Pleistocene to the AD 472. A total of 12 tephra layers and cryptotephras were recognised in the cores. One is of Middle Pleistocene age (131 ka) and correlated to the marine tephra layer P-11 from Pantelleria Island. Eight volcanic layers are Upper Pleistocene in age, and encompass the period between ca. 107 ka and ca. 31 ka. This interval contains some of the main regional volcanic markers of the central Mediterranean area, including X-6, X-5, Y-5 and Y-3 tephra layers. The other layers of this interval have been related to the marine tephra layers C20, Y-6 and C10, while one was for the first time recognised in distal areas and correlated to the Taurano eruption of probable Vesuvian origin. Three cryptotephras were of Holocene age. Two of which have been correlated to Mercato and AD 472 eruptions of Somma-Vesuvius, while the third has been correlated to the FL eruption from Mount Etna. These recognitions provide a link of the Ohrid and Prespa lacustrine successions to other archives of the central Mediterranean area, like south Adriatic, Ionian, and south Tyrrhenian seas, lakes of southern Italy (Lago Grande di Monticchio, Pantano di San Gregorio Magno and Lago di Pergusa) and Balkans (Lake Shkodra).

  11. Climate variability and change and related drought on Balkan Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, results on climate variability including variations of air temperature and precipitation in Bulgaria during the 20th century are presented. There has been an increase of air temperature during the last two decades. The years 1994 and 2000 were the warmest years on record in the country. Annual precipitation in Bulgaria varied considerably from year to year during the 20th century. In some years, very low annual precipitation caused droughts of different intensities. The country has experienced severe drought episodes in the 1940s, 1980s and 1990s. There was a decreasing trend in precipitation during the period April-September from the end of 1970s. Precipitation was below the 1961-1990 average for 14 of the last 20 years of investigation. A winter precipitation deficit was observed during the last decade. Both spring and summer as well as autumn precipitation had a tendency to decrease at the end of the 20th century. The anomalies of annual air temperature and precipitation as well as related drought occurrence on the Balkan Peninsula were also analyzed. For this purpose, different weather sources (such as the CRU climate dataset, ATEAM weather dataset for Europe, etc.) were used. Several climate change scenarios for the Balkan Peninsula were developed and analyzed. These scenarios were based on GCM (global circulation model) weather outputs. Both GCM outputs with coarse spatial resolution (e.g. MAGICC/SCENGEN scenarios: 500 km x 500 km) as well as with high resolution (e.g. HadCM3 scenarios: 10'x 10' (less than 20 km x 20 km)) were used. The GCM climate change scenarios created by the Tyndall Centre (UK) for the Balkan countries were also considered and discussed. (Author)

  12. The EU and the Balkans: Shifting Meanings after the Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Musliu, Vjosa

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses to what extent meanings and discourses on ‘EU membership’ on the one hand and on the ‘Balkans’ on the other, have shifted within Western Balkan countries in the past few years as a result of financial crisis in the European Union. Focusing on Kosovo and Bosnia and Herzegovina, the article uses Derrida’s deconstruction to problematize the return of terms such as ‘Balkan’ and ‘Balkanized’, as a way to explain failures of the economic system. The article concludes that in ...

  13. The European Union and State Building in the Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Taylor

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the feasibility of network governance in the context of the EU's expansion in the Western Balkans. The EU is formally committed to promoting network governance but the realities of enlargement require the creation of effective states, in other words of the primacy of hierarchy over network. Networks are created in enlargement and reflect the complexities of public policy but these networks do not represent, as yet, a significant shift of power away from the state. Despite a normative preference for network governance, the political reality of enlargement is that the EU seeks the creation of effective hierarchy.

  14. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE BALKAN PENINSULA SALMONIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo Georgiev

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper puts forward the knowledge of the immigration itineraries of the ancestors of five extant salmonid species on Balkan Peninsula which are the following: Acantholingua ohridana (Steindachner, 1892, Hucho hucho (Linnaeus, 1758, Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758, Salmothymus obtusirostris Heckel, 1851 and Thymallus thymallus (Linnaeus, 1758. The thesis for the migration itineraries is based on the anatomical, molecular and zoogeographical facts recently published. These latest facts complement or reject the previous thesis that considered the origin of separate species, which in this paper are analyzed together. A new position on the origin of some S. trutta populations inhabiting the Mediterranean Sea watershed is proposed. The new thesis is that they did not inhabit it from the west, through the Atlantic Ocean and Gibraltar, but from the North, through the branches of the former Sarmatian Sea, using the continental way. A. ohridana and S. obtusirostris, the only endemic Balkanean salmonids, have developed here from the mutual ancestor with the extant Siberian Brachymystax lenok (Pallas, 1773. This ancestor came first, together with the S. trutta lineage known as »marmorata«. Using the same migration way, the T. thymallus population of Soča River, the North.West boundary of Balkan Peninsula remained restricted at that corner of Adriatic Sea watershed. In the Black Sea watershed (the Danube River flow extension on Balkan Peninsula the distribution of T. thymallus coincides with the distribution of H. hucho. The thesis which has been proposed for this, largest contemporary Balkan Peninsula salmonid fish was that it came here last, after the connections between the Mediterranean Sea basin and once existent Sarmatian Sea disappeared. This occurred after the end of the last glaciations. This has been concluded on the basis of the exclusion of the areas of the »marmorata« lineage of S. trutta (Mediterranean Sea watershed and H. hucho (Black Sea

  15. Prospective thermal power generation in the Western Balkan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasović Nikola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the expansion of the thermal generation in the long-term for the Western Balkan region. This paper concentrates on the estimation of long-term energy data for the (Western Balkan countries. The process was implemented by the use of the PRIMES model in order to perform simulations for the future growth of electricity supply and demand in the region. Two scenarios were applied. The first (Baseline scenario was based on the current energy path of each country and on the absence of any specific energy policy like tax emissions or renewable subsidies. The second (Reference scenario was practically a series of “environmental” sub-scenarios, based on specific energy subsidy policy applied to the electricity generated by renewable sources. Results were given for the period between 2015 and 2050 in 5-year steps and conclusions were made for the whole region. As such, the results can feed up trials of energy planning referring to the future energy condition.

  16. Business regulation and economic growth in the Western Balkan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engjell PERE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Actually economic policies in many countries aimed to stimulate their economic growth, particularly after negative impact of the global economic crisis. In this regards, fiscal regulation are an important aspect of those policies, that can promote or obstacle the economic growth in general. In this point of view this paper aims to analyze the system of administration rules in different Western Balkans Countries, (which includes Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia (FYROM, Montenegro and Serbia. Moreover, a special attention is given investigation of the regulation and administrative facilitation aspects of doing business in the above-mentioned countries, whether this system stimulates, or not, the development of private business and economic growth.The paper is divided into three main sections. The first part provides a retrospective of economic growth in the Western Balkan countries and the dependence of this growth on global economic development. The second part proceeds with the investigations of the impact of administrative regulation on economic growth. The third part, based on an econometric model, will analyze the correlation between economic growth and elaborated indicators which present the level of business administrative regulation system. Furthermore, this last section discusses the results and concludes. In this analysis, the paper is based substantially on the data base of "Doing Business 2013" (World Bank.

  17. Overview of poverty and social exclusion in the Western Balkans

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    Matković Gordana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last 15 years the entire Western Balkan region has undergone dramatic changes. With the fall of the Berlin wall and the disintegration of the former Yugoslavia, new states were formed and transition started, although in some countries it was quite delayed. Simultaneously, during the nineties, much of the region experienced wars and destruction, waves of refugees, internal displacement of population, devastation of the economy, demolition of institutions and impoverishment of citizens. Absolute poverty, determined through the estimation of household consumption at which families, after paying for essential non-food expenditures just attain minimal nutritional needs, in almost all of the Western Balkans is still relatively high, and is not showing significant tendencies of decreasing. A large concentration of the population and households just above the poverty line additionally demonstrates the challenges faced by the entire region while undergoing the transition process. In some countries extreme poverty, meaning that not even basic food needs can be met, has been registered. On the other hand, relative poverty, defined as the share of those who are excluded from the minimum acceptable way of life in states in which they live, is not particularly high. Due to the relatively high standard of living in the past and high expectations of the population that living standards would increase in a relatively short period of time, the subjective perception of poverty in the entire region is very much present. Groups that stand out as especially vulnerable and excluded are the unemployed, dependents and the less educated. At the level of the household, in some countries households with many children and elderly households are particularly vulnerable. The poorest often live in the rural areas and in the underdeveloped regions. In addition, especially vulnerable groups, who cannot even be completely covered by standard surveys, but are poor and

  18. Balkan (endemic) nephropathy and foodborn ochratoxin A: preliminary results of a survey of foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, P; Hald, B; Plestina, R; Ceović, S

    1977-06-01

    Ochratoxin A is a nephrotoxic fungal metabolite (mycotoxin) occurring in foodstuffs. The compound is causally associated with mycotoxic porcine nephropathy, a disease comparable with a human kidney disease, Balkan endemic nephropathy. A preliminary survey of home-produced foodstuffs in areas of Yugoslavia revealed that contamination with ochratoxin A is more frequent in an area where Balkan endemic nephropathy is prevalent (endemic area) than in area where this disease is absent. This indicates higher exposure to foodborn ochratoxin A in the endemic area. Thus further evidence is provided supporting the hypothesis that ochratoxin A is a disease determinant of Balkan endemic nephropathyk0 PMID:888703

  19. Is Aristolochic Acid Really the Cause of the Balkan Endemic Nephropathy?

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    Peter George Mantle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, aristolochic acid has been promoted vigorously as the causal agent of the Balkan endemic nephropathy because of similarities to some other nephropathies, association with DNA adducts and a perception of human exposure via bread. Critical evaluation of the literature exposes flaws in these aspects, and there has been consistent failure of experimental toxicology to mimic either the slow silent bilateral atrophy of the Balkan disease or the transitional cell carcinomas in the upper urothelium. It seems yet premature to promote the curious Balkan disease as aristolochic acid nephropathy without the epidemiological rigour necessary in biomedical research.

  20. The Weight of Islam in the Turkish Foreign Policy in the Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Gangloff, Sylvie

    2001-01-01

    Could the historical role played by Turkey in the Balkans or its geographical proximity establish Turkey as pole of attraction for the Muslims in the Balkans? First, Turkey's secularism and aspiration to be recognized as a fully westernized country forbid it to raise the Muslim banner as soon as its political interests are concerned. Second, Turkey's long domination of the Balkans sets it up as a suspicious actor in the eyes of most of the countries in the area and its initiatives were carefu...

  1. Probabilistic seismic hazard maps for the North Balkan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. W. Musson

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available A set of seismic hazard maps, expressed as horizontal peak ground acceleration, have been computed for a large area of Central and Eastern Europe covering the North Balkan area (Former Yugoslavia, Hungary, Romania. These are based on: a a compound earthquake catalogue for the region; b a seismic source model of 50 zones compiled on the basis of tectonic divisions and seismicity, and c a probabilistic methodology using stochastic (Monte Carlo modelling. It is found that the highest hazard in the region comes from intermediate focus earthquakes occurring in the Vrancea seismic zone; here the hazard exceeds 0.4 g at return periods of 475 years. Special account has been taken of the directional nature of attenuation from this source.

  2. Pleistocene horses (genus Equus in the central Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forsten Ann

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the fossil horses of the genus Equus from the central Balkans, a mountainous area comprising Serbia and Montenegro, is presented in this paper. The time period covered by the finds is from the late Early to and including the Late Pleistocene, but the record is not complete: the dated finds are Late Pleistocene in age, while Early and Middle Pleistocene are poorly represented. The horses found resemble those from neighbouring countries from the same time period, probably showing the importance of river valleys as migration routes. The Morava River valley runs in a roughly south-to-north direction, connecting, via the Danube and Tisa River valleys the Hungarian Pannonian Plain in the north with northern Greece in the south, via the Vardar River valley in Macedonia. In Pleistocene, large mammals, including horses, probably used this route for dispersal.

  3. Identities and family value orientations in the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepanović-Zaharijevski Dragana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Giddens, the modern self is bewildered by the growing variety of possible identities on offer. In the transitional period Balkan countries are currently facing, we can observe a dynamic interplay of traditional and new identities. Traditional identities on one hand change under the pressure of new ones, and on the other put up certain resistance to possible changes. In this paper the authors present a comparative analysis of identification and identities in Serbia, Bulgaria and Macedonia, based on the findings of empirical research. By establishing similarities and differences between identity dynamics in these countries, it becomes possible to account for identity trends in them. In a separate section, family value orientations are examined as cultural frames of reference of identity constructions. Their analytical deconstruction is accomplished through the prism of relatively structured gender relations and a particular, 'desired' pattern of family values.

  4. Differentiated Integration - from Theory to Practice. Determiners in the Integration Process of the Western Balkans: Ethnicity

    OpenAIRE

    Blaga, Daniela; Brie, Mircea

    2013-01-01

    Most studies of differentiated integration are limited to the European Union, to the relations between the existing Member-States, and to the various institutional arrangements. The relationship between the European Union and the Western Balkans offers the support for testing the concept of differentiated integration on the dynamics recorded between the EU and a group of foreign states. Different Balkan states signed different contractual agreements with the European Union, with the expressed...

  5. The model for successful development of NGA infrastructure in the Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Matej Požarnik; Lea Robič Mohar; Tea Taras

    2016-01-01

    Unavailability of fast broadband internet access, primarily due to the lack of commercial interest of telecommunication operators, is the key reason for economic underdevelopment in rural areas in the Balkans. The process of developing broadband access in rural areas is multifaceted, complex and time-consuming. This paper analyses the current state of availability of broadband access in the Balkan countries, and investigates the algorithm with specific project phases and benefits of stakehold...

  6. Genetic diversity of Sabanejewia balcanica (Actinopterygii: Cobitidae) in the western Balkans and comparison with other regions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marešová, Eva; Delić, A.; Kostov, V.; Marić, S.; Mendel, Jan; Šanda, R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 4 (2011), s. 335-342. ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SM/6/3/05 Grant ostatní: VEGA(SK) 1/2360/05; GA AV ČR(CZ) M200930901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Balkan golden loach * cytochrome b * mitochondrial DNA * Balkans region Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.554, year: 2011

  7. Basic Variables of Economic and Social Development in Balkan Region (Regional Development -Industrialisation-Humanpower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazil Yozgat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, three subjects had been investigated. Firstly history of industry Balkan region, secondly basic variables economic and social development, thirdly relation to variables. Industry is basic element of development. In addition to in this paper theoretical and literal concept has been investigated. In this study is aimed at presenting the most important new trends of economic, social, political and institutional development of Balkan region with relation to four major factors shaping the regions countries. Industrial Revolution in Europe and made major investments in the first half of the 19th century particularly central Europe and Balkan region. Balkan regions represent complex and diverse reality. These regions are from Old Continent to Central Europe, South East Europe and Mediterranean. From Adriatic to Black Sea and Mediterranean also. In these regions there are some different economic, social and political events. I.e. Croatia moves to final round member of European Union some countries face to particular problems of political subjects.I offer framework analysis of the regional country by country based on the existing set of criteria, which are variables of social and economic development. Those variables are including (cluster industry, expenditure R&D od GDP, variations of capitals, population and market, some trade block which are impact of economic and social developmentProposed key pillars to support sustainable competitiveness in the Western Balkans. Sustaining competitiveness =Human capital development==Regional Cluster==SectorPolicy reforms.(OECD,2008Key words. Balkan region, Social development, Globalisation, Sustainable development

  8. Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and 'real world' adherence to guidelines in the Balkan Region: The BALKAN-AF Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potpara, Tatjana S; Dan, Gheorghe-Andrei; Trendafilova, Elina; Goda, Artan; Kusljugic, Zumreta; Manola, Sime; Music, Ljilja; Musetescu, Rodica; Badila, Elisabeta; Mitic, Gorana; Paparisto, Vilma; Dimitrova, Elena S; Polovina, Marija M; Petranov, Stanislav L; Djergo, Hortensia; Loncar, Daniela; Bijedic, Amira; Brusich, Sandro; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2016-01-01

    Data on the management of atrial fibrillation (AF) in the Balkan Region are limited. The Serbian AF Association (SAFA) prospectively investigated contemporary 'real-world' AF management in clinical practice in Albania, Bosnia&Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Montenegro, Romania and Serbia through a 14-week (December 2014-February 2015) prospective, multicentre survey of consecutive AF patients. We report the results pertinent to stroke prevention strategies. Of 2712 enrolled patients, 2663 (98.2%) with complete data were included in this analysis (mean age 69.1 ± 10.9 years, female 44.6%). Overall, 1960 patients (73.6%) received oral anticoagulants (OAC) and 762 (28.6%) received antiplatelet drugs. Of patients given OAC, 17.2% received non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs). CHA2DS2-VASc score was not significantly associated with OAC use. Of the 'truly low-risk' patients (CHA2DS2-VASc = 0 [males], or 1 [females]) 56.5% received OAC. Time in Therapeutic Range (TTR) was available in only 18.7% of patients (mean TTR: 49.5% ± 22.3%). Age ≥ 80 years, prior myocardial infarction and paroxysmal AF were independent predictors of OAC non-use. Our survey shows a relatively high overall use of OAC in AF patients, but with low quality of vitamin K antagonist therapy and insufficient adherence to AF guidelines. Additional efforts are needed to improve AF-related thromboprophylaxis in clinical practice in the Balkan Region. PMID:26869284

  9. Irregular Migration flows and human trafficking in the Western Balkan countries: challenges of the covergence of counter-trafficking response

    OpenAIRE

    Mece, Merita H.

    2016-01-01

    Irregular migration on the Western Balkan route has marked an unprecedented number during the last five years. Evidence indicates that both, non-European nationals and Western Balkan citizens have been involved in this complex migratory flow being exposed to various risks of human trafficking. But Western Balkan countries are source, transit and destination countries of human trafficking while their states are not well organized to implement a comprehensive and well-coordinated regional respo...

  10. Balkan Wars in Social Studies and History Course Books Instructed at Primary and Secondary Education between 1997 and 2012 Years

    OpenAIRE

    KÖSE, Meliha

    2014-01-01

    1912-1913 Balkan Wars ended with important social, economical, cultural and political results for both Southeast Europe and Ottoman Empire. It is a significant turning point for the history of Turkey as well as World History. Balkan Wars had important effects on from dawn of Modern Turkey to starting of national struggle war and coming fore of national identity wars. That’s why It is a point to be emphasized how Balkan Wars are taught in both Turkish and Balkan history books. Primary educatio...

  11. The Present Situation and the Future Perspectives of Foreign Direct Investment in Balkan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjan Qefalia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has witnessed increased globalization of the world economy as result of technological changes, trade liberalization and privatization policies. Balkan countries as developing nations are in the realization process of the globalization changes of the world economy. Being in the process for entry into the EU, many changes are being done to integrate with the global economic trends. The research has shown that after the fall of communism in the 1990s the Balkan Region brought significant political and economic changes. The change in attitude led to a removal of direct blockage for FDI. As a result, continued deregulation and privatization has been widespread. However, history of FDI is relatively short for Balkan Region in comparison with other countries. The economy opened up capital inflows only at the beginning of 1990s, and is still showing low shares in the total of Central and Eastern European flow. Despite Balkans competitive advantage due to its geographical location and its resources, it is still far from other Central European countries in achieving the same level of FDI. This situation came as a result of: political instability, low intraregional trade, the small size of national markets, huge institutional corruption and weak judiciary system. Among the more successful Balkan recipients of FDI has been Bulgaria and Romania, while Greece has been a major source of FDI for the transition economies of the Balkan region. Greek investment is driven in part by the availability of low cost labor in the nearby transition economies. The focus of this article is to analyze and evaluate the current performance of FDI in Balkan Region and how the governments can improve this performance.

  12. Geoculture world system, access to Balkan and Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilirjan Çukaj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available If culture as a term covers a broad range of relations and social behavior, mutually implicated in influential and economic cycles of the global system, then it becomes wordy geoculture. Geoculture system is used as a term by Wallerstein (2004 who had treated it as a concept largely unused and under a theory of geoculture which plays an important role in the present world system. The theses that is presented in this article is that the global trajectory in the Balkan region is increasing from culture and that, it is imperative to establish a strategic culture direction and management, which, in turn, should be formed not only as a principal need, but also as an obligation of social state institutions to find the viable solutions of the global market policy, economy and culture. And in response to the challenging question the culture of integration becomes imperative now facing nationalism. Albania will have to manage perceptions, fears and realities arising from the above mentioned phenomenon, to establish a balance between the “inside” and “outside” views. In this sense main challenge of Albania is the management of cultural globalization to get the most of opportunities despite the risk of losing ground globally

  13. Etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy and associated urothelial cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanovic, V.; Toncheva, D.; Atanasova, S.; Polenakovic, M. [Inst. of Nephrology and Hemodialysis, Nish (Serbia Montenegro)

    2006-07-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a familial chronic tubulointerstitial disease with insidious onset and slow progression to terminal renal failure. Evidence has accumulated that BEN is an environmentally induced disease. There are three actual theories attempting to explain the environmental cause of this disease: (1) the aristolochic acid hypothesis, which considers that the disease is produced by chronic intoxication with Aristolochia, (2) the mycotoxin hypothesis, which considers that BEN is produced by ochratoxin A, and (3) the Pliocene lignite hypothesis, which proposes that the disease is caused by long-term exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other toxic organic compounds leaching into the well drinking water from low-rank coals in the vicinity to the endemic settlements. Moreover, it was suggested that BEN risk is influenced by inherited susceptibility. Therefore, it has been expected that molecular biological investigations will discover genetic markers of BEN and associated urothelial cancer, permitting early identification of susceptible individuals who may be at risk of exposure to the environmental agents. Since kidney pathophysiology is complex, gene expression analysis and highly throughput proteomic technology can identify candidate genes, proteins and molecule networks that eventually could play a role in BEN development. Investigation of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions could be the content of further studies determining the precise risk for BEN.

  14. Western Balkan States and the European Union Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelina Maliqi (Ramolli,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For half a century, European Union-(EU has pursued ever-deeper integration while takingin new members. It’s marked as an important step in relationship deepening between EU and WesternBalkans-(WBs where Albania is part of. In 2003, EU declared that the future of WBs is within EU.Initially it adopted a generous strategy that linked the timetable for accession to the pace of reform inWBs. The declaration contained a conditional promise; EU would consider WBs for membership onlyif they reached EU standards. The EU was motivated by usual economic considerations connected toenlargement and a desire to increase regional stability. The enlargement process regarding Albaniawill bring several reforms on different fields. Our country will benefit from a share of multibeneficiaryfunds for competitiveness, SMEs, energy efficiency and banking sector regulation. Thispresentation handles out these main issues: EU policy and the enlargement process regarding Albaniainspecting the way and progress done up to now by our country, the main features of our national EU coordinationsystem, concluding in a SWOT Analysis of EU-coordination system in Albania.Eventually, I believe that Albania being part of WBs is at one time an opportunity and a challenge forthe future of EU.

  15. Western Balkan States and the European Union Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelina Maliqi (Ramolli

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available For half a century, European Union-(EU has pursued ever-deeper integration while taking in new members. It’s marked as an important step in relationship deepening between EU and Western Balkans-(WBs where Albania is part of. In 2003, EU declared that the future of WBs is within EU. Initially it adopted a generous strategy that linked the timetable for accession to the pace of reform in WBs. The declaration contained a conditional promise; EU would consider WBs for membership only if they reached EU standards. The EU was motivated by usual economic considerations connected to enlargement and a desire to increase regional stability. The enlargement process regarding Albania will bring several reforms on different fields. Our country will benefit from a share of multibeneficiary funds for competitiveness, SMEs, energy efficiency and banking sector regulation. This presentation handles out these main issues: EU policy and the enlargement process regarding Albania inspecting the way and progress done up to now by our country, the main features of our national EUcoordination system, concluding in a SWOT Analysis of EU-coordination system in Albania. Eventually, I believe that Albania being part of WBs is at one time an opportunity and a challenge for the future of EU.

  16. Patterns of national identity development among the Balkan orthodox Christians during the nineteenth century

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    Markovich Slobodan G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the development of national identities among Balkan Orthodox Christians from the 1780s to 1914. It points to pre-modern political subsystems in which many Balkan Orthodox peasants lived in the Ottoman Empire at the beginning of the nineteenth century. The Serbian and Greek uprisings/revolutions are analyzed in the context of the intellectual climate of the Enlightenment. Various modes of penetration of the ideas of the Age of Revolution are analyzed as well as the ways in which new concepts influenced proto-national identities of Serbs and Romans/Greeks. The author accepts Hobsbawm’s concept of proto-national identities and identifies their ethno-religious identity as the main element of Balkan Christian Orthodox proto-nations. The role of the Orthodox Church in the formation of ethno-religious proto-national identity and in its development into national identity during the nineteenth century is analyzed in the cases of Serbs, Romans/ Greeks, Vlachs/Romanians and Bulgarians. Three of the four Balkan national movements fully developed their respective national identities through their own ethnic states, and the fourth (Bulgarian developed partially through its ethnic state. All four analyzed identities reached the stage of mass nationalism by the time of the Balkan Wars. By the beginning of the twentieth century, only Macedonian Slavs kept their proto-national ethno-religious identity to a substantial degree. Various analyzed patterns indicate that nascent national identities coexisted with fluid and shifting protonational identities within the same religious background. Occasional supremacy of social over ethnic identities has also been identified. Ethnification of the Orthodox Church, in the period 1831-1872, is viewed as very important for the development of national movements of Balkan Orthodox Christians. A new three-stage model of national identity development among Balkan Orthodox Christians has been proposed. It is

  17. Higher Education in Balkan Region and its Contribution to the Earth Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisec, A.; Fras, M. K.

    2012-07-01

    The needs for spatial data as well as techniques of Earth Observation are changing, and new professional areas are developing very rapidly. In addition, scientific work and its connection with the teaching process have influenced the introduction of new cognitions into the higher education programs in general. Considering these facts, in the period shorter than one decade, the higher education institutions in the Balkan region, which have study programs in the fields of spatial data acquisition, analysis and spatial decisions, have made significant changes of the curricula. In our research, we have analyzed the current higher education programs in the Balkan region having focused on curricula related to the Earth Observation. Due to historical reasons, these curricula have its roots in surveying study programs in the most Balkan countries. The competences of classical surveying higher educational programs have been changing and nowadays include the wider area of spatial data acquisition, geoinformatics. In parallel, we present the current Earth Observation activities in the selected countries from the Balkan region. Based on the results of our research in the framework of the European program Observe, which aims to establish a new Balkan Earth Observation (EO) community of multilevel stakeholders that will make use of state of the art technological developments, products and knowhow from the existing European EO community and industry, we estimate the contribution of advanced higher educational programs to the Earth Observation activities in the selected countries.

  18. A Comparison of Stereotypes of German and Turkish Students towards Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürcan Ültanır

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective emotional thoughts like attitudes, stereotyped judgments and preconceptions are dependent on both collective and individual experiences. Experiences like reading an article or watching a movie that is based on a context determined by the curriculum might cause individual or collective discrimination towards different ethnic or cultural groups among students in a country. This study aims to explore the difference between two nations which are the Turkish nation that has many cultural and political bonds with Balkans in the history and the German nation, which is a nation that has little or no bonds with the Balkans. The main aim of the study is to figure out if the stereotypes towards Balkans can change according to the country in which an individual has grown up. MANOVA was used to figure out the difference between two capitals with regard to stereotypes towards Balkans. Findings of the study indicated that negative stereotype scores of students significantly changed according to the country in which students grew up, whereas no significant difference was found for positive stereotype scores. Moreover, it was found that Turkish students have more negative stereotypes towards Balkans than German students

  19. BALKAN TARİHİ KARŞISINDA YAHYA KEMAL BEYATLI'NIN ŞİİRİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan TOPDEMİR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Poets, writers, artists, music lovers, artists, nation, nation, state, and future carry the state makes. Works of national and moral values of society form. Poets of the founders of the national identity, and spiritual architects. Beyatlı Yahya Kemal, the most important is a cornerstone of our identity. Turks in the Balkans to develop and spread of civilization and culture is based on deep slate. Turks in the Balkans, the struggles, victories, defeats, is treated to a wide range of social relations literature. Beyatlı poets of the birth of Yahya Kemal Balkan cities Skopje and the lyrical poems dealt with the moral and material direction. The poet spent his childhood and youth years in Skopje and the Balkans, sorrows, joys, aspirations takes a sensitive manner. Yahya Kemal, established Turkish architecture, with different perspectives on the history of the Balkan cities in Turkey by telling us yesterday, far from the shaft, and spiritual values, recalling the necessity to determine whether we're having our values gives the message. Yahya Kemal Balkan cities, especially focusing on the poetry of the social, cultural, and lyrical themes literature, Balkans brought the rich archive. Yahya Kemal and the Balkans drawing the attention of new generations, our history, our civilization in poetry in a different way to learn by.

  20. TOURISM POLICY OF BALKAN COUNTRIES: REVIEW OF NATIONAL TOURISM DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Metodijeski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A different tourism policy created by various states is one of the primary factors for the existence and development of tourism, along with its natural and anthropogenic resources of specified destinations. The subject of this paper is the tourism policy of the Balkan countries, as seen through the prism of national strategies for the development of tourism and tourism products. The paper provides basic data for the Balkan countries such as: population, territory characteristics, number of international tourists, the existence of a National Tourism Organization and facilities included in the UNESCO list of world cultural heritage. Table showing government bodies responsible for tourism, national tourism development strategies as well as tourism products defined in these strategies shall be presented. An analysis and review of strategies has been made, based on their duration and types of tourism products. The paper concluding remarks are regarding the structuring of the prospects and directions of tourism development in the Balkan countries.

  1. Collaborative investigations on thoron and radon in some rural communities of Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunić, Z S; Celiković, I; Tokonami, S; Ishikawa, T; Ujić, P; Onischenko, A; Zhukovsky, M; Milić, G; Jakupi, B; Cuknić, O; Veselinović, N; Fujimoto, K; Sahoo, S K; Yarmoshenko, I

    2010-10-01

    This paper deals with the results of the first-field use in the Balkans, i.e. Serbia and Republic of Srpska (Bosnia and Hercegovina), of a passive polycarbonate Mark II type and poliallyldiglycol carbonate (Cr-39) alpha track detectors sensitive to thoron as well as to radon. Both types of solid state nuclear track detectors were designed and supplied by National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, Japan. The commercial names for these detectors which all have been field tested in Balkan rural communities are known as: UFO and RADUET passive discriminative radon/thoron detectors. No database of thoron and thoron progeny concentrations in dwellings in Serbia or Balkans region exist, and as a result, the level of exposure of the Serbian population to thoron and its progeny is unknown so far. PMID:20966203

  2. Turkey Entering the European Union Through the Balkan Doors: in the Style of a Great Power?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedrudin Brljavac

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Confronting an increasing EU opposition from a number of influential member states to its membership the AKP government adopted a multilateral approach to its foreign policy making resulting in dynamic economic and diplomatic policies with the countries from Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Balkans region. In this article we analyzed the effects and consequences of a paradigmatic shift in Turkish foreign policy in the Western Balkans in relation to the country's EU membership prospects. Through its pro-active economic and diplomatic initiatives in the region Turkey has been proving itself as indispensable country for the European Union membership. Thus, if the Turkish government concentrates more on solving its internal problems and continues its pro-active diplomacy in Western Balkans, among other regions, it could become not only a regional but also a global power.

  3. Paul Garde, Les Balkans, héritages et évolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaïs Krawczykowska

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Les Balkans, ce territoire montagneux (balkan signifiant « Montagne » en turc aussi appelé « Europe du sud », est plus que jamais au cœur de l'actualité. Or il semblerait que la géographie soit un paramètre bien insuffisant à sa définition. Menaçante pour les uns, prometteuse pour les autres, l'ex-Yougoslavie laisse apparaître de nombreux enjeux stratégiques, aussi bien politiques qu'économiques ou encore historiques. Ces dernières années ont remis les pays des Balkans sur le devant de la sc...

  4. Collaborative investigations on thoron and radon in some rural communities of Balkans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the results of the first-field use in the Balkans, i.e. Serbia and Republic of Srpska (Bosnia and Herzegovina), of a passive polycarbonate Mark II type and poli-allyl-diglycol carbonate (Cr-39) alpha track detectors sensitive to thoron as well as to radon. Both types of solid state nuclear track detectors were designed and supplied by National Inst. of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba (Japan). The commercial names for these detectors which all have been field tested in Balkan rural communities are known as: UFO and RADUET passive discriminative radon/thoron detectors. No database of thoron and thoron progeny concentrations in dwellings in Serbia or Balkans region exist, and as a result, the level of exposure of the Serbian population to thoron and its progeny is unknown so far. (authors)

  5. STUDY OF Salmo GENUS (PISCES, SALMONIDAE ON THE BALKAN PENINSULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo Georgijev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Author disputes the position of the authors K o t t e l a t (1997 and K o t t e l a t & F r e y h o f (2007 about the existence of several species belonging to the Salmo genus in some parts of Balkan Peninsula: Salmo aphelios Kottelat, 1997; Salmo balcanicus (Karaman, 1927; Salmo farioides (Karaman, 1938; Salmo labrax Pallas, 1814; Salmo letnica (Karaman, 1924; Salmo lumi Poljakov, Filipi & Basho, 1958; Salmo macedonicus (Karaman, 1924; Salmo montenigrinus (Karaman, 1933; Salmo pelagonicus Karaman, 1938; Salmo peristericus Karaman, 1938; Salmo taleri (Karaman, 1932. Majority of those species were described by dr. Stanko Karaman, the author who is, regarding the number of described species of European freshwater fishes, on the second place, just behind Carl Linnaeus. It is hardly believable that four trout species were formed in a small and oligotrophic microhabitat like Ohrid Lake, or three species in the Vardar River, knowing that the factor of geographic isolation doesn’t exist in either of the habitats. The author’s position is that all of these species are actually just types of one, highly plastic regarding the micro ecological conditions and phenotypic manifestations, species: Salmo trutta (Linnaeus, 1785. The author supports his opinion by his own results, as well the results of other scientists, obtained through studies of ecology and taxonomy of the brown trout in fluent and still water microhabitats. Also the author suggests that it is unacceptable to apply the terminology immanent to the anthropogenic factor in a sphere of another scientific area where such factor doesn't exist (agronomy-race and biology-natural selection.

  6. Etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy: A multifactorial disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is of great clinical importance in the restricted areas of Bulgaria, Rumania, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina. So far, studies on the etiological factors for BEN have not discovered any single environmental causative agent of this puzzling disease. These data reject the possibility of a purely environmental causation of BEN. The pattern of BEN transmission in the risk families is not typical for single gene disorders. Extensive epidemiological and genetic studies disclose characteristics of multifactorial (polygenic) inheritance of BEN. The evidences of 'familial tendency', variation of the risk for BEN depending on the number of sick parents and the degree of relatedness; the development of BEN in individuals from at-risk families who were born in non-endemic areas; the data that disease is not found in the gypsy population and the expressions of 3q25 cytogenetic marker suggest that the genetic factors play an important role as causative factors in BEN development. The possible impact of environmental triggers on individuals genetically predisposed to BEN could be supposed by the following data: the cytogenetic results of the increased frequency of folate sensitive Fra sites, spontaneous or radiation-induced aberrations in several bands in BEN patients, the data from the detailed analysis of breaks in BEN patients and controls that generate structural chromosome aberrations; the occurrence of BEN in immigrants. Genetical epidemiological approaches to etiology and prevention of BEN are proposed. The predisposing genes for BEN could be genes localized in a region between 3q25-3q26; transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), genetic heterogeneity of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes; defects in the host's immune system. The predisposing genes for BEN patients with urinary tract tumors could be germline mutations in tumor suppressor genes and acquired somatic mutations in oncogenes

  7. Nomadic pastoralism in the Early Bronze Age of the central Balkans evaluation of background knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porčić Marko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to examine background knowledge about the orga­nizational properties of mobile pastoral groups in order to assess the likelihood of the existence of pastoral nomads in the Early Bronze Age in the central Balkans. The patterning found by A. L. Johnson (2002 is taken as a point of departure for the cross-cultural analysis conducted in this study. Johnson’s findings are in the main corroborated. Acquired knowledge about the workings of pastoral societies suggests that highly mobile pastoral groups should not be expected in the Early Bronze Age of the central Balkans.

  8. Androsace septentrionalis (Primulaceae), a new species for the Balkan flora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, V.; Vukojicic, S.; Tan, Kit

    2005-01-01

    Androsace septentrionalis L. (Primulaceae) is recorded as a new species for the Balkan flora on the basis of herbarium material collected several times from Mt. Prokletije, situated near the borders of Serbia (Metochia and Kosovo province), Montenegro and Albania. The locality marks the southernm......Androsace septentrionalis L. (Primulaceae) is recorded as a new species for the Balkan flora on the basis of herbarium material collected several times from Mt. Prokletije, situated near the borders of Serbia (Metochia and Kosovo province), Montenegro and Albania. The locality marks the...

  9. Project for study of seismic-hydrogeological phenomena in Balkan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Project of UNESCO - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences has the title 'Seismic - hydrogeological vulnerability of the geoenvironment and the population in the Balkan area'. The Project has a responsible task to make a study of the seismic-hydrogeological phenomena in seven Balkan countries. The study includes the collection of information for these phenomena, its analysis, documentation and comparison. The primary information will contribute also to solving several transboundary problems in the area. The obtained data will be applied for the creation of a database about the studied seismic-hydrogeological phenomena. It will be used for the primary mapping of established seismic-hydrogeological manifestations and supposed ones. On the basis of the obtained information we will go to the assessment of the seismic-hydrogeological vulnerability of the geological environment and the population in the investigated territories. The Project investigations could be used also for several recommendations related to the reduction of negative effects of the seismic-hydrogeological phenomena in seven Balkan countries. The Balkan experts will try to propose also more rational exploration of the rare positive effects of the seismic-hydrogeological manifestations. (authors)

  10. THE BALKANS BETWEEN THE EU AND NATO: FOCUSING ON THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoru Sadakata

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The fragmentation of Yugoslavia has wrought extensive political and social changes in the Balkans and Europe more generally. After the collapse of communism and the breakup of Yugoslavia, many Balkan countries have transformed their political system and have begun to forge new foreign and security policy. Some of them have already joined the EU and NATO, and some are about to access these organizations. But the Western Balkan states seem to be farther in the future. In regard to the former Yugoslavia, the United States, European states and international organizations, such as the EU, NATO and UN, have attempted to engage and manage this breakup on an individual and collective basis. They have greatly influenced the process of the post-conflict nation building of this region. From this viewpoint, the paper discusses the political and social transformation of the Balkans after the breakup of the Yugoslav conflict, and the role of the EU and NATO in the process of the democratization and nation building in the former Yugoslavia. Moreover, attention is paid to the features of the involvement of the EU and NATO in the former Yugoslav conflict. In the process of Yugoslav fragmentation one can see the ‘Eastern Question’ revisited and the ‘Powder keg of Europe’ once again rising to its brim.

  11. Distribution and diversity of Arctic-Alpine species in the Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Vladimir; Vukojicic, Snezana; Sinzar-Sekulic, Jasmina;

    2009-01-01

    The distributions of 77 Arctic-Alpine species in the Balkans are mapped and the centers of their richness and diversity presented. Within the Dinaric Alps these are Mts Vranica, Durmitor, and Prokletije; in the Scardo-Pindhic mountains, Šarplanina-Rudoka-Korab form a continuous chain; in the Rhod...

  12. Balkan Flint’ – fiction and/or trajectory to Neolithization: Evidence from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gurova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the current state of research and knowledge about ‘Balkan flint’ (hereinafter BF and trajectories flowing from the BF problem to the bigger and increasingly complex problem of the Neolithization of the eastern Balkans. The emergence and consolidation of the BF problem within the research agenda of specialists working on Balkan prehistory is briefly traced, as well as the confusing and inconsistently repetitive use of the term BF leading to some ‘mythologisation’ of the topic.A particular section of the paper represents the thoughts of the author on the conceptual meaning of BF in the context of the Balkan Neolithization debate, because until now its role has not been fully appreciated and recognized. Several theories and scenarios of the emergence and spread of the Neolithic in present-day Bulgaria are reviewed through the evidence of the particular Early Neolithic flint toolkits consisting in representative (retouched blades made from BF and attributed to the diagnostic features of the Early Neolithic package/culture.

  13. 76 FR 37239 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect To the Western Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    .... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, June 23, 2011. [FR Doc. 2011-16103 Filed 6-23-11; 11:15 am] Billing code...#0;#0; ] Notice of June 23, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect To the Western... respect to the Western Balkans, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50...

  14. 77 FR 37993 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    .... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, June 22, 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-15671 Filed 6-22-12; 2:15 pm... With Respect to the Western Balkans #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register... President ] Notice of June 22, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the...

  15. 75 FR 32843 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... the Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, June 8, 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-14118 Filed 6-9-10; 8... Documents#0;#0; ] Notice of June 8, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western... respect to the Western Balkans, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50...

  16. Broadband adoption, digital divide, and the global economic competitiveness of Western Balkan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Đorđe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing variation in economic performance between countries is significantly affected by the level, diffusion, and use of different types of information and communication technology. In the last several years economic competitiveness increasingly depends on broadband availability and the adoption, use, and speed of this technology. Broadband access to the internet fosters economic growth and development and increases a country’s global competitiveness. This technology could have a big impact on the competitive advantage of Western Balkan countries because they currently experience a large digital divide, both within countries (between regions, urban and rural areas, different vulnerable groups, etc. and with EU countries. The purpose of the paper is to analyse the current level and dynamics of the digital divide in Western Balkan countries using the Broadband Achievement Index (BAI, the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA-based model, the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI, the Corruption Perception Index (CPI, and cross-country methodology. This paper measures and compares Western Balkan countries’ current level of broadband adoption and their position on the evolutionary path towards closing the existing economic and digital gap with EU countries. Comparative analysis of calculated BAI data values, GCI, and CPI shows that Western Balkan countries belong to the ‘laggard’ group regarding their broadband achievement and global economic competitiveness. The values of the calculated BAI sub-indexes in this paper indicate the strong and weak sides of the corresponding aspects of broadband technology implementation and give directions for setting further priorities for political intervention, not only in the building of information society but also in the improvement of the economic competitiveness of Western Balkan countries.

  17. Inner Otherness as a Source of Fear: Elements of Horror in Balkan Travelogues

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    Sanja Lazarević-Radak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Travel fiction has created numerous Others, assigning them an ontologically unstable status, while the traditional travelogue spread a fear of the dark interior of Europe, presenting images of daily political strife, assassinations, wars and uprisings. Just like the Gothic novel, which entertained its readers with images of ruins and gloomy structures in Eastern Europe, the travelogue spread a fear of the Balkans through Europe, depicting the Balkans as a place that could pose a threat to the entire continent. While enjoying the mysterious terror of the Gothic novel, Europe also derived a kind of pleasure from the shocking images that were to be found in travelogues from the Balkans. The paper re-examines the elasticity of the boundaries of the travelogue genre, and identifies convenient transformations of certain parts of the travelogue into text aimed at inspiring terror, shocking and appalling its readers. The transformations show that it is impossible to draw a strict boundary between travel fiction and travelogues, and at the same time reveal the hidden discourse used by both genres. The parallel presence of awareness of the geographic identity of the Balkans as European, and of the aspiration to depict them as the strange inner Otherness of Europe, is accompanied by the production of terrifying images. Although these images cannot be viewed solely as a threat of "reverse colonization", the assumption that hybridity is the basis on which the terrifying nature of the Balkans is produced is re-examined. The travelogue chapters, sections and illustrations assume the features of horror, particularly body horror, revealing Europe’s fear of the possibility of the Orient infiltrating the "body of the Occident", or of the possibility of the latter being infected by elements of "alien" i.e. Oriental culture.

  18. IRREGULAR MIGRATION FLOWS AND HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN THE WESTERN BALKAN COUNTRIES: CHALLENGES OF THE CONVERGENCE OF COUNTER-TRAFFICKING RESPONSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merita H. Mece

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Irregular migration on the Western Balkan route has marked an unprecedented number during the last five years. Evidence indicates that both, non-European nationals and Western Balkan citizens have been involved in this complex migratory flow being exposed to various risks of human trafficking. But Western Balkan countries are source, transit and destination countries of human trafficking while their states are not well organized to implement a comprehensive and well-coordinated regional response to combat it. This paper aims at examining challenges faced by the Western Balkan countries to converge anti-trafficking response while facing increased irregular migratory waves. Using secondary data it illustrates various disparities and differences among them concluding that a well-coordinated, multi-faceted and integrated regional response is needed to combat this humanitarian problem.

  19. Contrasting evolutionary histories of the legless lizards slow worms (Anguis) shaped by the topography of the Balkan Peninsula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jablonski, D.; Jandzik, D.; Mikulíček, P.; Džukić, G.; Ljubisavljević, K.; Tzankov, N.; Jelić, D.; Thanou, E.; Moravec, J.; Gvoždík, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 99 (2016), s. 99. ISSN 1471-2148 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Anguidae * Squamata * phylogeography * biogeography * speciation * contact zones * microrefugia * Balkan mountains Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.368, year: 2014

  20. Slavic South into Wild Balkans. Conceptualization of South Eastern Europe in Czech Society, 19th - 21st Centuries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šístek, František

    Sofia : Universitetsko izdatelstvo "Sv. Kliment Ochridski", 2014 - (Parvev, I.; Baramova, M.), s. 155-166 ISBN 978-954-07-3290-9 Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : Balkans * History * Czech Society Subject RIV: AB - History

  1. Tracing the Mediterranean climate influence over the central Balkans (southeast Europe) during the past 350 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obreht, Igor; Zeeden, Christian; Hambach, Ulrich; Veres, Daniel; Marković, Slobodan; Boesken, Janina; Bačević, Nikola; Gavrilov, Milivoj; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of past climate variability based on the study of paleoclimate archives may help in better understanding the forcing mechanisms and extent of any future climate change. In some regions, such as Eastern Europe, loess-paleosol sequences (LPS) are one of the most important terrestrial archives of Quaternary paleoclimate and its spatial and temporal dynamics. Studies of LPS from the Middle and Lower Danube basins fundamentally improved understanding of the European Quaternary climate and environmental evolution. The central Balkans (central Serbia) is situated in a transition zone between the temperate-continental climate zone to the north and Mediterranean climate to the south. Up to now this area has been poorly investigated concerning the paleoclimate evolution on a longer term, albeit this region is considered more sensitive to the relative influence associated to the Mediterranean climate influence than the Carpathian basin further north. To fill this gap we conducted a high-resolution multiproxy investigation on the Stalać LPS in the central Balkan (Serbia). Located at the southern limits of European loess distribution and within the Mediterranean climate influence, the Stalać section has potential for better understanding of past regional climate dynamics. We discuss grain-size (granulometric fractions, U-ratio), environmental magnetic (χ, χfd), geochemical (major and trace elements) and colour (L*, a*, b* values) data from the Stalać section in terms of switching sediment provenance sources modulated by past environmental conditions. We can show that the Carpathian Basin and central Balkans were influenced by different environmental conditions during past ~350 ka. A general higher continentality of the climate during the late Pleistocene can be observed over the Stalać section and the Carpathian Basin, indicating that this trend is more than a regional feature. Our results indicate warmer and/or more humid last glacial cycles compared to

  2. Containers and grains: food storage and symbolism in the Central Balkans (Vinča period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boban Tripković

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Since Flannery, who showed that types and locations of storage facilities provide a variety of associations for explaining social change, the economic and social role of storage has been reviewed numerous times. So far, no research pertaining to storage practice has been conducted in the Central Balkans. However, storage strategies play an important role in the agricultural history of the region. Similar, or exactly the same storage techniques have been practiced from the Early Neolithic until modern times, and even today some are practiced by traditional farming communities. Hence this article, which is intended to lay the foundations for understanding the relation between economic and social processes as reflected by storage behaviour in the Late Neolithic-Early Eneolithic in the Central Balkans region.

  3. The Romanian Schools and Churches in Balkan Peninsula. 1864-1948. Archives Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Berciu-Drăghicescu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article on Romanian schools and churches, in the Balkan Peninsula, over the period 1918-1948 is based on the unprecedented documents identified in the funds preserved in the Diplomatic Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and in the Central Historic National Archives in Bucharest. The author has studied and selected the unprecedented documents that had the most important significance for the purpose of presenting the evolution of the school and churche situation of the Romanian communities situated at the south of the Danube, starting from year 1864, when the first school was established in Tarnova, (Macedonia and up to 1948 when the Romanian state abandoned the work unveiled by ruler Al. Ioan Cuza. The article presents this situation, very dramatic, of the Romanian communities from the Balkans based on the documents of Archives.

  4. 1st International Symposium and 10th Balkan Conference on Operational Research

    CERN Document Server

    Sifaleras, Angelo; Georgiadis, Christos; Papathanasiou, Jason; Stiakakis, Emmanuil

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the Balkan Conference on Operational Research (BALCOR) has facilitated the exchange of scientific and technical information on the subject of Operations Research and related fields such as Mathematical Programming, Game Theory, Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis, Information Systems, Data Mining, and more, in order to promote international scientific cooperation.  The contributed papers contained in this volume consist of 25 selected research papers based on results presented at the 10th Balkan Conference & 1st International Symposium on Operational Research in Thessalonike, Greece. Subjects include, but do not restrict to, the development of theory and mathematical models for Operations Research, theory and applications of Combinatorial Optimization, Supply Chain Optimization, and Military Operations Research.  These carefully selected papers present important recent developments and modern applications, and will serve as excellent reference for students, researchers, and pr...

