WorldWideScience

Sample records for balkans

  1. En historia om Balkan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Karsten

    2006-01-01

    En anmeldelse af bosnisk-svensk forskers værk om Balkans historie frem til krigsudbruddet i Jugoslavien 1991......En anmeldelse af bosnisk-svensk forskers værk om Balkans historie frem til krigsudbruddet i Jugoslavien 1991...

  2. BALKANS: Building bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    At a time when upheaval and political unrest in some Balkan countries gives cause for concern, it is good to know that physics, once again, is building bridges between nations. The new international mobility in the region was marked by a major activity of the Balkan Physical Union - the first Balkan School of Physics, held on the banks of the Bosphorus during the first two weeks of September

  3. Balkan - geografi eller politik?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Uffe

    2015-01-01

    Ordet Balkan, der blev opfundet af en tysk geograf i 1808, er ikke en neutral geografisk betegnelse, men for mange synonym med småstater i opløsning, skriver historiker Uffe Østergård, nu da Balkan igen er i fokus med de store flygtningestrømme gennem området.......Ordet Balkan, der blev opfundet af en tysk geograf i 1808, er ikke en neutral geografisk betegnelse, men for mange synonym med småstater i opløsning, skriver historiker Uffe Østergård, nu da Balkan igen er i fokus med de store flygtningestrømme gennem området....

  4. Internal globalization of Western Balkan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Veselin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available What are potential and real effects of the globalization process on the economic connection between Western Balkan countries? What is the crucial change in relations between Western Balkan countries and its economies inexorably brought by globalization? What are the elements of political economy of Western Balkan globalization? What are reflections of the conflict between political and economic areas of Western Balkan? These are some of the issues discuses in this paper.

  5. Balkan electro energetic interconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepnalkovski, Trajche; Grashevska-Shekjerinska, Jelena; Badarovska, Elizabeta; Cherepnalkovski, Nikola

    1998-01-01

    The Balkan Energy Interconnections Task Force was realized in the framework of the Black Sea Regional Energy Center (BSREC); to set up comprehensive inventory of the potential Interconnection projects in the region and with the neighboring systems. In the paper impacts to the region of the strategy for developing the Trans European Networks (TEN) and potential interests for inter regional cooperation are analyzed. The list of accepted projects and applied methodology for definition the priorities are presented. (Author)

  6. Balkon zum Balkan

    OpenAIRE

    Jakimovska, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Participation in a 5 day artist residence program, a sort of symposium for artists, held in Baden-Baden, Germany. Artists from the Balkan were invited by the Staatliche Kunsthalle Baden-Baden to create site specific works of art that were exhibited at the end of the stay. My work was a 3 by 4 meter bread mosaic, exhibited in the Marktplatz, a public square in Baden-Baden.

  7. Balkan Print Forum – Dynamic Balkan Print Media Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossitza Velkova

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Founded in October 2006, the Balkan Print Forum is gradually becoming an important regional institution. Its main targets are to share experiences and know-how,to initiate and intensify contacts and to support joint projects in the Balkan region.Since drupa 2008 there are 11 member countries of the Balkan Print Forum:Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Greece, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and Turkey. Partners of BPF are some companies and universities from Russia and Ukraine.

  8. Balkans as the cultural subcontinent of Europe

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    Grčić Mirko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available New world order and rearrangement of Europe transform the position of Balkan region -instead as the "crossroad" between East and West, it is more often included into the area of Western influence. In European relations developed "core" is gradually spreading toward "periphery" removing the traditional Balkan culture. The europeisation of Balkans and spreading of Western European civilization's circle gives the arguments that the term Balkans should be replaced with the term Southeastern Europe. The europeisation or balkanization is not geopolitical but civilization choice in front of all Balkan nations.

  9. Mobile Balkans: Temporality, types, trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasteva Anna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to scrutunize the Balkan migration phenomenon, highlightening the alloy between continuity and discontinuity in the explanation of migrations; the former expressed in the trends, the latter - in breakthroughs, ruptures, changes. Four periods are articulated and characterized through the major trends. The typology of Balkan migrations identifies ten types, classified in three larger categories. The article distinguishes and compares the national migration models and draws a panoramic picture of the major trends during the last quarter of a century.

  10. (Reconstructing Balkan Identities through Popular Music

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    Marin Cvitanović

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the reproduction of stereotypes about the Balkans in the popular music of ex-Yugoslavia. During the last two decades, over a hundred songs in the Serbian and Croatian languages have been released, specifically mentioning the term Balkan and using it as a metaphor – to evoke and explain the atmosphere of war, poverty, conflict and passion, beauty, love and pride. Based on the analysis of these texts and the frequency of appearance of the themes and motifs, four distinct discourses can be identified: 1. the Balkans as an area of wars and conflicts, 2. the Balkans as an area of joy, passion and fatalism, 3. the primitive and aggressive “male” Balkans vs. the beautiful, proud and resistant “female” Balkans, and 4. the Balkans as Europe’s “Other”. The results show that, despite the inherent fluidity and the unclearness of the very definition of the Balkans and its spatial coverage (and therefore the possibility of distancing oneself from it, mostly negative stereotypes about the Balkans are being reproduced. They are not questioned in that process, but accepted and affirmed as a part of one’s own identity.

  11. Cancer incidence in Dutch Balkan veterans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogers, R.P.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Grievink, L.; Schouten, L.J.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Schram-Bijkerk, D.

    2013-01-01

    Suspicion has been raised about an increased cancer risk among Balkan veterans because of alleged exposure to depleted uranium. The authors conducted a historical cohort study to examine cancer incidence among Dutch Balkan veterans. Male military personnel (n=18,175, median follow-up 11 years) of

  12. Europe in the Balkan mirror

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    Milutinović Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the three dominant, Europe-wide, constructions of Europe in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and claims that all three found their proponents in the Balkans in the same period, while no specifically Balkan construction of Europe can be identified. The discourses which constructed Europe were transnational, and every search for national discourses must recognize that they are always fractured and contradictory, composed of various elements originating in Europe-wide discourses on Europe. Throughout this period the dominant discourse of Europe was shaped by the discourse of modernity and modernization, not only in Europe but in other parts of the globe as well. Several commentators have already noted that the current challenge of the interwar construction of Europe - peace, prosperity, democracy and human rights - mirrors the crisis of Yugoslavia, and many examples point to the unsustainability of this construction at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Gadamer’s hermeneutics offers a valuable lesson in humility and defines the oft-repeated phrase of “belonging together” as listening to the other in the belief that the other may be right, which should be taken as a starting point for any future construction of Europe.

  13. Hydrological regimes in Balkan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanescu, Viorel Alexandru

    2004-01-01

    Physical considerations of the deemed area are first considered in the paper. Then the regime types around the Balkan rivers are described in terms of the following characteristic features: -Types of the regimes defined by the timing of the high and low flow phases; -Regionalisation of the 'micro-types' -Stability of the river flow regimes. The available mean monthly discharge data of the representative rivers allows characterising the river regime of the Balkan area covered by WOISYDES and BALWOIS projects. The classification of the hydrological regimes (types of regimes) was done by assessing the discriminant periods (descriptors of the regime phases) defined by the first, the second and the third highest and lowest monthly values of flows. As sufficient data has been provided by countries involved in the Woisydes/Balwois Project a hydrological regionalisation is performed all around the considered space. The existence of different zones, which are quasi- homogeneous in terms of physiographical properties, the latter especially being expressed by their mean altitudes and the climatic features, allowed to carry out a hydrological regionalisation of the river flow regime types. The regionalisation of the river flow regimes is presented as hydrological maps both referring to each Balkan country and for the entire region as an overall map. The stability of a certain flow regime is an important descriptor of the ecological state of the river during the year. It may be quantitatively expressed by the stability coefficient determined by Corbus and Stanescu as the product between the frequency of the occurrence of any discriminant value in m subsequent month (m = 1,12) and a distribution coefficient along the period that depend on the length of the considered discriminant period. The advantage of this method stands in the fact that for several combinations of subsequent months, the maximisation of the stability coefficient leads to the assessment of the characteristic

  14. Improving Security Cooperation in the Western Balkans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simonson, Timothy L

    2007-01-01

    ... than it is to allow them to fail. After more than two centuries of ethnic violence and a decade and a half of genocide and civil war, the western Balkans remain at risk of becoming failed states...

  15. Power system deregulation and the Balkan countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glamochanin, Vlastimir; Stojkovska, Biljana; Cherepnalkoski, Trajche

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to show the current state and planned activities of the Power System deregulation and privatization in the following Balkan countries: Macedonia, Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Greece, Croatia, Slovenia and Turkey

  16. Proceedings of papers. 3. Balkan Metallurgical Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickovski, Jovan

    2003-01-01

    This Conference aims to be a central event in the metallurgy research of Balkan, fulfilling the goals to present the most outstanding relevant developments in modern metallurgy; to inspire high standards of excellence in pure and applied metallurgy research; to attract outstanding scientists to present central lectures on modem metallurgical research, and on the challenges imposed by the needs of society; to inspire the young generation of metallurgists in Balkan and other countries. Following these lines, the 3. Balkan Conference on Metallurgy will provide a unique opportunity for academic and industrial metallurgists from the Balkan countries and wider, to exchange ideas, expertise, and experience on topics related to the theme of the Conference - Balkan Metallurgy in Search for New Ways of Development. The aim of the organizers was to bring together distinguished experts, not only to present their work, but also to discuss the major scientific and technological challenges facing metallurgy in this millennium.The 6 sections of the conference were entitled: Section A: Extractive metallurgy; Section B: Physical metallurgy and materials science - ferrous metals and non ferrous metals; Section C: Management, maintenance control and optimization of metallurgical processes; Section D: New technologies and techniques; Section E: Refractory and powder; Section F: Corrosion and protection of metals. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  17. Intercultural and Interreligious Communication in the Balkan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arta Musaraj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The desire to belong in a individual culture means to possess a clear vision for the world, a road map that guides its followers towards the proper understanding of the planet’s past present and future. An established mythology of apparent national identities in the Balkans is somewhat unnaturally reinforced to justify conflicts between religious and ethnic groups, caused as a result of the national identities intertwined among themselves, an element essentially more influential than existence of national identities. For centuries Christians and Muslims in the Balkans have been living in peace, however a few Balkan Societies continue to use violence, national extremism, xenophobia as well as a contemporary practice to solve their problems. A legitimate question can be raised in relation to how common is religious influence used to cause violent and armed conflicts as compared to violence originating from ethnic cleansing, control over territory, political ideology and regional hegemony?

  18. Towards Common Balkan Lexical Evidential Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim M. Makartsev

    2012-08-01

    1 As for the grammatical evidential markers in the Balkan languages, there is a tradition of their analysis dating back to the second half of the 19th century for Albanian and Bulgarian. Comparative analysis of evidential forms in the Balkan languages conducted by Victor Friedman [Friedman 1982, 1986, 1999], Grace Fielder [Fielder 1994, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999], and several other linguists, has answered some questions about what is common among Balkan languages and what is unique for each of them in the domain of grammaticalised evidentiality. There is a great deal of literature on grammatical evidentiality in general and it is scarcely possible to cite it all within a single article, but a recent study [Aikhenvald 2004] contains the main bibliography on the issue.

  19. Islam, Etnicity and the State: the Balkans

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    Ružica Čičak-Chand

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines Muslim identity in the context of interaction between religions and ethnic and national identities within the complex ethnic and religious network of the Balkans, and with a focus on Muslim minority communities in the individual states in the region. Although it proceeds from a historical background, emphasis is placed on contemporary conditions, especially after the fall of communism and the crisis in former Yugoslavia. The paper is based on the book Muslim Identity and the Balkan State, prepared by Hugh Poulton and Suha Taji Farouki and published in London in 1977. Apart from a valuable and interesting introduction in regard to defining the concept of “Muslim” and “Muslim community” in the Balkans, and also an indication of some of the specificities of Islam in this region, the book includes eleven separate studies, the majority of which deal with Muslim minority communities and their status in Balkan countries (Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Kosovo, Macedonia and Sandţak. The papers also deal with Turkey, as the country whose communities reside in some of the mentioned countries, as well as with the relations between Turkey and the Balkan countries. Besides analysing the historical causes leading to the formation of the Muslim communities, each author attempted to identify the main socio-economic, political and ethno-religious factors “responsible” for their position in the individual political communities in the Balkans. In this paper, the key aspects of the mentioned themes are reviewed, including particular comments on Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Kosovo and Macedonia.

  20. ROMANIAN BALKANISM OR ABOUT CULTURAL RIFTS

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    Petre Gheorghe BÂRLEA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The term “Balkanism” has two meanings, referring to both something objective and strictly geographic, as well as something subjective – a meaning that describes a certain mentality, a certain manner of thinking and behavior embraced in the Balkans. This article sets out to analyse the elements that are considered to define the cultural identity of the communities from the area of the Balkans. Their historical events, their linguistic differences and peculiarities, their art (music, cinematography, etc., their culinary p references and other elements are approached and described from the perspective of the “cultural crevice” theory.

  1. Specialization or Balkanization: Organizations of Adult Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, Gordon R.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the balkanization of adult education and the creation of barriers to communication within the field, suggests a typology of organizations, reviews the functions of a representative selection of organizations, and comments on the strengths and problems in the present arrangement. (JOW)

  2. The genus Gymnospermium (Berberidaceae) in the Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Shuka, Lulezim; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja

    2011-01-01

    A revision of the genus Gymnospermium (Berberidaceae) in the Balkan Peninsula is carried out. Three species are recognised. Gymnospermium maloi is described as a new species from Mt. Picari in Gjirokastra district, southern Albania. It is compared with the closely related G. scipetarum which has...

  3. Cryoseston in Stara Planina (Balkan) Mountains, Bulgaria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukavský, Jaromír; Cepák, Vladislav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 2 (2010), s. 163-171 ISSN 0365-0588 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0571 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Cryoseston * Stara Planina (Balkan) Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.386, year: 2010

  4. Medicine in Balkans during the Roman Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykan, Daniş

    2017-08-04

    The aim of this study is to investigate the archaeological finds to enlighten the medical methods of treatments and operations applied in Balkans during Roman Period. Some independent local and regional find groups, taken from existing publications will be grouped together and a holistic point-of-view will be taken against medicine in Balkan Geography during Roman Period. Due to basic differences it contained, the data before Roman Period are excluded. Most of Greece and Aegean Islands are also excluded since the topic selected is "Medicine of Roman Period." Greece and Aegean Islands should be evaluated in another study in connection with West Anatolia which is closer than the Balkan Geography in terms of social relations. The spread of medical tools in Balkans during Roman Period is concentrated around military garrisons, and in settlements built around military pathways, and in settlements containing an amphitheater associated with gladiators. This spread is verified by the studies on Bulgaria in general. The data is also compatible with the assertion suggesting that the amount of application of pharmaceutical treatment increases when one moves away from the military centres.

  5. National minorities and interethnic relations on the Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Raduški Nada M.

    2001-01-01

    Since the earliest times the Balkans is the very complex region where meets, collides and crosses many various civilizations, cultures and religions. Ethnic and confessional pictures of the Balkans is the result of different demographic development (natural increase, migration, changed declaration of nationality) as well as the action of political, historical geographical and other factors. Political changes in the Balkan countries in the last decade of this century, resulted in the formation...

  6. Causes of organized crime in the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolё Krasniqi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Legal systems are put in jeopardy and social stability wherever there are organized criminal activities. In the Balkans, organized crime is the main obstacle to the European integration of the region. The permanent influence of organized crime in the state structures, the cooperation between different criminal organizations and especially their collaboration with some extremist group’s impacts political stability in an extremely negative way. The states in the Balkans have recognized the dangers for their peoples constituted by organized crime and have already taken a number of required legal, institutional and political measures in order to be able to successfully combat organized crime. However, organized crime still constitutes the main risk in the new democratic states in the Balkans in spite of these measures. For that reason, combating organized crime may not be treated just as the task or responsibility of one single state but it needs to be understood as an obligation and responsibility of all the states in the entire region as well as of the European Union. Therefore, cooperation and coordination of joint activities for combating organized crime have to be based on modern international standards. Besides, a continual perspective is required according to the interest of the people of the region to live together in peace and mutual harmony and to establish a society where human rights are not threatened by criminal violence but protected just like in the European Union.

  7. Western Balkans consumers' attitudes toward food labeling

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    Ognjanov Galjina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to shed light on consumers' attitudes toward food labelling in the Western Balkans. Pioneering in this respect, we present the results obtained from a cross-national consumer survey on a random representative sample of 3085 respondents, i.e. at least 500 respondents per country included. The survey covered six Western Balkans countries (WBC, namely Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia. Differences in consumers' attitudes toward food labels as well as in self-perceived level of information about food with health claims were tested according to a number of socio-demographic criteria, including gender, age, education, type of settlement and the country of the Western Balkans where the respondent lives. The variables were also included as independents in a binary logistic model to achieve better understanding of the factors that may influence consumers' confidence in the usefulness of health claims on product labels. The results showed that self-perceived level of information about functional food as well as consumers' attitudes toward food labelling are influencing factors of consumers' confidence in usefulness of health claims on product labels when making food choices. Based on the mentioned, we provide conclusions and implications for marketing managers, decision makers in public health and for further research.

  8. Preservation of Scientific and Cultural Heritage in Balkan Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonta, Yasar

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The peoples living in the Balkan Peninsula over centuries have created a very rich cultural heritage and the constant political upheavals in the region have affected the development and preservation of their cultures. This paper aims to review the internet infrastructure and networked readiness levels of the Balkan countries, which are…

  9. Endemic earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) of the Balkan Peninsula: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakić, Tanja; Valchovski, Hristo; Stojanović, Mirjana

    2016-11-10

    A list of the endemic earthworms of the Balkan Peninsula is presented. Comprehensive information on the ecology, distribution on the Balkan Peninsula and zoogeographical type of all endemics is given. The list comprises 90 species and subspecies, belonging to 11 genera of the family Lumbricidae. The largest number of the Balkan endemic earthworms belongs to a narrow range group (63.3%). Broad range endemic species take part with 36.7%. Our study shows that the degree of endemism on the Balkan Peninsula is extremely high (about 40%) suggesting an important process of autochthonous speciation on the Balkan Peninsula. This appearance is attributable to relative isolation of the mountains compared to the lowlands within the context of paleoenvironmental changes.

  10. Protestantism in the Balkans and Serbia

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    Todorović Dragan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available After the end of the unity of the Western church at the beginning of the 16th century, the reformation movement of returning to Evangelical ideals of Christian collectiveness arrived inevitably to the area of the Balkans. The spectrum of churches belonging to the reformation heritage with different doctrines, relying upon the agency of the first medieval heretic movements (Waldenses, Bogomils, Hussites, Hutterites, Unitarians, endeavored with varying success to grow in the reformation oriented aristocracy and wider peasantry in the South Slavic countries. The Evangelisation of Slavic population in the Balkans intensified in the middle of the 19th century. Christians and Jews became the focus of missionary activities in the Ottoman Empire, since talking to Muslims was punishable by death. The support of the American consular officers and the sympathy of Turkish authorities toward technologically advanced Western forces on the wave of the first industrial revolution was helpful. The changed social atmosphere for further process of protestantisation among the population loyal to traditional churches and religious communities first led to the end of World Wars and then to the fall of the Berlin Wall and the start of civil wars on the territory of former Yugoslavia at the beginning of the 1990's. Through a meticulous analysis of the collected theological, ethnographic, historical, sociological, and other material, the author here presents the most represented Protestant religious communities in the Balkans, in the ex-republics of the former Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia and contemporary Serbia (Calvinists, Lutherans, Baptists, Methodists, Nazarenes, Adventists, Jehovah's Witnesses, and Pentecostals.

  11. Third International Conference of the BSF THE BALKANS IN THE NEW MILLENNIUM: FROM BALKANI-ZATION TO EUTOPIA

    OpenAIRE

    Pajaziti, Ali

    2014-01-01

    ThirdInternational Conference of the BSFTHE BALKANS IN THE NEW MILLENNIUM: FROM BALKANIZATION TO EUTOPIAJune, 20-22, 2014,Tetovo & SkopjeThe Faculty of Public Administration and Political Science(SEE University - Tetovo)&Institute for Sociological, Political and JuridicalResearch in Skopje(Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje).

  12. A third Balkan war: France and the allied attempts at creating a new Balkan alliance 1914-1915

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Vojislav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The initial phase of the First World War in the Balkans 1914-1915 was a natural continuation of the conflicts opened during the Balkan Wars, but national fervor now encompassed all of the Balkans, from Rijeka and Ljubljana to Athens, Sofia and Bucharest, because the role of the Dual Monarchy had changed from that of an arbiter to that of a participant in the conflict. With the demise of the Ottoman Empire, the further survival of the Habsburg Monarchy was challenged by the Serbian government's Yugoslav project, creating conditions for implementing the nationality principle in all of the Balkans. It seemed that, in support of the alliances that were being created in the Balkans and in Europe as a whole, the time had come for the final fulfillment of the national aspirations of the Balkan peoples. The outcome of this third Balkan war no longer depended solely on the balance of power inside the Balkans, but also on the overall course of the war. After the initial victories in 1914, Serbia suffered a defeat in 1915 and her armies were forced to retreat southward to Albania and Greece, but her Yugoslav project was the foundation of her future policies and the basis for materializing the concept of a common South-Slavic state.

  13. Towards Common Balkan Lexical Evidential Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim M. Makartsev

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple listing of lexical evidential markers in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Albanian uncovers unusual problems, because a significant part of the markers are common, both due to genetic relations between the languages (e.g. Bulg. and Maced. spored and to areal factors (e.g. Turk. word güya / gûya was loaned into Bulg. dialectal gyoa, Maced. ǵoa and Alb. gjoja; this marker also exists in Serb.. But these common markers with the same etymology do not necessarily have similar meanings, which is both a theoretical problem for the description of the language data and a practical issue for translation between the languages. As Bulgarian, Macedonian and Albanian have grammatical evidential systems as well, there is a question how the lexical evidential markers interact with evidential forms. Here the distinction between analytic and holistic reading can be quite helpful, as it clarifies the role of each of the components in constructions. In the article it is analysed on the basis of translations between the Balkan languages. The definition of evidentiality I employ in this article is the one stated by A. Aikhenvald: “evidentiality is a linguistic category whose primary meaning is [the] source of information. […] [T]his covers the way in which the information was acquired, without necessarily relating to the degree of [the] speaker’s certainty concerning the statement or whether it is true or not” [Aikhenvald 2004: 3]. It is well known that there is a certain variety of domains for expressing evidentiality; first and foremost there is a distinction between lexical and grammatical markers.1 In the following article I will concentrate on the common lexical evidential markers in Albanian, Bulgarian, and Macedonian, with a short introduction to grammatical evidentiality in these languages. _______________________ 1 As for the grammatical evidential markers in the Balkan languages, there is a tradition of their analysis dating back to the second

  14. Towards Common Balkan Lexical Evidential Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim M. Makartsev

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple listing of lexical evidential markers in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Albanian uncovers unusual problems, because a significant part of the markers are common, both due to genetic relations between the languages (e.g. Bulg. and Maced. spored and to areal factors (e.g. Turk. word güya / gûya was loaned into Bulg. dialectal gyoa, Maced. ǵoa and Alb. gjoja; this marker also exists in Serb.. But these common markers with the same etymology do not necessarily have similar meanings, which is both a theoretical problem for the description of the language data and a practical issue for translation between the languages. As Bulgarian, Macedonian and Albanian have grammatical evidential systems as well, there is a question how the lexical evidential markers interact with evidential forms. Here the distinction between analytic and holistic reading can be quite helpful, as it clarifies the role of each of the components in constructions. In the article it is analysed on the basis of translations between the Balkan languages. The definition of evidentiality I employ in this article is the one stated by A. Aikhenvald: “evidentiality is a linguistic category whose primary meaning is [the] source of information. […] [T]his covers the way in which the information was acquired, without necessarily relating to the degree of [the] speaker’s certainty concerning the statement or whether it is true or not” [Aikhenvald 2004: 3]. It is well known that there is a certain variety of domains for expressing evidentiality; first and foremost there is a distinction between lexical and grammatical markers.1 In the following article I will concentrate on the common lexical evidential markers in Albanian, Bulgarian, and Macedonian, with a short introduction to grammatical evidentiality in these languages._______________________1 As for the grammatical evidential markers in the Balkan languages, there is a tradition of their analysis dating back to the second

  15. Forensic psychiatry in some Balkan countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tătaru, Nicoleta; Marinov, Petar; Douzenis, Athanassios; Novotni, Antoni; Kecman, Bojana

    2010-09-01

    In Balkan countries, as in all Europe, forensic psychiatry as a subspecialty between psychiatry and legal medicine, an interface between mental health and the law, is focused on assessment and treatment of people with mental disorder who show antisocial or violent behavior. Thus, the authors thought that to show the actual situation of forensic psychiatry in their countries would be more interesting than only to review some articles published in these last 2 years in this part of the world. The article also includes some review about forensic psychiatry in prison in Bulgaria, Serbia and Russia and about a recent book published in Bulgaria. After a brief history of forensic psychiatry in some Balkan countries, the authors describe the services, the high and medium secure units found in forensic hospitals or in general psychiatry hospitals, which are still limited, where mentally disordered offenders are treated. Because of our society's values, individual freedom and civil liberties, questions about the right to treatment (or the right to refuse treatment), involuntary hospitalization, and other legal and ethical issues have no easy answers. Ethical questions remain in dispute, like patient's needs vs. social needs and human rights, legality vs. morality.The quality standards must be improved, especially those concerning elementary care needs and quality of life of forensic psychiatry patients (accommodation, food, sheltered housing, sheltered work places and community involvement). Ways will be found to protect human rights and avoid any abuse of psychiatry.

  16. Lichens as biomonitors of uranium in the Balkan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loppi, S.; Riccobono, F.; Zhang, Z.H.; Savic, S.; Ivanov, D.; Pirintsos, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Widespread contamination by depleted uranium was not detected in the Balkan area. - The contribution of the conflict of 1999 to the environmental levels of uranium in the Balkan area was evaluated by means of lichens used as biomonitors. The average U concentration found in lichens in the present study was in line with the values reported for lichens from other countries and well below the levels found in lichens collected in areas with natural or anthropogenic sources of U. Measurement of isotopic ratios 235 U/ 238 U allowed to exclude the presence of depleted uranium. According to these results, we could not detect widespread environmental contamination by depleted uranium in the Balkan area

  17. Contract network in a balkanized grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, T.W.

    1992-01-01

    Competition in electricity generation depends critically on access to transmission service at nondiscriminatory prices. Current access and pricing policies in the U.S. do not offer prospective private generators any guarantee of such access. Most proposals for reform, while improvements over current policies, attempt to provide for open access without addressing the underlying problems associated with loop flow and constraints in transmission networks. This paper identifies key design objectives for transmission access and pricing policies and cites critical weakness in one example reform proposal. As alternative proposal, based on contract networks, does address the underlying pricing problems. This paper shows that policies based on contract networks would meet the required objectives and could be feasibly implemented even in the Balkanized grid of U.S. investor-owned utilities. 10 refs

  18. Electric energy sustainability in the Eastern Balkans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroneos, Christopher J.; Nanaki, Evanthia A.

    2007-01-01

    After years of military conflict and economic turmoil, the countries of South East Europe now face major challenges in achieving the market reforms necessary to rebuild their economies. A major driver of economy is the energy sector, although high-energy intensities are a burden for the companies and households. An efficient energy sector not only is vital for an economic recovery but also plays an important role to energy transit. The main goal of this work is a comprehensive assessment of electrical sustainability in some countries of South East Europe (Romania, Bulgaria, Turkey and Greece) mainly by means of exergy analysis as well as descriptive statistics. Exergy analysis can be used as an energy sustainability indicator and help decision-makers. The concept of exergy, applied to electricity generation efficiency could be a useful tool in the field of energy efficiency. Further implementation of thorough exergy analysis to the countries of Eastern Balkans, would be helpful in improving their electricity generation efficiency

  19. The genus Gymnospermium (Berberidaceae) in the Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Shuka, Lulezim; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja

    2011-01-01

    A revision of the genus Gymnospermium (Berberidaceae) in the Balkan Peninsula is carried out. Three species are recognised. Gymnospermium maloi is described as a new species from Mt. Picari in Gjirokastra district, southern Albania. It is compared with the closely related G. scipetarum which has...... has been reported for other members of the genus. The nuclear DNA content (2C-value) of all three species was determined. The genome size of G. maloi is 29.44 (± 0.47) pg, for G. scipetarum (chromosome number still unknown) 29.55 (± 1.35) pg, and for G. peloponnesiacum (2n = 2x = 16) 31.93 (± 2.38) pg....... These values are the first genome size measurements for the genus. All three species are mapped and fully illustrated. A key to the European species is also presented....

  20. Board Games Reconsidered: Mancala in the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Bikić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Two mancala (one of the oldest games in the world boards, which were found in the Lower Town of the Belgrade Fortress in 2006, present so far unique archaeological proof that this game was played in the region of the Balkan peninsula. Considering the fact that the knowledge regarding mancala is still quite modest, in this paper, we have also examined the different aspects of this game: the question of its origin, which is linked to the beginning of the Neolithic Age on the territories of Africa and the Near East; the link with the methods of geomantic divination; the anthropological knowledge regarding playing mancala in traditional communities; the distribution and the directions of its diffusion, as well as the archaeological finds in the area Mediterranean.

  1. The history of the study of Balkan Languages Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н В Новоспасская

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article represents the historical analysis of the apportionment and typological description some modern literary languages of Balkan Peninsula: the Bulgarian, Romanian, Serbian, and Albanian languages in works of Russian and European linguists.

  2. Balkanization versus europeanization - expressing ideological concepts (in Czech and Bulgarian)

    OpenAIRE

    Kačmarčíková Bakajsová, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Author's name: Petra Kačmarčíková Bakajsová School: Charles University, Prague Tha Faculty of Art Institut of Slavic and Eastern European Studies Nám. Jana Palacha 2, Praha 1, 116 38 Program: Bulgarian Studies Title: Balkanization versus Europeanization. Expressing Ideological Concepts (in Czech and Bulgarian) Consultant: Prof. PhDr. Hana Gladkova, CSc. Number of pages: 106 + attachments Number of attachments: 1 (from page 107 to page 184) Year: 2010 Key words: Europeanization, Balkanization,...

  3. Cross-Border Cooperation of the Balkan Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrov, Mitko; Totev, Stoyan

    2009-01-01

    The article examines the role, prospects and policies of the cross-border cooperation in the Balkan countries border regions. The main goal is to define the reasons, due to which the cross-border cooperation between the enterprises can be considered as an "optimal" policy for the Balkan countries. The opportunities for development of mutually beneficial cross-border relations are presented based on information obtained by different studies. The potential and the barriers for the development o...

  4. The Chronicle Of The First World War And Its Impact On The Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Progonati, Erjada

    2015-01-01

    The process of the two Balkan Wars remained incomplete until the First World War started. The aim of this study is to give some informations about The First World War and the role that Balkan region played to this war when the national consciousness of Balkan peoples began to crystallize. After the two Balkan Wars, all the Balkan states continued their efforts to gather their co-nationals into their national states. It’s concluded that the Balkan Wars leaded to the internationalization of th...

  5. Greece and the idea of the Balkan Union according to the materials of magazine Les Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Lubotskaya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El primer tercio del siglo XX fue un punto de inversión en la historia del desarrollo del Estado griego. El reemplazo de la Idea Griega (en general, una idea de conquista, por la idea de paz se reflejó de forma resplandeciente en la política exterior del nuevo gobierno, encabezado por el líder del Partido Liberal, Elefterios Vénselos. En la agenda de su política se encontraba la cuestión del mantenimiento de la posición griega en los Balcanes y el Mediterráneo. La vitalidad política del tema escogido es la importancia del problema de la paz en la región balcánica incluso a día de hoy. Este objeto de estudio tiene además un gran interés científico, puesto que ni en la historiografía rusa ni internacional se ha analizado desde el punto de vista periodístico. El estudio del semanario Les Balkans permitió reproducir en detalle la atmósfera de la vida política y social griega a comienzos de la tercera década del siglo XX y la propia existencia de esta publicación.____________________ABSTRACT:The end of the 20th – begining of the 30th of the XXth centuary was a turning-point in the history of development of the Greek state. Replacement of the Great Idea (in general the idea of the conquest by the idea of peace brightly reflected in the foreign policy of new-formed government, headed by the leader of the Liberal party, Elefterios Venizelos. On the agenda of its policy there was set a question of the maintenance of Greek position in the Balkan and Mediterranean regions. The political vitality of the theme chosen is in the importance of the question of peace in the Balkan region even in time beings. This theme moreover has a scientific vitality – neither in foreign nor in the russian historography it hasn’t been investigated from the journal’s point of view. Study of Les Balkans allowed to reproduce in detail the atmosphere of the greek social and political life at the begining of the 1930th and the history of journal

  6. Neurosteroids, immunosteroids, and the Balkanization of endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kim L; Pradhan, Devaleena S; Shah, Amit H; Charlier, Thierry D; Chin, Eunice H; Soma, Kiran K

    2008-07-01

    Traditionally, the production and regulation of steroid hormones has been viewed as a multi-organ process involving the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis for sex steroids and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis for glucocorticoids. However, active steroids can also be synthesized locally in target tissues, either from circulating inactive precursors or de novo from cholesterol. Here, we review recent work demonstrating local steroid synthesis, with an emphasis on steroids synthesized in the brain (neurosteroids) and steroids synthesized in the immune system (immunosteroids). Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that other components of the HPG axis (luteinizing hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone) and HPA axis (adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticotropin-releasing hormone) are expressed locally in target tissues, potentially providing a mechanism for local regulation of neurosteroid and immunosteroid synthesis. The balance between systemic and local steroid signals depends critically on life history stage, species adaptations, and the costs of systemic signals. During particular life history stages, there can be a shift from systemic to local steroid signals. We propose that the shift to local synthesis and regulation of steroids within target tissues represents a "Balkanization" of the endocrine system, whereby individual tissues and organs may become capable of autonomously synthesizing and modulating local steroid signals, perhaps independently of the HPG and HPA axes.

  7. Mobile radiography units in Balkan Wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantis, Aristidis; Magiorkinis, E

    2016-02-01

    It is known that the first radiological units were widely used during war conflicts, whereas the first application of military radiology took place during the Greco-Turkish War in 1897. However, until recently automobile radiology units were assumed to be used for the first time during World War I. Historical archives and reports were researched, and extensive research in available literature was also conducted. The automobile radiology units were purchased from France and were probably constructed under the guidance of Marie Curie (1867-1934). The figure of Dr. Dimitrios Vasilidis (?-1937), a pioneer in Radiology in Greece and the first president of the Hellenic Radiological Society, is highlighted. This short historical note describes the first use of a mobile radiology unit during the Balkan Wars (1912-1913), predating its previously presumed first use in World War I. It also briefly highlights the contributions of some notable figures in 20th Century Greek scientific development. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Timing Variations in Two Balkan Percussion Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Goldberg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many songs and dance pieces from the Balkan Peninsula employ aksak meter, in which two categorically different durations, long and short, coexist in the sequence of beats that performers emphasize and listeners move to. This paper analyzes the durations of aksak beats and measures in two recorded percussion performances that use a particular aksak beat sequence, long-short-short. The results suggest that the timing of beats varies in conjunction with factors including melodic grouping and interaction among members of a performing ensemble and audience. Timing variation linked to melodic groups occurs on a solo recording of a Macedonian Romani folk song. The performer, Muzafer Bizlim, taps an ostinato while singing, and the timing of his taps seems to mark some local and large-scale group boundaries. Melodic organization also seems relevant to the timing of beats and measures on a recording of Bulgarian percussionist Mitko Popov playing the tŭpan, a double-headed bass drum, in a small folk music ensemble. In Popov’s performance, however, timing differences might be related to characteristics of the ensemble dynamic, such as the coordination of multiple musical participants. These interpretations generate possibilities for future study of timing variations in relation to rhythm and meter.

  9. Middle East: New Balkans of the World?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Georgescu Stefan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Middle East is a region whose geopolitical dynamics has many analogies with the role of the Balkans in the first half of the 19th century and up to the 3rd decade of the 20th century, namely a "Powder keg of Europe", defined in the same period as the "Eastern Issue".Moreover, Middle East is a region located at the junction of three continents: Europe, Asia and the Mediterranean Africa, and along with ancient Egypt is the cradle of Western civilization, providing for it political, economic, religious, scientific, military, intellectual and institutional models.Four millennia of civilization before Christian era did not pass without leaving a trace.Trade, currency, law, diplomacy, technology applied to works in time of war or peace, the profit based economy and the bureaucratized economy, popular and absolutist government, nationalist and universal spirit, tolerance and fanaticism – all these are not inventions of the modern world, but have their origins and methods of implementation, often even sophisticated methods, in this region.

  10. Impact of the Non-Slavic Balkan Languages on Speech and Folk Poetry of Gora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadik Idrizi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on its many structural features, the Gorani dialect belongs to Balkan linguistic association. Some features have joined this dialect as a result of linguistic and ethnic mixtures present in the southeastern part of Balkan pen­insula. Romanic, Turkish and Greek languages have influenced a lot the creation of the Balkan linguistic associa­tion. Balkan languages show a lot of parallel features in phonetics, morphology, syntax and vocabulary.

  11. Anglophiles in Balkan Christian states (1862-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovich Slobodan G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The life stories of five Balkan Anglophiles emerging in the nineteenth century - two Serbs, Vladimir Jovanović (Yovanovich and Čedomilj Mijatović (Chedomille Mijatovich; two Greeks, Ioannes (John Gennadios and Eleutherios Venizelos; and one Bulgarian, Ivan Evstratiev Geshov - reflect, each in its own way, major episodes in relations between Britain and three Balkan Christian states (Serbia, the Hellenic Kingdom and Bulgaria between the 1860s and 1920. Their education, cultural patterns, relations and models inspired by Britain are looked at, showing that they acted as intermediaries between British culture and their own and played a part in the best and worst moments in the history of mutual relations, such as the Serbian-Ottoman crisis of 1862, the Anglo-Hellenic crisis following the Dilessi murders, Bulgarian atrocities and the Eastern Crisis, unification of Bulgaria and the Serbo-Bulgarian War of 1885, the Balkan Wars 1912-13, the National Schism in Greece. Their biographies are therefore essential for understanding Anglo-Balkan relations in the period under study. The roles of two British Balkanophiles (a Bulgarophile, James David Bourchier, and a Hellenophile, Ronald Burrows are looked at as well. In conclusion, a comparison of the Balkan Anglophiles is offered, and their Britain-inspired cultural and institutional legacy to their countries is shown in the form of a table.

  12. Androsace septentrionalis (Primulaceae), a new species for the Balkan flora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, V.; Vukojicic, S.; Tan, Kit

    2005-01-01

    Androsace septentrionalis L. (Primulaceae) is recorded as a new species for the Balkan flora on the basis of herbarium material collected several times from Mt. Prokletije, situated near the borders of Serbia (Metochia and Kosovo province), Montenegro and Albania. The locality marks the southernm......Androsace septentrionalis L. (Primulaceae) is recorded as a new species for the Balkan flora on the basis of herbarium material collected several times from Mt. Prokletije, situated near the borders of Serbia (Metochia and Kosovo province), Montenegro and Albania. The locality marks...... the southernmost limit of the species' range in Europe. The existence of A. septentrionalis in the Balkans may be the result of migration of the tundra-steppe flora from central and East Europe towards the mountains of the peninsula during the Ice Age....

  13. SECURING FRAGILE DEMOCRACIES IN THE BALKANS: THE EUROPEAN DIMENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Pridham

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union faces unprecedented difficulties in its integration of the Western Balkans in terms of the requirements for change by countries in that region wishing to join. In order to meet this challenge, the EU’s political conditionality has moved significantly beyond its demands made on the post-Communist entrants of 2004 and 2007. But its effort to bridge the gap between the ability or political will of Balkan countries to adapt to European modernisation and uncertainties about EU commitment created by “enlargement fatigue” among Member States is vulnerable to weak consensus on both sides. Accordingly, the dynamic behind further enlargement is not comparable with the historic drive that impelled the enlargement of 2004. At the same time, there are strong geopolitical arguments on grounds of stabilising the Balkans for going ahead with integrating the Western half of this region.

  14. The future path of lignite production in the Balkan countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussios, E.; Koikouzas, N.K.

    1997-01-01

    The future development of the European Union and Balkan lignite industry is examined in this paper. Lignite in some countries represents for the last decade by far the most important fuel for electricity generation. The economically recoverable lignite reserves of the Balkans (21.36 x 10 9 t) and Greece (4.0 x 10 9 t) are sufficient to meet their energy demand for the next decades (50-100 years). The Balkan countries intended to increase their lignite production, in the near future, as result of the increase of their primary energy demand and their efforts to meet their energy requirements by using domestic resources. Greece also plans to increase lignite production. On the contrary, the remaining of the European Union countries intend to decrease their lignite production. Nevertheless, the countries of Balkan region which are presently in a transition period to the market economy, have to deal with a decrease of people employed in the lignite mining industry. However, Balkan region seems to be the most promising area for the future development of the lignite industry in the enlarged EU, after making the following alterations in the lignite sector: Rehabilitation of the lignite open-pit mines, closure of the most underground mines, privatization of the most prosperous mines, modification of the existing technology, introduction of the 'clean' coal technology, etc. New opportunities for the development and modernization of the lignite industry in Balkan countries arise, after their possible entrance into the European Union, considering also that lignite is one of their most important indigenous energy source. For the necessary modernization of the lignite industry, development of collaborations for the capital and know-how transferring is required. (Author)

  15. Balkan – Pestens første udbrud?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Artiklen behandler den religiøst farvede nationalismes udvikling i Jugoslavien efter præsident Titos død i 1980 og dens virkninger på Balkan-landene, samt EU's muligheder for at danne modvægt mod aggressiv nationalistisk-religiøs chauvinisme......Artiklen behandler den religiøst farvede nationalismes udvikling i Jugoslavien efter præsident Titos død i 1980 og dens virkninger på Balkan-landene, samt EU's muligheder for at danne modvægt mod aggressiv nationalistisk-religiøs chauvinisme...

  16. History of the Balkan Stomatological Society (BaSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Ljubomir

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Some of the main activities of the Balkan Stomatological Society (BaSS over a rich 19-year history are presented. These activities have been aimed at improving oral health care provided by the dentists throughout the Balkans, and to establish ties of friendship and collaboration between researchers and clinicians in this region, creating a foundation for mutual understanding and peace. To accomplish these goals, the BaSS annually organizes congresses and publishes a scientific journal, beside many other activities, such as public oral health promotion, bringing into accordance study programmes and curricula, supporting student exchange programmes, etc.

  17. 'Western Balkans': Political context and the media usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svilar Predrag

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available By accessing the content analysis of media archives, available both on the Internet presentations of the most significant and most influential media, press agencies, web search engines, and official public institutions, international government and non-government organizations, we will make an attempt to point to political conditioning, appearances and uses, as well as political etymology of the term Western Balkans. The attention will also be called to the fact that the term has its origin in Anglo-Saxon political and historiographical tradition, through the examples of its use, as well as to the similarities of political relations which bring to its applicability. By analyzing the content of media inscriptions, reports, documents, official announcements, authorial reviews and analyses, it came to a conclusion that Western Balkans occurs as a regional reference in particular historical and political circumstances and that geographical frames it is being used within, could be located outside the time frames and there are specified the particularities of its use. We will demonstrate that through the analysis of the political context and media usage, Western Balkans could be interpreted on more than one level. Western Balkans can at the same time represent both a terminological construction and a regional reference which expresses the indecisiveness of the West on social and cultural properties of the Balkans and the founding of Balkan cultures as immanently European, but at the same time the means of measurement, which is not only the determination of regionalism, but the determination of historical and political moment likewise. Besides, Western Balkans could also be interpreted as a mean of practical methodology and classification of naming the societies on the Balkans, which are the only outside the European Union frames, but also stand for the synchronization of the Balkanistic discourse with current political and historical circumstances and

  18. „Pseudo-yat“ in Dalmato-Romance and Balkan Latin (On Balkan Latin VIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligorio Orsat L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Article discusses the origins and the development of the so-called pseudo-yat in Dalmatian Romance and Balkan Latin. (E.g. SCr. mrčela-murtila-murtela from Lat. *MYRTICELLA or tovijerna-tovirna-toverna from TABERNA. Pseudo-yat is derived from -ECC-, in short syllables, and in long syllables from -ERR-, -ERC-. This suggestion is tried on 58 Dalmatian loans in Serbo-Croatian. The fact that pseudo-yat is found only in a part of these is of particular significance for the stratification of Dalmatian loans in Serbo-Croatian since loans with pseudo-yat are ostensibly older than the ones without it. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 178007

  19. The Chronicle Of The First World War And Its Impact On The Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erjada Progonati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of the two Balkan Wars (1912-1913 remained incomplete until the First World War started. The aim of this study is to give some informations about The First World War and the role that Balkan region played to this war when the national consciousness of Balkan peoples began to crystallize. After the two Balkan Wars, all the Balkan states continued their efforts to gather their co-nationals into their national states. It’s concluded that the Balkan Wars leaded to the internationalization of this crisis spreading it to an ample area while many other crises at the same region were resolved without a general war in Europe. It appears that the First World War that began in 1914 in the Balkan region was a continuation of the wars that started in 1912-1913 period in the same are.

  20. Balkanized Secondary Schools and the Malaise of Modernity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Andy; Macmillan, Robert

    Findings of a study that examined teaching culture patterns in two Ontario secondary schools are presented in this paper, with attention given to the outcomes of "balkanization." In this form of the teachers' organizational culture, teachers work in smaller subgroups within the school community. The two schools were drawn from a study of…

  1. Terfezia terfezioides - a new hypogeous fungus for Balkan Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Ławrynowicz; Mirosłav Markowić; Miroljub Milenković; Boris Ivanćević

    2014-01-01

    Terfezia terfezioides (Matt.) Trappe was found for the first time in FR Yugoslavia in 1991. Description of the specimens, its mycorrhizal association with Robinta pseudoacacia and distribution in Europe are discussed in the paper. This is the first locality of T. terfezioides on Balkan Peninsula.

  2. Terfezia terfezioides - a new hypogeous fungus for Balkan Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ławrynowicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Terfezia terfezioides (Matt. Trappe was found for the first time in FR Yugoslavia in 1991. Description of the specimens, its mycorrhizal association with Robinta pseudoacacia and distribution in Europe are discussed in the paper. This is the first locality of T. terfezioides on Balkan Peninsula.

  3. Tough love : the European Union's relations with the Western Balkans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockmans, Steven

    2007-01-01

    As part of the international presence in the Western Balkans, the European Union has adopted sanctions, brokered political agreements, launched its first-ever police and military missions and directed economic, legal and administrative reforms to eradicate the root causes of instability. Yet,

  4. Balkan – Pestens første udbrud?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Artiklen behandler den religiøst farvede nationalismes udvikling i Jugoslavien efter præsident Titos død i 1980 og dens virkninger på Balkan-landene, samt EU's muligheder for at danne modvægt mod aggressiv nationalistisk-religiøs chauvinisme...

  5. The Balkans: Between Economic Crisis And European Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei RĂDULESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Balkans region (also known as the „Powder keg of Europe” has always been an European question, a Western question, as underlined by Arnold Toynbee, in 1922. At present, European Union is confronted with the fifth enlargement, also known as the “post-conflict” enlargement – the integration of Balkan states. Bulgaria joined European Union in 2007. Croatia signed the Accession Treaty in 2011 and is expected to become an EU member in 2013. The other countries encounter in different stages of European integration. However, this process presents several challenges and dilemmas, either for European Union, or for the Balkan enclave. The main challenge in the case of this enlargement is to reconcile the nation-state building and the European integration. From the economic point of view, the Balkans region is underdeveloped. Several factors determined this stance of the region: the poor endowment in terms of natural resources, the political situation over the centuries (the military conflicts – impeding the economic development, the cultural factors. At present, the region is confronted with the consequences of the worst economic and financial crisis o global economy since the end of World War II.

  6. Low altitudinal distribution of Salamandra salamandra from the Balkan Peninsula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jablonski, D.; Balej, P.; Jůna, F.; Homolka, Miloslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 6 (2013), s. 563-566 ISSN 2071-5773 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : fire salamander * Balkan Peninsula Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://www.herpetologynotes.seh-herpetology.org/Volume6_PDFs/Jablonski_HerpetologyNotes_volume6_pages563-566.pdf

  7. Record Balkan floods of 2014 linked to planetary wave resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadtherr, Lisa; Coumou, Dim; Petoukhov, Vladimir; Petri, Stefan; Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    In May 2014, the Balkans were hit by a Vb-type cyclone that brought disastrous flooding and severe damage to Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, and Croatia. Vb cyclones migrate from the Mediterranean, where they absorb warm and moist air, to the north, often causing flooding in central/eastern Europe. Extreme rainfall events are increasing on a global scale, and both thermodynamic and dynamical mechanisms play a role. Where thermodynamic aspects are generally well understood, there is large uncertainty associated with current and future changes in dynamics. We study the climatic and meteorological factors that influenced the catastrophic flooding in the Balkans, where we focus on large-scale circulation. We show that the Vb cyclone was unusually stationary, bringing extreme rainfall for several consecutive days, and that this situation was likely linked to a quasi-stationary circumglobal Rossby wave train. We provide evidence that this quasi-stationary wave was amplified by wave resonance. Statistical analysis of daily spring rainfall over the Balkan region reveals significant upward trends over 1950-2014, especially in the high quantiles relevant for flooding events. These changes cannot be explained by simple thermodynamic arguments, and we thus argue that dynamical processes likely played a role in increasing flood risks over the Balkans.

  8. Exporting Integrity: Anti-corruption Programs in the Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Sampson, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Society for Applied Anthropology, Vancouver, 30 March 2006, Panel on Timing and Spacing Development, Exporting Integrity: Anti-corruption Programs in the Balkans Steven Sampson Dept of Social Anthropology Lund University, Sweden Contact: Anti-corruption is high on the list of development priorities, and a high level of corruption can actually prevent a government from receiving aid. This paper focuses on Transparency International, ...

  9. THE CURRENT STATE OF CLOTHING TRADE IN THE BALKAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRIPA Simona

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study presented here is aimed at analysing the current state of clothing trade in the Balkan states. The dynamics of change over a 15‐year period following economic reforms are revealed. The clothing industries play a significant role and continue to contribute to the economic prosperity of countries with an inexpensive labour force. For most Balkan States clothing’s export plays an important role in promoting economic growth and development – for example, exports of garments Albania was in 2015, 16.81% of its exports, Republic of Macedonia 11.75% of its exports, in Turkey10.51% etc. The main factors which influence the level of competitiveness of clothing products from the Balkans are the gross value added per employee and wages. When the producers of the Balkan countries will create products with higher added value in garment industry the competitiveness of these countries will decrease. Also rising wages in this industry, as a result of trade union pressure or government policy, will lead to decreasing competitiveness of these products on the EU market and implicitly to the decrease of exports of garments from these countries. The main challenges that must face the Balkan States are related to restructuring of economic system, changing trade markets and patterns, declining of domestic demand of most merchandise, reduction of competitive ability, narrow export base, and lower economies of scale. The main opportunities that most of these countries can exploit are related to their geographical position, membership of the EU market, infrastructure in garment sector, and highly skilled workforce.

  10. The Balkans and Syria’s Civil War: Realities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Perparim Gutaj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The prime objective of this research paper is to look at the realities and challenges confronting the Balkan states and societies in light of Syria’s civil war. By examining the mobilization process of Balkan militants who are joining Syria’s rebel cause, especially the Islamic radical groups linked to al-Qaeda, this paper proposes a model that explains why and how Balkan militants are joining the fight in Syria. Drawing upon reliable media reports, personal observations, academic accounts, and other consistent sources, this paper argues that Balkan militants are joining Syria’s rebel cause because foreign Islamic radical groups (that have been operating in the Balkans since the early 1990s have successfully indoctrinated them. This paper challenges the argument that Islam in the Balkans is a threat to the region, and the claim that Balkan Islam and Muslims in the region are becoming an increasing threat to the West. The central findings of this paper exemplify that the future of Balkan militants is bleak and that they will be confronted with a massive modern and democratic resistance that offers them nothing but reintegration into Balkan Islam, their natural “religious nest.” Notwithstanding the trends related to Syria’s civil war, Balkan Muslims belong to the West, culturally and mentally.

  11. Hydrological preview on water resources and water quantity in the Central Balkan Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stdiov, Vasko

    2004-01-01

    In the Hydrological Preview on Water Resources and Water Quantity in the Central Balkan Region, will be presented water resources on the one Balkan country where exist network of hydrological and meteorological stations with hydro meteorological database. Considering water resources, hydrological and meteorological data on separated catchments areas will be determined water quantity and specific water discharges on main rivers in that part of the Balkan Region.(Author)

  12. "Balkanism" as discourse(s) of power(lessness): towards the questionability of narrativism

    OpenAIRE

    Koprivitsa, Chaslav D.

    2016-01-01

    The intention of this paper is to review the historical presuppositions of the absence of the indigenous self-naming of the Balkans, and to illuminate the consequences of external practices, mainly western of "producing" of Balkan identity - through Balkanist discourse of power. But to achieve this it is not enough to point out that the external construction of the narrative of the Balkans is often motivated by the domination interests, which is why we try to understand, and partly to bring i...

  13. A typology of subjunctive complements in Balkan languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Hill

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a comparative approach to the subjunctive complements to verbs and nouns in two language groups: Romance Balkan (i.e. Standard Romanian, Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian and Slavic Balkan (mostly Serbian, Croatian, and Macedonian. There are many analyses of V-subjunctive complement selection in these languages but, to our knowledge, none that zooms in on the group differences in the composition of the left periphery of subjunctive clauses. In these configurations, our analysis finds a micro-variation that has implications for the understanding of other cross-linguistic variations among these languages, in particular, in the subjunctive complementation to nouns. In other words, we argue that the typology of verb complementation is the key to the understanding of the typology of noun complementation in these languages.

  14. INTERNET ADDICTION IN BALKAN AND SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis PETASAKIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of Internet has increased dramatically in recent years. Although there is no standardized definition of Internet addiction, there is acknowledgement among researchers that this phenomenon does exist. In this study, we identify various similarities and differences among people in the Balkan and South-Eastern European countries about Internet addiction. There are many factors such as cultural differences, gender differences, psychosocial variables, computer attitudes and time.We present the experience from studies concerning Internet addiction in all over the world. A specific research with the use of Young's 20-scale was also conducted in five Balkan and South-Eastern European countries (Republic of Moldova, Romania, Republic of Bulgaria, Hellenic Republic, Republic of Cyprus.The findings are interesting. Although there is a need for Interest using, there are also cases where the addiction, dependence and abuse is apparent.

  15. LATEST CHALLENGES IN EFFICIENCY CONVERGENCE IN BALKAN AND BALTIC COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihăiță-Cosmin M. POPOVICI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of banks has been widely and extensively studied in the past few decades. Using a sample of Balkan and Baltic countries and by employing a Data Envelopment Analysis model, we want to highlight the main challenges for the highly concentrated banking system. Over the period 2007 - 2011, these countries have coped with the worst financial crisis from the Great Depression, which has severe effects on the banking systems. Our sample includes the least developed countries in the EU and for reference purpose, Luxembourg, with the highest GDP per capita. We expect to find similarities between Balkan countries and Baltic countries and we can draw lessons from Luxembourg`s results.

  16. Balkan war in picture and words: Kosovo avengers

    OpenAIRE

    Ženarju, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of the illustrations in the magazine The Balkan War in Picture and Words published in Belgrade during 1913. The paper processed the pictures that had related to the territory of Kosovo and Metohia, most of them are the portraits of soldiers, so-called Kosovo Avengers. The portraits of priests were published as well, which pointed out their importance in the liberation activities. Also, it published the photos of military graves, Kosovo towns and areas. The m...

  17. From Boston to the Balkans: Olmsted’s Emerald Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Luke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the legacy of landscape architect Fredrick Law Olmsted on modern cultural tourism policies. The author explains the involvement of Olmsted in the founding of Yosemite National Park, and describes the influence of this experience on his later work on the Emerald Necklace parks project in Boston. This became a model for natural and cultural corridors worldwide, including those in the Balkans and Turkey.

  18. Phylogeny of European Bullhead (Cottus sp. in Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Bravničar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available European bullhead sensus lato is a species complex, in which lineage determination based on morphology has proven to be extremely difficult, probably due to low interspecific and high intraspeciefic morphological variation. Therefore, major evolutionary lineages across Europe have been determined based on molecular data, which also to some extent corresponds to known morphological variation. Cottus populations on the Balkan Peninsula have not yet been thoroughly studied. Thus we used molecular genetic approach (mtDNA-CR and nu-LSU to evaluate evolutionary distinctive units of Cottus in the Western Balkans and compare them to other European lineages. We found presence of five distinct lineages. Populations corresponding to Cottus gobio clade inhabit tributaries of Danube River in southern Serbia, rivers of Adriatic drainage and Drava River. Interestingly, we found three additional Cottus linages in Sava River and its tributaries, differing considerably from “main” C. gobio. First, we confirmed morphologically determined Cottus meate from Upper Sava, with species range from the source of Sava River, including tributaries, to the inflow of Kolpa River. Second, we found a new lineage inhabiting the Kolpa and Una river systems. Third, lineage was found inhabiting Bosna and Vrbas rivers. High density of evolutionary distinctive lineages in such a small area is according to our knowledge exceptional for European bullhead and lines up with the general notion of the Balkans as major refuge and present day biodiversity hotspot. Our results correspond with two wave colonization theory of Europe by Cottus genus probosed by Volckaert, first possibly being in Pliocene and second during the Pleistocene, with Balkan Peninsula as starting point for both of them.

  19. European Enlargement and the Integration of the Western Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    4, McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, 1995 and Pollo , S. and Puto, A., The History of Albania from its Origins to the Present Day, p. 1...160-193, Assidon-Wesley Publishing Company, 1979. 13 Pollo , p. 146 and Jelavich, B, pp 100-103. 14 In 1913 the Conference of Ambassadors in...5). 17 Zickel, pp 28-32. 18 Pollo , p. 227. 8 The frequent invasions of the Balkan Peninsula are largely responsible for the political

  20. 78 FR 37097 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... engaged in, or assisting, sponsoring, or supporting (i) extremist violence in the Republic of Macedonia... of persons threatening the peace and international stabilization efforts in the Western Balkans...

  1. Is the balkanization of the ukrainian-russian conflict probable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Petrovich Koshkin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the possibility and probability of Balkanization of the UkrainianRussian intersocietal relations. Methods the need to study the main factors affecting the state of the modern RussianUkrainian conflict in its ethnopolitical dimension with the predominat focus on intersocietal relations determined the use of the historicalgenetic comparativehistorical and typological methods of investigation integrated with the systemic approach. Results the main parallels are shown that occur when comparing the ethnopolitical situation in the Balkans and above all the SerbianCroatian relations with the current RussianUkrainian conflict mainly at the level of relations of Russians and Ukrainians as ethnic groups. The ethnosocial and ethnopolitical differences of the genesis and current state of both conflicts do not provide a sufficient basis for specific predictions about the inevitable Balkanization of the RussianUkrainian conflict. Scientific novelty the article proves the inconsistency of unambiguous similes of the RussianUkrainian conflict and interethnic SerbianCroatian conflict at intersocietal and associated levels it shows the significant differences of the conflict situations that do not lead to dogmatic conclusions about the development of the RussianUkrainian relations by the Yugoslavia scenario. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity in the study of ethnos and ethnicity in the analysis of ethnopolitical processes in modern Ukraine and consideration of the status and prospects of the development of RussianUkrainian relations. nbsp

  2. SOME ASPECTS OF THE REGIONAL COOPERATION IN THE BALKANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Gospodinova Grozeva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 21st century, the political role of the state borders in the Balkans has changed. Gradually they began to transform from barriers into zones of bilateral and multilateral cooperation. The common European integration includes the creation and development of Euro-regions. Within the context of reorganization of the new European space, geopolitical importance of South-East Europe has significantly upgraded. This fact reflects on the interests of the international community in security and development of this region. Despite that the Balkans constitute an indispensable part of the European continent, their incorporation into the new European architecture has been particularly difficult and problematic. They emerge as the most volatile and least integrated European region. There are significant variations among the countries concerning their territory, number of population, as well as the rate of the economic changes. The main forms of regional cooperation should be concentrated on the domains of transport, energy and communication infrastructure, trade and economic cooperation, environment and security. From this point of view, the economic growth and increase of living standard are the most important problems for all Balkan countries.

  3. International Trends in Health Science Librarianship Part 19: The Balkan States (Bulgaria and Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilova, Savina; Skoric, Lea

    2016-09-01

    This is the 19th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is the Balkan Region (Bulgaria and Croatia). The next regular feature column will investigate two other Balkan states - Serbia and Slovenia. JM. © 2016 Health Libraries Group.

  4. Helianthemum marmoreum (Cistaceae), a new species from the Central Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Vladimir; Matevski, Vlado; Tan, Kit

    2009-01-01

    Helianthemum marmoreum is described as a new species from the central part of the Balkan peninsula is described as a new species from the central part of the Balkan peninsula (R. Macedonia). It inhabits rocky marble and limestone slopes and pastures at moderate altitudes of 240-1400 m. The closes...

  5. Lost in scales: Balkan folk music research and the ottoman legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pennanen Risto Pekka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Balkan folk music researchers have articulated various views on what they have considered Oriental or Turkish musical legacy. The discourses the article analyses are nationalism, Orientalism, Occidentalism and Balkanism. Scholars have handled the awkward Ottoman issue in several manners: They have represented 'Oriental' musical characteristics as domestic, claimed that Ottoman Turks merely imitated Arab and Persian culture, and viewed Indian classical raga scales as sources for Oriental scales in the Balkans. In addition, some scholars have viewed the 'Oriental' characteristics as stemming from ancient Greece. The treatment of the Segâh family of Ottoman makams in theories and analyses reveals several features of folk music research in the Balkans, the most important of which are the use of Western concepts and the exclusive dependence on printed sources. The strategies for handling the Orient within have meandered between Occidentalism and Orientalism, creating an ambiguity which is called Balkanism.

  6. Climate variability and change and related drought on Balkan Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, Vesselin

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, results on climate variability including variations of air temperature and precipitation in Bulgaria during the 20th century are presented. There has been an increase of air temperature during the last two decades. The years 1994 and 2000 were the warmest years on record in the country. Annual precipitation in Bulgaria varied considerably from year to year during the 20th century. In some years, very low annual precipitation caused droughts of different intensities. The country has experienced severe drought episodes in the 1940s, 1980s and 1990s. There was a decreasing trend in precipitation during the period April-September from the end of 1970s. Precipitation was below the 1961-1990 average for 14 of the last 20 years of investigation. A winter precipitation deficit was observed during the last decade. Both spring and summer as well as autumn precipitation had a tendency to decrease at the end of the 20th century. The anomalies of annual air temperature and precipitation as well as related drought occurrence on the Balkan Peninsula were also analyzed. For this purpose, different weather sources (such as the CRU climate dataset, ATEAM weather dataset for Europe, etc.) were used. Several climate change scenarios for the Balkan Peninsula were developed and analyzed. These scenarios were based on GCM (global circulation model) weather outputs. Both GCM outputs with coarse spatial resolution (e.g. MAGICC/SCENGEN scenarios: 500 km x 500 km) as well as with high resolution (e.g. HadCM3 scenarios: 10'x 10' (less than 20 km x 20 km)) were used. The GCM climate change scenarios created by the Tyndall Centre (UK) for the Balkan countries were also considered and discussed. (Author)

  7. Some traces of interlinguistic contacts in the central Balkan mountains

    OpenAIRE

    Loma Aleksandar

    2003-01-01

    The etymology of three Balkan tree names, S.-Cr. munika ‘Pinus leucodermis' molika ‘Pinus peuce' and omorika ‘Picea omorika' is discussed. The latter is supposed to go back, together with Bulg. morika ‘spruce', to Slavic *mъxorъ ‘fringe' describing here the hanging branches of spruce. The Bosnian pine munika, munjika growing in high and rocky places exposed to the thunder, the relation to S.-Cr. munja < Common Slavic *mъlnja seems probable, and molika may be explained as a re-borrowing fro...

  8. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE BALKAN PENINSULA SALMONIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo Georgiev

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper puts forward the knowledge of the immigration itineraries of the ancestors of five extant salmonid species on Balkan Peninsula which are the following: Acantholingua ohridana (Steindachner, 1892, Hucho hucho (Linnaeus, 1758, Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758, Salmothymus obtusirostris Heckel, 1851 and Thymallus thymallus (Linnaeus, 1758. The thesis for the migration itineraries is based on the anatomical, molecular and zoogeographical facts recently published. These latest facts complement or reject the previous thesis that considered the origin of separate species, which in this paper are analyzed together. A new position on the origin of some S. trutta populations inhabiting the Mediterranean Sea watershed is proposed. The new thesis is that they did not inhabit it from the west, through the Atlantic Ocean and Gibraltar, but from the North, through the branches of the former Sarmatian Sea, using the continental way. A. ohridana and S. obtusirostris, the only endemic Balkanean salmonids, have developed here from the mutual ancestor with the extant Siberian Brachymystax lenok (Pallas, 1773. This ancestor came first, together with the S. trutta lineage known as »marmorata«. Using the same migration way, the T. thymallus population of Soča River, the North.West boundary of Balkan Peninsula remained restricted at that corner of Adriatic Sea watershed. In the Black Sea watershed (the Danube River flow extension on Balkan Peninsula the distribution of T. thymallus coincides with the distribution of H. hucho. The thesis which has been proposed for this, largest contemporary Balkan Peninsula salmonid fish was that it came here last, after the connections between the Mediterranean Sea basin and once existent Sarmatian Sea disappeared. This occurred after the end of the last glaciations. This has been concluded on the basis of the exclusion of the areas of the »marmorata« lineage of S. trutta (Mediterranean Sea watershed and H. hucho (Black Sea

  9. Searching for late neolithic spinning bowls in the central Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svilar Marija M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past twenty years, research on textile has received increasing attention in archaeology worldwide, providing new insights into one of the most important crafts in human history. In contrast, activities related to spinning and weaving in the Late Neolithic settlements in the Central Balkans have only be treated with cursory attention, which has resulted in nothing more than a set of general assumptions in archaeological literature. Though some progress has recently been made, investigations of textile in prehistoric contexts are still far from their full potential. The quest for spinning bowls in ceramic assemblages constitutes an important part of the given research, providing new evidence on the production of both textiles and pottery. Therefore, the focus of this paper is on the available evidence for those activities related to textile production in the Late Neolithic, primarily to spinning, with special emphasis on the earliest occurrence of spinning bowls in the Central Balkans i.e. the technology of wetting and tightening plant fibres in ceramic vessels.

  10. The continuing medical mystery of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Lynn M.; Tatu, Calin A.; Orem, William H.; Pavlovic MD PhD, Nikola

    2015-01-01

    Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN) is a disease of subtle onset and insidious progression that typically occurs between the 4th and 6th decade in long‐resident individuals in highly specific geographic locations of the Balkan region and affects 1 – 5% of the population. Though it does not follow typical Mendelian genetics, there is a familial pattern of occurrence. Although residents may live only a few kilometers apart, certain locations are highly affected while others close by, even as close as across the road, remain unscathed. Because of this geographic selectivity scientists have searched for an environmental cause. It is thought that exposure to the toxic plant Aristolochia clematitis is to blame. Genotoxic N‐heterocyclic or polycyclic aromatic containing coal water leachates entering cultivated soil and drinking water are also a possible cause due to the proximity and predictive power of endemic foci to coal deposits. Evidence for Ochratoxin A fungal poisoning also exists. High levels of phthalates have been measured in BEN‐endemic drinking water. BEN is a probably a multifactorial disease that may result from exposure through some of above‐mentioned environmental sources, with genetic factors contributing. This review will discuss recent research concerning the etiology, potential therapies for the treatment of nephropathy, and unexplored research directions for this chronic kidney disease.

  11. Product mix of recreational tourism in the Balkan scout center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocevski Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of research is tourist offer of a camp which would satisfy the needs of tourists who want an active recreation, with changeable and attractive facilities in the Balkan Scout Center (BSC of Jovac. The goal is to define a model for recreational tourism product mix of the Balkan Scout Center, based on the analysis and evaluation of the elements of supply and identifying the demand for a certain program content. The research was conducted from April to August 2012, as a part of activities implemented in BSC events: Easter camp, Summer camp and Volunteer camp. The sample consisted of 100 visitors (respondents; the administered instrument was a specifically designed questionnaire and the methods on which the analysis of the modeling was based were: frequency of occurrence, comparative analysis (Benchmarking, SWOT and PEST. The research results confirm the existence of necessary resources for the implementation of the contents in the field of recreational tourism in the BSC, and the possibility of implementation of the product mix that includes day trips and a variety of outdoor recreational activities.

  12. Is quality of higher educational institutions in Western Balkan real?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živaljević Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a survey conducted in November of 2013 in 120 higher education institutions in the Western Balkans Countries, with purpose to determine which models are used for quality improvement in Western Balkans higher educational institutions, and whether critical conditions for continuous quality improvement have been met by applying those models. Data were obtained by using questionnaire which consisted of 24 questions related to 2 previously defined hypotheses. Gathered data were tested with Student's t test to determine if there is a significant difference between the groups of higher educational institutions which use different quality models, as well as between private and public higher educational institutions. Authors argue that the rules imposed by Governments do not provide sufficient incentive for meeting the critical conditions for the continuous quality improvement. Legal framework and mandatory accreditation conducted by government bodies lead higher educational institutions to fulfil the formal requirements, distancing them from the essence of quality management, i.e. from self-criticism and motivation to consistently deliver better results than the previous ones and giving them the illusion of achieving quality through compliance with formal criteria.

  13. Prospective thermal power generation in the Western Balkan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasović Nikola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the expansion of the thermal generation in the long-term for the Western Balkan region. This paper concentrates on the estimation of long-term energy data for the (Western Balkan countries. The process was implemented by the use of the PRIMES model in order to perform simulations for the future growth of electricity supply and demand in the region. Two scenarios were applied. The first (Baseline scenario was based on the current energy path of each country and on the absence of any specific energy policy like tax emissions or renewable subsidies. The second (Reference scenario was practically a series of “environmental” sub-scenarios, based on specific energy subsidy policy applied to the electricity generated by renewable sources. Results were given for the period between 2015 and 2050 in 5-year steps and conclusions were made for the whole region. As such, the results can feed up trials of energy planning referring to the future energy condition.

  14. Overview of poverty and social exclusion in the Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matković Gordana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last 15 years the entire Western Balkan region has undergone dramatic changes. With the fall of the Berlin wall and the disintegration of the former Yugoslavia, new states were formed and transition started, although in some countries it was quite delayed. Simultaneously, during the nineties, much of the region experienced wars and destruction, waves of refugees, internal displacement of population, devastation of the economy, demolition of institutions and impoverishment of citizens. Absolute poverty, determined through the estimation of household consumption at which families, after paying for essential non-food expenditures just attain minimal nutritional needs, in almost all of the Western Balkans is still relatively high, and is not showing significant tendencies of decreasing. A large concentration of the population and households just above the poverty line additionally demonstrates the challenges faced by the entire region while undergoing the transition process. In some countries extreme poverty, meaning that not even basic food needs can be met, has been registered. On the other hand, relative poverty, defined as the share of those who are excluded from the minimum acceptable way of life in states in which they live, is not particularly high. Due to the relatively high standard of living in the past and high expectations of the population that living standards would increase in a relatively short period of time, the subjective perception of poverty in the entire region is very much present. Groups that stand out as especially vulnerable and excluded are the unemployed, dependents and the less educated. At the level of the household, in some countries households with many children and elderly households are particularly vulnerable. The poorest often live in the rural areas and in the underdeveloped regions. In addition, especially vulnerable groups, who cannot even be completely covered by standard surveys, but are poor and

  15. Contributing to Balkan public health: a school for Skopje.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levett, Jeffrey

    2002-04-01

    The absence of social well-being and growing vulnerability are alarming for a large portion of people living in the Balkan countries. The Stability Pact is currently targeting the issue of social cohesion, which holds out promise for as yet unrealized development. Both the World Health Organization and the Council of Europe have called attention to the population vulnerability and growing disparity in health status between that region and Europe. Reversal of present trends demands the support of the international community and the strengthening of all public health institutions, human resource training, and population health research. Given the severity of the problem space of population vulnerability, these actions are more than ever indispensable to the health sector of the region. The paper describes an encouraging dialogue for Balkan health conducted by the National School of Public Health in Athens, Greece over the past decade and emphasizes the work of the newly created Public Health in South Eastern Europe (PH-SEE) Network (www.snz.hr/ph-see), which provides new opportunities for engagement in regional public health through Public Health Schools and Institutes. There is a need for public health curricula development and a closer linkage of all Schools with the Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region. A curriculum for peace and public health is already under development in institutions in Athens, Greece; Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina; and Zagreb, Croatia. Soon to be added to the group of regional institutions is the School of Public Health in Skopje. It is a policy response to considerable need in a country showing pre-conflict conditions in the heart of the South Eastern Europe. Within the general framework of public health development, a School of Public Health in Skopje can be of great national benefit. Suggestions are made for its function under an umbrella of interdisciplinarity and autonomy, and the need to steer a path clear of

  16. The Democratization Process in the Western Balkans in the Last 20 Years: Interethnic Relations and Security Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Veljanoska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of democratization in Western Balkans is connected with the process of state-building before and after the reconstruction. After the break-up of Yugoslavia, the region became a brutal battleground as different nation-based groups fought to define the boundaries of a set of new states in the Balkans. One of the key challenges related to the democratization of the Western Balkan countries is resolving the issues with their neighbours. However, political pragmatism and bilateral relations between the countries of the Balkans, including their internal conflicts do not exclude informal alliances, but as a temporary form of exploitation of the current political and security situation or in order to achieve their own national interests. One of the key tools in the achievement of national interests, especially expressed in the Balkan countries is represented by the ethnic minorities. Ethnic minorities in the Balkans cannot be overlooked and most of them are seen as a destabilizing factor in the countries in which minorities live. Without overcoming prejudices and differences of the past, the Western Balkans could not continue their independent development. Democratization of the Western Balkans means that improving the peace and coexistence should not be viewed in the past, but in the current process of cooperation. The EU integration process of Western Balkan countries and the democratization process of the region will have to be implemented in the future if the political elites in Western Balkan countries wish to achieve security, stability and prosperity of their societies.

  17. Some traces of interlinguistic contacts in the central Balkan mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loma Aleksandar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The etymology of three Balkan tree names, S.-Cr. munika ‘Pinus leucodermis' molika ‘Pinus peuce' and omorika ‘Picea omorika' is discussed. The latter is supposed to go back, together with Bulg. morika ‘spruce', to Slavic *mъxorъ ‘fringe' describing here the hanging branches of spruce. The Bosnian pine munika, munjika growing in high and rocky places exposed to the thunder, the relation to S.-Cr. munja < Common Slavic *mъlnja seems probable, and molika may be explained as a re-borrowing from Alb. molikë traceable to the same Slavic prototype *mъlnika.

  18. Probabilistic seismic hazard maps for the North Balkan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. W. Musson

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available A set of seismic hazard maps, expressed as horizontal peak ground acceleration, have been computed for a large area of Central and Eastern Europe covering the North Balkan area (Former Yugoslavia, Hungary, Romania. These are based on: a a compound earthquake catalogue for the region; b a seismic source model of 50 zones compiled on the basis of tectonic divisions and seismicity, and c a probabilistic methodology using stochastic (Monte Carlo modelling. It is found that the highest hazard in the region comes from intermediate focus earthquakes occurring in the Vrancea seismic zone; here the hazard exceeds 0.4 g at return periods of 475 years. Special account has been taken of the directional nature of attenuation from this source.

  19. 76 FR 37239 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect To the Western Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... engaged in, or assisting, sponsoring, or supporting (i) extremist violence in the Republic of Macedonia... persons threatening the peace and international stabilization efforts in the Western Balkans continue to...

  20. 77 FR 37993 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ..., or assisting, sponsoring, or supporting (i) extremist violence in the Republic of Macedonia and... threatening the peace and international stabilization efforts in the Western Balkans continue to pose an...

  1. 75 FR 32843 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... engaged in, or assisting, sponsoring, or supporting (i) extremist violence in the Republic of Macedonia... persons threatening the peace and international stabilization efforts in the Western Balkans continue to...

  2. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... persons engaged in, or assisting, sponsoring, or supporting (i) extremist violence in the Republic of... persons threatening the peace and international stabilization efforts in the Western Balkans continue to...

  3. ASSESSING RUSSIAN IMPACT ON THE WESTERN BALKAN COUNTRIES’ EU ACCESSION: CASES OF CROATIA AND SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Zoric

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The matter of EU enlargement to the Western Balkans has become overshadowed by pressing issues such as Brexit, the rise of the radical right and international terrorism. Notwithstanding the pressure to address these issues accordingly, increasing tensions and ethnic outbursts across the Western Balkan region are reason enough for the European Union to devote significant attention to accession talks. This article addresses the Western Balkan countries’ Europeanization process with consideration of Russia as an external actor. By assessing the candidate countries’ progress amid EU negotiations, the article suggests that the countries’ bilateral ties with Russia have an impact on the Europeanization process which is particularly visible in Chapter 31 Foreign, security, and defense policy of the acquis communautaire. The broader geopolitical framework that comprises the multifaceted relationship between the EU and Russia is crucial for understanding the dynamics of EU-Western Balkans-Russia triangle.

  4. The social, political and economic changes in the Western Balkans: Managing diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sela Ylber

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a retrospective of the events in the Balkans in the last 20 years. Hence, it indicates the problems, the progress and the challenges in terms of respecting and promoting diversity. The Western Balkans has always been a very interesting region with many challenges during different historical periods. If we take into consideration all the differences and diversities in this region, then this shouldn’t strike us as surprising. During history the Balkan region has always been a crossroads of many events, conflicts, changes and destructive occurrences. In order to understand the connection between ethnic and the religious diversity, as well as the future of the Western Balkan countries in terms of Euro-Atlantic integration, we need to provide some information about the political, economic and social changes in these countries during the past, especially in the last two decades.

  5. Preventing Balkan Conflict: The Role of Euroatlantic Institutions. Strategic Forum, Number 226, April 2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simon, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Despite 15 years of international peacekeeping and security assistance, the West Balkans are still beset with major security challenges that will severely test the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO...

  6. Internet Governance 2.0.1.4: The internet balkanization fragmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Sérgio

    2014-01-01

    The text addresses some of the definitions and origins of the term "Internet Balkanization." Drawing upon U.S. constitutional law and interstate commerce regulations, it argues that the term also carries strong connotations on the realms of jurisdiction and commerce. The text adds examples of how this effect affects the businesses of creative companies that are exploring innovative markets in the United States, and suggests that the term "Internet Balkanization" should not be used in the cont...

  7. Report on EU conflict prevention and peacebuilding in the Horn of Africa and Western Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Annemarie, Peen Rodt; Tvilling, Johannes; Zartsdahl, Peter Horne

    Deliverable 5.1 is a report on EU conflict prevention and peacebuilding in the Horn of Africa and the Western Balkans. It appraises the EU’s Common Security and Defence Policy missions individually within and comparatively across both regions.......Deliverable 5.1 is a report on EU conflict prevention and peacebuilding in the Horn of Africa and the Western Balkans. It appraises the EU’s Common Security and Defence Policy missions individually within and comparatively across both regions....