  5. The Contribution of the Concept of Human Security to the Western Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Gemma Collantes Celador

    2007-01-01

    This article evaluates the usefulness that stems from adopting the concept of human security for analysing the situation of the Western Balkan societies affected by the dismemberment of the former Yugoslavia. While accepting that the argument of the lack of consensus on the definition of human security hampers its study, this work sustains that incorporating a perspective influenced by this concept aids in understanding two specific aspects. On the one hand, the form that the international r...

  6. Western Balkans: state of agriculture and its opportunities on the eve of EU accession

    OpenAIRE

    Tamás Mizik

    2011-01-01

    The Western Balkan countries can be characterised by their shared goal, which is the quickest possible accession to the European Union. Agriculture is an important obstacle to achieving this goal. The role of agriculture differs widely among the analysed countries but is more important than the average of the EU. This study gives a comprehensive overview of the most important agricultural indicators related to both crop and livestock production. These indicators present a precise picture of t...

  7. Western Balkans: State of Agriculture and its Opportunities on the Eve of EU Accession - I

    OpenAIRE

    Tamás Mizik

    2011-01-01

    The Western Balkan countries can be characterised by their shared goal, which is thequickest possible accession to the European Union. Agriculture is an important obstacle to achievingthis goal. The role of agriculture differs widely among the analysed countries but is more importantthan the average of the EU. This study gives a comprehensive overview of the most importantagricultural indicators related to both crop and livestock production. These indicators present aprecise picture of the se...

  8. Western Balkans: State of Agriculture and its Opportunities on the Eve of EU Accession - II

    OpenAIRE

    Tamás Mizik

    2011-01-01

    The Western Balkan countries can be characterized by their shared goal, which is the quickest possible accession to the European Union. Agriculture is an important obstacle to achieving this goal. The role of agriculture differs widely among the analyzed countries but is more important than the average of the EU. This study gives a comprehensive overview of the most important agricultural indicators related to both crop and livestock production. These indicators present a precise picture of t...

  9. Women in the Ottoman Balkans: gender, culture and history by Amila Buturovic and Irvin Cemil Schick

    OpenAIRE

    Akbaş, Arif

    2013-01-01

    When reading the texts in the book without prejudice, it will be seen that the women who tried to balance the necessities of an empire of many beliefs that live together and poetic justice, had roles beyond their traditional, private and public status. The women in Ottoman Balkans were foundation founders; they were organizing workers and were consuming luxury Western goods to show off. They were lovers, wives, left behinds, divorced and widows; they were symbols, mediators, subjects of f...

  10. Containers and grains: food storage and symbolism in the Central Balkans (Vinča period):

    OpenAIRE

    Boban Tripković

    2011-01-01

    Since Flannery, who showed that types and locations of storage facilities provide a variety of associations for explaining social change, the economic and social role of storage has been reviewed numerous times. So far, no research pertaining to storage practice has been conducted in the Central Balkans. However, storage strategies play an important role in the agricultural history of the region. Similar, or exactly the same storage techniques have been practiced from the Early Neolithic unti...

  11. Corruption as an Obstacle for Doing Business in the Western Balkans: A Business Sector Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Budak; Edo Rajh

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates business people’s perceptions of corruption as an obstacle for doing business and their attitudes towards corruption. It is based on a survey conducted on the sample of over 1800 business owners and managers in the Western Balkans region. Using the original survey data collected in 2010 for seven countries – Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, FYR Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia – the paper explores business people’s views on the ways in which the busine...

  12. Banking Operational Cost in the Balkan Region under a Quadratic Loss Function

    OpenAIRE

    Mamatzakis, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents of theoretical specification of a quadratic loss function based on forward looking rational expectations to model the underlying dynamics of operational performance of the banking industry. As an empirical application we examine the determinants of total operating costs within a dynamic panel analysis in the Balkan region that is the South East Europe (SEE) over the period 1998-2005. Results show that operating performance is positively related to loan quality and the asse...

  13. Balkan Holocausts?: Serbian and Croatian victim centred propaganda and the war in Yugoslavia

    OpenAIRE

    Macdonald, David Bruce

    2003-01-01

    "Balkan Holocausts compares and contrasts Serbian and Croatian propaganda from 1986 to 1999, analysing each group's contemporary interpretations of history and current events. It offers a detailed discussion of holocaust imagery and the history of victim-centred writing in nationalism theory, including the links between the comparative genocide debate, the so-called holocaust industry and Serbian and Croatian nationalism. No studies on Yugoslavia have thus far devoted significant space to suc...

  14. RENEWABLE ENERGY POLICY IN THE WESTERN BALKANS: ALBANIA, BOSNIA HERZEGOVINA, KOSOVO AND SERBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela PÃCE?ILÃ

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents reviews and an analysis of the policy and support mechanisms for the promotion of renewable in the Western Balkan countries, as well as an overview of the legislation and other official documents influencing the renewable energy sector. The importance of renewable energy sources, along with key information about the countries commitments to renewable energy are also summarized. The methodology used in this article consists in studying and analysing a range of published mat...

  15. HUMAN RIGHTS AND DISCRIMINATION ISSUES IN THE EU INTEGRATION PROCESS OF MUSLIM BALKAN STATES AND TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    KINGA ANETTA TRUFAN

    2010-01-01

    Turkey has received a great deal of attention lately as a result of its unsuccessful efforts to join the European Union (EU). European leaders have indicated that before Turkey can join, it must improve its human rights record. This article will examine the relationship between human rights issues in Turkey and its ability to meet international standards necessary for membership in the EU. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate a clear image of the stage to which the Western Balkan Muslim...

  16. Economic development in the European super-periphery: Evidence from the Western Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett Will

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that the conflicts that afflicted the Western Balkan region in the 1990s pushed the countries into the European 'super-periphery', characterized by deindustrialization and high unemployment, ethnic and regional fragmentation, political turmoil, and instability. Integration into international trade has been disrupted, leading to chronic balance of payments deficits. Low inflows of international capital, due to high country risk, have hindered technological catch-up and weaken...

  17. Comparison of E-Commerce behaviour among women consumers of Balkan and Baltic Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Polychronidou Persefoni; Valsamidis Stavros; Florou Giannoula; Karasavvoglou Anastasios

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, more and more consumers prefer to make their shopping via Internet. Researchers wish to study the e-commerce behaviour and the factors influencing consumer’s attitude while shopping on line. This paper investigates the differences and similarities of women’s behaviour toward e-commerce in two culturally different Europe regions; the Balkans and the Baltic regions. Some attributes such as trust in vendor, trust in transactions, language, culture, age or education and their possible i...

  18. Microscale vicariance and diversification of Western Balkan caddisflies linked to karstification

    OpenAIRE

    Previšić, Ana; Schnitzler, Jan; KUČINIĆ, MLADEN; GRAF, WOLFRAM; Ibrahimi, Halil; Kerovec, Mladen; PAULS, STEFFEN U.

    2013-01-01

    The karst areas in the Dinaric region of the Western Balkan Peninsula are a hotspot of freshwater biodiversity. Many investigators have examined diversification of the subterranean freshwater fauna in these karst systems. However, diversification of surface-water fauna remains largely unexplored. We assessed local and regional diversification of surface-water species in karst systems and asked whether patterns of population differentiation could be explained by dispersal–diversification proce...

  19. Potential impact of the 74 ka Toba eruption on the Balkan region, SE Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, B.; Leng, M. J.; Wilke, T.; A. Böhm; K. Panagiotopoulos; Vogel, H; Lacey, J.; G. Zanchetta; R. Sulpizio

    2013-01-01

    The 74 ka Toba eruption in Sumatra, Indonesia, is considered to be one of the largest volcanic events during the Quaternary. Tephra from the Toba eruption has been found in many terrestrial and marine sedimentary deposits, and acidity peaks related to the eruption have been used to synchronize ice core records from Greenland and Antarctica. Seismic profiles from Lake Prespa on the Balkan Peninsula, SE Europe, indicate a lake level lowstand, which is confirmed by the occurrence of an ex...

  20. Perception of Information Security of Management of Banking and Insurance Companies in Countries of Western Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Edin Osmanbegovic; Sejfudin Zahirović

    2013-01-01

    In this paper it is described aspects of standardisation of information security and itsimplementation in banking and insurance companies in countries of Western Balkans. Interms of approaching the standards of EU, one of the areas that need to be fully justified isthe information security. It has been identified and applied a new dual methodology whichcovers measurement of same variables of information security into two opposite populations.Authors identify banking and insurance sector as a ...

  1. The Balkan balneotherapy product – an approach from the destination marketing perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia-Felicia STĂNCIOIU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the common features in the resources field, but especially the way in which they have been managed at the level of each individual country, it can be stated that a destination such as the Balkan peninsula represents a culturally homogeneous space, which has been crystallized over centuries of common history and which has imprinted a “common” destiny to the member countries, regarding the economic and cultural development. Regarding natural resources, the main similarity resides in the existence of balneotherapy resources, with particular therapeutic properties, nowadays’ development being pressured by the deterioration of one’s conception about its own health (from the demand perspective, on the one hand, and extending the concept of health (from the supply perspective, on the other hand. In the context of a less-controlled development of certain methods/techniques/procedures by the stakeholders of wellness industry, it is necessary to maintain the authenticity of the balneotherapy product whose essence is the treatment. The purpose of the paper relies in establishing the common elements which could form the essence of the balneotherapy product (sui generis and, in the same time, the differentiation elements which form the developed product of each Balkan country, alongside with the establishment of joint actions, in order to set the coordinates of the regional balneotherapy marketing strategy for the Balkan peninsula.

  2. The 2011 Census in Croatia- A (partial role model for the Western Balkans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Lena Hoh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of EU enlargement, the population and housing census is a pre-condition for EU membership. The 2011 census in Croatia was conducted according to EU regulations1 and considering this, it should present a good example for the region. However, there are some aspects which are not addressed by EU regulations, but are of importance when looking at censuses in the Western Balkans: the so-called sensitive issues (ethnicity, language and religion2. Answers to these questions are not required by the EU; nonetheless all Western Balkan countries have included these questions in their censuses. In Croatia, the census results are used to determine political participation by proportional representation of ethnic minorities, and this has led to ethnic tensions3. This article looks into the historical perspective of censuses in Croatia, as well as the EU conditionality of census-taking in the Croatian census of 2011. In addition, the practice of linking political participation to census results will be taken into account, before finally posing the question of whether the 2011 census in Croatia can really be taken as a role model for census-taking in the Western Balkans.

  3. Heterogeneity of growth in the west Balkans and emerging Europe: A dynamic panel data model approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the heterogeneity of growth in the Western Balkan and Emerging European economies. For that purpose, growth determinants are estimated in the period 1997-2009 by dynamic panel data models. The chosen period provides a comparison for the model results with those estimated for the period up to 2007 in order to analyze changes caused by the global instability. According to the main findings of the paper, macroeconomic stabilization and structural reforms still matter in determining economic growth, but foreign direct investments and economic integrations seem to have the most important role in stimulating growth in the observed countries. Moreover, significant positive effects of foreign direct investments and economic integrations produce differences in growth paths between Emerging European and Western Balkan economies. Sharp decrease of foreign inflows in 2008 determined contractions of growth rates firstly in Emerging European economies with subsequent spill-over on the Western Balkan economies during 2009. Consequently, in the period of global instability, differences between two groups of economies become even more obvious.

  4. A Balkan-style French revolution?: The 1804 Serbian Uprising in European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bataković Dušan T.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Serbian uprising of 1804-13, initially a peasant rebellion against abuses of power by local janissaries, turned into a national and social revolution from 1806. During its second phase (late 1806 - early 1807, Serbian insurgents openly proclaimed their demand for independence. Encouraged by their military achievements, the insurgent leaders began to seek wider Balkan support for their struggle against Ottoman domination. Although its political claims were a mixture of modern national and romantic historic rights, the uprising gave hope to all Balkan Christians that the Ottoman defeat was an achievable goal. For the Balkan nations it was a French Revolution adapted to local conditions: the principle of popular sovereignty was opposed to the principle of legitimism; a new peasant-dominated society was created in which, due to the lack of the aristocracy and well-established middle classes, agrarian egalitarianism was combined with the rising aspirations of a modern nation. Its long-term effects on the political and social landscape of the whole region justified the assessment of the eminent German historian Leopold von Ranke who described the uprising, by analogy with the French example, as the Serbian Revolution.

  5. THE WESTERN BALKANS BETWEEN INTERNAL TRANSITIONS AND THE EU INTEGRATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elira LULI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Balkan region is still a “hot” zone where old legacies of the past interfere with the present and contribute to the transition processes of the countries there. The region seems committed to follow an EU-bound path, although it faces many challenges in terms of meeting the standards for EU and NATO membership. Somehow, persistent conflicts delay finding solutions. The difficult democratic transition, the lack of will and shallow political culture of regional elites delay the process of bringing these countries forward. This profound transition unfortunately occurs while the EU, on one hand, is trying to play the arbitrator part having promised to assume full leadership role and, on the other hand, tries to restrain the voices of those Euro-Sceptics who have been increasing their numbers recently. Meanwhile, a deterioration of the situation in the Balkans might have a negative impact across Europe and decrease the credibility of the EU as the main foreign policy and security actor in the whole region. This paper will first analyse the transition processes in the Balkans and the back and forth efforts to leave behind the past and head toward a common European perspective. Secondly, it will analyse the required active role of the EU and the urgency for a closer monitoring of the situation in this region. Thirdly, it emphasises the need to encourage public diplomacy in the region in order to mitigate conflicts and promote cooperation between the people there.

  6. MicroRNA Profiling in Patients with Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma Associated with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovska-Jankovic, Katerina; Noveski, Predrag; Jankovic-Velickovic, Ljubinka; Stojnev, Slavica; Cukuranovic, Rade; Stefanovic, Vladisav; Toncheva, Draga; Staneva, Rada; Polenakovic, Momir; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana

    2016-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a disease that affects people that live in the alluvial plains along the tributaries of the Danube River in the Balkan region. BEN is a chronic tubulointerstitial disease with a slow progression to terminal renal failure and has strong association with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). There are several hypotheses about the etiology of BEN, but only the toxic effect of aristolochic acid has been confirmed as a risk factor in the occurrence of the disease. Aberrantly expressed miRNAs have been shown to be associated with many types of cancers. A number of studies have investigated the expression of microRNAs in urothelial carcinoma, mainly on urothelial bladder cancer, and only a few have included patients with UTUC. Here we present the first study of microRNA profiling in UTUC tissues from patients with BEN (BEN-UTUC) and patients with UTUC from nonendemic Balkan regions (non-BEN-UTUC) in comparison to normal kidney tissues. We found 10 miRNAs that were differentially expressed in patients with BEN-UTUC and 15 miRNAs in patients with non-BEN-UTUC. miRNA signature determined in BEN-UTUC patients differs from the non-BEN-UTUC patients; only miR-205-5p was mutual in both groups. PMID:27218105

  7. Net capital flows to and the real exchange rate of Western Balkan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrisch Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses Granger causality tests to assess the linkages between changes in the real exchange rate and net capital inflows using the example of Western Balkan countries, which have suffered from low competitiveness and external imbalances for many years. The real exchange rate is a measure of a country’s price competitiveness, and the paper uses two concepts: relative unit labour cost and relative inflation differential. The sample consists of six Western Balkan countries for the period 1996-2012, relative to the European Union (EU. The main finding is that changes in the net capital flows precede changes in relative unit labour costs and not vice versa. Also, there is evidence that net capital flows affect the inflation differential of countries, although to a less discernible extent. This suggests that the increasing divergence in the unit labour cost between the EU and Western Balkan countries up to the global financial crisis was at least partly the result of net capital inflows. The paper adds to the ongoing debate on improving cost competitiveness through wage restrictions as the main vehicle to avert the accumulation of current account imbalances. It shows the importance of changes in the exchange rate regime, reform of the interaction between the financial and the real sector, and financial supervision and structural change.

  8. Religious configuration of the “other” in the contemporary Balkan societies (cultural mechanisms and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomilova Nonka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper argues that the Balkans are not a single-type cultural- political and conflictogenic space where religions are the basic factor, but a heterogeneous zone made up of specific states, in each of which religion or religions have a specific positive cultural status and/or conflict potential (persistently or in certain period. The qualitative changes that have taken place in Christianity as a faith and an institution, both in the West and East (including the Balkans during the second half of the 20th century have shown that Christianity has become more dependent on and responsive to the fundamental cultural specificity of each particular society in which it exists. The thesis is emphasized that in the conflictual configuration of “Other” in the Balkans (of ethnic, nationalist, cultural type religion is not a pro-active factor but functions in interacting with a number of other factors (the Weberian idea of religious “strands”, coming to the fore in certain situations.

  9. Energy in the western Balkans - the path to reform and reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    The Western Balkans - composed of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Kosovo - is a complex region facing significant energy challenges. The conflicts over the break-up of the former Yugoslavia damaged much of the energy infrastructure and compounded the challenge of providing reliable energy supply. Electricity systems in many parts of the region remain fragile and in need of investment. A priority across the region is to put into place the institutions, infrastructure and policies that can support the provision of reliable, affordable and sustainable energy. For the Western Balkans as a whole, a key element of the reform effort is the Energy Community Treaty - a regulatory and market framework to which the entire region has now subscribed. This Treaty aims to create an integrated regional market for electricity and gas compatible with the European Union's internal energy market. This Energy Policy Survey is the first comprehensive review of energy policies and strategies in the Western Balkan region, and also covers important cross-cutting topics such as co-operation and energy trade, oil and gas transportation, and the links between energy and poverty. It identifies and assesses the reforms that are still needed to deliver efficient, modernised energy systems that can assist economic development, address energy poverty and reduce the environmental impacts of energy use.

  10. Agricultural Support: Consequences of the Eventual Accession of the Balkan Countries to the Europe Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sándor Richter

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The author estimates the potential impact of the accession of seven Balkan countries (Albania, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Turkey to the EU on the agricultural direct payments and rural development expenditures disbursed from the EU budget. The estimation is based on the assumption that the agricultural support to GDP ratios are similar across member states at similar levels of development sharing a similar weight of agriculture in the economy. The results show that the annual additional burden for the 27 current EU members due to a Balkan enlargement would range between EUR 5 and 11.5 billion (in 2004 prices. The former figure reflects an agricultural support to GDP ratio corresponding to the average of the 12 new member states; the latter reflects the respective (average ratio of Bulgaria and Romania. In relative terms the Balkan enlargement would necessitate a net increase of the pool of transfers for direct payments and rural development expenditures in the range of 10% to 23%.

  11. Medical and Social Aspects of Syphilis in the Balkans from the mid-19th Century to the Interwar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsiamis Costas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents some aspects of syphilis in the Balkan Peninsula from the 19th century until the Interwar. Ever since the birth of modern Balkan States (Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey and Serbia, urbanization, poverty and the frequent wars have been considered the major factors conducive to the spread of syphilis. The measures against sex work and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs were taken in two aspects, one medical and the other legislative. In this period, numerous hospitals for venereal diseases were established in the Balkan countries. In line with the international diagnostic approach and therapeutic standards, laboratory examinations in these Balkan hospitals included spirochete examination, Wassermann reaction, precipitation reaction and cerebrospinal fluid examination. Despite the strict legislation and the adoption of relevant laws against illegal sex work, public health services were unable to curb the spread of syphilis. Medical and social factors such as poverty, citizen’s ignorance of STDs, misguided medical perceptions, lack of sanitary control of prostitution and epidemiological studies, are highlighted in this study. These factors were the major causes that helped syphilis spread in the Balkan countries during the 19th and early 20th century. The value of these aspects as a historic paradigm is diachronic. Failure to comply with the laws and the dysfunction of public services during periods of war or socioeconomic crises are both factors facilitating the spread of STDs.

  12. Medical and Social Aspects of Syphilis in the Balkans from the mid-19th Century to the Interwar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiamis, Costas; Vrioni, Georgia; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Gennimata, Vasiliki; Murdjeva, Mariana А; Tsakris, Athanasios

    2016-03-01

    The current study presents some aspects of syphilis in the Balkan Peninsula from the 19th century until the Interwar. Ever since the birth of modern Balkan States (Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey and Serbia), urbanization, poverty and the frequent wars have been considered the major factors conducive to the spread of syphilis. The measures against sex work and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were taken in two aspects, one medical and the other legislative. In this period, numerous hospitals for venereal diseases were established in the Balkan countries. In line with the international diagnostic approach and therapeutic standards, laboratory examinations in these Balkan hospitals included spirochete examination, Wassermann reaction, precipitation reaction and cerebrospinal fluid examination. Despite the strict legislation and the adoption of relevant laws against illegal sex work, public health services were unable to curb the spread of syphilis. Medical and social factors such as poverty, citizen's ignorance of STDs, misguided medical perceptions, lack of sanitary control of prostitution and epidemiological studies, are highlighted in this study. These factors were the major causes that helped syphilis spread in the Balkan countries during the 19th and early 20th century. The value of these aspects as a historic paradigm is diachronic. Failure to comply with the laws and the dysfunction of public services during periods of war or socioeconomic crises are both factors facilitating the spread of STDs. PMID:27383872

  13. Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and ‘real world’ adherence to guidelines in the Balkan Region: The BALKAN-AF Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potpara, Tatjana S.; Dan, Gheorghe-Andrei; Trendafilova, Elina; Goda, Artan; Kusljugic, Zumreta; Manola, Sime; Music, Ljilja; Musetescu, Rodica; Badila, Elisabeta; Mitic, Gorana; Paparisto, Vilma; Dimitrova, Elena S.; Polovina, Marija M.; Petranov, Stanislav L.; Djergo, Hortensia; Loncar, Daniela; Bijedic, Amira; Brusich, Sandro; Lip, Gregory Y. H.; Potpara, Tatjana S.; Polovina, Marija; Milanov, Srdjan; Pavlovic, Marija; Petrovic, Marijana; Simovic, Stefan; Mitic, Gorana; Milanov, Marko; Savic, Jelena; Gnip, Sanja; Radovic, Pavica; Markovic, Snezana; Koncarevic, Ivana; Gavrilovic, Jelena; Acimovic, Tijana; Djikic, Dijana; Malic, Semir; Hodzic, Jusuf; Stojanovic, Milovan; Ilic, Marina Deljanin; Zlatar, Milan; Matic, Dragan; Lazic, Snezana; Peric, Vladan; Markovic, Sanja; Kovacevic, Snezana; Arandjelovic, Aleksandra; Asanin, Milika; Zdravkovic, Marija; Dan, Gheorghe-Andrei; Breha, Anca; Dan, Anca Rodica; Musetescu, Rodica; Popescu, Mircea Ioachim; Badila, Elisabeta; Georgescu, Catalina Arsenescu; Pop, Sorina; Popescu, Raluca; Neamtu, Simina; Oancea, Floriana; Trendafilova, Elina; Dimitrova, Elena; Goshev, Evgenii; Velichkova, Anna; Petranov, Stanislav; Kamenova, Delyana; Kamenova, Penka; Elefterova, Svetoslava; Shterev, Valentin; Zekova, Maria; Diukiandzhieva, Stela; Dimitrov, Boiko; Sotirov, Tihomir; Simeonova, Valentina; Drianovska, Dimitrina; Boiadzhieva, Liliya Ivanova Vasileva; Buchukova, Darina; Goda, Artan; Paparisto, Vilma; Gjergo, Hortensia; Mijo, Alma; Shirka, Ervina; Gjini, Viktor; Ekmekciu, Uliks; Refatllari, Ina; Kusljugic, Zumreta; Loncar, Daniela; Mrsic, Denis; Tulumovic, Hazim; Pojskic, Belma; Sijamija, Alma; Bijedic, Amira; Karamujic, Indira; Bijedic, Irma; Halilovic, Sanela; Sokolovic, Sekib; Manola, Sime; Zeljkovic, Ivan; Pavlovic, Nikola; Radeljic, Vjekoslav; Brusich, Sandro; Anic, Ante; Jeric, Melita; Pekic, Petar; Milas, Kresimir; Music, Ljilja; Bulatovic, Nebojsa; Nenezic, Ana; Asanovic, Dijana

    2016-01-01

    Data on the management of atrial fibrillation (AF) in the Balkan Region are limited. The Serbian AF Association (SAFA) prospectively investigated contemporary ‘real-world’ AF management in clinical practice in Albania, Bosnia&Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Montenegro, Romania and Serbia through a 14-week (December 2014-February 2015) prospective, multicentre survey of consecutive AF patients. We report the results pertinent to stroke prevention strategies. Of 2712 enrolled patients, 2663 (98.2%) with complete data were included in this analysis (mean age 69.1 ± 10.9 years, female 44.6%). Overall, 1960 patients (73.6%) received oral anticoagulants (OAC) and 762 (28.6%) received antiplatelet drugs. Of patients given OAC, 17.2% received non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs). CHA2DS2-VASc score was not significantly associated with OAC use. Of the ‘truly low-risk’ patients (CHA2DS2-VASc = 0 [males], or 1 [females]) 56.5% received OAC. Time in Therapeutic Range (TTR) was available in only 18.7% of patients (mean TTR: 49.5% ± 22.3%). Age ≥ 80 years, prior myocardial infarction and paroxysmal AF were independent predictors of OAC non-use. Our survey shows a relatively high overall use of OAC in AF patients, but with low quality of vitamin K antagonist therapy and insufficient adherence to AF guidelines. Additional efforts are needed to improve AF-related thromboprophylaxis in clinical practice in the Balkan Region. PMID:26869284

  14. THE EU APPROACH TO THE WESTERN BALKANS: A SECURITY OR POLITICAL ISSUE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth FERERRO-TURRIÓN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will focus on the policies developed by the European Union towards the Western Balkans, especially those related to human mobility and visa liberalization. The main target of the paper will be to show how the conditionality policies towards these countries have been developed related to security, geopolitical needs and interests, instead of the objective/technical criteria stated in the communitarian official documents. We will see how the last enlargements of the Union have affected considerably the different positions adopted by member states in their approach toward the Balkan countries, especially in relation to chapters 23 and 24 of the negotiation agreements, dealing with issues of Justice and Home Affairs. Since then, the pragmatic approach of the Union has been reinforced, so that the accession of candidates has been delayed in time. However, some things might change, if we take into consideration the current refugee and Ukraine crises, the new relationships that have been developed with Russia (especially by Serbia, and Greece’s approach towards Moscow on the verge of the economic crisis. If the European Union has, until now, followed a stick-and-carrot approach towards the Balkans in order to maintain a security belt on its southeast border, this approach might change within a new geopolitical context. In this paper we will analyse the visa liberalization process and its developments since Thessaloniki 2003, to show how the decisions taken by the Union have been more linked to political matters related to security than to technical reasons related to passport design.

  15. The environmental state of rivers in the Balkans--a review within the DPSIR framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoulikidis, Nikolaos Th

    2009-04-01

    Fifteen major Balkan rivers with over 80% of the inflows in Eastern Mediterranean were examined for their environmental state within the DPSIR framework. Physicogeographic and hydrochemical conditions differ substantially among river basins, which may be roughly classified into three main zones. Despite strong fragmentation, most of the rivers are liable to flash floods and have low summer flow. Decreasing precipitation and (mis)management caused a dramatic discharge reduction over the last decades. Wars, political instability, economical crises over the past decades, combined with administrative and structural constraints, poor environmental planning and inspection and, frequently, a lack of environmental awareness imposed significant pressures on rivers. Large wetland areas were drained in favour of widespread intensive agriculture. The treatment of municipal wastewaters is barely adequate in Greece and insufficient elsewhere, while management and treatment of mining and industrial wastewaters is overall poor. In general, lowland river sections are hydro-morphologically modified and are at the greatest pollution risk, while upstream areas mostly retain their natural conditions. Nutrient concentrations in a number of central and eastern Balkan rivers often exceed quality standards, whereas pesticides and heavy metals, partly of geochemical origin, occasionally exceed quality standards. Reservoirs retain vast masses of sediments, thus adversely affecting delta evolution, while dam operation disturbs the seasonal hydrological and hydrochemical regimes. Almost all Balkan countries face daunting water resource challenges because of urgently needed investments in water supply, sanitation, irrigation, and hydroelectricity. International treaties and designations and European Union Directives have mobilized pollution mitigation and conservation efforts. However, the application of environmental legislation has proved in a number of cases inadequate. Constraints arise

  16. VS structure of the crust and upper mantle in the Balkan Peninsula region

    CERN Document Server

    Raykova, Reneta Blagoeva

    2015-01-01

    This study defines a 3D shear-wave velocity model to the depth of about 350 km in the region of Balkan Peninsula by application of several methods and tools: collection of surface-wave dispersion measurements; tomography on a grid sized 1 degree by 1 degree; non-linear inversion of dispersion relations; local smoothing optimization; and juxtaposition of representative cellular models. This study upgrades, refines and extends the results obtained for the region by Raykova and Panza (2006), Raykova and Nikolova (2007), Panza et al. (2007) and Brandmayr et al. (2010).

  17. Environmental changes on the Balkans recorded in the sediments from lakes Prespa and Ohrid

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, B.; H. Vogel; G. Zanchetta; Sulpizio, R.

    2010-01-01

    Lakes Prespa and Ohrid on the Balkans are considered to be amongst the oldest lakes in Europe. Both lakes are hydraulically connected via karst aquifers. From Lake Ohrid, several up to ca. 15 m long sediment records were studied during the past years. In this study, a first long sediment record from Lake Prespa was studied in order to shed more light on the influence of Lake Prespa on Lake Ohrid and the environmental history of the region. Radiocarbon dating and the occurrence of 3 dated teph...

  18. EU regional approach to the Western Balkans: The human security dimension

    OpenAIRE

    Žarin Irina

    2007-01-01

    The human security dimension has been defined as a "freedom from want and freedom from fear", with the aim to identify the key security issues that the region is facing and to assess the EU foreign policies in parallel. This aim was also directed towards articulating the proposals for a more coherent and effective approach to the Western Balkans transition to a stable democracy. The assumption of this article rests on the fact that the spillover of the soft security issues into the hard secur...

  19. Političnogeografska analiza Balkana = Political-Geographical analysis of the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Zupančič

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with contemporary political map of the Balkans, founded on morphological,structural and functional analysis. Characteristically, there are frequent changes of politicalborders in common. The most of nation-states are relatively young, small-sized, ethnicheterogeneous. The space is characteristic by large peripheral areas, but the core areas aresmall. The most of nations have two spatial-political units. All these nation-states are weakand vulnerable, and that is why they represent a high latent crisis potential. On the otherhand, the transport, transit and strategic role of this area is increasing, indeed.

  20. Historiebrug på Balkan - et casestudie om fremstillingen af folkedrab i Jugoslavien

    OpenAIRE

    Gunner, Oliver William Gunner

    2013-01-01

    This report examines how the history of the past was being used for certain purposes in the The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the eighties. The analysis is based on a general historical understanding of the cultural flows in the Balkan region during the period of 1918-1991. Through this understanding I investigate Vladimir Dedijer’s thesis in the book The Yugoslav Auschwitz and The Vatican in which he claims an agreement exists on commiting genocide between the catholic church and the for...

  1. Genetic structure and demographic history of brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) populations from the southern Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apostolidis, A.P.; Madeira, M.J.; Hansen, Michael Møller;

    2008-01-01

    1. The present study was designed to characterize the genetic structure of brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations from the southern Balkans and to assess the spread of non-native strains and their introgression into native trout gene pools. We analysed polymorphism at nine microsatellite loci in...... seven supposedly non-admixed and three stocked brown trout populations. 2. The analyses confirmed the absence of immigration and extraordinarily strong genetic differentiation among the seven non-introgressed populations in parallel with low levels of intrapopulation genetic variability. In contrast...

  2. Influence of climatic changes on pollution levels in the Balkan Peninsula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zlatev, Z.; Georgiev, K.; Dimov, I.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to study the influence of future climatic changes on some high pollution levels that can cause damages on plants, animals and human beings. The particular area of interest is the Balkan Peninsula. Four important quantities have been selected: (a) annual concentrations, (b...... these scenarios, are carefully studied. The major conclusion is that the increase of the temperature, alone or in combination with some other factors, leads to rather considerable increases of some pollution levels, which might become dangerous for the environment. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights...

  3. Tres publicaciones recientes sobre Lope de Aguirre: Galster, Aguilar y Córdoba, y Balkan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Páramo Bonilla

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ingrid Galster. Aguirre o la posteridad arbitraria. Bogotá: Universidad del Rosario-Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, 2011. Traducción de Oscar Sola. 844 páginas.Diego de Aguilar y Córdoba. El Marañón [1578]. Madrid-Frankfurt: Universidad de Navarra-Iberoamericana-Vervuert, 2011. 423 páginas.Evan L. Balkan. The Wrath of God: Lope de Aguirre, Revolutionary of the Americas Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2011. 225 páginas.

  4. Natural radionuclides content and radioactive series disequilibrium in drinking waters from Balkans region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural radioactivity of drinking water with various geological origin in Balkans region has been studied. Collected water samples are analyzed for total alpha and total beta activities and specific alpha- and gamma-emitting radionuclides content using low-background proportional counting and alpha and gamma-spectrometry techniques. Obtained activity concentrations of 238U, 234U, 235U, 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in water samples and radioactive disequilibrium between members of the natural radioactive series, based on the isotopic ratios, has been discussed. (author)

  5. Daily uranium excretion in German peacekeeping personnel serving on the Balkans compared to ICRP model prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeh, U; Li, W B; Höllriegl, V; Giussani, A; Schramel, P; Roth, P; Paretzke, H G

    2007-01-01

    An investigation was performed to assess a possible health risk of depleted uranium (DU) for residents and German peacekeeping personnel serving on the Balkans. In order to evaluate a possible DU intake, the urinary uranium excretions of volunteers were collected and analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In total, more than 1300 urine samples from soldiers, civil servants and unexposed controls of different genders and ages were analysed to determine uranium excretion parameters. All participating volunteers, aged 3-92 y, were grouped according to their gender and age for evaluation. The results of the investigation revealed no significant difference between the unexposed controls and the peacekeeping personnel. In addition, the geometric means of the daily urinary excretion in peacekeeping personnel, ranging from 3 to 23 ng d(-1) for different age groups, fall toward the lower end of renal uranium excretion values published for unexposed populations in literature. The measured data were compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection prediction for the intake of natural uranium by unexposed members of the public. The two data sets are in good agreement, indicating that no relevant intake of additional uranium, either natural or DU, has appeared for German peacekeeping personnel serving on the Balkans. PMID:17567762

  6. The Role of the EU as a Peacebuilder in the Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentjan Skara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After the Cold War, the Western Balkan countries have become an important laboratory for the EU, able to exert its EU crises management and transformative power. Through restoring stability in the region, overcoming ethno–territorial and inter–ethnic conflicts, improving regional cooperation, consolidating democracy, building democratic institutions and promoting market economy, EU’s goal was to make war unthinkable in this region. Referring to the definition of peacebuilding as ‘action to identify and support structures which tend to strengthen and solidify peace to avoid a relapse into conflicts’, this paper tries to explore whether, how and to what extent, EU has contributed as a peacebuilder in the Western Balkans, using crises management operations and mission and enlargement policy. It argues that both these instruments can be considered equally relevant as, on the one hand they create favourable conditions for lasting peace, security and stability in the region and on the other hand, through enlargement policy they push this region towards political and institutional reform, economic reforms and regional cooperation.

  7. Serbia, the Serbo-Albanian conflict and the First Balkan War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bataković Dušan T.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After the restoration of Serbia in 1830, the areas of medieval Serbia left out of her borders were dubbed Old Serbia - Kosovo, Metohija, Rascia (the former sanjak of Novi Pazar and the neighbouring areas. Old Serbia (from 1877 onwards the vilayet of Kosovo was dominated by local Albanian pashas, whereas the Christian Orthodox Serbs and their villages were attacked and pillaged by Muslim Albanian brigands. The religious antagonism between Muslims and Christians expanded into national conflict after the 1878 Albanian League had claimed the entire “Old Serbia for Greater Albania”. The position of Christian Orthodox Serbs, who accounted for a half of the population at the end of the nineteenth century, was dramatically aggravated due to Muslim Albanians' tribal anarchy, Austria-Hungary's pro-Albanian agitation and, after 1908, frequent Albanian rebellions. All efforts of Serbia to reach a peaceful agreement with Muslim Albanian leaders in Old Serbia before the First Balkan War had ended in failure. The First Balkan War was the most popular war in Serbia’s history as it was seen as avenging the 1389 Battle of Kosovo which had sealed the Ottoman penetration into the Serbian lands. In October 1912, Serbia liberated most of Old Serbia, while Montenegro took possesion of half of the Rascia area and the whole of Metohija. While the decimated and discriminated Serb population greeted the Serbian and Montenegrin troops as liberators, most Albanians, who had sided with the Ottomans, saw the establishment of Serbian rule as occupation.

  8. OTTOMAN BALKAN HERITAGE AND THE CONSTRUCTION OF TURKISH NATIONAL IDENTITY / OSMANLI BALKAN MİRASI VE TÜRK MİLLÎ KİMLİĞİNİN OLUŞUMU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer BALCI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study covers the influence of Ottoman Balkan Heritage on the construction of Turkish national identity.In order to shed light on the intricate correlation among the Ottoman heritage, the Balkans and Turkish national identity, thisarticle presents thatwhile the Turkish republicanelite took a negative stance on the Ottoman Empire to create a secular nation-state,Balkanmigrants’ view on Islam as the main component of their identity helped to shape the creation of Turkish national identity. Bu çalışma Osmanlı Balkan mirasının Türk millî kimliğinin oluşturulmasındaki etkilerini incelemektedir. Osmanlı mirası, Balkanlar ve Türk millî kimliği arasındaki münasebeti aydınlatabilmek amacıyla araştırma şu hipotezi sunmaktadır: Her ne kadar cumhuriyetçi Türk eliti laik bir ulus devlet inşa etmek amacıyla Osmanlı Devleti’ne karşı olumsuz bir tavır almışsa da, Balkan göçmenlerinin İslam’ı millî kimliklerinin ana unsuru olarak görmesi Türk millî kimliğinin oluşturulmasında önemli bir etken olmuştur

  9. The influence of climate change to European Lakes, with a special emphasis in the Balkan Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are almost one and half million lakes in Europe, if small water bodies with an area down to 0.001 km2 are included. The total area of lakes is over 200.000 km2, in addition the man-made reservoirs cover almost 100.000 km2. The largest lakes are located in the zone extending from southwestern Sweden through Finland to Russia, but there are many important lakes also in central and southern Europe. The Balkan countries have altogether about ten thousand lakes with a total area of over 4000 km2 and total volume of almost loo km3. Over half of the total volume is in Lake Ohrid, which ranks the seventh in Europe both as to the volume and as to the maximum depth. However, there are around thirty lakes in Europe with their surface area larger than that of Lake Ohrid. In addition to the lakes, the Balkan countries also have thousands of reservoirs with a total water storage capacity of over 50 km3. The response of European lakes to climate change can be discussed by dividing the lakes into five categories: 1) deep temperate lakes, 2) shallow temperate lakes, 3) mountain lakes, 4) boreal lakes and 5) arctic lakes. The lakes in the Balkan region fall belong into the first three categories. Most of the deep temperate lakes are warm monomictic; convective overturn occurs in winter or early spring. The future climate change may suppress this overturn, giving these lakes the classification of oligomictic. This implies the enhancement of anoxic bottom conditions and an increased risk of eutrophication. The oxygen conditions can also be expected to deteriorate due to increased bacterial activity in deep waters and superficial bottom sediment. In shallow temperate lakes, higher water temperatures in the future will induce intensified primary production and bacterial decomposition. The probability of harmful extreme events, e.g. the mass production of algae, will increase. The impacts may extend to fishing and recreational use. In lakes with relatively long water retention

  10. Contribution to the Veigaiidae Oudemans, 1939 fauna of the Carpathian Basin and the Balkan Peninsula (Acari: Mesostigmata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ács, A.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Altogether nine veigaiid mite species were listed from different countries of the Carpathian Basin and the Balkan Peninsula, eight of them belonging to the genus Veigaia Oudemans, 1905 and one to Gamasolaelaps Berlese, 1904. New species are added to the fauna of Albania (two, Austria (one, Kosovo (one, Macedonia (three, Serbia (four and Slovakia (two.

  11. Berriasian bio- and magnetostratigraphy and magnetic susceptibility of the Barlya section (Western Balkan Unit, Bulgaria) – preliminary results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grabowski, J.; Lakova, I.; Schnabl, Petr; Sobien, K.; Petrova, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2014), s. 185-194. ISSN 1731-3708 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Berriasian * Western Balkan * calpionellids * magnetostratigraphy * magnetic susceptibility Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography https://www.voluminajurassica.org/index.php/volumina/article/view/143

  12. Deliverable 5.2 Study report on consumer motivations and behaviours for fruits and fruit products in the Balkans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, S.J.; Snoek, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    It is unclear whether fruit consumption in Western Balkan countries (WBC) meets recommended levels from a health perspective. A better understanding consumers' perception of health and motives and barriers of fruit is necessary to get insight in the fruit consumption. The aim of WP 5 is therefore to

  13. Kako se gnijezdio Balkan na "jugoslavenskoj Atlantidi" (Četiri pogleda na reprodukciju orijentalizma u postjugoslavenskoj književnosti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Levanat-Peričić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with the concept of "nesting orientalism" introduced by Milica Bakić-Hayden in the sense of patterns of representation used to describe the Other by all ethnic groups in former Yugoslavia, this paper examines four views of "nesting balkanism" in post-Yugoslav literature. First, there is a chronotopic view from the post-Yugoslav exile back to the past, in which the Balkans function as a contextual synonym for the "former homeland," always used in a context of "war," "violence," "primitivism," "disorder" and "cruelty". The second view refers to several Slovenian authors, starting with Slavoj Žižek, Aleš Debeljak and the young novelist Goran Vojnović, who show specific balkanistic representation connected with sevdah and turbofolk music. The third view is connected with travelling and trains, as a frequent topic of orientalistic representation inherited from the Orient Express novels. Finally, the fourth view draws on examples from Dubravka Ugrešić’s descriptions of her "fellow-countrymen." Almost all analyzed examples show that using the name Balkan in post-Yugoslav literature is connected with the "logic of displaced racism," a practice regarded by Žižek as a kind of inverted racism which is allowed when comparing "tolerant" Europe to Balkan Otherness.

  14. The Balkan endemic Picris hispidissima (Compositae): morphology, nuclear DNA content and relationship to the polymorphic P. hieracioides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slovák, M.; Urfus, Tomáš; Vít, Petr; Marhold, K.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 278, 3-4 (2009), s. 187-201. ISSN 0378-2697 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Balkan Peninsula * genome size * multivariate morphometrics Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.410, year: 2009

  15. Population densities and habitat use of the golden jackal (Canis aureus) in farmlands across the Balkan Peninsula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šálek, Martin; Červinka, J.; Banea, O. C.; Krofel, M.; Ćirović, D.; Selanec, I.; Penezić, A.; Grill, S.; Riegert, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2014), s. 193-200. ISSN 1612-4642 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Golden jackal * Acoustic monitoring * Population density * Habitat use * GIS * Farmland * Balkan Peninsula Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.634, year: 2014

  16. History of the Balkans: Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. Volume 1. The Joint Committee on Eastern Europe Publications Series. No. 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelavich, Barbara

    Designed as an introductory history, this book covers developments in the Balkan Peninsula from the 17th through the 19th centuries. Emphasis is placed on the process by which separate nationalities broke away from imperial rule, established independent states, and embarked on economic and social modernization. To establish perspective on the role…

  17. Balkan cereals genetic resources in collection of Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry and main directions of cereals breeding in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    LOSKUTOV, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of information about Balkan cereals collection in VIR passport database is presented. The paper offers the long-term data on the collection of cereal forage crops (barley, oat) studied under diverse conditions at experiment stations of VIR. The selected sources of economically important traits that can be used for main direction of cereal forages breeding are presented

  18. Quaternary climate change and Heinrich events in the southern Balkans : Lake Prespa diatom palaeolimnology from the last interglacial to present

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cvetkoska, Aleksandra; Levkov, Zlatko; Reed, Jane M.; Wagner, Bernd; Panagiotopoulos, Konstantinos; Leng, Melanie J.; Lacey, Jack H.

    2015-01-01

    Lake Prespa, in the Balkans, contains an important palaeo-archive in a key location for understanding Quaternary climate variability in the transition between Mediterranean and central European climate zones. Previous palaeoenvironmental research on sediment cores indicates that the lake is highly s

  19. Native Dreissena freshwater mussels in the Balkans: in and out of ancient lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, T.; Schultheiß, R.; Albrecht, C.; Bornmann, N.; Trajanovski, S.; Kevrekidis, T.

    2010-10-01

    The Balkans is a biogeographically highly diverse region and a worldwide hotspot of endemic freshwater diversity. A substantial part of this diversity is attributed to well recognized and potential ancient lakes in its southwestern part. However, despite considerable research efforts, faunal relationships among those lakes are not well understood. Therefore, genetic information from native representatives of the mussel genus Dreissena is here used to test the biogeographical zonation of the southwestern Balkans, to relate demographic changes to environmental changes, to assess the degree of eco-insularity, to reconstruct their evolutionary history, and to explore the potential of native taxa for becoming invasive. Phylogeographical and population genetic analyses indicate that most studied populations belong to two native species: D. presbensis (including the distinct genetic subgroup from Lake Ohrid, "D. stankovici") and D. blanci. In addition, the first confirmed record of invasive D. polymorpha in the southwestern Balkan is presented. The distribution of native Dreissena spp. generally coincides with the biogeographical zonations previously suggested based on fish data. However, there is disagreement on the assignment of the ancient lakes in the area to respective biogeographical regions. The data for Lake Ohrid are not conclusive. A closer biogeographical connection to lakes of the Vardar region and possibly the northern Ionian region is, however, suggested for Lake Prespa. The reconstruction of the evolutionary history of Dreissena spp. suggests that populations underwent demographic and spatial expansions in the recent past. Expansions started around 320 000-300 000 years ago in "D. stankovici", 160 000-140 000 years ago in D. blanci, and 110 000-70 000 years ago in D. presbensis. These time frames are discussed within the context of available paleogeological data for lakes Ohrid and Prespa. It is suggested that regional environmental changes may have had

  20. Native Dreissena freshwater mussels in the Balkans: in and out of ancient lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kevrekidis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Balkans is a biogeographically highly diverse region and a worldwide hotspot of endemic freshwater diversity. A substantial part of this diversity is attributed to well recognized and potential ancient lakes in its southwestern part. Despite considerable research efforts, faunal relationships among those lakes are, however, not well understood. Therefore, genetic information from native representatives of the mussel genus Dreissena is used here to test the biogeographical zonation of the Southwestern Balkans, to relate demographic changes to environmental changes, to assess the degree of eco-insularity, to reconstruct their evolutionary history, and to explore the potential of native taxa for becoming invasive. Phylogeographical and population genetic analyses indicate that most populations studied belong to two native species: D. presbensis (incl. the distinct genetic subgroup from Lake Ohrid, D. ''stankovici'' and D. blanci. In addition, the first confirmed record of invasive D. polymorpha in the Southwestern Balkan is presented. The distribution of native Dreissena spp. is largely in concordance with the biogeographical zonations previously proposed based on fish data. Disagreement, however, consists regarding the assignment of the ancient lakes in the area to biogeographical regions. The data for Lake Ohrid are not conclusive. For Lake Prespa, however, a closer biogeographical connection to lakes of the Vardar region and possibly the Northern Ionian region is suggested. While reconstructing the evolutionary histories of Dreissena spp., signs of major demographic and spatial expansions were found. They started some 320 000–300 000 years ago in D. ''stankovici'', some 160 000–140 000 years ago in D. blanci, and some 110 000–70 000 years ago in D. presbensis. These time frames are discussed within the context of available paleogeological data for lakes Ohrid and Prespa. It is suggested that regional environmental changes may have had

  1. Native Dreissena freshwater mussels in the Balkans: in and out of ancient lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Trajanovski

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Balkans is a biogeographically highly diverse region and a worldwide hotspot of endemic freshwater diversity. A substantial part of this diversity is attributed to well recognized and potential ancient lakes in its southwestern part. However, despite considerable research efforts, faunal relationships among those lakes are not well understood. Therefore, genetic information from native representatives of the mussel genus Dreissena is here used to test the biogeographical zonation of the southwestern Balkans, to relate demographic changes to environmental changes, to assess the degree of eco-insularity, to reconstruct their evolutionary history, and to explore the potential of native taxa for becoming invasive. Phylogeographical and population genetic analyses indicate that most studied populations belong to two native species: D. presbensis (including the distinct genetic subgroup from Lake Ohrid, "D. stankovici" and D. blanci. In addition, the first confirmed record of invasive D. polymorpha in the southwestern Balkan is presented. The distribution of native Dreissena spp. generally coincides with the biogeographical zonations previously suggested based on fish data. However, there is disagreement on the assignment of the ancient lakes in the area to respective biogeographical regions. The data for Lake Ohrid are not conclusive. A closer biogeographical connection to lakes of the Vardar region and possibly the northern Ionian region is, however, suggested for Lake Prespa. The reconstruction of the evolutionary history of Dreissena spp. suggests that populations underwent demographic and spatial expansions in the recent past. Expansions started around 320 000–300 000 years ago in "D. stankovici", 160 000–140 000 years ago in D. blanci, and 110 000–70 000 years ago in D. presbensis. These time frames are discussed within the context of available paleogeological data for lakes Ohrid and Prespa. It is suggested that regional environmental

  2. Chromosome aberration analysis in peripheral lymphocytes of Gulf war and Balkans war veterans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) were determined in standard peripheral lymphocyte metaphase preparations of 13 British Gulf War veterans, two veterans of the recent war in the Balkans, and one veteran of both wars. All 16 volunteers suspect exposures to depleted uranium while deployed at the two different theatres of war in 1990 and later on. The Bremen laboratory control served as a reference in this study. Compared with this control there was a statistically significant increase in the frequency of dicentric chromosomes (dic) and centric ring chromosomes (cR) in the veterans' group, indicating a previous exposure to ionising radiation. The statistically significant overdispersion of dic and cR indicates non-uniform irradiation as would be expected after non-uniform exposure and/or exposure to radiation with a high linear energy transfer. The frequency of SCEs was decreased when compared with the laboratory control. (author)

  3. Study of aquatic macrophytes in the wetlands on the territory of Vrachanski Balkan nature park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valčev Vladimir V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An overall study of the species composition and abundance of macrophytes in all open water bodies of a large protected territory was made for the first time in Bulgaria. Four high-mountain eutrophic lakes and the upper stretches of three rivers within the boundaries of Vrachanski Balkan Nature Park were investigated. Thirty-nine macrophyte species (higher plants and mosses were identified scattered around, or forming more or less distinct vegetation groups. Three of the lakes are new for the country locations of the species Elatine alsinastrum and Peplis portula. The processes of eutrophication are more advanced in the lakes. The habitats formed around the investigated water bodies have been determined. They are three habitats of European Community interest for Bulgaria. The major threats for the investigated wetlands on the territory of the Park are pointed out.

  4. The genus Gymnospermium (Berberidaceae) in the Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Shuka, Lulezim; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja; Malo, Sadik; Pustahija, F.

    2011-01-01

    A revision of the genus Gymnospermium (Berberidaceae) in the Balkan Peninsula is carried out. Three species are recognised. Gymnospermium maloi is described as a new species from Mt. Picari in Gjirokastra district, southern Albania. It is compared with the closely related G. scipetarum which has a...... has been reported for other members of the genus. The nuclear DNA content (2C-value) of all three species was determined. The genome size of G. maloi is 29.44 (± 0.47) pg, for G. scipetarum (chromosome number still unknown) 29.55 (± 1.35) pg, and for G. peloponnesiacum (2n = 2x = 16) 31.93 (± 2.38) pg....... These values are the first genome size measurements for the genus. All three species are mapped and fully illustrated. A key to the European species is also presented....

  5. Globalizing the Western Balkans: Transnational Crime, Fundamental Islam and Unholy Alliances

    OpenAIRE

    Arsovska, Jana; Basha, Dimal

    2013-01-01

    Durant les deux dernières décennies, le monde s’est intégré dans un seul système économique capitaliste. Alors que les processus de mondialisation ont facilité les flux de biens et de services, ils ont aussi mené à des formes nouvelles d’exclusion, d’inégalité et de « conflit culturel ».  Cet essai offre une réflexion sur le lien entre les réseaux transnationaux du crime organisé, les mouvements islamiques radicaux et les groupes terroristes dans la région des Balkans. Il soutient l’idée selo...

  6. Range of engineering-geological properties for some carbonate rock complexes for Balkan peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Carbonate Rock masses are a geological media with extremely complex states and properties, which has a certain influences on the mechanical and hydraulic behavior during construction and exploitation of engineering structures. Practical aspects of the problem analysis arise from the fact that the areas of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and the entire Balkans is characterized by presence of wide areas covered with carbonate complexes, where large number of complex engineering structures have been, or shall be constructed in the future. In this context, their engineering-geological modeling is still a practical and scientific challenge. The analysis of engineering- geological properties is one of the main steps in forming of analytical and geotechnical models for complex rock structures. This article gives a data about the range for these properties, according to the results from an extensive investigation program. Some original correlations and testing results are given and they are compared with some published relations from the world. (Author)

  7. Mineral deposits related to tertiary magmatism in the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neogene volcanism in the southern parts of the Balkan Peninsula is distributed in wide area, mainly in the terraines of the Vardar zone and Serbo-Macedonian massif. They are, mostly volcano-intrusive complexes, partly with emphasized extrusive-effusive character manifested in area of almost 1200 km2 (Kratovo-Zletovo volcanic area, eastern Macedonia). From the geo tectonic point of view they are part of Vardar zone and Serbo-Macedonian massif, often they are located at the contact parts between these two geo tectonic units. With these volcano-intrusive magmatic complexes with Tertiary age, there are connected numerous deposits and occurrences of Pb-Zn, Cu, Mo, Au, Ag, Sb±W, Sn etc. (Original)

  8. On problems related to the deployment of depleted uranium weapons in the Balkans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The likely long-term environmental and health effects of the deployment of weapons containing depleted uranium (DU) in the Balkans are discussed. To determine whether depleted uranium or spent reactor fuel was used in the weapons, knowledge is required of the 235 U to 238 U activity (or concentration) ratio in the measured samples. To this end, and to distinguish between uranium originating from natural and man-made sources, we discuss some of the methodology and metrology issues involved in performing alpha- and gamma- spectrometry of uranium in environmental and human samples. We present results of nuclear spectrometry performed on DU core deposits from the aluminium jacket of a PGU-14 bullet found in South Serbia. We draw attention to aspects involving ionising radiation, which are likely to be of importance when formulating a prognosis of the possible environmental and health impact of the deployment of DU weapons, indicating the importance of the inhalation pathway in children. (author)

  9. The Little Ice Age and its Spatial Variability across the Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, C.; Peteet, D. M.; Boger, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Using biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical signals through X-ray fluorescence, and AMS 14C based chronology, we present a correlation between two new high resolution Little Ice Age (LIA) records from the Central Balkans that are part of one of the least studied regions of Europe. The sediments extracted from a western sinkhole and central Serbian oxbow lake are analyzed at 8-10-cm intervals to capture the nature and magnitude of the LIA at a resolution of 20 years. During the 15th-19th CE, indigenous tree (e.g. Quercus, Acer, Pinus) and herbaceous (e.g. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Artemisia) pollen from these records demonstrate fluctuations in woodland-grassland dynamics. While tree populations from Central Serbia remain comparatively stable (40-60%), the trees of western Serbia vacillate drastically between 15% and 50%. Similarly, central Serbian grasses show variations of ~18-36% whereas the western Serbian grass populations exhibit abrupt oscillations between high (55%) and low (19%) percentages. As a proxy for surface erosion and clastic input into the lakes, the 1-cm resolution potassium and titanium counts are in strong agreement with varying herbaceous taxa. These variations in ecological signals across the cores can account for local factors including altitude, terrain exposure, soils etc., however, the dynamic human component of the landscape is evident through crop pollen (e.g. Cerealia, Juglans) and microscopic charcoal highlighting the dominant role of people in ecological changes. Although the two sites show certain differences in charcoal concentration, extremely high charcoal indicates accelerated land clearance between the 15th and 17th CE. Until the beginning of 18th CE, the cultivars (e.g. Secale, Triticum) occur with very low percentages and then peak to suggest improved agriculture in the region. In the post-LIA era, the 20th CE exhibits increased arboreal percentages and declining grasslands in both the two Central

  10. Greek Death-Cult, Modern and Ancient: A Comparison of a Mediterranean and Balkan Cultural Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J. Håland

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The article examines emotion and identity in connection with Greek death-cult in an attempt to clarify certain contemporary political phenomena in the Mediterranean and Balkan area. The cult of the dead is a common cultural pattern in the area. Why is this cult so persistent? What is death-cult and how does it manifest itself? The article delves into its lasting importance in the Greek part of the cultural area, where the author has conducted several fieldworks. To illustrate the persistence of this cultural pattern, the characteristic aspects connected with death-cult in Greek tradition are discussed: The comparison is based on festivals, which are dedicated to deceased persons and domestic death-rituals combined with ancient sources. Based on them an analytical survey of the relationship between the death-cult dedicated to deceased mediators in ancient and modern society, as it is manifested through laments, burials and the following memorial rituals is made. The modern domestic rituals people perform for their own dead influence the official ideological rituals, and vice versa, the domestic rituals reflect public performances. A study of modern cult practices reveals many parallels with the official cult of the ancients, and suggests ways in which modern rituals can throw new light upon the ancient rituals and vice versa. The article seeks to demonstrate how new ideologies must adjust to older rituals and beliefs and how public and domestic rituals are connected. The article finally suggests how these similarities might represent a common way of expression within a larger context in which the Mediterranean and Balkan cultural meaning of emotion is central.

  11. Improvement in kidney transplantation in the Balkans after the Istanbul Declaration: where do we stand today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasovski, Goce; Busic, Mirela; Delmonico, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Due to the limited access to kidney transplantation (KTx) in developing countries, desperate patients have engaged in the purchase and sale of kidneys. In 2004, the World Health Assembly urged member states to protect the poor and vulnerable from being exploited through practices of illegal organ trafficking that had become widespread throughout the world. In 2008, the international transplant community convened a summit of transplant professionals, legal experts and ethicists to combat organ trafficking, transplant tourism and transplant commercialism that resulted in the Declaration of Istanbul (DOI). The South-Eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN) represents a nine country multigovernmental collaboration on health systems. The Regional Health Development Centre on Organ Donation and Transplant Medicine (RHDC) was established in 2011 in Croatia to facilitate cooperation among south-eastern European countries to improve organ transplantation within the Balkan region. Since 2011, a collaboration between the RHDC, the Custodian Group of the DOI (DICG) and SEEHN professionals has enhanced strategic planning and definition of country-specific action plan priorities on organ donation and transplantation. Data of kidney transplantation provided in this report show a significant increase in transplantation activities in a 4-year period in Macedonia, Moldova, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Romania and Montenegro. The success of the donation and transplantation programmes was influenced by the engagement of key professionals and the establishment of organizational infrastructure with the implementation of an appropriate funding model. In conclusion, the DOI has provided an ethical framework for engagement of health professionals from south-eastern European countries. The newly established SEEHN RHDC as a technical coordinating body greatly contributed in building institutional capacity and strengthening regional collaboration between health authorities and professionals within

  12. Tracing lexical borrowings in the Balkans Albanian loan-words in the Serbian speech of Prizren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Snežana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past centuries the city of Prizren has persisted as a unique multiethnic and multicultural environment atypical even for the Balkans, well-known for its ethnic, linguistic, cultural and religious diversity. Various nations used to live and pass through Prizren in the course of more than six centuries – the Serbs Turks, Albanians, Aromanians, Greeks and others – leaving their specific marks, visible on the city itself as well as the life and the mentality of its inhabitants. One of the most vivid testimonies to this long-term coexistence can be seen in vernaculars of the local population. This paper presents some Albanian loan-words from the Serbian speech of Prizren hitherto not registered (or not recognised as such in the respective etymological dictionaries and linguistic studies. The aim of this work is to offer their etymological analysis, through an investigation of the ways and mechanisms of lexical borrowing in the limited area of this town and to observe this phenomenon in a broader Balkan perspective. Analyzed are the following words: bajmak m., adj. indecl. "with bow legs (of man or horse", cub adj. indecl. "short; short-tailed", cub m., adj. indecl. "robber, outlaw", ćul adj. indecl. "soaking wet", điza f. "kind of crumbly cheese", glistra f. "worm", korse, korsem, krsem adv. "perhaps, as if", kulme n., kuljma f. "top of the roof", ljajka f. "lie", ljaper m. "idler", ljočka f. "darling, sweetheart", ljum adj. indecl. "dear", ljunga f. "boil; swelling", putarka f. "salted and dried caviar", ravš adv. "flat", roktar m. "servant, attendant", škret adj. "lonely, deserted, empty", škrum adj. indecl. "dry as ashes".

  13. Improvement in kidney transplantation in the Balkans after the Istanbul Declaration: where do we stand today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasovski, Goce; Busic, Mirela; Delmonico, Francis

    2016-02-01

    Due to the limited access to kidney transplantation (KTx) in developing countries, desperate patients have engaged in the purchase and sale of kidneys. In 2004, the World Health Assembly urged member states to protect the poor and vulnerable from being exploited through practices of illegal organ trafficking that had become widespread throughout the world. In 2008, the international transplant community convened a summit of transplant professionals, legal experts and ethicists to combat organ trafficking, transplant tourism and transplant commercialism that resulted in the Declaration of Istanbul (DOI). The South-Eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN) represents a nine country multigovernmental collaboration on health systems. The Regional Health Development Centre on Organ Donation and Transplant Medicine (RHDC) was established in 2011 in Croatia to facilitate cooperation among south-eastern European countries to improve organ transplantation within the Balkan region. Since 2011, a collaboration between the RHDC, the Custodian Group of the DOI (DICG) and SEEHN professionals has enhanced strategic planning and definition of country-specific action plan priorities on organ donation and transplantation. Data of kidney transplantation provided in this report show a significant increase in transplantation activities in a 4-year period in Macedonia, Moldova, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Romania and Montenegro. The success of the donation and transplantation programmes was influenced by the engagement of key professionals and the establishment of organizational infrastructure with the implementation of an appropriate funding model. In conclusion, the DOI has provided an ethical framework for engagement of health professionals from south-eastern European countries. The newly established SEEHN RHDC as a technical coordinating body greatly contributed in building institutional capacity and strengthening regional collaboration between health authorities and professionals within

  14. On the short time prediction of earthquakes in the Balkan- Black Sea region based on geomagnetic field measurements and tide gravitational potential behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Mavrodiev, S C

    2002-01-01

    The paper is a first attempt for statistical estimation of method for a short time prediction of incoming earthquake in the Balkan and Black Sea region from January to June, 2002. The essence of the discovery is that the geomagnetic local "quake" is a precursor of future earthquake, which time is determined by the tide gravitational potential behavior. A Balkan Black Sea region Earthquake's "When, where" Prediction Network is proposed.

  15. Notes on autumn-winter stomach contents of the Stone Marten (Martes foina in the Balkan Mountains, Central Bulgaria

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    Masumi Hisano

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied autumn-winter food (November-February, 1997-2003 of the Stone Marten in the Balkan Mountains, Central Bulgaria. A total of 26 stomachs (18 of males and eight of females were examined, of which contents was expressed as the number of occurrence and relative frequency of occurrence. The result clearly showed that rodents are primary prey for the Stone Marten. Birds and insects were the following categories consumed. The edible dormouse was detected as a prey for the first time in Bulgaria. Besides, wild ungulates and domestic animals were occasionally scavenged, while neither fruits nor artificial materials were detected in the marten stomachs. Thus, our study showed that the Stone Marten in the Balkan Mountains tended to be more carnivorous in winter.

  16. The Importance of the geographical position of Kosovo in increasing the Trade, Transit and International Transport in the Balkans

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    Ramadan Mazrekaj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effect of the main highways in Kosovo (Roads 6 and 7 in the development of trade and transport of goods. In this sense, another objective of this paper is the effect of the Kosovo highways (Kosovo Roads 6 and 7 in developing the Albanian Sea Ports (Port of Durres, Vlora and Shengjin. Many Balkan countries are working in the improvement of roads and rail capacity in order to develop multimodal transport, aiming always at strengthening a dominant position in the Balkans, to serve as a connection bridge for the transportation of goods between Asia and Europe. Parts of this paper are also the movement of goods, trade exchange between Kosovo and other European countries, and a short analysis of the Trans CAD software program consisting of calculations of the quantity of goods that can be traded in Kosovo or through its territory (transit.

  17. Tendances et différences démographiques dans les Balkans

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    Parant, Alain

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Balkans, which had long been characterized by higher fertility and earlier mortality than the more western and northern parts of the European continent, have become demographically modern. They are not for that reason any less diverse. This is witnessed, for example, by the gap that separates Bulgaria, which has long made the demographic transition, and Albania, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, or Kosovo, where the natural population growth exceeds by far the migratory deficit. It is also witnessed by the very large spectrum of degrees of aging. Political and economic changes in the Balkans, the crises that accompanied them, the doubts that they have caused concerning the collective future, have reinforced the general tendencies toward delayed marriage and fertility, as well as toward reduced marriage and fertility rates. This has de facto consolidated the tendency toward demographic aging. Migrations, especially the migrations directly or indirectly related to the conflicts in former Yugoslavia, have also contributed to the modification of the demographic landscape and to the altering of the dynamic of the affected populations. They have also had an effect on the ethnic distribution of these populations. In the Balkans, whose bases have been strongly shaken in the past twenty years, heavy fertility and mortality tendencies limit the spectrum of possible mid-to-long term futures. There are also important consequences on the socioeconomic plan. All this in a political context, internal and external, that is the source of many questions.

    Los Balcanes, que se caracterizaron durante mucho tiempo por una fecundidad más elevada y una mortalidad más precoz que en las partes oeste y norte del continente europeo, están a partir de ahora inscritos en la modernidad demográfica. A pesar de ello son extremadamente diversos. Así lo confirma la distancia que separa, por ejemplo, Bulgaria, tierra de transición demográfica antigua

  18. A snapshot of Western Balkan’s agriculture from the perspective of EU accession

    OpenAIRE

    Mizik, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    The Western Balkan countries can be characterised by their shared goal, which is rapid accession to the EU. Agriculture is an important element to achieving this goal. The role of agriculture differs widely among the analysed countries but is more important than the average of the EU. This study gives a comprehensive overview of the most important agricultural indicators. These indicators give a precise picture of the sector’s relevance, production structure, efficiency and international re...

  19. Natural radioactivity level in materials used for medieval vaulting in the territory of the central Balkan region

    OpenAIRE

    Bjelić Igor S.; Todorović Dragana J.; Krneta-Nikolić Jelena D.; Lazarević Đorđe R.; Stanković Koviljka Đ.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the results of an investigation undertaken to determine the level of natural radioactivity in the traditional building materials used for medieval indoor vaulted constructions in the territory of the central Balkan region. Indoor radiation exposure varies appreciably if it comes from the earth building materials, hence the presence of natural radioisotopes of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in masonry vaulted constructions was analyzed using gamma ...

  20. The transition to farming and the "revolution" of symbols in the Balkans: from ornament to entoptic and external symbolic storage:

    OpenAIRE

    Mihael Budja

    2004-01-01

    In desimplifying the logic of colonisation and transition to farming we discuss huntergatherers' and farmer's symbolic structures in the Balkans and Carpathians. Particular attention is paid to the concepts of 'revolution of symbols', 'external symbolic storage' and 'signs of all time'. Our basic premises are (1) that ceramic technology and the principles of fragmentation and accumulationwere not the exclusive domains of farmers and, (2) that the hunter-gatherers' symbolic structures and the ...

  1. Deliverable 5.2 Study report on consumer motivations and behaviours for fruits and fruit products in the Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Sijtsema, S.J.; Snoek, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    It is unclear whether fruit consumption in Western Balkan countries (WBC) meets recommended levels from a health perspective. A better understanding consumers' perception of health and motives and barriers of fruit is necessary to get insight in the fruit consumption. The aim of WP 5 is therefore to explore, analyze and understand perceptions, motivations and barriers of consumers in WBC towards fruit and fruit products and their nutritional balance. In this WP 5 the focus is on consumption o...

  2. Climate variability over the last 92 ka in SW Balkans from analysis of sediments from Lake Prespa

    OpenAIRE

    Panagiotopoulos, K.; Böhm, A.; Leng, M. J.; Wagner, B.; Schäbitz, F.

    2014-01-01

    The transboundary Lake Prespa (Albania/former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia/Greece) has been recognized as a conservation priority wetland. The high biodiversity encountered in the catchment at present points to the refugial character of this mountainous region in the southwestern Balkans. A lake sediment core retrieved from a coring location in the northern part of the lake was investigated through sedimentological, geochemical, and palynological analyses. Based on tephrochronology, radioca...

  3. Effects of different production systems on carcass and meat quality of sheep and lamb from Western Balkan and Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Bjelanović M.; Grabež V.; Vučić G.; Martinović A.; Lima L.R.; Marković B.; Egelandsdal B.

    2015-01-01

    The identification of meat quality characteristics from selected breeds grazing in specific regions is particularly relevant to achieve a marketing advantage. Longisimus thoracis at lumborum (LTL) from the indigenous Western Balkan (WB) sheep - VlašićkaPramenka (VP) sheep and lambs, and Pivska Pramenka (PP) sheep grazing in Bosnia & Herzegovina (B&H) and Montenegro (MN), respectively, was compared regarding carcass and meat qualities to the crossbred Norweg...

  4. "Initiate-build-operate-transfer"--a strategy for establishing sustainable telemedicine programs in developing countries: initial lessons from the balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Rifat; Merrell, Ronald C; Doarn, Charles R; Hadeed, George J; Bekteshi, Flamur; Lecaj, Ismet; Boucha, Kathe; Hajdari, Fatmir; Hoxha, Astrit; Koshi, Dashurije; de Leonni Stanonik, Mateja; Berisha, Blerim; Novoberdaliu, Kadri; Imeri, Arben; Weinstein, Ronald S

    2009-12-01

    Establishing sustainable telemedicine has become a goal of many developing countries around the world. Yet, despite initiatives from a select few individuals and on occasion from various governments, often these initiatives never mature to become sustainable programs. The introduction of telemedicine and e-learning in Kosova has been a pivotal step in advancing the quality and availability of medical services in a region whose infrastructure and resources have been decimated by wars, neglect, lack of funding, and poor management. The concept and establishment of the International Virtual e-Hospital (IVeH) has significantly impacted telemedicine and e-health services in the Balkans. The success of the IVeH in Kosova has led to the development of similar programs in other Balkan countries and other developing countries in the hope of modernizing and improving their healthcare infrastructure. A comprehensive, four-pronged strategy, "Initiate-Build-Operate-Transfer" (IBOT), may be a useful approach in establishing telemedicine and e-health educational services in developing countries. The development strategy, IBOT, used by the IVeH to establish and develop telemedicine programs, was discussed. IBOT includes assessment of healthcare needs of each country, the development of a curriculum and education program, the establishment of a nationwide telemedicine network, and the integration of the telemedicine program into the healthcare infrastructure. The endpoint is the transfer of a sustainable telehealth program to the nation involved. By applying IBOT, a sustainable telemedicine program of Kosova has been established as an effective prototype for telemedicine in the Balkans. Once fully matured, the program will be transitioned to the national Ministry of Health, which ensures the sustainability and ownership of the program. Similar programs are being established in Albania, Macedonia, and other countries around the world. The IBOT model has been effective in creating

  5. The New Environment of EU Enlargement: The Impact of Economic Crisis on the Western Balkans and their EU Accession Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Ritsa Panagiotou

    2014-01-01

    This paper will explore the impact of the economic crisis on the Western Balkan countries, and how the new, unfavorable international environment is affecting their EU accession prospects. The analysis will be presented in three sections: the first part will examine the effect of the “first wave” of the global economic crisis on the economies of the region, specifically the impact on the region’s macroeconomic indicators, foreign direct investment flows, financial sectors, etc. Part two...

  6. The state of hepatitis B and C in the Mediterranean and Balkan countries: report from a summit conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzakis, A; Van Damme, P; Alcorn, K; Gore, C; Benazzouz, M; Berkane, S; Buti, M; Carballo, M; Cortes Martins, H; Deuffic-Burban, S; Dominguez, A; Donoghoe, M; Elzouki, A-N; Ben-Alaya Bouafif, N; Esmat, G; Esteban, R; Fabri, M; Fenton, K; Goldberg, D; Goulis, I; Hadjichristodoulou, C; Hadjichristodoulou, T; Hatzigeorgiou, T; Hamouda, O; Hasurdjiev, S; Hughes, S; Kautz, A; Malik, M; Manolakopoulos, S; Matičič, M; Papatheodoridis, G; Peck, R; Peterle, A; Potamitis, G; Prati, D; Roudot-Thoraval, F; Reic, T; Sharara, A; Shennak, M; Shiha, G; Shouval, D; Sočan, M; Thomas, H; Thursz, M; Tosti, M; Trépo, C; Vince, A; Vounou, E; Wiessing, L; Manns, M

    2013-08-01

    The burden of disease due to chronic viral hepatitis constitutes a global threat. In many Balkan and Mediterranean countries, the disease burden due to viral hepatitis remains largely unrecognized, including in high-risk groups and migrants, because of a lack of reliable epidemiological data, suggesting the need for better and targeted surveillance for public health gains. In many countries, the burden of chronic liver disease due to hepatitis B and C is increasing due to ageing of unvaccinated populations and migration, and a probable increase in drug injecting. Targeted vaccination strategies for hepatitis B virus (HBV) among risk groups and harm reduction interventions at adequate scale and coverage for injecting drug users are needed. Transmission of HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in healthcare settings and a higher prevalence of HBV and HCV among recipients of blood and blood products in the Balkan and North African countries highlight the need to implement and monitor universal precautions in these settings and use voluntary, nonremunerated, repeat donors. Progress in drug discovery has improved outcomes of treatment for both HBV and HCV, although access is limited by the high costs of these drugs and resources available for health care. Egypt, with the highest burden of hepatitis C in the world, provides treatment through its National Control Strategy. Addressing the burden of viral hepatitis in the Balkan and Mediterranean regions will require national commitments in the form of strategic plans, financial and human resources, normative guidance and technical support from regional agencies and research. PMID:23827008

  7. Characterization of several milk proteins in Domestic Balkan donkey breed during lactation, using lab-on-a-chip capillary electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gubić Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic Balkan donkey (Equus asinus asinus is a native donkey breed, primarily found in the northern and eastern regions of Serbia. The objective of the study was to analyze proteins of Domestic Balkan donkey milk during the lactation period (from the 45th to the 280th day by applying Lab-on-a-Chip electrophoresis. The chip-based separations were performed on the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer in combination with the Protein 80 Plus Lab Chip kit. The protein content of Domestic Balkan donkey milk during the lactation period of 280 days ranged from 1.40 % to 1.92 % and the content of αs1-casein, αs2-casein, b-casein, α-, β- lactoglobulin, lysozyme, lactoferrin and serum albumin was relatively quantified. Lysozyme (1040-2970 mg/L, α-lactalbumin 12 kDa (1990-2730 mg/L and α-lactalbumin 17.7 kDa (2240-3090 mg/L were found to be the proteins with the highest relative concentrations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46012

  8. Cryptic diversity in the Western Balkan endemic copepod: Four species in one?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previšić, Ana; Gelemanović, Andrea; Urbanič, Gorazd; Ternjej, Ivančica

    2016-07-01

    We use mitochondrial (mtCOI) and nuclear (nH3) sequence data to investigate differentiation of Eudiaptomus hadzici, a freshwater copepod endemic to the Western Balkans. E. hadzici has a disjunct distribution and morphological differences were observed at regional scale. In the current study 6 out of 7 known populations are included. We applied several species delimiting approaches, distance based methods (K2P p-distance and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery, ABGD) using the mtCOI, Bayesian phylogeny and the Bayesian method implemented in bPTP and BPP programs using the concatenated sequences of both genes. Phylogenetic and species delimitation analyses all suggest that the nominal species E. hadzici consists of four isolated, cryptic evolutionary lineages in the Western Balkans. Each of the four lineages inhabits a single lake or a group of lakes in close proximity. They exhibit major differences in secondary sexual characters, e.g. right antennule in males. Denticulation of spine on 13th segment is substantially distinct among the four lineages, having different number and shape of tooth-like protrusions. Gene flow and dispersal are restricted to very small spatial scale, but with local differences, implying that diverse historical and contemporary processes are operating at small spatial scales in E. hadzici. In order to further examine spatial and temporal diversification patterns, we constructed a dated species tree analysis using (*)BEAST. Due to lack of reliable calibration points and taxa specific evolutionary rates, two evolutionary rates were applied and the faster one (2.6% myr) seems more plausible considering the geological history of the region. The divergence of E. hadzici lineages is dated from Early Miocene onwards with geographically close lineages diverging more recently, Late Miocene to Pleistocene and Pleistocene, respectively. Overall, our findings shed light on cryptic genetic complexity of endemics in one of European biodiversity hotspots

  9. Balkan Türk Ağızlarının Tasnifleri Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme An Assessment On Classification Of Balkan Turkish Dialects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet GÜNŞEN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Balkan Turkish dialects are the dialects established in varioushistorical, geographical, social and cultural conditions by the Turks,who had been moved from Anatolian and settled in the Balkans fromthe mid 14th century.Balkan Turkish dialects, just like Anatolian dialects, have hadnumber of branches due to the fact that they belonged to differentTurkish tribes and lived within various political, social, cultural andgeographical conditions on the one hand and interacted with differentlanguages and cultures, mainly like Slavic ones, on the other.The ultimate objective of the researches on dialects, which havegained great significance nowadays, is to classify the existing dialects ina certain geography of language upon certain criteria within themselvesand even within the sub-dialects and eventually to form the atlases ofthe dialects. While the Western countries and some Turkish states havetaken great steps in this field, unfortunately it is hard to say the samefor the dialects of Turkey Turkish yet. Although the classificationproblem of the dialects of Turkey Turkish has widely been solved afterquite a long process, it is yet not possible to argue the same for BalkanTurkish dialects. The researches on Balkan Turkish dialects startedwith compilations of I. Kunos and the researches of T. Kowalski andthere have been some classification attempts later by mainly J. Németh,D. Gacanov, G. Hazai, M. Mollava and I. Dryga. However it is too earlyto claim that the last word has been spoken out on this matter yet.There are still a lot to do with Balkan Turkish dialects which are lessresearchescompared to Anatolian dialects.In this paper the researches on Balkan Turkish dialects up thepresent day is going to be introduced, the basic criteria and thecommon and differing criteria used by the researchers who made theclassification is going to be assessed and finally it is going to bediscussed whether some other criteria can be used for the mainstreamdialect

  10. First records of Dirofilaria repens in wild canids from the region of Central Balkan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirović, Duško; Penezić, Aleksandra; Pavlović, Ivan; Kulišić, Zoran; Cosić, Nada; Burazerović, Jelena; Maletić, Vladimir

    2014-12-01

    Dirofilaria repens causes an emerging zoonotic disease in Europe, particularly in its southern part, the Mediterranean region. Many reports on human dirofilariosis have been published recently, but little is known about the wildlife hosts and reservoirs of this parasite in nature. This paper presents the first records of adult D. repens specimens from free-ranging carnivores in Central Balkan countries (Serbia and Macedonia). During the period 2009-2013, a total of 145 regularly shot canids were examined for the presence of D. repens adults. In order to investigate their role as hosts and potential wild reservoirs of this zoonosis, 71 wolves (Canis lupus), 48 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 26 jackals (Canis aureus) were examined. Under the skin of two wolves (one from Serbia and one from Macedonia) and of a red fox from Serbia D. repens adults were found. In all three cases only one parasite was present. Further research on wild canids is needed, particularly on species widening their range (such as jackals) and those living near human settlements (foxes and jackals), which facilitates the transmission of the parasites to dogs and humans. PMID:25410390

  11. Price dispersion in neighboring countries in the Western Balkans - the case of the Macedonian tomato industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blazhe JORDANOV

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the degree of change in price and co- movement of prices between markets. The distinctiveness of the study is that it introduced a single product (highly perishable product price relationship analysis between a pair of spatially separated markets in the countries of the Western Balkan. This study attempts to comprehend to what extent the Macedonian domestic market is integrated into the regional markets, as well as to understand the relationship between the spatially separated regional markets. The data refer to the domestic Macedonian market and four different regional markets (Croatia, Serbia, Kosovo and Montenegro, as major importers of Macedonian fresh tomatoes. These countries were part of a common market until the 1990s and in the past period transited to a market economy. The method used is common time series analysis through unit root test, co-integration test and causality test. The study showed that the Macedonian economy, especially in terms of the tomato industry, is highly vulnerable and dependant on external markets. Future developments do not only depend upon the advances in the country, but also on developments in the export destinations. This also applies to the other concerned countries in the regions. The main finding is that a small country such as Macedonia is absorbed by developments in other countries in the region. This finding is supported by the results of the study that demonstrated a high level of co-integration between the domestic and regional markets.

  12. Western Balkans: State of Agriculture and its Opportunities on the Eve of EU Accession - II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Mizik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Western Balkan countries can be characterised by their shared goal, which is thequickest possible accession to the European Union. Agriculture is an important obstacle to achievingthis goal. The role of agriculture differs widely among the analysed countries but is more importantthan the average of the EU. This study gives a comprehensive overview of the most importantagricultural indicators related to both crop and livestock production. These indicators present aprecise picture of the sector’s relevance, production structure, efficiency and international relations.After demonstrating changes in input use, production structure, prices, terms of trade and agriculturalpolicies, the next section identifies some of the reasons for these changes. The time horizon of theanalysis goes back to the early nineties and tries to capture some transition effects. The consequencesof the Yugoslav war can be easily recognised in every country involved. However, since the end ofthe war Serbia became the leading producer and the only net exporter of agricultural goods in theregion. Nevertheless, the current situation is endangered by several issues, such as imbalancedsectoral production, fragmented production structure, relatively low yields, unfavourable exportcomposition, and poor food hygiene and quality control, which anticipate painful and hard actionsneed to be carried out.

  13. Western Balkans: State of Agriculture and its Opportunities on the Eve of EU Accession - I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Mizik

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Western Balkan countries can be characterised by their shared goal, which is thequickest possible accession to the European Union. Agriculture is an important obstacle to achievingthis goal. The role of agriculture differs widely among the analysed countries but is more importantthan the average of the EU. This study gives a comprehensive overview of the most importantagricultural indicators related to both crop and livestock production. These indicators present aprecise picture of the sector’s relevance, production structure, efficiency and international relations.After demonstrating changes in input use, production structure, prices, terms of trade and agriculturalpolicies, the next section identifies some of the reasons for these changes. The time horizon of theanalysis goes back to the early nineties and tries to capture some transition effects. The consequencesof the Yugoslav war can be easily recognised in every country involved. However, since the end ofthe war Serbia became the leading producer and the only net exporter of agricultural goods in theregion. Nevertheless, the current situation is endangered by several issues, such as imbalancedsectoral production, fragmented production structure, relatively low yields, unfavourable exportcomposition, and poor food hygiene and quality control, which anticipate painful and hard actionsneed to be carried out.

  14. Endemic Balkan parsnip Pastinaca hirsuta: the chemical profile of essential oils, headspace volatiles and extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Snežana Č; Jovanović, Olga P; Petrović, Goran M; Stojanović, Gordana S

    2015-04-01

    The present study for the first time reports the chemical composition of the endemic Balkan parsnip Pastinaca hirsuta Pančić essential oil and headspace (HS) volatiles, obtained from fresh roots, stems, flowers and fruits, as well as fresh fruits n-hexane and diethyl ether extracts. According to GC-MS and GC-FID analyses, β-Pinene was one of the major components of the root and stem HS volatiles (50.6-24.1%). (E)-β-Ocimene was found in a significant percentage in the stem and flowers HS volatiles (31.6-57.3%). The most abundant constituent of the fruit HS, flower and fruit essential oils and both extracts was hexyl butanoate (70.5%, 31.1%, 80.4%, 47.4% and 52.7%, respectively). Apiole, accompanied by myristicin and (Z)-falcarinol, make up over 70% of the root essential oils. γ-Palmitolactone was the major component of the stem essential oils (51.9% at the flowering stage and 45.7% at the fruiting stage). Beside esters as dominant compounds, furanocoumarins were also identified in extracts. (Dis)similarity relations of examined plant samples were also investigated by the agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis. The obtained results show there is difference in the composition of volatile components from different plant organs, while the stage of growth mainly affects the quantitative volatiles composition. PMID:25973504

  15. The Alburnus benthopelagic fish species of the Western Balkan Peninsula: An assessment of their sustainable use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simić, Vladica; Simić, Snežana; Paunović, Momir; Radojković, Nataša; Petrović, Ana; Talevski, Trajče; Milošević, Djuradj

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to assess the population status of bleak (Alburnus spp.) over the Western Balkan Peninsula in terms of its sustainable use. A second objective was to determine key factors important for fishery management planning. Two different basins, continental (the Danube Basin and the Sava River sub-basin) and marine (the Adriatic and the Aegean Sea Basins) were examined. A sustainability assessment and factor analysis were conducted using the adjusted ESHIPPOfishing model, extended with additional socio-economic sub-elements, and the categorical principal components analysis (CATPCA), respectively. The results of the assessment revealed the bleak populations in the Danube Basin and the Sava River sub-basin to be highly sustainable. The population characteristics with abiotic and biotic factors were responsible for this status, while the influence of socio-economic factors was insignificant. The sustainability status of the bleak populations of the Mediterranean basin varied, with the populations from Ohrid and Skadar Lakes showing a high and those from Prespa and Dojran Lakes a medium status. Socio-economic factors with traditional fishing were the most important for the Mediterranean bleak populations. PMID:26216478

  16. Environmental changes on the Balkans recorded in the sediments from lakes Prespa and Ohrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, B.; Vogel, H.; Zanchetta, G.; Sulpizio, R.

    2010-05-01

    Lakes Prespa and Ohrid on the Balkans are considered to be amongst the oldest lakes in Europe. Both lakes are hydraulically connected via karst aquifers. From Lake Ohrid, several up to ca. 15 m long sediment records were studied during the past years. In this study, a first long sediment record from Lake Prespa was studied in order to shed more light on the influence of Lake Prespa on Lake Ohrid and the environmental history of the region. Radiocarbon dating and the occurrence of 3 dated tephra layers provide a good age control and indicate that the 10.5 m long sediment record reaches back to 48 ka. The comparison of the results from this study with those from former studies of the Lake Ohrid cores indicates that Lake Prespa is more susceptible to environmental changes due to its lower volume and water depth. Glacial sedimentation is characterized by low organic matter contents and absence of carbonates in the sediments, which indicate oligotrophic conditions in both lakes. Holocene sedimentation is characterized by particularly high carbonate contents in Lake Ohrid and by particularly high organic matter contents in Lake Prespa, which indicate a shift towards more mesotrophic conditions in the latter. Long-term environmental changes and short-term events, such as the Heinrich events during the Pleistocene or the 8.2 cooling event during the Holocene, are well recorded in both lakes, but partly expressed in different proxies.

  17. Environmental changes on the Balkans recorded in the sediments from lakes Prespa and Ohrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wagner

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Lakes Prespa and Ohrid on the Balkans are considered to be amongst the oldest lakes in Europe. Both lakes are hydraulically connected via karst aquifers. From Lake Ohrid, several up to ca. 15 m long sediment records were studied during the past years. In this study, a first long sediment record from Lake Prespa was studied in order to shed more light on the influence of Lake Prespa on Lake Ohrid and the environmental history of the region. Radiocarbon dating and the occurrence of 3 dated tephra layers provide a good age control and indicate that the 10.5 m long sediment record reaches back to 48 ka. The comparison of the results from this study with those from former studies of the Lake Ohrid cores indicates that Lake Prespa is more susceptible to environmental changes due to its lower volume and water depth. Glacial sedimentation is characterized by low organic matter contents and absence of carbonates in the sediments, which indicate oligotrophic conditions in both lakes. Holocene sedimentation is characterized by particularly high carbonate contents in Lake Ohrid and by particularly high organic matter contents in Lake Prespa, which indicate a shift towards more mesotrophic conditions in the latter. Long-term environmental changes and short-term events, such as the Heinrich events during the Pleistocene or the 8.2 cooling event during the Holocene, are well recorded in both lakes, but partly expressed in different proxies.

  18. Molecular detection and prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in horses of central Balkan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davitkov, Darko; Vucicevic, Milos; Stevanovic, Jevrosima; Krstic, Vanja; Slijepcevic, Dajana; Glavinic, Uros; Stanimirovic, Zoran

    2016-06-01

    Equine piroplasmosis is significant tick-borne disease with wide distribution. The prevalence of equine piroplasmosis in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina is unknown. In aim to obtain a first insight into the prevalence we performed molecular epidemiological study which included 142 horses, on seven locations in these three countries. We first performed PCR for the detection of a 450bp long section of the 18S rRNA of piroplasma-specific region. For all positive samples we have done multiplex PCR for the species detection. Species determination was further confirmed by sequencing PCR products of 10 randomly selected Theileria equi and all Babesia caballi samples. The overall prevalence rates in analysed region for T. equi and B. caballi were 22.5% and 2.1%, respectively. Possible risk factors (such as location, age, sex and activity) associated with PCR positivity were evaluated. Marked differences were found in prevalence between geographic areas. There was no significant association between positivity and age group. T. equi was more prevalent in females and farming horses. This is the first report on the molecular survey of T. equi and B. caballi in central Balkan. Further prevalence studies on definitive host and vectors in this region are necessary. PMID:27078657

  19. Do GCI indicators predict SME creation? A Western Balkans cross-country comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fëllënza Lushaku

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In early stages SMEs were seen as insignificant supplement to large business supply, whereas today they have a very important social and economic role, because of their contribution to job creation. These contributions are very valuable in times of crises and rising unemployment. In Kosovo and the Western Balkan countries, including countries such as Albania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, the development of SMEs can contribute in facing many challenges, effects of inequality, high level of unemployment and demographic challenges. In addition, SME development can contribute to strengthening the competitiveness and productivity, while also promoting the growth of income per capita. Besides the positive perception the creation of small and medium enterprises has, it is also indispensable to consider their extinction rate, being the most affected category of businesses, especially in the initial stages. It is proved that the net SME creation and cross-country differences in the relationship between new businesses and extinct businesses, can serve as a recommendation for policy makers in order to create a favorable climate for small and medium enterprises. GCI indicators that measures global competitiveness are used to determine if the climate of competitiveness predicts the development of SMEs.

  20. Economic development in the European super-periphery: Evidence from the Western Balkans

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    Bartlett Will

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the conflicts that afflicted the Western Balkan region in the 1990s pushed the countries into the European 'super-periphery', characterized by deindustrialization and high unemployment, ethnic and regional fragmentation, political turmoil, and instability. Integration into international trade has been disrupted, leading to chronic balance of payments deficits. Low inflows of international capital, due to high country risk, have hindered technological catch-up and weakened international competitiveness. An unattractive environment for productive entrepreneurship has created barriers to the entry of SMEs, and at the same time large informal economies. Several countries have become labour-export economies, with significant outflows of skilled labour. Economic development follows a low-skill growth path. The current global economic crisis is having a further deleterious effect as export revenues, foreign direct investment, and labour remittances all diminish. Furthermore, as transition has proceeded, disparities between capital cities and rural areas have increased, while weak administrative capacities have hindered the implementation of effective local development policies to counteract these effects. Endogenous local development cannot provide an alternative to greater engagement with the global economy. The conclusion is that the countries of the region have been left out of the most beneficial elements of the globalisation process, while simultaneously suffering from its main defects. Without a faster process of accession to the EU, local disparities are likely to widen, and the region may remain within the European super-periphery for the foreseeable future.

  1. Fifty years of research in Balkan endemic nephropathy: where are we now?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanovic, V.; Polenakovic, M. [Faculty of Medicine, Nish (Serbia)

    2009-07-01

    Despite broad investigations into the possible role of genetic factors, environmental agents and immune mechanisms, the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is only partially understood. An increased incidence of upper urothelial cancer in patients with BEN and in populations from endemic settlements has been demonstrated. Genetic studies have landed support for genetic predisposition to BEN. The similarity of the morphological and clinical pattern of BEN and Chinese herbs nephropathy has raised the possibility of a common etiologic agent, aristolochic acid (AA), described in 1969 by Ivic and confirmed by a recent study of AA-DNA adducts. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is studied extensively as the etiologic agent of BEN. Weathering of low-rank coals nearby the endemic villages produces water-soluble polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aromatic amines, similar to metabolic products of acetaminophen, which has a causal relationship with analgesic nephropathy. AA is confirmed as the etiologic agent of BEN; however, it may not be the sole risk factor. More research is needed on the patterns of BEN over time and between different endemic places. Therefore, it is important to test etiological hypotheses in different endemic foci, preferably as a multicentric research. An international approach to solving the etiology of BEN is needed in the coming years. The geographic correlation and presence of AA-DNA adducts in both BEN and associated urothelial cancer support the hypothesis that these diseases share a common etiology.

  2. Structural Changes and Convergence in EU and in Adriatic-Balkans Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian-Liviu ALBU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Coming from standard economic growth theory and empirical evidences, we concentrated on the convergence process as a result of structural changes in economy. We investigate the differences among countries in EU in terms of the share in total economy of main sectors. Then, based on the spatial (empirical distribution of such shares in EU we are proposing a model to estimate a typology of the convergence process in the European area. Taking into account the existing differences among sectors in matter of productivity, there are two versions of the model: considering the share of sectors in total employment and the share of sectors in GDP, respectively. Moreover, we developed several modelling schemes that could be useful to improve the strategies oriented to achieve a real convergence in EU and further in the Adriatic-Balkans Region. In this way, we can obtain simulations from a country or group of countries (European Union, for example on long term and quantifying the impact of structural changes on the convergence process. Indeed, the actual global crisis seems to influence negatively the convergence process in the EU. As a rule, just newly adhered countries have been more affected by the actual crisis. Today all forecasts are suffering from uncertainty. Thus, further efforts must be allocated to evaluate the negative impact of actual crisis on the convergence process.

  3. Mass distributions and morphological and chemical characterization of urban aerosols in the continental Balkan area (Belgrade).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đorđević, D; Buha, J; Stortini, A M; Mihajlidi-Zelić, A; Relić, D; Barbante, C; Gambaro, A

    2016-01-01

    This work presents characteristics of atmospheric aerosols of urban central Balkans area, using a size-segregated aerosol sampling method, calculation of mass distributions, SEM/EDX characterization, and ICP/MS analysis. Three types of mass distributions were observed: distribution with a pronounced domination of coarse mode, bimodal distribution, and distribution with minimum at 1 μm describing the urban aerosol. SEM/EDX analyses have shown morphological difference and variation in the content of elements in samples. EDX spectra demonstrate that particles generally contain the following elements: Al, Ca, K, Fe, Mg, Ni, K, Si, S. Additionally, the presence of As, Br, Sn, and Zn found in air masses from southeast segment points out the anthropogenic activities most probably from mining activities in southeastern part of Serbia. The ratio Al/Si equivalent to the ratio of desert dust was associated with air masses coming from southeastern and southwestern segments, pointing to influences from North Africa and Middle East desert areas whereas the Al/Si ratio in other samples is significantly lower. In several samples, we found high values of aluminum in the nucleation mode. Samples with low share of crustal elements in the coarse mode are collected when Mediterranean air masses prevailed, while high share in the coarse mode was associated with continental air masses that could be one of the approaches for identification of the aerosol origin. Graphical abstract ᅟ. PMID:26347417

  4. Foreign direct investment in the western Balkans: Privatization, institutional change, and banking sector dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botrić Valerija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides analysis of foreign direct investment (FDI dynamics and its determinants for the group of countries lately referred to as Western Balkans (non- EU ex-Yugoslavia countries plus Albania. Due to vulnerable external positions and enhanced funding requirements related to the EU accession and catching-up, FDI is often highly welcomed by government officials in the South East European (SEE countries. The notion that FDI is frequently accompanied by knowledge and know-how transfer makes this source of capital growth even more desirable than simple capital accumulation from frequently inadequate domestic savings. The analysis of the FDI determinants on the overall economy level conducted within the panel data framework aims to provide the answer whether the same factors as in Central and Eastern European countries, now new EU member states, are relevant for the sampled countries. Due to data limitations and the frequent emergence of new countries in the region, the analysis does not extend to the early transition period. Since it entails the beginning of the financial crisis, the comparison of the results obtained with those of previous studies will enable the discussion of internal versus external factors of FDI attraction in the region.