  8. Regional Approach to Luxury Market Segmentation: The Case Of Western Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Melika Husic-Mehmedovic; Emir Agic

    2015-01-01

    Nature of the luxury brand requires limited market in order to maintain exclusivity. Individual countries in the Western Balkans are not lucrative per se, therefore, regional segmentation is needed in the case of luxury brands. Countries of Western Balkan, i.e. Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia are all post-socialist, post-war countries currently going through major transitions. Â Rather small markets are yet to be established in its final form politically, economically, so...

  9. What Strategy Should Bulgaria Pursue to Track and Disrupt Terror Networks in the Balkans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    GDP gross domestic product GIA Armed Islamic Group of Algeria GTD Global Terrorist Database IRA Irish Republican Army KLA Kosovo Liberation...number of terror activities compared with other Balkan countries. The hot 156. Global Terrorism Database, http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/. 29...given that the Balkans have been typically used as a “ spring board” for jihadists to venture into other countries to stage operations (e.g

  10. Geo-Regional Security and Transformation After the Balkan's Wars and Kosova Independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Gjon Boriqi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During the '90-ies the wars in the former territories of what was called Yugoslavia marked the end of a century plenty of wars and local armed conflicts. More than 140 million people died because of wars in the XX century. The war of Kosova was the last one in that century. The beginning of the XXI century stressed the necessity for a new way of thinking nationally, regionally and globally. The Balkans were often considered as a gun powder territory. All the Balkans states, someone more and someone less, have problems with each other. History was and remained very passionate within the Balkan countries. The case of Kosova is possibly the most sensitive in all this framework. After the proclamation of independence on February 17 2008, the concerns were high within the region and a new question was questioned: would the map of the Balkan peninsula change again to form another "Kosovo"? This article would give some details about the geopolitical situation in the Balkans focusing on Kosova and would try to establish e new way of making politics and diplomacy though deterrence and not offence. We will try to overpass history but without neglecting it, but by learning from its mistakes in order to bring a better Peace-Building aspect for the Balkan region.

  11. Balkans as a cultural symbol in the Serbian music of the first half of the twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Biljana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Focus on the internalization of Western images in the Balkans has special significance in researching Serbian art. The functioning of Balkanism as it overlapped and intersected with Orientalism is indicated in the text by an examination of the cases of Petar Konjović, Miloje Milojević and Josip Slavenski, the three significant composers working in Serbia during the first half of the twentieth century. Their modernistic projects present different metaphors of the Balkans. Nevertheless each of them is marked by desire to change the Balkan image into a 'positive' one and thus stands as a special voice for Serbian and regional placing in European competition for musical spaces.

  12. Balkan Wars in Social Studies and History Course Books Instructed at Primary and Secondary Education between 1997 and 2012 Years

    OpenAIRE

    KÖSE, Meliha

    2014-01-01

    1912-1913 Balkan Wars ended with important social, economical, cultural and political results for both Southeast Europe and Ottoman Empire. It is a significant turning point for the history of Turkey as well as World History. Balkan Wars had important effects on from dawn of Modern Turkey to starting of national struggle war and coming fore of national identity wars. That’s why It is a point to be emphasized how Balkan Wars are taught in both Turkish and Balkan history books. Primary educatio...

  13. THE CULTURE OF COEXISTENCE AND PERCEPTION OF THE OTHER IN THE WESTERN BALKANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Akova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the 550 year Ottoman rule over the Balkan lands, where even today internal dynamics threaten peace and justice, how and through what means the Ottoman Empire achieved consistency, security and peace is a question to which a number of political scientists, sociologists, communication scientists and history researchers have sought an answer. The most interesting point of the question is that the peoples of the Balkans, a living museum comprising a number of different ethnic groups and religious beliefs, have reached the point where the culture of coexistence has been internalised and dynamics have moved from the conflict of identities to cultural integration. The Balkans are a bridge to the East from Europe and indeed to the West from Turkey, incorporating a patchwork political and cultural geography, the geopolitical location and a richness of culture and civilization, being one of the areas attracting the attention of researchers from different disciplines and capturing the imagination of the peoples of the world throughout history. Balkan studies are almost as difficult as climbing the peaks in the areas and meaningful answers cannot be reached by defining the area on a single parameter such as language, culture or traditions, while the phenomenon of the other can also be observed within the culture of coexistence in this intricate and significant location. Different ethnic groups with different cultures, such as the Southern Slavs (Bosniaks, Montenegrans, Serbs, Croats and Slovenes as well as Turks, Albanians, Bulgarians, Balkan Jews, Balkan Romany and Wallachians (Romanians and Greeks. Although these peoples may have different religious beliefs, in the ethnically rich Balkan region, religion, language, political and cultural differences are vital in the formation of a mosaic, making the discourse of coexistence possible and creating common values and loyalties, breaking down differences. The Serbian and Montenegrin peoples

  14. The Present Situation and the Future Perspectives of Foreign Direct Investment in Balkan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjan Qefalia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has witnessed increased globalization of the world economy as result of technological changes, trade liberalization and privatization policies. Balkan countries as developing nations are in the realization process of the globalization changes of the world economy. Being in the process for entry into the EU, many changes are being done to integrate with the global economic trends. The research has shown that after the fall of communism in the 1990s the Balkan Region brought significant political and economic changes. The change in attitude led to a removal of direct blockage for FDI. As a result, continued deregulation and privatization has been widespread. However, history of FDI is relatively short for Balkan Region in comparison with other countries. The economy opened up capital inflows only at the beginning of 1990s, and is still showing low shares in the total of Central and Eastern European flow. Despite Balkans competitive advantage due to its geographical location and its resources, it is still far from other Central European countries in achieving the same level of FDI. This situation came as a result of: political instability, low intraregional trade, the small size of national markets, huge institutional corruption and weak judiciary system. Among the more successful Balkan recipients of FDI has been Bulgaria and Romania, while Greece has been a major source of FDI for the transition economies of the Balkan region. Greek investment is driven in part by the availability of low cost labor in the nearby transition economies. The focus of this article is to analyze and evaluate the current performance of FDI in Balkan Region and how the governments can improve this performance.

  15. Women in migration: Some notes from the west Balkan route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivnik Tina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender is often overlooked, but important factor in research on migration. Women enter into migration experience as active individuals, but also encounter different difficulties than men do. Although it cannot be claimed that these differences are experienced by all women in the same way, we can conclude that they are the consequences of the gendered reality we live in. The article is discussing the gender specific experiences that female migrants encounter on their travel. It focuses on different forms of violence they are facing and on experiences of pregnant women. Furthermore, it deals with the legislation concerning refugees and tries to show how this legislation indirectly creates threats to women migrants while at the same time it is depriving them of power and victimizes them. It is based on understanding the legislature as man-centred, which means that it is mainly shaped by experiences of men while often not examining the specific experiences and needs of women. The data for the interpretations is non-structured and semi-structured interviews collected during field work in three refugee centers in Serbia. The interviews were mostly focused on experiences of women while traveling on the West Balkan route. They were further analyzed with anthropological and related literature.

  16. Trafficking and Syrian Refugee Smuggling: Evidence from the Balkan Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Mandic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As of March 2016, 4.8 million Syrian refugees were scattered in two dozen countries by the civil war. Refugee smuggling has been a major catalyst of human trafficking in the Middle East and Europe migrant crises. Data on the extent to which smuggling devolved into trafficking in this refugee wave is, however, scarce. This article investigates how Syrian refugees interact with smugglers, shedding light on how human smuggling and human trafficking interrelated on the Balkan Route. I rely on original evidence from in-depth interviews (n = 123 and surveys (n = 100 with Syrian refugees in Jordan, Turkey, Greece, Serbia, and Germany; as well as ethnographic observations in thirty-five refugee camps or other sites in these countries. I argue that most smugglers functioned as guides, informants, and allies in understudied ways—thus refugee perceptions diverge dramatically from government policy assumptions. I conclude with a recommendation for a targeted advice policy that would acknowledge the reality of migrant-smuggler relations, and more effectively curb trafficking instead of endangering refugees.

  17. Understanding the motives for food choice in Western Balkan Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milošević, Jasna; Žeželj, Iris; Gorton, Matthew; Barjolle, Dominique

    2012-02-01

    Substantial empirical evidence exists regarding the importance of different factors underlying food choice in Western Europe. However, research results on eating habits and food choice in the Western Balkan Countries (WBCs) remain scarce. A Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), an instrument that measures the reported importance of nine factors underlying food choice, was administered to a representative sample of 3085 adult respondents in six WBCs. The most important factors reported are sensory appeal, purchase convenience, and health and natural content; the least important are ethical concern and familiarity. The ranking of food choice motives across WBCs was strikingly similar. Factor analysis revealed eight factors compared to nine in the original FCQ model: health and natural content scales loaded onto one factor as did familiarity and ethical concern; the convenience scale items generated two factors, one related to purchase convenience and the other to preparation convenience. Groups of consumers with similar motivational profiles were identified using cluster analysis. Each cluster has distinct food purchasing behavior and socio-economic characteristics, for which appropriate public health communication messages can be drawn. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Geoculture world system, access to Balkan and Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilirjan Çukaj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available If culture as a term covers a broad range of relations and social behavior, mutually implicated in influential and economic cycles of the global system, then it becomes wordy geoculture. Geoculture system is used as a term by Wallerstein (2004 who had treated it as a concept largely unused and under a theory of geoculture which plays an important role in the present world system. The theses that is presented in this article is that the global trajectory in the Balkan region is increasing from culture and that, it is imperative to establish a strategic culture direction and management, which, in turn, should be formed not only as a principal need, but also as an obligation of social state institutions to find the viable solutions of the global market policy, economy and culture. And in response to the challenging question the culture of integration becomes imperative now facing nationalism. Albania will have to manage perceptions, fears and realities arising from the above mentioned phenomenon, to establish a balance between the “inside” and “outside” views. In this sense main challenge of Albania is the management of cultural globalization to get the most of opportunities despite the risk of losing ground globally

  19. Apprehensive-epistemic Da-Constructions in Balkan Slavic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liljana Mitkovska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The research in this paper is focused on the apprehensive function of the particles da ne in Macedonian and da ne bi in Bulgarian as part of South Slavic subjunctive da-constructions. These clusters of particles are considered to be markers of a wider apprehensive-epistemic category. They are assumed to have undergone grammaticalization due to their morphosyntactic and prosodic unity. Even though there may be some contextual differences, these particles in both Balkan Slavic languages share a common semantic component: an undesirable “fear-causing” possibility of some potential situation. In terms of distribution, they may occur in both dependent and main clauses expressing related, gradient apprehensive-epistemic meanings. The goal of the paper is to categorize the apprehensive-epistemic types, determine their specific structural and functional properties, and establish the conceptual links between them. The paper takes a functional approach to the analysis of the apprehensive-epistemic semantic category, thus the categorization of its subtypes is determined on the basis of their functions in context. The analysis of the collected examples instantiating these functions testifies to an existing gradience within this category in both dependent and independent use. The conclusions of the paper have typological relevance in view of the fact that they may contribute to a better understanding of this crosslinguistic category from both semantic and grammatical perspective.

  20. Western Balkan States and the European Union Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelina Maliqi (Ramolli

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available For half a century, European Union-(EU has pursued ever-deeper integration while taking in new members. It’s marked as an important step in relationship deepening between EU and Western Balkans-(WBs where Albania is part of. In 2003, EU declared that the future of WBs is within EU. Initially it adopted a generous strategy that linked the timetable for accession to the pace of reform in WBs. The declaration contained a conditional promise; EU would consider WBs for membership only if they reached EU standards. The EU was motivated by usual economic considerations connected to enlargement and a desire to increase regional stability. The enlargement process regarding Albania will bring several reforms on different fields. Our country will benefit from a share of multibeneficiary funds for competitiveness, SMEs, energy efficiency and banking sector regulation. This presentation handles out these main issues: EU policy and the enlargement process regarding Albania inspecting the way and progress done up to now by our country, the main features of our national EUcoordination system, concluding in a SWOT Analysis of EU-coordination system in Albania. Eventually, I believe that Albania being part of WBs is at one time an opportunity and a challenge for the future of EU.

  1. Patterns of national identity development among the Balkan orthodox Christians during the nineteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovich Slobodan G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the development of national identities among Balkan Orthodox Christians from the 1780s to 1914. It points to pre-modern political subsystems in which many Balkan Orthodox peasants lived in the Ottoman Empire at the beginning of the nineteenth century. The Serbian and Greek uprisings/revolutions are analyzed in the context of the intellectual climate of the Enlightenment. Various modes of penetration of the ideas of the Age of Revolution are analyzed as well as the ways in which new concepts influenced proto-national identities of Serbs and Romans/Greeks. The author accepts Hobsbawm’s concept of proto-national identities and identifies their ethno-religious identity as the main element of Balkan Christian Orthodox proto-nations. The role of the Orthodox Church in the formation of ethno-religious proto-national identity and in its development into national identity during the nineteenth century is analyzed in the cases of Serbs, Romans/ Greeks, Vlachs/Romanians and Bulgarians. Three of the four Balkan national movements fully developed their respective national identities through their own ethnic states, and the fourth (Bulgarian developed partially through its ethnic state. All four analyzed identities reached the stage of mass nationalism by the time of the Balkan Wars. By the beginning of the twentieth century, only Macedonian Slavs kept their proto-national ethno-religious identity to a substantial degree. Various analyzed patterns indicate that nascent national identities coexisted with fluid and shifting protonational identities within the same religious background. Occasional supremacy of social over ethnic identities has also been identified. Ethnification of the Orthodox Church, in the period 1831-1872, is viewed as very important for the development of national movements of Balkan Orthodox Christians. A new three-stage model of national identity development among Balkan Orthodox Christians has been proposed. It is

  2. A Comparison of Stereotypes of German and Turkish Students towards Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürcan Ültanır

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective emotional thoughts like attitudes, stereotyped judgments and preconceptions are dependent on both collective and individual experiences. Experiences like reading an article or watching a movie that is based on a context determined by the curriculum might cause individual or collective discrimination towards different ethnic or cultural groups among students in a country. This study aims to explore the difference between two nations which are the Turkish nation that has many cultural and political bonds with Balkans in the history and the German nation, which is a nation that has little or no bonds with the Balkans. The main aim of the study is to figure out if the stereotypes towards Balkans can change according to the country in which an individual has grown up. MANOVA was used to figure out the difference between two capitals with regard to stereotypes towards Balkans. Findings of the study indicated that negative stereotype scores of students significantly changed according to the country in which students grew up, whereas no significant difference was found for positive stereotype scores. Moreover, it was found that Turkish students have more negative stereotypes towards Balkans than German students

  3. BALKAN TARİHİ KARŞISINDA YAHYA KEMAL BEYATLI'NIN ŞİİRİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan TOPDEMİR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Poets, writers, artists, music lovers, artists, nation, nation, state, and future carry the state makes. Works of national and moral values of society form. Poets of the founders of the national identity, and spiritual architects. Beyatlı Yahya Kemal, the most important is a cornerstone of our identity. Turks in the Balkans to develop and spread of civilization and culture is based on deep slate. Turks in the Balkans, the struggles, victories, defeats, is treated to a wide range of social relations literature. Beyatlı poets of the birth of Yahya Kemal Balkan cities Skopje and the lyrical poems dealt with the moral and material direction. The poet spent his childhood and youth years in Skopje and the Balkans, sorrows, joys, aspirations takes a sensitive manner. Yahya Kemal, established Turkish architecture, with different perspectives on the history of the Balkan cities in Turkey by telling us yesterday, far from the shaft, and spiritual values, recalling the necessity to determine whether we're having our values gives the message. Yahya Kemal Balkan cities, especially focusing on the poetry of the social, cultural, and lyrical themes literature, Balkans brought the rich archive. Yahya Kemal and the Balkans drawing the attention of new generations, our history, our civilization in poetry in a different way to learn by.

  4. Distribution of uranium and some selected trace metals in human scalp hair from Balkans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zunic, Z. S.; Tokonami, S.; Mishra, S.; Arae, H.; Kritsananuwat, R.; Sahoo, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    The possible consequences of the use of depleted uranium (DU) used in Balkan conflicts in 1995 and 1999 for the people and the environment of this reason need attention. The heavy metal content in human hair may serve as a good indicator of dietary, environmental and occupational exposures to the metal compounds. The present work summarises the distribution of uranium and some selected trace metals such as Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd and Cs in the scalp hair of inhabitants from Balkans exposed to DU directly and indirectly, i.e. Han Pijesak, Bratoselce and Gornja Stubla areas. Except U and Cs, all other metals were compared with the worldwide reported values of occupationally unexposed persons. Uranium concentrations show a wide variation ranging from 0.9±0.05 to 449±12 mg kg -1 . Although hair samples were collected from Balkan conflict zones, uranium isotopic measurement ( 235 U/ 238 U) shows a natural origin rather than DU. (authors)

  5. Collaborative investigations on thoron and radon in some rural communities of Balkans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zunic, Z. S.; Celikovic, I.; Tokonami, S.; Ishikawa, T.; Ujic, P.; Onischenko, A.; Zhukovsky, M.; Milic, G.; Jakupi, B.; Cuknic, O.; Veselinovic, N.; Fujimoto, K.; Sahoo, S. K.; Yarmoshenko, I.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the results of the first-field use in the Balkans, i.e. Serbia and Republic of Srpska (Bosnia and Herzegovina), of a passive polycarbonate Mark II type and poli-allyl-diglycol carbonate (Cr-39) alpha track detectors sensitive to thoron as well as to radon. Both types of solid state nuclear track detectors were designed and supplied by National Inst. of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba (Japan). The commercial names for these detectors which all have been field tested in Balkan rural communities are known as: UFO and RADUET passive discriminative radon/thoron detectors. No database of thoron and thoron progeny concentrations in dwellings in Serbia or Balkans region exist, and as a result, the level of exposure of the Serbian population to thoron and its progeny is unknown so far. (authors)

  6. Paul Garde, Les Balkans, héritages et évolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaïs Krawczykowska

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Les Balkans, ce territoire montagneux (balkan signifiant « Montagne » en turc aussi appelé « Europe du sud », est plus que jamais au cœur de l'actualité. Or il semblerait que la géographie soit un paramètre bien insuffisant à sa définition. Menaçante pour les uns, prometteuse pour les autres, l'ex-Yougoslavie laisse apparaître de nombreux enjeux stratégiques, aussi bien politiques qu'économiques ou encore historiques. Ces dernières années ont remis les pays des Balkans sur le devant de la sc...

  7. Turkey Entering the European Union Through the Balkan Doors: in the Style of a Great Power?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedrudin Brljavac

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Confronting an increasing EU opposition from a number of influential member states to its membership the AKP government adopted a multilateral approach to its foreign policy making resulting in dynamic economic and diplomatic policies with the countries from Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Balkans region. In this article we analyzed the effects and consequences of a paradigmatic shift in Turkish foreign policy in the Western Balkans in relation to the country's EU membership prospects. Through its pro-active economic and diplomatic initiatives in the region Turkey has been proving itself as indispensable country for the European Union membership. Thus, if the Turkish government concentrates more on solving its internal problems and continues its pro-active diplomacy in Western Balkans, among other regions, it could become not only a regional but also a global power.

  8. Distribution of uranium and some selected trace metals in human scalp hair from Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunic, Z S; Tokonami, S; Mishra, S; Arae, H; Kritsananuwat, R; Sahoo, S K

    2012-11-01

    The possible consequences of the use of depleted uranium (DU) used in Balkan conflicts in 1995 and 1999 for the people and the environment of this reason need attention. The heavy metal content in human hair may serve as a good indicator of dietary, environmental and occupational exposures to the metal compounds. The present work summarises the distribution of uranium and some selected trace metals such as Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd and Cs in the scalp hair of inhabitants from Balkans exposed to DU directly and indirectly, i.e. Han Pijesak, Bratoselce and Gornja Stubla areas. Except U and Cs, all other metals were compared with the worldwide reported values of occupationally unexposed persons. Uranium concentrations show a wide variation ranging from 0.9 ± 0.05 to 449 ± 12 µg kg(-1). Although hair samples were collected from Balkan conflict zones, uranium isotopic measurement ((235)U/(238)U) shows a natural origin rather than DU.

  9. [Neuroethics and bioethics--implications of Balkanization controversy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Chiaki

    2009-01-01

    There have been considerable disputes the positioning of neuroethics as a new field since its emergence in 2002. It is the novelty of the neuroethical issues and the necessity for updated moral approaches to them that leading exponents of neuroethics have emphasized; advances in neurosciences have created an entirely new field of moral inquiries that the conventional bioethics had never noticed. Futher, as neuroethics embraces the subdivision of ethics in neuroscience, it should take precedence over bioethics, which depends on the fundamental moral concepts without questioning their bases. Many bioethicists have squarely opposed these insistences and thereby detected the claim of neuroethics exceptionalism: the asserted newness of issues comes mainly from the ignorance of exponents of this new field regarding accumulated bioethical inquiries, so that the overlapping concerns between bioethics and neuroethics are passed on to the future by them. Moreover, bioethicists point out that the recent tendency of Balkanization in the field of bioethics could endanger the integrity of moral investigations. Subfields of bioethics, such as geneethics, neuroethics, nanoethics and so on, originate consecutively, entail wastage of valuable time and money, and increase the risk of fragmentizing moral considerations in an inconsistent way. By reviewing this controversy between neuroethics and bioethics, I argue that the relevant scientific investigations and technologies, which have appeared to promote the proliferation of bioethical sub-disciplines to date, are beginning to converge into 1 complex that demands not the division into subspecialities but the novel integration of bioethical inquiries: it is time to attempt the unification of bioethical applied ethics for moral considerations regarding nano-bio-info-cogno convergent technologies.

  10. STUDY OF Salmo GENUS (PISCES, SALMONIDAE ON THE BALKAN PENINSULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo Georgijev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Author disputes the position of the authors K o t t e l a t (1997 and K o t t e l a t & F r e y h o f (2007 about the existence of several species belonging to the Salmo genus in some parts of Balkan Peninsula: Salmo aphelios Kottelat, 1997; Salmo balcanicus (Karaman, 1927; Salmo farioides (Karaman, 1938; Salmo labrax Pallas, 1814; Salmo letnica (Karaman, 1924; Salmo lumi Poljakov, Filipi & Basho, 1958; Salmo macedonicus (Karaman, 1924; Salmo montenigrinus (Karaman, 1933; Salmo pelagonicus Karaman, 1938; Salmo peristericus Karaman, 1938; Salmo taleri (Karaman, 1932. Majority of those species were described by dr. Stanko Karaman, the author who is, regarding the number of described species of European freshwater fishes, on the second place, just behind Carl Linnaeus. It is hardly believable that four trout species were formed in a small and oligotrophic microhabitat like Ohrid Lake, or three species in the Vardar River, knowing that the factor of geographic isolation doesn’t exist in either of the habitats. The author’s position is that all of these species are actually just types of one, highly plastic regarding the micro ecological conditions and phenotypic manifestations, species: Salmo trutta (Linnaeus, 1785. The author supports his opinion by his own results, as well the results of other scientists, obtained through studies of ecology and taxonomy of the brown trout in fluent and still water microhabitats. Also the author suggests that it is unacceptable to apply the terminology immanent to the anthropogenic factor in a sphere of another scientific area where such factor doesn't exist (agronomy-race and biology-natural selection.

  11. Prosecutorial councils and guarantees of prosecutors autonomy in Western Balkans states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matić-Bošković Marina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available More than five years ago judicial and prosecutorial councils were established in the Western Balkans countries. Newly established institutions took over jurisdiction related to the election, promotion and dismissal of public prosecutors in line with the international standards of judicial independence. It is necessary to assess whether the prosecutorial councils fulfilled professional public expectations. In the paper author analysed European standards and good practices of prosecutorial councils' regulations, as well as comparative law models in Western Balkans countries and their compliance with standards.

  12. The status of Albanian in relation to the other Balkan languages

    OpenAIRE

    Bardh Rugova

    2015-01-01

    The status of Albanian in relation to the other Balkan languages Albanian has been in contact with other languages almost in all areas in which it is spoken, whereas the relationship with each of them differs from place to place. This study aims at describing the status of Albanian depending on its place of use and on the contacts it has with other Balkan languages.   Status języka albańskiego w porównaniu z innymi językami bałkańskimi Język albański pozostaje w stałym kontakcie ...

  13. Radicalisation of Young Adults in the Balkan States: Counter-Measures, Healthcare Provision, and Community Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Richardson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing the rise of extremism remains a priority for governments worldwide. Motives behind joining an extremist organisation are complex and often unique to the individual, making prevention strategies difficult to design and implement. This article explores several facets of this complex problem, particularly in relation to young adults, including links between extremism, criminality and incarceration, mental health, socioeconomic status and the rise of radicalisation ‘hotspots’ in Muslim majority states in the Western Balkans, where lack of government leadership allows extremist organisations to flourish. Potential counter radicalisation measures are also discussed in various contexts, including healthcare systems, the community, internationally and within the Balkan region.

  14. THE MYSTERIOUS WORLD OF LORD BYRON’S “THE GIAOUR”: BALKANS

    OpenAIRE

    OKUMUŞ, Salih; KRASNIQI, Seniha

    2016-01-01

    Lord Byron was one of many English writers who chose the East as the subject of their writings. However, his uniqueness stands in truly experiencing the region. Lord Byron, in his Grand Tour through Portugal, Spain, Malta, Albania and Greece, found a non-drying source for his writings. Above all, Balkan was the place where his muse dwelled. Sources that Balkan offered fascinated him and made him become a bridge between The East and the West. This study aims to reveal Byron’s depiction of this...

  15. Penser les Balkans aujourd'hui : l’orientalisme, le balkanisme, et la question de la modernité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Milisavljević

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at investigating the positions of the Balkans in ourcontemporary world in its continuous change – for instance the rapidEuropeanization for the protection of a common inheritance of Balkancountries. Moreover, this historical heritage is sometimes presented as a simple burden that should be overcome: the name Balkan has negative connotations, being associated with violence or primitivism. The criticism of this type of derogatory discourse called « Balkanism » is built on the deconstruction of Orientalism as initiated in the 70’s by Edward Said. In this paper, we will analyze the various types of possible objections to this Balkan approach (the absence of a colonial past, the non-existence of a « Balkan » academic tradition, the Balkan preciseness as opposed to the Oriental vagueness, as well as their not purely « oriental », yet undetermined character. Furthermore I will present the arguments in favour of another way of interpreting the Balkans which consists in the understanding of thenarrower relation between European modernity and history.

  16. Petrographic and mineral characterization of Balkan coals and their solid waste products from coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yossifova, M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is part of a complex petrographic, mineralogical and chemical investigation on Balkan bituminous coals and their solid waste products from coal preparation. The petrographic and phase-mineralogical composition in ten composite samples and four water extracts have been studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. 4 refs., 4 tabs

  17. Project for study of seismic-hydrogeological phenomena in Balkan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matova, M.; Frangov, G.; Ivanov, P.

    2007-01-01

    The International Project of UNESCO - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences has the title 'Seismic - hydrogeological vulnerability of the geoenvironment and the population in the Balkan area'. The Project has a responsible task to make a study of the seismic-hydrogeological phenomena in seven Balkan countries. The study includes the collection of information for these phenomena, its analysis, documentation and comparison. The primary information will contribute also to solving several transboundary problems in the area. The obtained data will be applied for the creation of a database about the studied seismic-hydrogeological phenomena. It will be used for the primary mapping of established seismic-hydrogeological manifestations and supposed ones. On the basis of the obtained information we will go to the assessment of the seismic-hydrogeological vulnerability of the geological environment and the population in the investigated territories. The Project investigations could be used also for several recommendations related to the reduction of negative effects of the seismic-hydrogeological phenomena in seven Balkan countries. The Balkan experts will try to propose also more rational exploration of the rare positive effects of the seismic-hydrogeological manifestations. (authors)

  18. About the Terms "Yugoslavia" “Balkanization” and “Third Balkan War”

    OpenAIRE

    Marolov, Dejan; Stojanovski, Strasko

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the terms “Yugoslavia”, “Balkanization” and “Third Balkan War” in correlation with the Yugoslav wars and their character. The general aim of the paper is to make an attempt to analyze and explain these terms in historical and present patterns and see if they are applicable in the former Yugoslavia context.

  19. Comparing post-deployment mental health services utilization in soldiers deployed to Balkan, Iraq and Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T; Sadowa Vedtofte, M; Nordentoft, M

    2017-01-01

    of psychotropics. RESULTS: Utilizing of psychiatric outpatient services and psychotropics was significantly higher in first-time deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan compared with deployed to Balkan. However, the rate of postdeployment admission to psychiatric hospital did not differ between missions. Postdeployment...

  20. Distribution and diversity of Arctic-Alpine species in the Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Vladimir; Vukojicic, Snezana; Sinzar-Sekulic, Jasmina

    2009-01-01

    The distributions of 77 Arctic-Alpine species in the Balkans are mapped and the centers of their richness and diversity presented. Within the Dinaric Alps these are Mts Vranica, Durmitor, and Prokletije; in the Scardo-Pindhic mountains, Šarplanina-Rudoka-Korab form a continuous chain; in the Rhod......The distributions of 77 Arctic-Alpine species in the Balkans are mapped and the centers of their richness and diversity presented. Within the Dinaric Alps these are Mts Vranica, Durmitor, and Prokletije; in the Scardo-Pindhic mountains, Šarplanina-Rudoka-Korab form a continuous chain......; in the Rhodope-Rila mountain system there are Mts Vitoša, Rila, and Pirin; while in the Balkan mountain system there are the West and Central part of Stara planina. A comparison of floristic richness and distribution of Arctic-Alpine flora in relation to altitude, geographical location, and geological substrate...... is made. Correlations between floristic richness and geographical distance of the Balkan mountains from the two main centers of Arctic-Alpine flora in Central Europe are also provided....

  1. Agenda-Setting for VET Policy in the Western Balkans: Employability versus Social Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Will; Pagliarello, Marina Cino

    2016-01-01

    For the last decade, the Western Balkan countries have sought to modernise their vocational education and training (VET) systems, adapting them to the needs of their emerging market economies. Within the framework of the EU accession process, the policy agenda for VET policies has been strongly influenced by a range of international and domestic…

  2. Competitiveness, Trade with the EU and Labour Markets: Challenges for the Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botrić Valerija

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the relationship between exporting and the labour markets of the Western Balkan economies within a macroeconomic and microeconomic framework. Within the macroeconomic framework we investigate the Western Balkan countries’ evolution of the bilateral intra-industry trade share with European Monetary Union members and compare this with the differences in bilateral unit labour cost dynamics. The microeconomic analysis rests on enterprise-level cross section data collected during the crisis period and investigates whether exporters help to create additional jobs in the region in comparison to entrepreneurs oriented towards national market. The results show that trade patterns between Western Balkan economies and EMU trading partners did not exhibit any significant changes in trend. On the other hand, it seems that during the recession period most Western Balkan economies adjusted their unit labour costs, probably in order to boost competitiveness. Microeconomic analysis revealed that, although there are some positive differences between exporters and non-exporters, exporters do not create additional employment.

  3. Influence of climatic changes on pollution levels in the Balkan Peninsula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zlatev, Z.; Georgiev, K.; Dimov, I.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to study the influence of future climatic changes on some high pollution levels that can cause damages on plants, animals and human beings. The particular area of interest is the Balkan Peninsula. Four important quantities have been selected: (a) annual concentrations, (b...

  4. Modelling Factors of Students' Work in Western Balkan Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Mirko; Kresoja, Milena

    2018-01-01

    The positive side of employment during studies is the increase of net investments in human capital. The main objective of this paper is to discover factors influencing the work of students in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro and to compare students' employment in these three Western Balkan countries. Quantitative analysis based on…

  5. A new GPS velocity field in the south-western Balkans: insights for continental dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, N.; Avallone, A.; Duni, L.; Ganas, A.; Georgiev, I.; Jouanne, F.; Koci, R.; Kuka, N.; Metois, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Balkans peninsula is an area of active distributed deformation located at the southern boundary of the Eurasian plate. Relatively low strain rates and logistical reasons have so far limited the characterization and definition of the active tectonics and crustal kinematics. The increasing number of GNSS stations belonging to national networks deployed for scientific and cadastral purposes, now provides the opportunity to improve the knowledge of the crustal kinematics in this area and to define a cross-national velocity field that illuminates the active tectonic deformation. In this work we homogeneously processed the data from the south western Balkans and neighbouring regions using available rinex files from scientific and cadastral networks (ALBPOS, EUREF, HemusNET, ITALPOS, KOPOS, MAKPOS, METRICA, NETGEO, RING, TGREF). In order to analyze and interpret station velocities relative to the Eurasia plate and to reduce the common mode signal, we updated the Eurasian terrestrial reference frame described in Métois et al. 2015. Starting from this dataset we present a new GPS velocity field covering the south western part of the Balkan Peninsula. Using this new velocity field, we derive the strain rate tensor to analyze the regional style of the deformation. Our results (1) improve the picture of the general southward flow of the crust characterizing the south western Balkans behind the contractional belt at the boundary with Adriatic and (2) provide new key elements for the understanding of continental dynamics in this part of the Eurasian plate boundary.

  6. International Trends in Health Science Librarianship Part 20: The Balkan States (Serbia and Slovenia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivkovic, Ana; Rožić, Anamarija; Turk, Nana

    2016-12-01

    This is the 20th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is the Balkan region (Serbia and Slovenia). The next regular feature will look at Russia and the Ukraine. JM. © 2016 Health Libraries Group.

  7. Genetic structure and demographic history of brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) populations from the southern Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apostolidis, A.P.; Madeira, M.J.; Hansen, Michael Møller

    2008-01-01

    1. The present study was designed to characterize the genetic structure of brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations from the southern Balkans and to assess the spread of non-native strains and their introgression into native trout gene pools. We analysed polymorphism at nine microsatellite loci in ...

  8. Mapping the potential for decentralized energy generation based on RES in Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Daniel R.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the countries of the Western Balkans are mostly electrified, there are still regions which do not have access to the electricity network or where the network capacity is insufficient. For the most part such areas are under special care of the state (i. e. underdeveloped, devastated by war, depopulated, on islands or in mountainous regions. Since the decentralized energy generation covers a broad range of technologies, including many renewable energy technologies that provide small-scale power at sites close to the users, such concept could be of interest for these locations. This paper identifies the areas in Western Balkans where such systems could be applied. Consideration is given to geographical locations as well as possible applications. Wind, hydro, solar photovoltaic, and biomass conversion systems were taken into consideration. Since the renewable energy sources data for Western Balkans region are rather scarce, the intention was to give a survey of the present situation and an estimate of future potential for decentralized energy generation based on renewable energy sources. The decentralized energy generation based on renewable energy sources in Western Balkans will find its niche easier for the users that will produce electricity for their own needs and for the users located in remote rural areas (off-grid applications.

  9. Consumption and perception of processed fruits in the Western Balkan region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, S.J.; Zimmermann, K.L.; Cvetkovic, M.; Stojanovic, Z.; Spiroski, I.; Milosevic, J.; Mora, C.; Butigan, R.; Mugosa, B.; Esteve, M.; Pohar, J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to gain a better understanding of the consumption and perception of processed fruits in Western Balkan countries in order to support consumer-oriented product development. In-depth interviews (n = 183) were used to explore the consumption of processed fruits, the motives to

  10. Public Regulatory Arrangements for Private Higher Education in the Western Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Antigoni; Levy, Daniel C.; Stensaker, Bjørn; Kanazir, Sanja

    2017-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of the developments of higher education laws and regulations in the Western Balkans for the period 1990-2015, with the aim of mapping the regulatory arrangements for the private higher education sector and to explore the relationship between public and private higher education in the region. Based on a conceptual…

  11. THE BALKANS BETWEEN THE EU AND NATO: FOCUSING ON THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoru Sadakata

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The fragmentation of Yugoslavia has wrought extensive political and social changes in the Balkans and Europe more generally. After the collapse of communism and the breakup of Yugoslavia, many Balkan countries have transformed their political system and have begun to forge new foreign and security policy. Some of them have already joined the EU and NATO, and some are about to access these organizations. But the Western Balkan states seem to be farther in the future. In regard to the former Yugoslavia, the United States, European states and international organizations, such as the EU, NATO and UN, have attempted to engage and manage this breakup on an individual and collective basis. They have greatly influenced the process of the post-conflict nation building of this region. From this viewpoint, the paper discusses the political and social transformation of the Balkans after the breakup of the Yugoslav conflict, and the role of the EU and NATO in the process of the democratization and nation building in the former Yugoslavia. Moreover, attention is paid to the features of the involvement of the EU and NATO in the former Yugoslav conflict. In the process of Yugoslav fragmentation one can see the ‘Eastern Question’ revisited and the ‘Powder keg of Europe’ once again rising to its brim.

  12. Characteristics of geopolitical position of Serbia and Serbian areas within the context of actual processes of balkanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despotović Ljubiša

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article author have aim to disclosure influences of the processes of balkanization on quality and characteristics of geopolitical position of Serbia and Serbian areas in the space of Balkans. Also, analysis of geopolitical doctrines and interests of great powers that traditionally have had impact on shaping of nationalities' relations on Balkans Peninsula and Middle Europe space, in historical dimension and in actual unfolding. Additional analysis is devoted to regional factors i.e. of neighboring countries and regional powers that influenced on quality of geopolitical and geostrategic position of Serbia and Serbian areas.

  13. Knowledge economy readiness, innovativeness and competitiveness of the Western Balkan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetanović Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Western Balkan countries have set themselves the goal to join the European Union as soon as possible. Accordingly, they must adjust the key components of their development policies to the Europe 2020 strategy, focusing on key priorities such as smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. This paper explores the relationship among knowledge economy readiness, innovativeness, and competitiveness of six Western Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Serbia, Croatia, and Montenegro and the group of six selected neighboring EU countries (Austria, Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Romania, and Slovenia. The paper relies on the data obtained from the Knowledge Economy Index of the World Bank Institute, INSEAD's Global Innovation Index and the Global Competitiveness Index of the World Economic Forum for 2013. Obtained data from all three sources indicated significantly lower readiness for the development of economy based on knowledge, innovation and competitiveness in the Western Balkans countries in comparison to the selected EU countries. The analysis of the interdependence of the aforementioned variables points to: a statistically significant correlation between the indicator knowledge economy index and the global innovation index for both groups of countries; b statistically significant linear correlation between innovativeness and innovation efficiency ratio for the Western Balkan countries. Conversely, no respective correlation has been registered for the group of selected EU countries; c no statistically significant correlation between the global innovation index and the global competitiveness index in the Western Balkan countries, while in respect of the group of selected EU countries, the existence of significant linear correlation between these variables has been revealed.

  14. Inner Otherness as a Source of Fear: Elements of Horror in Balkan Travelogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Lazarević-Radak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Travel fiction has created numerous Others, assigning them an ontologically unstable status, while the traditional travelogue spread a fear of the dark interior of Europe, presenting images of daily political strife, assassinations, wars and uprisings. Just like the Gothic novel, which entertained its readers with images of ruins and gloomy structures in Eastern Europe, the travelogue spread a fear of the Balkans through Europe, depicting the Balkans as a place that could pose a threat to the entire continent. While enjoying the mysterious terror of the Gothic novel, Europe also derived a kind of pleasure from the shocking images that were to be found in travelogues from the Balkans. The paper re-examines the elasticity of the boundaries of the travelogue genre, and identifies convenient transformations of certain parts of the travelogue into text aimed at inspiring terror, shocking and appalling its readers. The transformations show that it is impossible to draw a strict boundary between travel fiction and travelogues, and at the same time reveal the hidden discourse used by both genres. The parallel presence of awareness of the geographic identity of the Balkans as European, and of the aspiration to depict them as the strange inner Otherness of Europe, is accompanied by the production of terrifying images. Although these images cannot be viewed solely as a threat of "reverse colonization", the assumption that hybridity is the basis on which the terrifying nature of the Balkans is produced is re-examined. The travelogue chapters, sections and illustrations assume the features of horror, particularly body horror, revealing Europe’s fear of the possibility of the Orient infiltrating the "body of the Occident", or of the possibility of the latter being infected by elements of "alien" i.e. Oriental culture.