  5. Potential impacts of climate change on flow regime and fish habitat in mountain rivers of the south-western Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, Christina; Soulis, Konstantinos; Muñoz-Mas, Rafael; Martinez-Capel, Francisco; Zogaris, Stamatis; Ntoanidis, Lazaros; Dimitriou, Elias

    2016-01-01

    The climate change in the Mediterranean area is expected to have significant impacts on the aquatic ecosystems and particular in the mountain rivers and streams that often host important species such as the Salmo farioides, Karaman 1938. These impacts will most possibly affect the habitat availability for various aquatic species resulting to an essential alteration of the water requirements, either for dams or other water abstractions, in order to maintain the essential levels of ecological flow for the rivers. The main scope of this study was to assess potential climate change impacts on the hydrological patterns and typical biota for a south-western Balkan mountain river, the Acheloos. The altered flow regimes under different emission scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) were estimated using a hydrological model and based on regional climate simulations over the study area. The Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) methodology was then used to assess the potential streamflow alterations in the studied river due to predicted climate change conditions. A fish habitat simulation method integrating univariate habitat suitability curves and hydraulic modeling techniques were used to assess the impacts on the relationships between the aquatic biota and hydrological status utilizing a sentinel species, the West Balkan trout. The most prominent effects of the climate change scenarios depict severe flow reductions that are likely to occur especially during the summer flows, changing the duration and depressing the magnitude of the natural low flow conditions. Weighted Usable Area-flow curves indicated the limitation of suitable habitat for the native trout. Finally, this preliminary application highlighted the potential of science-based hydrological and habitat simulation approaches that are relevant to both biological quality elements (fish) and current EU Water policy to serve as efficient tools for the estimation of possible climate

  6. Oncology monoclonal antibodies expenditure trends and reimbursement projections in the emerging Balkan market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlo B Jakovljevic

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies applied in clinical oncology present a therapeutic promise for many patients with cancer. Nevertheless these expensive protocols are associated with extremely high acquisition and administration costs. The issue of societal affordability of such treatment options is particularly at stake among middle income European economies. Medicines Agency of Serbia issues regular annual reports on public expenditure on pharmaceuticals since 2004. According to these official data total public expenditure on drugs doubled from 2004-2012 (from € 339,279,304 to € 742,013,976. During the same nine years public expenditure on antineoplastic pharmaceuticals was rising at much faster pace, approximately five times from € 10,297,616 in 2004 to € 51,223,474 in 2012. Absolutely record growth belongs to the value of turnover of monoclonal antibodies indicated in diverse malignancies. These costs became almost twenty times higher in 2012 compared to 2004 (€ 19,687,454 towards € 1,033,313 in the past. National pharmaceutical expenditure trend projections in this country show strong recovery in 2012 after severe blow to the overall health care market imposed by the worldwide crisis. Universal health insurance coverage and sustainable health care financing provision will remain difficult issues for Balkan economies in years to come. Although monoclonal antibodies exhibit undisputed therapeutic efficiency in certain malignant disorders, cost-effectiveness estimates must be taken into consideration by policy makers deciding on reimbursement.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/fe.v15i1.909

  7. Concentration and characteristics of uranium isotopes in water collected in central Italy and Balkan regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Uranium is a naturally occurring, ubiquitous heavy metal found in the environment in various chemical forms in all soils, rocks, seas and oceans. It is also present in air, food and drinking water. Due to its widespread existence in nature, uranium isotopes (238U, 234U and 235U) have become one of the most important source of natural radioactivity and make a significant contribution to external and internal dose to population. Uranium isotopes enter the human body mainly through ingestion, and by inhalation to a considerably smaller degree. Hence the internal radiation exposure for members of the public can be evaluated through the intake of the radionuclides from both food and water. Pietrzak-Flis et al., have investigated the uranium intake fractions of the different pathways, and concluded that the uranium intake from water by man is the most important pathway which contributes the largest fraction (75.1%-76.9%) of uranium intake. For the purpose of estimating the radiological impact of uranium isotopes in water to the residents, some natural water samples were collected in central Italy and Balkan Regions and analysed in the laboratory of Italian Environmental Protection Agency and Technical Services (APAT). The activity concentrations of 238U, 234U and 235U were obtained. The radioanalytical procedure used for determination of uranium isotopes in water mainly includes steps of uranium pre-concentration, mineralization, separation by a Microthene- TOPO column, electrodeposition and measurement by alpha-spectrometry. Based on the obtained activity concentrations of uranium isotopes in drinking water, annual consumption rate of the water, and the dose conversion factor per unit intake given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, the annual effective dose resulting from 1-year ingestion for the adult population was calculated. (author)

  8. Morphological variability of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl in the north-western Balkans

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    Kristjan Jarni

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl is a species native in the north-western Balkans, where it has a divided range. Most of its range is located in flood-prone riparian sites in the Pannonian plain but the species is also found on humid sites along some rivers in the Submediterranean region. We analysed morphologic variation within and between five populations (14 trees/population located in the Subpannonian and Submediterranean region of Slovenia. Thirty two characters were assessed on ca. 80 leaves from each tree which were divided depending on exposure to sunlight (sun and shade leaves, and 8 traits on each fruit (ca. 50 fruits/tree. A hierarchically designed experiment using analysis of variance confirmed the significant contribution of all the analysed hierarchical levels of variation to the total variation. The results show that the differences between the trees in a single population are the greatest factor of variability of leaves, followed by differences between populations and differences which are the result of variation in exposure to sunlight. Leaves in shade positions are typically larger than those in sunny positions, and they have broader and shorter-pointed leaflets; in this feature they are very similar to the leaves of F. excelsior. Stepwise discriminant analysis showed that the traits which refer to the leaflet number and length are the best differentiating traits between individual populations. The Submediterranean population Dragonja stands out with the smallest leaves and the population Lijak from the same region is the most similar to Dragonja for most morphological traits. In general, phenotypic differences between the Subpannonian and the Submediterranean populations of F. angustifolia are minor and indistinct. Based on the differences ascertained by the study, we can only confirm the presence of F. angustifolia subsp. oxycarpa (Bieb. ex Willd. Franco et Rocha Alfonso in this part of its natural range.

  9. Balkanized Research in Ecological Engineering Revealed by a Bibliometric Analysis of Earthworms and Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Manuel; Sery, Nicolas; Cluzeau, Daniel; Brun, Jean-Jacques; Bédécarrats, Alain

    2013-08-01

    Energy crisis, climate changes, and biodiversity losses have reinforced the drive for more ecologically-based approaches for environmental management. Such approaches are characterized by the use of organisms rather than energy-consuming technologies. Although earthworms are believed to be potentially useful organisms for managing ecosystem services, there is actually no quantification of such a trend in literature. This bibliometric analysis aimed to measure the evolution of the association of "earthworms" and other terms such as ecosystem services (primary production, nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, soil structure, and pollution remediation), "ecological engineering" or "biodiversity," to assess their convergence or divergence through time. In this aim, we calculated the similarity index, an indicator of the paradigmatic proximity defined in applied epistemology, for each year between 1900 and 2009. We documented the scientific fields and the geographical origins of the studies, as well as the land uses, and compare these characteristics with a 25 years old review on earthworm management. The association of earthworm related keywords with ecosystem services related keywords was increasing with time, reflecting the growing interest in earthworm use in biodiversity and ecosystem services management. Conversely, no significant increase in the association between earthworms and disciplines such as ecological engineering or restoration ecology was observed. This demonstrated that general ecologically-based approaches have yet to emerge and that there is little exchange of knowledge, methods or concepts among balkanized application realms. Nevertheless, there is a strong need for crossing the frontiers between fields of application and for developing an umbrella discipline to provide a framework for the use of organisms to manage ecosystem services.

  10. Genetic Diversity and Conservation of the Prespa Trout in the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Berrebi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Balkans are known to have a high level of biodiversity and endemism. No less than 15 taxa have been recorded in salmonids of the Salmo genus. Among them, the Prespa trout is found in only four river systems flowing into Lake Macro Prespa, three in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and one in Greece. This is the first comprehensive survey of all streams located within the Macro Prespa Basin, encompassing the whole taxon range. A large genetic sample of 536 Prespa trout was collected mainly between 2005 and 2007. The sampling included 59 individuals from the Golema river system, 93 from the Kranska, 260 from the Brajcinska, 119 from the Agios Germanos, and five individuals from the lake itself. These specimens were analyzed with six microsatellite markers and by sequencing the mitochondrial control region. Nuclear data were examined through multidimensional analysis and assignment tests. Five clusters were detected by assignment: Golema, Kranska, Brajcinska upstream, Rzanska Brajcinska tributary and Brajcinska downstream. Most of these river systems thus hosted differentiated Prespa trout populations (with past gene flows likely dating before the construction of dams, except Agios Germanos, which was found to be composed of 5% to 32% of each cluster. Among the five trout individuals from the lake, four originated from Kranska River and one was admixed. Supported parsimonious hypotheses are proposed to explain these specificities. Conservation of this endemic taxon should take these results into account. No translocation should be performed between different tributaries of the lake and preservation of the Brajcinska populations should address the upstream-downstream differentiation described.

  11. Comparison of the protein and fatty acid fraction of Balkan donkey and human milk

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    Jasmina Gubić

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the protein and fatty acid fractions of Balkan donkey and human milk in the early lactation stage (40 and 90 day. This study revealed that donkey milk contains αs1-casein (1.38-1.89 g/L and higher concentration of β-casein (0.1-0.55 g/L in comparison to human milk. The concentration of α-lactalbumin increased during the lactation phases from 40 to 90 days in both types of milk. Donkey milk contained β-lactoglobulin in low concentrations which decreased to 90th day of lactation. Donkey milk was particularly rich in two whey proteins, lactoferrin and lysozyme, which were found to have molecular weight of approximately 76 kDa and 14.9-15.4 kDa, respectively. The content of lysozyme in donkey milk ranged from 2.39 to 2.97 g/L, while human milk contained 30-50 times lower concentrations of lysozyme in comparison to donkey milk. Thus, donkey milk contained also a higher concentration of lactoferrin (0.012-0.25 g/L than it was found in the human milk. Lysozyme and lactoferrin content in donkey milk increased during the period from 40th to 90th day of lactation. The percentage of total SFA, MUFA and PUFA was similar in donkey and human milk. The content of essential fatty acids increased during 40-90 days of lactation and was approximately 2.5 times higher in comparison to human milk.

  12. A new earthquake catalogue for Bulgaria and the conterminous Balkan high hazard region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Bayliss

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A new homogenous earthquake catalogue covering Bulgaria and the surrounding Balkan area has been created with intention of performing a consistent seismic hazard assessment across the region. In keeping with modern requirements of cataloguing seismicity, this catalogue has been made homogenous as far as possible with regards to magnitude, which has been provided on any of four different reported scales for each event; mb, Ms, Mw and ML. A key historical catalogue for the region has been used to represent the early instrumental period of earthquake recording (1900 to 1963, whilst data have been obtained from the International Seismological Centre (ISC, National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC and National Observatory of Athens (NOA to cover the instrumental period of earthquake recording (1964 to 2004. ISC data have also been used to develop a new mb→Ms magnitude conversion equation for the catalogued region. Application of this new magnitude conversion relation, in combination with other selected magnitude scale correlations, ensures reported magnitudes can be systematically rendered onto homogenized Ms and Mw scales for all earthquakes. This catalogue contains 3681 events with homogenized magnitudes ≥4.0 Mw, for the time interval 1900 to 2004 (inclusive, located in the region bounded by 39°–45° N, 19°–29° E, at focal depths of 0.0 km to 401.0 km and in a magnitude range 4.0≤Mw≤7.2. Selected large magnitude (M≥6.0 Ms earthquakes have had their reported magnitudes reassessed – and adjusted if necessary – in light of work by other authors. Applied statistical approaches aimed at determining the lower threshold to magnitude completeness suggest this catalogue is complete down to a homogenized surface-wave magnitude of 4.6 Ms.

  13. Environmental impact of radioactivity in waste from the coal and aluminium industries in western Balkan countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with industrial tailings resulting from the use of coal and bauxite, assessing the impact on the population and the environment in the western Balkan countries (WBC). It considers the direct hazard resulting from the wastes on their immediate neighbourhood and the radionuclide dispersal in the environment through surface and groundwater. The selected test sites have been investigated by different methods assessing the presence and type of radionuclides in the primary and waste products, analysing and identifying the pathways for dispersion of radionuclides in the waste surroundings, and defining the impact of the waste on the ecosystem. The processes of leachability and fractionation of the various radionuclides have been studied also. The transport of radionuclides in groundwater has been studied by 3-D groundwater flow and solute transport modelling. The following parameters have been assessed: (1) gamma dose rate levels, (2) radon in soil gas, (3) radon exhalation, (4) indoor and outdoor radon, (5) radionuclide activity in soil and in waste material, (6) radionuclides in surface water and groundwater, and (7) radionuclides in biota. Several case studies highlight the transfer of the radionuclides to plants and animal consumption products. The radionuclide concentrations in the waste and in the surroundings range over three orders of magnitude. The radionuclide concentrations in groundwater surrounding the waste are low and have a lower variability than in the wastes. The radon concentrations above the tailings are increased with respect to the surroundings. The transfer factors in the soil-plant-animal system indicate low bioavailability of the radionuclides investigated. A preliminary dose assessment shows that the highest contributions to dose are from external and radon exposure. On the basis of the results obtained by using transport model simulation and considering the high Kd values and low concentration of radium, radionuclide transport in

  14. Microscale vicariance and diversification of Western Balkan caddisflies linked to karstification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, Jan; Kučinić, Mladen; Graf, Wolfram; Ibrahimi, Halil; Kerovec, Mladen

    2016-01-01

    The karst areas in the Dinaric region of the Western Balkan Peninsula are a hotspot of freshwater biodiversity. Many investigators have examined diversification of the subterranean freshwater fauna in these karst systems. However, diversification of surface-water fauna remains largely unexplored. We assessed local and regional diversification of surface-water species in karst systems and asked whether patterns of population differentiation could be explained by dispersal–diversification processes or allopatric diversification following karst-related microscale vicariance. We analyzed mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) sequence data of 4 caddisfly species (genus Drusus) in a phylogeographic framework to assess local and regional population genetic structure and Pliocene/Pleistocene history. We used BEAST software to assess the timing of intraspecific diversification of the target species. We compared climate envelopes of the study species and projected climatically suitable areas during the last glacial maximum (LGM) to assess differences in the species climatic niches and infer potential LGM refugia. The haplotype distribution of the 4 species (324 individuals from 32 populations) was characterized by strong genetic differentiation with few haplotypes shared among populations (16%) and deep divergence among populations of the 3 endemic species, even at local scales. Divergence among local populations of endemics often exceeded divergence among regional and continental clades of the widespread D. discolor. Major divergences among regional populations dated to 2.0 to 0.5 Mya. Species distribution model projections and genetic structure suggest that the endemic species persisted in situ and diversified locally throughout multiple Pleistocene climate cycles. The pattern for D. discolor was different and consistent with multiple invasions into the region. Patterns of population genetic structure and diversification were similar for the 3 regional

  15. Tectonic, magmatic, and metallogenic evolution of the Late Cretaceous arc in the Carpathian-Balkan orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallhofer, Daniela; Quadt, Albrecht von; Peytcheva, Irena; Schmid, Stefan M.; Heinrich, Christoph A.

    2015-09-01

    The Apuseni-Banat-Timok-Srednogorie Late Cretaceous magmatic arc in the Carpathian-Balkan orogen formed on the European margin during closure of the Neotethys Ocean. It was subsequently deformed into a complex orocline by continental collisions. The Cu-Au mineralized arc consists of geologically distinct segments: the Apuseni, Banat, Timok, Panagyurishte, and Eastern Srednogorie segments. New U-Pb zircon ages and geochemical whole rock data for the Banat and Apuseni segments are combined with previously published data to reconstruct the original arc geometry and better constrain its tectonic evolution. Trace element and isotopic signatures of the arc magmas indicate a subduction-enriched source in all segments and variable contamination by continental crust. The magmatic arc was active for 25 Myr (~92-67 Ma). Across-arc age trends of progressively younger ages toward the inferred paleo-trench indicate gradual steepening of the subducting slab away from the upper plate European margin. This leads to asthenospheric corner flow in the overriding plate, which is recorded by decreasing 87Sr/86Sr (0.70577 to 0.70373) and increasing 143Nd/144Nd (0.51234 to 0.51264) ratios over time in some segments. The close spatial relationship between arc magmatism, large-scale shear zones, and related strike-slip sedimentary basins in the Timok and Pangyurishte segments indicates mild transtension in these central segments of the restored arc. In contrast, the Eastern Srednogorie segment underwent strong orthogonal intraarc extension. Segmental distribution of tectonic stress may account for the concentration of rich porphyry Cu deposits in the transtensional segments, where lower crustal magma storage and fractionation favored the evolution of volatile-rich magmas.

  16. Notes on autumn-winter stomach contents of the Stone Marten (Martes foina) in the Balkan Mountains, Central Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Masumi Hisano; Evgeni Raichev; Stanislava Peeva; Dian Georgiev; Hiroshi Tsunoda; Ryuichi Masuda; Yayoi Kaneko

    2014-01-01

    We studied autumn-winter food (November-February, 1997-2003) of the Stone Marten in the Balkan Mountains, Central Bulgaria. A total of 26 stomachs (18 of males and eight of females) were examined, of which contents was expressed as the number of occurrence and relative frequency of occurrence. The result clearly showed that rodents are primary prey for the Stone Marten. Birds and insects were the following categories consumed. The edible dormouse was detected as a prey for the first time in B...

  17. Contribution to the Macrochelidae Vitzthum, 1930 fauna of the Carpathian Basin and the Balkan Peninsula (Acari: Mesostigmata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Ács

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available From different localities of the Balkan Peninsula and the Carpathian Basin altogether 19 macrochelid mite species are listed belonging to the genera Geholaspis Berlese, 1918 (three species, Glyptholaspis Filipponi et Pegazzano, 1960 (one species, Longicheles Valle, 1953 (four species, Macrholaspis Oudemans, 1931 (one species, Macrocheles Latreille, 1829 (five species, Neopodocinum Oudemans, 1902 (two species and Nothrholaspis Berlese, 1918 (three species. New country occurrences are also given for Croatia (three species, Hungary (three species, Macedonia (five species Romania (five species and Serbia (seven species.

  18. Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Briestenský, Miloš; Rowberry, Matthew David; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, P.; Vozár, J.; Šebela, S.; Petro, L.; Bella, P.; Gaal, L.; Ormukov, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 5 (2015), s. 427-438. ISSN 1335-0552 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010008; GA MŠk OC 625.10; GA ČR GA205/05/2770; GA ČR GA205/06/1828; GA ČR GA205/09/2024 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Eurasian Plate * Balkan Peninsula * active tectonics research * aseismic transient deformations * slow-slip phenomena Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.761, year: 2014 http://www.geologicacarpathica.com/browse-journal/volumes/66-5/article-780

  19. Nacionalismo e etnias em conflito nos Bálcãs The Balkans, nationalism and ethnic clashes

    OpenAIRE

    José Augusto Lindgren Alves

    2004-01-01

    O artigo resgata a história dos países balcânicos para refletir sobre o nacionalismo - uma peculiar importação da cultura política européia - e os conflitos étnicos da região, exacerbados pela reinvenção de ortodoxias religiosas desaparecidas há décadas.The article turns to the history of the Balkan, countries to think about the region's nationalism - a peculiar importation from the European political culture - and the region's ethnic conflicts, intensified by recently re-invented religious o...

  20. The Importance of the geographical position of Kosovo in increasing the Trade, Transit and International Transport in the Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadan Mazrekaj

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of the main highways in Kosovo (Roads 6 and 7) in the development of trade and transport of goods. In this sense, another objective of this paper is the effect of the Kosovo highways (Kosovo Roads 6 and 7) in developing the Albanian Sea Ports (Port of Durres, Vlora and Shengjin). Many Balkan countries are working in the improvement of roads and rail capacity in order to develop multimodal transport, aiming always at strengthening a dominant position in the Balka...

  1. Trablusgarb ve Balkan Savaşları’nın Osmanlı Devleti’nin Ticaret-i Hariciyesi Üzerindeki Etkileri The Impacts Of Tripolitanian And Balkan Wars On The Ottoman Foreign Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz ÇOLAK

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The last ten years of the Ottoman State witnessed successivewars. These ten years began with the Tripolitanian War, which was aTurkish-Italian war, and ended with the Balkan Wars, World War I andTurkish War of Independence. These wars led to deterioration ofpolitical and economic conditions of the state and eventually to its fall.The Tripoli and Balkan Wars deeply influenced foreign policy andtrade of the Ottoman State. The Tripolitanian War began in 1911 whenItaly invaded Tripolitania and caused tension in the Ottoman-Italianeconomic relations even for a while. The same boycott, previouslyimplemented by the Ottoman State against Austrian goods as a result ofBosnia and Herzegovina invasion of Austria-Hungary in 1908, wasimplemented against Italian goods in 1911. The idea of boycott initiallycame up in the press, because the government was late to declare waragainst Italy. However Babıâli could not prevent Italian goods enteringthe country due to capitulations, therefore resorted to increase thecustoms duties taken from Italian goods. This policy continued until thepeace treaty in 1912.In 1912 the Ottoman State found itself at war with the BalkanLeague, an alliance formed by the Balkan States (Bulgaria, Greece,Montenegro, Serbia led by Bulgaria. Babıâli entered this war withoutany preparation and during the war Babıâli on the one hand tried tomeet army’s needs and on the other hand tried to take precautions byreviewing its economic relations with these countries. As a first step,like in the Tripolitanian War, Babıâli increased the customs dutiesapplied during trade activities with these Balkan countries and laterboycott was implemented against them by the Ottoman State. Thispolicy continued until the peace treaties in 1913 and ended after thepeace.In this study we will try to answer how these wars affected theforeign trade of the Ottoman State. The impact of these wars on theimport and export relations between Italy/Balkan States and

  2. Models of the potential distribution and habitat preferences of the genus Pipiza (Syrphidae: Diptera on the Balkan peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Tijana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of the genus Pipiza, collected throughout the southern and western Balkans, were used for the analysis of habitat preferences and potential geographical distribution on the Balkan Peninsula. The analyzed species show a wide and uneven distribution across the delineated geographical-biogeographical regions. The highest number of species noted is from two regions - the Dinaric mountain chain and the Pannonian and subpannonian regions (seven and six. Land cover patch analysis revealed that forests dominate the landscape surroundings of the analyzed species. “Presenceonly models” developed by Maxent support the understanding of the distribution and ecology of each analyzed species. The low probability values of current potential distribution correspond to large non-forested and fragmented forest areas, where, on the other hand, relatively high probabilities overlap with areas of deciduous forests across the peninsula. Results confirm species preference to forest landscapes and emphasize the need for local scale analysis. The studies are of importance in developing regional monitoring schemes and conservation strategies.

  3. Association of a bitter taste receptor mutation with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wooding Stephen P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN is late-onset kidney disease thought to arise from chronic exposure to aristolochic acid, a phytotoxin that contaminates wheat supplies in rural areas of Eastern Europe. It has recently been demonstrated that humans are capable of perceiving aristolochic acid at concentrations below 40 nM as the result of high-affinity interactions with the TAS2R43 bitter taste receptor. Further, TAS2R43 harbors high-frequency loss-of-function mutations resulting in 50-fold variability in perception. This suggests that genetic variation in TAS2R43 might affect susceptibility to BEN, with individuals carrying functional forms of the receptor being protected by an ability to detect tainted foods. Methods To determine whether genetic variation in TAS2R43 predicts BEN susceptibility, we examined genotype-phenotype associations in a case–control study. A cohort of 88 affected and 99 control subjects from western Bulgaria were genotyped with respect to two key missense variants and a polymorphic whole-gene deletion of TAS2R43 (W35S, H212R, and wt/Δ, which are known to affect taste sensitivity to aristolochic acid. Tests for association between haplotypes and BEN status were then performed. Results Three major TAS2R43 haplotypes observed in previous studies (TAS2R43-W35/H212, -S35/R212 and –Δ were present at high frequencies (0.17, 0.36, and 0.47 respectively in our sample, and a significant association between genotype and BEN status was present (P = 0.020; odds ratio 1.18. However, contrary to expectation, BEN was positively associated with TAS2R43-W35/H212, a highly responsive allele previously shown to confer elevated bitter sensitivity to aristolochic acid, which should drive aversion but might also affect absorption, altering toxin activation. Conclusions Our findings are at strong odds with the prediction that carriers of functional alleles of TAS2R43 are protected from BEN by an ability to detect and

  4. The climate in the Balkans during the Eemian: a multi-method approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyron, Odile; Lezine, Anne-Marie; Goring, Simon; Klotz, Stefan; Kuhl, Norbert; Bordon, Amandine

    2010-05-01

    available in south Europe (Monticchio and Ioannina). Although Brewer et al (2008) show stable temperatures and precipitation for southern Europe throughout the Eemian, our results indicate a gradual decline in temperatures throughout the Eemian at the Lake Orhid site. Thus the Lake Orhid reconstruction fills a gap in South Europe and provides new results for the Balkan Peninsula.

  5. Tephrostratigraphic studies on a sediment core from Lake Prespa in the Balkans

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    M. Damaschke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed tephrostratigraphic record, which dates back to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 5b (ca. 91 kyr, has been established from a 17.76 m long core (Co1215 from Lake Prespa (Macedonia, Albania and Greece. A total of eleven tephra and cryptotephra layers (PT0915-1 to PT0915-11 were identified, using XRF scanning, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and macro- and microscopic inspection of the sediments. The major element composition of glass shards and/or micro-pumice fragments indicates that the tephras and cryptotephras originate from the explosive volcanism of Italy. Eight tephra and cryptotephra layers were correlated with specific volcanic eruptions: the AD 512 eruption of Somma-Vesuvius (1438 cal yr BP, the Mercato eruption of Somma-Vesuvius (8890 ± 90 cal yr BP, the Tufi Biancastri/LN1-LN2 eruption of the Campi Flegrei (14 749 ± 523 cal yr BP and 15 551 ± 621 cal yr BP, the SMP1-e/Y-3 eruption of the Campi Flegrei (30 000–31 000 cal yr BP, the Campanian Ignimbrite/Y-5 eruption of the Campi Flegrei (39 280 ± 110 cal yr BP, the SMP1-a event of Ischia Island (around 44 000 cal yr BP and the Green Tuff/Y-6 eruption of Pantelleria Island (around 45 000 cal yr BP. One tephra could be attributed to the volcanic activity of Mount Etna, but probably represents an unknown eruption at ca. 60 000 cal yr BP. Cryptotephras PT0915-6 and PT0915-10 remain unclassified so far, but according to the presented age-depth model these would have been deposited around 35 000 and 48 500 cal yr BP, respectively. Some of the tephras and cryptotephras are recognised for the first time in the Balkan region. The tephrostratigraphic work provides important information about ash dispersal and explosion patterns of source volcanoes and can be used to correlate and date geographically distant paleoenvironmental and archaeological archives in the central Mediterranean region. Moreover, the tephrostratigraphic work in combination with radiocarbon and electron spin

  6. Tephrostratigraphic studies on a sediment core from Lake Prespa in the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Damaschke

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A detailed tephrostratigraphic record, which dates back to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 5, has been established from a 17.76 m long core (Co1215 from Lake Prespa (Macedonia, Albania and Greece. A total of eleven tephra and cryptotephra layers (PT0915-1 to PT0915-11 were identified, using XRF scanning, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and macro- and microscopic inspection of the sediments. The major element composition of glass shards and/or micro-pumice fragments indicates that the tephras and cryptotephras originate from the explosive volcanism of Italy. Eight tephra and cryptotephra layers were correlated with specific volcanic eruptions: cryptotephra PT0915-1 with the 512 AD eruption of Somma-Vesuvius (1438 cal yr BP, tephra PT0915-2 with the Mercato eruption of Somma-Vesuvius (8890 ± 90 cal yr BP, cryptotephras PT0915-3 and PT0915-4 with Tufi Biancastri/LN1-LN2 of the Campi Flegrei (14 749 ± 523 cal yr BP and 15 551 ± 621 cal yr BP, tephra PT0915-5 with the SMP1-e/Y-3 eruption of the Campi Flegrei (30 000–31 000 cal yr BP, tephra PT0915-7 with the Campanian Ignimbrite/Y-5 of the Campi Flegrei (39 280 ± 110 cal yr BP, cryptotephra PT0915-8 with the SMP1-a event of Ischia Island (around 44 000 cal yr BP and tephra PT0915-9 with the Green Tuff/Y-6 eruption of Pantelleria Island (around 45 000 cal yr BP. Tephra PT0915-11 could be attributed to the volcanic activity of Mount Etna, but probably represents a hitherto unknown eruption at ca. 60 000 cal yr BP. Cryptotephras PT0915-6 and PT0915-10 remain unclassified so far, but according to the presented age-depth model these would have been deposited around 35 000 and 48 500 cal yr BP, respectively. Some of the tephras and cryptotephras are recognised for the first time in the Balkan region. The tephrostratigraphic work provides important information about ash dispersal and explosion patterns of source volcanoes and can be used to correlate and date geographically distant paleoenvironmental

  7. Description of Nasocoris lautereri sp. nov. from the Balkan peninsula, with a review of the genus Nasocoris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Phylinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kment, P.; Bryja, Josef

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 1633, - (2007), s. 39-61. ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Insecta * Balkan peninsula * host plant Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.691, year: 2007 http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2007f/z01633p038f.pdf

  8. BOOK REVIEW. 2014. Suveranitatea statelor si integrarea europeana a Balcanilor: cazul Serbiei (The Sovereignty of States and the European Integration of the Balkans: The case of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana C. POPA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BOOK REVIEW. Dan D. Lazea. 2014. Suveranitatea statelor si integrarea europeana a Balcanilor: cazul Serbiei (The Sovereignty of States and the European Integration of the Balkans: The case of Serbia, Timișoara, Western University Publishing House, 257p, ISBN: 978-973-125-440-1.

  9. Comments upon human exposure to depleted uranium during and after the Gulf and Balkans conflicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    difficult to measure DU, total amount and isotopic composition, with respect to DU munition debris is totally unacceptable. Indeed, in commenting upon the Royal Society's reports I restrict myself to data and information for which I was directly associated, but acknowledge the considerable amount of work undertaken by others. The Royal Society working group should note that the whole basis for the use of uranium in the nuclear fuel cycle and in weaponry is based upon an ability to accurately measure very small concentrations and differences in isotopic compositions. The literature is replete with examples of the quality of measurements. In the UK the British Nuclear Fuels plant at Sellafield (previously Windscale) has discharged considerable amounts of DU, mainly processed, but together with significant amounts of unprocessed material, into the Cumbrian environment of the UK. For decades DU in diffuse and hot particle form was easily measured in sediments and biota of Cumbria and the adjacent NE Irish Sea. If environmental DU data are required for use in Gulf and Balkans conflict the BNFL releases are of interest. However, it should be noted that beyond a statistical evaluation and excepting the few acute radiological accidents which have occurred at BNFL, Sellafield, the radiological exposure has not impaired the health of the population or workforce and uranium has never been identified as an element of concern. I do not know the reasons why adequate measures were not taken to ensure that good scientific evidence for later use was obtained at the onset of both conflicts. Repetitive reports which do not add any substance to what is already known do not seem to serve any purpose. It is possible that at the time of incidents, such as deployment of DU in the Gulf and the Balkans, there were political, military or policy restraints to normal practices. As a consequence the repeated publication and media coverage of these events decades after they took place can only serve to

  10. Risks and Opportunities of Urbanization – Structure of Two Populations of the Balkan Wall Lizard Podarcis tauricus (Pallas, 1814 in the City of Plovdiv

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    Ivelin A. Mollov

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study analyzes the structure and some features of two urban metapopulations of the Balkan Wall Lizard (Podarcis tauricus (Pallas, 1814 from Nature Monument (NM “Mladezhki halm” and Nature Monument “Halm na osvoboditelite” in the city of Plovdiv (South Bulgaria. In both study sites, the Balkan Wall lizard inhabits exclusively the interior of the hills and prefers mainly open areas with rare grass and shrub vegetation. The recorded dominant plant species are not autochthonous for the hills, but gradually displaced with many decorative species, used widely in the gardening and thecity parks. The population abundance from both hills is relatively low, with higher values in NM “Mladezhki halm” and generally shows a decrease pattern for the two year period. In the hills of Plovdiv, the Balkan Wall lizard shows a bimodal diurnal and seasonal activity. Both metapopulations showed a sex ratio close to 1:1 with a slight superiority of the females (1:1.29, but with no statistically significant deviation. The age structure of both metapopulations is almost identical - the highest percentage takes the adults, followed by the subadults and juveniles, with no significant deviations from the normal ratio. The possible reasons for the contemporary distribution and population structure of the Balkan Wall lizard are discussed. Historic land use change and its effect on the populations are discussed as well. The main risks for this species in the city of Plovdiv are construction and forestation (destruction of open terrains. Nevertheless, the Balkan Wall lizard seems to have successfully overcome the risks of urbanization and its population seem stable and sustainable.

  11. SHORT STORIES IN THE BALKANS AND CONTEMPORARYSHORT STORIES IN THE WORLD

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    Larisa Softic - Gasal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of selected short stories in the Balkan countries, as well as contemporary short stories of the world, will show us that the key themes of those stories are very similar to the short stories written during the period of transition in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1995-2010. For example, the story of the Soul Operation by an Iranian writer Mohsen Mahmalbafa, The Falcons by a Dutch writer Kader Abdolaha and On the Kitchen Stairs by a Polish writer Witold Gombrowic zinter connect with short stories by authors from Bosnia and Herzegovina, such as The Secret of Raspberry jam by Karim Zaimović or The Devilish work of Zoran Riđanović. A common thread manifests itself in the aforementioned stories, more specifically, a common theme which focuses on the need for eradication of the seeds of submission and compliance with the political system. Most authors focus on their domestic political systems; however, some portray and analyze systems in other countries as they see it, such as a Dutch narrator who focuses on a potential threat of infringement of human freedom. Moreover, Bellow Hubei by an Argentinian writer Anhelika Gorodis her underlines the importance of humanization within a political order. Faruk Šehić examines the political system in Bosnia and Herzegovina from a slightly different perspective. His collection of stories Under Pressure emphases the issue of pressure in the above war model of short stories in Bosnia and Herzegovina. These stories are the product of pressure and anxiety, with intent to latently promote new ways of spiritual survival, directly relating to the concept and the theme of the story The Past Age Man by Christian Karlson Stead. Further analysis of the alienation theme singled out short stories in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Plants are Something Else by Alma Lazarevska and Dialogues by Lamija Begagić, and pointed out their connection with some recent international short stories such as The Last Defence by

  12. Climate change in the Carpathian-Balkan Area. Advancing research and cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel MINDRESCU

    2013-06-01

    researchers and scholars can find common grounds for discussion and collaboration (Hutchinson and Mindrescu, 2012.In this regard an international meeting was organized at the Geography Department, University of Suceava, Romania, and was cosponsored by the University of Suceava, the Applied Geography Association (GEOCONCEPT, Past Global Changes (PAGES and the Mountain Research Initiative (MRI. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together an international group of scientists interested in the Carpathian-Balkan region to discuss research results and promote opportunities for interdisciplinary and international collaboration. The entire workshop was webcast. The program centered on 36 oral and 15 poster presentations as well as open discussions on the climatic and environmental dynamics during the Pleistocene and Holocene. The 70 participants were from Romania, Hungary, Germany, United Kingdom, Bulgaria, Slovenia, Ukraine, Poland, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Greece and Belgium. For many young researchers and students the workshop offered an educational opportunity to present their results to an international audience and discuss their research in a multidisciplinary community.To promote follow-up activities in the region, the “Suceava working group” was created under the lead of Marcel Mindrescu, Angelica Feurdean, Eniko Magyari and Daniel Veres. A group website is currently being set up (http://atlas.usv.ro/www/climatechange/ and grant proposals will be prepared. The group will also coordinate the organization of a second regional workshop in 2014 in Romania. Further activities, such as summer camps or meetings in the field are also considered.

  13. Analysis of the effects of application of PST and SC on the performance of the UCPTE system in the Balkans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papazoglou, T.M. [Technological Educational Inst., Iraklio (Greece); Popovic, D.P.; Mijailovic, S. [Nikola Tesla Inst., Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1995-11-01

    Comparison is made of the effectiveness on the steady state load flow control of the Phase Shifter and the Series Compensation. Attention is focused on the ability to reduce unscheduled loop flows and redirect power flows in the system. The Balkan section of UCPTE system resulting after the parallel synchronous interconnection of Bulgaria is used as test system with loading conditions corresponding to the 1995 peak load. The superior properties of PST on power flow control are shown. The positive effects of PST in maintaining a high level of steady state security while realizing relatively large multilateral power exchange programs are demonstrated. A comparison of the power flow control efficiencies and an economic estimate are made for PST and SC. 10 refs, 1 fig, 4 tabs

  14. Repenser la politisation des identités: Les engagements militants dans les Balkans d’aujourd’hui

    OpenAIRE

    Ragaru, Nadège

    2007-01-01

    L'objectif de ce numéro est de proposer une réflexion sur les conditions et les formes de politisation des enjeux identitaires dans les Balkans de Paprès-1989. Au premier chef, cette recherche est animée par l'exigence intellectuelle d'une « dés-exotisation » de la péninsule balkanique. Dans le sillage de l'éclatement de la Yougoslavie en 1991, l'Europe du Sud-Est a fait l'objet d'analyses accordant au registre identitaire une priorité, voire une exclusivité, dans l'élucidation des dynamiques...

  15. The transition to farming and the 'revolution' of symbols in the Balkans. From ornament to entoptic and external symbolic storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Budja

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In desimplifying the logic of colonisation and transition to farming we discuss huntergatherers' and farmer's symbolic structures in the Balkans and Carpathians. Particular attention is paid to the concepts of 'revolution of symbols', 'external symbolic storage' and 'signs of all time'. Our basic premises are (1 that ceramic technology and the principles of fragmentation and accumulationwere not the exclusive domains of farmers and, (2 that the hunter-gatherers' symbolic structures and the process of transition to farmingwere not exclusive and competitive but rather correlative in maintaining control and power within society and over the frameworks of external interactions and exchange networks., but strong parallels between the Near-Eastern and Greek Neolithic.

  16. Experience of human rights violations and subsequent mental disorders - a study following the war in the Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Stefan; Bogic, Marija; Ashcroft, Richard; Franciskovic, Tanja; Galeazzi, Gian Maria; Kucukalic, Abdulah; Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica; Morina, Nexhmedin; Popovski, Mihajlo; Roughton, Michael; Schützwohl, Matthias; Ajdukovic, Dean

    2010-12-01

    War experiences are associated with substantially increased rates of mental disorders, particularly Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Major Depression (MD). There is limited evidence on what type of war experiences have particularly strong associations with subsequent mental disorders. Our objective was to investigate the association of violations of human rights, as indicated in the 4th Geneva Convention, and other stressful war experiences with rates of PTSD and MD and symptom levels of intrusion, avoidance and hyperarousal. In 2005/6, human rights violations and other war experiences, PTSD, post-traumatic stress symptoms and MD were assessed in war affected community samples in five Balkan countries (Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, and Serbia) and refugees in three Western European countries (Germany, Italy, United Kingdom). The main outcome measures were the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. In total 3313 participants in the Balkans and 854 refugees were assessed. Participants reported on average 2.3 rights violations and 2.3 other stressful war experiences. 22.8% of the participants were diagnosed with current PTSD and also 22.8% had MD. Most war experiences significantly increased the risk for both PTSD and MD. When the number of rights violations and other stressful experiences were considered in one model, both were significantly associated with higher risks for PTSD and were significantly associated with higher levels of intrusion, avoidance and hyperarousal. However, only the number of violations, and not of other stressful experiences, significantly increased the risk for MD. We conclude that different types of war experiences are associated with increased prevalence rates of PTSD and MD more than 5 years later. As compared to other stressful experiences, the experience of human rights violations similarly increases the risk of PTSD, but appears more important for MD. PMID

  17. The role of the migrational zones in the historical processes in Central-Europe and in the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Csüllog

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La región de Europa Central y los Balcanes es una de las zonas de flujo más im-portantes de Europa, donde la migración de los pueblos ha estado ocurriendo durante miles de años, las influencias económicas y culturales se han extendido y la política del poder ha tenido vigencia. Sus características históricas y geográ-ficas determinantes son las siguientes: espacio geográfico común; flujos espaciales que unen los espacios; espacios estatales separados por acontecimientos políticos; espacios étnicos tipo mosaico creados por la migración; subdivisión de los espacios de amortiguamiento provoca-dos por los intereses de la política del poder.Palabras clave: Europa Central, Balcanes, Impe-rio Habsburgo, Imperio Otomano, zonas de migración._______________ The Central European region and the Balkans are one of the most important flow zones in Europe where the migration of peoples has been going on for thousands of years, eco-nomic and cultural influences have been spreading and power politics has taken effect. Its determinative historical and geographical features are as follows: common geographical space; spatial flows linking the spaces; state spaces separated by political events; mosaic-like ethnic spaces created by migration; dividing buffer spaces brought about by the interests of power politics.Keywords: Central Europe, Balkans, Habsburg Empire, Ottoman Empire, migrational zones.

  18. Cultural cross-border co-operation among Balkan's countries with the case of Serbia and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojkov Borislav

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural cross-border cooperation includes all fields of cross-border cooperation and gives base for main connections and interactions. Without strengthening cultural cross-border cooperation, it is impossible to build significant relations between neighbors. Culture, as a foundation, an activator and a purpose of development in cross-border regions, represents a cardinal and conditional factor of cross-border cooperation. Today's situation in the Balkans reveals ethnic diversity of this region and territorial dispersion of ethnic groups. This implies at the same time great cultural diversity as well as dispersal of various national cultures over the Balkan's states. During the 20th century Serbia and Bulgaria have very complex political and intrastate relations. But in the last 10 years there have been significant improvements in the cross-border cooperation between Serbia and Bulgaria. The results of these improvements are established Euro-regions and implemented cross-border projects between these two countries. Existing Euro-regions between Serbia and Bulgaria created links between various local authorities and made excellent basis for cross-border initiatives and joint projects to promote common interests across the border and cooperation for the common good of the border areas populations. The well managed cultural cross-border cooperation between these two countries will provide a clear view of common features and raise common identity for the region, contribute to tolerance and understanding between people in this area and enable them to overcome the peripheral status of the border region in their countries and improve the living conditions of the population.

  19. Contemporarity of history: Ottoman cultural heritage and its Bulgarian perception (from the Balkan perspective

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    Yordanka Bibina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Contemporarity of history: Ottoman cultural heritage and its Bulgarian perception (from the Balkan perspectiveThe article offers an analysis of subsequent phases of Bulgarian historiography and the way in which they have portrayed the nation’s Ottoman past and the impact it had on the history of Bulgarians. The author seeks to address the question of the influence historical stereotypes have on modern perceptions of the Ottoman heritage.At the dawn of Bulgarian historiography, the Ottoman past was seen through the prism of the new science’s nation-forming tasks and thus interpreted as a “historical misfortune,” a discontinuity, a rupture in the natural process of Bulgarians’ national development, a traumatising element in historical memory.  The period itself was in turn referred to as the “Turkish slavery” or “Ottoman yoke.” Narratives of the deeds of the national heroes who gave their lives for freedom thus became the foundation of national pride. This trend prevailed until after World War II.It was only in the 1960s, with the development of Ottoman studies as a scholarly discipline and the emergence of professional researchers willing to draw on the immense Ottoman archives, that these stereotypes began to be questioned. So much so that in the 1970s the term “Turkish slavery” was even abandoned. At the beginning of 21st century, the tension between so-called “traditional historiography” of “older” generations of historians and postmodern approach of “younger” innovators fuelled the “backstage” dispute on the present situation and perspectives in further roads of history as a science. Współczesność historii. Bułgarskie obrazy osmańskiego dziedzictwa kulturowego (z perspektywy bałkańskiejArtykuł poświęcony jest analizie poszczególnych etapów bułgarskiej historiografii, w której uobecnia się przeszłość osmańska i jej wpływ na dzieje Bułgarów. Autorka szuka odpowiedzi na pytanie, w

  20. Education of local governments as a way towards sustainable development of the countries of the Western Balkans - Case Study of Montenegro

    OpenAIRE

    Vujadinovic, Radoje; Karadzic, Uros

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need of capacity building in sustainable development in the Western Balkans Countries. Thus, education and training are necessary elements to make municipality administration capable to recognize, define, prepare, and finalize any kind of the energy efficiency projects, from the simple ones up to technically and particularly financially complex projects, particularly taking into consideration today very attractive concepts of the projects financing, as ESCO’s, PPP, etc.This...

  1. Environmental change within the Balkan region during the past ca. 50 ka recorded in the sediments from lakes Prespa and Ohrid

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, B.; H. Vogel; G. Zanchetta; Sulpizio, R.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract. Lakes Prespa and Ohrid, in the Balkan region, are considered to be amongst the oldest lakes in Europe. Both lakes are hydraulically connected via karst aquifers. From Lake Ohrid, several sediment cores up to 15m long have been studied over the last few years. Here, we document the first long sediment record from nearby Lake Prespa to clarify the influence of Lake Prespa on Lake Ohrid and the environmental history of the region. Radiocarbon dating and dated te...

  2. Being an Ottoman Vlach: On Vlach identity (Ies), role and status in western parts of the Ottoman Balkans (15th-18th centuries)

    OpenAIRE

    Kursar, Vjeran

    2013-01-01

    Following the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans, the Vlachs, still a largely nomadic and semi-nomadic population, made special arrangements with the conquerors. They served as a colonising force in newly conquered areas, manning auxiliary military units such as voynuks and martoloses, etc. In exchange, the Ottomans granted the Vlachs wide exemptions and autonomies that made them significantly different from the ordinary subject population – re‘âyâ. During the course of time, with centralisation...

  3. L'avenir des protectorats internationaux sur les Balkans : Présentation du Rapport de suivi de la Commission internationale indépendante sur le Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Rupnik, Jacques

    2002-01-01

    [The future of international protectorates in the Balkans. Independent International Commission on Kosovo] Why conditional independence? The follow-up of the Kosovo report The Independent International Commission on Kosovo, created in 1999 by the Swedish government and co-presided by Richard Goldstone and Carl Tham, came to the conclusion in its October 2000 report that the NATO intervention was legitimate, although illegal, and that the aim of establishing an international protectorate that ...

  4. The granting of territorial autonomy in the Balkans means that large scale violence is now near-impossible. But small scale conflicts continue.

    OpenAIRE

    Keil, Soeren

    2013-01-01

    Since the conflicts of the 1990s, various regions within the Balkans have been granted territorial autonomy in order to avoid further violence. Soeren Keil assesses the strategy, finding a great deal of variety in the implementation and effectiveness of territorial autonomy and power sharing across the region. While in most cases the likelihood of violent conflict is now very small, secessionist movements have been encouraged and functional states have not been created.

  5. Deep drilling of ancient Lake Ohrid (Balkan region) to capture over 1 million years of evolution and global climate cycling [abstract only

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Bernd; Francke, Alexander; Wilke, Thomas; Krastel, Sebastian; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Sulpizio, Roberto; Reicherter, Klaus; Leng, Melanie; Grazhdani, Andon; Trajanovski, Sasho; Levko, Zlatko; Reed, Jane; Wonik, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Ancient lakes, with sediment records spanning >1 million years, are very rare. The UNESCO World Heritage site of Lake Ohrid in the Balkan region is thought to be the oldest lake in continuous existence in Europe and, with 212 endemic species described to date, is a hotspot of evolution. An international group of scientists working on a project entitled 'Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO)' realized a deep drilling campaign of Lake Ohrid in spring 201...

  6. The New Environment of EU Enlargement: The Impact of Economic Crisis on the Western Balkans and their EU Accession Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritsa Panagiotou

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper will explore the impact of the economic crisis on the Western Balkan countries, and how the new, unfavorable international environment is affecting their EU accession prospects. The analysis will be presented in three sections: the first part will examine the effect of the “first wave” of the global economic crisis on the economies of the region, specifically the impact on the region’s macroeconomic indicators, foreign direct investment flows, financial sectors, etc. Part two will analyse the repercussions of the “second wave” of the crisis, namely the Greek sovereign debt crisis, which rapidly spilled over into the entire Eurozone. Part three will build on the issues examined in parts one and two and will discuss the repercussions of both waves of the crisis on the region’s enlargement process and prospects. The paper will also propose that although the EU’s role in Southeast Europe remains crucial (not least as a provider of economic assistance its hitherto undisputable symbolic role as an “anchor” of stability and as a goal to be aspired to may be losing its appeal for some of these countries. This paper will explore the impact of the economic crisis on the Western Balkan countries, and how the new, unfavorable international environment is affecting their EU accession prospects. The analysis will be presented in three sections: the first part will examine the effect of the “first wave” of the global economic crisis on the economies of the region, specifically the impact on the region’s macroeconomic indicators, foreign direct investment flows, financial sectors, etc. Part two will analyse the repercussions of the “second wave” of the crisis, namely the Greek sovereign debt crisis, which rapidly spilled over into the entire Eurozone. Part three will build on the issues examined in parts one and two and will discuss the repercussions of both waves of the crisis on the region’s enlargement process and

  7. Modeling of geomagnetic field secular variations observed in the Balkan area for purposes of regional topographic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metodiev, Metodi; Trifonova, Petya; Buchvarov, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    The most significant of the Earth's magnetic field elements is the geomagnetic declination, which is widely used in geodesy, cartography and their associated navigational systems. The geomagnetic declination is incorporated in the naval navigation maps and is used in the navigation process. It is also a very important factor for aviation where declination data have major importance for every airport (civil or military). As the geomagnetic field changes with time but maps of the geomagnetic declination are not published annually and are reduced to an epoch in the past, it is necessary to define two additional parameters in the maps, needed to determine the value of the geomagnetic declination for a particular moment in the future: 1) estimated value of the annual declination variation and 2) a table with the average diurnal variation of the declination for a given month and hour. The goal of our research is to analyze the annual mean values of geomagnetic declination on the territory of the Balkan Peninsula for obtaining of a best fitting model of that parameter which can be used for prediction of the declination value for the next 10 years. The same study was performed in 1990 for the purposes of Bulgarian declination map's preparation. As a result, a linear model of the declination annual variation was obtained for the neighboring observatories and repeat stations data, and a map of the obtained values for the Bulgarian territory was drawn. We use the latest version of the GFZ Reference Internal Magnetic Model (GRIMM-3.0) to compare the magnetic field evolution predicted by that model between 2001 and 2010 to the data collected in five independent geomagnetic observatories in the Balkan region (PAG, SUA, PEG, IZN, GCK) over the same time interval. We conclude that the geomagnetic core field secular variation in this area is well described by the global model. The observed small-scale differences might indicate induced lithospheric anomalies but it is still an open

  8. THE IMAGE OF TURKS AMONG INDIAN MUSLIMS: THE CASE OF BALKAN WARS / HİNT MÜSLÜMANLARINDA TÜRK İMGESİ: BALKAN SAVAŞLARI ÖRNEĞİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncay Ercan SEPERCİOĞLU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An image consists of a person’s, a community’s and/or a society’s positive and/or negative conceptions and attributions towards an object, an event and/or another community. Factors such as ideological approaches, culture, collective memory, past experiences, and/or geography play an important role in forming these impressions. If a society’s approach towards another society is a matter of question, the image determines political stance and generates one of the reasons for social reactions. This study does not include examples of factionalized society, culture and/or political formulations but examples concerning positive perceptions of a society of another and how these perceptions are reflected on their reactions. In doing so, the study analyses the contributions of Indian Muslims to the Ottoman Empire and Turkish nation during the Balkan Wars with examples and questions the reasons behind these supports. Indian Muslims attempted to mold public opinion in order to bring attention to the Balkan Wars. They aided Ottomans in kind and cash, sent medical teams and played an active role in battle and organized activities for refugees. This study aims to reveal approaches and sensitivities of Indian Muslims to one of the biggest social problems that Turks faced in the early 20th century through data that were obtained from the Ottoman Archive and several newspapers of that period. İmge bir kişi, topluluk ve/veya toplumun bir nesneye, olaya ve/veya diğer bir topluluğa dair olumlu ya da olumsuz (veya her ikisi birden kavram ve nitelemelerinden oluşmaktadır. Bu izlenimlerde ideolojik yaklaşımlar, kültür, toplumsal hafıza, geçmiş deneyimler, coğrafya ve ekonomi gibi etkenler büyük rol oynar. Söz konusu olan bir toplumun diğer bir topluma yönelik yaklaşımıysa eğer, imge siyasal duruşu belirlemekte, toplumsal tepkilerin nedenlerinden birini oluşturmaktadır. Bu çalışma, -benzerleri çok görülen- ötekileştirilen bir

  9. An Englishman in Romania: An Imagological Reading of Mike Ormsby’s Never Mind the Balkans, Here’s Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela-Iuliana COLIPCĂ-CIOBANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Connecting back with an already well-established tradition of scholarly explorations of images of Romanianness, as emerging from (nonfictional representations of cross-cultural, Anglo-Romanian encounters, the present paper focuses on one of the most recent textual productions foregrounding an English traveller’s gaze on his Romanian hosts, namely Mike Ormsby’s collection of short stories Never Mind the Balkans, Here’s Romania (2008. Applying an imagological grid to it, the paper aims at providing evidence in defence of the idea that, at least after 1989, the English observers’ attitudes towards and, implicitly, textual mirroring of Romania have undergone significant changes. In doing that, it reflects upon the ‘game’ of auto- and hetero-images at the heart of the narrative discourse as meant to point to both an awareness of cultural differences and the need to overcome cultural biases in one’s mind with a view to successful intercultural communication in the context of globalisation-driven societal transformations.

  10. Exploring the Role of Humans and Climate over the Balkan Landscape: 500 Years of Vegetational History of Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteet, Dorothy; Heusser, Linda; Kulkarni, Charuta; Boger, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    We present the first, well-dated, high-resolution record of vegetation and landscape change from Serbia, which spans the past 500 years. Biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical analysis through X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), and a detailed chronology based on AMS C-14 dating from a western Serbian sinkhole core suggest complex woodland-grassland dynamics and strong erosional signals throughout the Little Ice Age (LIA). An open landscape with prominent steppe vegetation (e.g. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae) and minor woodland exists during 1540-1720 CE (early LIA), while the late LIA (1720-1850 CE) in this record shows higher tree percentages possibly due to increased moisture availability. The post LIA Era (1850-2012 CE) brings a disturbed type of vegetation with the presence of weedy genera and an increase in regional woodland. Anthropogenic indicators for agricultural, pastoral and fire practices in the region together attest to the dominant role of humans in shaping this Balkan landscape throughout the interval. The changing nature of human interference, potentially as a response to underlying climatic transitions, is evident through large-scale soil depletion resulting from grazing and land clearance during the early LIA and stabilization of arable lands during the late and post-LIA eras.

  11. Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria

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    Briestenský Miloš

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The EU-TecNet monitoring network uses customized three-dimensional extensometers to record transient deformations across individual faults. This paper presents the first results from two newly established monitoring points in the Balkan Mountains in Bulgaria. The data from Saeva Dupka, recorded across an EEN-WWS striking fault, show sinistral strike-slip along the fault and subsidence of the southern block. Much of the subsidence occurred around the time of the distal MW = 5.6 Pernik Earthquake. An important transient deformation event, which began in autumn 2012, was reflected by significant compression and following extension, across the monitored fault. The data from Bacho Kiro, recorded across a NE–SW striking fault, show sinistral strike-slip along the fault and subsidence of the north-western block. The same important deformation event was reflected by changes in the strike-slip, dip-slip, and horizontal opening/closing trends. These results have been compared to data from other monitoring points in the Western Carpathians, External Dinarides, and Tian Shan. Many of the sites show evidence of simultaneous displacement anomalies and this observation is interpreted as a reflection of the plate-wide propagation of a tectonic pressure pulse towards the end of 2012.

  12. Scaling analysis of time series of daily prices from stock markets of transitional economies in the Western Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvan, Darko; Stratimirović, Djordje; Blesić, Suzana; Miljković, Vladimir

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we have analyzed scaling properties of time series of stock market indices (SMIs) of developing economies of Western Balkans, and have compared the results we have obtained with the results from more developed economies. We have used three different techniques of data analysis to obtain and verify our findings: detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method, detrended moving average (DMA) method, and wavelet transformation (WT) analysis. We have found scaling behavior in all SMI data sets that we have analyzed. The scaling of our SMI series changes from long-range correlated to slightly anti-correlated behavior with the change in growth or maturity of the economy the stock market is embedded in. We also report the presence of effects of potential periodic-like influences on the SMI data that we have analyzed. One such influence is visible in all our SMI series, and appears at a period Tp ≈ 90 days. We propose that the existence of various periodic-like influences on SMI data may partially explain the observed difference in types of correlated behavior of corresponding scaling functions.

  13. Chemical and principal-component analyses of the essential oils of Apioideae taxa (Apiaceae) from central Balkan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanos, Chrysostomos; Karioti, Anastasia; Bojović, Srdjan; Marin, Petar; Veljić, Milan; Skaltsa, Helen

    2008-01-01

    The volatile constituents of the essential oils of 23 taxa belonging to the Apioideae subfamily were studied in detail. The investigated taxa were Pimpinella serbica (Vis.) Bentham & Hooker, Libanotis montana Cr., Cnidium silaifolium (Jacq.) Simk. ssp. orientale (Boiss.) Tutin, Bupleurum praealtum L., B. sibthorpianum S. S. var. diversifolium (Roch.) Hay, Aegopodium podagraria L., Torilis anthriscus (L.) Gmel., Orlaya grandiflora (L.) Hoffm., Laserpitium siler L., Laser trilobum (L.) Brokh., Chaerophyllum aureum L., C. hirsutum L., C. temulum L., Pastinaca sativa L., P. hirsuta Pancic., Tordylium maximum L., Physospermum cornubiense (L.) DC., Peucedanum alsaticum L., P. oreoselinum (L.) Moench, P. cervaria (L.) Cuss., P. austriacum (Jacq.) Koch, P. longifolium W. et K., and P. officinale L. All of these species grow wild in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula. The essential oils were found to be complex mixtures of various compounds, more than 100 constituents being in each taxon, with contributions of main products never exceeding 25% of the total content. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were found to be the main group of constituents of all taxa, except for Peucedanum species, where monoterpene hydrocarbons were identified as the main components. The chemotaxonomic value of the essential-oil composition is discussed according to results of principal-component analysis (PCA). The essential-oil composition mainly reflects current taxonomic relationships between the investigated taxa. PMID:18205131

  14. Global and local effects of decentralised electric power generation on the grid in the Western Balkan Countries (WBC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, Joachim; Weissbach, Tobias [Department of Power Generation and Automatic Control, Institute of Process Engineering and Power Plant Technology (IVD), Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 23, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    In the European countries renewable and decentralised electric power generation is continuously gaining in importance. More than one half of the total worldwide installed capacity of wind power plants is located in Europe. Furthermore the electric power generation of small hydro power plants and biomass fired cogeneration plants increases steadily, not least encouraged by legislation. However, especially during off-peak load conditions, a high penetration by decentralised electric power generation can cause significant problems for a stable power system operation and establishes new responsibilities for system operators. A EU-Project has been initiated to investigate the development of renewable energy sources especially for the Western Balkan Countries (WBC), including an analysis of the impact on the grid. The effects of decentralised electric power generation on the grid of the WBC are analysed, aiming for the development of a general methodology to identify critical system configurations. The limits of the feed-in into the existing transmission and distribution systems of decentralised power generation units, not taking part in power system control services, are analysed for steady state conditions. Together with matching approaches of the other project partners, corresponding problems can be addressed already within the planning phase. (author)

  15. Regional Conflicts in the Western Balkans and the Caucasus Revisited: Comparison of Kosovo to South Ossetia and Abkhazia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Đorđević

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the things that the Western Balkans and the Caucasus have in common is an extremely challenging legacy of the past. The dissolution of two multinational states – the Soviet Union and Socialist Yugoslavia in the beginning of 1990s – led to ethno-nationalist conflicts on a large scale. While the Yugoslav crisis ended in 1999 after the FRY was bombed by NATO during its Kosovo campaign, the Caucasus still remains a conflict-ridden region where Russian and Western influences keep colliding. The purpose of this article is to present an analytical comparison of the three respective regional conflicts – Kosovo, Georgia and South Ossetia – by enumerating and analyzing similarities and differences between them, as this proves to be one of current and more intriguing issues of the contemporary international political scene. The article aims at providing answers to two different issues: Did Kosovo’s independence influence the establishment of a specific political pattern applicable to other disputed regions; and to what degree are the cases in question comparable to each other?

  16. The right to life and criminal-law protection of the human person in the Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etlon Peppo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The basic principle for which a democratic governance stands, are expressed in the “Declaration of Independence of the United States of America with the words of Thomas Jefferson: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed” The government of a democratic state does not exist to recognize the basic human rights, but to respect and guarantee the protection of these rights that any person possesses and benefits due to his existence starting from the most important right: The right to life, which is faced against the duty of the state for the protection of the human person’s life! In this sense this article analyzes the criminal-law protection of life in the Western Balkans.

  17. Nutrient inputs, trophic status and water management challenges in the transboundary Lake Skadar/Shkodra, western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skarbøvik Eva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A transboundary water quality-monitoring program was conducted in 2007-2009 to investigate the trophic status and nutrient budget of Lake Skadar/Shkodra, which is a large, shallow lake shared by Albania and Montenegro. The parameters included, amongst others, total phosphorus (TP, total nitrogen (TN, suspended particulate matter, chlorophyll a, phytoplankton, transparency, temperature and oxygen levels. In addition, hydrological data were scrutinized. The results show that inputs from the tributaries amounted to 176 tons of TP and 3 200 tons of TN, with annual area specific loads of 50-70 kg/km2 of TP and 950-1100 kg/km2 of TN. Despite relatively high inputs, data from the lake indicate that it is presently in a mesotrophic condition, probably due to its large volume and low water residence time. It is assumed that water bodies in the Western Balkans are under increased environmental pressure due to the economic and societal development in the region. In our study, interactions with stakeholders revealed that this also applies to Lake Skadar/Shkodra, but at the same time, the stakeholders suggested a number of mitigation options that can improve the situation. In addition, harmonized transboundary monitoring and increased data transparency were deemed important to improve future decision-making.

  18. The Concept of Romanization and its Role in the Constitution of the Classical Archaeologies of the Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko A. Janković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The traditional concept of Romanization has heavily influenced the methodology of research of the Roman monuments in Europe. The basic principles of the concept have been laid out by Theodor Mommsen, the German historian and an expert in epigraphy, who was the first to define the relationships between the Roman "civilization" and the local populations in his book The History of Rome. Mommsen presents a process in which two different political, economic and technological communities meet, and the inferior one is inevitably assimilated. Through the adoption of language, script, customs and material culture, the local communities become more Roman, i.e. they are romanized. This paradigm framework has fundamentally changed the way in which the researchers approach the Roman past. This was the first time that the material culture was explained inside archaeology as the discipline associated to history. The introduction of the concept of Romanization enabled the scholars to analyze the material culture in the context of everyday activities, regardless of their artistic value. Although this concept is a largely simplified view of the past, it has marked the Roman archaeology throughout the 20th century. At the moment when Mommsen's ideas are accepted and elaborated in Western Europe, the discipline of archaeology is formed in the Balkans, the first researchers are trained and the first modern archaeological researches are launched. The paper analyses the influence of his ideas upon the formation of Classical archaeology in Croatia and Serbia, two significantly different political contexts.

  19. Exploring the role of humans and climate over the Balkan landscape: 500 years of vegetational history of Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Charuta; Peteet, Dorothy; Boger, Rebecca; Heusser, Linda

    2016-07-01

    We present the first, well-dated, high-resolution record of vegetation and landscape change from Serbia, which spans the past 500 years. Biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical analysis through X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), and a detailed chronology based on AMS 14C dating from a western Serbian sinkhole core suggest complex woodland-grassland dynamics and strong erosional signals throughout the Little Ice Age (LIA). An open landscape with prominent steppe vegetation (e.g. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae) and minor woodland exists during 1540-1720 CE (early LIA), while the late LIA (1720-1850 CE) in this record shows higher tree percentages possibly due to increased moisture availability. The post LIA Era (1850-2012 CE) brings a disturbed type of vegetation with the presence of weedy genera and an increase in regional woodland. Anthropogenic indicators for agricultural, pastoral and fire practices in the region together attest to the dominant role of humans in shaping this Balkan landscape throughout the interval. The changing nature of human interference, potentially as a response to underlying climatic transitions, is evident through large-scale soil depletion resulting from grazing and land clearance during the early LIA and stabilization of arable lands during the late and post-LIA eras.

  20. Resource recovery from waste by Roma in the Balkans: A case study from Zavidovici (BiH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccari, Mentore; Perteghella, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Roma communities represent the main involved actors in the informal activities in the Balkan regions, especially because the state does not formally recognize them as formal inhabitants. The Roma community in Zavidovici, despite being resident since the beginning of the 20th century, is still considered a marginalized and vulnerable group. They are actively involved in and dependent on the informal solid waste sector. Waste collection is a 'family business', a kind of self-employment and the main source of income for households. Informal recyclers have a central role in the solid waste management system and they recover a significant amount of materials, especially iron, copper, brass, lead and exhausted batteries. Despite the negative fluctuations of the raw material prices, because of the international economic crisis, informal recyclers remain dependent on the waste recycling sector. They are crucial actors in the value chain of recyclables: though they cannot access the final buyers of recyclables, they provide more than 50% of the market to the middle dealers in the Zenica-Doboj Canton. This research activity consists of a deep socio-economic analysis of the informal recyclers' community living in Zavidovici city. In particular, this paper describes the composition and welfare status of informal recyclers' households, the role of informal recyclers in waste collection, the geographical coverage and the related pattern of waste picking, types, volumes and price fluctuations of recyclable materials, and the middle dealers involved in the informal recycling system. PMID:27305917

  1. THE REFLECTION OF BALKAN WARS ON CHILDREN’S PLAYS SAMPLE OF “ THE JOURNAL OF CHILD EMOTION”/BALKAN SAVAŞLARININ ÇOCUK OYUNLARINA YANSIMASI “ÇOCUK DUYGUSU” DERGİSİ ÖRNEĞİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ÖZDEMİR

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available War and literatüre are both concepts regarding society. The bigger share the literature has in forming cultural identity and rising of social sensitivity, the higher effectuating ratio the war has in society and literature. Our recent past history is full of spectacular samples of this mutual interaction. In this study, the reflection of war conditions on children and children’s plays was examined, which is based on the Journal Of Child Emotion. The party of Union and Progress (İttihat ve Terakki, which seized the power in the wake of Balkan Wars, tried to affect the society and by the way the children in line withit sown ideology evenunder these hard circumstances. It is remarkable that these efforts of effectuating and direction even got to the plays which have an important place in the education of children. The policies of Party of Union and Progress, which was not homogeneous but had a Turkist concept in the passage of time, regarding education underwent change accordingly. Necessitating of teaching Turkish with the law of Primary Education, even if it was enacted temporarily, had not only an influence on the primary schools, but also on the journals and newspapers published at those times. Indeed, the fact that the word ‘Ottoman’ that took place in the plays of the first issues of The Journal Of Child Emotion’ was replaced by the word ‘Turk’ in the following issues manifests thein fluence of the administration of The party of Union and Progress, which fluctuated from Ottomanness toTurkism, on the press clearly. It is also remarkable that the writings of well-known artists suchs as Baha Tevfik, Şahabettin Süleyman, Ahmed Edib, Selim Sırrı, Faik Ali and Philosopher Rıza Tevfik, and photographs of Sultan V. Mehmet Reşat Han, the Grandvizier Said Halim Pasha, the Minister of Internal Affairs Talat Pasha, the Minister of War Enver Pasha, the Minister of Navy Cemal Pasha, Mahmut Şevket Pasha and the great poet Recaizade

  2. Comparative Study of Composition, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils of Selected Aromatic Plants from Balkan Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanković, Nemanja; Mihajilov-Krstev, Tatjana; Zlatković, Bojan; Matejić, Jelena; Stankov Jovanović, Vesna; Kocić, Branislava; Čomić, Ljiljana

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study to perform a comparative analysis of the chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of plant species Hyssopus officinalis, Achillea grandifolia, Achillea crithmifolia, Tanacetum parthenium, Laserpitium latifolium, and Artemisia absinthium from Balkan Peninsula. The chemical analysis of essential oils was performed by using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Monoterpenes were dominant among the recorded components, with camphor in T. parthenium, A. grandifolia, and A. crithmifolia (51.4, 45.4, and 25.4 %, respectively), 1,8-cineole in H. officinalis, A. grandifolia, and A. crithmifolia (49.1, 16.4, and 14.8 %, respectively), and sabinene in L. latifolium and A. absinthium (47.8 and 21.5 %). The antiradical and antioxidant activities were determined by using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging methods. The essential oil of A. grandifolia has shown the highest antioxidant activity [IC50 of 33.575 ± 0.069 mg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2.510 ± 0.036 mg vitamin C/g for the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assay]. The antimicrobial activity against 16 multiresistant pathogenic bacteria isolated from human source material was tested by the broth microdilution assay. The resulting minimum inhibitory concentration/minimum bactericidal concentration values ranged from 4.72 to 93.2 mg/mL. Therefore, the essential oils of the plant species included in this study may be considered to be prospective natural sources of antimicrobial substances, and may contribute as effective agents in the battle against bacterial multiresistance. PMID:26891001

  3. Human Security in the European Union's Foreign and Security Policies: The Application of the Concept of Human Security in the European Union's Relations with the Western Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Heynen, Claudia, 1984-

    2015-01-01

    This  thesis  explores  the  EU’s  application  of  human  security  – a controversial and somewhat ill-defined security concept in which the referent object is the individual, not the state – in its foreign and security policies towards the Western Balkans (defined here as those states or distinguishable regions which emerged from the former Republic of Yugoslavia and Albania) post-1990. Utilising social constructivist and securitization theories, this project seeks to establish the extent t...

  4. Quantitation of Aristolochic Acids in Corn, Wheat Grain, and Soil Samples Collected in Serbia: Identifying a Novel Exposure Pathway in the Etiology of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wan; Pavlović, Nikola M; Li, Weiwei; Chan, Chi-Kong; Liu, Jingjing; Deng, Kailin; Wang, Yinan; Milosavljević, Biljana; Kostić, Emina N

    2016-07-27

    While to date investigations provided convincing evidence on the role of aristolochic acids (AAs) in the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) and upper urothelial cancer (UUC), the exposure pathways by which AAs enter human bodies to cause BEN and UUC remain obscure. The goal of this study is to test the hypothesis that environmental pollution by AAs and root uptake of AAs in the polluted soil may be one of the pathways by which AAs enter the human food chain. The hypothesis driving this study was that the decay of Aristolochia clematitis L., a AA-containing herbaceous plant that is found growing widespread in the endemic regions, could release free AAs to the soil, which could be taken up by food crops growing nearby, thereby transferring this potent human nephrotoxin and carcinogen into their edible parts. Using the highly sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection method, we identified and quantitated in this study for the first time AAs in corn, wheat grain, and soil samples collected from the endemic village Kutles in Serbia. Our results provide the first direct evidence that food crops and soil in the Balkans are contaminated with AAs. It is possible that the presence of AAs in edible parts of crops originating from the AA-contaminated soil could be one of the major pathways by which humans become exposed to AAs. PMID:27362729

  5. 沙皇俄国对巴尔干政策演变及特点%The Tsarist Russia’ s Policy towards Balkan:Evolution and Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李提

    2015-01-01

    巴尔干半岛是沙皇俄国称霸欧洲的重要通道,在沙皇俄国对外侵略扩张史上,巴尔干半岛是历代沙皇争夺的焦点。受欧洲均势及民族、宗教等因素影响,沙皇俄国的巴尔干政策充满着矛盾,看似主动,实则被动。%Balkan Peninsula was the important passage through which the Tsarist Russia sought domination in the Europe.In its history of external intrusion, the Peninsula was remained as the prey of Tsas of generations.Constrained by factors such as the bal-anced structure of Europe, ethnicity and religion issues, the Tsarist Russia’ s policy towards Balkan was full of contradictions, which appeared prevailing, but often stuck itself into disadvantages.

  6. Escaping to the summits: phylogeography and predicted range dynamics of Cerastium dinaricum, an endangered high mountain plant endemic to the western Balkan Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutnjak, Denis; Kuttner, Michael; Niketić, Marjan; Dullinger, Stefan; Schönswetter, Peter; Frajman, Božo

    2014-09-01

    The Balkans are a major European biodiversity hotspot, however, almost nothing is known about processes of intraspecific diversification of the region's high-altitude biota and their reaction to the predicted global warming. To fill this gap, genome size measurements, AFLP fingerprints, plastid and nuclear sequences were employed to explore the phylogeography of Cerastium dinaricum. Range size changes under future climatic conditions were predicted by niche-based modeling. Likely the most cold-adapted plant endemic to the Dinaric Mountains in the western Balkan Peninsula, the species has conservation priority in the European Union as its highly fragmented distribution range includes only few small populations. A deep phylogeographic split paralleled by divergent genome size separates the populations into two vicariant groups. Substructure is pronounced within the southeastern group, corresponding to the area's higher geographic complexity. Cerastium dinaricum likely responded to past climatic oscillations with altitudinal range shifts, which, coupled with high topographic complexity of the region and warmer climate in the Holocene, sculptured its present fragmented distribution. Field observations revealed that the species is rarer than previously assumed and, as shown by modeling, severely endangered by global warming as viable habitat was predicted to be reduced by more than 70% by the year 2080. PMID:24857887

  7. Contrasting response of accessory ilmenite and magnetite to magma mixing and postmagmatic alteration in Petrohan pluton, Western Balkan, Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Series of representative samples of granodiorite, diorite, hybrid diorite, hybrid gabbro and mafic magmatic enclaves (MME) from Petrohan pluton, Western Balkan, Bulgaria, were chosen to clarify the effects of magma mingling and mixing and postmagmatic alteration onto the chemical composition, microstructure and stability of accessory magnetite and ilmenite. Although the two oxide phases were found to crystallize simultaneously – after and, probably, during the mixing of magmas as late magmatic minerals, they demonstrated much contrasted behaviour during magmatic and postmagmatic processes. In all the studied rocks, magnetite occurs in the form of well-preserved homogeneous crystals with sporadic, very fine exsolutions of ulvöspinel and coarser oxy-exsolutions of ilmenite. The microstructure of accessory ilmenite in the rocks is more complicated, being a result of several post-magma-mixing processes: (i) prevailing part of the ilmenite grains has relic outlook due to intensive replacement by late-magmatic and postmagmatic titanite; (ii) each ilmenite grain contains numerous micro- and nanoscale hematite exsolutions distributed parallel to (0001) crystallographic plane of ilmenite; (iii) significant part of the ilmenite grains is locally decomposed into hematite and rutile as a result of postmagmatic oxidation alteration. Magnetite from different rocks does not show any essential differences in its chemical composition: the most important minor elements in the mineral as Al, Ti and V vary in similar ranges (Al2O3 -0.3–0.9 wt.%, TiO2 – 0.5–1.4 wt. %, V2O3 – 0.1–0.45 wt. %). The composition of ilmenite grains (point analyses of ilmenite and area analyses of ilmenite with hematite exsolutions) is more variable and reflects effects of magma mixing – similar range of Fe3+ content (5–18 mol.% of Fe2O3) and anomalously high content of Mn (∼40 mol.% of MnTiO3) in part of ilmenite grains of hybrid diorite as well as the specific influence of the chemical

  8. Séquences de dépôt à l'articulation plate-forme urgonienne bassin (intervalle Barrémien Albien) dans le Prébalkan occidental (Bulgarie du Nord-Ouest)Depositional sequences at the Urgonian platform/basin transition (Barremian Albian interval) in the western Fore-Balkan (northwest Bulgaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peybernès, Bernard; Ivanov, Marin; Nikolov, Todor; Ciszak, Richard; Stoykova, Kristalina

    2000-04-01

    In the western Fore-Balkan (northwest Bulgaria), the characterization of numerous depositional sequences within the Barremian-Albian interval allows us to reconstruct from southeast to northwest the successive palaeogeographies of this part of the north Tethyan margin: two carbonate (Urgonian) platforms flanking a central terrigenous basin during the Barremian; a single centrifugal terrigenous basin (Aptian) marked, along its axis, by an olistostrome and siliciclastic turbidites; a single Albian basin characterized by the stacking of glauconite-rich condensation sections and anoxic black marls.

  9. Deep drilling of ancient Lake Ohrid (Balkan region) to capture over 1 million years of evolution and global climate cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Bernd; Francke, Alexander; Wilke, Thomas; Krastel, Sebastian; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Sulpizio, Roberto; Reicherter, Klaus; Leng, Melanie; Grazhdani, Andon; Trajanovski, Sasho; Levkov, Zlatko; Reed, Jane; Wonik, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Ancient lakes, with sediment records spanning >1 million years, are very rare. The UNESCO World Heritage site of Lake Ohrid in the Balkan region is thought to be the oldest lake in continuous existence in Europe and, with 212 endemic species described to date, is a hotspot of evolution. An international group of scientists working on a project entitled 'Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO)' realized a deep drilling campaign of Lake Ohrid in spring 2013. Based on several coring seismic campaigns between 2004 and 2011, Lake Ohrid became the target of an ICDP deep drilling campaign, with specific research aims: (i) obtain precise information about the age and origin of the lake, (ii) unravel the lake's seismotectonic history, (iii) obtain a continuous record of Quaternary volcanic activity and climate change, and (iv) investigate the influence of major geological/environmental events on evolution and the generation of extraordinary endemic biodiversity. Drilling began in April 2013 using the Deep Lake Drilling System (DLDS) of DOSECC (USA). The campaign, completed by late May, was deemed one of the most successful ICDP lake drilling projects, with a total of ~2100 m of sediment recovered from four different sites. At the central "DEEP" site, hydro-acoustic data indicated a maximum sediment fill of ca. 700 m, of which the uppermost 568 m was recovered. Coarse gravel and pebbles underlying clay and shallow water facies hampered deeper penetration. A total of 1526 m of sediment cores was collected from six boreholes, with a composite field recovery ('master core') of 544 m (95%). Three additional sites were drilled in order to analyze lake-level fluctuations, catchment dynamics, biodiversity and evolution processes ("Cerava", deepest drilled depth: 90 m), to investigate active tectonics and spring dynamics ("Gradiste", deepest drilled depth: 123 m), and to try to understand the geological origins of the Ohrid Basin ("Pestani

  10. The Slavs and Vlachs in the Byzantine system of provincial organization in the Southern Balkans until the XI century: Similarities and differencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to establishing the circumstances and manner under which the Slav tribes and Vlachs in the southern Balkans were being integrated into the Byzantine system of provincial administration. Constantinople militarily imposed sovereignty on the settled Slavs, which was the first step towards their integration into the Byzantine state and society. When it comes to Vlachs, there was no use of military force. Special methods were applied to fit their autonomous organization into the frames oh the empire. In this regard, the paper compares the patterns of the integration processes of the two mentioned ethnic groups. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177032: Tradicija, inovacija i identitet u vizantijskom svetu

  11. Review of the Balkan Isophya (Orthoptera: Phaneropteridae) with particular emphasis on the Isophya modesta group and remarks on the systematics of the genus based on morphological and acoustic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chobanov, Dragan P; Grzywacz, Beata; Iorgu, Ionuţ Ş; Ciplak, Battal; Ilieva, Maya B; Warchałowska-Śliwa, Elżbieta

    2013-01-01

    A critical review of the taxonomy and systematics of the genus Isophya from the Balkan Peninsula, together with a revision of the I. modesta group, including its representatives outside the Balkans, has been made using morphological, bioacoustic and karyological data. As a result, the following taxonomic considerations have been proposed: (1) the status of two taxa has been reconsidered: Isophya rhodopensis leonorae Kaltenbach, stat.n., I. rhodopensis petkovi Peshev, stat.n.; (2) five synonymies have been established: I. hospodar (Saussure) = I. hospodar medimontana Nedelkov, syn.n.; I. plevnensis Peshev, sensu novo = I. pravdini pravdini Peshev, syn.n.; I. rhodopensis leonorae Kaltenbach = I. kisi Peshev, syn.n.; I. obtusa = I. pravdini bazyluki Peshev, syn.n.; I. modesta Frivaldszky = I. modesta intermedia Kis syn.n. The descriptions of the taxa under consideration are supplemented with unpublished morphological and/or bioacoustic data. An updated list of the taxa occurring on the Balkans includes 24 taxa (21 species, including the doubtful data on I. camptoxypha). A dichotomic and tabulated key for recognition and maps of distribution of the established taxa are presented. PMID:25333087

  12. Convergence of the Policies for Promoting Total Quality Management in the Public Administrations of Balkan States – European Union Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani MATEI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past three decades, total quality management (TQM has been appreciated as “fundamental modality in view to improve the activity in the public and private sectors” (Boyne and Walker, 2002, p. 1. For the time being, in public administrations, we witness an extension of the policies for promoting TQM, although the experiences have not always been positive.The European Administrative Space (EAS incorporates TQM, in different manners at national level, taking into consideration its recognised impact on the efficiency of public administration, one of EAS fundamental principles (Zurga, 2008, pp. 39-49. In the context of analysing EAS evolution, the administrative convergence will also comprise the convergence of TQM policies. In fact, the field literature (Hackman, Wageman, 1995 reveals, in the context of national TQM policy-making, the concepts of ”Convergent validity” and ”Discriminant validity”, reflecting ”the degree to which the version of TQM promulgated by the founders and observed in organizational practice share a common set of assumptions and prescriptions” (Hackman, Wageman, 1995, pp. 318-319.By a comparative analysis on TQM policies in the national public administrations of Balkan states, EU Member States: Greece, Cyprus, Slovenia, Bulgaria and Romania, the current paper aims to reveal the level of their convergence as well as the theoretical consistency of the conceptual and practical framework for TQM assertion.The comparative analysis will be based on a comprehensive vision on TQM, provided by Dean and Bowen (1994, Boyne and Walker (2002, namely its approach should be characterised on own principles, practices and techniques, grouped on customer focus, continuous improvement and team work (Boyne and Walker, 2002, pp. 4-5.The tradition on promoting TQM in public administration in the above-mentioned states is relatively recent: since 1990s – Cyprus, since 1995 – Greece and Slovenia, since 2000 – Bulgaria and

  13. The first record of a soft-shelled turtle (Testudines: Pan-Trionychidae) from southern Balkans (Pliocene, Gefira, N. Greece) and new information from bone histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachos, Evangelos; Cerda, Ignacio; Tsoukala, Evangelia

    2015-08-01

    Soft-shelled turtles (Pan-Trionychidae) are not included in the present-day chelonian fauna of Greece and have been unknown in the Greek fossil record up to now. Here, we report the first fossil occurrence of a soft-shelled turtle from Greece, originating from the Pliocene Gefira Member (Angelochori Formation), in the lower Axios valley. The corresponding specimens were discovered with several mammalian remains, most of them attributable to the mastodon of Auvergne, Anancus arvernensis. The chelonian material includes five carapacial fragments that belong to the same individual and can be attributed to Pan-Trionychidae based on the typical sculpturing on the dorsal side of the carapace. Most of these bony plates were histologically sampled and thereby provide evidence for the "plywood" structure, another characteristic of pan-trionychids. They represent the first extended sampling of trionychid plates that belong to the same individual, allowing the documentation of the variation of the relevant trionychid morphologies in the carapace. These findings expand the paleobiogeographic range of this taxon to the southern Balkans and Greece and allow a better estimation of the chelonian paleo-fauna of the area. They are also important for the temporal distribution of this clade in the Paleoarctic, as they join specimens from Italy as being the last trionychids in Europe.

  14. Traces of DU in samples of environmental bio-monitors (non-flowering plants, fungi) and soil from target sites of the Western Balkan region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports results of gamma and alpha spectrometric measurements for mosses, lichens, fungi and soil samples from areas in the Balkans targeted by depleted uranium (DU). Samples were collected in 2002 and 2003 in the vicinity of several villages, principally Han Pijesak (Bosnia and Herzegovina, hit by DU in 1995) and Bratoselce (South Serbia, hit by DU in 1999) and in lesser numbers from Gornja Stubla, Kosovo (which is identified as a high natural radon/thoron area) and Presevo close to the Kosovo border. In the course of gamma spectrometric measurements some results suggested samples with unusual high uranium contents which might be considered to be a signature for the presence of DU, although many samples had very high detection limits. Alpha spectrometric measurements directly proved the presence of DU for five samples, all from directly targeted places. These were samples of mosses, lichens and soil. For some samples homogeneity tests were applied which showed a rather even distribution of DU in these samples. No trace of DU was found in any sample from a dwelling

  15. Distribution and Taxonomic Significance of Secondary Metabolites Occurring in the Methanol Extracts of the Stonecrops (Sedum L., Crassulaceae) from the Central Balkan Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovic, Gordana S; Jovanović, Snežana C; Zlatković, Bojan K

    2015-06-01

    The present study is engaged in the chemical composition of methanol extracts of Sedum taxa from the central part of the Balkan Peninsula, and representatives from other genera of Crassulaceae (Crassula, Echeveria and Kalanchoe) considered as out-groups. The chemical composition of extracts was determined by HPLC analysis, according to retention time of standards and characteristic absorption spectra of components. Identified components were considered as original variables with possible chemotaxonomic significance. Relationships of examined plant samples were investigated by agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis (AHC). The obtained results showed how the distribution of methanol extract components (mostly phenolics) affected grouping of the examined samples. The obtained clustering showed satisfactory grouping of the examined samples, among which some representatives of the Sedum series, Rupestria and Magellensia, are the most remote. The out-group samples were not clearly singled out with regard to Sedum samples as expected; this especially applies to samples of Crassula ovata and Echeveria lilacina, while Kalanchoe daigremontiana was more separated from most of the Sedum samples. PMID:26197522

  16. Environmental change within the Balkan region during the past ca. 50 ka recorded in the sediments from lakes Prespa and Ohrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wagner

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Lakes Prespa and Ohrid, in the Balkan region, are considered to be amongst the oldest lakes in Europe. Both lakes are hydraulically connected via karst aquifers. From Lake Ohrid, several sediment cores up to 15 m long have been studied over the last few years. Here, we document the first long sediment record from nearby Lake Prespa to clarify the influence of Lake Prespa on Lake Ohrid and the environmental history of the region. Radiocarbon dating and dated tephra layers provide robust age control and indicate that the 10.5 m long sediment record from Lake Prespa reaches back to 48 ka. Glacial sedimentation is characterized by low organic matter content and absence of carbonates in the sediments, which indicate oligotrophic conditions in both lakes. Holocene sedimentation is characterized by particularly high carbonate content in Lake Ohrid and by particularly high organic matter content in Lake Prespa, which indicates a shift towards more mesotrophic conditions in the latter. Long-term environmental change and short-term events, such as related to the Heinrich events during the Pleistocene or the 8.2 ka cooling event during the Holocene, are well recorded in both lakes, but are only evident in certain proxies. The comparison of the sediment cores from both lakes indicates that environmental change affects particularly the trophic state of Lake Prespa due to its lower volume and water depth.

  17. Environmental change within the Balkan region during the past ca. 50 ka recorded in the sediments from lakes Prespa and Ohrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, B.; Vogel, H.; Zanchetta, G.; Sulpizio, R.

    2010-10-01

    Lakes Prespa and Ohrid, in the Balkan region, are considered to be amongst the oldest lakes in Europe. Both lakes are hydraulically connected via karst aquifers. From Lake Ohrid, several sediment cores up to 15 m long have been studied over the last few years. Here, we document the first long sediment record from nearby Lake Prespa to clarify the influence of Lake Prespa on Lake Ohrid and the environmental history of the region. Radiocarbon dating and dated tephra layers provide robust age control and indicate that the 10.5 m long sediment record from Lake Prespa reaches back to 48 ka. Glacial sedimentation is characterized by low organic matter content and absence of carbonates in the sediments, which indicate oligotrophic conditions in both lakes. Holocene sedimentation is characterized by particularly high carbonate content in Lake Ohrid and by particularly high organic matter content in Lake Prespa, which indicates a shift towards more mesotrophic conditions in the latter. Long-term environmental change and short-term events, such as related to the Heinrich events during the Pleistocene or the 8.2 ka cooling event during the Holocene, are well recorded in both lakes, but are only evident in certain proxies. The comparison of the sediment cores from both lakes indicates that environmental change affects particularly the trophic state of Lake Prespa due to its lower volume and water depth.

  18. Field experience on indoor radon, thoron and their progenies with solid-state detectors in a survey of Kosovo and Metohija (Balkan region)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1996/97, indoor radon has been measured in scattered locations around Kosovo. In the most recent campaign, apart from radon, thoron and Rn and Tn progenies have also been measured. The current survey involves 48 houses, in which different detectors have been deployed side-by-side in one room, in order to measure indoor radon and thoron gas with RADUET devices based on CR-39 detectors (analysed by Japanese collaborators) and with direct thoron and radon progeny sensor(DTPS and DRPS) devices based on LR-115 detectors (analysed by collaborators from India). Estimated arithmetic mean values of concentrations in 48 houses are 122 Bq m-3 for radon and 136 Bq m-3 for thoron. Those for equilibrium equivalent radon concentration and equilibrium equivalent thoron concentration based on measurements in 48 houses are 40 and 2.1 Bqm-3,respectively. The arithmetic mean value of the equilibrium factor is estimated to be 0.50±0.23 for radon and 0.037±0.041 for thoron. The preliminary results of these measurements are reported, particularly regarding DTPS and DRPS being set up in real field conditions for the first time in the Balkan region. The results are to be understood under the caveat of open questions related to measurement protocols which yield reproducible and representative results, and to quality assurance of Tn and Rn/Tn progeny measurements in general, some of which are discussed. (authors)

  19. Traces of DU in samples of environmental bio-monitors (non-flowering plants, fungi) and soil from target sites of the Western Balkan region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zunic, Zora S. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , Mike Petrovica Alasa 12-14, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Mietelski, Jerzy W. [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-342 Krakow, Radzikowskiego 152 (Poland)], E-mail: jerzy.mietelski@ifj.edu.pl; Blazej, Sylwia; Gaca, Pawel; Tomankiewicz, Ewa [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-342 Krakow, Radzikowskiego 152 (Poland); Ujic, Predrag; Celikovic, Igor; Cuknic, Olivera; Demajo, Miroslav [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , Mike Petrovica Alasa 12-14, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2008-08-15

    This paper reports results of gamma and alpha spectrometric measurements for mosses, lichens, fungi and soil samples from areas in the Balkans targeted by depleted uranium (DU). Samples were collected in 2002 and 2003 in the vicinity of several villages, principally Han Pijesak (Bosnia and Herzegovina, hit by DU in 1995) and Bratoselce (South Serbia, hit by DU in 1999) and in lesser numbers from Gornja Stubla, Kosovo (which is identified as a high natural radon/thoron area) and Presevo close to the Kosovo border. In the course of gamma spectrometric measurements some results suggested samples with unusual high uranium contents which might be considered to be a signature for the presence of DU, although many samples had very high detection limits. Alpha spectrometric measurements directly proved the presence of DU for five samples, all from directly targeted places. These were samples of mosses, lichens and soil. For some samples homogeneity tests were applied which showed a rather even distribution of DU in these samples. No trace of DU was found in any sample from a dwelling.

  20. The Cretaceous/Paleogene (K/Pg boundary in the Mezdra and Lyutidol syncline, Vratza District (West-Fore Balkan, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolkičev Nikola A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the unjustified assignment (based on calcareous nannofossils of a large portion of the Maastrichtian strata in the Mezdra and Lyutidol synclines (West Fore Balkan, Bulgaria to the Paleogene. The co-occurrence of Paleocene nannofossils, reported by some authors, and Maastrichtian macrofossil taxa in these sections indicates diachronism in the appearance of macro- and nannofossils across the K/Pg boundary. Thus, this boundary cannot be precisely localized except if the Maastrichtian fossils are assumed to have been redeposited, but there is no evidence of resedimentation. Maastrichtian macrofossils are found not only within the range of the Paleogene nannofossil zones, but also in sections overlying them in the Kajlâka Formation where new Maastrichtian macrofossil taxa, such as the echinoid Hemipneustes striatoradiatus (LESKE, appear and some inoceramid and cephalopod taxa range into this unit. These facts shed doubt over the applicability of nannofossils in determining the K/Pg boundary where this has already been firmly documented by macrofauna.

  1. Changing what it means to ‘become a man’: participants’ reflections on a school-based programme to redefine masculinity in the Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namy, Sophie; Heilman, Brian; Stich, Shawna; Crownover, John; Leka, Besnik; Edmeades, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Calls to engage men and boys in efforts to promote health, prevent violence and advance gender equality have grown in recent years. However, there remains little evidence or reflection on how most effectively to change harmful norms related to masculinity. The study addresses this gap by exploring the perspectives of participants in the Young Men Initiative (YMI), an innovative programme that aimed to promote healthier masculinities among boys attending vocational high schools in several Balkan countries through educational workshops, residential retreats and a social marketing campaign. Qualitative data were collected through 37 in-depth interviews and 11 focus-group discussions with boys, youth facilitators and teachers. Findings from four schools (in Belgrade, Sarajevo, Prishtina and Zagreb) suggest that several elements of the programme resonated strongly with participants and supported their meaningful engagement in project activities. Five themes emerged as most salient in identifying how and why specific aspects of YMI positively influenced participants: personal reflection, experience-based learning, connections with youth facilitators, new peer groups and aspirational messaging. Building on these insights, the study highlights potentially useful strategies for other programmes seeking to reach boys and transform their understanding of masculinity. PMID:26680537

  2. Tectonic configuration of the Apuseni-Banat—Timok-Srednogorie belt, Balkans-South Carpathians, constrained by high precision R e-O s molybdenite ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Aaron; Stein, Holly J.; Hannah, Judith L.; Koželj, Dejan; Bogdanov, Kamen; Berza, Tudor

    2008-01-01

    The Apuseni-Banat-Timok-Srednogorie magmatic-metallogenic belt (ABTS belt), forms a substantial metallogenic province in the Balkan-South Carpathian system in southeastern Europe. The belt hosts porphyry, skarn, and epithermal deposits mined since pre-Roman times. Generally, the deposits, prospects, and occurrences within the belt are linked to magmatic centers of calc-alkaline affinity. Fifty-one rhenium-osmium (Re-Os) ages and Re concentration data for molybdenites define systematic geochronologic trends and constrain the geochemical-metallogenic evolution of the belt in space and time. From these data and additional existing geologic-geochemical data, a general tectonic history for the belt is proposed. Mineralization ages in Apuseni-Banat, Timok, and Panagyurishte (the central district of the larger E-W Srednogorie Zone) range from 72-83, 81-88, and 87-92 Ma, respectively, and clearly document increasing age from the northwestern districts to the southeastern districts. Further, Re-Os ages suggest rapidly migrating pulses of Late Cretaceous magmatic-hydrothermal activity with construction of deposits in ~1 m.y., districts in ~10 m.y., and the entire 1,500 km belt in ~20 m.y. Ages in both Timok and Panagyurishte show systematic younging, while deposit ages in Banat and Apuseni are less systematic reflecting a restricted evolution of the tectonic system. Systematic differences are also observed for molybdenite Re concentrations on the belt scale. Re concentrations generally range from hundreds to thousands of parts per million, typical of subduction-related Cu-Au-Mo-(PGE) porphyry systems associated with the generation of juvenile crust. The geochronologic and geochemical trends are compatible with proposed steepening of subducting oceanic slab and relaxation of upper continental plate compression. Resulting influx of sub-continental mantle lithosphere (SCML) and asthenosphere provide a fertile metal source and heat, while the subducting slab contributes connate

  3. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data reveal the evolutionary history of Barbus (Cyprinidae) in the ancient lake systems of the Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marková, Silvia; Sanda, Radek; Crivelli, Alain; Shumka, Spase; Wilson, Iain F; Vukić, Jasna; Berrebi, Patrick; Kotlík, Petr

    2010-05-01

    Freshwater fauna of ancient lakes frequently contain endemic taxa thought to have originated during the long existence of these lakes, yet uncertainties remain as to whether they represent distinct genetic lineages with respect to more widespread relatives and to the relative roles of isolation and dispersal in their evolution. Phylogenetic analyses of sequence variation at nuclear and mitochondrial genes were used to examine these issues for the freshwater fish genus Barbus in two European ancient lake systems on the Balkan Peninsula. The nuclear and mitochondrial data yielded concordant phylogeographic patterns though incomplete sorting of nuclear haplotypes between some mitochondrial clades was detected. The distributions of two currently recognized species investigated here do not match the distributions of evolutionary lineages revealed by phylogenetic analyses. The Prespa barbel, Barbus prespensis, is not endemic to the lakes Prespa as previously thought but is instead found to be widespread in the south-eastern Adriatic Sea basin, with a distribution largely corresponding to the basin of the now extinct Lake Maliq historically connected with Lake Prespa. On the other hand, a cryptic phylogenetic subdivision in a widespread species, B. rebeli, was discovered to be more distant from B. rebeli than from other Barbus species and to be endemic to the system of connected lakes Ohrid and Shkodra. The division coincides with the hydrogeographical boundary delimiting distributions of other freshwater fishes, and we suggest that this newly discovered evolutionary lineage represents a distinct species. These findings support the emerging pattern that endemic taxa have evolved not through isolation of individual lakes, but in systems of currently and historically interconnected lakes and their wider basins. PMID:20139017

  4. Frequencies of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes of the SLCO1B1 gene in selected populations of the western balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapci, A Daka; Dimovski, A J; Kapedanovska, A; Vavlukis, M; Eftimov, A; Geshkovska, N Matevska; Labachevski, N; Jakjovski, K; Gorani, D; Kedev, S; Mladenovska, K

    2015-06-01

    As a membrane influx transporter, organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) regulates the cellular uptake of a number of endogenous compounds and drugs. The aim of this study was to characterize the diversity of the solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 (SLCO1B1) gene encoding this transporter in two ethnic groups populating the Western Balkans. The distribution of SCLO1B1 alleles was determined at seven variant sites (c.388A>G, c.521T>C, c.571T>C, c.597C>T, c.1086C>T, c.1463G>C and c.*439T>G) in 266 Macedonians and 94 Albanians using the TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. No significant difference in the frequencies of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was observed between these populations. The frequency of the c.521T>C SNP was the lowest (C and c.1086 C>T SNPs were not identified in either ethnic group. The haplotype analysis revealed 20 and 21 different haplotypes in the Macedonian and Albanian population, respectively. The most common haplotype in both ethnic groups, *1J/*1K/*1L, had a frequency of 39.0% and 26.6%, respectively. In both populations, the variant alleles of the functionally significant c.521T>C and c.388A>G SNPs existed in one major haplotype (*15/*16/*17), with a frequency of 8.6 and 2.4% in the Macedonian and Albanian subjects, respectively. In conclusion, sequence variations of the SLCO1B1 gene in the studied populations occur at high frequencies, which are similar to that of the Caucasian population. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical significance of these SNPs and/ or the major SLCO1B1 haplotypes they form for a large number of substrates and for susceptibility to certain diseases. PMID:26929901

  5. Bringing Europe and Third countries closer together through renewable Energies (BETTER). D2.1. EU RES cooperation initiatives with third Countries. North Africa, West Balkans and Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uslu, A.; Dalla Longa, F.; Veum, K.C.; Straver, K. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Karakosta, C [National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2013-03-15

    One major element of EU's external energy policy is expanding its energy norms and regulations to neighbourhood countries and beyond to achieve its energy policy priorities - safe, secure, affordable and sustainable energy supply. The importance of external energy policy has been acknowledged in the European Union's 2007 'energy package', and Second Strategic Energy Review and the European Commission's Communication on security of energy supply and international cooperation. The EU Renewable Energy Directive provides another element to crossborder cooperation by allowing Member States to fulfil their 2020 renewable energy (RES) targets by implementing joint projects in third countries. Even though the Member States' national renewable energy action plans (NREAPs) to reach their RES targets do not indicate any significant use of this mechanism, the RES Directive acknowledges the importance of renewable energy as part of external energy policy. This report aims at presenting the political framework between the EU and the BETTER project target regions (North Africa, Western Balkans and Turkey) with regards to (renewable) energy and the relevant initiatives and the projects to set the scene for RES joint projects as defined in Article 9 of the RES Directive. The main objectives of this study report are (1) to review energy treaties, agreements, and partnerships to assess their relevance to cooperation mechanism with Third countries; and (2) to analyse the relevance of the recent projects and initiatives to BETTER project and improve and trigger the communication and synergies between BETTER project partners and the relevant projects.

  6. Geographically Related Variation in Epicuticular Wax Traits of Pinus nigra Populations from Southern Carpathians and Central Balkans - Taxonomic Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitić, Zorica S; Zlatković, Bojan K; Jovanović, Snežana Č; Stojanović, Gordana S; Marin, Petar D

    2016-07-01

    The chemical composition of epicuticular waxes of nine populations from three Pinus nigra J. F. Arnold subspecies (namely subsp. nigra, subsp. banatica (Borbás) Novák, and subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe) from Southern Carpathians and central Balkan Peninsula were analyzed using GC/MS and GC/FID chromatography, and multivariate statistical techniques with respect to biogeography and taxonomy. In the needle waxes, four primary alcohols and 14 n-alkanes ranging from C21 to C33 were identified, and the most abundant compounds were the four odd-numbered n-alkanes C27 , C25 , C23 , and C29. Multivariate statistical analyses (CDA and CA) have shown existence of three P. nigra groups and suggested clinal differentiation as a mechanism of genetic variation across a geographic area: the first group consisted of the southernmost populations of subsp. pallasiana from Macedonia, the second consisted of the northernmost subsp. banatica populations from Romania, while all populations in Serbia described as three different subspecies (nigra, banatica, and pallasiana) formed the third group together with subsp. nigra population from Bosnia and Herzegovina. According to simple linear regression, geographic latitude and four bioclimatic parameters were moderately correlated with the contents of epicuticular wax compounds that are important in population discrimination, while stepwise multiple regression showed that latitude participated in most of the regression models for predicting the composition of the epicuticular waxes. These results agree with CDA and CA analysis, and confirmed the possibility of recognition of fine geographic differentiation of the analyzed P. nigra populations. PMID:27273147

  7. Sedimentological imprints of environmental variability at the Balkan Peninsula on the sediment sequence of Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) between the Mid Pleistocene Transition and present days: the ICDP SCOPSCO project

    OpenAIRE

    Francke, Alexander; Wagner, Bernd; Leicher, Niklas; Raphael, Gromig; Leng, Melanie; Lacey, Jack; Vogel, Hendrik; Baumgarten, Henrike

    2015-01-01

    The UNESCO World Heritage site of Lake Ohrid in the Balkans is thought to be the oldest, continuously existing lake in Europe. In order to unravel the geological and evolutionary history of the lake, a deep drilling campaign was conducted in spring 2013 under the umbrella of the ICDP SCOPSCO project. At the coring site “DEEP” in central parts of the lake, more than 1,500 m of sediments were recovered down to a penetration depth of 569 m blf. This sediment sequence is assumed to be...