  15. Vessels from Late Medieval cemeteries in the Central Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikić Vesna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a rare occurrence in late medieval cemeteries, vessels have been found on almost all major sites of the period, such as Novo Brdo, Trgovište, Reljina Gradina and the churchyard of St Peter’s near Novi Pazar, the churchyard of St Nicholas’ at Kuršumlija, the churchyard of St Stephen’s at Milentija near Brus, Mali Zvečan, Mirijevo, Vinča. Vessels occur in different places, both on top of and in graves. Fragments of pottery and glass vessels are relatively abundant in layers of earth filling burial pits and chambers, and in those immediately overlaying burial pits or gravestones. The available data make it possible to recognize almost all functional types. The most frequently found pottery shapes are larger liquid containers - jugs and pitchers, and apparently there have also been many pots, both hearth cooking and glazed (figs. 1-3; 5-9. Recognizable among the glass vessels are bottles, usually those with long fluted necks and biconical, as well as infrequent icon lamps. The data about the vessels found buried with the deceased is much more detailed. Such finds are recorded at Mačvanska Mitrovica (fig. 10/3, Brestovik (fig. 13/3, Mirijevo (fig. 4/1, Vinča (figs. 4/2; 10/4, Stragari near Kragujevac, Milentija near Brus, round the church of St Peter near Novi Pazar, at the monastery of Končulić (fig. 13/2 and the monastery of Gradac. The relatively plentiful and diverse vessels discovered at the cemeteries of medieval Trgovište are especially illustrative (fig. 10/2, 7. The available descriptions of vessels and archaeological contexts provide a general impression about the types of vessels recorded in the cemeteries of a late medieval and early modern date in the central Balkans. Glass bottles as a rule were laid in graves, while earth-fill layers, apart from bottles, contained plentiful shards of drinking vessels. As for the bottles, two types were registered: biconical and those with long fluted necks (figs. 10; 12/1. Among

  16. İtalya'nın Milli Birlik Sonrasında Osmanlı Devleti ve Balkan Siyaseti / Italy's Politics in the Balkans and the Ottoman Empire after National Unity

    OpenAIRE

    Suat Zeyrek; Metin İlhan

    2016-01-01

    Italy's Politics in the Balkans and the Ottoman Empire after National Unity Abstract Italy frequently had obliged to change its policy against Ottoman Empire after setting up the national unity until the Balkan War. The setting up of Italy's political unity in a very late date like 1870 caused to be late in colonialism. But United Italy was emerging as a new global power. Even if this power was not sufficient, it accelerated the developments changing the balances. In a short time, Ita...

  17. Karyosystematics and molecular taxonomy of the anomalous blue butterflies (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) from the Balkan Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevskaya, Maria S.; Saifitdinova, Alsu F.; Lukhtanov, Vladimir A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Balkan Peninsula represents one of the hottest biodiversity spots in Europe. However, the invertebrate fauna of this region is still insufficiently investigated, even in respect of such well-studied organisms as Lepidoptera. Here we use a combination of chromosomal, molecular and morphological markers to rearrange the group of so-called anomalous blue butterflies (also known as ‘brown complex’ of the subgenus Agrodiaetus Hübner, [1822] and as the Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) admetus (Esper, 1783) species group) and to reveal its cryptic taxonomic structure. We demonstrate that Polyommatus aroaniensis (Brown, 1976) is not as widespread in the Balkans as was previously thought. In fact, it has a dot-like distribution range restricted to the Peloponnese Peninsula in South Greece. Polyommatus orphicus Kolev, 2005 is not as closely related to the Turkish species Polyommatus dantchenkoi (Lukhtanov & Wiemers, 2003) as was supposed earlier. Instead, it is a Balkan endemic represented by two subspecies: Polyommatus orphicus orphicus (Bulgaria) and Polyommatus orphicus eleniae Coutsis & De Prins, 2005 (Northern Greece). Polyommatus ripartii (Freyer, 1830) is represented in the Balkans by an endemic subspecies Polyommatus ripartii pelopi. The traditionally recognized Polyommatus admetus (Esper, 1783) is shown to be a heterogeneous complex and is divided into Polyommatus admetus sensu stricto (the Balkans and west Turkey) and Polyommatus yeranyani (Dantchenko & Lukhtanov, 2005) (east Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Iran). Polyommatus nephohiptamenos (Brown & Coutsis, 1978) is confirmed to be a species with a dot-like distribution range in Northern Greece. Finally, from Central Greece (Timfristos and Parnassos mountains) we describe Polyommatus timfristos Lukhtanov, Vishnevskaya & Shapoval, sp. n. which differs by its haploid chromosome number (n=38) from the closely related and morphologically similar Polyommatus aroaniensis (n=47-48) and Polyommatus orphicus (n

  18. 1st International Symposium and 10th Balkan Conference on Operational Research

    CERN Document Server

    Sifaleras, Angelo; Georgiadis, Christos; Papathanasiou, Jason; Stiakakis, Emmanuil

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the Balkan Conference on Operational Research (BALCOR) has facilitated the exchange of scientific and technical information on the subject of Operations Research and related fields such as Mathematical Programming, Game Theory, Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis, Information Systems, Data Mining, and more, in order to promote international scientific cooperation.  The contributed papers contained in this volume consist of 25 selected research papers based on results presented at the 10th Balkan Conference & 1st International Symposium on Operational Research in Thessalonike, Greece. Subjects include, but do not restrict to, the development of theory and mathematical models for Operations Research, theory and applications of Combinatorial Optimization, Supply Chain Optimization, and Military Operations Research.  These carefully selected papers present important recent developments and modern applications, and will serve as excellent reference for students, researchers, and pr...

  19. Mergers and Acquisitions in the Banking Sector: The Case of Western Balkan Countries / BKT Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulzim Rashiti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explain the financial system which is the engine force for the development of a trade economy. This system ensures payment means in economy and has an impact on its real activity, through the implementation of financial intermediation, acquisitions and mergers in the banking industry that have occurred in recent years in the Western Balkan countries, and monetary policy transmission in these countries. In developing countries, among which are also: Serbia, Macedonia, Albania, Montenegro, etc., banking industry is o" en almost the most important area in the financial system. Therefore, this paper will focus on the way the acquisitions and mergers occurred in the banking system, by assuming that many of the conclusions are applicable to the entire financial system in the Western Balkans. This paper will elaborate on this aspect a case study that deals with the acquisition of Banka Kombetare Tregtare (National Commercial Bank in Albania by the Turkish company Calik Holding (Akif Bank.

  20. Does NATO Enlargement Spread Democracy? The Democratic Stabilization of Western Balkan Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Kříž

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with NATO enlargement toward Western Balkan countries and tries to answer the question of whether NATO enlargement has contributed to the democratic stabilization of the Western Balkans. The authors conclude that NATO has truly contributed to the democratic stabilization of candidate countries. Nevertheless, we have no evidence supporting the thesis that the democratic stabilization of Albania, Croatia, or Macedonia is progressing solely due to the NATO enlargement policy; it is not clear that NATO is viewed as one of the Western institutions into which these countries want to join. On the one hand, this study shows that NATO enlargement may not have as significant an impact on democratization as has been hoped for by its proponents, who started this process in the mid-90s. On the other hand, the impact of NATO on the consolidation of democratic regimes in candidate countries is by no means zero or even marginal.

  1. An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of Economic Growth in the Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fetai Besnik Taip

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to assess the main determinants and the policies that affect economic growth in the Western Balkan over the period 1994 to 2015. It employs techniques such as pooled OLS, fixed and random effects model, and Hausman-Taylor model with instrumental variables (IV. The study shows evidence of conditional convergence, indicating the need for an upward move in the steady state level. The results show that foreign direct investments, gross savings and domestic credit to the private sector have a positive effect on per capita growth. On the other hand, initial level of per capita growth, corruption, unemployment, and general government final consumption, have a negative relationship with per capita growth. The study also shows a puzzling result, that schooling is not a significant factor for growth in Western Balkans. The study also highlights the relevance of attracting more foreign direct investments and reduction in corruption.

  2. Informal Patient Payments and Bought and Brought Goods in the Western Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch Mejsner, Sofie; Eklund Karlsson, Leena

    2017-01-01

    Informal payments for healthcare are common in the Western Balkans, although these payments negatively affect public health and health care. To identify literature from the Western Balkans on what is known about informal payments and bought and brought goods, to examine their effects on healthcare......, of greater magnitude and more problematic than informal payments. Only scant research has examined the measures that are used to tackle informal payments and corruption. The evidence indicates that legalizing informal payments, introducing performance-based payment systems, strengthening reporting, changing...... mentalities and involving the media and the EU or religious organizations in anti-corruption campaigns are understood as some of the possible remedies that might help reduce informal payments. Despite comprehensive evidence regarding informal payments, data remain scattered and contradictory, implying...

  3. Import Tariffs of Trading Partners: Evidence from Three West Balkan Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtović Safet

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the effect of reducing the import tariffs of trading partners on total and individual exports of products from three countries of the Western Balkans and individually observed for each country. In order to investigate the potential effect, this paper applied the gravity equation and the GMM model system dynamic data estimation. The research is based on aggregate and non‑aggregate approach. Within the aggregate approach for the three countries of the Western Balkans, the reduction of import simple average tariff rate (SAT and weighted average tariff (WAT rate have a positive effect on the growth of total and individual exports of products. Within the non‑aggregate approach for each country individually, the reduction in imports of SAT and WAT rates also have a positive effect on the growth of total and individual exports of products from Albania and Serbia, while this effect is weak for FYR Macedonia.

  4. The invasive raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides, gray – an update of its distribution on the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popova Elitsa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The raccoon dog, which lives especially near water and is rare in areas with low humidity, has been spreading throughout Europe since its introduction to Western Russia in the beginning of the 20th century. Official accounts of its distribution in Europe are often inaccurate due to scarce data. A literature search was conducted to identify records of the raccoon dog in the Balkans. More than 60 records were identified, including ones unlisted by the cited source from central and western Bulgaria, southern Serbia, Macedonia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, and Greece. The raccoon dog can be found on the Balkans either along the Danube (which is a major corridor for its invasion or along its tributaries, which might represent secondary invasion pathways.

  5. Language of globalized media as a hate generator on the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostadinović Maja R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Language of hatred in its basic war inciting sense has almost disappeared from media. However, its mutants still may come out into public though intolerance or political settlements. There is no community insensitive to some kinds of hatred. Neither developed democratic nor, even less communities in new Balkan states. Members of minority groups are specially under impact - from ethnic via religious to those specially vulnerable community groups such as handicapped, with specific diseases and juveniles and alike. This paper is about that tolerance and hatred which still exists in media on Balkan. The writer points to the relationship of journalists to those minority groups and offers some of possible ways for improving the relationship between them.

  6. Bulgaria as an electric power exchange center in the Balkans and in South-East Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batov, S.; Shushulov, K.; Vasileva, V.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a study on the electricity market in the Balkans and South-East Europe emphasizing the key role of Bulgaria on this market. Information about installed capacities and energy consumption in Bulgaria is given. The author concludes that the national and international grids strengthening will be based on: improvement of the existing corridors and their operation; establishment of new ones; implementation of the current telecommunication, information and automation systems ect

  7. Corruption as an Obstacle for Doing Business in the Western Balkans: A Business Sector Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Budak; Edo Rajh

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates business people’s perceptions of corruption as an obstacle for doing business and their attitudes towards corruption. It is based on a survey conducted on the sample of over 1800 business owners and managers in the Western Balkans region. Using the original survey data collected in 2010 for seven countries – Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, FYR Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia – the paper explores business people’s views on the ways in which the busine...

  8. Material Deprivation, Social Class and Life Course in the Balkans, Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Alexi Gugushvili

    2011-01-01

    "This paper employs the factor analysis technique and data from the UNDP/UNICEF Social Inclusion Survey to construct a material deprivation index for fi ve transitional societies in the Balkans (FYR Macedonia and Serbia), Eastern Europe (Moldova and Ukraine) and Central Asia (Kazakhstan). The distribution of deprivation between these societies can be largely explained by their level of economic development, but within-county variance is not limited to monetary dimension. Controlli...

  9. Evolution and dynamics of the Cenozoic tectonics of the South Balkan extensional system

    OpenAIRE

    Burchfiel, Clark B.; Nakov, R.; Dumurdzanov, Nikola; Papanikolaou, D.; Tzankov, Tzanko; Serafimovski, Todor; King, Robert W.; Kotzev, Valentin; Todosov, Angel; Nurce, Bilbil

    2008-01-01

    The South Balkan extensional system consists of normal faults and associated sedimentary basins within southern Bulgaria, Macedonia, eastern Albania, northern Greece, and northwestern Turkey. Extensional tectonism began during the final convergence across the Vardar, Intra-Pontide, and Izmir-Ankara suture zones, where oceanic regions closed between continental Europe and continental fragments that make up the Pelagonian, Sakar, and western Anatolian tectonic units. Earliest extension of lates...

  10. Medicine Availability and Prescribing Policy for Non-Communicable Diseases in the Western Balkan Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekez-Pavlisko, Tanja; Racic, Maja; Kusmuk, Srebrenka

    2017-01-01

    During the transition processes, the Western Balkan countries were affected by conflicts and transition-related changes. Life expectancy in these countries is lower, while the mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is higher in comparison with western and northern parts of Europe. The primary aim of this study was to analyze the treatment possibilities for the most common NCDs in the Western Balkan countries. The secondary aim was to understand and compare the policies regarding prescribing-related competencies of family physicians. In June and July 2017, a document analysis was performed of national positive medicines lists, strategic documents, and clinical guidelines for the treatment of the most frequent NCDs; arterial hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). All text phrases that referred to medicines prescribing were extracted and sorted into following domains: medicine availability, prescribing policy, and medication prescribing-related competencies. Possibilities for treatment of arterial hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, asthma, and COPD vary across the Western Balkan countries. This variance is reflected in the number of registered medicines, number of parallels, and number of different combinations, as well as restrictions placed on family physicians in prescribing insulin, inhaled corticosteroids, statins and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), without consultant's recommendation. Western Balkan countries are capable of providing essential medicines for the treatment of NCDs, with full or partial reimbursement. There are some exceptions, related to statins, newer generation of oral antidiabetic agents and some of the antihypertensive combinations. Prescribing-related competences of family physicians are limited. However, this practice is not compliant to the practices of family medicine, its principles and primary care structures, and may potentially result in increased health

  11. Labour Market Institutions in the Western Balkan Countries and their Economic Implications: Evidence for Kosova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Anera Alishani

    2013-12-01

    To address this issue, this paper provides a literature review of the notion of flexicurity and then investigates the relevance of flexicurity for the countries of the Western Balkans through its found components (flexible and reliable contractual arrangements, lifelong learning, active employment policies and social security system. Even though flexicurity can be a way out for low performed economies it is considered as highly costly.

  12. First record of Triaenodes bicolor (Curtis, 1834) (Insecta: Trichoptera) from the Ecoregion Hellenic Western Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahimi, Halil; Kuçi, Ruzhdi; Bilalli, Astrit; Gashi, Ermira

    2017-01-01

    We collected adult caddisfly specimens with entomological nets and ultraviolet light traps monthly from May to November 2012 in Brezne Lake situated in Dragash Municipality. During this investigation we found the Leptocerid species Triaenodes bicolor for the first time in Kosovo; it is also the first record for Ecoregion 6, Hellenic Western Balkans. Additionally, this is the first record of the genus Triaenodes from Kosovo. In total seven males and three females of this species were found. Tr...

  13. Firm productivity in the Western Balkans: the impact of European Union membership and access to finance

    OpenAIRE

    Howard-Jones, Peter; Hölscher, Jens; Radicic, Dragana

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the productivity performance of Balkan firms within and outside the European Union (EU), including the influence of loans. A multiple treatment model is used to compare the effects on productivity of membership and loans both separately and collectively, which in the case of loans allows a separate analysis of their influence on firms in non-member states. The use of conditional quantile regressions measures the effect on productivity of membership and loans separately as ...

  14. Firm productivity in the Western Balkans: the impact of European Union membership and access to finance.

    OpenAIRE

    Howard-Jones, P.; Holscher, Jens; Radicic, D.

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the productivity performance of Balkan firms within and outside the European Union (EU), including the influence of loans. A multiple treatment model is used to compare the effects on productivity of membership and loans both separately and collectively, which in the case of loans allows a separate analysis of their influence on firms in non-member states. The use of conditional quantile regressions measures the effect on productivity of membership and loans separately as ...

  15. Firm productivity in the western Balkans: The impact of European Union membership and access to finance

    OpenAIRE

    Howard-Jones P.; Hцlscher J.; Radicic D.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the productivity performance of Balkan firms within and outside the European Union (EU), including the influence of loans. A multiple treatment model is used to compare the effects on productivity of membership and loans both separately and collectively, which in the case of loans allows a separate analysis of their influence on firms in non-member states. The use of conditional quantile regressions measures the effect on productivity of...

  16. Economic development in the European super-periphery: Evidence from the Western Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett Will

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that the conflicts that afflicted the Western Balkan region in the 1990s pushed the countries into the European 'super-periphery', characterized by deindustrialization and high unemployment, ethnic and regional fragmentation, political turmoil, and instability. Integration into international trade has been disrupted, leading to chronic balance of payments deficits. Low inflows of international capital, due to high country risk, have hindered technological catch-up and weaken...

  17. From temporary protection to transit migration : responses to refugee crises along the Western Balkan route

    OpenAIRE

    SARDELIĆ, Julija

    2017-01-01

    In recent history, the countries along the Western Balkan route faced several refugee crises. In the 1990s refugee crises were the result of the conflicts after the disintegration of the former Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY). Between the summer of 2015 and early 2016, the European continent faced another refugee crisis due to the ongoing civil war in Syria. During the 2015/16 refugee crisis, different political leaders, especially in the post-Yugoslav space, claimed that t...

  18. The Balkan balneotherapy product – an approach from the destination marketing perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia-Felicia STĂNCIOIU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the common features in the resources field, but especially the way in which they have been managed at the level of each individual country, it can be stated that a destination such as the Balkan peninsula represents a culturally homogeneous space, which has been crystallized over centuries of common history and which has imprinted a “common” destiny to the member countries, regarding the economic and cultural development. Regarding natural resources, the main similarity resides in the existence of balneotherapy resources, with particular therapeutic properties, nowadays’ development being pressured by the deterioration of one’s conception about its own health (from the demand perspective, on the one hand, and extending the concept of health (from the supply perspective, on the other hand. In the context of a less-controlled development of certain methods/techniques/procedures by the stakeholders of wellness industry, it is necessary to maintain the authenticity of the balneotherapy product whose essence is the treatment. The purpose of the paper relies in establishing the common elements which could form the essence of the balneotherapy product (sui generis and, in the same time, the differentiation elements which form the developed product of each Balkan country, alongside with the establishment of joint actions, in order to set the coordinates of the regional balneotherapy marketing strategy for the Balkan peninsula.

  19. Heterogeneity of growth in the west Balkans and emerging Europe: A dynamic panel data model approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the heterogeneity of growth in the Western Balkan and Emerging European economies. For that purpose, growth determinants are estimated in the period 1997-2009 by dynamic panel data models. The chosen period provides a comparison for the model results with those estimated for the period up to 2007 in order to analyze changes caused by the global instability. According to the main findings of the paper, macroeconomic stabilization and structural reforms still matter in determining economic growth, but foreign direct investments and economic integrations seem to have the most important role in stimulating growth in the observed countries. Moreover, significant positive effects of foreign direct investments and economic integrations produce differences in growth paths between Emerging European and Western Balkan economies. Sharp decrease of foreign inflows in 2008 determined contractions of growth rates firstly in Emerging European economies with subsequent spill-over on the Western Balkan economies during 2009. Consequently, in the period of global instability, differences between two groups of economies become even more obvious.

  20. The renewable energy and economic growth nexus in Black Sea and Balkan countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koçak, Emrah; Şarkgüneşi, Aykut

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between renewable energy consumption and economic growth within the framework of traditional production function for the period of 1990–2012 in 9 Black Sea and Balkan countries. For this purpose, we use panel cointegration, co-integration estimate methods and heterogeneous panel causality estimation techniques. The study has concluded that there is a long term balance relationship between renewable energy consumption and economic growth and renewable energy consumption has a positive impact on economic growth. Heterogeneous panel causality analysis results support growth hypothesis in Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Russia and Ukraine; feedback hypothesis in Albania, Georgia and Romania; neutrality hypothesis in Turkey and according to the panel data set including all nine countries the results support feedback hypothesis. With the findings, it was concluded that there is a significant impact of renewable energy consumption on economic growth in Balkan and Black Sea Countries. - Highlights: • Explores the impact of renewable energy on economic growth in Black Sea and Balkan countries. • Employs panel cointegration and heterogeneous causality analyses. • Finds significant effect of renewable energy consumption on economic growth. • Finds bidirectional causality between renewable energy consumption and economic growth for the whole panel.

  1. Learning by Doing: The EU’s Transformative Power and Conflicts in the Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazerkoska Julija Brsakoska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the European Community/ European Union experience in the Western Balkans in the period from 1990 onwards in different context in order to assess different mechanisms which the European Union has gained with building the Common Foreign and Security Policy and within the Enlargement Policy in the process of conflict prevention and conflict resolution. Additionally, the paper makes an assessment of the EU’s involvement in the conflict prevention and conflict resolution in the Balkans after the Stabilization and Association Process was launched in 1999. The authors argue that in the case of the military conflicts in the former Yugoslavia, when the European Community was confronted with serious and hard security issues at the very beginning of creating its Common Foreign and Security Policy and in a period of time when the region was not part of the enlargement process, the Community and the Union afterwards proved to be extremely ineffective. In the second part, through three case studies, the paper demonstrate that with the combined use of CFSP mechanisms and SAP, positive examples of the EU acting as a provider of peaceful dispute settlement in the Western Balkans have been established.

  2. Evaluating Weight of Evidence in the Mystery of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui-Klimke, Travis; Wu, Felicia

    2014-01-01

    Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN) is a chronic, progressive wasting disease of the kidneys, endemic in certain rural regions of the Balkan nations Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, and Romania. It is irreversible, and ultimately fatal. Though this disease was first described in the 1920s, its causes have been a mystery and a source of much academic and clinical contention. Possible etiologic agents that have been explored include exposure to metals and metalloids, viruses and bacteria, and the environmental toxins aristolochic acid (AA) and ochratoxin A (OTA). Aristolochic acid is a toxin produced by weeds of the genus Aristolochia, common in Balkan wheat fields. Aristolochia seeds may intermingle with harvested grains and thus inadvertently enter human diets. Ochratoxin A is a mycotoxin (fungal toxin) common in many foods, including cereal grains. In this study, we analyzed the weight of evidence for each of the suspected causes of BEN using the Bradford Hill Criteria (BHC): nine conditions that determine weight of evidence for a causal relationship between an agent and a disease. Each agent postulated to cause BEN was evaluated using the nine criteria, and for each criterion was given a rating based on the strength of the association between exposure to the substance and BEN. From the overall available scientific evidence for each of these suspected risk factors, aristolochic acid is the agent with the greatest weight of evidence in causing BEN. We describe other methods for testing causality from epidemiological studies, which support this conclusion of AA causing BEN. PMID:24954501

  3. Energy in the western Balkans - the path to reform and reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    The Western Balkans - composed of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Kosovo - is a complex region facing significant energy challenges. The conflicts over the break-up of the former Yugoslavia damaged much of the energy infrastructure and compounded the challenge of providing reliable energy supply. Electricity systems in many parts of the region remain fragile and in need of investment. A priority across the region is to put into place the institutions, infrastructure and policies that can support the provision of reliable, affordable and sustainable energy. For the Western Balkans as a whole, a key element of the reform effort is the Energy Community Treaty - a regulatory and market framework to which the entire region has now subscribed. This Treaty aims to create an integrated regional market for electricity and gas compatible with the European Union's internal energy market. This Energy Policy Survey is the first comprehensive review of energy policies and strategies in the Western Balkan region, and also covers important cross-cutting topics such as co-operation and energy trade, oil and gas transportation, and the links between energy and poverty. It identifies and assesses the reforms that are still needed to deliver efficient, modernised energy systems that can assist economic development, address energy poverty and reduce the environmental impacts of energy use.

  4. Forecasting the spatial and seasonal dynamic of Aedes albopictus oviposition activity in Albania and Balkan countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bino, Silvia; Kadriaj, Perparim; Mersini, Kujtim; Shukullari, Ada; Simaku, Artan; Rogozi, Elton; Caputo, Beniamino; Ducheyne, Els; della Torre, Alessandra; Reiter, Paul; Gilbert, Marius

    2018-01-01

    The increasing spread of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, in Europe and US raises public health concern due to the species competence to transmit several exotic human arboviruses, among which dengue, chikungunya and Zika, and urges the development of suitable modeling approach to forecast the spatial and temporal distribution of the mosquito. Here we developed a dynamical species distribution modeling approach forecasting Ae. albopictus eggs abundance at high spatial (0.01 degree WGS84) and temporal (weekly) resolution over 10 Balkan countries, using temperature times series of Modis data products and altitude as input predictors. The model was satisfactorily calibrated and validated over Albania based observed eggs abundance data weekly monitored during three years. For a given week of the year, eggs abundance was mainly predicted by the number of eggs and the mean temperature recorded in the preceding weeks. That is, results are in agreement with the biological cycle of the mosquito, reflecting the effect temperature on eggs spawning, maturation and hatching. The model, seeded by initial egg values derived from a second model, was then used to forecast the spatial and temporal distribution of eggs abundance over the selected Balkan countries, weekly in 2011, 2012 and 2013. The present study is a baseline to develop an easy-handling forecasting model able to provide information useful for promoting active surveillance and possibly prevention of Ae. albopictus colonization in presently non-infested areas in the Balkans as well as in other temperate regions. PMID:29432489

  5. The determinants of intra-regional trade in the Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Trivić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify factors that have an influence on bilateral trade among the Western Balkan countries for the period from 1995 to 2012. Unlike a majority of works that have dealt with the subject of trade in the Balkans or the SEEs, not only geographical, economic or political factors are taken into account, but also factors constituting cultural, communicational and historical types of the so-called “distance” between countries. In order to assess their influence on trade values, an augmented version of the gravity model is employed. It was estimated threefold: as pooled data by OLS, as a random effects model and as a fixed effects model with an additional estimation of time-invariant variables following the method of Cheng and Wall (2005. The results of the research are surprising, as the strongest influence on trade values were exhibited by variables representing ease of a direct communication and similarity of religious structures. In addition, war and one-year-post-war effect showed a strong and statistically important influence. Thus, the main conclusion is that non-economic factors in the region of the Western Balkans play the most important role in determining trade values between countries.

  6. Reverse effect of Balkan radical Islamists' engagement in the armed conflict in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevčić Stevan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an apparent tendency to increase activism among Balkan Muslims (mostly Sunni denomination within Islam and their desire to participate in solving the problems of Muslims globally. As a result of this trend, the involvement of individuals from the ranks of radical Islamist groups in the armed conflict in Syria is not surprising. What characterizes these individuals is going through the complex process of radicalization at the individual level within which strong motivation is formed for taking part in such an extreme form of social conflict such as a civil war. Due to the strong indoctrination, they perceive the participation in this conflict as their duty to the whole community of believers, accepting even the possibility of their own death which they see as martyrdom. The connection of these individuals with the global Islamistic terrorist network may affect the Balkan countries' security. After the end of the Syria conflict or earlier, a number of these individuals will be directed to other crisis areas, while some of them will return to their home countries. Additionally indoctrinated with acquired combat experience and military expertise, these people can play a key role in planning, preparation or commission of terrorist acts in the Balkans and Europe as a whole. Taking adequate and timely measures is a necessary condition for an effective opposition to this kind of religious based terrorism.

  7. The Balkans as European Otherness. On Shaping Italian Public Opinion about the War in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Škevin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Croatia, the political changes involving most of Eastern Europe in the late 1980s and early 1990s included a war fought between 1991 and 1995. This paper aims, by examining the press releases and newspaper articles published in the Italian daily La Stampa in 1995, to show how this influential newspaper worked on shaping Italian public opinion about the war in Croatia, and to examine the extent to which well-rooted stereotypes about the Balkans played a role in the process. The application of the methods of Critical Discourse Analysis on the material has confirmed the occurrence of stereotypes expressed through several types of polarized representations, for example, the one between the good (Italy/Europe/West and the bad (Croatia/the Balkans – associated with “primitive” nationalism and chaos. It has also shown that Italy (as part of Europe, largely saw itself as the “appointed” Western civilized neighbour towards one of its Balkan neighbours, Croatia, and worked on trying, as Todorova would put it, “to normalise” it.

  8. Improving nutrition surveillance and public health research in Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries using the Balkan Food Platform and dietary tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Novaković, Romana; Kadvan, Agnes; Djekić-Ivanković, Marija; Šatalić, Zvonimir; Korošec, Mojca; Spiroski, Igor; Ranić, Marija; Dupouy, Eleonora; Oshaug, Arne; Finglas, Paul; Glibetić, Maria

    2016-02-15

    The objective of this paper is to share experience and provide updated information on Capacity Development in the Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries (CEE/BC) region relevant to public health nutrition, particularly in creation of food composition databases (FCDBs), applying dietary intake assessment and monitoring tools, and harmonizing methodology for nutrition surveillance. Balkan Food Platform was established by a Memorandum of Understanding among EuroFIR AISBL, Institute for Medical Research, Belgrade, Capacity Development Network in Nutrition in CEE - CAPNUTRA and institutions from nine countries in the region. Inventory on FCDB status identified lack of harmonized and standardized research tools. To strengthen harmonization in CEE/BC in line with European research trends, the Network members collaborated in development of a Regional FCDB, using web-based food composition data base management software following EuroFIR standards. Comprehensive nutrition assessment and planning tool - DIET ASSESS & PLAN could enable synchronization of nutrition surveillance across countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Microevolution of the noble crayfish (Astacus astacus) in the Southern Balkan Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laggis, Anastasia; Baxevanis, Athanasios D; Charalampidou, Alexandra; Maniatsi, Stefania; Triantafyllidis, Alexander; Abatzopoulos, Theodore J

    2017-05-30

    The noble crayfish (Astacus astacus) displays a complex historical and contemporary genetic status in Europe. The species divergence has been shaped by geological events (i.e. Pleistocene glaciations) and humanly induced impacts (i.e. translocations, pollution, etc.) on its populations due to species commercial value and its niche degradation. Until now, limited genetic information has been procured for the Balkan area and especially for the southernmost distribution of this species (i.e. Greece). It is well known that the rich habitat diversity of the Balkan Peninsula offers suitable conditions for genetically diversified populations. Thus, the present manuscript revisits the phylogenetic relationships of the noble crayfish in Europe and identifies the genetic make-up and the biogeographical patterns of the species in its southern range limit. Mitochondrial markers (i.e. COI and 16S) were used in order to elucidate the genetic structure and diversity of the noble crayfish in Europe. Two of the six European haplotypic lineages, were found exclusively in Greece. These two lineages exhibited greater haplotypic richness when compared with the rest four (of "Central European" origin) while they showed high genetic diversity. Divergence time analysis identified that the majority of this divergence was captured through Pleistocene, suggesting a southern glacial refugium (Greece, southern Balkans). Furthermore, six microsatellite markers were used in order to define the factors affecting the genetic structure and demographic history of the species in Greece. The population structure analysis revealed six to nine genetic clusters and eight putative genetic barriers. Evidence of bottleneck effects in the last ~5000 years (due to climatic and geological events and human activities) is also afforded. Findings from several other research fields (e.g. life sciences, geology or even archaeology) have been utilized to perceive the genetic make-up of the noble crayfish. The

  10. Medical and Social Aspects of Syphilis in the Balkans from the mid-19th Century to the Interwar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsiamis Costas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents some aspects of syphilis in the Balkan Peninsula from the 19th century until the Interwar. Ever since the birth of modern Balkan States (Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey and Serbia, urbanization, poverty and the frequent wars have been considered the major factors conducive to the spread of syphilis. The measures against sex work and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs were taken in two aspects, one medical and the other legislative. In this period, numerous hospitals for venereal diseases were established in the Balkan countries. In line with the international diagnostic approach and therapeutic standards, laboratory examinations in these Balkan hospitals included spirochete examination, Wassermann reaction, precipitation reaction and cerebrospinal fluid examination. Despite the strict legislation and the adoption of relevant laws against illegal sex work, public health services were unable to curb the spread of syphilis. Medical and social factors such as poverty, citizen’s ignorance of STDs, misguided medical perceptions, lack of sanitary control of prostitution and epidemiological studies, are highlighted in this study. These factors were the major causes that helped syphilis spread in the Balkan countries during the 19th and early 20th century. The value of these aspects as a historic paradigm is diachronic. Failure to comply with the laws and the dysfunction of public services during periods of war or socioeconomic crises are both factors facilitating the spread of STDs.

  11. Medical and Social Aspects of Syphilis in the Balkans from the mid-19th Century to the Interwar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiamis, Costas; Vrioni, Georgia; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Gennimata, Vasiliki; Murdjeva, Mariana А; Tsakris, Athanasios

    2016-03-01

    The current study presents some aspects of syphilis in the Balkan Peninsula from the 19th century until the Interwar. Ever since the birth of modern Balkan States (Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey and Serbia), urbanization, poverty and the frequent wars have been considered the major factors conducive to the spread of syphilis. The measures against sex work and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were taken in two aspects, one medical and the other legislative. In this period, numerous hospitals for venereal diseases were established in the Balkan countries. In line with the international diagnostic approach and therapeutic standards, laboratory examinations in these Balkan hospitals included spirochete examination, Wassermann reaction, precipitation reaction and cerebrospinal fluid examination. Despite the strict legislation and the adoption of relevant laws against illegal sex work, public health services were unable to curb the spread of syphilis. Medical and social factors such as poverty, citizen's ignorance of STDs, misguided medical perceptions, lack of sanitary control of prostitution and epidemiological studies, are highlighted in this study. These factors were the major causes that helped syphilis spread in the Balkan countries during the 19th and early 20th century. The value of these aspects as a historic paradigm is diachronic. Failure to comply with the laws and the dysfunction of public services during periods of war or socioeconomic crises are both factors facilitating the spread of STDs.

  12. An Examination of Long-Term Environmental-Social Dynamics in the Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, C.; Boger, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the interactions of environmental and social dynamics in Central Balkans over the past millennium, a period that experienced three major climatic phases (Medieval Climate Anomaly, Little Ice Age, and the warm 20th century). Meanwhile, the same period witnessed a complex human history with the emergence-rise-decline of the Ottoman Empire and subsequent socio-political events (e.g. wars, famines, migrations). Environmental datasets for the analysis include biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical signals through X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and a detailed chronology based on AMS 14C dating of two western and central Serbian lakes while social datasets include historic population data, land use, settlement patterns, and critical historic events derived from a review of the literature and local archives. Among the environmental datasets, indigenous tree and herbaceous pollen from these Central Balkans records demonstrate fluctuations in woodland-grassland dynamics whereas potassium and titanium counts obtained through XRF act as a proxy for surface erosion and clastic input into the lakes. Microscopic charcoal, cereal pollen and subordinate anthropogenic pollen (e.g. cultivated fruits and vegetables) are used to distinguish strong human impact over the landscape. These key anthropogenic indicators create a more thorough social component of the analysis in association with the social datasets. After reconstructing the individual time series for each environmental and social dataset, the two Central Balkan records are correlated in order to identify the environmental and social homogeneity and heterogeneity patterns occurring at shorter and longer timescales during the period. Results provide insights on how a region responds to social and environmental stressors and our approach demonstrates ways to integrate natural and social science system research.

  13. Lessons learnt from a sectoral analysis of greenhouse gas mitigation potential in the Balkans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgopoulou, E.; Mirasgedis, S.; Sarafidis, Y.; 3TS S.A., Agiou Isidorou 1, Athens GR-11471 (Greece))" data-affiliation=" (FACE3TS S.A., Agiou Isidorou 1, Athens GR-11471 (Greece))" >Gakis, N.; 3TS S.A., Agiou Isidorou 1, Athens GR-11471 (Greece))" data-affiliation=" (FACE3TS S.A., Agiou Isidorou 1, Athens GR-11471 (Greece))" >Hontou, V.; 3TS S.A., Agiou Isidorou 1, Athens GR-11471 (Greece))" data-affiliation=" (FACE3TS S.A., Agiou Isidorou 1, Athens GR-11471 (Greece))" >Lalas, D.P.; Steiner, D.; Tuerk, A.; Fruhmann, C.; Pucker, J.

    2015-01-01

    Balkan countries in the process of joining the European Union shall adopt greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets and implement appropriate mitigation policies and measures. This paper presents a simplified methodological framework based on marginal abatement cost curves for estimating the technical and economic mitigation potential at sectoral level (buildings and road transport) in selected Balkan countries. The results of the analysis provide to decision makers useful information regarding the availability of background data, the potential for setting ambitious mitigation targets, and detailed tools for assisting the selection of policies and measures to meet these targets. The analysis performed shows that a significant part of the greenhouse gas emissions abatement potential can be achieved through win–win measures. The incorporation of environmental externalities associated with these interventions, estimated through benefits transfer, further improves the economic performance of these measures, especially in the buildings sector. Moreover, the implementation of these measures is shown to result in positive macroeconomic effects through increases in GDP (gross domestic product) and creation of new jobs. Finally, the rebound effect may restrict the estimated greenhouse gas emission reductions in the buildings of the countries examined due to the low energy performance of the existing building stock. - Highlights: • Analysis of the technical and economic GHG mitigation potential in western Balkans. • Marginal abatement cost curves highlight several win–win interventions. • Incorporation of environmental benefits improves the performance of measures. • Mitigation measures result in significant positive macroeconomic effects. • The investment costs and the rebound effect may influence measures' effectiveness.

  14. THE EU APPROACH TO THE WESTERN BALKANS: A SECURITY OR POLITICAL ISSUE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth FERERRO-TURRIÓN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will focus on the policies developed by the European Union towards the Western Balkans, especially those related to human mobility and visa liberalization. The main target of the paper will be to show how the conditionality policies towards these countries have been developed related to security, geopolitical needs and interests, instead of the objective/technical criteria stated in the communitarian official documents. We will see how the last enlargements of the Union have affected considerably the different positions adopted by member states in their approach toward the Balkan countries, especially in relation to chapters 23 and 24 of the negotiation agreements, dealing with issues of Justice and Home Affairs. Since then, the pragmatic approach of the Union has been reinforced, so that the accession of candidates has been delayed in time. However, some things might change, if we take into consideration the current refugee and Ukraine crises, the new relationships that have been developed with Russia (especially by Serbia, and Greece’s approach towards Moscow on the verge of the economic crisis. If the European Union has, until now, followed a stick-and-carrot approach towards the Balkans in order to maintain a security belt on its southeast border, this approach might change within a new geopolitical context. In this paper we will analyse the visa liberalization process and its developments since Thessaloniki 2003, to show how the decisions taken by the Union have been more linked to political matters related to security than to technical reasons related to passport design.

  15. Informal Patient Payments and Bought and Brought Goods in the Western Balkans – A Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Buch Mejsner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Informal patient payments for healthcare are common in the Western Balkans, negatively affecting public health and healthcare. Aim To identify literature from the Western Balkans on what is known about informal patient payments and bought and brought goods, to examine their effects on healthcare and to determine what actions can be taken to tackle these payments. Methods After conducting a scoping review that involved searching websites and databases and filtering with eligibility criteria and quality assessment tools, 24 relevant studies were revealed. The data were synthesized using a narrative approach that identified key concepts, types of evidence, and research gaps. Results The number of studies of informal patient payments increased between 2002 and 2015, but evidence regarding the issues of concern is scattered across various countries. Research has reported incidents of informal patient payments on a wide scale and has described various patterns and characteristics of these payments. Although these payments have typically been small – particularly to providers in common areas of specialized medicine – evidence regarding bought and brought goods remains limited, indicating that such practices are likely even more common, of greater magnitude and perhaps more problematic than informal patient payments. Only scant research has examined the measures that are used to tackle informal patient payments. The evidence indicates that legalizing informal patient payments, introducing performance-based payment systems, strengthening reporting, changing mentalities and involving the media and the European Union (EU or religious organizations in anti-corruption campaigns are understood as some of the possible remedies that might help reduce informal patient payments. Conclusion Despite comprehensive evidence regarding informal patient payments, data remain scattered and contradictory, implying that informal patient payments are a

  16. The Impact of Tourism on Economic Growth in the Western Balkan Countries: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Dr Nasir Selimi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this research paper is to empirically analyse the effects of tourism on economic growth in Western Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, FYROM, Montenegro and Serbia. Design/Methodology/Approach: The empirical analysis consists of 17-year panel data of 6 countries over the period 1998 to 2014. Several models are analysed using the panel regression econometric techniques. The study investigates the random and fixed effects, as well as individual heterogeneity across those countries. Also, the Hausman Taylor IV estimator is used as the most appropriate model for this analysis. The real income per capita of the sample countries is modelled as dependent on the lagged income per capita, tourist arrivals, tourism receipts, FDI stock, exports and government expenditures. Findings: The estimation results in all types of models, and indicate that tourism has a positive and significant impact on economic growth in the Western Balkan countries. The Hausman Taylor IV model suggests that for every 1% increase of tourist arrivals, the output will increase approximately by 0.08%. Research limitations/implications: Although the Hausman Taylor IV model performs well, the results should be interpreted with caution. The analysis has its limitations; firstly, the total number of observations is relatively small for a panel regression analysis; secondly, the problem of endogenity is not completely avoided. However, the study implies that these countries should enhance efforts for joint tourism sector policies to engender economic sustainability. Originality/Value: To our best knowledge, this is the first attempt of estimating the effects of tourism on economic growth in the Western Balkan countries using the Hausman Taylor IV model.

  17. Informal Patient Payments and Bought and Brought Goods in the Western Balkans – A Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch Mejsner, Sofie; Eklund Karlsson, Leena

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Informal patient payments for healthcare are common in the Western Balkans, negatively affecting public health and healthcare. Aim: To identify literature from the Western Balkans on what is known about informal patient payments and bought and brought goods, to examine their effects on healthcare and to determine what actions can be taken to tackle these payments. Methods: After conducting a scoping review that involved searching websites and databases and filtering with eligibility criteria and quality assessment tools, 24 relevant studies were revealed. The data were synthesized using a narrative approach that identified key concepts, types of evidence, and research gaps. Results: The number of studies of informal patient payments increased between 2002 and 2015, but evidence regarding the issues of concern is scattered across various countries. Research has reported incidents of informal patient payments on a wide scale and has described various patterns and characteristics of these payments. Although these payments have typically been small – particularly to providers in common areas of specialized medicine – evidence regarding bought and brought goods remains limited, indicating that such practices are likely even more common, of greater magnitude and perhaps more problematic than informal patient payments. Only scant research has examined the measures that are used to tackle informal patient payments. The evidence indicates that legalizing informal patient payments, introducing performance-based payment systems, strengthening reporting, changing mentalities and involving the media and the European Union (EU) or religious organizations in anti-corruption campaigns are understood as some of the possible remedies that might help reduce informal patient payments. Conclusion: Despite comprehensive evidence regarding informal patient payments, data remain scattered and contradictory, implying that informal patient payments are a complex phenomenon

  18. Patterns of Abundance and Host Specificity of Bat Ectoparasites in the Central Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burazerovic, J; Orlova, M; Obradovic, M; Cirovic, D; Tomanovic, S

    2018-01-10

    Bats are hosts to a number of ectoparasites-acarines (ticks, chiggers, other mites), bat flies, and fleas. Bat ectoparasites might have significant ecological and public health importance as they may be potential vectors of zoonotic agents. It is important to identify their distribution, diversity, and host-parasite associations. Bat ectoparasites in the central Balkans have been largely understudied. The present research was conducted in 45 localities at the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia. In total, 1,143 individuals of 18 species of bats have been examined for the presence and abundance of ectoparasite species during 3 yr of research. In total, 21 ectoparasite species have been identified: three species of ticks, seven species of mites (including one species of chigger), eight species of bat flies, and three species of fleas. In total, 80 host-parasite associations have been identified. The largest number of ectoparasites parasitized primarily only one host species. The highest total number of hosts was identified for ectoparasite species Ixodes vespertilionis Koch, Nycteribia schmidlii Schiner, and Spinturnix myoti Kolenati. The spinturnicid mite Spinturnix psi Kolenati was the most abundant ectoparasite species and together with Penicilidia dufouri Westwood the most widely distributed species of bat ectoparasite, being present at 21 localities in the central Balkans. The presented data include the first systematic records of patterns of prevalence, mean intensity, mean abundance, and host specificity for bat ectoparasites in the central Balkans. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Natural radionuclides content and radioactive series disequilibrium in drinking waters from Balkans region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radenkovic, M.B.; Joksic, J.D.; Jovan Kovacevic

    2015-01-01

    Natural radioactivity of drinking water with various geological origin in Balkans region has been studied. Collected water samples are analyzed for total alpha and total beta activities and specific alpha- and gamma-emitting radionuclides content using low-background proportional counting and alpha and gamma-spectrometry techniques. Obtained activity concentrations of 238 U, 234 U, 235 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 40 K in water samples and radioactive disequilibrium between members of the natural radioactive series, based on the isotopic ratios, has been discussed. (author)

  20. Gamma radiation measurements and dose rate in the region of Central Balkan National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobilarov, Roumen

    2008-01-01

    The natural gamma radiation and 137 Cs deposition in the soils in the region of Central Balkan National Park was measured, using high-resolution gamma ray spectroscopy. The resulting annual effective dose was estimated to be 0,73 mSv, that not exceed the level of 1 mSv adopted as the upper annual dose limit for the population in Bulgaria. The study area is frequented by many tourists of the whole Bulgaria during week-ends and summer and winter holidays

  1. Neolithic anthropocentrism: the principles of imagery and symbolic manifestation of corporeality in the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goce Naumov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The body in the Neolithic was used as adequate symbolic medium which on the one hand strengthened the crucial features of individuals, while on the other was capable to explicate the essential function of particular objects and constructions. As result to this also the concept of imagery hybridism was deployed which incorporate human body within more complex segments of visual culture and symbolic communication. Considering the variety of human representations it can be deduced that anthropocentrism was one of the main visual principles in the Neolithic Balkans which established corporality as major cognitive reference in explication of human agency and its role in understanding the fundamental symbolic processes.

  2. Building Capacity for Structural Reform in Higher Education of Western Balkan Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Barbareev, Kiril

    2011-01-01

    Core Experts’ Group under the scheme of STREW Project The inaugural meeting of the Core Experts’ Group in the Tempus-funded project, ‘Building Capacity for Structural Reform in Higher Education of Western Balkan Countries’ (STREW), was hosted by the HEA on 16 February 2011. The purpose of the meeting was to progress the first of the key activities comprising the first work package of the project, namely to draft a guidelines/questionnaire for self-evaluation reporting by stakeholders in hi...

  3. Labour Market Institutions in the Western Balkan Countries and their Economic Implications: Evidence for Kosova

    OpenAIRE

    MSc. Anera Alishani; BA. Ariana Shabani; Dr.Sc. Muje Gjonbalaj

    2013-01-01

    Flexicurity as one of the most important priorities of employment policies in the EU and its Member States is considered to be also important for the other states of Central and Eastern Europe, including the Western Balkans. According to European Commission (2007, p.7), flexicurity as a combination of flexibility and security in working arrangements can be suggested as an answer to dynamic changes happening in today’s national and international economies; it is an answer to the EU’s dilemma o...

  4. Comparison of the protein and fatty acid fraction of Balkan donkey and human milk

    OpenAIRE

    Jasmina Gubić; Ivan Milovanović; Mirela Iličić; Jelena Tomić; Aleksandra Torbica; Ljubiša Šarić; Nebojša Ilić

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the protein and fatty acid fractions of Balkan donkey and human milk in the early lactation stage (40 and 90 day). This study revealed that donkey milk contains αs1-casein (1.38-1.89 g/L) and higher concentration of β-casein (0.1-0.55 g/L) in comparison to human milk. The concentration of α-lactalbumin increased during the lactation phases from 40 to 90 days in both types of milk. Donkey milk contained β-lactoglobulin in low concentrations which decreased ...

  5. From globalization to Europeanization-and then? Transnational influences in lesbian activism of the Western Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dioli, Irene

    2011-01-01

    The article looks at transnational dynamics in lesbian activism in the Western Balkans, with particular focus on Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, over the last two decades. Based on 30 interviews with activists from local and international feminist, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT), and queer organizations, the article discusses the role played by transnational contacts in the development of lesbian activism in the region and the related issues arising within the conflicting relationship between the "East" and the "West," with special attention to trends related to international intervention and cooperation, globalization, and Europeanization.

  6. Lessons from EU conflict prevention efforts in the Western Balkans and the Horn of Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen; Tvilling, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    ’s ambitions and the realities on the ground. Key lessons identified in comparative case studies of CSDP missions The EU supports its strategic approach towards both the Western Balkans and the Horn of Africa through a series of CSDP deployments focused on strengthening security structures through police...... in these or other regions. Key lessons identified through comparative case studies of EULEX Kosovo and EUCAP Nestor/Somalia relate to the importance of (i) clear mission mandates with concrete benchmarks and verifiable indicators of success, (ii) consistency and predictability of political support from Member...

  7. Mycotoxic nephropathy in Bulgarian pigs and chickens: complex aetiology and similarity to Balkan endemic nephropathy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stoev, SD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available , 1–17, iFirst Mycotoxic nephropathy in Bulgarian pigs and chickens: complex aetiology and similarity to Balkan Endemic Nephropathy S.D. Stoeva*, M.F. Duttonb, P.B. Njobehb, J.S. Mosonikb and P.A. Steenkampc aDepartment of General and Clinical... of fungi was done using the keys of Klich and Pitt (1988) and Klich (2002) for Aspergillus spp. and Pitt and Hocking (1997) for Penicillium and Nelson et al. (1983) for Fusarium spp. This was done by observing both macroscopic characteristics...

  8. Twixt Pragmatism and Idealism: British Approaches to the Balkan Policy Revisited (the late 19th/early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O I Aganson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to define how home debates on international issues influence a state's foreign policy. This task was undertaken on the pattern of Britain's policy in the Balkans in the late 19th/early 20th century. The author examines the role played by the radicals (left-wing liberals in formulating Britain's approaches to the Eastern question. It is stated that the interaction between the Foreign Office and the radicals rendered British policy in the Balkans more flexible.

  9. Nitrogen species in drinking water indicate potential exposure pathway for Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niagolova, Nedialka; McElmurry, Shawn P.; Voice, Thomas C.; Long, David T.; Petropoulos, Evangelos A.; Havezov, Ivan; Chou, Karen; Ganev, Varban

    2005-01-01

    This study explored two hypotheses relating elevated concentrations of nitrogen species in drinking water and the disease Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN). Drinking water samples were collected from a variety of water supplies in both endemic and non-endemic villages in the Vratza and Montana districts of Bulgaria. The majority of well water samples exceeded US drinking water standards for nitrate + nitrite. No statistically significant difference was observed for any of the nitrogen species between villages classified as endemic and non-endemic. Other constituents (sodium, potassium and chloride) known to be indicators of anthropogenic pollution were also found at elevated concentrations and all followed the order wells > springs > taps. This ordering coincides with the proximity of human influences to the water sources. Our results clearly establish an exposure pathway between anthropogenic activity and drinking water supplies, suggesting that the causative agent for BEN could result from surface contamination. - Water in villages affected and unaffected by Balkan Endemic Nephropathy had no significant differences in nitrogen compounds

  10. Comparison of Satellite NO2 Observations with High Resolution Model Simulations over the Balkan Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyrichidou, I.; Koukouli, M. E.; Balis, D. S.; Katragkou, E.; Poupkou, A.; Kioutsioukis, I.; Markakis, K.; Melas, D.; van der A., R.; Boersma, F. K.; Roozendael, M. van

    2010-01-01

    High resolution model estimations of tropospheric NO 2 column amounts from the Comprehensive Air Quality Model (CAMx) were simulated for the Balkan Peninsula and were compared with satellite data for a period of one year, in order to study the characteristics of the spatial and temporal variability of pollution in the area. The Balkan area is considered a crossroad of different pollution sources and therefore has been divided in urban, industrial and rural regions, aiming to investigate the consistency of satellite retrievals and model predictions at high spatial resolution. Satellite measurements of tropospheric NO 2 are available daily at 13:30 LT since 2004 from OMI/Aura with a resolution of 13x24 km. The anthropogenic emissions used in CAMx for the domain under study, was compiled employing bottom-up approaches (road transport sector, off-road machinery) as well as other national registries and international databases. High resolution GIS maps (road network, landuses, population) were also used in order to achieve high spatial resolution. In most of the cases the model reveals similar spatial patterns with the satellite data, while over certain areas discrepancies were found and investigated.

  11. Serbia, the Serbo-Albanian conflict and the First Balkan War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bataković Dušan T.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After the restoration of Serbia in 1830, the areas of medieval Serbia left out of her borders were dubbed Old Serbia - Kosovo, Metohija, Rascia (the former sanjak of Novi Pazar and the neighbouring areas. Old Serbia (from 1877 onwards the vilayet of Kosovo was dominated by local Albanian pashas, whereas the Christian Orthodox Serbs and their villages were attacked and pillaged by Muslim Albanian brigands. The religious antagonism between Muslims and Christians expanded into national conflict after the 1878 Albanian League had claimed the entire “Old Serbia for Greater Albania”. The position of Christian Orthodox Serbs, who accounted for a half of the population at the end of the nineteenth century, was dramatically aggravated due to Muslim Albanians' tribal anarchy, Austria-Hungary's pro-Albanian agitation and, after 1908, frequent Albanian rebellions. All efforts of Serbia to reach a peaceful agreement with Muslim Albanian leaders in Old Serbia before the First Balkan War had ended in failure. The First Balkan War was the most popular war in Serbia’s history as it was seen as avenging the 1389 Battle of Kosovo which had sealed the Ottoman penetration into the Serbian lands. In October 1912, Serbia liberated most of Old Serbia, while Montenegro took possesion of half of the Rascia area and the whole of Metohija. While the decimated and discriminated Serb population greeted the Serbian and Montenegrin troops as liberators, most Albanians, who had sided with the Ottomans, saw the establishment of Serbian rule as occupation.

  12. The Determinants of Capital Structure: Evidence from Listed Companies in Balkan Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajla Ngjeliu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As most of the empirical literature regarding the determinants of capital structure relies on developed economies, this study contributes to the existing literature by looking at listed companies in the Balkan region. It investigates 760 companies over a 6-year period from 2007 to 2013 using a random effect model. The leverage is specified as a function of firm-specific characteristics, and the results are in line with previous empirical studies. Respectively, it is seen that a positive correlation is significant for size, while a negative one is found for profitability. Observing the decomposition of leverage, it can be assessed that the Balkan companies rely mostly on short-term debt. Furthermore, this study aims and finds significant differences between the determinants of capital structure of the companies established in EU and those in non-EU countries. The z-score indicated that when looking at the total debt ratio there is only one determinant which is statically significant.

  13. Anti-vaccinationists and their arguments in the Balkan countries that share the same language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Zoran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective has been an analysis of anti-vaccination situation in the language-related Balkan countries. Mass and organized opposition to vaccination in this part of the world is a relatively recent phenomenon. It has been an offshoot of the respective ideas from the West, associated with New Ageism, postmodernism, and similar worldviews, but particularly beefed up by MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine fear in the late 1990s. The four key local leaders from four countries have been selected to represent the whole diversity of the Balkan anti-vaccination scene. Each of them exerts his/her influence throughout the region. The result is that vaccination coverage has substantially decreased in many areas. Outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases that have to follow sooner or later would eventually, at least temporarily, bring a blow to the credibility of anti-vaccinationists. We already witnessed such a trend in Bosnia and Herzegovina where vaccines were not readily available during the Bosnian wars in 1990s. As a result, major epidemics of measles, mumps, and rubella recently took place all over the country. A dynamic balance between the influence of anti-vaccination movement and the incidence of diseases, characterized by an inverse relationship (the more damaging impact of vaccine opponents on public health, the more cases of diseases, and vice versa has been a pattern that health services have to deal with.

  14. Strategic Interests of Germany in the Balkans at the Turn of 20-21 Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Latkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After the reunification of Germany and the transition of some countries of central and Eastern Europe under the control of the West, radical changes in the European political system have occurred. Germany turned into a powerful state and began to provide the strategy for independent foreign policy, in which the regional policy in the Balkans, Caucasus and Middle East took the significant place. Germany tried to expand its influence to the countries of Balkan Peninsula, in alliance with Austria-Hungary against Russia, as well as in the beginning of 21st century. However, in the end of 20th century, after several failures in the foreign policy, Germany turned to Russia. Despite its expansionist policy, Germany had to coordinate every step with international organizations or even transfer them issues of conflict resolution in the region. Constantly competing with its allies (mainly the U.S. and UK, Germany was trying to build its foreign policy strategy in the way of increasing its influence in the strategically important region.

  15. Terpene chemodiversity of relict conifers Picea omorika, Pinus heldreichii, and Pinus peuce, endemic to Balkan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Biljana; Ristić, Mihailo; Tešević, Vele; Marin, Petar D; Bojović, Srdjan

    2011-12-01

    Terpenes are often used as ecological and chemotaxonomic markers of plant species, as well as for estimation of geographic variability. Essential oils of relic and Balkan endemic/subendemic conifers, Picea omorika, Pinus heldreichii, and P. peuce, in central part of Balkan Peninsula (Serbia and Montenegro), on the level of terpene classes and common terpene compounds were investigated. In finding terpene combinations, which could show the best diversity between species and their natural populations, several statistical methods were applied. Apart from the content of different terpene classes (P. omorika has the most abundant O-containing monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes; P. heldreichii and P. peuce have the largest abundance of sesquiterpene and monoterpene hydrocarbons, resp.), the species are clearly separated according to terpene profile with 22 common compounds. But, divergences in their populations were established only in combination of several compounds (specific for each species), and they were found to be the results of geomorphologic, climatic, and genetic factors. We found similarities between investigated species and some taxa from literature with respect to terpene composition, possibly due to hybridization and phylogenetic relations. Obtained results are also important regarding to chemotaxonomy, biogeography, phylogeny, and evolution of these taxa. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  16. The Role of the EU as a Peacebuilder in the Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentjan Skara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After the Cold War, the Western Balkan countries have become an important laboratory for the EU, able to exert its EU crises management and transformative power. Through restoring stability in the region, overcoming ethno–territorial and inter–ethnic conflicts, improving regional cooperation, consolidating democracy, building democratic institutions and promoting market economy, EU’s goal was to make war unthinkable in this region. Referring to the definition of peacebuilding as ‘action to identify and support structures which tend to strengthen and solidify peace to avoid a relapse into conflicts’, this paper tries to explore whether, how and to what extent, EU has contributed as a peacebuilder in the Western Balkans, using crises management operations and mission and enlargement policy. It argues that both these instruments can be considered equally relevant as, on the one hand they create favourable conditions for lasting peace, security and stability in the region and on the other hand, through enlargement policy they push this region towards political and institutional reform, economic reforms and regional cooperation.

  17. Using Natural Sciences for Cultural Expansion: The National Socialist Agenda for the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Zarifi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights the political merit natural sciences were awarded under the totalitarian regime of Nazi Germany and their propagandistic role in Hitler's foreign policy agenda for the Balkans, a region which was expected to replace Germany's colonies lost in World War I. It accounts further for the policies and strategies National Socialists used to exert cultural influence on the countries of South-East Europe, namely through a number of institutions with which natural sciences were in one way or another involved in order to promote German culture abroad. The promotion of the German language and, to a certain degree, the Nazi ideology was a precondition for familiarising the Balkan countries with German scientific achievements, which would pave the way for an economic and political infiltration in that region. Therefore, natural sciences, as part of the German intellect, acquired political and economic connotations hidden behind the euphemistic term of cultural policy, designed for this region of geopolitical importance. The article is based almost exclusively on unpublished German records.

  18. Physical self-concept of adolescents in Western Balkan countries: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janić, Snežana Radisavljević; Jurak, Gregor; Milanović, Ivana; Lazarević, Dušanka; Kovač, Marjeta; Novak, Dario

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore physical self-concept of adolescents of the Western Balkans (Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina) according to sex and country. The participants were 2,606 students, ages 13 and 14 years (M = 13.5, SD = 0.9). The Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) was used to assess multidimensional physical self-concept. The results show the interaction of sex and country for three dimensions of physical self-concept (Appearance, Global Physical Self-Concept, and Self-Esteem). It was shown that female and male adolescents' perception of physical appearance, self-esteem, and global physical self-concept is more susceptible to influences of socio-cultural factors in the monitored countries. In all other dimensions of Physical self-concept, sex differences were consistently manifested in favour of male adolescents, except in Flexibility. Regardless of adolescents' sex, under the increasing influence of Western culture in the Western Balkan countries, adolescents more critically evaluate their body and motor abilities.

  19. The influence of climate change to European Lakes, with a special emphasis in the Balkan Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuusisto, Esko

    2004-01-01

    There are almost one and half million lakes in Europe, if small water bodies with an area down to 0.001 km 2 are included. The total area of lakes is over 200.000 km 2 , in addition the man-made reservoirs cover almost 100.000 km 2 . The largest lakes are located in the zone extending from southwestern Sweden through Finland to Russia, but there are many important lakes also in central and southern Europe. The Balkan countries have altogether about ten thousand lakes with a total area of over 4000 km 2 and total volume of almost loo km 3 . Over half of the total volume is in Lake Ohrid, which ranks the seventh in Europe both as to the volume and as to the maximum depth. However, there are around thirty lakes in Europe with their surface area larger than that of Lake Ohrid. In addition to the lakes, the Balkan countries also have thousands of reservoirs with a total water storage capacity of over 50 km 3 . The response of European lakes to climate change can be discussed by dividing the lakes into five categories: 1) deep temperate lakes, 2) shallow temperate lakes, 3) mountain lakes, 4) boreal lakes and 5) arctic lakes. The lakes in the Balkan region fall belong into the first three categories. Most of the deep temperate lakes are warm monomictic; convective overturn occurs in winter or early spring. The future climate change may suppress this overturn, giving these lakes the classification of oligomictic. This implies the enhancement of anoxic bottom conditions and an increased risk of eutrophication. The oxygen conditions can also be expected to deteriorate due to increased bacterial activity in deep waters and superficial bottom sediment. In shallow temperate lakes, higher water temperatures in the future will induce intensified primary production and bacterial decomposition. The probability of harmful extreme events, e.g. the mass production of algae, will increase. The impacts may extend to fishing and recreational use. In lakes with relatively long water

  20. The Influence of Ethnicity and Displacement on Quality of Antenatal Care: The Case of Roma, Ashkali, and Balkan Egyptian Communities in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovski, Kristefer; Holla, Alaka; Hoxha, Ilir; Howell, Elizabeth; Janevic, Teresa

    2017-12-01

    The conflict in Kosovo created mass displacement and a fractured health system. Roma, Ashkali, and Balkan Egyptian communities are particularly vulnerable to discrimination and exclusion from institutions. We aimed to examine Roma, Ashkali, and Balkan Egyptian disparities in quantity and quality of antenatal care received. We conducted a cross-sectional study in August 2012 with 603 women aged 15 or older who had given birth in the previous two years. We measured quantity of antenatal care using number of visits and quality of care using antenatal checklists. We used linear regression with interaction terms of displacement and type of health institution (for example, Serbian or Kosovar) to assess ethnic disparities in antenatal care. Women from Roma, Ashkali, and Balkan Egyptian communities received poorer quantity and quality of antenatal care compared to Kosovar Albanian and Serbian women. In adjusted models, Roma, Ashkali, and Balkan Egyptian women scored 3.5 points lower [95% CI (-5.2, -1.8)] on the checklists. Roma, Ashkali, and Balkan Egyptian women who were displaced received even poorer quality of care. Ethnic disparities exist in quality of antenatal care. Women from Roma, Ashkali, and Balkan Egyptian communities receive the poorest quality of services. As Kosovo strives to build a multiethnic health care system, a focus on equity is important to ensure the right to health for Roma, Ashkali, and Balkan Egyptian women.

  1. The Balkan endemic Picris hispidissima (Compositae): morphology, nuclear DNA content and relationship to the polymorphic P. hieracioides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slovák, M.; Urfus, Tomáš; Vít, Petr; Marhold, K.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 278, 3-4 (2009), s. 187-201 ISSN 0378-2697 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Balkan Peninsula * genome size * multivariate morphometrics Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.410, year: 2009

  2. Population densities and habitat use of the golden jackal (Canis aureus) in farmlands across the Balkan Peninsula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šálek, Martin; Červinka, J.; Banea, O. C.; Krofel, M.; Ćirović, D.; Selanec, I.; Penezić, A.; Grill, S.; Riegert, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2014), s. 193-200 ISSN 1612-4642 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Golden jackal * Acoustic monitoring * Population density * Habitat use * GIS * Farmland * Balkan Peninsula Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.634, year: 2014

  3. Contrasting evolutionary histories of the legless lizards slow worms (Anguis) shaped by the topography of the Balkan Peninsula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jablonski, D.; Jandzik, D.; Mikulíček, P.; Džukić, G.; Ljubisavljević, K.; Tzankov, N.; Jelić, D.; Thanou, E.; Moravec, J.; Gvoždík, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2016), č. článku 99. ISSN 1471-2148 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Anguidae * Squamata * phylogeography * biogeography * speciation * contact zones * microrefugia * Balkan mountains Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.221, year: 2016

  4. Deliverable 5.2 Study report on consumer motivations and behaviours for fruits and fruit products in the Balkans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, S.J.; Snoek, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    It is unclear whether fruit consumption in Western Balkan countries (WBC) meets recommended levels from a health perspective. A better understanding consumers' perception of health and motives and barriers of fruit is necessary to get insight in the fruit consumption. The aim of WP 5 is therefore to

  5. Mitochondrial phylogeography of the European ground squirrel, Spermophilus citellus, yields evidence on refugia for steppic taxa in the southern Balkans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kryštufek, B.; Bryja, Josef; Bužan, E. V.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 2 (2009), s. 129-135 ISSN 0018-067X R&D Projects: GA MŠk MEB090802; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Balkan Peninsula * cytochrome b * divergence time * glacial cycles Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.122, year: 2009

  6. First thermochronological constraints on the Cenozoic extension along the Balkan fold-thrust belt (Central Stara Planina Mountains, Bulgaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounov, Alexandre; Gerdjikov, Ianko; Vangelov, Dian; Balkanska, Eleonora; Lazarova, Anna; Georgiev, Stoyan; Blunt, Edward; Stockli, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    The Balkan fold-thrust belt, exposed in Bulgaria and north-east Serbia, is part of the north-east vergent segment of the bi-vergent Eastern Mediterranean Alpine orogen. It was formed during two distinct compressional stages; the first one lasted from the Middle Jurassic to the Early Cretaceous and the second from Late Cretaceous to the Paleogene. Although the compressional tectonic evolution of the Balkan fold-thrust belt since the Middle Jurassic and during most of the Mesozoic is relatively well studied, the final exhumation of the rocks of the belt during the Cenozoic has remained poorly understood. Here, we present the first thermochronological constraints, based on fission-track and [U-Th-(Sm)]/He analysis, showing that along the central part of the belt syn- to post-orogenic extension could have started as early as the middle Eocene. Low-temperature thermochronological analysis of samples collected from three areas reveals at least two phases of increased cooling and exhumation during the Cenozoic. The first exhumation phase took place between 44 and 30 Ma and appears to be related to the syn- to post-orogenic collapse coeval with the earliest Cenozoic extensional stage observed across the southern Balkan Peninsula. A period of relative quiescence (between 30 and 25 Ma) is followed by the next cooling stage, between 25 and 20 Ma, which appears to be related to late Oligocene to early Miocene crustal extension across the Balkan Peninsula. Extension accommodated by the late Miocene to Recent age Sub-Balkan Graben System does not appear to have produced exhumation of rocks from beneath 2-4 km depth, as it was not detected by the low-temperature thermochronological methods applied in this study.

  7. Informal Patient Payments and Bought and Brought Goods in the Western Balkans - A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch Mejsner, Sofie; Eklund Karlsson, Leena

    2017-07-03

    Informal patient payments for healthcare are common in the Western Balkans, negatively affecting public health and healthcare. To identify literature from the Western Balkans on what is known about informal patient payments and bought and brought goods, to examine their effects on healthcare and to determine what actions can be taken to tackle these payments. After conducting a scoping review that involved searching websites and databases and filtering with eligibility criteria and quality assessment tools, 24 relevant studies were revealed. The data were synthesized using a narrative approach that identified key concepts, types of evidence, and research gaps. The number of studies of informal patient payments increased between 2002 and 2015, but evidence regarding the issues of concern is scattered across various countries. Research has reported incidents of informal patient payments on a wide scale and has described various patterns and characteristics of these payments. Although these payments have typically been small - particularly to providers in common areas of specialized medicine - evidence regarding bought and brought goods remains limited, indicating that such practices are likely even more common, of greater magnitude and perhaps more problematic than informal patient payments. Only scant research has examined the measures that are used to tackle informal patient payments. The evidence indicates that legalizing informal patient payments, introducing performance-based payment systems, strengthening reporting, changing mentalities and involving the media and the European Union (EU) or religious organizations in anti-corruption campaigns are understood as some of the possible remedies that might help reduce informal patient payments. Despite comprehensive evidence regarding informal patient payments, data remain scattered and contradictory, implying that informal patient payments are a complex phenomenon. Additionally, the data on bought and brought goods

  8. Native Dreissena freshwater mussels in the Balkans: in and out of ancient lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, T.; Schultheiß, R.; Albrecht, C.; Bornmann, N.; Trajanovski, S.; Kevrekidis, T.

    2010-10-01

    The Balkans is a biogeographically highly diverse region and a worldwide hotspot of endemic freshwater diversity. A substantial part of this diversity is attributed to well recognized and potential ancient lakes in its southwestern part. However, despite considerable research efforts, faunal relationships among those lakes are not well understood. Therefore, genetic information from native representatives of the mussel genus Dreissena is here used to test the biogeographical zonation of the southwestern Balkans, to relate demographic changes to environmental changes, to assess the degree of eco-insularity, to reconstruct their evolutionary history, and to explore the potential of native taxa for becoming invasive. Phylogeographical and population genetic analyses indicate that most studied populations belong to two native species: D. presbensis (including the distinct genetic subgroup from Lake Ohrid, "D. stankovici") and D. blanci. In addition, the first confirmed record of invasive D. polymorpha in the southwestern Balkan is presented. The distribution of native Dreissena spp. generally coincides with the biogeographical zonations previously suggested based on fish data. However, there is disagreement on the assignment of the ancient lakes in the area to respective biogeographical regions. The data for Lake Ohrid are not conclusive. A closer biogeographical connection to lakes of the Vardar region and possibly the northern Ionian region is, however, suggested for Lake Prespa. The reconstruction of the evolutionary history of Dreissena spp. suggests that populations underwent demographic and spatial expansions in the recent past. Expansions started around 320 000-300 000 years ago in "D. stankovici", 160 000-140 000 years ago in D. blanci, and 110 000-70 000 years ago in D. presbensis. These time frames are discussed within the context of available paleogeological data for lakes Ohrid and Prespa. It is suggested that regional environmental changes may have had

  9. Native Dreissena freshwater mussels in the Balkans: in and out of ancient lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Trajanovski

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Balkans is a biogeographically highly diverse region and a worldwide hotspot of endemic freshwater diversity. A substantial part of this diversity is attributed to well recognized and potential ancient lakes in its southwestern part. However, despite considerable research efforts, faunal relationships among those lakes are not well understood. Therefore, genetic information from native representatives of the mussel genus Dreissena is here used to test the biogeographical zonation of the southwestern Balkans, to relate demographic changes to environmental changes, to assess the degree of eco-insularity, to reconstruct their evolutionary history, and to explore the potential of native taxa for becoming invasive. Phylogeographical and population genetic analyses indicate that most studied populations belong to two native species: D. presbensis (including the distinct genetic subgroup from Lake Ohrid, "D. stankovici" and D. blanci. In addition, the first confirmed record of invasive D. polymorpha in the southwestern Balkan is presented. The distribution of native Dreissena spp. generally coincides with the biogeographical zonations previously suggested based on fish data. However, there is disagreement on the assignment of the ancient lakes in the area to respective biogeographical regions. The data for Lake Ohrid are not conclusive. A closer biogeographical connection to lakes of the Vardar region and possibly the northern Ionian region is, however, suggested for Lake Prespa. The reconstruction of the evolutionary history of Dreissena spp. suggests that populations underwent demographic and spatial expansions in the recent past. Expansions started around 320 000–300 000 years ago in "D. stankovici", 160 000–140 000 years ago in D. blanci, and 110 000–70 000 years ago in D. presbensis. These time frames are discussed within the context of available paleogeological data for lakes Ohrid and Prespa. It is suggested that regional environmental

  10. Mineral deposits related to tertiary magmatism in the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafimovski, Todor; Jelenkovic, Rade; Tasev, Goran; Lazarov, Pande

    2003-01-01

    Neogene volcanism in the southern parts of the Balkan Peninsula is distributed in wide area, mainly in the terraines of the Vardar zone and Serbo-Macedonian massif. They are, mostly volcano-intrusive complexes, partly with emphasized extrusive-effusive character manifested in area of almost 1200 km 2 (Kratovo-Zletovo volcanic area, eastern Macedonia). From the geo tectonic point of view they are part of Vardar zone and Serbo-Macedonian massif, often they are located at the contact parts between these two geo tectonic units. With these volcano-intrusive magmatic complexes with Tertiary age, there are connected numerous deposits and occurrences of Pb-Zn, Cu, Mo, Au, Ag, Sb±W, Sn etc. (Original)

  11. Range of engineering-geological properties for some carbonate rock complexes for Balkan peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovski, Milorad; Shpago, Azra; Peshevski, Igor

    2010-01-01

    The Carbonate Rock masses are a geological media with extremely complex states and properties, which has a certain influences on the mechanical and hydraulic behavior during construction and exploitation of engineering structures. Practical aspects of the problem analysis arise from the fact that the areas of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and the entire Balkans is characterized by presence of wide areas covered with carbonate complexes, where large number of complex engineering structures have been, or shall be constructed in the future. In this context, their engineering-geological modeling is still a practical and scientific challenge. The analysis of engineering- geological properties is one of the main steps in forming of analytical and geotechnical models for complex rock structures. This article gives a data about the range for these properties, according to the results from an extensive investigation program. Some original correlations and testing results are given and they are compared with some published relations from the world. (Author)

  12. Renal function studies by radioisotope methods in patients with Balkan endemic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanchev, J.; Tancheva, D.

    1977-01-01

    The renal function in 80 patients with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN) was studied by radioisotope clearance and isotope nephrogram. The examinations revealed that radioisotope clearance provide significant information about renal function with various stages of nitrogen decompensation. EDTA clearance can detect the changes in glomerul filtration of patients with BEN at an early compensated stage. Comparison of the results obtained from the investigation of the glomerul filtration by creatinine and EDTA clearance found the radioisotope clearance more accurate. The effective renal plasma flow in patients with BEN at the early stage of the disease was established not to be disturbed. This provides grounds to admit that in BEN glomeruli are very likely damaged earlier as compared with the tubules. Isotope nephrogram is not changed at the early BEN stages. The changes are most frequently bilateral in the advanced stages of the disease. (author)

  13. Chromosome aberration analysis in peripheral lymphocytes of Gulf war and Balkans war veterans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, H.; Heimers, A.; Frentzel-Beyme, R.; Schott, A.; Hoffmann, W.

    2003-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) were determined in standard peripheral lymphocyte metaphase preparations of 13 British Gulf War veterans, two veterans of the recent war in the Balkans, and one veteran of both wars. All 16 volunteers suspect exposures to depleted uranium while deployed at the two different theatres of war in 1990 and later on. The Bremen laboratory control served as a reference in this study. Compared with this control there was a statistically significant increase in the frequency of dicentric chromosomes (dic) and centric ring chromosomes (cR) in the veterans' group, indicating a previous exposure to ionising radiation. The statistically significant overdispersion of dic and cR indicates non-uniform irradiation as would be expected after non-uniform exposure and/or exposure to radiation with a high linear energy transfer. The frequency of SCEs was decreased when compared with the laboratory control. (author)

  14. On operational safety of nuclear power plants in Balkans and surroundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spasojevic, D.; Jovic, V.; Milivojevic, S.

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of nuclear power plants operational safety in Balkan Peninsula and surrounding in this paper is presented. The nuclear power plants: Kozloduy (Bulgaria), Bohunice (Slovak Republic), Krsko (Slovenia), PAKS (Hungary) and Cernavoda (Romania) in this analysis are considered. The approaches, methods and criteria used in operational safety analyses are quite different from that which are used by nuclear power plant proprietors. As the input data for the analysis presented in this paper, the originally developed computer program BOGRAP and the nuclear power plants operating experience published by International Agency for Atomic Energy (IAEA) were used. The results show that considered nuclear power experienced outages, failures, and operator errors, but none of them ever released significantly increased quantities of radioactive effluents into the environment.(author)

  15. Relationship between weathered coal deposits and the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feder, G.L.; Radovanovic, Z.; Finkelman, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    Field studies in epidemiology and environmental geochemistry in areas in Yugoslavia containing villages with a high incidence of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), indicate a possible relationship between the presence of low-rank coal deposits and the etiology of BEN. Preliminary results from qualitative chemical analyses of drinking water from shallow farm wells indicate the presence of soluble polar aromatic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. These compounds may be derived from weathering of low-rank coals occurring in the vicinity of the endemic villages. All of the endemic villages are in alluvial valleys of tributaries to the Danube River. All except one of the clusters of endemic villages are located in the vicinity of known Pliocene age coals. Detailed sampling of the drinking waters and the nearby coals are being undertaken to identify a possible etiologic factor

  16. Discourse of simulacra in Kovacević's drama Balkan Spy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Snežana J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on a reading of the famous Dušan Kovačević's drama Balkan Spy, contextualized by postulates of simulacra. The starting point for finding symbols that corresponded to the system of the non-referent world (and each such system creates its own reality, and proceeds from its own frame in which it must be interpreted is a book of Jean Baudrillard 'Simulacrum and Simulation'. Through chapters that accentuate simulacrum-like phenomena for proving the actual through imaginary and cloned, as well as defining the world of literary text as a kind of Disneyland, it becomes evident soundness of this idea that confirms the quality of this drama.

  17. Sexual size and shape dimorphism in Salamandra salamandra (Amphibia, Caudata, Salamandridae from the central Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labus N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual size dimorphism is one of the key evolutionary features that has been studied in many organisms. On the other hand, sexual shape dimorphism has not been examined as well despite being as important as size dimorphism. Therefore, we analyzed the sexual size and shape dimorphism (SSSD of Salamandra salamandra from the territory of the central Balkans. In addition, we wanted to reconsider if there is some regularity in the geographical distribution of SSSD in the investigated area. Significant differences in size and shape between the sexes were found for the whole sample and among the analyzed groups. Females were larger than males and had bigger heads, interlimb distances and a parotid gland, while males had bigger tails, forelimbs, hindlimbs, and forefoot and hindfoot length. Our results reveal a strong effect of locality on trait variation. This variation from the general pattern of SSSD is not substantial but still has to be considered.