  8. Aspects in the religious life of Romanians from the Balkan Peninsula – the end of the 19th century – the beginning of of the 20th century. Archive Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Berciu-Drăghicescu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents on the basis of the archive documents aspects related to the religious life of Romanians from the Balkan Peninsula between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. It also presents the position which the Patriarchy in Constantinople had during all this period of time concerning the actions of Romanians. These were not successful but the situation changed after the issue of the imperial resolution of 1905 which ensured the use of the Romanian language and of the A-romanian dialect in church.

  9. Çanakkale Savaşları Komutanlarından Esat Paşa'nın (Bülkat Balkan Savaşları Sonuna Kadar Olan Hayatı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüksel Nizamoğlu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the highest-ranking Turkish commanders of Gallipoli Campaign, Esat Pasha’s life has not been studied as an independent research topic. In this study, the family of Ioannian-born Esat Pasha, his education and first duties are handled. Especially his duty as a deputy of chief of staff of the Third Army, which is mentioned in the Speech by Atatürk, has been discussed and what defensive strategy he pursued in the Balkan Wars as a commander of Yanya Corps is studied in detail.

  10. In the shadow of the Macedonian issue international realignments and Balkan repercussions: From the Greek-Yugoslav agreements of 18 june 1959 to the 1960 crisis in relations between Athens and Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sfetas Spyridon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 1960s were a decade of important developments in the Balkans. Skopje’s stirring up of the issue of the supposed "Macedonian" minority led to a series of diplomatic clashes between Greece and Yugoslavia, culminating in the 1960-1962 crisis. A major role in developments in the Balkans was played by the Soviet Union, which, directly or indirectly, greatly influenced the shaping of Yugoslav foreign policy. The crisis began in August 1960 when for the first time since 1950, the Yugoslavia Foreign Ministry publicly raised the question of protecting the rights of the "Macedonian minority". While the Athens-Belgrade crisis was not serious enough to lead them to break off diplomatic relations, it did have a catalytic effect on the shaping of Bulgarian policy with regard to the Macedonian question. After the restoration of democracy in Greece (1974, and despite her need for support from Yugoslavia on the Cyprus issue, the Karamanlis government did not repeat the "mistakes" of 1959. Belgrade, having secured in 1975 a renewal of the agreement on the free zone in the Port of Thessaloniki, did not insist on signing a border agreement. The Macedonian question had become of no more than academic interest in the discussions of politicians on both sides of the border, and the crisis of 1960-62 merely a forgotten flareup.

  11. Pollen, sediment and diatom response to past climate and environmental change in the Balkan region: the Holocene record of Lake Dojran (Greece/FYROM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Alessia; Sadori, Laura; Francke, Alexander; Pepe, Caterina; Wagner, Bernd

    2015-04-01

    Lake Dojran (41° 12'N, 22° 44'E, 144 m a.s.l.) is located at the border between the F.Y.R. of Macedonia and Greece in a karstic basin formed by a combination of Tertiary volcanic and tectonic activities. The lake is fed by small rivers, creeks and springs, with most of the run off originating from the near Belasica and Kroussia Mountains. The area of Lake Dojran is influenced by the mountain climate of the central and northern Balkans. In addition, it is tempered by the influence of the Mediterranean Sea, to which it is exposed via the Thessaloniki Plain. The marine influence provides mild winters with high precipitation and long, hot, dry summers. The diverse natural vegetation has been heavily influenced by human activities, particularly during the historical era. Remnants of natural vegetation which survive are dominated by mesophilous plants, in particular deciduous oaks and ashes together with riparian elements such as alders and planes. A 717 cm core was collected from the deepest part of the lake (ca. 6.6 m depth), in Macedonian waters. Thirteen radiocarbon dates carried out on terrestrial plant remains, charcoal, carbonate shell fragments, and bulk organic matter, established that the core covers the last ca. 12500 years, spanning the Younger Dryas to the present (1). Here, we build on previous sedimentological and diatom-based palaeolimnological research, strengthening the multi-proxy dataset by addition of palynological evidence for vegetation catchment change. The Late Glacial was characterized first by an Artemisia steppe, followed by expansion of chenopods and then grasses, confirming the arid climate inferred from sedimentology and diatom data. The subsequent expansion of grasses matches with an increase in lake level inferred from changes in the diatom assemblages. Forest expansion at the onset of the Holocene is characterized by deciduous, semideciduous and evergreen oaks, with pine and fir, during an initial deepwater phase followed by shallowing

  12. Portrait of a necessary Ponto-Baltic alliance: Polish commercial road projects towards the Balkans and the Black Sea, 1919 – 1926

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Anghel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The economic expression of the Romanian-Polish military and political alliance undoubtedly had to be represented by the rebirth of the Baltic-Pontic commercial road, as the flow of products coming into and towards the Polish space had been artificially directed, during the 19th century, as a result of understandable political and economic interests, towards the North and the Adriatic Seas, instead of the Baltic and Black Seas. A Polish commercial road towards the Balkans obviously comprised economic, financial and strategic components. One of them referred to building an alternative to the continental routes dominated by Germany (Rhine, Main, Danube; the aim was chiefly to break a dangerous monopoly in the region of Central Europe and the Baltic area. Foreign commerce on the two relations did not enjoy, in any period between the two world wars, a spectacular evolution and never reached an important point. The arguments are based on strictly economic and financial elements: 1. Romania and Poland produced largely the same type of merchandise: there were basically similar raw materials (cereal, coal, oil, the products had a very low degree of processing, and one could earn more and more assuredly with the export type-products on traditional markets (mainly Western Europe; 2. Even if there was a great interest in a partner or a product on the other market, the transport thereof took a very long time. Between Warsaw and Bucharest there was a simple, inefficient and unsafe railroad; there was no preoccupation in the ’20s for the revamping or modernizing of the transport and service infrastructure (telephone, telegraph, post between the two states; 3. Last, but not least, although the two states had a great number of inhabitants – and, thus, an extremely important potential for buying and consumption – the potential was strongly handicapped by the standard of living. The scanty Polish projects and investments on the Baltic – Black Sea axis have

  13. Βιβλιοκρισία:R. BORN, Die Christianisierung der Städte der Provinz Scythia Minor: ein Beitrag zum spätantiken Urbanismus auf dem Balkan (Wiesbaden 2012. S. 261, ISBN: 978-3-89500-782-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Γιώργος ΚΑΡΔΑΡΑΣ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Βιβλιοκρισία: R. Born, Die Christianisierung der Städte der Provinz Scythia Minor: ein Beitrag zum spätantiken Urbanismus auf dem Balkan (Wiesbaden 2012. S. 261, ISBN: 978-3-89500-782-8

  14. Practical Applications of the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) as a Tool for Very Early Warning of Droughts and Floods in the Balkans Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Southern Europe is repeatedly identified in IPCC Reports as being particularly vulnerable to water resource impacts with risks being assessed as medium to high with current (low) levels of adaptation. Drought frequency will likely increase by the end of the 21st century under IPCC RCP8.5 (medium confidence) . The Balkans region has encountered some of its most significant ever floods and droughts since 2000, highly symptomatic of intense climate change. Foremost of these are the regional catastrophic floods in Albania (2009-10) (2010-11), Bosnia, Herzegovina and Serbia (2014), and the widespread droughts of 2007-08 and 2013-14. There is an urgent need to improve the awareness and implementation of drought and flood risk management tools in the national Ministries and National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMSs) of s.e. Europe generally. This paper describes the development and application of a practical user-friendly tool to calculate SPI across a range of timescales as recommended by the WMO , using a conventional 'Year Book' format to enter monthly precipitation values, coupled with some automated and relatively simple VBA code. Since the tool is spreadsheet based, it is user-friendly and graphically intuitive. The conditional formatting capability introduces a visualisation element to the SPI which is extremely helpful to NHMSs and other non-expert decision makers in understanding SPI significance. Recent practical application of the tool in relation to significant recent floods and droughts in Albania, Kosovo and Macedonia has demonstrated its value as a Very Early Warning tool. However, there are some implicit dangers in simply tracking the SPI 1, 2, n value per se without taking account of the actual accumulated deficits that may generate agricultural and ultimately hydrological droughts. It is conventionally assumed that the sum of the SPI for all months within a drought event can be termed the drought's "magnitude". In fact this is not the case. In regions

  15. Environmental conditions on the corridor of human migration between 40,000 and 14,000 a BP in the Balkan region. A multi-proxy approach on loess-paleosol profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina BÖSKEN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This contribution focuses on two PhD projects, which are integrated within the collaborative research centre 806 “Our way to Europe” at the University of Cologne and the RWTH Aachen University (Germany. The main research focus is the migration of anatomical modern human (AMH to Europe. We concentrate on the paleoenvironmental conditions on the route through southeastern Europe. This links the region with the earliest fossils of Homo sapiens sapiens (so far known in the Middle East, Anatolia, the Northwestern Black Sea, the Balkans and the Pannonian Basin. One PhD topic deals with the sedimentological and geochemical approach mainly from loess and loess-like sediments to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental conditions; the other PhD topic places an emphasis on the exact timing of those sedimentary records via luminescence dating. In particular the investigation of loess-paleosol sequences plays a central role. Geoarchives in Hungary, Serbia and Romania are of main interest for the project. The investigations will focus mainly on the loess and loess like sediments. However, data will be compared to further geoarchives, such as lacustrine sediments, speleothemes and marine records, to get a complete insight into the climatic evolution. First analyses include the loess-paleosol sequences at Bodrogkereztúr (Hungary, east of Miskolz, Orlovat (Serbia, north of Belgrade, Ságvár (Hungary, southeast of Lake Balaton, and Stalać (Serbia, confluence of South and West Morava.

  16. Health hazards of uranium dust from radioactive battlefields of the Balkan conflicts, Eastern Afghanistan and Iraq after the Gulf wars. Lessons for civil protection in the terrorist scenario of radiological dispersion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify key health hazards of uranium dust from the radioactive battlefields (Balkan, Middle East and Eastern Afghanistan conflicts) to draw lessons for civil protection in the terrorist scenario of radiological dispersion devices (RDD). Gulf War I (GW I) in 1991 resulted in 350 metric tons of depleted uranium (DU) deposited in the environment and 3 to 6 million grams of DU aerosol dust particles released into the atmosphere, by the most conservative estimates. Its possible legacy (Gulf War disease) continues after the military conflicts (Operation Enduring Freedom, OEF, in Afghanistan and Gulf War II in Iraq). The symptoms of the multiorgan incapacitating progressive disease have been as numerous as their names, including incapacitating fatigue, musculoskeletal and joint pains, headaches, neuropsychiatric disorders, affects changes, confusion, visual problems, changes of gait, loss of memory, lympadenopathies, respiratory impairment, impotence, and urinary tract morphological and functional alterations. The disease is still a matter of controversy regarding etiology and pathogenesis of the syndrome commonly named Gulf War disease. It was underestimated and subsequently evolved in its clinical description through recognition of progressive symptomatology. Methods: UMRC's studies of the human contamination with uranium isotopes were conducted with the exposed subjects of Jalalabad, Spin Gar, Tora Bora, and Kabul areas in Afghanistan after OEF as well as Samawah, Baghdad and Basrah in Iraq after GW II. The urine samples of the subjects were analysed by the plasma mass spectrometry. The analytical methodology involved pre-concentration of the uranium using co-precipitation and/or evaporation, oxidation of organic matter, purification of uranium with ion exchange chromatography, and mass spectrometry with a double focusing Thermo-Elemental Plasma54 multi-collector ICP-MS equipped with a

  17. Is Increased Susceptibility to Balkan Endemic Nephropathy in Carriers of Common GSTA1 (*A/*B Polymorphism Linked with the Catalytic Role of GSTA1 in Ochratoxin A Biotransformation? Serbian Case Control Study and In Silico Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Reljic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Although recent data suggest aristolochic acid as a putative cause of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN, evidence also exists in favor of ochratoxin A (OTA exposure as risk factor for the disease. The potential role of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, such as the glutathione transferases (GSTs, in OTA biotransformation is based on OTA glutathione adducts (OTHQ-SG and OTB-SG in blood and urine of BEN patients. We aimed to analyze the association between common GSTA1, GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 polymorphisms and BEN susceptibility, and thereafter performed an in silico simulation of particular GST enzymes potentially involved in OTA transformations. GSTA1, GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genotypes were determined in 207 BEN patients and 138 non-BEN healthy individuals from endemic regions by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Molecular modeling in silico was performed for GSTA1 protein. Among the GST polymorphisms tested, only GSTA1 was significantly associated with a higher risk of BEN. Namely, carriers of the GSTA1*B gene variant, associated with lower transcriptional activation, were at a 1.6-fold higher BEN risk than those carrying the homozygous GSTA1*A/*A genotype (OR = 1.6; p = 0.037. In in silico modeling, we found four structures, two OTB-SG and two OTHQ-SG, bound in a GSTA1 monomer. We found that GSTA1 polymorphism was associated with increased risk of BEN, and suggested, according to the in silico simulation, that GSTA1-1 might be involved in catalyzing the formation of OTHQ-SG and OTB-SG conjugates.

  18. Hate crimes: American and Balkan experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Jovan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the nineties of the last century it was noticed in the U.S.A. that suddenly the number of crimes with violence in the inter-racial and inter-ethnical conflicts rose. Also the phenomenon of ignition of churches, religious and sacral objects, especially in the south of the U.S.A., objects which were used by black people, was recorded. Directly in relation to that - the term „hate crimes“ then arose in science and became outspread very quickly, primarily in criminology. Several events, and above all the murder of a young homosexual in Wyoming influenced for both the violence and the crimes commited towards the homosexuals and all due to the prejudices towards this sexual minority to be included in this term. Today, this term is used not only in the U.S.A. and not only in a criminological sense, but also in a purely legal sense to denote the crimes which were carried out under the influence of hate towards a correspondent racial, ethnical or sexual minority. This term is linked also to the terminology and thus the problems which are related to the „hate speech“. The author of this paper writes about how this term arose in the first place and which problems emerge related to hate crimes and primarily in relation to the issues of expansion of democracy and tolerance, and also education, primarily among the police force and the young population. The author also ascertains that only with the law, no great effects in the battle against this phenomenon can be achieved and that before the criminal-legal intervention some other measures have to be approached, like the creation of an atmosphere of tolerance and the education of the citizens about the phenomenon of hate crimes.

  19. Towards Common Balkan Lexical Evidential Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Maxim M. Makartsev

    2012-01-01

    A simple listing of lexical evidential markers in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Albanian uncovers unusual problems, because a significant part of the markers are common, both due to genetic relations between the languages (e.g. Bulg. and Maced. spored) and to areal factors (e.g. Turk. word güya / gûya was loaned into Bulg. dialectal gyoa, Maced. ǵoa and Alb. gjoja; this marker also exists in Serb.). But these common markers with the same etymology do not necessarily have similar meanings, which i...

  20. New floristic records in the Balkans: 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Burkhard; Tan, Kit

    2008-01-01

    , 100), Asclepiadaceae (106), Asteraceae (4, 5, 20-25, 86, 87, 95, 96, 101), Berberidaceae (73), Boraginaceae (26), Brassicaceae (27-29, 97), Caryophyllaceae (30, 31), Chenopodiaceae (32, 33), Convolvulaceae (6), Crassulaceae (88), Cucurbitaceae (34), Cupressaceae (105), Cyperaceae (13-15, 51...

  1. 76 FR 38002 - Western Balkans Stabilization Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... part, provide legal, accounting, financial, brokering, freight forwarding, transportation, public relations, or other services to a person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to... 13219 (66 FR 34777, June 29, 2001) (``E.O. 13219''), invoking the authority of, inter alia,...

  2. New floristic records in the Balkans: 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    ), Plantaginaceae (122), Poaceae (69-70, 108, 115, 116, 127), Polygalaceae (183), Polygonaceae (55), Pyrolaceae (184), Ranunculaceae (11, 83, 84, 113, 123, 185), Rhamnaceae (56), Rosaceae (130, 186-189, 222), Rubiaceae (57, 190, 223-225), Salicaceae (58), Salviniaceae (98), Santalaceae (191), Sapindaceae (243...

  3. New floristic records in the Balkans: 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Sfikas, George; Vold, Gert

    2008-01-01

    (104), Poaceae (1, 57-60, 78, 93-94), Polypodiaceae (2, 16, 17), Portulacaceae(41), Primulaceae (42), Ranunculaceae (61- 65), Rosaceae (75, 76, 91), Rubiaceae (12, 43, 98), Salviniaceae (72), Sapindaceae (44), Scrophulariaceae (45, 46), Solanaceae (47) and Urticaceae (48). First reports for countries...

  4. New floristic records in the Balkans: 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Sfikas, George

    2007-01-01

    (14), Malvaceae (15), Orchidaceae (110-115), Paeoniaceae (39), Papaveraceae (40, 122), Poaceae (28-36, 57, 73-79, 140), Polygonaceae (16, 17, 128), Polypodiaceae (82), Ranunculaceae (99, 100), Resedaceae (41), Rhamnaceae (101, 102), Rosaceae (68), Rubiaceae (18, 48, 103), Sapindaceae (69...

  5. New floristic records in the Balkans: 16

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    ), Iridaceae (54, 55, 77), Juncaceae (69), Lamiaceae (40–42), Liliaceae s.l. (18, 56, 57, 70, 78, 79), Malvaceae (43), Onagraceae (85), Orchidaceae (58–60, 87, 88), Orobanchaceae (44, 66), Papaveraceae (14, 67, 75), Poaceae (19, 71), Polygonaceae (45, 76), Rosaceae (68), Rubiaceae (46, 47), Santalaceae (48...

  6. New floristic records in the Balkans: 9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Raabe, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    , 106-108), Linaceae (99, 100), Malvaceae (80), Orchidaceae (47, 48, 62), Plantaginaceae (101), Poaceae (73, 74), Polygalaceae (102, 103), Polypodiaceae (14, 15), Ranunculaceae (30), Rosaceae (104), Rubiaceae (31, 56, 75), Santalaceae (105), Scrophulariaceae (32, 57, 58, 72), Sinopteridaceae (13...

  7. New floristic records in the Balkans: 17

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    , 107), Orobanchaceae (101), Phytolaccaceae (48), Plumbaginaceae (49), Poaceae (16, 17, 91–93, 118–123, 130), Polygalaceae (50), Potamogetonaceae (18), Ranunculaceae (51, 52), Rhamnaceae (10), Rosaceae (11, 12, 53–55, 84, 111, 115–117, 140), Rubiaceae (56, 57), Ruppiaceae (19), Salicaceae (58...

  8. New floristic records in the Balkans: 12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    -54), Linaceae (23, 81), Nyctaginaceae (24), Ophioglossaceae (39), Orchidaceae (55-57), Oxalidaceae (25), Poaceae (36, 102), Portulacaceae (26), Primulaceae (27, 47), Ranunculaceae (8, 48, 49), (25), (36, 102), (26), (27, 47), (8, 48, 49), Rosaceae (9), Sapindaceae (89), Scrophulariaceae (10, 101) and Solanaceae...

  9. New floristic records in the Balkans: 10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    , 104), (85), Orchidaceae (3, 30, 45, 68-71, 89, 95), Paeoniaceae (2, 27), Poaceae (14-16, 47-50, 72-74, 93, 94, 105- 109, 116, 117), Rosaceae (28, 41, 62, 102, 115), Rubiaceae (63), Saxifragaceae (64), Scrophulariaceae (86), Solanaceae (87, 88), Thymeleaceae (29), Valerianaceae (103) and Vitaceae (91...

  10. New floristic records in the Balkans: 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    ), Rhamnaceae (9), (79, 95), (93), (14, 23, 24, 35), (64), Rosaceae (65), Rubiaceae (66), Scrophulariaceae (25, 26, 36, 73, 77, 81), Solanaceae (10, 11, 74), Thymelaeaceae (30, 67, 82), Valerianaceae (37), Verbenaceae (12), Violaceae (27) and Vitaceae (75). (30, 67, 82), (37), (12), (27) and (75).First reports...

  11. New floristic records in the Balkans: 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    .l. (55, 56, 92), Linaceae (40), Malvaceae (90), Onagraceae (11), Orchidaceae (66, 79), Plumbaginaceae (104), Poaceae (1, 57-60, 78, 93-94), Polypodiaceae (2, 16, 17), Portulacaceae(41), Primulaceae (42), Ranunculaceae (61- 65), Rosaceae (75, 76, 91), Rubiaceae (12, 43, 98), Salviniaceae (72), Sapindaceae...

  12. New floristic records in the Balkans: 11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    -13, 38-40), Malvaceae (19), Onagraceae (73), (31-33), (74), s.l. (11-13, 38-40), (19), (64), Orchidaceae (68, 69), Orobanchaceae (65), Oxalidaceae (20), Poaceae (23, 32, 41), Polypodiaceae (14), Primulaceae (66), Ranunculaceae (37), Rhamnaceae (76), Rosaceae (77, 78), Rubiaceae (notes after record no...

  13. New floristic records in the Balkans: 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    ), Ranunculaceae (12-14, 32, 65), Rosaceae (33, 66, 97), Rubiaceae (56, 73), Salicaceae (50), Scrophulariaceae (51), Valerianaceae (15) and Violaceae (57, 67). First reports for countries are: Bosnia & Herzegovina - Lactuca visianii (72), Potamogeton rutilus (29); Bulgaria - Convolvulus pilosellifolius (36...

  14. New floristic records in the Balkans: 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    (76, 77), Liliaceae (24-27), Onagraceae (62, 73-75, 92, 99), (63), (76, 77), (24-27), (17), Orchidaceae (28), Papaveraceae (18), Plantaginaceae (78), Poaceae (29-37, 87-98, 94, 101-103), Polygonaceae (19, 79), Primulaceae (51), Ranunculaceae (20, 38-40, 54-56, 64-66), Rosaceae (52, 53, 65, (19, 79...

  15. New floristic reports in the Balkans: 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giannopoulos, K.; Tan, Kit

    2011-01-01

    This paper continues a series of new plant records based on further floristic investigations in Greece. The floristic regions adopted follow those circumscribed in Flora Hellenica (Strid & Tan 1997). The flora of Ilia prefecture is a long-standing interest of the first author (KG) for many years...

  16. New floristic records in the Balkans: 16

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, B.; Tan, Kit

    2011-01-01

    This is the fifteenth report of new plant-records for the island of Samothraki (N Aegean islands, Nomos Evrou, Eparchia Samothrakis) based on fieldwork carried out mainly in May 2011, supplemented with a few collections from earlier years. The records listed are all new to the island, or to the...... floristic region N Aegean (NAe) as circumscribed in Flora Hellenica (Strid & Tan 1997). The occurrence on the other N Aegean islands is also provided...

  17. New floristic records in the Balkans: 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Sfikas, George; Vold, Gert

    2008-01-01

    -72), Liliaceae s.l. (34, 89), Onagraceae (15), Ophioglossaceae (18), Orchidaceae (78-81, 90), Papaveraceae (29), Plantaginaceae (37-41, 73), Poaceae (1, 35, 36), Polygalaceae (74), Polygonaceae (30), Primulaceae (31), Ranunculaceae (51, 75, 86), Rubiaceae (16), Rutaceae (52), Santalaceae (32), Scrophulariaceae...

  18. A fresh breeze in the Balkans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the fall of the Ceausescu dictatorship, the electric power industry in Romania has undergone radical reform. An autonomous authority, RENEL, has replaced the old Ministry control. The changes are likely to be drastic including higher electricity prices, staff reductions, and subsidy removal. Uneconomic enterprises are likely to be closed, with monopolies being broken up and government owned assets being sold off to domestic and foreign investors. These changes and their likely political consequences are described. Information on electricity production between 1994 and 1996 from various fuel sources is also given. (UK)

  19. New floristic records in the Balkans: 9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Burkhard; Tan, Kit

    2008-01-01

    ), Corylaceae (26), Cuscutaceae (27), Cyperaceae (36-39; 60, 61), Euphorbiaceae (2-7, 28, 29, 88), Fabaceae (1, 8, 63-68, 71, 89-92), Fagaceae (93), Gentianaceae (78), Geraniaceae (79), Globulariaceae (94), Hypericaceae (95, 96), Iridaceae (81), Juncaceae (40, 41), Lamiaceae (97, 98), Liliaceae s.l. (42, 43, 82...

  20. New floristic records in the Balkans: 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Burkhard; Tan, Kit

    2008-01-01

    ), Dipsacaceae (7), Elaeagnaceae (74), Euphorbiaceae (8), Fabaceae (9, 35-36, 67-71, 80-83, 89), Gentianaceae (37), Geraniaceae (38), Iridaceae (52, 53), Juncaceae (54), Lamiaceae (10, 39, 102, 103), Liliaceae s.l. (55, 56, 92), Linaceae (40), Malvaceae (90), Onagraceae (11), Orchidaceae (66, 79), Plumbaginaceae...

  1. New floristic records in the Balkans: 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Burkhard; Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    ), Cyperaceae (21-23, 52-56, 137), Ericaceae (90), Fabaceae (1, 10, 11, 37, 38, 66, 67, 91-93, 139), Gentianaceae (12, 13), Geraniaceae (94, 95, 120), Hydrophyllaceae (96), Hypericaceae (121), Iridaceae (106-108, 130), Juncaceae (24, 25), Lamiaceae (47, 81, 97, 98), Liliaceae (26, 27, 72, 109, 131), Lythraceae...

  2. New floristic records in the Balkans: 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Burkhard; Tan, Kit

    2008-01-01

    -56), Campanulaceae (10), Caryophyllaceae (11, 27, 57), Chenopodiaceae (12), Convolvulaceae (13, 58), Crassulaceae (14, 59, 60), Cucurbitaceae (28), Cupressaceae (19), Cuscutaceae (49), Dryopteridaceae (2), Ephedraceae (20), Fabaceae (42- 48, 50, 61-69, 84), Gesneriaceae (85), Iridaceae (77, 88), Lamiaceae (70...

  3. New floristic records in the Balkans: 9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Sfikas, George; Vold, Gert

    2008-01-01

    New chorological data are presented for 108 species and subspecies from Bulgaria (records no. 46, 49, 55-62, 69-74, 83-108), Greece (14-43, 75-82) and Turkey-in-Europe (1-13; 44, 45, 47, 48, 50-54, 63-68). The taxa belong to the following families: Alismataceae (34), Amaryllidaceae (35), Apiaceae......), Corylaceae (26), Cuscutaceae (27), Cyperaceae (36-39; 60, 61), Euphorbiaceae (2-7, 28, 29, 88), Fabaceae (1, 8, 63-68, 71, 89-92), Fagaceae (93), Gentianaceae (78), Geraniaceae (79), Globulariaceae (94), Hypericaceae (95, 96), Iridaceae (81), Juncaceae (40, 41), Lamiaceae (97, 98), Liliaceae s.l. (42, 43, 82...

  4. New floristic records in the Balkans: 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Issigoni, Margarita

    2008-01-01

    New chorological data are presented for 106 species and subspecies from Bulgaria (records no. 72-79, 84-94, 105-106), Greece (2-60, 95-104) and Turkey-in-Europe (1, 61-71, 80-83). The taxa belong to the following families: Amaranthaceae (18, 19), Amaryllidaceae (49, 50, 77), Apiaceae (3, 84, 85, 99......), Dipsacaceae (7), Elaeagnaceae (74), Euphorbiaceae (8), Fabaceae (9, 35-36, 67-71, 80-83, 89), Gentianaceae (37), Geraniaceae (38), Iridaceae (52, 53), Juncaceae (54), Lamiaceae (10, 39, 102, 103), Liliaceae s.l. (55, 56, 92), Linaceae (40), Malvaceae (90), Onagraceae (11), Orchidaceae (66, 79), Plumbaginaceae...

  5. New floristic records in the Balkans: 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Issigoni, Margarita

    2007-01-01

    New chorological data are presented for 140 species and subspecies from Bulgaria (records no. 45-57, 61-79, 123-131), Greece (2-36, 82-122), Montenegro (80, 81), Serbia (58-60, 136-140), and Turkey-in- Europe (1, 37-44, 132-135). The taxa belong to the following families: Amaryllidaceae (105......), Cyperaceae (21-23, 52-56, 137), Ericaceae (90), Fabaceae (1, 10, 11, 37, 38, 66, 67, 91-93, 139), Gentianaceae (12, 13), Geraniaceae (94, 95, 120), Hydrophyllaceae (96), Hypericaceae (121), Iridaceae (106-108, 130), Juncaceae (24, 25), Lamiaceae (47, 81, 97, 98), Liliaceae (26, 27, 72, 109, 131), Lythraceae...

  6. New floristic records in the Balkans: 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Issigoni, Margarita

    2008-01-01

    ew chorological data are presented for 90 species and subspecies from Bulgaria (records no. 49-52), Greece (2-36, 53-90) and Turkey-in-Europe (1, 37-48). The taxa belong to the following families: Apiaceae (21), Araceae (87), Asteraceae (5-9, 22-26, 82), Boraginaceae (53, 83), Brassicaceae (54......-56), Campanulaceae (10), Caryophyllaceae (11, 27, 57), Chenopodiaceae (12), Convolvulaceae (13, 58), Crassulaceae (14, 59, 60), Cucurbitaceae (28), Cupressaceae (19), Cuscutaceae (49), Dryopteridaceae (2), Ephedraceae (20), Fabaceae (42- 48, 50, 61-69, 84), Gesneriaceae (85), Iridaceae (77, 88), Lamiaceae (70...

  7. New floristic records in the Balkans: 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Burkhard; Tan, Kit

    2008-01-01

    New chorological data are presented for 90 species and subspecies from Bulgaria (records no. 49-52), Greece (2-36, 53-90) and Turkey-in-Europe (1, 37-48). The taxa belong to the following families: Apiaceae (21), Araceae (87), Asteraceae (5-9, 22-26, 82), Boraginaceae (53, 83), Brassicaceae (54......-56), Campanulaceae (10), Caryophyllaceae (11, 27, 57), Chenopodiaceae (12), Convolvulaceae (13, 58), Crassulaceae (14, 59, 60), Cucurbitaceae (28), Cupressaceae (19), Cuscutaceae (49), Dryopteridaceae (2), Ephedraceae (20), Fabaceae (42- 48, 50, 61-69, 84), Gesneriaceae (85), Iridaceae (77, 88), Lamiaceae (70...

  8. Sedimentological imprints of environmental variability at the Balkan Peninsula on the sediment sequence of Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) between the Mid Pleistocene Transition and present days: The ICDP SCOPSCO project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francke, Alexander; Wagner, Bernd; Leicher, Niklas; Raphael, Gromig; Leng, Melanie; Lacey, Jack; Vogel, Hendrik; Baumgarten, Henrike; Thomas, Wonik; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Roberto, Sulpizio; Krastel, Sebastian; Lindhorst, Katja

    2015-04-01

    The UNESCO World Heritage site of Lake Ohrid in the Balkans is thought to be the oldest, continuously existing lake in Europe. In order to unravel the geological and evolutionary history of the lake, a deep drilling campaign was conducted in spring 2013 under the umbrella of the ICDP SCOPSCO project. At the coring site "DEEP" in central parts of the lake, more than 1,500 m of sediments were recovered down to a penetration depth of 569 m blf. This sediment sequence is assumed to be more than 1.2 Ma old and likely covers the entire lacustrine deposits of the Lake Ohrid Basin. Currently, an age model for the upper 260m of the DEEP- site sequence is available. This age model is based on chronological tie points (tephrochronology), and wiggle matching of down hole logging data and (bio-)geochemistry data (XRF, TIC, TOC) from the core sequence to the global benthic stack LR04 and local insolation patterns. The data suggests that the upper 260 m of the DEEP-site sequence corresponds to the time period between the Mid Pleistocene Transition (MPT) and present days. During this period, the sedimentological properties of the sediments show a strong dependency on environmental variability in the area. Interglacial deposits appear massive or marbled, contain up to 80 % of CaCO3 (high TIC), high amounts of organic matter (high TOC) and biogenic silica (high BSi), and low contents of clastic material. Glacial deposits are predominantly marbled and calcite is generally absent. Similarly, the amounts of organic matter and biogenic silica are low, and glacial sediments predominately consist of clastic matter. Distinct layers of siderite and uniformly distributed Fe- or Mn- oxides occur in the glacial deposits, vivianite concretions occur in both the glacial and interglacial periods. High CaCO3 contents in deposits formed during warm (interglacial) periods are also known from studies on short pilot cores from Lake Ohrid and are triggered by increased productivity in the lake, such as

  9. A condição humana, essa invariante antropológica: notas sobre produções fílmicas dos Bálcãs (The human condition, this anthropological invariance: notes about Balkans´ films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Siqueira Guimarães

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: As concepções evolucionistas, funcionalistas e historicistas em Antropologia, sob a égide da ciência moderna, trataram de compreender a condição humana relacionada ao tempo cronológico. Este artigo busca repensar a questão da condição humana, partindo de uma revisão sobre a temporalidade, implicando-a com as dimensões míticas e simbólicas da existência. Para tanto, relaciona os conceitos da Antropologia do Imaginário, da Psicologia Analítica e Psicologia Arquetípica com alguns exemplos em produções fílmicas dos Bálcãs sobre os conflitos político-culturais ocorridos em meados da década de 1990 nessa região.Abstract: The evolutionary, functionalist and historicist conceptions in Anthropology, like modern science conceptions, comprehend the human condition in relationship with the chronological time. This article objective to rethink the human condition, with the focus on temporality, projected on mythical and symbolical dimensions of the existence. The concepts of Anthropology of Imaginariness, Analytical Psychology and Archetypical Psychology were analyzed on some Balkans´ fi lmic productions about the conflicts occurred in the 1990´s.

  10. Балканы как пространство проблемной наднациональной идентичности The Balkans as a problematic space of supranational identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Mikhailov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available В статье сделана попытка определить основные признаки балканской идентичности и обозначить её историко-географические контуры. Автор рассматривает Балканы как физико-географическое, геокультурное и геополитическое пространство, а также анализирует цивилизационные самоидентификации современных народов Юго-Восточной Европы. Доказывается, что Балканы в символическом отношении остаются периферийным регионом Европы, у которого нет общепринятых границ на севере и западе. Подробно разбираются идеологические вопросы о включении различных народов и государств в общую балканскую наднациональную идентичность и её значение для них.The article focuses on the main peculiarities and historical & geographical frames of the Balkan identity. The author analyzes the Balkans from the viewpoints of physical & cultural geography, geopolitics and modern civilization discourses of the Southeastern Europe peoples’ self-identities. It is proved, that the Balkan region remains a periphery within the symbolic landscape of Europe having uncertain borders on the North and West. The problems of inclusion/exclusion of certain ethnic groups and their role in the supranational Balkan identity are discussed.

  11. Financial Crisis Effect on Public Debt in Western Balkans Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Shera

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The end of the first decade of the twenty-first century will be remembered by appearance of one of the greatest economic crisis. This time, it had a global character. The crisis has been appeared, almost unexpectedly, in the middle of 2007 in the US, but very soon it was transferred to other countries in the world as well. Very likely, it will last durably, with wide devastating consequences. The current economic crisis has made the existing unfavorable situation more complex and deepened the present imbalances and risks. The economic and financial crisis led to a strong increase in the public debt in the euro area countries, the United Kingdom, the United States and Japan. Moreover, without a change of policy, the public debt will continue to expand in most of developing countries such as Albania. Public debt challenges are a major recurring concern across the globe. Today many countries face the prospect of high and unsustainable public debt levels amid a weak economic recovery caused by the global financial crisis that started in 2007. The impact of the crisis on public debt was immediate, severe and with potential long-lasting negative effects due to its housing roots and global reach. The basic aim of this article is to consider the effect of the current financial crisis on the movements and sustainability of the public debt in the period up to 2013. The paper will try to analyze also the effects that public debt has on the economic growth through the examination of the main data used in this study. The results are consistent with the existing literature that has found a negative correlation between public debt and economic growth.

  12. Mass Violence against Civilians during the Balkan Wars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ungor, U.U.

    2015-01-01

    On 17 October 1912, Serbia, Montenegro, Greece and Bulgaria declared war on the Ottoman Empire. Out-powered, demoralized, unprepared and poorly equipped, the Ottoman army fought fourteen battles and lost them all, except for one. After the cessation of hostilities, the Empire was heavily truncated f

  13. Past as Preface: Civilizational Politics and the `Third' Balkan War

    OpenAIRE

    Lene Hansen

    2000-01-01

    The concept of civilization has gained political as well as theoretical attention in the 1990s owing to Samuel P. Huntington's influential thesis about civilizational conflicts being the new conflict formation of the post-Cold War era. It is the aim of this article to problematize Huntington's claim that one particular reading of the Bosnian War follows from adopting a civilizational optic. Huntington argues that the war took place between three different civilizations and that the West shoul...

  14. Visa liberalisation and economic implication for the Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ylber Sela

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most promising post-Cold War developments in Marxian thought have been stimulated by problems facing Marxists in Western Europe, to that extent they all seem to lay bare, intentionally or otherwise, the lacking of qualities, of Marx’s prediction. The most significant example of the failure of Marxist theory to be realised in practice is the persistent survival of the capitalist mode of production. The inevitable crisis foreseen by Marx, which would lead to revolution, failed to materialise and that claim is now itself historical, since capitalism has become the norm for social organisation in most of the world’s nations. By asking the question how capitalism can persist amid crisis, Gramsci, provided the most promising way of revision to the stunted Marxian orthodoxy. Today for us is important to ask whether Marxist analysis of neoliberal global strategy or globalisation and fragmentation invite reconsideration of the tendency on the part of many international relations scholarships to ignore and simply dismiss Marxism. It is also important to consider whether the significance of Marxist project of developing a critical approach to international politics, is but one way in which Marxism progressed beyond the traditional Anglo-American scholarship to IR.

  15. THE STRANGE SPECTACLE IN ÇALIKKAVAK BALKAN

    OpenAIRE

    Özay, Yeliz

    2013-01-01

    Evliyâ Çelebi, in his work Seyahatnâme (Book of Travels), presents the astonishing stories of witches as the extraordinary aspects of his travels in a manner suitable to the tradition of travel narrative. Analyzing these stories with close reading method shows that Evliya’s point of view as narrator and one of the characters affecting the plot changes in parallel with the “cultural context” of the stories. His viewpoint establishes the viewpoint of the text and he channels the reader or the l...

  16. Revision and denomination of Balkan beech plant communities in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Tomić Zagorka

    2006-01-01

    The syntaxonomic differentiation and nomenclature of beech forests in Serbia is analyzed. Based on 75 phytocoenological tables of numerous authors and this author’s, from different parts of Serbia, 7 synthetic tables were constructed, one for each of the suballiances in the alliance Fagion moesiacae Blečić et Lakušić 1970. By the introduction of the unique criteria of International Phytosociological Nomenclature only 20 basic syntaxonomic categories (associations) were formed and denominated,...

  17. Defining Political Extremism in the Balkans. The Case of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Marko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Political extremism (and particularly right wing political extremism remains relatively insufficiently explored due to the fact that the phenomenon is controversial and hard to define. Its ambiguity and variability depending on time and spatial point of view further complicates its definition. Its structure is amorphous and eclectic as it often includes elements from different ideologies and connects incompatible ideas. A multidimensional conceptualization and an interdisciplinary approach - sociological, social, psychological and historical, are the Author’s tools in explaining the phenomenon of political extremism in Serbia, hopefully contributing to its clarification and laying a foundation for its further explanatory theoretical studies.

  18. Balkan's Perspectives in the middle of NATO Emerging Security Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Smileski, Rose; Hadji-Janev, Metodi

    2012-01-01

    Security challenges have proven that NATO cannot longer rely on sole Military Power. Ranging from Cyber attacks to failed states, from energy security to “Arab Spring’s” democratic transition and from fragile security in Afghanistan to the severe financial crisis NATO have realized that in order to be able effectively to cope with security threats it needs active civilian component. Strategic shift over the past years from geographical to functional security have tasted NATO legitimacy in sev...

  19. Oncology monoclonal antibodies expenditure trends and reimbursement projections in the emerging Balkan market

    OpenAIRE

    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies applied in clinical oncology present a therapeutic promise for many patients with cancer. Nevertheless these expensive protocols are associated with extremely high acquisition and administration costs. The issue of societal affordability of such treatment options is particularly at stake among middle income European economies. Medicines Agency of Serbia issues regular annual reports on public expenditure on pharmaceuticals since 2004. According to these official data tot...

  20. A Conceptualization of the Human Security Doctrine in the Post-Communist States in the Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Marczuk, Karina Paulina

    2008-01-01

    South and Eastern European post communist countries have for the last few years changed rapidly their national security concepts by including the so-called wide (complex) security theory elements. These non-military aspects of modern approach to the security are developed by the European Union (EU) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Furthermore, some security experts and researchers state that nowadays a broad approach to security is transforming into a human security theory. ...

  1. Morphological variability of the Hermann's tortoise (Testudo hermanni in the Central Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Ljubisavljević

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Variation in a number of morphological characters were analysed in five populations of Testudo hermanni from Serbia and Montenegro. Tortoises from Serbia appeared significantly larger than those from Montenegro. An insular population of Montenegro was distinct due to its extremely small body size and mass and dark plastral pigmentation. Although the majority of tortoises had the supracaudal scute divided, many tortoises had the scute undivided. Effects of possible genetic divergence and/or adaptation to different environmental conditions on observed morphological variation were discussed.

  2. Morphological variability of the Hermann's tortoise (Testudo hermanni) in the Central Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Katarina Ljubisavljević; Georg Džukić; Tanja D. Vukov; Miloš L. Kalezić

    2012-01-01

    Variation in a number of morphological characters were analysed in five populations of Testudo hermanni from Serbia and Montenegro. Tortoises from Serbia appeared significantly larger than those from Montenegro. An insular population of Montenegro was distinct due to its extremely small body size and mass and dark plastral pigmentation. Although the majority of tortoises had the supracaudal scute divided, many tortoises had the scute undivided. Effects of possible genetic divergence and/or ad...

  3. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic origin of brown trout Salmo trutta populations in eastern Balkans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohout, Jan; Šedivá, Alena; Apostolou, A.; Stefanov, T.; Marić, S.; Gaffaroglu, M.; Šlechta, Vlastimil

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 6 (2013), s. 1229-1237. ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS500450513 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Danube * microsatellites * mitochondrial DNA Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.696, year: 2013

  4. Tephrostratigraphic studies on a sediment core from Lake Prespa in the Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Damaschke, M; R. Sulpizio; Zanchetta, G.; Wagner, B.; Böhm, A.; Nowaczyk, N.; Rethemeyer, J.; Hilgers, A.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed tephrostratigraphic record, which dates back to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5, has been established from a 17.76 m long core (Co1215) from Lake Prespa (Macedonia, Albania and Greece). A total of eleven tephra and cryptotephra layers (PT0915-1 to PT0915-11) were identified, using XRF scanning, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and macro- and microscopic inspection of the sediments. The major element composition of glass shards and/or micro-pumice fragments indicates that the teph...

  5. Human resources and gender equality in education of the Western Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    MITAR V. LUTOVAC; BOJANA OSTOJIC; ZORAN JOVANOVIC; MARKO MATIC

    2016-01-01

    The subject of this work is to strengthen the impact of human resource management and gender equality. The main objective of this paper is to understand the problem of gender equality and its equalization with identification of important factors that accompany this process. High degree of inequality points out to the existence of institutional and structural factors that influence such situation in our society. Willingness of men to include women, the process of inclusion and the prejudice ag...

  6. Genetic structure of Apis mellifera macedonica in the Balkan Peninsula based on microsatellite DNA polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uzunov, Aleksandar; Meixner, Marina D; Kiprijanovska, Hrisula;

    2014-01-01

    The genetic variability of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) from south eastern Europe was investigated using microsatellite analyses of 107 samples from Albania, the Republic of Macedonia, Greece and Bulgaria together with 42 reference samples (Apis mellifera carnica) from Slovenia. Genetic structure...... and spatial analyses of the microsatellite data showed a clear distinction between the Slovenian bees and all other populations, and confirmed the existence of Apis mellifera macedonica as an indigenous honey bee population in the regions that were sampled. In most areas however, varying degrees of...

  7. Of the importance of a leaf: the ethnobotany of sarma in Turkey and the Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Dogan, Yunus; Nedelcheva, Anely; Łuczaj, Łukasz; Drăgulescu, Constantin; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Maglajlić, Aida; Ferrier, Jonathan; Papp, Nora; Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Dajić-Stevanović, Zora; Pieroni, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background Sarma - cooked leaves rolled around a filling made from rice and/or minced meat, possibly vegetables and seasoning plants – represents one of the most widespread feasting dishes of the Middle Eastern and South-Eastern European cuisines. Although cabbage and grape vine sarma is well-known worldwide, the use of alternative plant leaves remains largely unexplored. The aim of this research was to document all of the botanical taxa whose leaves are used for preparing sarma in the folk c...

  8. Balkanized Research in Ecological Engineering Revealed by a Bibliometric Analysis of Earthworms and Ecosystem Services

    OpenAIRE

    Blouin, Manuel; Sery, Nicolas; Cluzeau, Daniel; Brun, Jean-Jacques; Bédécarrats, Alain

    2013-01-01

    International audience Energy crisis, climate changes, and biodiversity losses have reinforced the drive for more ecologically based approaches for environmental management. Such approaches are characterized by the use of organisms rather than energy-consuming technologies. Although earthworms are believed to be potentially useful organisms for managing ecosystem services, there is actually no quantification of such a trend in literature. This bibliometric analysis aimed to measure the evo...

  9. Centaurea wagenitziana (Asteraceae: Centaureinae), a new species from the Eastern Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Bancheva, Svetlana; Vural, Mecit; Strid, Arne

    2009-01-01

    Centaurea wagenitziana Bancheva & Kit Tan from SE Bulgaria and NW Turkey is described as a species new to Bancheva & Kit Tan from SE Bulgaria and NW Turkey is described as a species new to science. Its chromosome number of 2n = 30 is a first report. It closely resembles C. amplifolia with which i...

  10. PCR verification of microplate phenotypic system identification for LAB from traditional Western Balkan raw milk cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Paveljšek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation and ripening specificity of traditional cheeses are predominantly directed by the natural microbial community present in milk selected by the cheese-making environment and technology. Therefore the traditional cheeses are unique products with specific microbiota biodiversity. There are several approaches for the identification of microbial population, however all of them have certain advantages and disadvantages. In this study the eligibility and performance of the Biolog phenotypic identification system (Biolog, Inc. with GEN III microplates was tested. Parallel to this method, polymerase chain reaction with genus- and species-specific primers was performed. One hundred sixty-five isolates from nine types of artisan cheeses were isolated and analysed. Cheeses were produced from raw ewe’s milk in Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia. The Biolog phenotypic identification system identified 90 isolates, but only 55 identifications acquired by the Biolog system were supported by polymerase chain reaction at a genus level and 28 at a species level. The obtained results showed that the reliability of commercial phenotypic identification systems was inadequate when analysing lactic acid bacteria isolates from natural, spontaneous fermentations and needs to be additionally corroborated by genotypic identification methods.

  11. Water bulls of Balkan and other world’s traditions: Origins of conception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trubarac-Matić Đorđina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The efforts to determine the origin of beliefs in the aquatic daimon called water bull (which are ethnographically attested in Serbia, Macedonia and Bulgaria, and for which there have not been found parallels in other Slavic traditions, led the scholarship to see it as a recidive from the Greco-Roman period. The two major hypotheses tried to link the stories about killing of the water bull with: 1 the Athenian bouphonia; 2 the mithraic scene of tauroctony. The paper discusses these hypotheses and their weaknesses, and proposes a new approach: shifting attention towards other worlds’ traditions in which the water bulls are attested - those of Yakuts, Mongols, Celts, Mapuche, Khoekhoe and San - with the aim to establish the level, and determine the type of the possible similarities between them. The results of the comparative analysis show a very high degree of overlapping of ideas - those that probably were parts of a pristine concept of a water bull. They concern: the appearance, habitat, characteristics, behavior, as well as a number of phenomena associated with water bulls (predictions, thunder, lightning, storm, medicine. This leads the author to conclude that the conception of the water bull is very archaic and probably originating from a same, although uncertain source, which cannot be explained by intercultural contacts. The beliefs and the religious and magical practice of the Khoisan show that water bulls operate functionally - with the fullness of their religious potential - in animistic type of religious traditions (where the origin of the concept should be looked for. This indicates that these animistic ideas might lie at the root of the bull-like features of the storm gods from the posterior polytheistic religions. Further investigation in this direction is proposed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47016: Interdisciplinarno istraživanje kulturnog i jezičkog nasleđa Srbije. Izrada multimedijalnog portala ‘Pojmovnik srpske kulture’

  12. Comparative View of the Problem with Human Trafficking In the Balkan Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The liberalization of gender understanding and relations, liberation of sexuality from the constraints of primitivism and traditionalism has lead to a increase in prostitution as socio-pathological phenomenon that inevitably stimulates the emergence of the crime of human trafficking. Particularly disturbing is the emergence of a new dimension of human trafficking – the trafficking of minors. We can freely say that trade with minors is developing industry. Analyzing the legal structure of t...