  18. Population genetic studies in the Balkans. II. DNA-STR-systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckenbeck, W; Scheil, H G; Schmidt, H D; Efremovska, L; Xirotiris, N

    2001-09-01

    Within a study of the genetics of Southeastern European populations four DNA-STR-systems (D21S11, FGA, TH01, VWA) were examined in seven samples (samples of three Aromuns and four other Balkan populations). The results have been compared to data from four samples from literature (Austrians, Germans, Hungarians, Slovenians). The results show three clusters: a) the Aromuns from Albania (Andon Poci) and Macedonia (Stip region), b) the Romanian Aromuns (Kogalniceanu), Romanians (Constanta, Ploiesti) and Albanians (Tirana) und c) the data from literature. A sample of Northeastern Greece clearly differs from these three clusters. Including seven serum protein polymorphisms (without the populations from literature) results in two clusters: a) the three Aromun populations and b) Albanians and Romanians. Again the sample of Northeastern Greece clearly differs from these clusters.

  19. Antibacterial activity of domestic Balkan donkey milk toward Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarić Ljubiša Ć.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of raw milk from Domestic Balkan donkey breed toward Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Examination of antibacterial activity was performed in artificially contaminated milk samples by monitoring the changes of count of viable cells of tested bacteria during 8 hours of incubation at 38°C. Lysozyme and fatty acids contents were also determined in donkey milk. The obtained results indicated inhibitory effect of donkey milk toward both tested bacteria. The lysozyme content in the analyzed milk samples was ranged from 0.67 to 3.54 g/L. The most abundant fatty acids with known antibacterial activity toward Gram positive bacteria were linoleic, lauric and oleic acid.

  20. Product availability from delivery aspect: Evidence from retailers in selected Western Balkan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubor Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bearing in mind that it represents one of the main preconditions of sales, product availability is the key task of retail companies and their delivery systems. This paper analyses its levels from the aspect of centralized and DSD systems. The research is conducted in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro, including 84 stores and more than 70 FMCG products per each store. Thereby, the comparisons in product availability levels between alternative delivery systems are carried out within different trading formats and within different product categories. Unlike the results of similar studies and ongoing changes on retail markets, this research shows that at retailers in these Western Balkan countries, availability levels are higher in the case of DSD system.

  1. Croatia’s police and security community building in the Western Balkans

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    Sandro KNEZOVIĆ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the eventual existence of a security community within the Western Balkans region by exploring the contribution of police as a profession/epistemic community in Croatia to the security community building process. In order to do so, two theoretical concepts have been applied: first, the one of security community which, according to Deutsch, as well as Adler and Barnett, is something that is leading IR and humanity out of the era of nation-state; secondly, the one of professions as exclusive occupational groups in Abbott’s interpretation (wherein the police is considered to be a profession. Our approach builds on a combination of the aforementioned theories, while the study itself has been based on the developments in the field of policing in Croatia since 1990 and its implications for the creation of a security community in the region.

  2. Fertility and union formation during crisis and societal consolidation in the Western Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Mathias

    2018-01-23

    Fertility decline in central and eastern Europe (CEE) since the fall of the communist regimes has been driven by both stopping and postponement of childbearing: two processes that have been related to crisis and economic development, respectively. In the Western Balkans these economic and political contexts followed each other in the form of a biphasic transition. I examine whether this sequence triggered fertility responses like those observed elsewhere. Relying on three independent data sources, I cross-validate the levels of, and describe the trends in, union formation and fertility (by birth order) between 1980 and 2010. Results do not reveal widespread declines in fertility to lowest-low levels during the most acute period of crisis. The subsequent postponement of marriage and first birth was also limited, and the two-child family remains the norm. This relative resilience of childbearing patterns compared with other CEE countries is discussed with reference to the institutional context.

  3. On problems related to the deployment of depleted uranium weapons in the Balkans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mietelski, J. W.; Waligorski, M.P.R.; Zunic, Z.S.

    2002-01-01

    The likely long-term environmental and health effects of the deployment of weapons containing depleted uranium (DU) in the Balkans are discussed. To determine whether depleted uranium or spent reactor fuel was used in the weapons, knowledge is required of the 235 U to 238 U activity (or concentration) ratio in the measured samples. To this end, and to distinguish between uranium originating from natural and man-made sources, we discuss some of the methodology and metrology issues involved in performing alpha- and gamma- spectrometry of uranium in environmental and human samples. We present results of nuclear spectrometry performed on DU core deposits from the aluminium jacket of a PGU-14 bullet found in South Serbia. We draw attention to aspects involving ionising radiation, which are likely to be of importance when formulating a prognosis of the possible environmental and health impact of the deployment of DU weapons, indicating the importance of the inhalation pathway in children. (author)

  4. Remembrance, Public Narratives, and Obstacles to Justice in the Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Subotic

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years since the onset of the traumatic wars of Yugoslav secession, the countries of the Western Balkans continue to nurture narratives of the past that are mutually exclusive, contradictory, and irreconcilable. The troubling ways in which states in the region remember their pasts provide continuing obstacles in the search for acknowledgment and justice. In this essay, I develop an argument for understanding the relationship between justice and remembrance of the past. To illustrate this relationship, I explore ways in which education and memorialization projects contribute to justice efforts. I critically analyze a few ongoing education and memory projects in the region, and then present alternative ideas on mechanisms of public memory that would be more conducive to building the foundational blocks of justice based on trust, respect, and dignity.

  5. David Mitrany and South-East Europe: The Balkan Key to World Peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian M. Ashworth

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Today David Mitrany is best known for his work on international functionalism, which influenced the development of European integration and the organisation of United Nations specialised agencies. What is often ignored in the West is his work on South-East Europe. During the inter-war period Mitrany studied both the operation of war government and the subsequent peasant revolution in the Balkans. War government demonstrated that political organisation could bridge the gap between social action and private property, while the peasant social revolution showed that the abstract economics associated with both capitalist and Marxist economics was not applicable outside of urban industrial production. It was through his studies of South-East Europe that Mitrany drew many of the lessons and concepts that were to form the foundations of his international theory.

  6. The contribution of tourism industry on the GDP growth of Western Balkan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čerović Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism industry records various economic, social, political and others influences and provides itself important position in the overall economic development of many countries. The analysis of the available data of tourist arrivals and number of tourist overnight stays in observed countries of the Western Balkans (Serbia, Macedonia, Montenegro led us to conduct research in order to determine tourism contribution to the overall economic growth. Based on the modified methodology used by Brida et al. (2008 for calculating real GDP growth rates and tourism contribution to the overall economic growth, the paper indicates that tourism makes a modest direct contribution to the overall economic growth in the examined countries, regardless of the continuous increase in the number of foreign tourist arrivals. The level of tourism contribution to the overall economic growth varies and it is primarily related to diversity and quality of supply (the highest contribution is recorded in Montenegro, while lowest contribution is observed in Macedonia.

  7. Contractors on the Battlefield: When and How? Using the US Military's Risk Management Framework to Learn from the Balkans Support Contract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenfield, Victoria A; Camm, Frank

    2007-01-01

    .... To illustrate, this paper applies the framework to the Army's Balkans Support Contract (BSC); the contract covers a variety of life support, transportation, and maintenance services and has registered...

  8. Das Problem der sogenannten zusammengesetzten Bezirke auf dem Balkan im 11. Jahrhundert: Zwei fallbeispiele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krsmanović Bojana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (nemački In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden Charakteristika der sogenannten zusammengesetzten militärisch-zivilen Bezirke behandelt, die aus zwei oder drei Untereinheiten bestanden. Diese Untereinheiten der zusammengesetzten Bezirke hatten in der Regel feste zivile und militärische Verwaltungsstrukturen, d.h. sie hatten eine gewisse Unabhängigkeit. Ein zusammengesetzter Bezirk konnte in den Quellen als ein 'thema' (im Singular bezeichnet werden oder auch im Plural als 'themata'. An seiner Spitze befand sich ein Dux/katepano oder gelegentlich auch ein Stratege. Der zivilen Verwaltung stand ein Richter/Prätor vor, welcher häufig das Amt eines anagrapheus innehatte. Weiterhin wurde der zusammengesetzte Bezirk Voleron-Strymon-Thessalonike naher untersucht sowie die Probleme, die mit dem Status seiner Unterheiten, insbesondere mit Voleron, zusammenhängen. Es ist möglich, dass aus denjenigen Gebieten des Balkans, die nach dem Jahr 1018 unter byzantinische Herrschaft gefallen waren, ein zusammengesetzter Bezirk gebildet wurde. Die Rede ist von dem Thema Bulgaria-Sirmium-Paradounavon. Es wird vermutet, dass die demographischen Umstände sowie die ethnische Zusammensetzung der Bevölkerung der Region Einfluss auf die Charakteristika des zusammengesetzten Bezirks hatten. Die zivile Verwaltungsstruktur war hier nicht derart beständig wie in den anderen Gebieten des Balkans, die bereits vor dem Krieg von 976-1018 unter byzantinischer Herrschaft standen. Sirmium und Paradounavon scheinen im zivilen Bereich der Verwaltung von Amtsträgern aus Bulgarien geleitet worden zu sein, wahrend die militärische Führung anscheinend unabhängig von Bulgarien war.

  9. Greek Death-Cult, Modern and Ancient: A Comparison of a Mediterranean and Balkan Cultural Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J. Håland

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The article examines emotion and identity in connection with Greek death-cult in an attempt to clarify certain contemporary political phenomena in the Mediterranean and Balkan area. The cult of the dead is a common cultural pattern in the area. Why is this cult so persistent? What is death-cult and how does it manifest itself? The article delves into its lasting importance in the Greek part of the cultural area, where the author has conducted several fieldworks. To illustrate the persistence of this cultural pattern, the characteristic aspects connected with death-cult in Greek tradition are discussed: The comparison is based on festivals, which are dedicated to deceased persons and domestic death-rituals combined with ancient sources. Based on them an analytical survey of the relationship between the death-cult dedicated to deceased mediators in ancient and modern society, as it is manifested through laments, burials and the following memorial rituals is made. The modern domestic rituals people perform for their own dead influence the official ideological rituals, and vice versa, the domestic rituals reflect public performances. A study of modern cult practices reveals many parallels with the official cult of the ancients, and suggests ways in which modern rituals can throw new light upon the ancient rituals and vice versa. The article seeks to demonstrate how new ideologies must adjust to older rituals and beliefs and how public and domestic rituals are connected. The article finally suggests how these similarities might represent a common way of expression within a larger context in which the Mediterranean and Balkan cultural meaning of emotion is central.

  10. Trends in biological activity research of wild-growing aromatic plants from Central Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džamić, A.M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Flowering plants consists of more than 300.000 species around the world, out of which a small percentage has been sufficiently investigated from phytochemical and biological activity aspects. Plant diversity of the Balkans is very rich, but still poorly investigated. The aim of this paper is survey of current status and trends in research of wild-growing aromatic plants from Central Balkans. Many aromatic plants are investigated from morphological, physiological, ecological, systematic and phytochemical aspects. However, traditionally used medicinal and aromatic plants can also be considered from applicative aspects, concerning their health effects, and from wide range of usage in cosmetics, and as food, agrochemical and pharmaceutical products. In order to achieve all planned objectives, following methodology has been applied: field research, taxonomic authentication and, comparative biologically assayed phytochemical investigations. The total herbal extracts, postdistillation waste (deodorized extracts, essential oils and individual compounds of some autochthonous plants have been considered as potential source of antibacterial, antifungal, anti-biofilm, antioxidant and cytotoxic agents. In this manuscript, composition of essential oils and extracts were evaluated in a number of species, from the Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae and Asteraceae families. Extracts which were rich in phenols mostly of flavonoids, often showed high antioxidant potential. Also, phenolic compounds identified in essential oils and extracts were mostly responsible for expected antimicrobial activity. Current worldwide demand is to reduce or, if possible, eliminate chemically synthesized food additives. Plant-produced compounds are becoming of interest as a source of more effective and safe substances than synthetically produced antimicrobial agents (as inhibitors, growth reducers or even inactivators that control growth of microorganisms. Many different pathogens have

  11. Improvement in kidney transplantation in the Balkans after the Istanbul Declaration: where do we stand today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasovski, Goce; Busic, Mirela; Delmonico, Francis

    2016-02-01

    Due to the limited access to kidney transplantation (KTx) in developing countries, desperate patients have engaged in the purchase and sale of kidneys. In 2004, the World Health Assembly urged member states to protect the poor and vulnerable from being exploited through practices of illegal organ trafficking that had become widespread throughout the world. In 2008, the international transplant community convened a summit of transplant professionals, legal experts and ethicists to combat organ trafficking, transplant tourism and transplant commercialism that resulted in the Declaration of Istanbul (DOI). The South-Eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN) represents a nine country multigovernmental collaboration on health systems. The Regional Health Development Centre on Organ Donation and Transplant Medicine (RHDC) was established in 2011 in Croatia to facilitate cooperation among south-eastern European countries to improve organ transplantation within the Balkan region. Since 2011, a collaboration between the RHDC, the Custodian Group of the DOI (DICG) and SEEHN professionals has enhanced strategic planning and definition of country-specific action plan priorities on organ donation and transplantation. Data of kidney transplantation provided in this report show a significant increase in transplantation activities in a 4-year period in Macedonia, Moldova, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Romania and Montenegro. The success of the donation and transplantation programmes was influenced by the engagement of key professionals and the establishment of organizational infrastructure with the implementation of an appropriate funding model. In conclusion, the DOI has provided an ethical framework for engagement of health professionals from south-eastern European countries. The newly established SEEHN RHDC as a technical coordinating body greatly contributed in building institutional capacity and strengthening regional collaboration between health authorities and professionals within

  12. Risks and Opportunities of Urbanization – Structure of Two Populations of the Balkan Wall Lizard Podarcis tauricus (Pallas, 1814) in the City of Plovdiv

    OpenAIRE

    Ivelin A. Mollov; Miglena V. Valkanova

    2009-01-01

    The current study analyzes the structure and some features of two urban metapopulations of the Balkan Wall Lizard (Podarcis tauricus (Pallas, 1814)) from Nature Monument (NM) “Mladezhki halm” and Nature Monument “Halm na osvoboditelite” in the city of Plovdiv (South Bulgaria). In both study sites, the Balkan Wall lizard inhabits exclusively the interior of the hills and prefers mainly open areas with rare grass and shrub vegetation. The recorded dominant plant species are not autochthonous fo...

  13. The Balkans in Search of a New Breath: South-east Europe Revealed by the Energy Stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorlhiac, Renaud

    2014-01-01

    In the coming years, the fact that Western Europe has no choice but to equip itself with new ways of energy supply will confer a strategic place on the Balkans. The countries concerned by the projects promoted within the framework of the 'southern corridor' intend to take advantage of this transit role to boost economies hardly affected by the financial crisis, and lighten their energy dependence, while waiting to develop their own potential, still under-exploited, in particular in the renewable energies field. But the Balkans States intend also to seize this opportunity to raise their weight on the international scene and to assert their regional supremacy. Those political stakes drive most of them to settle (or minimize) some bilateral issues with their neighbors. It also drives them to broaden their partnerships beyond the European continent in order to free themselves from relations more and more tense between Russia and the European Union

  14. 20 years since the establishment of the BANTAO association (Balkan Cities Association of Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation and Artificial Organs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polenakovic, Momir; Nenov, Dimitar; Basci, Ali; Djukanovic, Ljubica; Tsakiris, Dimitris; Nesic, Vida; Schiller, Adalbert; Spasovski, Goce; Klinkmann, Horst; Vienken, Joerg; Falkenhagen, Dieter; Ivanovich, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The Balkan Cities Association of Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation and Artificial Organs (BANTAO) was born in Ohrid on October 9, 1993. The war in former Yugoslavia negatively affected the development of nephrology and also the connections among the nephrologists from the Balkans. However, there was willingness for further mutual collaboration between the nephrologists from the Balkans. The war in Yugoslavia created hate among people, between the newly established countries, and there were problems with the recognition of the names of the new countries, and so, the nephrologists decided to apply the ancient principle of using the names of the cities, instead of the countries, as the founders of the Association. The main goal of BANTAO is to promote scientific and technical cooperation in the fields of renal disease and artificial organs between the regions on the Balkan Peninsula and the world, to give an opportunity for exchange of experience and knowledge among the experts in the area and to engage in collaborative projects in order to demonstrate that cooperation is possible even on the turbulent Balkan Peninsula. The I BANTAO congress was held in Varna from September 22 to 24th, 1995 (President--D. Nenov, Varna). The II congress of BANTAO was held from September 6th to 10th, 1997 in Struga, (President--M. Polenakovic, Skopje). The III BANTAO congress was held in Belgrade from September 18th to 20th, 1998 (President--Lj. Djukanović, Belgrade). The IV congress of BANTAO was held in Izmir from 14th to 16th November 1999 (President--A. Akcicek, Izmir). The V Congress of BANTAO was held in Thessaloniki from September 30th to October 3rd, 2001 (President--P. Stathakis, Athens). The VI Congress of BANTAO was held for the second time in Varna from 6th to 9th October 2003 (President--D. Nenov, Varna). The VII congress of BANTAO was held from September 8th to 11th, 2005 in Ohrid, (President--M. Polenakovic, Skopje). The VIII BANTAO congress was held in Belgrade, 16

  15. Distribution and variability of n-alkanes in epicuticular waxes of sedum species from the central Balkan Peninsula: chemotaxonomic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Snežana Č; Zlatković, Bojan K; Stojanović, Gordana S

    2015-05-01

    For the first time, the n-alkane distribution and variability of the epicuticular waxes within 22 Sedum taxa was reported with focus on the chemotaxonomy of native Sedum representatives from the central Balkan Peninsula, compared to their relations with four other species of the Crassulaceae family. By GC/MS and GC-FID identification and quantification, it was established that n-alkanes C27 , C29 , C31 , C33 , and C35 were the dominant constituents of the examined epicuticular wax samples. Applying multivariate statistical analyses including agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) and principal component analysis (PCA), the relation according to the n-alkane composition between the examined samples was established. It was shown that the n-alkane variability of the central Balkan Sedum species was considerable and that n-alkanes might not be very reliable taxonomic markers for these species. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  16. The effects of German Military Commission and Balkan wars on the reorganization and modernization of the Ottoman Army

    OpenAIRE

    Topal, Ali E.

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis investigates the consequences of the Ottoman Army reform initiatives from the establishment of German Military Commission (18821918) to the outbreak of World War I (19141918). The Ottoman Army undertook huge change, supported by the German Military Commission, for the survival of the Empire. During this period, the results of the Balkan Wars (19121913) provided a critical impetus to accomplish these reforms efforts. The ef...

  17. Managing Water Sustainability: Virtual Water Flows and Economic Water Productivity Assessment of the Wine Trade between Italy and the Balkans

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    Pier Paolo Miglietta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The management of natural resources in economic activities has become a fundamental issue when considering the perspective of sustainable development. It is necessary to rethink every process in order to reach efficiency from different points of view, not only environmentally but also economically. Water scarcity is growing because of economic and population growth, climate change, and the increasing water demand. Currently, agri-food represents the most water consumptive sector, and the increasing importance of international trade in this industry puts freshwater issues in a global context that should be analyzed and regulated by sustainable policies. This analysis is focused on virtual water flows and economic water productivity related to the wine trade, and aims to evaluate water loss/savings achieved through bilateral trade relations. The choice fell on Italy, the first wine producer in the world, and the Balkan countries. The latter are new markets for wine production/consumption, in which Italian wines are strongly positioned for different reasons. The results show that, from a national point of view and considering wine trade, Italy exports water in virtual form to the Balkan countries, more than it imports, so that in effect it partially uses its own water resources for the wine supply of the Balkans. The latter, on the other hand, being a net importer of wine, partially depends on Italian water resources and exerts less pressure on their own water basins in the supporting wine supply. We also observed that the wine trade between Italy and the Balkans implies global water savings.

  18. The New Environment of EU Enlargement: The Impact of Economic Crisis on the Western Balkans and their EU Accession Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Ritsa Panagiotou

    2014-01-01

    This paper will explore the impact of the economic crisis on the Western Balkan countries, and how the new, unfavorable international environment is affecting their EU accession prospects. The analysis will be presented in three sections: the first part will examine the effect of the “first wave” of the global economic crisis on the economies of the region, specifically the impact on the region’s macroeconomic indicators, foreign direct investment flows, financial sectors, etc. Part two...

  19. Tendances et différences démographiques dans les Balkans

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    Parant, Alain

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Balkans, which had long been characterized by higher fertility and earlier mortality than the more western and northern parts of the European continent, have become demographically modern. They are not for that reason any less diverse. This is witnessed, for example, by the gap that separates Bulgaria, which has long made the demographic transition, and Albania, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, or Kosovo, where the natural population growth exceeds by far the migratory deficit. It is also witnessed by the very large spectrum of degrees of aging. Political and economic changes in the Balkans, the crises that accompanied them, the doubts that they have caused concerning the collective future, have reinforced the general tendencies toward delayed marriage and fertility, as well as toward reduced marriage and fertility rates. This has de facto consolidated the tendency toward demographic aging. Migrations, especially the migrations directly or indirectly related to the conflicts in former Yugoslavia, have also contributed to the modification of the demographic landscape and to the altering of the dynamic of the affected populations. They have also had an effect on the ethnic distribution of these populations. In the Balkans, whose bases have been strongly shaken in the past twenty years, heavy fertility and mortality tendencies limit the spectrum of possible mid-to-long term futures. There are also important consequences on the socioeconomic plan. All this in a political context, internal and external, that is the source of many questions.

    Los Balcanes, que se caracterizaron durante mucho tiempo por una fecundidad más elevada y una mortalidad más precoz que en las partes oeste y norte del continente europeo, están a partir de ahora inscritos en la modernidad demográfica. A pesar de ello son extremadamente diversos. Así lo confirma la distancia que separa, por ejemplo, Bulgaria, tierra de transición demográfica antigua

  20. Secular variation of the Earth's magnetic field in the Balkan region during the last eight millennia based on archaeomagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tema, E.; Kondopoulou, D.

    2011-08-01

    The first archaeomagnetic secular variation (SV) curves for the whole Southern Balkan Peninsula are presented. These are based on all data within a 700 km circle centred at Thessaloniki (40.60oN, 23.00oE). This data set consists of 325 directional and 625 intensity data mainly from Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia and southern Hungary. Some data from southern Italy are also included. The sliding moving window technique, was used to calculate a continuous SV curve for intensity while the directional SV curves were calculated using the bivariate extension of the Fisher statistics. These curves are well constrained and clearly show the main features of the geomagnetic field variation in this region during the last eight millennia. Comparisons with the predictions of the SCHA.DIF.3K and SCHA.DIF.8K regional and the CALS7K.2 and ARCH3K.1 global geomagnetic field models show a good agreement for the last 3000 years but differences for older times. The Balkan SV curves identify several rapid changes of the geomagnetic field in eastern Europe and can be used as reference curves for archaeomagnetic dating in the Balkan Peninsula.

  1. The Impact of Ethno Marketing Activities on Consumer Buying Behavior in the Balkans: The Case of Kosovo

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    Dr.Sc. Jusuf Zeqiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethno marketing defines as marketing segmentation approach that groups consumers on the basis of ethnicity. Ethno marketing starts with recognizing the elements of culture as crucial and essential for driving contemporary marketing strategies. Ethno marketing is slowly gaining traction in marketing in multicultural environments, particularly in countries or regions inhabited by consumers from different ethnic backgrounds. This study aims to find whether such marketing activities based on cultural elements practice has any effect on consumers’ buying behavior in the Balkans.  It focuses on consumers in Kosova with the understanding that this is a preliminary exploratory study whose results will form basis for a large study on the Balkan region. The study used a structured questionnaire with the Likert Scale. One hundred, forty-eight responses were received and analyzed using the SPSS statistical software. The results of the analysis show that Albanian consumers in Kosova agree that ethno marketing is important and company marketing activities such as a company’s advertisement and promotion in the language of the ethnic is considered very important during consumers purchase decisions. Furthermore, results reveal that symbols, cultural elements as well as the information dissemination inside the stores and outside seem to be very important for consumers. On the basis of this study, a larger study that covers the different countries in the Balkan region to determine how consumers in the different countries in the region relate to ethno marketing is strongly recommended.

  2. Characterization of several milk proteins in Domestic Balkan donkey breed during lactation, using lab-on-a-chip capillary electrophoresis

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    Gubić Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic Balkan donkey (Equus asinus asinus is a native donkey breed, primarily found in the northern and eastern regions of Serbia. The objective of the study was to analyze proteins of Domestic Balkan donkey milk during the lactation period (from the 45th to the 280th day by applying Lab-on-a-Chip electrophoresis. The chip-based separations were performed on the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer in combination with the Protein 80 Plus Lab Chip kit. The protein content of Domestic Balkan donkey milk during the lactation period of 280 days ranged from 1.40 % to 1.92 % and the content of αs1-casein, αs2-casein, b-casein, α-, β- lactoglobulin, lysozyme, lactoferrin and serum albumin was relatively quantified. Lysozyme (1040-2970 mg/L, α-lactalbumin 12 kDa (1990-2730 mg/L and α-lactalbumin 17.7 kDa (2240-3090 mg/L were found to be the proteins with the highest relative concentrations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46012

  3. The Quality of Governance and EU Regional Policy as a key determinant in the process of the integration of the Western Balkans into the EU

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    Demush Bajrami

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the quality of governance and financial assistance as key determinants for successful functioning of the process of integration within the European Union (EU. Moreover, the paper develops a comparison of the Western Balkans with current EU members and the forthcoming, on the basis of the selected indicators of governance (rule of law, democracy, corruption, political stability, and effectiveness of state with the experience of the implementation of the reforms of public administration. Various surveys show that the Western Balkans, by all quality of governance indicators, especially in the rule of law, lags behind 28 (twenty eight of the current EU countries (without taking in account the Great Britain. The low level of the functioning of rule of law, combined with inadequate and unreformed public administration is potentially the biggest obstacle in the association agreement of the Western Balkans with EU, but also as challenge in achieving sustainable social and economic development. Whereas in the case of the Western Balkan countries, there is an obvious difference between proclaiming and internal reality, which is further compounded by a difficult political and economic transition, as well as in social domain - where poverty and corruption are the most worrying. The research data obtained from independent bodies - academic and research institutions, civil society and international organizations - confirm this controversial picture of the Western Balkans. Negative attitudes still prevail in Western Balkans political elites and if given the chance to political manipulation, may behave unpredictably. All this makes it obligatory to make a comparative overview, for depicting in particular the quality of governance as sine qua non for the Western Balkans countries‘ integration in EU.

  4. Of the importance of a leaf: the ethnobotany of sarma in Turkey and the Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Yunus; Nedelcheva, Anely; Łuczaj, Łukasz; Drăgulescu, Constantin; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Maglajlić, Aida; Ferrier, Jonathan; Papp, Nora; Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Dajić-Stevanović, Zora; Pieroni, Andrea

    2015-04-03

    Sarma - cooked leaves rolled around a filling made from rice and/or minced meat, possibly vegetables and seasoning plants - represents one of the most widespread feasting dishes of the Middle Eastern and South-Eastern European cuisines. Although cabbage and grape vine sarma is well-known worldwide, the use of alternative plant leaves remains largely unexplored. The aim of this research was to document all of the botanical taxa whose leaves are used for preparing sarma in the folk cuisines of Turkey and the Balkans. Field studies were conducted during broader ethnobotanical surveys, as well as during ad-hoc investigations between the years 2011 and 2014 that included diverse rural communities in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Kosovo, Albania, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, and Turkey. Primary ethnobotanical and folkloric literatures in each country were also considered. Eighty-seven botanical taxa, mainly wild, belonging to 50 genera and 27 families, were found to represent the bio-cultural heritage of sarma in Turkey and the Balkans. The greatest plant biodiversity in sarma was found in Turkey and, to less extent, in Bulgaria and Romania. The most commonly used leaves for preparing sarma were those of cabbage (both fresh and lacto-fermented), grape vine, beet, dock, sorrel, horseradish, lime tree, bean, and spinach. In a few cases, the leaves of endemic species (Centaurea haradjianii, Rumex gracilescens, and R. olympicus in Turkey) were recorded. Other uncommon sarma preparations were based on lightly toxic taxa, such as potato leaves in NE Albania, leaves of Arum, Convolvulus, and Smilax species in Turkey, of Phytolacca americana in Macedonia, and of Tussilago farfara in diverse countries. Moreover, the use of leaves of the introduced species Reynoutria japonica in Romania, Colocasia esculenta in Turkey, and Phytolacca americana in Macedonia shows the dynamic nature of folk cuisines. The rich ethnobotanical diversity of sarma confirms the urgent need to

  5. Balkan Türk Ağızlarının Tasnifleri Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme An Assessment On Classification Of Balkan Turkish Dialects

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    Ahmet GÜNŞEN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Balkan Turkish dialects are the dialects established in varioushistorical, geographical, social and cultural conditions by the Turks,who had been moved from Anatolian and settled in the Balkans fromthe mid 14th century.Balkan Turkish dialects, just like Anatolian dialects, have hadnumber of branches due to the fact that they belonged to differentTurkish tribes and lived within various political, social, cultural andgeographical conditions on the one hand and interacted with differentlanguages and cultures, mainly like Slavic ones, on the other.The ultimate objective of the researches on dialects, which havegained great significance nowadays, is to classify the existing dialects ina certain geography of language upon certain criteria within themselvesand even within the sub-dialects and eventually to form the atlases ofthe dialects. While the Western countries and some Turkish states havetaken great steps in this field, unfortunately it is hard to say the samefor the dialects of Turkey Turkish yet. Although the classificationproblem of the dialects of Turkey Turkish has widely been solved afterquite a long process, it is yet not possible to argue the same for BalkanTurkish dialects. The researches on Balkan Turkish dialects startedwith compilations of I. Kunos and the researches of T. Kowalski andthere have been some classification attempts later by mainly J. Németh,D. Gacanov, G. Hazai, M. Mollava and I. Dryga. However it is too earlyto claim that the last word has been spoken out on this matter yet.There are still a lot to do with Balkan Turkish dialects which are lessresearchescompared to Anatolian dialects.In this paper the researches on Balkan Turkish dialects up thepresent day is going to be introduced, the basic criteria and thecommon and differing criteria used by the researchers who made theclassification is going to be assessed and finally it is going to bediscussed whether some other criteria can be used for the mainstreamdialect

  6. Folk food and medicinal botanical knowledge among the last remaining Yörüks of the Balkans

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    Anely Nedelcheva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the current lifestyle of the last remaining Balkan Yörüks, a small and isolated group found within the Republic of Macedonia, and the modern representatives of an important portion of the Balkan nomads. The aim of this study was to document knowledge concerning local wild food plants and wild and cultivated medicinal plants, and to compare the Yörük ethnobotany with that of similar, more or less isolated ethnic groups occurring in the Balkan region (Macedonia, Bulgaria, Albania, and Turkey in order to assess how cultural adaptation processes may have affected Yörük plant folklore. We conducted this study by means of detailed, semi-structured interviews with 48 key informants. Sixty-seven plant taxa were recorded from 55 genera, based on the compilation of more than 150 reports relating to medicinal, food, forage, ornamental, and dye plants, as well as some elements relating to animals and minerals. Our field study data show several major ethnic boundary markers that contribute to the homogeneity of the community and also distinguish it sufficiently from the surrounding society: (i well-isolated locality; (ii local dialect and endogamy; (iii casual clothing worn by women; (iv ceremonial jewelry: a necklace of cloves (Syzygium aromaticum; (v Sempervivum marmoreum as an only ornamental plant which also has a medicinal use; and (vi Mentha spicata as the dominant culinary herb, which has a medicinal use too. Comparison of the collected ethnobotanical data with that of similar, more or less isolated ethnic groups in the Balkan region shows that overlapping taxa include mainly plants whose fresh fruit are used; both nuts as well as edible greens. These plants are simultaneously used for medicinal purposes too, as home remedies, but in very different ways to other ethnic groups. Yörüks represent a remarkable cultural group in the Balkans. This community has nomadic traditions, but nowadays the people have a settled

  7. Foreign direct investment in the western Balkans: Privatization, institutional change, and banking sector dominance

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    Botrić Valerija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides analysis of foreign direct investment (FDI dynamics and its determinants for the group of countries lately referred to as Western Balkans (non- EU ex-Yugoslavia countries plus Albania. Due to vulnerable external positions and enhanced funding requirements related to the EU accession and catching-up, FDI is often highly welcomed by government officials in the South East European (SEE countries. The notion that FDI is frequently accompanied by knowledge and know-how transfer makes this source of capital growth even more desirable than simple capital accumulation from frequently inadequate domestic savings. The analysis of the FDI determinants on the overall economy level conducted within the panel data framework aims to provide the answer whether the same factors as in Central and Eastern European countries, now new EU member states, are relevant for the sampled countries. Due to data limitations and the frequent emergence of new countries in the region, the analysis does not extend to the early transition period. Since it entails the beginning of the financial crisis, the comparison of the results obtained with those of previous studies will enable the discussion of internal versus external factors of FDI attraction in the region.

  8. Geoecological characteristics of plant endemism in the Balkan part of Serbia

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    Gavrilović Bojan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to complex and heterogeneous geographical characteristics, Serbia is represented by a diverse flora with many endemic taxa of vascular plants. Investigation of plant endemics stored in the national herbaria and perusal of extensive literature sources indicate that 46 taxa occur exclusively within the political borders of the Republic of Serbia, while 104 taxa can also be found in adjacent countries of the Balkan Peninsula. These national and subendemics are presented in the form of a list together with their ecological and geographical characteristics. Centres of endemism are located in the southern and eastern regions of Serbia and on the territory of Kosovo and Metohija. The majority of taxa are associated with mountainous regions of Kosovo, Metohija, and Central Serbia, at medium elevations between 500 and 1500 m. Most of the national endemics occur on limestones and dolomites and on soils such as cambisols, lithosols, and rankers. They are mainly under the influence of a modified mountain and moderately continental climate.

  9. Material Deprivation, Social Class and Life Course in the Balkans, Eastern Europe and Central Asia

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    Alexi Gugushvili

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs the factor analysis technique and data from the UNDP/UNICEF Social Inclusion Survey to construct a material deprivation index for fi ve transitional societies in the Balkans (FYR Macedonia and Serbia, Eastern Europe (Moldova and Ukraine and Central Asia (Kazakhstan. The distribution of deprivation between these societies can be largely explained by their level of economic development, but within-county variance is not limited to monetary dimension. Controlling for settlement type, human capital and employment status in multivariate settings, the paper tests the hypothesis of the continuous importance of occupational social class and the emerging role of diff erent life phases in individuals’ welfare outcomes. The results reveal that all specifi ed social classes and most of the defi ned life phases have diverse and statistically signifi cant eff ects on the constructed deprivation index and the likelihood of being under 70 per cent of the median deprivation threshold. Belonging to non-skilled manual, farmers and skilled manual social class as well as being a child or lone parent were revealed to have the highest risk of material deprivation. These fi ndings are in line with the conclusions made for the Western welfare democracies on the complementary nature of social class and life course dimensions in explaining social hardship.

  10. The Balkans and the Polish cause. Radosław Kobierski’s “Mitrovica”

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    Dariusz Pawelec

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the interpretation of the poem Mitrovica written by Radosław Kobierski is a quest for the ”peculiarity” and “singularity” of the literature” as it is viewed by Derek Attridge. The way the eponymous word sounds leads to a formulation of the question on what “semantic relations” are established between the title word and the remaining text. The journalistic character of the poem relates to the geography of the Balkan War of the 1990s. But the singularity and uniqueness of the poem Mitrovica stems rather from the tension that arises from its journalistic-style narration, reporting citation and a specific place name and what is metaphorical and symbolic. The Kobierski’s poem, creating its own, unique “singularity” comes also to grips with the media discourse related to the post-Yugoslav crisis. The interpretation shows how important is the application of the rule of myth-making poetical reversal in stripping the poetical discourse of stereotypes and cliches, but not of the relevance to reality.

  11. Phenolic and mineral profile of Balkan indigenous apple and pear cultivars

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    Živković Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was chemical analysis of phenolic compounds, as well as mineral nutrients in pulp and peel obtained from Balkan indigenous apple and pear cultivars. Phenolic composition assesed by means of HPLC-DAD and spectrophotometric methods varied significantly between the cultivars for both peel and pulp. Among apples Mekica cultivar had the highest total phenolic content while Šećerlija and Zlatna Parmenka had the lowest. In the case of pear samples the principal source of total phenolic content was Crna Takiša while their minimum was recorded for Bela Arapka. In most of the investigated samples chlorogenic acid in apples and arbutin in pears were major detected polyphenolic compounds. With regard to mineral analysis K was the most abundant followed by P, Mg, Ca and S. Iron was the dominant microelement in apple peel and pulp samples, while in pear samples the principal microelement was B. Obtained results provide detailed information on chemical composition of tested apple and pear cultivars and therby could encourage their wider cultivation and consumption. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46013

  12. Detection of Leishmania infantum and a Novel Phlebovirus (Balkan Virus) from Sand Flies in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan, Nazli; Velo, Enkelejda; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Kota, Majlinda; Kadriaj, Perparim; Ozbel, Yusuf; Charrel, Remi N; Bino, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    To organize entomological campaigns to trap sand flies in selected regions of Albania and to test them for the presence of existing or new phleboviruses and for leishmania DNA. Sand flies were collected in 14 locations from May to October 2014 using three different types of traps. Pools with a maximum of 30 individuals were prepared according to gender, trapping site, and trapping date; they were tested for the presence of (1) phlebovirus RNA with three different PCR systems (2) and Leishmania DNA using two different real-time PCR assays. A total of 972 sand flies (568 females, 404 males) were aliquoted to 55 pools. Three pools (in two different regions) were positive for Leishmania infantum. Two pools (Kruje region) were positive for phlebovirus RNA and a 575-nucleotide (nt) colinearized sequence of a novel virus most closely related to but clearly distinct from Tehran virus (16% and 3% divergence at nt and amino acid levels). Next generation sequencing analysis indicated that this virus might be transmitted by either Phlebotomus neglectus, Phlebotomus tobbi, or both vectors. Visceral leishmaniasis has been clinically recognized in Albania for at least 80 years; however, this is the first time that L. infantum, detected by molecular means, has been reported in sand flies in Albania. At the outset of this study, only Adria virus (Salehabad species) was recognized in Albania. A novel virus, Balkan virus, was identified and genetic analysis revealed that it belongs to the Sandfly fever Naples virus group containing human pathogens.

  13. Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Anthocyanin Profile of Cabernet Sauvignon Wines from the Balkan Region

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    Blaga Radovanović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is focused on anthocyanin derivatives characterizing the antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon wines produced from different vineyard regions in the Balkans. These bioactive compounds were quantified with a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-diode array detection (DAD method. The antiradical activity was estimated by the ability of the wine to scavenge the stable 2,2`-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH·. The results show that the total anthocyanin content varied from 205.88 to 1940.28 mg/L, depending on agroclimatic factors and the enological practices of the corresponding vineyard region. The most prominent antocyanin in all investigated Cabernet Sauvignon wines was malvidin-3-O-monoglucoside, which accounted for 50.57% of total content, followed by its acetyl derivatives, 15.45%, and p-coumaryl derivatives 5.66%. The relationship between the anthocyanin derivatives and free radical scavenging activity is discussed. A high correlation between total anthocyanin content and DPPH· scavenging ability of tested wines was confirmed (r2 = 0.9619. The significant correlations were obtained between antiradical activity and the sum of 3-monoglucoside (r2 = 0.95594, the sum of 3-acetyl-3-glucoside (r2 = 0.9728 and the sum of p-coumaryl-3-glucoside (r2 = 0.8873 of wine samples. It can be concluded that, the anthocyanin composition can be used as biochemical marker for the authenticity of red grape cultivar and their corresponding single-cultivar wine.