  13. Climate change in the Carpathian-Balkan Area. Advancing research and cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Mindrescu, Marcel; Daniel VERES; Astrid BJÖRNSEN GURUNG; Kiefer, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    The Carpathian Mountains are considered to be one of Europe’s last “wilderness” areas, but are nevertheless under heavy pressure from human activities. Examples range from large-scale activities (e.g. metal and coal mining) and ecological disasters (e.g. tailing dam failures in the Toroiaga and Baia Mare areas) to cross-border pollution (e.g. Chernobyl nuclear accident). The current political thrust for economic development is accelerating the pace of industrial activities, exploitation of na...

  14. Kosovo '98 (I) : Ursachen und Kulmination eines alt-neuen Balkan-Konflikts

    OpenAIRE

    Oschlies, Wolf

    1998-01-01

    'Ihrer jeweiligen Selbsteinschätzung nach sind Serben wie Kosovo-Albaner friedliebend und gastfreundlich. So ergab es eine Repräsentativumfrage, die im Sommer 1997 im Kosovo unter beiden Volksgruppen gemacht worden war. Das Ergebnis brachte die Autoren der Umfrage zu der 'melancholischen' Frage, warum beide ihre markantesten Eigenschaften nicht auch im Umgang miteinander zur Geltung brächten. Die Frage ist mehr als berechtigt. Seit Jahresbeginn 1998 droht der Krieg in Ex-Jugoslawien, der seit...

  15. Patterns of fine-scale plant species richness in dry grasslands across the eastern Balkan Peninsula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palpurina, S.; Chytrý, M.; Tzonev, R.; Danihelka, Jiří; Axmanová, I.; Merunková, K.; Duchoň, M.; Karakiev, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 63, February (2015), s. 36-46. ISSN 1146-609X R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : alpha diversity * soil chemistry * steppe Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.617, year: 2014

  16. Web Implementation of Quality Assurance (QA) for X-ray Units in Balkanic Medical Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urošević, Vlade; Ristić, Olga; Milošević, Danijela; Košutić, Duško

    2015-08-01

    Diagnostic radiology is the major contributor to the total dose of the population from all artificial sources. In order to reduce radiation exposure and optimize diagnostic x-ray image quality, it is necessary to increase the quality and efficiency of quality assurance (QA) and audit programs. This work presents a web application providing completely new QA solutions for x-ray modalities and facilities. The software gives complete online information (using European standards) with which the corresponding institutions and individuals can evaluate and control a facility's Radiation Safety and QA program. The software enables storage of all data in one place and sharing the same information (data), regardless of whether the measured data is used by an individual user or by an authorized institution. The software overcomes the distance and time separation of institutions and individuals who take part in QA. Upgrading the software will enable assessment of the medical exposure level to ionizing radiation. PMID:26102325

  17. Forensic DNA databases in Western Balkan region: retrospectives, perspectives, and initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Marjanović, Damir; Konjhodžić, Rijad; Butorac, Sara Sanela; Drobnič, Katja; Merkaš, Siniša; Lauc, Gordan; Primorac, Damir; Anđelinović, Šimun; Milosavljević, Mladen; Karan, Željko; Vidović, Stojko; Stojković, Oliver; Panić, Bojana; Vučetić Dragović, Anđelka; Kovačević, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI) recommended the establishment of forensic DNA databases and specific implementation and management legislations for all EU/ENFSI members. Therefore, forensic institutions from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, and Macedonia launched a wide set of activities to support these recommendations. To assess the current state, a regional expert team completed detailed screening and investigation of the existing forensic DNA data re...

  18. Forensic DNA databasesin Western Balkan region:retrospectives, perspectives, and initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Marjanović, Damir; Konjhodžić, Rijad; Butorac, Sara Sanela; Drobnič, Katja; Merkaš, Siniša; Lauc, Gordan; Primorac, Damir; Anđelinović, Šimun; Milosavljević, Mladen; Karan, Željko; Vidović, Stojko; Stojković, Oliver; Panić, Bojana; Vučetić Dragović, Anđelka; Kovačević, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI) recommended the establishment of forensic DNA databases and specific implementation and management legislations for all EU/ENFSI members. Therefore, forensic institutions from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, and Macedonia launched a wide set of activities to support these recommendations. To assess the current state, a regional expert team completed detailed screening and investigation of the exist...

  19. Ostracod-based isotope record from Lake Ohrid (Balkan Peninsula) over the last 140 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmecheri, Soumaya; von Grafenstein, Ulrich; Andersen, Nils; Eymard-Bordon, Amandine; Régnier, Damien; Grenier, Christophe; Lézine, Anne-Marie

    2010-12-01

    The stable isotope composition of benthic ostracods from a deep-lake sediment core (JO2004-1) recovered from Lake Ohrid (Albania-Macedonia) was studied to investigate regional responses to climate change at the interface between the north-central European and Mediterranean climate systems. Ostracod valves are present only during interglacial intervals, during the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 and 1. The ostracod oxygen isotope values (δ 18O) quantitatively reflect changes in the oxygen isotope signal of the lake water (δ 18O L). The interpretation of this record however, is far from straight forward. δ 18O L variations throughout MIS 5/6 transition (TII), MIS 5 and MIS 1 appear to be controlled by site specific hydrological processes as shown by modern isotope hydrology. The δ 18O L trends at TII, MIS 5 and MIS 1 match the timing and the main structural feature of the major regional climate records (Corchia cave δ 18O, Iberian margin Sea Surface Temperature) suggesting that the Ohrid δ 18O L responded to global-scale climate changes, although it seems certain that the lake experienced a significant degree of evaporation and varying moisture availability. The carbon isotope signal (δ 13C) seems to respond more accurately to climate changes in agreement with other JO2004-1 proxies. δ 13C of the ostracod calcite is directly linked to the δ 13C of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the lake, which in this case is controlled by the isotopic composition of the DIC in the incoming water and by the internal processes of the lake. High δ 13C during cold periods and low values during warm periods reflect changing vegetation cover and soil activity. These results suggest that Lake Ohrid has the potential to capture a long record of regional environment related-temperature trends during interglacial periods, particularly given the exceptional thickness of the lake sediment covering probably the entire Quaternary.

  20. Building of capacity to control Broomrape’s outbreaks in Western Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Mihajlov, Ljupco

    2010-01-01

    Broomrape is a common name for more than 200 species from the family Orobanchaceae,. They all are chlorophyll-lacking obligate root holoparasites that subsist on broad-leaf plants, thereby depleting them of nutrients, minerals and water. Several broomrape species parasitize important crops (tomato, potato, tobacco, eggplant, faba bean, vetch, lentil, peanut, Brassica spp., sunflower, carrot, celery and parsley). At present, over 73 million hectares of farmland under cultivation in the Middle ...

  1. Records 1-32. In. New bryophyte records in the Balkans: 2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájková, Petra; Plášek, V.; Hájek, Michal; Shaw, B.; Hradílek, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2007), s. 247-259. ISSN 1310-7771 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6163303 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : bryophytes * Bulgaria * wetland Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  2. South East Europe Municipal Finance Review : Local Government Finance in the Western Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This report addresses the limited access to local governments of data and knowledge of municipal finance issues in South East Europe (SEE). The objective of the analytical work under the SEE Municipal Finance Review (MFR) aims to (i) contribute to improved understanding of local government management and finance in the SEE Region; and (ii) contribute to improving the quality and consistency ...

  3. Bharati Mukherjee’s Struggle Against Cultural Balkanization : the Forging of a New American Immigrant Writing

    OpenAIRE

    González, Mª Luz; Oliva, Juan Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at analysing Bharati Mukherjee’s individual positioning as a woman writer by using the female characters caught between two different worlds, homes and cultures present in her works. After having undergone several phases in her life: as an exile from India, an Indian expatriate in Canada, a common immigrant and finally a citizen in the United States, all these diverse selves have been translated into her literary career. The writer thus envisions herself as a pioneer of new la...

  4. A Comparison of Stereotypes of German and Turkish Students towards Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ültanir, Gürcan; Ültanir, Emel; Irkörücü, Ayse

    2016-01-01

    Effective emotional thoughts like attitudes, stereotyped judgments and preconceptions are dependent on both collective and individual experiences. Experiences like reading an article or watching a movie that is based on a context determined by the curriculum might cause individual or collective discrimination towards different ethnic or cultural…

  5. Integration of Financial Systems of Western Balkan Countries Into the European Financial System

    OpenAIRE

    ARBËR H. HOTI; ARTOR R. NUHIU

    2012-01-01

    Th? ?mp?ct of ?nt?rn?t?on?l f?n?nc??l r?port?ng of SMEs on ?conom?c p?rform?nc? cont?nu?s to b? on? of th? most d?b?t?d ?ssu?s ?mong ?nt?rn?t?on?l ?conom?sts. Th?or?t?c?l mod?ls h?v? ?d?nt?f??d ? numb?r of ch?nn?ls through wh?ch ?nt?rn?t?on?l f?n?nc??l r?port?ng of SMEs c?n promot? ?conom?c growth ?nd ?conom?c d?v?lopm?nt ?n d?v?lop?ng countr??s ?nd countr??s ?n tr?ns?t?on. How?v?r, ?n sp?t? of ?ts b?n?f?ts, f?n?nc??l r?port?ng of SMEs c?n ?lso b? d?ng?rous, ?s ?t h?s b??n w?tn?ss?d ?n m?ny r...

  6. The Balkan wet grassland vegetation: a prerequisite to better understanding of European habitat diversity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Michal; Hájková, Petra; Sopotlieva, D.; Apostolova, I.; Velev, N.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 195, č. 2 (2008), s. 197-213. ISSN 1385-0237 Grant ostatní: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB6163302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : climate * vegetation * grasslands Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2008

  7. Collection of short stories for children by the Balkan Nobel laureate Ivo Andric

    OpenAIRE

    Dimova, Violeta

    2013-01-01

    What I want to particularly single out about context in children’s literature, in order to be able to talk about context in general,and in connection with this literature as a specific literary genre, is that the concept of texts for children (should) depend and “types of childhood”,which by the theory of reception are considered as being part of the recipient in the genesis of a text, as a horizon of expectation.

  8. Brucellosis- Advanced Diagnostic Methods and Update on Epidemiology/ Epizootology in the Balkan Region

    OpenAIRE

    Taleski, Vaso

    2005-01-01

    Brucellosis is a typical zoonotic disease caused by organisms of genus brucella, a potential bio-warfare agent. Humans become infected by ingestion of animal food products, direct contact with infected animals or inhalation of infectious aerosols. Different diagnostic tests, ranging from culture, serologic test (Slide Agglutination Test, Tube Agglutination Test, Antihuman Globulin Test, 2-Mercaptoethanol Test, Fluorescent Polarization Test, ELISA) and numerous PCR-based assays are availab...

  9. Two new species of aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) from the Balkan Peninsula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrović, A.; Žikić, V.; Petrović-Obradović, O.; Mitrovski Bogdanović, A.; Kavallieratos, N. G.; Starý, Petr; Tomanović, Ž.

    -, č. 2895 (2011), s. 58-64. ISSN 1175-5326 Grant ostatní: Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia (RS) 43001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Aphidius chaetosiphonis sp. n. * Aphidius balcanicus sp. n. * tritrophic associations Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.927, year: 2011

  10. High variability of indoor radon concentrations in uraniferous bedrock areas in the Balkan region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the strong influence of geological factors on the variability of indoor radon is found in two of three geologically very different regions of South-Eastern Europe. A method to estimate the annual mean concentration when one seasonal measurement is missing is proposed. Large differences of radon concentrations in different rooms of the same house and significant difference in radon concentrations in one season comparing it to the others are noted in certain cases. Geological factors that can lead to such behavior are discussed

  11. Source apportionment of atmospheric PAHs in the Western Balkans by natural abundance radiocarbon analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zdenek Zencak; Jana Klanova; Ivan Holoubek; Oerjan Gustafsson [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden). Department of Applied Environmental Science

    2007-06-01

    Progress in source apportionment of priority combustion-derived atmospheric pollutants can be made by an inverse approach to inventory emissions, namely, receptor-based compound class-specific radiocarbon analysis (CCSRA) of target pollutants. In the present study, CCSRA of the combustion-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in the atmosphere of the countries of the former republic of Yugoslavia was performed. The carbon stable isotope composition ({delta}{sup 13}C) of PAHs varied between -27.68 and -27.19{per_thousand}, whereas {Delta}{sup 14}C values ranged from -568{per_thousand} for PAHs sampled in Kosovo to -288{per_thousand} for PAHs sampled in the Sarajevo area. The application of an isotopic mass balance model to these {Delta}{sup 14}C data revealed a significant contribution (35-65%) from the combustion of non-fossil material to the atmospheric PAH pollution, even in urban and industrialized areas. Furthermore, consistency was observed between the isotopic composition of PAHs obtained by high-volume sampling and those collected by passive sampling. This encourages the use of passive samplers for CCSRA applications. This marks the first time that a CCSRA investigation could be executed on a geographically wide scale, providing a quantitative field-based source apportionment, which points out that also non-fossil combustion processes should be targeted for remedial action. 36 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  12. Educational Reform in the Balkans: Getting Past the Conflict in Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kirk; Breca, Svetlana

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a brief history of education in Kosovo before and after the conflict. It then provides an understanding of the current state of affairs in the education of teachers in Kosovo as derived from interviews with two figures intimately involved with that process.

  13. South Slavic lexicon in Balkanic context, the word family of the noun xala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjeletić Marta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers a semantic analysis of the word family of the South Slavic *xala. attested in Serbo-Croatian, Macedonian and Bulgarian, this noun originally used to denote both the storm, tempest and the daemon causing it. According to popular beliefs the principal attributives of *xala are enormous size, strength and obesity, so the noun has secondarily developed such meanings as "a huge creature", "a man or animal of enormous physical strength", "an obese, greedy man". The semantic complex of the noun proper has yielded various meanings of nominal derivatives, such as "windy" "angry", "to rage", "to eat", etc. Certain meanings within this word family have been developed under the influence of etymologically diverse, but formally and semantically close lexemes, Slavic (e.g. *xalг "dirt(y" *xaliti "to hit; pet" as well as non-Slavic (e.g. Gk. cal(nw "destroy demolish".

  14. Challenges and Opportunities of Business Education in Southeast Europe: The Case of a Balkan Business School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, William R.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) concluded a 4-year, 10 million dollar contract with the University of Delaware to create the Sarajevo Graduate School of Business, the first Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business [AACSB]-accredited business school in Southeast Europe. This case study examines…

  15. Late Quaternary ecosystem and climate interactions in SW Balkans inferred from Lake Prespa sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Panagiotopoulos, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    The transboundary Lake Prespa and its watershed enclose a remarkable biodiversity that is protected by several national and international treaties. Situated at 849 m a.s.l., the area is characterized by a transitional climate and the closed nature of the basin controls Lake Prespa’s modern hydrology. An 18 m-long sediment sequence was retrieved from a distal location, away from stream inflow, where preliminary hydroacoustic investigations suggested undisturbed sedimentation. Consequently, the...

  16. Aspects of solid state 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy in coals from the Balkan peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREAS GEORGAKOPOULOS

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The cross-polarized magic-angle-spinning NMR (CPMAS-NMR technique was used in this work to assess the carbon distribution in coals of different rank (peat, lignite, xylite, sub-bituminous coal from important deposits in Greece and Bulgaria. The technique is assumed to be only semiquantitative, due to a number of interferences, such as spinning side bands (SSB in the spectra, paramagnetic species in the samples, and low or remote protonation of aromatic carbons. The Bulgarian sub-bituminous coal shows the greatest amounts of aromatic structures. The lignite sample from the Drama basin, Northern Greece, is relatively unaltered and largely unweathered, and shows the greatest amounts of aliphatic groups. The 13C-NMR spectra of Pliocene lignites from endemic areas in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia, taken from published papers, show significantly more intense resonances for methoxyl, phenolic, and polysaccharide moieties compared to the Drama lignite NMR spectrum. Xylite reveals high contents of carbohydrates.

  17. The Dilaridae of the Balkan Peninsula and of Anatolia (Insecta, Neuropterida, Neuroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Aspöck

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Basing upon all available information on type material of Dilar turcicus Hagen, 1858, Dilar syriacus Navás, 1909, and Dilar lineolatus Navás, 1909, together with a large number of dilarid specimens, the pleasing lacewings of Anatolia and Southeast Europe are revised. The current taxonomic concept of D. turcicus is confirmed, and a lectotype is designated. Dilar turcicus is widely distributed in the southeast of Europe (being the only representative of Dilaridae in this region, in Anatolia, and, most probably, in the Caucasus region. Dilar syriacus and D. lineolatus remain nomina dubia. Dilar syriacus might occur in Anatolia, while D. lineolatus is a species occurring in western Central Asia. Two new species, Dilar anatolicus sp. n. and Dilar fuscus sp. n. are described from Anatolia. Wings and genital segments of the three species occurring in Anatolia are illustrated, and a map documenting the known distribution of these species is provided.

  18. Early results of studies on the levels of depleted uranium excreted by Balkan residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urine samples collected from residents of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo were analysed to determine their natural and depleted uranium content using MC-ICP-MS. All may have been exposed to depleted uranium released as a consequence of the deployment of armour-piercing rounds by the US Air Force. A 236U tracer was employed to determine chemical recovery. Early results suggest that the levels of natural and depleted uranium excretion by the subjects, which ranged in age from 1 to 71 years, ranged from 2.8 - 58.2 ng d-1 and 1.3 - 46.3 ng d-1 , respectively. The results suggest accumulated body burdens of depleted uranium ranging from close to zero to 46 μg. All the body burdens predicted are lower than published values for the uranium content of the body (90μg) and health effects are not predicted. Further studies are underway to check the provenance of the results. (author)

  19. Comparative Analysis of Selected Factors Affecting Heating Costs of Schools in Selected Balkan Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koppitz David

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to carry out a comparative analysis of heating of school facilities under the administration of municipalities in Macedonia, Moldova and Kosovo and to test the factors that affect the heating costs of school facilities. For a definition of the theoretical fundament parts of the theory of fiscal federalism are used. Subsequently five hypotheses are put forward that are verified using the method of benchmarking. The theoretical conclusions and recommendations may be used for a more effective implementation of public policies within the surveyed countries.

  20. REGARDING THE CULTURE OF MULTI-ETHNICITY AND COHABITATION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS...

    OpenAIRE

    Sibel Akova; Cenk Demirkiran

    2013-01-01

    The media, an inseparable part of daily life, influences the thoughts, behaviour and attitudes of millions of people through the transmission of cultural images such as music, themes and visuals, has succeeded in reaching the masses with an attractive form of presentation and in a sense, has incorporates - almost immediately in the world of today - universal truths and developments into the lives of individuals with pictures and sounds, reporting on events and people, allowing individuals to ...

  1. REGARDING THE CULTURE OF MULTI-ETHNICITY AND COHABITATION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Akova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The media, an inseparable part of daily life, influences the thoughts, behaviour and attitudes of millions of people through the transmission of cultural images such as music, themes and visuals, has succeeded in reaching the masses with an attractive form of presentation and in a sense, has incorporates - almost immediately in the world of today - universal truths and developments into the lives of individuals with pictures and sounds, reporting on events and people, allowing individuals to internalise the images presented and has become a point of reference in social life. Together with the development of modern technology, media of mass communication and in extension, media channels, have transcended national and cultural boundaries to reach the masses. Developing in the second half of the 20th century, the television, as one of the most effective mass communication media of the modern age, has combined sound and images to create a technical medium where culture is produced, transmitted, circulated and consumed and subsequently recycled to reach the target audiences, while in terms of the transmission of messages, the television has become the flagship of the media economy in comparison with other mass communication media and channels. As the influences of globalisation have been felt upon the creative processes of film and serial instruments and in the adoption and dissemination of strategic objectives, global cultural transmission is more varied, wider in scope and with more intense content than ever before. Furthermore, as a result of the constant development, regeneration and transformation of communication technology, we can postulate that television serial and film scenarios are a new form of marketing communication, as they are deeply intertwined with daily life and culture in the modern world. However, mass communication media gather groups of people with a common language and interest, causing groups to become communities. The role of mass communication media in forming communities with common characteristics and interests has developed in parallel with the development of mass communication media. These communication media have negated geographical boundaries, forming common ground for social relationships, while the importance of communication media has increased as the media reaches more isolated communities, constantly increasing the size of the masses. The experience of the world as cultural cosmopolitanism and the globalisation of the media through the simulation of metaphorical images in relation to the globalisation of communication has led to the internalisation of feelings of globalisation by individuals under the influence of the media, forming the basis for a social and industrial discourse.

  2. P.Garde, " Tragi-comédie onomastique dans les Balkans "

    OpenAIRE

    DARQUES, Régis

    2008-01-01

    Vous qui n’avez jamais rien compris à l’imbroglio balkanique, voici l’ouvrage qu’il vous faut. Dans ce livre riche en anecdotes personnelles, à la fois synthétique et didactique, Paul Garde vous livre les clés qui vous permettront de décrypter le charabia qui lui est le plus souvent associé. Les touristes en herbe éviteront ainsi quelques impairs lors de leur prochain séjour en Yougoslavie (un nom déjà subversif et obsolète !), en Thrace (quelqu’un a déjà déposé un copyright sur ce nom ?) ou ...

  3. Have you ever been in Bosnia? British military travelers in the Balkans since 1992

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Tens of thousands of British military personnel traveled in former Yugoslavia as peacekeepers between 1992 and 2007. The settlements where British forces established their military presence and supply chain were conceptually far from former Yugoslavia’s tourist sites, but military travelers made sense of them by drawing on the commonplaces of previous travel accounts and the lessons of pre-deployment training. British military travelers constructed themselves as often frustrated helpers ...

  4. A new Agraecina spider species from the Balkan Peninsula (FYR Macedonia) (Araneae: Liocranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deltshev, Christo; Wang, Chunxia

    2016-01-01

            Specimens were collected using pitfall traps. Coloration is described from alcohol-preserved specimens. Specimens were examined and measured using a Wild M5A stereomicroscope. Further details were studied and measured under an Olympus BX41 compound microscope. All drawings were made using a drawing apparatus attached to a Leica stereomicroscope. Male palps and female genitalia were examined and illustrated after they were dissected from the spiders' bodies. Photos were taken with an Olympus C7070 wide zoom digital camera mounted on an Olympus SZX12 stereomicroscope. The images were montaged using Helicon Focus image stacking software. Measurements of the legs are taken from the dorsal side. Total length of the body includes the chelicerae. All measurements were taken in mm. Abbreviations used in text include: AME, anterior median eyes; ALE, anterior lateral eyes; EM, embolus; MA, median apophysis; CD, copulatory duct; ST, spermatheca; fe, femur; pa, patella; ti, tibia; mt, metatarsus; p, prolateral; d, dorsal; r, retrolateral; v, ventral. Type specimens are deposited in the National Museum of Natural History (NMNHS), Sofia, Bulgaria. PMID:27395163

  5. Environmental fate of depleted uranium at three sites contaminated during the balkan conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study on depleted uranium fate in the sites contaminated during the 1999 war conflict in Serbia was conducted in phases until the clean up activities were completed. The ammunition remains found at the locations in the surface soil were collected in the first phase during the radiation survey of the affected areas. The most of depleted uranium penetrators left buried deep into the ground exposed to the weathering and corrosion processes. The contamination level in the air, water, soil and bio -indicators was controlled all the time by routine gamma and alpha spectrometry measurements. Depleted uranium migration was studied through the soil profile surrounding the penetrator during the 2001 at the Bratoselce location showing the contamination level fall to the 1% of its value at approximately 15 cm distance to the source. The samples taken from the soil layers at different distances in the profile are subjected to a modified Tessiers five-step sequential extraction procedure. The uranium and heavy metals contents were determined in the obtained fractions. Results have specified carbonates and iron hydrous-oxides as the most probable substrates for uranium physical/chemical associations formed in the soil for the time elapsed. A very strong dependence of substrate onto contamination level was found. The correlation of uranium and other heavy metals was obtained. The 234U/238U and 235U/238U ratios are determined in extracts by alpha spectrometry after appropriate radiochemical separation procedure and thin alpha sources electroplating. The analysis has shown the share of depleted in total uranium content in exchangeable, carbonate, hydrous or crystalline iron/manganese, organic and residue phases indicating the bioavailability of depleted uranium present in the soil. The results are discussed related to detailed geochemical analysis of the particular soil type common for this region. Depleted uranium content in soil samples taken at the locations after the cleanup steps has shown up to double background level. (authors)

  6. Contrasting evolutionary histories of four slow-worm (Anguis) species in the Balkans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jablonski, D.; Džukić, G.; Jandzik, D.; Jelić, D.; Kornilios, P.; Ljubisavljević, K.; Mikulíček, P.; Moravec, J.; Tzankov, N.; Gvoždík, Václav

    Brno: Ústav biologie obratlovců AV ČR, 2015 - (Bryja, J.; Řehák, Z.; Zukal, J.). s. 98-99 ISBN 978-80-87189-18-4. [Zoologické dny. 12.02.2015-13.02.2015, Brno] Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  7. Effectiveness of EU Conditionality in the Western Balkans: Minority Rights and the Fight Against Corruption in Croatia and Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitta Glüpker

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available EU candidate countries must prove their respect for democracy and the rule of law to be eligible for EU membership. The Commission administers their accession processes following the principle of conditionality. This paper examines how domestic conditions and different aspects of the conditionality principle affect policy outcomes. It reviews the arguments made in the literature on EU conditionality and applies them to the policy areas of minority rights and the fight against corruption in Croatia and Macedonia. Both countries have been subjected to the Commission’s conditionality while their democratic achievements differ substantially. Thereby, the two countries offer a fruitful ground to evaluate the lessons drawn from the 2004-07 enlargement. While previous studies have remained quite unclear about the relative importance of domestic and EU-related determinants of effective conditionality, I argue that domestic influences vary strongly across the researched policy areas. In comparison, the political-legal instruments of the Commission show clear impacts on policies in candidate countries. Material incentives offered by the EU are only effective within the early phases of the accession process.

  8. Does Depressive Symptomatology Influence Teenage Patients and Their Mothers’ Experience of Doctor-Patient Relationship in Two Balkan Countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Vaitsa Giannouli; Stanislava Stoyanova

    2014-01-01

    Doctor-patient relationship is considered to be a special relationship and a keystone of medical care. A fundamental factor in this sort of relationship is the communication, which is strictly examined between the two involving parts, without taking into consideration in the case of children and teenagers the possible influence of their parents. The mothers more often accompany their children to the doctor and they become a third part of the doctor-patient relationship. In Greece during Febru...

  9. Understanding ‘Chance and Uncertainty’ in Clausewitz’s On War: Reflections on the Balkan Wars (1991-1995)

    OpenAIRE

    FLEMING, Colin M.

    2010-01-01

    In the opening chapter of Carl Von Clausewitz’s On War (1831), he explains to readers that ‘only one more element is needed to make war a gamble 'chance'. No other human activity is so continuously or universally bound up with chance.’ He continues: ‘And through the element chance, guesswork and luck come to play a great part in war’. Yet, how should the reader of On War interpret Clausewitz’s inclusion of chance into his general theory? Why is war so ‘universally’ bound to the pervasive tend...

  10. Mitochondrial DNA differentiation between two forms of trout Salmo letnica, endemic to the Balkan Lake Ohrid, reflects their reproductive isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, J; Spirkovski, Z

    2004-12-01

    Mitochondrial haplotype diversity in sympatric populations of Ohrid trout, Salmo letnica was investigated by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the mtDNA control region and ND1, ND3/4, ND5/6 segments. A 310 bp fragment at the 5' end, and a 340-572 bp fragment at the 3' end of the control region were sequenced from representatives of the populations studied. Based on pairwise comparison of the sequences, five new haplotypes were identified plus one identical with the brown trout Andalusian haplotype from the southern Iberian Peninsula. The combination of both RFLP and sequence data sets yielded a total of 10 composite haplotypes. A high degree of genetic subdivision between S. letnica typicus and S. letnica aestivalis populations was observed. The notion of a sympatric origin for the two morphs is discussed. Length variation of the mtDNA control region due to the presence of an 82 bp unit, tandemly repeated one to four times, in the region between the conserved sequence block-3 (CSB-3) and the gene for phenylalanine tRNA is reported. Further, we demonstrate that a single duplication of the approximately 82 bp repeat unit is a common element of the salmonid mitochondrial control region. The unique genetic structure of Ohrid trout represents a highly valuable genetic resource that deserves appropriate management and conservation. PMID:15548279

  11. Globalization in the Balkans: Free trade agreement and the perspectives of attracting large institutional investors on the domestic capital market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radonjić Ognjen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to take advantage of potentially positive effects that free trade flows have on economic growth, eight countries from South-East Europe united to create a regional free trade agreement. Significant market enlargement, cancellation of customs, tariffs and other export barriers create favorable opportunities for the development and growth of domestic companies. What is more, new sources of growth and development for local enterprises, as well as intensified competition, result in increased attractiveness of the region for large international investors. On the other hand, in order to take advantage of the presence of large international investors on the domestic market, it is very important to have in function a stable and rational financial system. Again, it is questionable how to develop in the most efficient way, at the moment, our underdeveloped financial market. A complementary solution is to attract large institutional investors on the domestic market, on one hand, and the foundation of domestic ones, on the other, in order to achieve a significant enlargement of the market liquidity as the basic determinant of its future development.

  12. Cancer risk among Italian veterans from the Balkans: the activities of the Italian National Institute of Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, cases of cancer have been reported among Italian troops involved in the peace-keeping mission in Bosnia and Kosovo. By the end of 2000, the Italian Minister of Defence appointed a Committee of Enquiry to gain a scientifically sound, reliable picture of the health consequences of the exposure of military personnel to Depleted Uranium (DU) and to assess the possible etiologic role DU may have played in the occurrence of specific pathologies. The Committee found a statistically significant excess of Hodgkin's lymphomas, but up to now the lack of thorough knowledge about internal uranium exposure and its potential effects has prevented us from determining whether lymphatic cancers are correlated with DU exposure. The Committee of Enquiry issued several recommendations, in particular: 1) to follow up the cohort of military personnel deployed in Bosnia and Kosovo and monitor the incidence of tumours and the evolution of the ensuing epidemiological scenario, and 2) to list the individuals that could have been exposed to DU for different reasons and enrol them in a long-term programme of medical surveillance. A decision was also made to quantify levels of U and other potentially toxic elements - as well as to measure the isotopic ratio 235U/238U for the assessment of DU - in biological samples of soldiers deployed in war theatres where presumably DU weapons were used, together with tentative indexes of contact with possible genotoxic factors. In this paper a general description is given of the activities carried out by the Italian National Institute of Health (ISS, in the Italian acronym) in compliance with both the recommendations of the Committee of Enquiry and the decision to quantify potential exposures. (author)

  13. The Bologna Process as a Reform Initiative in Higher Education in the Balkan Countries: The Case of Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, Radu Mircea

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Bologna process in Romania. The historical context covers the last years of the communist regime through 1989. From 1990 free elections of university leadership, the foundation of private universities and new democratic legislation, and projects for reforming higher education funded by different sources…

  14. Une figure de l’exclusion : la mémoire mythique dans la topographie des Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Boskovic

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available L’importance de la religion archaïque des Slaves du Sud dans la constitution de leur identité culturelle a été consciemment négligée et marginalisée par les missionnaires chrétiens. Les démarches oppressives de la part des représentants byzantins et romains lors de l’évangélisation de ces peuples eut comme résultat non seulement la destruction de temples et d’idoles païens mais également la condamnation à l’oubli de leur expérience religieuse primordiale. Pourtant l’exclusion imposée de la my...

  15. Environmental magnetism of Lake Ohrid (Balkans) - Rock magnetic proxies for lacustrine and terrestrial environmental changes over the past 640 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, J.; Nowaczyk, N. R.; Francke, A.; Sagnotti, L.; Wagner, B.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic properties of lake sediments can provide valuable information on terrestrial environmental conditions. The composition of detrital magnetic minerals provides information on erosion and pedogenesis in the catchment. However, depending on the trophic state of the lake, water depth and stratification, oxygen supply is often limited and leads to dissolution and neo-formation of magnetic minerals. Variations in bulk magnetic and geochemical properties of a sediment core (ICDP site 5045-1) from Lake Ohrid, mimic climatic changes on glacial-interglacial and millennial time scales. During extremely cold glacials, low accumulation of organic matter and enhanced mixing of the water-column coincides with the preservation of syn-sedimentary greigite whereas in sediments deposited during less severe glacials and interglacials, greigite is absent. "Non-greigite" glacial sediments are characterized by high concentration of high-coercivity magnetic minerals, which relates to enhanced erosion of soils due a retreat in vegetation. During interglacials magnetite dominates the magnetic mineral assemblage, most likely corresponding to detrital particles originating from physically weathered rocks. Millennial-scale variations of magnetic properties are superimposed on the general glacial-interglacial pattern. Higher contributions from high-coercivity minerals correspond to phases of low summer-insolation. We propose that also on these time scales retreated vegetation resulted in enhanced soil erosion. Our study demonstrates that rock-magnetic studies, in concert with geochemical and sedimentological investigations, provide a multi-level contribution to environmental reconstructions, since the magnetic properties can mirror both environmental conditions on land, as well as intra-lake processes.

  16. Through the Balkan States: Home movies as travel texts and tourism histories in the Mediterranean, c.1923-39

    OpenAIRE

    Norris Nicholson, Heather

    2006-01-01

    Newly available lightweight cine camera equipment provided affluent British holidaymakers with an innovative travel accessory in the mid 1920s. Travel narratives produced by early camera-touting enthusiasts may be likened to preceding forms of travel experience depicted in art and written form, but important differences occur too. This discussion explores issues of place representation, ethnography and perceptions of regional identities, cultures, and histories through reference to amateur ho...

  17. Critical Factors Controlling Pd and Pt Potential in Porphyry Cu–Au Deposits: Evidence from the Balkan Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetrios G. Eliopoulos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Porphyry Cu–Au–Pd±Pt deposits are significant Au resources, but their Pd and Pt potential is still unknown. Elevated Pd, Pt (hundreds of ppb and Au contents are associated with typical stockwork magnetite-bornite-chalcopyrite assemblages, at the central parts of certain porphyry deposits. Unexpected high grade Cu–(Pd+Pt (up to 6 ppm mineralization with high Pd/Pt ratios at the Elatsite porphyry deposit, which is found in a spatial association with the Chelopech epithermal deposit (Bulgaria and the Skouries porphyry deposit, may have formed during late stages of an evolved hydrothermal system. Estimated Pd, Pt and Au potential for porphyry deposits is consistent with literature model calculations demonstrating the capacity of aqueous vapor and brine to scavenge sufficient quantities of Pt and Pd, and could contribute to the global platinum-group element (PGE production. Critical requirements controlling potential of porphyry deposits may be from the metals contained in magma (metasomatized asthenospheric mantle wedge as indicated by significant Cr, Co, Ni and Re contents. The Cr content may be an indicator for the mantle input.

  18. Molecular phylogeographic analyses of the loach Oxynoemacheilus bureschi reveal post-glacial range extensions across the Balkans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedivá, Alena; Apostolou, A.; Kohout, Jan; Bohlen, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 2 (2010), s. 357-368. ISSN 0022-1112 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB600450601; GA ČR GA206/08/0637; GA ČR GA206/05/2556 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Biogeography * Freshwater fish * Introduction Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.330, year: 2010

  19. Does Depressive Symptomatology Influence Teenage Patients and Their Mothers’ Experience of Doctor-Patient Relationship in Two Balkan Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaitsa Giannouli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Doctor-patient relationship is considered to be a special relationship and a keystone of medical care. A fundamental factor in this sort of relationship is the communication, which is strictly examined between the two involving parts, without taking into consideration in the case of children and teenagers the possible influence of their parents. The mothers more often accompany their children to the doctor and they become a third part of the doctor-patient relationship. In Greece during February-May 2013, 196 mothers and their teenage children (suffering from acute or chronic illnesses completed two questionnaires: the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D and a series of questions on a Likert scale from the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ about the experienced satisfaction with the characteristics of this communication. In Bulgaria during July-August 2013, 60 mothers and their children completed the same questionnaires. The results revealed an unexpected finding only for the Greek sample - the quality of relationship between doctor and patient (for both Greek mothers and adolescents was negatively associated with their scores on CES-D (i.e. low level of depression together with low satisfaction derived from the relationship with the doctor, while no differences were found between the participants’ groups (mothers, children, acute or chronic disease. This surprising finding of high depression-high satisfaction was not found in the Bulgarian sample and therefore needs further investigation.

  20. Song Repertoire and Comparative Analysis of Song Structure of Chaffinch, Fringilla Coelebs (Fringillidae, from the Northeast of Balkan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvelykh A. N.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available В репертуаре зябликов с северо-восточной части Балканского региона выявлено 39 типов песен, из которых наиболее распространены 9. Сравнение песен балканских зябликов с песнями птиц с Кав- каза, Восточных Карпат, Крыма и равнинной Украины показало полное отсутствие общих типов песен. Структура песен балканских зябликов оказалась сходной со структурой песен птиц Кавказа и Восточных Карпат, но существенно отличалась от структуры песен птиц Крыма и равнинных районов Украины. Из 106 элементов, выявленных в песнях балканских зябликов, 5 - оказались специфичными для местных птиц, ещё 37 - общими с элементами, выявленными исключительно в популяции зябликов Восточных Карпат и отсутствующими в песнях зябликов из Крыма и рав- нинных районов Украины. Наличие общих элементов в песнях зябликов Балканского региона и Восточных Карпат может свидетельствовать об отдалённых родственных связях между этими тер- риториальными песенными комплексами или (и о сохранении реликтовых элементов в песнях этих горных популяций. «Дождевые сигналы» зябликов Балкан радикально отличаются от анало- гичных сигналов птиц Крыма, равнинной Украины и Восточных Карпат и совершенно идентичны сигналам птиц Кавказа.

  1. Response to 'Comments upon human exposure to depleted uranium during and after the Gulf and Balkans conflicts'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dear Sir, Eric Hamilton takes the Royal Society and myself to task for investigating the health hazards of depleted uranium munitions. In his view the matter appears to be clear. Exposures to uranium have been studied extensively for decades in the nuclear industry and there is little evidence of adverse health consequences. Exposures to DU on the battlefield are therefore unlikely to have health consequences and setting up an independent working group to look at the scientific issues only suggests there are doubts about the science, and leads to mistrust and confusion in the minds of the public. This type of robust approach to addressing the risks of exposure to radioactive materials, and of attempting to assuage the concerns of veterans exposed to DU during the Gulf War, may have worked in the past but it doesn't work today. The Royal Society is accused of having failed to address the main issue, which Hamilton considers to be the failure to implement well established and validated monitoring procedures at the time DU weapons were deployed, so that intakes and risks could have been calculated. This is a curious perspective as, from the outset, the remit of the Royal Society working group was to provide an independent view of the science, rather than the deficiencies in procedures, in response to public concerns and to the very different pronouncements about the dangers to health and the environment arising from the deployment of over 300 tonnes of DU munitions in the Gulf War. Some of the comments in the Royal Society reports and the editorial are considered to be questionable or not acceptable. It is not clear which particular aspects cause offence. One aspect appears to be the claim that DU measurements are difficult, where Hamilton appears to misunderstand the nature of the problem of quantifying exposures to DU. Of course uranium concentrations and isotope ratios are routinely measured in the nuclear industry and in geochemical laboratories, but the problem is not one of analysing DU debris' but of looking for, and quantifying, the minute amounts of DU that are being excreted in the urine of veterans who were exposed to DU aerosols during the Gulf War. Reliably measuring uranium isotopes (particularly the very small percentage of 235U) in urine that contains a few nanograms of total uranium per litre is a challenge. Hamilton doubts that epidemiological studies of veterans will be useful, and comments that radioactive exposures or releases by the nuclear industry have not impaired the health of the population or workforce, and that uranium has never been identified as an element of concern. Epidemiological studies do indeed provide little evidence that exposure to uranium in industrial settings is associated with excess overall mortality, or with increased mortality from cancers or kidney disease. However, the exposures to insoluble DU oxides on the battlefield may be significantly different (in solubility, particle size, amount) from typical exposures in industry, and the existing epidemiological studies of worker cohorts are not particularly sensitive, and I disagree that epidemiological studies are of no value in the context of exposures to DU on the battlefield. Certainly there were multiple exposures to toxic, or potentially toxic, agents in the Gulf War, but tests that measure the amounts of DU in the urine of soldiers have been promised to veterans and, if these identify a group of soldiers who received substantial intakes, case-control studies should allow a sensitive evaluation of any link between exposure to DU and ill health. Hamilton is also concerned that the issue of 'hot particles' is not examined in sufficient depth but in the same sentence he says that data are lacking upon which a judgement can be made. In any case, it is very unclear why 'hot particles' should have been discussed in depth. Hamilton himself defines such particles as highly radioactive and potentially hazardous unprocessed, spent-reactor uranium fuel debris', something quite different from the very much less radioactive particles released in DU penetrator impacts. However, the Royal Society reports do flag up the need to re-assess the robustness of current estimates of risks from the inhalation of radioactive particles and CERRIE is currently addressing this question. There is one point made by Hamilton with which I agree. Far more effort should have been made to understand intakes of DU during the Gulf War, and the Royal Society working group has consistently been critical of the lack of data on intakes of DU by soldiers in the Gulf War, and has been pressing the Ministry of Defence to ensure that there is adequate and timely monitoring in any future conflict where DU munitions are deployed. It is only when we have these intake data that we can really evaluate the risks associated with these exposures and the uncertainties associated with these estimates

  2. "There's no kind of respect here" A qualitative study of racism and access to maternal health care among Romani women in the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janevic Teresa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Roma, the largest minority group in Europe, face widespread racism and health disadvantage. Using qualitative data from Serbia and Macedonia, our objective was to develop a conceptual framework showing how three levels of racism--personal, internalized, and institutional--affect access to maternal health care among Romani women. Methods Eight focus groups of Romani women aged 14-44 (n = 71, as well as in-depth semi-structured interviews with gynecologists (n = 8 and key informants from NGOs and state institutions (n = 11 were conducted on maternal health care seeking, experiences during care, and perceived health care discrimination. Transcripts were coded, and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Themes were categorized into domains. Results Twenty-two emergent themes identified barriers that reflected how racism affects access to maternal health care. The domains into which the themes were classified were perceptions and interactions with health system, psychological factors, social environment and resources, lack of health system accountability, financial needs, and exclusion from education. Conclusions The experiences of Romani women demonstrate psychosocial and structural pathways by which racism and discrimination affect access to prenatal and maternity care. Interventions to address maternal health inequalities should target barriers within all three levels of racism.

  3. New radiometric ages for the BH-1 hominin from Balanica (Serbia: implications for understanding the role of the Balkans in Middle Pleistocene human evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Rink

    Full Text Available Newly obtained ages, based on electron spin resonance combined with uranium series isotopic analysis, and infrared/post-infrared luminescence dating, provide a minimum age that lies between 397 and 525 ka for the hominin mandible BH-1 from Mala Balanica cave, Serbia. This confirms it as the easternmost hominin specimen in Europe dated to the Middle Pleistocene. Inferences drawn from the morphology of the mandible BH-1 place it outside currently observed variation of European Homo heidelbergensis. The lack of derived Neandertal traits in BH-1 and its contemporary specimens in Southeast Europe, such as Kocabaş, Vasogliano and Ceprano, coupled with Middle Pleistocene synapomorphies, suggests different evolutionary forces acting in the east of the continent where isolation did not play such an important role during glaciations.

  4. New Radiometric Ages for the BH-1 Hominin from Balanica (Serbia): Implications for Understanding the Role of the Balkans in Middle Pleistocene Human Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    William J Rink; Mercier, Norbert; Mihailović, Dušan; Mike W Morley; Thompson, Jeroen W.; Roksandic, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Newly obtained ages, based on electron spin resonance combined with uranium series isotopic analysis, and infrared/post-infrared luminescence dating, provide a minimum age that lies between 397 and 525 ka for the hominin mandible BH-1 from Mala Balanica cave, Serbia. This confirms it as the easternmost hominin specimen in Europe dated to the Middle Pleistocene. Inferences drawn from the morphology of the mandible BH-1 place it outside currently observed variation of European Homo heidelbergen...

  5. On the distribution of Cerastium smolikanum (Caryophyllaceae) and Centaurea vlachorum (Asteraceae) in the Balkan Peninsula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shuka, Lulezim; Tan, Kit

    2009-01-01

    Cerastium smolikanum (Caryophyllaceae) and Centaurea vlachorum (Asteraceae) are reported for the first () and () are reported for the first time in C and NE Albania. These two taxa were previously considered serpentine endemics restricted to a few localities in NW Greece and the extension to their...

  6. Environmental control on the occurrence of high-coercivity magnetic minerals and formation of iron sulfides in a 640 ka sediment sequence from Lake Ohrid (Balkans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, Janna; Nowaczyk, Norbert R.; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Francke, Alexander; Vogel, Hendrik; Lacey, Jack H.; Wagner, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    The bulk magnetic mineral record from Lake Ohrid, spanning the past 637 kyr, reflects large-scale shifts in hydrological conditions, and, superimposed, a strong signal of environmental conditions on glacial-interglacial and millennial timescales. A shift in the formation of early diagenetic ferrimagnetic iron sulfides to siderites is observed around 320 ka. This change is probably associated with variable availability of sulfide in the pore water. We propose that sulfate concentrations were significantly higher before ˜ 320 ka, due to either a higher sulfate flux or lower dilution of lake sulfate due to a smaller water volume. Diagenetic iron minerals appear more abundant during glacials, which are generally characterized by higher Fe / Ca ratios in the sediments. While in the lower part of the core the ferrimagnetic sulfide signal overprints the primary detrital magnetic signal, the upper part of the core is dominated by variable proportions of high- to low-coercivity iron oxides. Glacial sediments are characterized by high concentration of high-coercivity magnetic minerals (hematite, goethite), which relate to enhanced erosion of soils that had formed during preceding interglacials. Superimposed on the glacial-interglacial behavior are millennial-scale oscillations in the magnetic mineral composition that parallel variations in summer insolation. Like the processes on glacial-interglacial timescales, low summer insolation and a retreat in vegetation resulted in enhanced erosion of soil material. Our study highlights that rock-magnetic studies, in concert with geochemical and sedimentological investigations, provide a multi-level contribution to environmental reconstructions, since the magnetic properties can mirror both environmental conditions on land and intra-lake processes.

  7. Convergence of the Policies for Promoting Total Quality Management in the Public Administrations of Balkan States – European Union Member States

    OpenAIRE

    Ani MATEI; Carmen SĂVULESCU

    2011-01-01

    In the past three decades, total quality management (TQM) has been appreciated as “fundamental modality in view to improve the activity in the public and private sectors” (Boyne and Walker, 2002, p. 1). For the time being, in public administrations, we witness an extension of the policies for promoting TQM, although the experiences have not always been positive. The European Administrative Space (EAS) incorporates TQM, in different manners at national level, taking into c...

  8. First forum ''BISE'' for: the intelligent energy in the municipalities and the new member states, of candidate countries and western Balkans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The european commission and the european association of municipalities (Energie Cites) established a permanent ''Intelligent Energy Forum of European Municipalities'' (named BISE Forum) as form of periodical information exchange between municipal associations and other potential partners in Europe. In the framework of the reduction of the sustainable energy gap between the Central and Eastern European Countries and the most advanced energy-efficient EU 15 countries, the aim of this forum is to promote the creation of national energy cities networks, to integrate the initiatives and networks at an European scale and to promote the idea of an European Emergency Plan in order to improve energy efficiency in Eastern European Countries as quickly as possible. This document presents the proceedings and a selection of cases studies linked to the first BISE Forum. (A.L.B.)

  9. Environmental control on the occurrence of high-coercivity magnetic minerals and formation of iron sulfides in a 640 ka sediment sequence from Lake Ohrid (Balkans)

    OpenAIRE

    Just, Janna; Nowaczyk, Norbert R.; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Francke, Alexander; Vogel, Hendrik; Lacey, Jack H.; Wagner, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    The bulk magnetic mineral record from Lake Ohrid, spanning the past 637 kyr, reflects large-scale shifts in hydrological conditions, and, superimposed, a strong signal of environmental conditions on glacial–interglacial and millennial timescales. A shift in the formation of early diagenetic ferrimagnetic iron sulfides to siderites is observed around 320 ka. This change is probably associated with variable availability of sulfide in the pore water. We propose that sulfate concentrations were s...

  10. Environmental control on the occurrence of high-coercivity magnetic minerals and formation of iron sulfides in a 640 ka sediment sequence from Lake Ohrid (Balkans)

    OpenAIRE

    Just, Janna; Nowaczyk, Norbert R.; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Francke, Alexander; Vogel, Hendrik; Lacey, Jack H.; Wagner, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    The bulk magnetic mineral record from Lake Ohrid, spanning the past 637 kyr, reflects large-scale shifts in hydrological conditions, and, superimposed, a strong signal of environmental conditions on glacial–interglacial and millennial timescales. A shift in the formation of early diagenetic ferrimagnetic iron sulfides to siderites is observed around 320 ka. This change is probably associated with variable availability of sulfide in the pore water. We propose that sulfate con...