  14. Strontium isotopes document greater human mobility at the start of the Balkan Neolithic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borić, Dušan; Price, T Douglas

    2013-02-26

    Questions about how farming and the Neolithic way of life spread across Europe have been hotly debated topics in archaeology for decades. For a very long time, two models have dominated the discussion: migrations of farming groups from southwestern Asia versus diffusion of domesticates and new ideas through the existing networks of local forager populations. New strontium isotope data from the Danube Gorges in the north-central Balkans, an area characterized by a rich burial record spanning the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition, show a significant increase in nonlocal individuals from ∼6200 calibrated B.C., with several waves of migrants into this region. These results are further enhanced by dietary evidence based on carbon and nitrogen isotopes and an increasingly high chronological resolution obtained on a large sample of directly dated individuals. This dataset provides robust evidence for a brief period of coexistence between indigenous groups and early farmers before farming communities absorbed the foragers completely in the first half of the sixth millennium B.C.

  15. Size-segregated concentration of heavy metals in an urban aerosol of the Balkans region (Belgrade

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    Đorđević D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the heavy metals contents of the size-segregated urban aerosol of the continental area of Balkans. The distribution of nano/micron heavy metals in the size-segregated urban aerosol of Belgrade center was studied during the summer–autumn of 2008. The particle size distribution in the size ranges Dp ≤ 0.49 μm, 0.49 ≤ Dp ≤ 0.95 μm, 0.95 ≤ Dp ≤ 1.5 μm, 1.5 ≤ Dp ≤ 3.0 μm, 3.0 ≤ Dp ≤ 7.2 μm and Dp ≥ 7.2 μm was measured. The aerosol samples were submitted to gravimetric and chemical analyses. The obtained mean mass concentration of the PM fractions was in accordance with an urban aerosol distribution. The aerosol mass concentrations were determined by gravimetric measurements (mGM and, for heavy metals analyzed by ICP/MS.

  16. Characteristics of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus Strains in the West Balkans: A First Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovac, Sanja; Bojić, Elma Ferić; Ibrišimović, Monia Avdić; Tutiš, Borka; Ostojić, Maja; Hukić, Mirsada

    2017-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci are among the major causes of nosocomial infections and represent a growing problem in many European countries. Among the most common enterococcal isolates, Enterococcus faecium is considered to be the reservoir of VanA and VanB-mediated resistance to glycopeptides. Enterococci with VanA-mediated resistance can transfer resistance genes to other enterococci and gram-positive bacteria. Hence, monitoring and surveillance of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VREs) are crucial for the prevention of the spread of glycopeptide resistance. No reports have yet been published that document the resistance rates and typization of VREs in the region of Bosnia and Herzegovina as well as Croatia. In this study, 64 clinical enterococcal strains that were isolated in clinical centers, Mostar, Sarajevo, and Zagreb, were studied and findings regarding characteristics of vancomycin-resistant strains found in the West Balkan region are reported for the first time. All of the strains were identified using conventional phenotypic methods, and the resistance to glycopeptides was determined using the disk diffusion method, Vitek 2, and genotypic Enterococcus assay. The results of genotyping showed that 40 strains were identified as VREs (30% Enterococcus faecalis and 70% E. faecium), while the sensitivity of the phenotypic methods was 87.5%. Furthermore, VanA and VanB resistance types were found in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia, with slightly higher prevalence of the latter (72.5%) over the former (27.5%).

  17. The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on the Export Performance: Empirical Evidence for Western Balkan Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Nasir Selimi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently there are many authors that have studied and analyzed the impact of foreign direct investments (FDI on the export performance. They have different opinions about the effect of foreign direct investments on the export performance. Some of them in their papers conclude that FDI have positive effect on the export performance and some not. There are also findings that FDI do not have any impact on the export performance. Of course for economic benefit of host country it is not important only the amount of FDI, but also their structure. To measure the effect of FDI on the export performance is not easy. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to analyze empirically the foreign direct investments and exports performance during the period of 1996-2013 in Western Balkan countries. The paper also investigates for the fixed effects and individual heterogeneity across countries and years. Based on the panel regression techniques and Least Square Dummy Variable (LSDV regression method, FDI positively affect export performance in the sample countries in various model specifications. The results and conclusions of this paper we hope that will help everybody who are interested and studying this matter, especially the policy makers.  The last ones have the obligation to facilitate and promote the export if they award confirm that FDI contribute on developing their economy.

  18. The real aims of the USA and the EU in the Balkans

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    Čavoški Kosta S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the real aims of the so-called international community which is usually understood as the USA, as the only remaining super power and the European Union, particularly France. Great Britain and Germany. The author argues that the real and particularly long-term aims of these powers should be primarily inferred from their real deeds and only subsequently from public statements of their officials. By analyzing a number of examples in the Balkans and in other parts of the world the author comes to unexpected conclusions. While in words big Western powers supported multi-ethnicity and preservation of multi-ethnic states, in deeds they not only instigated nationalism and separatism but also hastened and recognized the dissolution of three European federations into 22 more or less national states. And while in words they apparently supported so-called democratization, in practice they not only supported authoritarian regimes but also identified democracy with occupation in Republika Srpska.

  19. Firm productivity in the western Balkans: The impact of European Union membership and access to finance

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    Howard-Jones P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the productivity performance of Balkan firms within and outside the European Union (EU, including the influence of loans. A multiple treatment model is used to compare the effects on productivity of membership and loans both separately and collectively, which in the case of loans allows a separate analysis of their influence on firms in non-member states. The use of conditional quantile regressions measures the effect on productivity of membership and loans separately as treatment variables. This provides an analysis of where the treatment influence is greatest across the distribution curve and identifies the significance of selected control variables on the outcome. In the full sample, the findings indicate that EU membership and loans have a positive effect on productivity, with membership being more important than loans. Outside the EU, firms in receipt of loans are more productive than those without. However, the significance of both membership and loans is restricted to the lower end of the productivity distribution curve. The manufacturing sample shows that EU membership has a significant positive effect across 70% of the deciles measured, whilst the influence of loans is restricted to the lower deciles, with rental capital (leasing also positively significant in the lower four deciles. In the services sector, however, membership is significant up to 90% of the distribution, with loans at 60%.

  20. Economic development in the European super-periphery: Evidence from the Western Balkans

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    Bartlett Will

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the conflicts that afflicted the Western Balkan region in the 1990s pushed the countries into the European 'super-periphery', characterized by deindustrialization and high unemployment, ethnic and regional fragmentation, political turmoil, and instability. Integration into international trade has been disrupted, leading to chronic balance of payments deficits. Low inflows of international capital, due to high country risk, have hindered technological catch-up and weakened international competitiveness. An unattractive environment for productive entrepreneurship has created barriers to the entry of SMEs, and at the same time large informal economies. Several countries have become labour-export economies, with significant outflows of skilled labour. Economic development follows a low-skill growth path. The current global economic crisis is having a further deleterious effect as export revenues, foreign direct investment, and labour remittances all diminish. Furthermore, as transition has proceeded, disparities between capital cities and rural areas have increased, while weak administrative capacities have hindered the implementation of effective local development policies to counteract these effects. Endogenous local development cannot provide an alternative to greater engagement with the global economy. The conclusion is that the countries of the region have been left out of the most beneficial elements of the globalisation process, while simultaneously suffering from its main defects. Without a faster process of accession to the EU, local disparities are likely to widen, and the region may remain within the European super-periphery for the foreseeable future.

  1. Fifty years of research in Balkan endemic nephropathy: where are we now?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanovic, V.; Polenakovic, M. [Faculty of Medicine, Nish (Serbia)

    2009-07-01

    Despite broad investigations into the possible role of genetic factors, environmental agents and immune mechanisms, the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is only partially understood. An increased incidence of upper urothelial cancer in patients with BEN and in populations from endemic settlements has been demonstrated. Genetic studies have landed support for genetic predisposition to BEN. The similarity of the morphological and clinical pattern of BEN and Chinese herbs nephropathy has raised the possibility of a common etiologic agent, aristolochic acid (AA), described in 1969 by Ivic and confirmed by a recent study of AA-DNA adducts. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is studied extensively as the etiologic agent of BEN. Weathering of low-rank coals nearby the endemic villages produces water-soluble polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aromatic amines, similar to metabolic products of acetaminophen, which has a causal relationship with analgesic nephropathy. AA is confirmed as the etiologic agent of BEN; however, it may not be the sole risk factor. More research is needed on the patterns of BEN over time and between different endemic places. Therefore, it is important to test etiological hypotheses in different endemic foci, preferably as a multicentric research. An international approach to solving the etiology of BEN is needed in the coming years. The geographic correlation and presence of AA-DNA adducts in both BEN and associated urothelial cancer support the hypothesis that these diseases share a common etiology.

  2. Paleo-Balkan and Slavic contributions to the genetic pool of Moldavians: insights from the Y chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzari, Alexander; Kharkov, Vladimir; Nikitin, Alexey G; Raicu, Florina; Simonova, Kseniya; Stephan, Wolfgang; Weiss, Elisabeth H; Stepanov, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    Moldova has a rich historical and cultural heritage, which may be reflected in the current genetic makeup of its population. To date, no comprehensive studies exist about the population genetic structure of modern Moldavians. To bridge this gap with respect to paternal lineages, we analyzed 37 binary and 17 multiallelic (STRs) polymorphisms on the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome in 125 Moldavian males. In addition, 53 Ukrainians from eastern Moldova and 54 Romanians from the neighboring eastern Romania were typed using the same set of markers. In Moldavians, 19 Y chromosome haplogroups were identified, the most common being I-M423 (20.8%), R-M17* (17.6%), R-M458 (12.8%), E-v13 (8.8%), R-M269* and R-M412* (both 7.2%). In Romanians, 14 haplogroups were found including I-M423 (40.7%), R-M17* (16.7%), R-M405 (7.4%), E-v13 and R-M412* (both 5.6%). In Ukrainians, 13 haplogroups were identified including R-M17 (34.0%), I-M423 (20.8%), R-M269* (9.4%), N-M178, R-M458 and R-M73 (each 5.7%). Our results show that a significant majority of the Moldavian paternal gene pool belongs to eastern/central European and Balkan/eastern Mediterranean Y lineages. Phylogenetic and AMOVA analyses based on Y-STR loci also revealed that Moldavians are close to both eastern/central European and Balkan-Carpathian populations. The data correlate well with historical accounts and geographical location of the region and thus allow to hypothesize that extant Moldavian paternal genetic lineages arose from extensive recent admixture between genetically autochthonous populations of the Balkan-Carpathian zone and neighboring Slavic groups.

  3. Potential impacts of climate change on flow regime and fish habitat in mountain rivers of the south-western Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, Christina; Soulis, Konstantinos; Muñoz-Mas, Rafael; Martinez-Capel, Francisco; Zogaris, Stamatis; Ntoanidis, Lazaros; Dimitriou, Elias

    2016-01-01

    The climate change in the Mediterranean area is expected to have significant impacts on the aquatic ecosystems and particular in the mountain rivers and streams that often host important species such as the Salmo farioides, Karaman 1938. These impacts will most possibly affect the habitat availability for various aquatic species resulting to an essential alteration of the water requirements, either for dams or other water abstractions, in order to maintain the essential levels of ecological flow for the rivers. The main scope of this study was to assess potential climate change impacts on the hydrological patterns and typical biota for a south-western Balkan mountain river, the Acheloos. The altered flow regimes under different emission scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) were estimated using a hydrological model and based on regional climate simulations over the study area. The Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) methodology was then used to assess the potential streamflow alterations in the studied river due to predicted climate change conditions. A fish habitat simulation method integrating univariate habitat suitability curves and hydraulic modeling techniques were used to assess the impacts on the relationships between the aquatic biota and hydrological status utilizing a sentinel species, the West Balkan trout. The most prominent effects of the climate change scenarios depict severe flow reductions that are likely to occur especially during the summer flows, changing the duration and depressing the magnitude of the natural low flow conditions. Weighted Usable Area-flow curves indicated the limitation of suitable habitat for the native trout. Finally, this preliminary application highlighted the potential of science-based hydrological and habitat simulation approaches that are relevant to both biological quality elements (fish) and current EU Water policy to serve as efficient tools for the estimation of possible climate

  4. Comparison of the protein and fatty acid fraction of Balkan donkey and human milk

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    Jasmina Gubić

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the protein and fatty acid fractions of Balkan donkey and human milk in the early lactation stage (40 and 90 day. This study revealed that donkey milk contains αs1-casein (1.38-1.89 g/L and higher concentration of β-casein (0.1-0.55 g/L in comparison to human milk. The concentration of α-lactalbumin increased during the lactation phases from 40 to 90 days in both types of milk. Donkey milk contained β-lactoglobulin in low concentrations which decreased to 90th day of lactation. Donkey milk was particularly rich in two whey proteins, lactoferrin and lysozyme, which were found to have molecular weight of approximately 76 kDa and 14.9-15.4 kDa, respectively. The content of lysozyme in donkey milk ranged from 2.39 to 2.97 g/L, while human milk contained 30-50 times lower concentrations of lysozyme in comparison to donkey milk. Thus, donkey milk contained also a higher concentration of lactoferrin (0.012-0.25 g/L than it was found in the human milk. Lysozyme and lactoferrin content in donkey milk increased during the period from 40th to 90th day of lactation. The percentage of total SFA, MUFA and PUFA was similar in donkey and human milk. The content of essential fatty acids increased during 40-90 days of lactation and was approximately 2.5 times higher in comparison to human milk.

  5. The phenomenon of prehistoric ritual pits: Several examples from the central Balkans

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    Bulatović Aleksandar P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the phenomenon of pits with special deposits, i.e. ritual pits, seems to have, once again, attracted attention both in Europe and in the Balkans. In the central Balkans, scientific literature related to this topic is still deficient, hence one of the objectives of this paper is to change the current state and rekindle interest in the study of this form of manifestation of the spiritual culture of prehistoric man. It appears that one of the oldest reasons for sacrificial offerings is primal, instinctive fear. The fear of the transience of life or of death compelled our ancient ancestors to make some sort of “agreement” with the surrounding forces, bestowing particular sacrifices onto them. Sacrifice represents one of the rituals of prehistoric communities which could have been performed in a number of ways and in different circumstances. One of these are offerings placed in pits, in the form of specific objects, food, drink or living beings sacrificed to higher powers and accompanied by certain symbolic actions, for the purpose of gaining their favour or help. When interpreting pits, what should further be considered is that the fundamental difference between a discarded object and an object used for a ritual purpose lies in the fact that the object of ritual character is still meaningful to man, performing a symbolic function, unlike the former, whose role is lost after being disposed of. Aritual object, an item or a living being sacrificed in a pit, is no longer of common, worldly significance (food, drink, tools, etc., but rather possesses a symbolic, sacral meaning, intended for higher powers, to propitiate and appease them, that is to create some form of the oldest religious communication. Not only is it difficult to identify the pits used for ritual purposes in the course of fieldwork, but it is even more challenging to interpret them and practically impossible to accurately reconstruct the actions performed during the

  6. Oncology monoclonal antibodies expenditure trends and reimbursement projections in the emerging Balkan market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlo B Jakovljevic

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies applied in clinical oncology present a therapeutic promise for many patients with cancer. Nevertheless these expensive protocols are associated with extremely high acquisition and administration costs. The issue of societal affordability of such treatment options is particularly at stake among middle income European economies. Medicines Agency of Serbia issues regular annual reports on public expenditure on pharmaceuticals since 2004. According to these official data total public expenditure on drugs doubled from 2004-2012 (from € 339,279,304 to € 742,013,976. During the same nine years public expenditure on antineoplastic pharmaceuticals was rising at much faster pace, approximately five times from € 10,297,616 in 2004 to € 51,223,474 in 2012. Absolutely record growth belongs to the value of turnover of monoclonal antibodies indicated in diverse malignancies. These costs became almost twenty times higher in 2012 compared to 2004 (€ 19,687,454 towards € 1,033,313 in the past. National pharmaceutical expenditure trend projections in this country show strong recovery in 2012 after severe blow to the overall health care market imposed by the worldwide crisis. Universal health insurance coverage and sustainable health care financing provision will remain difficult issues for Balkan economies in years to come. Although monoclonal antibodies exhibit undisputed therapeutic efficiency in certain malignant disorders, cost-effectiveness estimates must be taken into consideration by policy makers deciding on reimbursement.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/fe.v15i1.909

  7. Balkanized research in ecological engineering revealed by a bibliometric analysis of earthworms and ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Manuel; Sery, Nicolas; Cluzeau, Daniel; Brun, Jean-Jacques; Bédécarrats, Alain

    2013-08-01

    Energy crisis, climate changes, and biodiversity losses have reinforced the drive for more ecologically-based approaches for environmental management. Such approaches are characterized by the use of organisms rather than energy-consuming technologies. Although earthworms are believed to be potentially useful organisms for managing ecosystem services, there is actually no quantification of such a trend in literature. This bibliometric analysis aimed to measure the evolution of the association of "earthworms" and other terms such as ecosystem services (primary production, nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, soil structure, and pollution remediation), "ecological engineering" or "biodiversity," to assess their convergence or divergence through time. In this aim, we calculated the similarity index, an indicator of the paradigmatic proximity defined in applied epistemology, for each year between 1900 and 2009. We documented the scientific fields and the geographical origins of the studies, as well as the land uses, and compare these characteristics with a 25 years old review on earthworm management. The association of earthworm related keywords with ecosystem services related keywords was increasing with time, reflecting the growing interest in earthworm use in biodiversity and ecosystem services management. Conversely, no significant increase in the association between earthworms and disciplines such as ecological engineering or restoration ecology was observed. This demonstrated that general ecologically-based approaches have yet to emerge and that there is little exchange of knowledge, methods or concepts among balkanized application realms. Nevertheless, there is a strong need for crossing the frontiers between fields of application and for developing an umbrella discipline to provide a framework for the use of organisms to manage ecosystem services.

  8. The Balkan region: NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST11 clonal strain causing outbreaks in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voulgari, Evangelia; Gartzonika, Constantina; Vrioni, Georgia; Politi, Lida; Priavali, Efthalia; Levidiotou-Stefanou, Stamatina; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2014-08-01

    Despite the fact that the NDM-1 carbapenemase has successfully disseminated worldwide, outbreaks remain uncommon in the European region. We describe the characteristics of the first outbreaks caused by NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae clonal isolates in Greece. Between January 2010 and June 2013, 132 non-repetitive carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates, which gave a positive modified Hodge test and were phenotypically suspected of metallo-β-lactamase production, were recovered from patients hospitalized at Ioannina University Hospital. Resistance genes were identified by PCR and sequencing. Plasmid profiling, conjugation experiments, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR, PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed. Patient records were retrieved to access patterns of acquisition. Molecular testing verified the presence in 78 K. pneumoniae isolates, collected from 71 patients, of the blaNDM-1 gene. The blaCTX-M-15, blaOXA-1 and blaTEM-1 genes were also present in most isolates. The blaNDM-1 gene was located on a narrow host range IncFII-type plasmid, of ∼95 kb, flanked upstream by a non-truncated ISAba125 element and downstream by the bleMBL gene. Genotyping clustered all K. pneumoniae isolates into a single clonal type with one subtype and MLST assigned them to sequence type 11. Two outbreaks were noted, the first between November and December 2011 involving four patients and the second initiated in May 2012 and ongoing, involving the remaining patients. All but two cases were characterized as hospital acquired. No links to immigration or travel history to endemic areas were established. This survey highlights the successful undetected dissemination of yet another carbapenemase in Greece and strengthens the hypothesis of a latent NDM-1 cluster in the Balkan region. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For

  9. Empirical model of TEC response to geomagnetic and solar forcing over Balkan Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhtarov, P.; Andonov, B.; Pancheva, D.

    2018-01-01

    An empirical total electron content (TEC) model response to external forcing over Balkan Peninsula (35°N-50°N; 15°E-30°E) is built by using the Center for Orbit Determination of Europe (CODE) TEC data for full 17 years, January 1999 - December 2015. The external forcing includes geomagnetic activity described by the Kp-index and solar activity described by the solar radio flux F10.7. The model describes the most probable spatial distribution and temporal variability of the externally forced TEC anomalies assuming that they depend mainly on latitude, Kp-index, F10.7 and LT. The anomalies are expressed by the relative deviation of the TEC from its 15-day mean, rTEC, as the mean value is calculated from the 15 preceding days. The approach for building this regional model is similar to that of the global TEC model reported by Mukhtarov et al. (2013a) however it includes two important improvements related to short-term variability of the solar activity and amended geomagnetic forcing by using a "modified" Kp index. The quality assessment of the new constructing model procedure in terms of modeling error calculated for the period of 1999-2015 indicates significant improvement in accordance with the global TEC model (Mukhtarov et al., 2013a). The short-term prediction capabilities of the model based on the error calculations for 2016 are improved as well. In order to demonstrate how the model is able to reproduce the rTEC response to external forcing three geomagnetic storms, accompanied also with short-term solar activity variations, which occur at different seasons and solar activity conditions are presented.

  10. Current state of the electric power systems in the Balkan region and forecast for its development till 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhelyazkov, I.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of the electric power sector in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania and Serbia is given. Energy consumption in the region is foreseen to grow up with 58000 GWh in the next 15 years. About 2000 MW new power build generation are necessary to cover this needs. In the next 3-4 years at the Balkans, a shortage of about 10000 GWh is expected. This problem partially can be solved by import from countries outside the region

  11. Neogene paleogeography provides context for understanding the origin and spatial distribution of cryptic diversity in a widespread Balkan freshwater amphipod

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    Michał Grabowski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The Balkans are a major worldwide biodiversity and endemism hotspot. Among the freshwater biota, amphipods are known for their high cryptic diversity. However, little is known about the temporal and paleogeographic aspects of their evolutionary history. We used paleogeography as a framework for understanding the onset of diversification in Gammarus roeselii: (1 we hypothesised that, given the high number of isolated waterbodies in the Balkans, the species is characterised by high level of cryptic diversity, even on a local scale; (2 the long geological history of the region might promote pre-Pleistocene divergence between lineages; (3 given that G. roeselii thrives both in lakes and rivers, its evolutionary history could be linked to the Balkan Neogene paleolake system; (4 we inspected whether the Pleistocene decline of hydrological networks could have any impact on the diversification of G. roeselii. Material and Methods DNA was extracted from 177 individuals collected from 26 sites all over Balkans. All individuals were amplified for ca. 650 bp long fragment of the mtDNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI. After defining molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTU based on COI, 50 individuals were amplified for ca. 900 bp long fragment of the nuclear 28S rDNA. Molecular diversity, divergence, differentiation and historical demography based on COI sequences were estimated for each MOTU. The relative frequency, geographic distribution and molecular divergence between COI haplotypes were presented as a median-joining network. COI was used also to reconstruct time-calibrated phylogeny with Bayesian inference. Probabilities of ancestors’ occurrence in riverine or lacustrine habitats, as well their possible geographic locations, were estimated with the Bayesian method. A Neighbour Joining tree was constructed to illustrate the phylogenetic relationships between 28S rDNA haplotypes. Results We revealed that G. roeselii includes at least

  12. D Representation of the 19TH Century Balkan Architecture Using Scaled Museum-Maquette and Photogrammetry Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, E.; Karachaliou, E.; Stylianidis, E.

    2017-08-01

    Characteristic example of the Balkan architecture of the 19th century, consists the "Tower house" which is found in the region of Epirus and Western Macedonia, Greece. Nowadays, the only information about these heritage buildings could be abstracted by the architectural designs on hand and the model - Tower that is being displayed in the Folklore Museum of the Municipality of Kozani, Greece, as a maquette. The current work generates a scaled 3D digital model of the "Tower house", by using photogrammetry techniques applied on the model-maquette that is being displayed in the Museum exhibits.

  13. Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Briestenský, Miloš; Rowberry, Matthew David; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, P.; Vozár, J.; Šebela, S.; Petro, L.; Bella, P.; Gaal, L.; Ormukov, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 5 (2015), s. 427-438 ISSN 1335-0552 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010008; GA MŠk OC 625.10; GA ČR GA205/05/2770; GA ČR GA205/06/1828; GA ČR GA205/09/2024 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Eurasian Plate * Balkan Peninsula * active tectonics research * aseismic transient deformations * slow-slip phenomena Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.523, year: 2015 http://www.geologicacarpathica.com/browse-journal/volumes/66-5/article-780

  14. İtalya'nın Milli Birlik Sonrasında Osmanlı Devleti ve Balkan Siyaseti / Italy's Politics in the Balkans and the Ottoman Empire after National Unity

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    Suat Zeyrek

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Italy's Politics in the Balkans and the Ottoman Empire after National Unity Abstract Italy frequently had obliged to change its policy against Ottoman Empire after setting up the national unity until the Balkan War. The setting up of Italy's political unity in a very late date like 1870 caused to be late in colonialism. But United Italy was emerging as a new global power. Even if this power was not sufficient, it accelerated the developments changing the balances. In a short time, Italy had become a considered country in the seeking of colonialism after Germany. Italy with Germany forced other western states to follow new strategies and began the first colonial enterprise with Ethiopia, but this independent country has not been able to become colonize. Italy undertook to gain a place in European politics with the Treaty of Triple Alliance in 1882. It began looking for the spreading ways in North Africa and the Balkans. In this article, I focus on that how Italy easily acquired the support of European states through its politics of territory of Ottoman Empire and process of attaining its objective. İtalya'nın Milli Birlik Sonrasında Osmanlı Devleti ve Balkan Siyaseti Öz İtalya, milli birliğini kurduktan sonra Balkan Savaşı’na kadar Osmanlı Devleti’ne karşı takip ettiği politikalarında sık sık değişiklikler yapmak zorunda kalmıştı. İtalya’nın siyasi birliğini 1870 gibi çok geç tarihlerde kurması sömürgecilikte geç kalmasına neden olmuştu. Fakat birleşik İtalya yeni bir küresel güç olarak ortaya çıkıyordu. Bu güç yeterli olmasa da dengeleri değiştirecek gelişmeleri hızlandırdı. İtalya kısa bir süre içinde sömürgecilik arayışında Almanya’dan sonra dikkate alınır bir ülke oldu. Özellikle Almanya ile birlikte diğer batılı devletleri yeni stratejiler izlemeye zorladılar. İtalya ilk sömürge girişimine Habeşistan’la başlamış ancak bu bağımsız devletin koloni haline

  15. Trablusgarb ve Balkan Savaşları’nın Osmanlı Devleti’nin Ticaret-i Hariciyesi Üzerindeki Etkileri The Impacts Of Tripolitanian And Balkan Wars On The Ottoman Foreign Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz ÇOLAK

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The last ten years of the Ottoman State witnessed successivewars. These ten years began with the Tripolitanian War, which was aTurkish-Italian war, and ended with the Balkan Wars, World War I andTurkish War of Independence. These wars led to deterioration ofpolitical and economic conditions of the state and eventually to its fall.The Tripoli and Balkan Wars deeply influenced foreign policy andtrade of the Ottoman State. The Tripolitanian War began in 1911 whenItaly invaded Tripolitania and caused tension in the Ottoman-Italianeconomic relations even for a while. The same boycott, previouslyimplemented by the Ottoman State against Austrian goods as a result ofBosnia and Herzegovina invasion of Austria-Hungary in 1908, wasimplemented against Italian goods in 1911. The idea of boycott initiallycame up in the press, because the government was late to declare waragainst Italy. However Babıâli could not prevent Italian goods enteringthe country due to capitulations, therefore resorted to increase thecustoms duties taken from Italian goods. This policy continued until thepeace treaty in 1912.In 1912 the Ottoman State found itself at war with the BalkanLeague, an alliance formed by the Balkan States (Bulgaria, Greece,Montenegro, Serbia led by Bulgaria. Babıâli entered this war withoutany preparation and during the war Babıâli on the one hand tried tomeet army’s needs and on the other hand tried to take precautions byreviewing its economic relations with these countries. As a first step,like in the Tripolitanian War, Babıâli increased the customs dutiesapplied during trade activities with these Balkan countries and laterboycott was implemented against them by the Ottoman State. Thispolicy continued until the peace treaties in 1913 and ended after thepeace.In this study we will try to answer how these wars affected theforeign trade of the Ottoman State. The impact of these wars on theimport and export relations between Italy/Balkan States and

  16. Uranium-iron-silicate phases from the Balkan Metallogenic Zone and the Lenz im Kaltenegg (Styria, Austria) deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simova, F.G.

    1985-01-01

    The newly-found mineral phases of U 4+ of the UO 2 -FeO - SiO 2 homologuos series are reported. They have been established in a deposit of remobilized veinlet-disseminated type, falling within the scope of West-Balkan Metallogenic Zone and of the slightly metamorphized sedimentary type deposit, within the scope of the Semmering - Wechsel Massif, the Eastern Alpes. The presence of pyrite, hematite and peroxides, as well as uranium oxides and U-Fe silicates as small crystals determines the high iron content and radioactivity of the altered rocks. A complex of physical and chemical methods of investigation, radiography, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microspectral analysis were employed to study the ore mineralization. Rour U-Fe-Si minerals, new to science, have been identified, one coming from Austria and three from the West-Balkan Metallogenic Zone of Bulgaria. The specific composition of the uranium mineralization made it possible to determine the Alpine and recent ages of the hydrothermal mineralization

  17. The International Humanitarian Response to the Refugee Crisis Along the Balkan Route in the View of Strategies of International Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifi Veton

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Being one of the largest movements of displaced people through European borders since World War Two, the Syrian refugee crisis of 2015 and 2016, tested the coordination of the states and international organizations, and as well as the strategies for response of the latter to such enormous fluxes of displaced people along the Balkan corridor. The quick on-time reaction of the specialized humanitarian international organizations made significant achievements by the international organizations in terms of humanitarian assistance for the refugees and support for the governments of the region. Their approach mainly sought to create a partnership with the governments of the Balkan route in handling the serious humanitarian challenges (with a different strategy compared to other experiences, mainly this time through providing assistance and protection to the refugees throughout the corridor of the refugee crisis, it showed how important is such coordination at the end, with an aim to avoid further human catastrophes along refugee routes, and to avoid major security repercussions for the countries of the region.

  18. Genius Loci Balkani: Reception of the Past and the Construction of the Academic Narrative on the Balkan Heritage

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    Vladimir D. Mihajlović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Postcolonial and postmodern perspectives, entering the humanities over the last decades of the 20th century, have contributed to the awareness that the present European interpretations of the past have been strongly influenced by the social and ideological context of the 19th and 20th centuries. Consciously or otherwise, the pioneers of research into the Classical antiquities have perceived the object of their research through their own perception of the relations in the world that surrounded them, thus inscribing their contemporaneous values onto the past and using thus conceived past in understanding, explaining and justifying the modern social/cultural phenomena. This contribution poses the question to which extent the social trends in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia have inspired and enabled the creation of an academic narrative about the uniqueness of the Balkan lands, based upon the continuity with the "ancient humanism", and social/cultural values, (allegedly defined at the times of Ancient Greece and Hellenism. The relationship is considered between the modern trends and the formation of academic issues in the case of social and political circumstances that coincided with the creation of the discourse of the "Balkan spirit". The narrative is considered from the times of its formation up to the present, as well as the reasons for its wide popularity both in the academic community and the general public.

  19. Interdependence between core and peripheries of the European economy: secular stagnation and growth in the Western Balkans

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    Will Bartlett

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available European countries are economically dependent upon each other. This paper therefore embeds the analysis of the Western Balkan countries within a wider perspective of the European economy as a whole. It combines a simple core-periphery model with an under-consumption model to provide an explanation of the emergence of secular stagnation, the dependency relationships between the core and peripheries of the European economy, and the spillover effects of Eurozone crisis to the Western Balkans. Due to tendencies to under-consumption, the core countries have been vulnerable to secular stagnation. In order to overcome this tendency within the Eurozone they are dependent on export revenues from the peripheries to sustain their economic growth. This has led to high trade and current account deficits during the boom and placed the peripheries in a highly vulnerable position during the recession period. Financialisation of the European economy has emerged as a response to the tendency towards secular stagnation, as the provision of consumer credit stimulated demand and temporarily overcame under consumption tendencies. The paper argues that continuing austerity, as a method to create internal devaluation, is unlikely to succeed as a means to extricate the periphery countries from the crisis. Given the dependencies of the European economies upon one another, a possibly better way out of the current period of low growth and stagnation would be a coordinated fiscal expansion to stimulate domestic and Europe-wide demand.

  20. Tuberculosis Incidence and Case Notification Rates in Kosovo and the Balkans in 2012: Cross-country Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurhasani, Xhevat; Hafizi, Hasan; Toci, Ervin; Burazeri, Genc

    2014-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a considerable burden especially for millions of young adults and disadvantaged people worldwide. The TB incidence and notification rates are good indicators of TB situation in a country. Our aim was to compare TB incidence and notification rates in Kosovo and in seven other Balkan countries. Retrospective epidemiologic analysis of published data on TB incidence and notification rates in eight Balkan countries in 2012. Notification rates were expressed per 100,000 inhabitants and were calculated based on the number of TB cases reported divided by the population of each country under analysis. The TB incidence in Kosovo (47/100,000) was considerably higher compared to its four neighboring countries: Albania (16/100,000), Macedonia, Montenegro (18/100,000) and Serbia (23/100,000). The TB notification rates in Kosovo and other countries closely mimicked the incidence rates in these countries. The exceptionally high TB incidence rate in Kosovo could be due to many factors including low health and medical-seeking behaviors of the local population, poverty and low education levels. Effective interventions should be adapted to the local context in order to increase the chances of success.

  1. Models of the potential distribution and habitat preferences of the genus Pipiza (Syrphidae: Diptera on the Balkan peninsula

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    Nikolić Tijana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of the genus Pipiza, collected throughout the southern and western Balkans, were used for the analysis of habitat preferences and potential geographical distribution on the Balkan Peninsula. The analyzed species show a wide and uneven distribution across the delineated geographical-biogeographical regions. The highest number of species noted is from two regions - the Dinaric mountain chain and the Pannonian and subpannonian regions (seven and six. Land cover patch analysis revealed that forests dominate the landscape surroundings of the analyzed species. “Presenceonly models” developed by Maxent support the understanding of the distribution and ecology of each analyzed species. The low probability values of current potential distribution correspond to large non-forested and fragmented forest areas, where, on the other hand, relatively high probabilities overlap with areas of deciduous forests across the peninsula. Results confirm species preference to forest landscapes and emphasize the need for local scale analysis. The studies are of importance in developing regional monitoring schemes and conservation strategies.

  2. Sideritis scardica Griseb., an endemic species of Balkan peninsula: traditional uses, cultivation, chemical composition, biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova, Milka; Trendafilova, Antoaneta

    2014-03-14

    Sideritis scardica Griseb. is an endemic species in the Balkan Peninsula. It is used in traditional medicine as a loosening agent in bronchitis and bronchial asthma; against the common cold and lung emphysema; in the treatment of inflammation, gastrointestinal disorders and coughs; and as an active constituent of dietary supplements for the prevention of anemia. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the traditional use, phytochemistry, biological activity, cultivation, and extraction of Sideritis scardica and to highlight the gaps in our knowledge which deserves further research. The present review is based on information collected from scientific journals, books, and electronic search. These sources include Scopus, Pubmed, Web of Science, and Google scholar as well as local books on ethnopharmacology and botany of this plant. The reported data on phytochemical studies, biological activity, cultivation, extraction, and traditional uses have been reviewed. Variability in essential oil composition of wild growing and cultivated taxa depending on ecological conditions was discussed. Flavonoids, phenylethanoids, diterpenoids, aliphatic compounds, etc. identified so far have been summarized. A comparative study on the effectiveness of different methods, solvents, and parameters of extraction has also been discussed. A broad range of activities of plant extracts and fractions as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, antioxidant, gastroprotective, antiglioma, and triple monoamine reuptake inhibition as well as cultivation of the species as an approach for conservation of the natural habitats and provision of herb with high and permanent quality has also been presented. Sideritis scardica has become very popular and widely advertised herb in Europe. Although some of ethnobotanical uses have been proved through in vitro experiments, further studies of the individual compounds or chemical class of compounds responsible for the pharmacological effects

  3. Could living unrelated renal transplantation ameliorate the actual shortage of organs in the Balkan region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambabova-Busljetic, I; Popov, Z; Masin-Spasovska, J; Sikole, A; Selim, Gj; Dohcev, S; Ivanovski, N

    2013-07-01

    Despite the efforts for more transplants performed with organs from deceased donors, the living renal transplantation is still the predominant transplant activity in the Balkan region. In order to adress the severe organ shortage, we started accepting unrelated (emotionally related) living donors (LURD). Here we present our 10-year experience with living unrelated renal transplantation (LURT). Twenty four LURT were performed in our center in the last 10 years. The mean recipients and donors age was 41.7 and 47.2 years, respectively. As LURD spouses (n=17) and extended family members (n=7) were accepted predominantly. All donors went through careful psychological evaluation in order to confirm emotional relationship. The final decision was taken after both the recipient and the donor signed a consent in front of a judge. A quadruple sequential immunosuppressive protocol was used in all recipients. The 5-year Kaplan Meier graft survival rate, HLA mismatch, rejection episodes, delayed graft function, serum creatinine and Glomerular filtration rate-Modification of the diet in renal disease (GFR-MDRD) were analyzed. The results were compared with 30 living related renal transplants (LRT) performed during the same time with mean recipients and donors age of 35.9 and 58.5 years, respectively. The mean follow up for LURT and LRT recipients were 81.4 and 79.6 months, respectively. There was a significant difference regarding recipients and donors age, HLA mismatch (5.07 and 2.9) and rejection episodes (16% vs. 11%) in LURT and LRT recipients. The 5 years graft survival rate was excellent in both groups (83 and 81%, respectively). There was no significant difference in 5 years serum creatinine (129.3 vs 121.1 μmol/lit) and 5 years GFR-MDRD (56.6 and 58.6 ml/min). The authors present an excellent 5-year graft survival rate in both LURT and LRT recipients. Therefore, LURT could ameliorate the severe organ shortage in the region and could be recommended as a valuable source of

  4. Tephrostratigraphic studies on a sediment core from Lake Prespa in the Balkans

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    M. Damaschke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed tephrostratigraphic record, which dates back to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 5b (ca. 91 kyr, has been established from a 17.76 m long core (Co1215 from Lake Prespa (Macedonia, Albania and Greece. A total of eleven tephra and cryptotephra layers (PT0915-1 to PT0915-11 were identified, using XRF scanning, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and macro- and microscopic inspection of the sediments. The major element composition of glass shards and/or micro-pumice fragments indicates that the tephras and cryptotephras originate from the explosive volcanism of Italy. Eight tephra and cryptotephra layers were correlated with specific volcanic eruptions: the AD 512 eruption of Somma-Vesuvius (1438 cal yr BP, the Mercato eruption of Somma-Vesuvius (8890 ± 90 cal yr BP, the Tufi Biancastri/LN1-LN2 eruption of the Campi Flegrei (14 749 ± 523 cal yr BP and 15 551 ± 621 cal yr BP, the SMP1-e/Y-3 eruption of the Campi Flegrei (30 000–31 000 cal yr BP, the Campanian Ignimbrite/Y-5 eruption of the Campi Flegrei (39 280 ± 110 cal yr BP, the SMP1-a event of Ischia Island (around 44 000 cal yr BP and the Green Tuff/Y-6 eruption of Pantelleria Island (around 45 000 cal yr BP. One tephra could be attributed to the volcanic activity of Mount Etna, but probably represents an unknown eruption at ca. 60 000 cal yr BP. Cryptotephras PT0915-6 and PT0915-10 remain unclassified so far, but according to the presented age-depth model these would have been deposited around 35 000 and 48 500 cal yr BP, respectively. Some of the tephras and cryptotephras are recognised for the first time in the Balkan region. The tephrostratigraphic work provides important information about ash dispersal and explosion patterns of source volcanoes and can be used to correlate and date geographically distant paleoenvironmental and archaeological archives in the central Mediterranean region. Moreover, the tephrostratigraphic work in combination with radiocarbon and electron spin

  5. Effects of human activities on karst groundwater geochemistry in a rural area in the Balkans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, David T.; Voice, Thomas C.; Niagolova, Nedialka D.; McElmurry, Shawn P.