  11. New radiometric ages for the BH-1 hominin from Balanica (Serbia): implications for understanding the role of the Balkans in Middle Pleistocene human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, William J; Mercier, Norbert; Mihailović, Dušan; Morley, Mike W; Thompson, Jeroen W; Roksandic, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Newly obtained ages, based on electron spin resonance combined with uranium series isotopic analysis, and infrared/post-infrared luminescence dating, provide a minimum age that lies between 397 and 525 ka for the hominin mandible BH-1 from Mala Balanica cave, Serbia. This confirms it as the easternmost hominin specimen in Europe dated to the Middle Pleistocene. Inferences drawn from the morphology of the mandible BH-1 place it outside currently observed variation of European Homo heidelbergensis. The lack of derived Neandertal traits in BH-1 and its contemporary specimens in Southeast Europe, such as Kocabaş, Vasogliano and Ceprano, coupled with Middle Pleistocene synapomorphies, suggests different evolutionary forces acting in the east of the continent where isolation did not play such an important role during glaciations. PMID:23405085

  12. Changing what it means to ‘become a man’: participants’ reflections on a school-based programme to redefine masculinity in the Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Namy, Sophie; Heilman, Brian; Stich, Shawna; Crownover, John; Leka, Besnik; Edmeades, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Calls to engage men and boys in efforts to promote health, prevent violence and advance gender equality have grown in recent years. However, there remains little evidence or reflection on how most effectively to change harmful norms related to masculinity. The study addresses this gap by exploring the perspectives of participants in the Young Men Initiative (YMI), an innovative programme that aimed to promote healthier masculinities among boys attending vocational high schools in several Balk...

  13. Between enlargement-led Europeanisation and Balkan exceptionalism: an appraisal of Bulgaria’s and Romania’s entry into the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Papadimitriou, Dimitris; Gativa, Eli

    2009-01-01

    The accession of Bulgaria and Romania into the European Union (EU) in 2007 offers significant theoretical and empirical insights into the way in which the EU has deployed and realised its enlargement strategy/strategies over the past 15 years. Borrowing from the literature on enlargement-led Europeanisation and EU conditionality, this article discusses how the EU has sought to influence domestic reform in the two countries through a mix of threats and rewards. What emerges from Bulgaria’s and...

  14. Climatic control on the occurrence of high-coercivity magnetic minerals and preservation of greigite in a 640 ka sediment sequence from Lake Ohrid (Balkans)

    OpenAIRE

    Just, J.; Nowaczyk, N.; A. Francke; Sagnotti, L.; Wagner, B.

    2015-01-01

    The bulk magnetic mineral record from Lake Ohrid, spanning the past ca. 640 ka, shows a strong relationship to environmental conditions on glacial–interglacial and millennial time scales. During extremely cold glacials, a lower accumulation of organic matter and likely enhanced mixing of the water-column coincides with the presence of greigite, whereas greigite is absent in sediments deposited during less severe glacials. Those "non-greigite" glacial sediments are characteri...

  15. Climatic control on the occurrence of high-coercivity magnetic minerals and preservation of greigite in a 640 ka sediment sequence from Lake Ohrid (Balkans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, J.; Nowaczyk, N.; Francke, A.; Sagnotti, L.; Wagner, B.

    2015-08-01

    The bulk magnetic mineral record from Lake Ohrid, spanning the past ca. 640 ka, shows a strong relationship to environmental conditions on glacial-interglacial and millennial time scales. During extremely cold glacials, a lower accumulation of organic matter and likely enhanced mixing of the water-column coincides with the presence of greigite, whereas greigite is absent in sediments deposited during less severe glacials. Those "non-greigite" glacial sediments are characterized by high concentration of high-coercivity magnetic minerals, which relates to enhanced erosion of soils that had formed during the preceding interglacials. In contrast, magnetite dominated magnetic mineral assemblages characterize interglacial deposits and most likely originate from detrital particles of physically weathered rocks. Superimposed on the glacial-interglacial behavior are millennial scale oscillations in the magnetic mineral composition that parallel variations in summer insolation. Likewise to the process on glacial-interglacial time-scales, low summer insolation and a retreat in vegetation resulted in enhanced erosion of soil material. Our study highlights that rock-magnetic studies, in concert with geochemical and sedimentological investigations, provide a multi-level contribution to environmental reconstructions, since the magnetic properties can mirror both, environmental conditions on land and intra-lacustrine processes.

  16. The origin and age of the metamorphic sole from the Rogozna Mts., Western Vardar Belt: New evidence for the one-ocean model for the Balkan ophiolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borojević Šoštarić, S.; Palinkaš, A. L.; Neubauer, F.; Cvetković, V.; Bernroider, M.; Genser, J.

    2014-04-01

    This study brings new geochronological and petrochemical data from the metamorphic sole beneath the Rogozna Mts., Western Vardar ophiolite belt. The Rogozna metamorphic sole is located at the base of a serpentinite nappe and consists of amphibolites and talc-chlorite schists. The Rogozna amphibolites are medium- to fine-grained rocks with nematoblastic texture and pronounced foliation. They consist of green amphibole (~ 70 vol.%) with variable silica contents (6.4 to 7.8 Si apfu), as well as Mg# (molMg/[Mg + Fetot]; 0.53 to 0.77) and variably albitized plagioclase (~ 30 vol.%; Ab24-Ab98). Amphibolites are overprinted by a retrograde assemblage containing actinolite, epidote, clinoclore, sericite, chlorite, and magnetite. The amphibolites formed due to metamorphism of two basaltic suites: subalkaline/tholeiitic and alkaline. Subalkaline/tholeiitic amphibolites possess low Zr, Nb, Y, Th, Hf, TiO2, and P2O5 values and a LREE-depleted pattern, typical for the N-MORB (normal mid ocean ridge basalt) to BAB (back-arc basalt) origin. Alkaline amphibolites show elevated concentrations of Zr, Nb, Y, Th, Hf, TiO2, and P2O5 with a LREE-enriched pattern typically displayed by OIB (ocean island basalt). Amphibolites were crystallized during intra-oceanic thrusting at temperatures between 685 °C and 765 °C and at a depth of 12-17 km. 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages of amphibole, ranging from 165 to 170 Ma, slightly postdate the sole formation. Talc-chlorite schists are related to retrograde greenschist-facies metamorphism. They consist of Fe-rich talc and Cr-rich chlorite (peninite-diabantite) pseudomorphs after amphibole and MORB-type Cr-Al spinel, surrounded by Al- and Mg-poor ferrit chromite. The occurrence of ferrit chromite is related to earlier, amphibolite facies metamorphism. Chlorite pseudomorphs after amphibole were formed at 300-410 °C.

  17. An economic and business strategy analysis of joint ventures between Greek enterprises and enterprises in the Balkan countries and Russia : from the Greek parent company perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis-Dionysios, Salavrakos

    1997-01-01

    This thesis analyses joint ventures which have been established between Greek enterprises and enterprises from Albania, Bulgaria, Romania and Russia. An international joint venture (IJV) is an enterprise established between two or more companies, one of which exercises its entrepreneurial activities in a foreign country. The core set of questions that this thesis addresses consist of motives for the establishment of joint ventures, partner selection criteria, control and ...

  18. Archaeobotanical evidence on the Neolithisation of Northeast Bulgaria in the Balkan-Anatolian context: chronological framework, plant economy and land use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Marinova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presents archaeobotanical analyses of four Early Neolithic sites (Koprivets, Orlovets, Dzhulyunitsa, Samovodene from Northeast Bulgaria. Those archaeobotanical data are linked to comprehensive series of 14C dates for the early Neolithic in northeastern Bulgaria allowing their attribution to high resolution radiocarbon chronology. In the considered sites the dominating cereal crop during the Early Neolithic is hulled barley (Hordeum vulgare var. vulgare, followed by einkorn (Triticum monococcum and few emmer (Triticum dicoccum what is a clear difference from the southern parts of Bulgaria where during the early Neolithic the dominating cereal crops are einkorn and emmer. Further principal crops, present from the earliest phases of the Neolithic in the region are lentil - Lens culinaris, pea – Pisum sativum, grass pea – Lathyrus sativus/cicera and flax – Linum usitatissimum. Wide spectrum of finds of gathered plants (at least 11 taxa reflects the use of the natural vegetation resources. Useful for reconstructing the vegetation and land use in the Neolithic are also wood charcoal identifications, indicating apart of oak forests also presence of open vegetation, riparian forests and wetlands. The relatively open vegetation in the surrounding of the early Neolithic settlements could be one of the reasons why the corresponding locations were chosen by the Neolithic people to settle there. On the other hand this open vegetation could be caused by the Neolithic land use and animal husbandry, which have also led to certain reduction of the forests in the immediate surroundings of the settlements.

  19. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data reveal the evolutionary history of Barbus (Cyprinidae) in the ancient lake systems of the Balkans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marková, Silvia; Sanda, R.; Crivelli, A.; Shumka, S.; Wilson, I. F.; Vukic, J.; Berrebi, P.; Kotlík, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2010), s. 488-500. ISSN 1055-7903 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1154; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Dessaretes lakes * Isolation with migration * Mediterranean Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.889, year: 2010

  20. L’avenir des protectorats internationaux sur les Balkans:Présentation du Rapport de suivi de la Commission internationale indépendante sur le Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Rupnik, Jacques

    2002-01-01

    On croit trop souvent en Occident que l'ouverture de la Chine aux nouvelles technologies de l'information et de la communication (NTIC) débouchera sur l'assouplissement du régime autoritaire. En réalité, les règles de l'OMC ne sont pas faites pour obliger un Etat membre à respecter les droits de l'homme et ne peuvent guère être "détournées" à cette fin. En outre, l'architecture d'Internet, conçue pour exploiter commercialement les données concernant les utilisateurs, est parfaitement utilisab...

  1. Structural and behavioural changes in the short term preventive check in the northwest Balkans in the 18th and 19th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammel, E A; Galloway, P R

    2000-03-01

    Fertility responded negatively to grain insufficiency (proxied by grain price increases), and mortality responded positively in Croatia-Slavonia-Srem in the 18th and 19th centuries, as in most of Europe. Shifts in the intensity and timing of these responses occurred over time as social and economic structures changed. Shifts in the elasticity of fertility with respect to grain supply inversely mimic and lag changes in the elasticity of mortality. Both appear to be induced by increasing land shortage, the collapse of feudalism, and differences in the patterns of adjustment to post-feudal conditions among former civil and military serfs. Generally, responses are stronger for civil and former civil serfs, who may have been in less favorable economic circumstances than the military. Fertility responses in the year of a price shock come to dominate those in the year following, suggesting a shift from contraception to abortion as economic and social conditions apparently worsened and strategies of control intensified. Analysis of monthly responses supports the conjecture based on the annual responses. The shift to the preventive check and strength of the preventive check in the same year as the price shock is unusual in Europe and beyond. Analysis is based on 25 parishes and employs lagged annual and monthly time series analysis with corrections for autocorrelation, in combination with ethnographic and historical data. PMID:12159002

  2. A new approach to geographic partitioning of probabilistic seismic hazard using seismic source distance with earthquake extreme and perceptibility statistics: an application to the southern Balkan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, T. J.

    2016-02-01

    The southeastern European cities of Sofia and Thessaloniki are explored as example site-specific scenarios by geographically zoning their individual localized seismic sources based on the highest probabilities of magnitude exceedance. This is with the aim of determining the major components contributing to each city's seismic hazard. Discrete contributions from the selected input earthquake catalogue are investigated to determine those areas that dominate each city's prevailing seismic hazard with respect to magnitude and source-to-site distance. This work is based on an earthquake catalogue developed and described in a previously published paper by the author and components of a magnitude probability density function. Binned magnitude and distance classes are defined using a joint magnitude-distance distribution. The prevailing seismicity to each city-as defined by a child data set extracted from the parent earthquake catalogue for each city considered-is divided into distinct constrained data bins of small discrete magnitude and source-to-site distance intervals. These are then used to describe seismic hazard in terms of uni-variate modal values; that is, M* and D* which are the modal magnitude and modal source-to-site distance in each city's local historical seismicity. This work highlights that Sofia's dominating seismic hazard-that is, the modal magnitudes possessing the highest probabilities of occurrence-is located in zones confined to two regions at 60-80 km and 170-180 km from this city, for magnitude intervals of 5.75-6.00 Mw and 6.00-6.25 Mw respectively. Similarly, Thessaloniki appears prone to highest levels of hazard over a wider epicentral distance interval, from 80 to 200 km in the moment magnitude range 6.00-6.25 Mw.

  3. Diagnosis of the Relationship between Dust Storms over the Sahara Desert and Dust Deposit or Coloured Rain in the South Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Prezerakos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objects of study in this paper are the synoptic scale atmospheric circulation systems associated with the rather frequent phenomenon of coloured rain and the very rare phenomenon of dust or sand deposits from a Saharan sandstorm triggered by a developing strong depression. Analysis of two such cases revealed that two days before the occurrence of the coloured rain or the dust deposits over Greece a sand storm appeared over the north-western Sahara desert. The flow in the entire troposphere is southerly/south-westerly with an upward vertical motion regime. If the atmospheric conditions over Greece favour rain then this rain contains a part of the dust cloud while the rest is drawn away downstream adopting a light yellow colour. In cases where the atmospheric circulation on the route of the dust cloud trajectories is not intensively anticyclonic dust deposits can occur on the surface long far from the region of the dust origin. Such was the case on 4th April, 1988, when significant synoptic-scale subsidence occurred over Italy and towards Greece. The upper air data, in the form of synoptic maps, illustrate in detail the synoptic-scale atmospheric circulations associated with the emission-transport-deposition and confirm the transportation of dust particles.

  4. Microsatellite based genetic diversity and population structure of chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) in a contact zone between the Alps and Northwestern Balkans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bužan, E. V.; Zemanová, Barbora; Bryja, Josef; Kryštufek, B.

    Paris : Université P. et M. Curie, 2011. s. 106 [European Congress of Mammalogy /7./. 19.07.2011-23.07.2011, Paris] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : chamois * genetic diversity * population structure Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://www.alphavisa.com/ecm2011/pdf/ECM2011-Abstract_Book.pdf

  5. First forum ''BISE'' for: the intelligent energy in the municipalities and the new member states, of candidate countries and western Balkans; Premier forum ''BISE'' pour: l'energie intelligente dans les minicipalites des nouveaux etats membres, des pays candidats et des Balkans occidentaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The european commission and the european association of municipalities (Energie Cites) established a permanent ''Intelligent Energy Forum of European Municipalities'' (named BISE Forum) as form of periodical information exchange between municipal associations and other potential partners in Europe. In the framework of the reduction of the sustainable energy gap between the Central and Eastern European Countries and the most advanced energy-efficient EU 15 countries, the aim of this forum is to promote the creation of national energy cities networks, to integrate the initiatives and networks at an European scale and to promote the idea of an European Emergency Plan in order to improve energy efficiency in Eastern European Countries as quickly as possible. This document presents the proceedings and a selection of cases studies linked to the first BISE Forum. (A.L.B.)

  6. Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CCHF is endemic in Africa, the Balkans, the Middle East and Asia, in countries south of the 50th ... CCHF is endemic in Africa, the Balkans, the Middle East and Asian countries south of the 50th parallel ...

  7. INFLUENCE OF THE GREEK LANGUAGE ON THE SPEECH AND FOLK POETRY OF GORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadik Idrizi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on its many structural features, the Gorani dialect belongs to Balkan linguistic union. Some features have joined this dialect as a result of linguistic and ethnic mixtures present in the southeastern part of Balkan peninsula. Romanic, Turkish and Greek languages have influenced a lot the creation of the Balkan linguistic association. Balkan languages show a lot of parallel features in phonetics, morphology, syntax and vocabulary.

  8. Albania – as the Bridge of Routes and Transport Corridors between the Adriatic Sea and Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadan Mazrekaj

    2015-01-01

    Republic of Albania is located in the Western Balkans. Its location in the midst of crossroads for major transit corridors in Europe places Albania in a strategic geographic position. Albania links the western Mediterranean countries with the Balkans and Asia. Its biggest valleys situated in Drin, Shkumbin and Vjose rivers, facilitate the connection of the Balkans with the Adriatic Sea. In the Balkan territory are situated some of the most important Pan - European transport corridors, consist...

  9. Distribution of uranium, thorium and some stable trace and toxic elements in human hair and nails in Niška Banja Town, a high natural background radiation area of Serbia (Balkan Region, South-East Europe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, S K; Žunić, Z S; Kritsananuwat, R; Zagrodzki, P; Bossew, P; Veselinovic, N; Mishra, S; Yonehara, H; Tokonami, S

    2015-07-01

    Human hair and nails can be considered as bio-indicators of the public exposure to certain natural radionuclides and other toxic metals over a long period of months or even years. The level of elements in hair and nails usually reflect their levels in other tissues of body. Niška Banja, a spa town located in southern Serbia, with locally high natural background radiation was selected for the study. To assess public exposure to the trace elements, hair and nail samples were collected and analyzed. The concentrations of uranium, thorium and some trace and toxic elements (Mn, Ni, Cu, Sr, Cd, and Cs) were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). U and Th concentrations in hair varied from 0.0002 to 0.0771 μg/g and from 0.0002 to 0.0276 μg/g, respectively. The concentrations in nails varied from 0.0025 to 0.0447 μg/g and from 0.0023 to 0.0564 μg/g for U and Th, respectively. We found significant correlations between some elements in hair and nails. Also indications of spatial clustering of high values could be found. However, this phenomenon as well as the large variations in concentrations of heavy metals in hair and nail could not be explained. As hypotheses, we propose possible exposure pathways which may explain the findings, but the current data does not allow testing them. PMID:25875006

  10. Distribution of uranium, thorium and some stable trace and toxic elements in human hair and nails in Niška Banja Town, a high natural background radiation area of Serbia (Balkan Region, South-East Europe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human hair and nails can be considered as bio-indicators of the public exposure to certain natural radionuclides and other toxic metals over a long period of months or even years. The level of elements in hair and nails usually reflect their levels in other tissues of body. Niška Banja, a spa town located in southern Serbia, with locally high natural background radiation was selected for the study. To assess public exposure to the trace elements, hair and nail samples were collected and analyzed. The concentrations of uranium, thorium and some trace and toxic elements (Mn, Ni, Cu, Sr, Cd, and Cs) were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). U and Th concentrations in hair varied from 0.0002 to 0.0771 μg/g and from 0.0002 to 0.0276 μg/g, respectively. The concentrations in nails varied from 0.0025 to 0.0447 μg/g and from 0.0023 to 0.0564 μg/g for U and Th, respectively. We found significant correlations between some elements in hair and nails. Also indications of spatial clustering of high values could be found. However, this phenomenon as well as the large variations in concentrations of heavy metals in hair and nail could not be explained. As hypotheses, we propose possible exposure pathways which may explain the findings, but the current data does not allow testing them. - Highlights: • Niška Banja is a high radiation background area of Serbia with high radium (226Ra) concentration. • Measurement of thorium, uranium and some selected trace elements in hair and nails were carried out using ICP-MS. • Elevated concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides such as U and Th in environmental samples was determined. • We have assumed to find a suitable relationship between hair and nail samples with the natural samples

  11. Lithic studies: an alternative approach to Neolithization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gurova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Most models of Neolithization of the Balkans have focused on pottery, with little attention paid to other aspects of material culture. A distinctive feature of the Early Neolithic Karanovo I culture of Bulgaria is a flint industry characterized by ‘macroblade’ technology and widespread use of ‘Balkan Flint’ in conjunction with formal toolkits. The origins of this technology and the associated raw material procurement system are still unresolved. Balkan flint also occurs in Early Neolithic contexts outside the Karanovo I culture area, notably in the southern Balkans (Turkish Thrace and in the lower Danube catchment (Carpathian Basin, Iron Gates, southern Romania and northern Bulgaria. The only securely identified outcrops of Balkan flint are in the Upper Cretaceous Mezdra Formation in the Pleven-Nikopol region of northern Bulgaria. One of the most challenging aspects of the Neolithization debate is to accommodate the evidence provided by lithic studies. Among outstanding questions are: (i was Balkan flint used by the first (‘pre-Karanovo’ Neolithic communities in Bulgaria; (ii what role did Balkan flint play in the Neolithization of Southeast Europe; (iii did access to Balkan flint result in the emergence of a new laminar technology; (iv how did the Early Neolithic Balkan flint exchange network compare to that based on obsidian, which developed in and around the Aegean Basin; and (iv what and where were the origins of the Balkan flint network and the formal tools associated with it?

  12. Interdépendance des cultures du Sud-est et du Centre-Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Mihail, Zamfira

    2009-01-01

    Dans cet essai théorique, l’auteur recense tous les éléments de la culture et la civilisation matérielle apportées par les peuplades germaniques dans les Balkans. In this essay, the author identifies the cultural and material elements brought by the Germanic tribes in the Balkans.

  13. Emigrace jako způsob lidské existence: Pád byzantské říše a její tradice v myšlení a kultuře jihovýchodní Evropy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havlíková, Lubomíra

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2013), s. 399-445. ISBN 978-80-87378-84-7. ISSN 1802-8209 Institutional support: RVO:68378017 Keywords : Byzantium * Balkans * Byzantine studies * Balkan studies * history * historiography * philology * theology * history of art * Byzance après Byzance * emigration * philosophy * Byzantine Empire Subject RIV: AB - History

  14. Governance and Enterprise Restructuring in Southeast Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolov, Mico

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - The research in this paper is to be focused on examining governance and enterprise restructuring in Southeast Europe (Western Balkans) transition economies. International organizations classify the following countries in Southeast Europe (Western Balkans): Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia. Design/methodology/approach - The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) has governance and enterprise restructuring as basic indicat...

  15. Albania – as the Bridge of Routes and Transport Corridors between the Adriatic Sea and Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan Mazrekaj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Republic of Albania is located in the Western Balkans. Its location in the midst of crossroads for major transit corridors in Europe places Albania in a strategic geographic position. Albania links the western Mediterranean countries with the Balkans and Asia. Its biggest valleys situated in Drin, Shkumbin and Vjose rivers, facilitate the connection of the Balkans with the Adriatic Sea. In the Balkan territory are situated some of the most important Pan - European transport corridors, consisting of: Pan - European Corridor IV, V, VII, VIII, IX and X. Main objective of this paper is the analysis of the development of transport routes and corridors in the Balkans in the context of Pan-European corridors; evaluation of national policy, priorities of Transport, directions of Albania’s main road and their compatibility with the needs of Pan - European connectivity.

  16. IDPs from Kosovo still awaiting durable solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika Krstic

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As the Balkans anxiously await delayed UN recommendations on the final status of the Serbian province of Kosovo, displaced persons from Kosovo remain torn between uncertain return prospects and denial of local integration.

  17. "Even a highwayman, a house-breaker or a murderer" : International compassion as an insufficient universal / Jim Hicks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hicks, Jim, 1959-

    2000-01-01

    Bosnia sõja reportaažide kirjandusteaduslik analüüs. Vaadeldud on ameerika ajakirjanike raamatuid: Kaplan, Robert. Balkan ghosts (Balkani vaimud) ; Sudetic, Chuck. Blood and vengeance (Veri ja kättemaks)

  18. Väitekiri Balkani ja Baltimaade keelte evidentsiaalsusest / Hannu Tommola

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tommola, Hannu

    2010-01-01

    Arvustus: Kehayov, Petar. An areal-typological perspective to evidentiality: the cases of the Balkan and Baltic linguistic areas. Tartu : Tartu University Press, 2008. (Dissertationes linguisticae Universitatis Tartuensis ; 10)

  19. Invisibility of urban IDPs in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Marzia Montemurro; Nadine Walicki

    2010-01-01

    Some IDPs in the Balkans, Caucasus and Turkey seek ‘invisibility’for security reasons. Others become invisible when they are forcedto move again within the city by the actions of city authorities orproperty owners.

  20. Ve službách československé vědy (Přínos ruské emigrace k rozvoji pražské byzantologie a medievistické balkanistiky)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havlíková, Lubomíra

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 31, - (2006), s. 17-47. ISSN 0081-007X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90920516 Keywords : history * Russian emigration * Balkan studies * Byzantine studies * Middle Ages Subject RIV: AB - History

  1. Karyotypes of the mammals of Turkey and neighbouring regions: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arslan, A.; Zima, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-62. ISSN 0139-7893 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : chromosomes * banding pattern * Balkan * Caucasus * Middle East * species * taxonomy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.724, year: 2014

  2. The essential impact of eu and other international organizations on the democratization process for Albania

    OpenAIRE

    DOBI (PESHKEPIA) IRNA

    2015-01-01

    Number of international organizations (IO) like NATO, OSCE, COUNCIL OF EUROPE, and EU play directly an essential role on Western Balkans democratization process. However, the requirements in the Balkan are not in the same level and seem that the EU doesn’t require the same standards from Albania. On this point of view the question consist on the effects of conditionality on democratization. The objective is to analyze the main actors’ interests and the relationship between Europeanization and...

  3. Turkish TV productions in the Albanian media; the rise of a new “poetic” medium

    OpenAIRE

    Tartari, Alban

    2015-01-01

    Turkish TV serials are a new phenomenon in Albania. This country ironically was the last one in the Balkans to broadcast Turkish serials, even later than Greece, the historical competitor of Turkey in the Balkans. Albania, with a largely Muslim population, (56.70 percent and an additional of 2.09 percent Muslim Bektashi) was more affiliated with Italian TV productions such as films, serials etc. and various local productions (Italian patent models). The change started on April 11, 2011 when t...

  4. OHRİ GÖLÜ ÇEVRESİNDE (MAKEDONYA) OSMANLI İZLERİ

    OpenAIRE

    KURT, HALİL; ALAYDIN, NECİBE NUR

    2015-01-01

    The Ottoman State, having ruled the Balkans more than five centuries, left behind a large number of historical and cultural monuments. Located in the southwest of Macedonia, the Ohrid Lake and its surroundings, with their natural beauty, as well as with their historical and cultural richness, constitute one of the sites with the highest touristic potential in the Balkans. The cities of Ohrid and Struga contain a lot of monumental structures belonging to the Ottoman culture and civilization, s...

  5. An Honorable Break from Besa: Reorienting Violence in the Late Ottoman Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Blumi, Isa

    2014-01-01

    This is a study of the shifting fortunes of Ottoman western Balkan regions (represented here in their main towns) at the end of imperial rule. It reads the evidence of certain internal dynamics to reconsider what are the animating forces at work during a period of state reorientation such as that of 1878 to 1918. Using the cases of the Ottoman western Balkans as extensions of broader regional interactions between (not so neatly distinctive) state and subject actors, it becomes clear that the ...

  6. Monthly Report No. 3/2008

    OpenAIRE

    Vasily Astrov; Leon Podkaminer; Sandor Richter

    2008-01-01

    Armenia and Azerbaijan recent economic developments and policy challenges (by V. Astrov, pp. 1-5) Keywords comparative study, economic growth, macroeconomic analysis Countries covered Armenia, Azerbaijan Topics Macroeconomic Analysis, Forecasts and Policy Agricultural support consequences of an eventual EU accession of the seven Balkan countries (by S. Richter, pp. 6-12) Keywords agriculture, CAP, EU accession, Balkans Countries covered Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Mac...

  7. Monthly Report No. 4/2009

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Iara; Leon Podkaminer; Robert Stehrer; Hermine Vidovic

    2009-01-01

    Employment and unemployment in the Western Balkans an assessment (by A. Iara and H. Vidovic, pp. 1-10) Keywords labour market, employment, Western Balkans Countries covered SEE Topics Labour and Migration Skills and the performance of exports (by R. Stehrer; pp. 11-14) Keywords export performance, skills, productivity Countries covered European Union, New EU Member States Topics International Trade and Competitiveness Financial market regulation and supervision (by L. Podkaminer; pp. 15-20) K...

  8. We the Balkanians: A critical analysis of the political discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Skenderi, Elsa

    2014-01-01

    The Critical Discourse Analysis is a growing discipline which is being applied to various fields and subjects and the political discourse is one of the most prominent of those. This thesis based on Critical Discourse Analysis analyzes the political discourse of the Balkan politicians. The context of the discourse fragments analyzed is related to political or economical summits or forums, where the high-profile Balkan politicians give their speeches. The aim of th...

  9. WESTERN BALKANS’ COUNTRIES IN FOCUS OF GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The paper intends to analyze the impact of global economic crisis on the economies of Western Balkan Region. Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia (FYROM), Montenegro, Serbia, and Kosovo are part of this Region. The purpose of the paper is not to analyze the global crisis impact on specific sectors of the economies of the Western Balkan Countries, indeed, it focuses mainly on the macroeconomic level, identifying and analyzing fluctuations of major macroeconomic indicators of the e...

  10. Boshnjaks. In other words: Jihad vs. McWorld and other theories…

    OpenAIRE

    Justyna Pilarska

    2010-01-01

    The Ottoman invasion of the Balkans that began in the 14th century led to an imbalance in the process of self-identification among the Bosnian people, having crucial influence on the process of establishing their sense of belonging, identification and national awareness. It particularly influenced the process of conceptualizing the cultural identity of Boshnjaks, whose ancestors converted to Islam and changed the ethnic and religious landscape of Balkans to a large extent. The author focuses ...

  11. Fate Written on the Forehead in Serbian Oral Narratives

    OpenAIRE

    Nemanja Radulović

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines narratives about fate from the Serbian corpus, as well as beliefs related to them. A characteristic motif is that the demons of fate write fate on people’s forehead. Such motifs and beliefs are also encountered elsewhere on the Balkans, especially in the areas that were under Turkish influence (Greece, Albania, Bulgaria), so it is undoubtedly a Balkanism. The presence of the motif among Turks and Arabs indicates oriental roots. However, the bottom source seems to be India ...

  12. The Third Conference on Baltic and Nordic Studies in Romania, May 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Miloiu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian Association for Baltic and Nordic Studies continued to organize in 2012 a series of events, one of the most meaningful of which was the third international conference on Baltic and Nordic Studies entitled European networks: the Balkans, Scandinavia and the Baltic world in a time of economic and ideological crisis opened on 25 May at Valahia University of Târgoviște and sponsored by the Romanian National Research Council, Niro Investment Group and other partners (http://www.arsbn.ro/conference-2012.htm. The main goal of the conference was to foster debate and academic discussion with regard to the challenges the Balkan and Baltic regions face today, within a time of severe global economic instability. The participants discussed and advanced solutions to problems such as the accession of Balkan states to the EU and/or NATO, with particular reference to the experiences of the relatively new EU and/or NATO Member States from South-Eastern Europe and the Eastern Baltic region; the economic, security or cultural threats posed by Balkan and/or Eastern European states or non-state actors to the Western or Nordic Europe as perceived there; the development of extremist movements and the Balkan organized crime in the Scandinavian countries; the Balkan Roma peoples as a “threat” for Western and Nordic Europe; strategies for integrating minorities in the Baltic Sea rim countries and the Black Sea areas.

  13. Polityka Turcji wobec narodów i państw bałkańskich na przełomie XIX i XX wieku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Rubacha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Turkey’s policy towards the Balkan nations and states at the turn of 19th and 20th centuryTurkey’s policy towards the Balkan peoples, since the attack on the Peninsula, was characterized by a desire to dominate and the total subordination of the local population. Therefore, immediately after the conquest, the Turkish authorities have pushed them to the margins of social life. Extensive system of benefits and duties, and thereafter the draconian taxes had ruined Balkan villages and towns, contributing to the decline of agricultural production and handicrafts. Any form of resistance were ruthlessly suppressed by the Turks, and the raging terror during the occupation had consumed hundreds of thousands of lives. Despite these actions the Ottomans were unable to break the spirit of resistance. Neither persecution nor attempt Islamisation of Balkan populations did not produce any effect, because one of the main reasons was attachment to the traditions and faith of their ancestors.When the Turkish state has slowed and European powers had began to intervene in the internal affairs of the state, Greeks, Serbs, Montenegros, Bulgarians, Romanians, also Albanians, began efforts to throw off foreign domination. These activities were indirectly ended by the Congress of Berlin in 1878, and the so-called final solution of the Turkish issues  occurred during the Balkan wars of the years 1912–1913.

  14. Intra-EU Direct Investment and Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Festa Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the determinants of the intra-EU direct investment (IDI into the New Member States (NMS using a panel dataset of bilateral capital flows for the period 1993-2013. It is found out by using a simple gravity model that EU membership is the most important determinant. Unlike previous studies including non-EU countries, the distance is insignificant, which is caused by proximity of these countries to one another. A separate analysis focused on subgroups of accession countries gives some evidence that even when size of their economy, distance, institutional quality and EU accession are taken into account, Central European countries receive more IDI than the Baltic and the Balkan states. On the contrary to that, the analysis restricted to the Balkan countries which have joined the EU shows the inexistence of a negative Balkans effect in attracting foreign investment. This finding is relevant because previous studies demonstrate a persistent negative Balkans effect for non-EU Balkan countries and suggests a crucial impact of the EU accession in determining the intra-EU capital flows.

  15. Larval morphology and phylogenetic position of Drusus balcanicus, Drusus botosaneanui, Drusus serbicus and Drusus tenellus (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae: Drusinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    WARINGER, JOHANN; GRAF, WOLFRAM; BÁLINT, MIKLÓS; KUČINIĆ, MLADEN; PAULS, STEFFEN U.; PREVIŠIĆ, ANA; KERESZTES, LUJZA; IBRAHIMI, HALIL; ŽIVIĆ, IVANA; BJELANOVIĆ, KATARINA; KRPAČ, VLADIMIR; VITECEK, SIMON

    2016-01-01

    In a recent 3–gene phylogeny of the Trichoptera subfamily Drusinae Banks, 1916 molecular data clearly correlated with the morphology and feeding ecology of larvae. The largest of three main groups, the Drusinae grazer clade, exhibits an unusual larval feeding ecology for Limnephilidae, and is the most diverse group. In this paper we describe four previously unknown Drusinae larvae from this clade: Drusus balcanicus Kumanski, 1973 (micro–endemic to Eastern Balkans); Drusus botosaneanui Kumanski, 1968 (Dinaric Western Balkans, Hellenic and Eastern Balkan, Asia Minor), Drusus serbicus Marinković-Gospodnetić, 1971a (micro–endemic to Dinaric Western Balkans); and Drusus tenellus (Klapálek, 1898) (Carpathians, Dinaric Eastern Balkans). Characteristically, the larvae of these species develop toothless mandibles typical for the Drusinae grazer clade. Larvae and adults were unambiguously associated by a phylogenetic approach based on two mitochondrial (mtCOI, mtLSU= 16S rDNA) and two nuclear genes (nuWG, nuCAD). In addition, information on the morphology of the larvae is given and the diagnostic features necessary for identification are illustrated. PMID:26997882

  16. Балканы как пространство проблемной наднациональной идентичности The Balkans as a problematic space of supranational identity

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin Mikhailov

    2013-01-01

    В статье сделана попытка определить основные признаки балканской идентичности и обозначить её историко-географические контуры. Автор рассматривает Балканы как физико-географическое, геокультурное и геополитическое пространство, а также анализирует цивилизационные самоидентификации современных народов Юго-Восточной Европы. Доказывается, что Балканы в символическом отношении остаются периферийным регионом Европы, у которого нет общепринятых границ на севере и западе. Подробно разбираются идеоло...

  17. Tourism development, touristic local taxes and local human resources: A stable way to improve efficiency and effectiveness of local strategies of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arta Musaraj

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The desire to belong in a individual culture means to possess a clear vision for the world, a road map that guides its followers towards the proper understanding of the planet’s past present and future. An established mythology of apparent national identities in the Balkans is somewhat unnaturally reinforced to justify conflicts between religious and ethnic groups, caused as a result of the national identities intertwined among themselves, an element essentially more influential than existence of national identities. For centuries Christians and Muslims in the Balkans have been living in peace, however a few Balkan Societies continue to use violence, national extremism, xenophobia as well as a contemporary practice to solve their problems. A legitimate question can be raised in relation to how common is religious influence used to cause violent and armed conflicts as compared to violence originating from ethnic cleansing, control over territory, political ideology and regional hegemony?

  18. Schemes of social insurance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaklina Peto

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The desire to belong in a individual culture means to possess a clear vision for the world, a road map that guides its followers towards the proper understanding of the planet’s past present and future. An established mythology of apparent national identities in the Balkans is somewhat unnaturally reinforced to justify conflicts between religious and ethnic groups, caused as a result of the national identities intertwined among themselves, an element essentially more influential than existence of national identities. For centuries Christians and Muslims in the Balkans have been living in peace, however a few Balkan Societies continue to use violence, national extremism, xenophobia as well as a contemporary practice to solve their problems. A legitimate question can be raised in relation to how common is religious influence used to cause violent and armed conflicts as compared to violence originating from ethnic cleansing, control over territory, political ideology and regional hegemony?

  19. Theoretical and Practical Issues of Freedom Deprivation for Juveniles in Procedurial Albanian Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jola Xhafo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The desire to belong in a individual culture means to possess a clear vision for the world, a road map that guides its followers towards the proper understanding of the planet’s past present and future. An established mythology of apparent national identities in the Balkans is somewhat unnaturally reinforced to justify conflicts between religious and ethnic groups, caused as a result of the national identities intertwined among themselves, an element essentially more influential than existence of national identities. For centuries Christians and Muslims in the Balkans have been living in peace, however a few Balkan Societies continue to use violence, national extremism, xenophobia as well as a contemporary practice to solve their problems. A legitimate question can be raised in relation to how common is religious influence used to cause violent and armed conflicts as compared to violence originating from ethnic cleansing, control over territory, political ideology and regional hegemony?

  20. Lisbon Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ylber Sela

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The desire to belong in a individual culture means to possess a clear vision for the world, a road map that guides its followers towards the proper understanding of the planet’s past present and future. An established mythology of apparent national identities in the Balkans is somewhat unnaturally reinforced to justify conflicts between religious and ethnic groups, caused as a result of the national identities intertwined among themselves, an element essentially more influential than existence of national identities. For centuries Christians and Muslims in the Balkans have been living in peace, however a few Balkan Societies continue to use violence, national extremism, xenophobia as well as a contemporary practice to solve their problems. A legitimate question can be raised in relation to how common is religious influence used to cause violent and armed conflicts as compared to violence originating from ethnic cleansing, control over territory, political ideology and regional hegemony?

  1. Basic Principles of the System of Social Services and Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaklina Peto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The desire to belong in a individual culture means to possess a clear vision for the world, a road map that guides its followers towards the proper understanding of the planet’s past present and future. An established mythology of apparent national identities in the Balkans is somewhat unnaturally reinforced to justify conflicts between religious and ethnic groups, caused as a result of the national identities intertwined among themselves, an element essentially more influential than existence of national identities. For centuries Christians and Muslims in the Balkans have been living in peace, however a few Balkan Societies continue to use violence, national extremism, xenophobia as well as a contemporary practice to solve their problems. A legitimate question can be raised in relation to how common is religious influence used to cause violent and armed conflicts as compared to violence originating from ethnic cleansing, control over territory, political ideology and regional hegemony?

  2. “Product Placement”: The harmonization of the new Albanian media law with the European Audio-Visual Media Services Directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endira Bushati

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The desire to belong in a individual culture means to possess a clear vision for the world, a road map that guides its followers towards the proper understanding of the planet’s past present and future. An established mythology of apparent national identities in the Balkans is somewhat unnaturally reinforced to justify conflicts between religious and ethnic groups, caused as a result of the national identities intertwined among themselves, an element essentially more influential than existence of national identities. For centuries Christians and Muslims in the Balkans have been living in peace, however a few Balkan Societies continue to use violence, national extremism, xenophobia as well as a contemporary practice to solve their problems. A legitimate question can be raised in relation to how common is religious influence used to cause violent and armed conflicts as compared to violence originating from ethnic cleansing, control over territory, political ideology and regional hegemony?

  3. Improvement of existing coal fired thermal power plants performance by control systems modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents possibilities of implementation of advanced combustion control concepts in selected Western Balkan thermal power plant, and particularly those based on artificial intelligence as part of primary measures for nitrogen oxide reduction in order to optimise combustion and to increase plant efficiency. Both considered goals comply with environmental quality standards prescribed in large combustion plant directive. Due to specific characterisation of Western Balkan power sector these goals should be reached by low cost and easily implementable solution. Advanced self-learning controller has been developed and the effects of advanced control concept on combustion process have been analysed using artificial neural-network based parameter prediction model

  4. Ivan Djaja (Jean Giaja)1 and the Belgrade School of Physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Andjus, Pavle R.; Stojilkovic, Stanko S.; Cvijic, Gordana

    2011-01-01

    The founder of physiology studies in the Balkans and the pioneer of research on hypothermia, Ivan Djaja (Jean Giaja) was born 1884 in L’Havre. Giaja gained his PhD at the Sorbonne in 1909. In 1910 he established the first Chair of Physiology in the Balkans and organized the first Serbian Institute for Physiology at the School of Philosophy of the University of Belgrade. He led this Institute for more than 40 subsequent years. His most notable papers were in the field of thermoregulation and b...

  5. Uranium: myths and realities the depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium is an element whose name causes worry. The uranium properties are very unknown for people. However the element plays an important roll in the Earth as responsible of numerous natural phenomena, which are vital for life evolution. An example of the low knowledge about uranium has been the Balkan syndrome. A relation between cancers and the use of depleted uranium in ammunition in the Balkan War has been pretended to be established. From the beginning, this hypothesis could have been discarded as it has been confirmed and stated in recent reports of UNEP Commissions who have studied this matter. (Author)

  6. Wasale, trybutariusze, sojusznicy. ­Charakter relacji państw bałkańskich z Turcją osmańską w XIV wieku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Czamańska

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Vassals, tributaries, allies. The nature of the relations of the Balkan states with the Ottoman Turkey in the 14th centuryIn the second half of the fourteenth century, more than twenty political bodies functioned in Balkans, which were more or less independent, often in conflicts with each other, joining into leagues and alliances.The Ottomans were a valuable ally, with which the Balkan rulers came in close political and military relationships. The study of evolution and the nature of these relations meets serious difficulties due to lack of surviving documents, defining the nature of bilateral relations of the Ottomans with particular Balkan states, while other sources, usually from a later period, are not very precise. The difficulties of interpretation concern such fundamental matters as the chronology of Turkish conquests, conflicts and peace agreements. However, the analysis of preserved source material leads to the following conclusions:1. Subordination of the Balkan countries by the Ottomans was a long-term process, and their relationships with the Balkan states were diverse in nature.2. Payment of the tribute for the benefit of the Turks could, but did not have to mean the entry into vassal relations, however gave an evidence about the entry into peaceful relations.3. Orhan, Murad I and Bajezid I were satisfied on the territory of Europe with the establishment of the allied, tributary relationships and over the time with the strengthening of own vassal position. However, at the end of the fourteenth century, all the Balkan states were at some stage of such relations, mostly on the last of them.4. Entry into close, family relations with the ruling sultan meant usually a close political and military cooperation. Greek, Bulgarian and Serbian wives of the sultans had the right to remain in the Christian faith and often exerted a strong political influence. The support and protection of the closest relatives of the wife was

  7. Variation patterns of mitochondrial DNA of Abies alba Mill. in suture zones of postglacial migration in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duśan Gomory

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Thirty silver fir populations originating from the putative suture zones of the postglacial recolonization (Slovenia, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Ukraine were studied using a mitochondrial nad5-4 gene marker. The geographical distribution of mtDNA haplotypes in the Ukrainian Carpathians and their northern foothills indicates a very recent meeting of migration streams arriving from the Romanian Carpathians and Central Europe. In the western part of the Balkan Peninsula, two counterparallel migration streams are the most plausible explanation of the pattern observed. The haplotype typical for the Balkan Peninsula predominates along the Adrian coast, whereas the CentralEuropean haplotype is more represented in the inland.

  8. Заменките во словенски и балкански контекст

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ангелина [Angelina] Панчевска [Pančevska

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pronouns in Slavic and Balkan contextThis paper will present the approach of elaboration of the pronouns as a word class. The method of collecting the corpus of examples will also be taken into consideration because the subject of interest are the pronouns in different language situations. The method of elaboration of that material will be examined, too. The pronominal system in the Macedonian language is put in correlation with the other Slavic as well as Balkan languages for better understanding of its contemporary situation.

  9. Gender Roles and Ethnic Income Inequality in Ürümchi

    OpenAIRE

    Zang, Xiaowei

    2011-01-01

    : Author of: 2005:66:1 10/01/03 rev req NO/TB May 1998 received review of Vickers and Pettifer Albania: From anarchy to a Balkan Identity Rev req 1268 May 1998 received review of Vickers and Pettifer Albania: From anarchy to a Balkan Identity Rev req 1288 review recd 5/98 Higham (ed) Civil Rights and Social Wrongs: Black-White relations since World War II: how the civil rights movement led to affirmative action, multiculturalism and stalemate Rev req 1...

  10. The Measuring of the Gamma Dose Rate in the Air at Location of the Sar-Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the measured values of gamma dose rate in the air at the location of Sar-mountain (Balkan Peninsula) using autonomous ADL-probe Gamma Tracer system. The difference between levels of the natural background radiation and natural environment has been pointed out at the different chosen measuring overall research of natural radioactivity at the location of Sar-mountain

  11. International Trends in Health Science Librarianship Part 18: The Middle East (Iran, Qatar and Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeraatkar, Kimia; Ayatollahi, Haleh; Havlin, Tracy; Neves, Karen; Şendir, Mesra

    2016-06-01

    This is the 18th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is the Middle East (Iran, Qatar and Turkey). The next feature column will investigate trends in the Balkan States JM. PMID:27168258

  12. Zoological collectings in Albania between 2004 and 2010 by the Hungarian Natural History Museum and the Hungarian Academy of Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murányi, D.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Albanian locality data of zoological collectings carried out by the Hungarian Natural History Museum and theHungarian Academy of Sciences during 30 tours to the Balkans between 2004 and 2010 are enumerated. The localities andmethods of collecting are enumerated in chronological order. Sites are marked on the map of Albania.

  13. The Role of Multicultural Personality in Predicting University Adjustment of International Students in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagnici, Dilek Yelda

    2012-01-01

    The study examined how particular demographic and multicultural personality variables might predict university adjustment of international students in Turkey. One hundred and twenty-one international students from five geographical regions, including Middle Central Asia, the Balkans, the Middle East, the Kafkasia Region, and the Russian…

  14. Cenozoic structures and polymetallic mineralizations in the central part of the Serbo-Macedonian massif

    OpenAIRE

    Volkov, A.; Serafimovski, Todor; Tasev, Goran

    2012-01-01

    Serbo-Macedonian massif (SMM) represents remarkable geotectonic unitwithin central parts of the Balkan Peninsula where have been confirmed numerous structures, morphostructures and significant ore mineralizations. From the geological point of view the SMM has been built mainly of gneisses, mica-schists and Paleozoic schists, while the structural construction has been dominated by plicative structures and disjunctive ruptures.

  15. Diagnostic utility of the impact of event scale-revised in two samples of survivors of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Nexhmedin; Ehring, Thomas; Priebe, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed at examining the diagnostic utility of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) as a screening tool for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in survivors of war. The IES-R was completed by two independent samples that had survived the war in the Balkans: a sample of randomly selected people who had stayed in the area of former conflict (n = 3,313) and a sample of refugees to Western European countries (n = 854). PTSD was diagnosed using the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Prevalence of PTSD was 20.1% in the Balkan sample and 33.1% in the refugee sample. Results revealed that when considering a minimum value of specificity of 0.80, the optimally sensitive cut-off score for screening for PTSD in the Balkan sample was 34. In both the Balkan sample and the refugee sample, this cut-off score provided good values on sensitivity (0.86 and 0.89, respectively) and overall efficiency (0.81 and 0.79, respectively). Further, the kappa coefficients for sensitivity for the cut-off of 34 were 0.80 in both samples. Findings of this study support the clinical utility of the IES-R as a screening tool for PTSD in large-scale research studies and intervention studies if structured diagnostic interviews are regarded as too labor-intensive and too costly. PMID:24391844

  16. Industrial processing effects on phenolic compounds in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Capanoglu, E.; Gomez-Roldan, M.V.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Boyacioglu, D.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The processed juice (or nectar) of the sour cherry, Prunus cerasus L., is widely consumed in the Balkan region and Turkey. Sour cherry is known to be rich in polyphenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins and procyanidins. In this work, the effects of processing of sour cherry fruit to nectar on polyp

  17. Terrorism and Insecurity in Nigeria: Moral, Values and Religious Education as Panaceas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omede, Jacob; Omede, Andrew Abdul

    2015-01-01

    The act of terrorism and general insecurity situations in Nigeria require that solution be sought to safe-guard the nation against Balkanization and the educational system from collapse. Every nation's educational system is to help it overcome her peculiar problems. If this is a truism, then Nigeria's educational system is supposed to help her…

  18. Visible and invisible aspects of building the fortified palace of Smederevo and its historical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćurčić Slobodan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The remains of the fifteenth-century fortification of Smederevo, the last capital of the Serbian Medieval state, are among the most impressive remnants of Late Medieval architecture in the Balkans. Despite the attention given to the complex in scholarship, many of its visible and invisible aspects still remain unresolved and deserve further investigation.

  19. Mapping farmland abandonment and recultivation across Europe using MODIS NDVI time series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estel, Stephan; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Alcántara, Camilo;

    2015-01-01

    abandoned from 2001 to 2012, mainly in Eastern Europe, Southern Scandinavia, and Europe's mountain regions. Yet, recultivation is widespread too (up to 11.2. Mha) and occurred predominantly in Eastern Europe (e.g., European Russia, Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, and Lithuania) and in the Balkans. We also tested...

  20. Gypsies, Wars and Other Instances of the Wild

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Port, van de Mattijs

    1998-01-01

    What does civilization mean to the inhabitants of a Serbian town after yet another bloody war on the Balkan Peninsula? How was it possible that people who had been friends and neighbors for so long ended up killing each other? And how do they deal with this barbarity in the post-war period?The figur