    2012-01-01

    The geochemistry of three drinking water sources (wells, springs, and tap) in the Vratza region of northern Bulgaria was investigated to gain an understanding of how human activities influence natural geochemical processes in a carbonate aquifer system. Numerous villages have been identified within this highly agricultural area as endemic for the environmental disease Balkan endemic nephropathy, with some suggesting a link to the geochemistry of the region. We observe that water quality varies significantly as a function of source. Hydrochemical facies analysis reveals trends not typical for limestone systems, with cation trajectories falling along the Ca 2+ –Mg 2+ axis and the anion trajectories lying along the HCO 3 - –SO 4 2- axis. R-mode factor analysis reveals: (i) an increasing dominance of a Cl − –Na + –SO 4 2- –NO 3 - association from tap to spring to well waters, (ii) a strong association between Mg 2+ and U, and (iii) a lack of associations between Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ and between Ca 2+ and HCO 3 - that is atypical for limestone systems. These observations are interpreted to indicate that human activities have influenced all sources across the Vratza region and that Mg and U concentrations result from the dissolution of limestone, which is enhanced due to the input of anthropogenic chemicals. Geochemical modeling indicates that Ca 2+ concentrations are in equilibrium with calcite, but that Mg 2+ concentrations remain conservative, resulting in the decoupling of a Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ , association. Uranium concentrations also appear to be conservative, aided by a poised redox state due to high concentrations of NO 3 - and the formation of CO 3 2- and PO 4 3- ion pairs. The similar source and conservative nature of both Mg 2+ and U can account for their association. Finally, cluster analysis indicates that the pattern of water geochemistry in the endemic area differs from the surrounding non-endemic area, may be explained by differences in the underlying

  6. Facilitators and Constraints of Policy Learning for Administrative Capacity in the Western Balkans

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    Karini Artan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on the policy-transfer literature, where processes such as Europeanization accentuate the role of policy networks as facilitators or constraints in the implementation of acquis, in addition to the familiar mechanism of “conditionality”, the principal objective of this article is to explore the challenges of policy learning toward administrative-capacity building and, more specifically, the role of what I refer to here as “donor-bureaucrat-contractor” networks in the Western Balkans. By employing a qualitative methodology consisting of forty semi-structured interviews and focus groups with policymakers, donor officers, civil-society experts and consultants in the region during the period of January 2011 to December 2016, a critical analysis of aid-supported policy learning via training as a conduit to administrative capacity-building reveals a series of context-specific dimensions, such as the informality of such networks, overreliance on local NGOs as “capacitybuilding” implementation partners and the ability of the context to affect donor behaviour - all ultimately contributing to the (non- occurrence of policy transfer. Th e overarching conclusion this article draws is that potential answers to problems with aid-supported policy learning in the region may probably lie in the invisible workings of the aforementioned networks rather than solely in the official channels of communication between Brussels and regional governments. From a policymaking standpoint, this conclusion in itself may as well be construed as a recommendation to mobilize future research surrounding the impact of such networks on European Union (EU accession processes in the region. Th is may encourage research organizations both in the EU and the region to (re orient future endeavors towards this dimension of administrative capacity-building - a core requirement for EU accession - especially as the EU itself faces its own enlargement dilemmas following

  7. Association of a bitter taste receptor mutation with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN

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    Wooding Stephen P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN is late-onset kidney disease thought to arise from chronic exposure to aristolochic acid, a phytotoxin that contaminates wheat supplies in rural areas of Eastern Europe. It has recently been demonstrated that humans are capable of perceiving aristolochic acid at concentrations below 40 nM as the result of high-affinity interactions with the TAS2R43 bitter taste receptor. Further, TAS2R43 harbors high-frequency loss-of-function mutations resulting in 50-fold variability in perception. This suggests that genetic variation in TAS2R43 might affect susceptibility to BEN, with individuals carrying functional forms of the receptor being protected by an ability to detect tainted foods. Methods To determine whether genetic variation in TAS2R43 predicts BEN susceptibility, we examined genotype-phenotype associations in a case–control study. A cohort of 88 affected and 99 control subjects from western Bulgaria were genotyped with respect to two key missense variants and a polymorphic whole-gene deletion of TAS2R43 (W35S, H212R, and wt/Δ, which are known to affect taste sensitivity to aristolochic acid. Tests for association between haplotypes and BEN status were then performed. Results Three major TAS2R43 haplotypes observed in previous studies (TAS2R43-W35/H212, -S35/R212 and –Δ were present at high frequencies (0.17, 0.36, and 0.47 respectively in our sample, and a significant association between genotype and BEN status was present (P = 0.020; odds ratio 1.18. However, contrary to expectation, BEN was positively associated with TAS2R43-W35/H212, a highly responsive allele previously shown to confer elevated bitter sensitivity to aristolochic acid, which should drive aversion but might also affect absorption, altering toxin activation. Conclusions Our findings are at strong odds with the prediction that carriers of functional alleles of TAS2R43 are protected from BEN by an ability to detect and

  8. VII. mezinárodní balkanistické sympozium / 7th International Symposium on Balkan Studies (Brno, 28. – 29. 11. 2016)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sovilj, Milan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2017), s. 251-254 ISSN 0354-6497 Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : conference * Balkan studies * contemporary history Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings)

  9. Description of Nasocoris lautereri sp. nov. from the Balkan peninsula, with a review of the genus Nasocoris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Phylinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kment, P.; Bryja, Josef

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 1633, - (2007), s. 39-61 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Insecta * Balkan peninsula * host plant Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.691, year: 2007 http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2007f/z01633p038f.pdf

  10. Risks and Opportunities of Urbanization – Structure of Two Populations of the Balkan Wall Lizard Podarcis tauricus (Pallas, 1814 in the City of Plovdiv

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    Ivelin A. Mollov

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study analyzes the structure and some features of two urban metapopulations of the Balkan Wall Lizard (Podarcis tauricus (Pallas, 1814 from Nature Monument (NM “Mladezhki halm” and Nature Monument “Halm na osvoboditelite” in the city of Plovdiv (South Bulgaria. In both study sites, the Balkan Wall lizard inhabits exclusively the interior of the hills and prefers mainly open areas with rare grass and shrub vegetation. The recorded dominant plant species are not autochthonous for the hills, but gradually displaced with many decorative species, used widely in the gardening and thecity parks. The population abundance from both hills is relatively low, with higher values in NM “Mladezhki halm” and generally shows a decrease pattern for the two year period. In the hills of Plovdiv, the Balkan Wall lizard shows a bimodal diurnal and seasonal activity. Both metapopulations showed a sex ratio close to 1:1 with a slight superiority of the females (1:1.29, but with no statistically significant deviation. The age structure of both metapopulations is almost identical - the highest percentage takes the adults, followed by the subadults and juveniles, with no significant deviations from the normal ratio. The possible reasons for the contemporary distribution and population structure of the Balkan Wall lizard are discussed. Historic land use change and its effect on the populations are discussed as well. The main risks for this species in the city of Plovdiv are construction and forestation (destruction of open terrains. Nevertheless, the Balkan Wall lizard seems to have successfully overcome the risks of urbanization and its population seem stable and sustainable.

  11. SHORT STORIES IN THE BALKANS AND CONTEMPORARYSHORT STORIES IN THE WORLD

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    Larisa Softic - Gasal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of selected short stories in the Balkan countries, as well as contemporary short stories of the world, will show us that the key themes of those stories are very similar to the short stories written during the period of transition in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1995-2010. For example, the story of the Soul Operation by an Iranian writer Mohsen Mahmalbafa, The Falcons by a Dutch writer Kader Abdolaha and On the Kitchen Stairs by a Polish writer Witold Gombrowic zinter connect with short stories by authors from Bosnia and Herzegovina, such as The Secret of Raspberry jam by Karim Zaimović or The Devilish work of Zoran Riđanović. A common thread manifests itself in the aforementioned stories, more specifically, a common theme which focuses on the need for eradication of the seeds of submission and compliance with the political system. Most authors focus on their domestic political systems; however, some portray and analyze systems in other countries as they see it, such as a Dutch narrator who focuses on a potential threat of infringement of human freedom. Moreover, Bellow Hubei by an Argentinian writer Anhelika Gorodis her underlines the importance of humanization within a political order. Faruk Šehić examines the political system in Bosnia and Herzegovina from a slightly different perspective. His collection of stories Under Pressure emphases the issue of pressure in the above war model of short stories in Bosnia and Herzegovina. These stories are the product of pressure and anxiety, with intent to latently promote new ways of spiritual survival, directly relating to the concept and the theme of the story The Past Age Man by Christian Karlson Stead. Further analysis of the alienation theme singled out short stories in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Plants are Something Else by Alma Lazarevska and Dialogues by Lamija Begagić, and pointed out their connection with some recent international short stories such as The Last Defence by

  12. Climate change in the Carpathian-Balkan Area. Advancing research and cooperation

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    Marcel MINDRESCU

    2013-06-01

    researchers and scholars can find common grounds for discussion and collaboration (Hutchinson and Mindrescu, 2012.In this regard an international meeting was organized at the Geography Department, University of Suceava, Romania, and was cosponsored by the University of Suceava, the Applied Geography Association (GEOCONCEPT, Past Global Changes (PAGES and the Mountain Research Initiative (MRI. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together an international group of scientists interested in the Carpathian-Balkan region to discuss research results and promote opportunities for interdisciplinary and international collaboration. The entire workshop was webcast. The program centered on 36 oral and 15 poster presentations as well as open discussions on the climatic and environmental dynamics during the Pleistocene and Holocene. The 70 participants were from Romania, Hungary, Germany, United Kingdom, Bulgaria, Slovenia, Ukraine, Poland, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Greece and Belgium. For many young researchers and students the workshop offered an educational opportunity to present their results to an international audience and discuss their research in a multidisciplinary community.To promote follow-up activities in the region, the “Suceava working group” was created under the lead of Marcel Mindrescu, Angelica Feurdean, Eniko Magyari and Daniel Veres. A group website is currently being set up (http://atlas.usv.ro/www/climatechange/ and grant proposals will be prepared. The group will also coordinate the organization of a second regional workshop in 2014 in Romania. Further activities, such as summer camps or meetings in the field are also considered.

  13. Ratings of Universities 2: Search for a paradigm of higher education against the background of the global crisis and balkanization

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    Konstantin Lidin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During the period between the fall of the Iron Curtain (1986 and the beginning of the global crisis (2008 Russian universities made an attempt to switch over to graduation of specialists that would be able to meet competition in the international market for intellectual labour. As the crisis evolved, the processes of globalization of higher education in Russia faced problems of the bureaucratized system of management. As a result, Russian universities split up into two unequal groups: the minority of universities remained on the way of globalization and integration into the global system, and the majority (about 95 % took a track of balkanization. The architecture of university campuses is expected to develop in two directions: one of them is in line with international stylistics common for all regions of the world, and the other keeps with diversity of regional and situational decisions tied to peculiarities of a certain university.

  14. Particular ceramic forms in the central Balkan and northern shores of the Aegean sea in the late bronze age

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    Bulatović Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the appearance and development of particular ceramic forms that were prevalent on the wider territory from the lower Danube to the northern shores of the Aegean sea during the middle and Late Bronze Age. These forms relate to globular beakers, pear shaped vessels with everted rims with arch shaped handles, cups with handles with plastic applications on their upper surface, etc. Particular attention is devoted to the phenomenon of globular beakers of the LBA in the valleys of Varder, Mesta and Struma rivers. All information collected primarily through analysis of stylistic-typological characteristics of ceramics of the middle and Late Bronze Age - that took into account ritual burials, layout of settlements, trade routes and climactic conditions during that period - points to population movements from the north to the south already by the LBA, i.e. in 15th century BC. These movements contributed to the creation of particular cultural groups in the LBA in the central Balkans, such as the Brnjica cultural group. However, these movements cannot be clearly linked to the so-called Aegean Migration, and for this reason their character and chronology are subject to debate. Ultimately it can be concluded that beakers of the Zimnicea -Cherkovna-Plovdiv type appeared in the late Bronze Age in the Vlasine depression and the Danube valley through the evolution of beaker forms of cultural groups of earlier periods. Almost contemporaneously, during LBA, a variant of this ceramic form, richly ornamented (mostly with spirals and similar in manner to the cultural group Dubovac-Žuto Brdo-Grla Mare- Krna, appeared in the LBA culture in northern Greece. Clearly this stylistic mannerism, with spirals as characteristic elements, spread relatively quickly through successive migrations in the period of 15th-14th century BC, toward the south of the Balkan Peninsula, thus covering the wider territory from the southern tip of the Carpathian mountains

  15. Intangible Capital, Innovation and Export-Led Growth: Empirical Comparative Study of Slovenia and the Western Balkans

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    Marija Drenkovska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the face of progressing globalisation and liberalisation of the markets, innovation is the minimum necessary requirement for companies and countries to be globally competitive, and knowledge is the key input. In a comparative study we investigate the intellectual capital of a sample of firms from the Western Balkans and Slovenia, and analyse the link between intellectual capital, innovation, and export volume. Using unique survey data sets for these countries, we propose a structural model to examine our hypotheses. The results suggest that possessing intellectual capital does not suffice for firms’ global competitiveness and that higher presence on global markets may offer exposure to more advanced knowledge that firms cannot obtain in their domestic markets.

  16. Revision of the flightless click-beetle genus Dima Charpentier, 1825 (Coleoptera: Elateridae: Dimini) in the Balkan Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertlik, Josef; Németh, Tamás; Kundrata, Robin

    2017-01-13

    The genus Dima Charpentier, 1825 in the Balkan Peninsula and surrounding areas was revised based on the adult semaphoronts. Altogether 33 species are known from the investigated area, of which nine are new for science: D. bruhai sp. nov. (Greece), D. dusaneki sp. nov. (Macedonia), D. fialai sp. nov. (Macedonia), D. kozufensis sp. nov. (Greece, Macedonia), D. orientalis sp. nov. (Bulgaria), D. pelikani sp. nov. (Albania, Montenegro), D. pelionensis sp. nov. (Greece), D. vonickai sp. nov. (Albania), and D. zbuzeki sp. nov. (Greece). Dima peloponnensis Schimmel & Platia, 2008 was synonymized under D. assingi Schimmel & Platia, 2008, D. scutellaris Platia, 2010 and D. fokidensis Schimmel & Platia, 2008 were synonymized under D. fthiotidensis Schimmel & Platia, 2008, D. pindosensis Schimmel & Platia, 2008 was synonymized under D. raineri Wurst, 1997, and D. riesei Platia, 2010 was synonymized under D. vailatii Schimmel & Platia, 2008. For the first time, a male was described for D. florinensis Platia, 2012, and females for D. neumanni Platia, 2013, D. olympica Meschnigg, 1934, and D. schimmeli Platia & Gudenzi, 2009. Dima dalmatina Küster, 1844 was recorded for the first time from Bosnia and Herzegovina, D. elateroides Charpentier, 1825 from Bulgaria and Macedonia, D. florinensis from Macedonia, and D. raineri Wurst, 1997 from Albania. For each species we provided bibliography and information on the type depositories, diagnosis, intraspecific variability and distribution, and figured the main diagnostic morphological characters. Due to the generally uniform morphology within the genus and great intraspecific variability in most diagnostic characters we were unable to construct a reliable identification key for the Dima species in the Balkan Peninsula. Our study revealed that Dima is a more speciose genus than expected and that more species may be discovered in the near future, even in Europe.

  17. Ash fell from the skies to the earth: The eruption of the Vesuvius in 1631 AD and the Balkan lands

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    Mrgić Jelena

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available After the most notorious eruption of the Vesuvius in 79 AD, the one that occurred on 16th December 1631 resulted in thousands of human victims and large-scale damage. According to modern volcanology studies, the amount of dust and ash emitted on this occasion was only three times smaller that in the famous eruption of Krakatau in 1883. Numerous historical sources registered the fall of volcanic ash, which is proved to be the true meaning of three Serbian marginal notes presented in this article. Anonymous monks in the monasteries of St. George near Pljevlja, Pološko and another one which still cannot be precisely identified, reported the fallout of ash on Wednesday, December 7, according to the Julian, i.e. 17 according to the Gregorian calendar. Considering the velocity of ash clouds, it is assumed that in both cases it could have been the first thing they saw at dawn, on the day after the eruption (cf. the map in this paper. Along with the "black powder", the same kind of historical sources - Serbian marginal notes, and The Chronicle of Fra Nikola Lašvanin - also provide the data on "red/bloody snow" on three separate occasions (1638, 1640 and 1690. These phenomena can be scientifically explained as deposits of desert dust from northern Africa brought by south-southwest air currents over the Balkan region. The last issue discussed in this paper is the possible connection between this particular volcanic eruption and short-term climate changes it may have caused in the Balkans.

  18. Cultural cross-border co-operation among Balkan's countries with the case of Serbia and Bulgaria

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    Stojkov Borislav

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural cross-border cooperation includes all fields of cross-border cooperation and gives base for main connections and interactions. Without strengthening cultural cross-border cooperation, it is impossible to build significant relations between neighbors. Culture, as a foundation, an activator and a purpose of development in cross-border regions, represents a cardinal and conditional factor of cross-border cooperation. Today's situation in the Balkans reveals ethnic diversity of this region and territorial dispersion of ethnic groups. This implies at the same time great cultural diversity as well as dispersal of various national cultures over the Balkan's states. During the 20th century Serbia and Bulgaria have very complex political and intrastate relations. But in the last 10 years there have been significant improvements in the cross-border cooperation between Serbia and Bulgaria. The results of these improvements are established Euro-regions and implemented cross-border projects between these two countries. Existing Euro-regions between Serbia and Bulgaria created links between various local authorities and made excellent basis for cross-border initiatives and joint projects to promote common interests across the border and cooperation for the common good of the border areas populations. The well managed cultural cross-border cooperation between these two countries will provide a clear view of common features and raise common identity for the region, contribute to tolerance and understanding between people in this area and enable them to overcome the peripheral status of the border region in their countries and improve the living conditions of the population.

  19. Endogean and cavernicolous Coleoptera of the Balkans. XVII. A new species of the genus Speluncarius Reitter, 1886 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Harpalinae, Pterostichini) from Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlaváč, Peter; Lakota, Ján; Čeplík, Dávid

    2016-09-02

    The genus Speluncarius Reitter, 1886 (Harpalinae, Pterostichini) is made up by anophthalmous or almost blind species. The genus is related to Tapinopterus Schaum, 1858, which contains numerous species from the Balkan-Anatolian region and have more or less developed eyes. Speluncarius is distributed in the Western Palaearctic region; 26 species and one subspecies are known from Italy, the Balkan Peninsula and Turkey. The genus is classified in five subgenera, Elasmopterus Kraatz, 1886 (6 spp.); Hypogearius Jeannel, 1953 (3 spp.); Hypogium Tschitscherine, 1900 (1 sp.); Pontotapinus Guéorguiev & Lohaj, 2008 (1 sp.) and Speluncarius (s.str.) Reitter, 1886 (15 spp.) (Sciaky, 1982; Bousquet, 2003; Guéorguiev & Lohaj, 2008; Casale et al., 2013).

  20. To sleep, perchance to dream... or staying awake: On Balkanism and the failure of the constructivist standpoint in Serbia: A view from the past

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    Đerić Gordana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the meanings of representations of Serbia, the Balkans and Europe at the time of encounter between Enlightenment and Romanticist traditions. The analysis starts from the assumption that the emergence of negative representations of South Eastern Europe cannot be discussed without placing it within the broader context of 18th and 19th century philosophy and literature and the consequences of new philosophical and literary ideas. Underlying the substantial change of the previously dominant paradigms that is expressed in the symbolic division into 'West' and "East', there was a factual rather than symbolic division into an industrial and an agricultural Europe, whose boundaries coincided with the reference points of the symbolic distinction. Insisting on the importance of both analytic levels - the 'symbolic' and the 'factual' - the first section of the paper briefly outlines the development of symbolic geography in the context of 'Balkan' studies ('Balkan variations of orientalism' or 'balkanism' in the 1990s, as well as the failure of this genre and the constructivist paradigm in Serbian social theory. The second section is devoted to the discourses of conceptualizing broader communities in symbolic, linguistic, imagological, cultural, political, economic etc. terms, focusing on the beginnings of ideological and linguistic unification of South Slavs and their inclusion into the "enlightened Europe". By analyzing Vuk Stefanovia: Karadzix's writings, as well as correspondence, articles and commentaries referring to Vuk's work in the first half of the 19th century, the author takes the perspective of the past in order to identify the reasons for the failure of imagological and constructivist approach today.

  1. Description of a new species of Wormaldia from Sardinia and a new Drusus species from the Western Balkans (Trichoptera, Philopotamidae, Limnephilidae

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    Simon Vitecek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available New species are described in the genera Wormaldia (Trichoptera, Philopotamidae and Drusus (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Drusinae. Additionally, the larva of the new species Drusus crenophylax sp. n. is described, and a key provided to larval Drusus species of the bosnicus-group, in which the new species belongs. Observations on the threats to regional freshwater biodiversity and caddisfly endemism are discussed. The new species Wormaldia sarda sp. n. is an endemic of the Tyrrhenian island of Sardinia and differs most conspicuously from its congeners in the shape of segment X, which is trilobate in lateral view. The new species Drusus crenophylax sp. n. is a micro-endemic of the Western Balkans, and increases the endemism rate of Balkan Drusinae to 79% of 39 species. Compared to other Western Balkan Drusus, males of the new species are morphologically most similar to D. discophorus Radovanovic and D. vernonensis Malicky, but differ in the shape of superior and intermediate appendages. The females of D. crenophylax sp. n. are most similar to those of D. vernonensis, but differ distinctly in the outline of segment X. Larvae of D. crenophylax sp. n. exhibit toothless mandibles, indicating a scraping grazing-feeding ecology.

  2. Creolization and balkanization as a result of language (dialect contact. Is the origin of mixed languages universal?

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    Michał Głuszkowski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Creolization and balkanization as a result of language (dialect contact. Is the origin of mixed languages universal? There are several types of language contact depending on the relations between languages. The article focuses on the results of language contact with multi- and unidirectional influence: balkanization, pidginization, creolization and other types of contact – why not all of them result in mixing codes. The author considers various theoretical approaches to describe languages in contact, the process of convergence and the genesis of mixed codes. While the comparison of such language situations as Balkan Sprachbund, colonial and postcolonial societies, multi-ethnic societies in the Western world, has shown  that each type of language contact needs its own approach, the final part of this paper is  devoted to two analogical language situations: Russian Old Believers in Poland and Poles in Siberia. However, despite of many similarities, even these two communities have developed their bilingualism in a different way. Kreolizacja i bałkanizacja jako rezultat kontaktu języków (dialektów. Czy istnieje uniwersalna geneza języków mieszanych? Możemy wyróżnić kilka typów kontaktu językowego w zależności od relacji pomiędzy językami. W artykule omówiono rezultaty kontaktu językowego z jedno- i wielokierunkowym wpływem: bałkanizacja, pidginizacja, kreolizacja oraz inne typy kontaktu, a także podjęto próbę odpowiedzi na pytanie o to, czemu tylko niektóre z nich skutkują powstaniem języków mieszanych. Analizie poddano różne podejścia teoretyczne, służące opisowi języków w kontakcie, procesowi konwergencji oraz powstaniu języków mieszanych. Ponieważ porównanie takich przykładów kontaktu językowego jak Bałkańska Liga Językowa, społeczności kolonialne i postkolonialne oraz wieloetniczne społeczeństwa na Zachodzie pokazało, że każdy typ kontaktu wymaga innego podejścia, końcową cz

  3. Do Health Reforms Impact Cost Consciousness of Health Care Professionals? Results from a Nation-Wide Survey in the Balkans

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    Mihajlo Jakovljevic

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Serbia, as the largest market of the Western Balkans, has entered socioeconomic transition with substantial delay compared to most of Eastern Europe. Its health system reform efforts were bold during the past 15 years, but their results were inconsistent in various areas. The two waves of global recession that hit Balkan economies ultimately reflected to the financial situation of healthcare. Serious difficulties in providing accessible medical care to the citizens became a reality. A large part of the unbearable expenses actually belongs to the overt prescription of pharmaceuticals and various laboratory and imaging diagnostic procedures requested by physicians. Therefore, a broad national survey was conducted at all levels of the healthcare system hierarchy to distinguish the ability of cost containment strategies to reshape clinician’s mindsets and decision-making in practice. Aims: Assessment of healthcare professionals’ judgment on economic consequences of prescribed medical interventions and evaluation of responsiveness of healthcare professionals to policy measures targeted at increasing cost-consciousness. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: A nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted through a hierarchy of medical facilities across diverse geographical regions before and after policy action, from January 2010 to April 2013. In the middle of the observed period, the National Health Insurance Fund (RFZO adopted severe cost-containment measures. Independently, pharmacoeconomic guidelines targeted at prescribers were disseminated. Administration in large hospitals and community pharmacies was forced to restrict access to high budget-impact medical care. Economic Awareness of Healthcare Professionals Questionnaire–29 (EAHPQ-29, developed in Serbian language, was used in face-to-face interviews. The questionnaire documented clinician’s attitudes on: Clinical

  4. The New Environment of EU Enlargement: The Impact of Economic Crisis on the Western Balkans and their EU Accession Prospects

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    Ritsa Panagiotou

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper will explore the impact of the economic crisis on the Western Balkan countries, and how the new, unfavorable international environment is affecting their EU accession prospects. The analysis will be presented in three sections: the first part will examine the effect of the “first wave” of the global economic crisis on the economies of the region, specifically the impact on the region’s macroeconomic indicators, foreign direct investment flows, financial sectors, etc. Part two will analyse the repercussions of the “second wave” of the crisis, namely the Greek sovereign debt crisis, which rapidly spilled over into the entire Eurozone. Part three will build on the issues examined in parts one and two and will discuss the repercussions of both waves of the crisis on the region’s enlargement process and prospects. The paper will also propose that although the EU’s role in Southeast Europe remains crucial (not least as a provider of economic assistance its hitherto undisputable symbolic role as an “anchor” of stability and as a goal to be aspired to may be losing its appeal for some of these countries. This paper will explore the impact of the economic crisis on the Western Balkan countries, and how the new, unfavorable international environment is affecting their EU accession prospects. The analysis will be presented in three sections: the first part will examine the effect of the “first wave” of the global economic crisis on the economies of the region, specifically the impact on the region’s macroeconomic indicators, foreign direct investment flows, financial sectors, etc. Part two will analyse the repercussions of the “second wave” of the crisis, namely the Greek sovereign debt crisis, which rapidly spilled over into the entire Eurozone. Part three will build on the issues examined in parts one and two and will discuss the repercussions of both waves of the crisis on the region’s enlargement process and

  5. Lifetime and past-year prevalence of children's exposure to violence in 9 Balkan countries: the BECAN study.

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    Nikolaidis, George; Petroulaki, Kiki; Zarokosta, Foteini; Tsirigoti, Antonia; Hazizaj, Altin; Cenko, Enila; Brkic-Smigoc, Jelena; Vajzovic, Emir; Stancheva, Vaska; Chincheva, Stefka; Ajdukovic, Marina; Rajter, Miro; Raleva, Marija; Trpcevska, Liljana; Roth, Maria; Antal, Imola; Ispanovic, Veronika; Hanak, Natasha; Olmezoglu-Sofuoglu, Zeynep; Umit-Bal, Ismail; Bianchi, Donata; Meinck, Franziska; Browne, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Children's exposure to violence is a major public health issue. The Balkan epidemiological study on Child Abuse and Neglect project aimed to collect internationally comparable data on violence exposures in childhood. A three stage stratified random sample of 42,194 school-attending children (response rate: 66.7%) in three grades (aged 11, 13 and 16 years) was drawn from schools in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), Greece, Romania, Serbia and Turkey. Children completed the ICAST-C questionnaire, which measures children's exposure to violence by any perpetrator. Exposure rates for psychological violence were between 64.6% (FYROM) and 83.2% (Greece) for lifetime and 59.62% (Serbia) and 70.0% (Greece) for past-year prevalence. Physical violence exposure varied between 50.6% (FYROM) and 76.3% (Greece) for lifetime and 42.5% (FYROM) and 51.0% (Bosnia) for past-year prevalence. Sexual violence figures were highest for lifetime prevalence in Bosnia (18.6%) and lowest in FYROM (7.6%). Lifetime contact sexual violence was highest in Bosnia (9.8%) and lowest in Romania (3.6%). Past-year sexual violence and contact sexual violence prevalence was lowest in Romania (5.0 and 2.1%) and highest in Bosnia (13.6 and 7.7% respectively). Self-reported neglect was highest for both past-year and lifetime prevalence in Bosnia (48.0 and 20.3%) and lowest in Romania (22.6 and 16.7%). Experiences of positive parental practices were reported by most participating children in all countries. Where significant differences in violence exposure by sex were observed, males reported higher exposure to past-year and lifetime sexual violence and females higher exposure to neglect. Children in Balkan countries experience a high burden of violence victimization and national-level programming and child protection policy making is urgently needed to address this.

  6. THE IMAGE OF TURKS AMONG INDIAN MUSLIMS: THE CASE OF BALKAN WARS / HİNT MÜSLÜMANLARINDA TÜRK İMGESİ: BALKAN SAVAŞLARI ÖRNEĞİ

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    Tuncay Ercan SEPERCİOĞLU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An image consists of a person’s, a community’s and/or a society’s positive and/or negative conceptions and attributions towards an object, an event and/or another community. Factors such as ideological approaches, culture, collective memory, past experiences, and/or geography play an important role in forming these impressions. If a society’s approach towards another society is a matter of question, the image determines political stance and generates one of the reasons for social reactions. This study does not include examples of factionalized society, culture and/or political formulations but examples concerning positive perceptions of a society of another and how these perceptions are reflected on their reactions. In doing so, the study analyses the contributions of Indian Muslims to the Ottoman Empire and Turkish nation during the Balkan Wars with examples and questions the reasons behind these supports. Indian Muslims attempted to mold public opinion in order to bring attention to the Balkan Wars. They aided Ottomans in kind and cash, sent medical teams and played an active role in battle and organized activities for refugees. This study aims to reveal approaches and sensitivities of Indian Muslims to one of the biggest social problems that Turks faced in the early 20th century through data that were obtained from the Ottoman Archive and several newspapers of that period. İmge bir kişi, topluluk ve/veya toplumun bir nesneye, olaya ve/veya diğer bir topluluğa dair olumlu ya da olumsuz (veya her ikisi birden kavram ve nitelemelerinden oluşmaktadır. Bu izlenimlerde ideolojik yaklaşımlar, kültür, toplumsal hafıza, geçmiş deneyimler, coğrafya ve ekonomi gibi etkenler büyük rol oynar. Söz konusu olan bir toplumun diğer bir topluma yönelik yaklaşımıysa eğer, imge siyasal duruşu belirlemekte, toplumsal tepkilerin nedenlerinden birini oluşturmaktadır. Bu çalışma, -benzerleri çok görülen- ötekileştirilen bir

  7. The new territories of Serbia after the Balkan Wars of 1912-1913 the establishment of the first local authorities

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    Svirčević Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Balkan Wars of 1912-13, the Kingdom of Serbia wrested Old Serbia and Macedonia from Ottoman rule. The process of instituting the constitutional order and local government institutions in the liberated and annexed areas was phased: (1 the building of provisional administration on the instructions of government inspectors and the head of the Military Police Department; (2 implementation of the Decree on the Organization of the Liberated Areas of 14 December 1912; and (3 implementation of the Decree on the Organization of the Liberated Areas of 21 August 1913. Finally, under a special royal decree issued in 1913, implementation began of some sections of the Constitution of the Kingdom of Serbia. In late December 1913, the interior minister, Stojan M. Protić, submitted the bill on the Annexation of Old Serbia to the Kingdom of Serbia and its Administration to the Assembly along with the opinion of the State Council. The bill had, however, not been put to the vote by the time the First World War broke out, and the issue lost priority to the new wartime situation until the end of the war.

  8. Phenolic profile and free radical-scavenging activity of Cabernet Sauvignon wines of different geographical origins from the Balkan region.

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    Radovanović, Blaga C; Radovanović, Aleksandra N; Souquet, Jean-Marc

    2010-11-01

    The phenolic profile, determined by the relative proportions of different phenolic compounds, is characteristic for each grape variety and its corresponding wine. The aim of this study was to determine the phenolic and hydroxycinnamate acid, flavan-3-ol and flavonol contents and free radical-scavenging activity of single-cultivar (Cabernet Sauvignon) wines from selected Balkan vineyard regions by spectrophotometric methods and high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array and fluorescence detection. The contents of phenolic compounds varied depending on the agroclimatic factors and oenological practices of the vineyard region. The antioxidant activity of wine samples was estimated by their ability to scavenge the stable 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH). All wines showed high DPPH-scavenging activity (70.03-83.53%, mean 73.76%). Significant correlations between catechin (R(2) = 0.8504) and quercetin (R(2) = 0.8488) concentrations and DPPH-scavenging ability of the wines were found. The concentrations of the main components catechin and quercetin can be used as biochemical markers for the authentication of red grape cultivars and their corresponding single-cultivar wines. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry

  9. The right to life and criminal-law protection of the human person in the Western Balkans

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    Etlon Peppo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The basic principle for which a democratic governance stands, are expressed in the “Declaration of Independence of the United States of America with the words of Thomas Jefferson: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed” The government of a democratic state does not exist to recognize the basic human rights, but to respect and guarantee the protection of these rights that any person possesses and benefits due to his existence starting from the most important right: The right to life, which is faced against the duty of the state for the protection of the human person’s life! In this sense this article analyzes the criminal-law protection of life in the Western Balkans.

  10. Integrative taxonomy by molecular species delimitation: multi-locus data corroborate a new species of Balkan Drusinae micro-endemics.

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    Vitecek, Simon; Kučinić, Mladen; Previšić, Ana; Živić, Ivana; Stojanović, Katarina; Keresztes, Lujza; Bálint, Miklós; Hoppeler, Felicitas; Waringer, Johann; Graf, Wolfram; Pauls, Steffen U

    2017-06-06

    Taxonomy offers precise species identification and delimitation and thus provides basic information for biological research, e.g. through assessment of species richness. The importance of molecular taxonomy, i.e., the identification and delimitation of taxa based on molecular markers, has increased in the past decade. Recently developed exploratory tools now allow estimating species-level diversity in multi-locus molecular datasets. Here we use molecular species delimitation tools that either quantify differences in intra- and interspecific variability of loci, or divergence times within and between species, or perform coalescent species tree inference to estimate species-level entities in molecular genetic datasets. We benchmark results from these methods against 14 morphologically readily differentiable species of a well-defined subgroup of the diverse Drusinae subfamily (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae). Using a 3798 bp (6 loci) molecular data set we aim to corroborate a geographically isolated new species by integrating comparative morphological studies and molecular taxonomy. Our results indicate that only multi-locus species delimitation provides taxonomically relevant information. The data further corroborate the new species Drusus zivici sp. nov. We provide differential diagnostic characters and describe the male, female and larva of this new species and discuss diversity patterns of Drusinae in the Balkans. We further discuss potential and significance of molecular species delimitation. Finally we argue that enhancing collaborative integrative taxonomy will accelerate assessment of global diversity and completion of reference libraries for applied fields, e.g., conservation and biomonitoring.

  11. A cross-cultural segmentation of western Balkan consumers: focus on preferences toward traditional fresh cow cheese.

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    Giraud, Georges; Amblard, Corinne; Thiel, Elise; Zaouche-Laniau, Martine; Stojanović, Zaklina; Pohar, Jure; Butigan, Ružica; Cvetković, Miljan; Mugosa, Boban; Kendrovski, Vladimir; Mora, Cristina; Barjolle, Dominique

    2013-11-01

    Western Balkan countries (WBCs) have a long-standing culinary tradition. The promotion of traditional foods may be a tool for coping with modernisation trends in such transition economies. This paper explores consumer preferences toward food in this region, focusing on a traditional fresh cow cheese locally called 'Mladi Sir'. This product was quoted in all the preliminary focus groups as a common traditional product present in the six WBCs studied: Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia. After a literature review investigating the concept of traditional food in WBCs and the implementation of focus groups, a survey including a conjoint analysis on preferences for fresh cow cheese was carried out in 2011 to collect data from 1200 respondents. Four clusters of consumers were identified: one focused more on the local origin; one oriented more toward the scale of production (on-farm and small dairy); the third favouring low prices and the fourth preferring high prices and industrial products. Policy makers and the supply chain could take these differences in consumer preferences regarding traditional food products into account in order to develop specific strategies. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Resource recovery from waste by Roma in the Balkans: A case study from Zavidovici (BiH).

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    Vaccari, Mentore; Perteghella, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Roma communities represent the main involved actors in the informal activities in the Balkan regions, especially because the state does not formally recognize them as formal inhabitants. The Roma community in Zavidovici, despite being resident since the beginning of the 20th century, is still considered a marginalized and vulnerable group. They are actively involved in and dependent on the informal solid waste sector. Waste collection is a 'family business', a kind of self-employment and the main source of income for households. Informal recyclers have a central role in the solid waste management system and they recover a significant amount of materials, especially iron, copper, brass, lead and exhausted batteries. Despite the negative fluctuations of the raw material prices, because of the international economic crisis, informal recyclers remain dependent on the waste recycling sector. They are crucial actors in the value chain of recyclables: though they cannot access the final buyers of recyclables, they provide more than 50% of the market to the middle dealers in the Zenica-Doboj Canton. This research activity consists of a deep socio-economic analysis of the informal recyclers' community living in Zavidovici city. In particular, this paper describes the composition and welfare status of informal recyclers' households, the role of informal recyclers in waste collection, the geographical coverage and the related pattern of waste picking, types, volumes and price fluctuations of recyclable materials, and the middle dealers involved in the informal recycling system. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Between the Balkans and the Baltic: Phylogeography of a Common Vole Mitochondrial DNA Lineage Limited to Central Europe.

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    Stojak, Joanna; McDevitt, Allan D; Herman, Jeremy S; Kryštufek, Boris; Uhlíková, Jitka; Purger, Jenő J; Lavrenchenko, Leonid A; Searle, Jeremy B; Wójcik, Jan M

    2016-01-01

    The common vole (Microtus arvalis) has been a model species of small mammal for studying end-glacial colonization history. In the present study we expanded the sampling from central and eastern Europe, analyzing contemporary genetic structure to identify the role of a potential 'northern glacial refugium', i.e. a refugium at a higher latitude than the traditional Mediterranean refugia. Altogether we analyzed 786 cytochrome b (cytb) sequences (representing mitochondrial DNA; mtDNA) from the whole of Europe, adding 177 new sequences from central and eastern Europe, and we conducted analyses on eight microsatellite loci for 499 individuals (representing nuclear DNA) from central and eastern Europe, adding data on 311 new specimens. Our new data fill gaps in the vicinity of the Carpathian Mountains, the potential northern refugium, such that there is now dense sampling from the Balkans to the Baltic Sea. Here we present evidence that the Eastern mtDNA lineage of the common vole was present in the vicinity of this Carpathian refugium during the Last Glacial Maximum and the Younger Dryas. The Eastern lineage expanded from this refugium to the Baltic and shows low cytb nucleotide diversity in those most northerly parts of the distribution. Analyses of microsatellites revealed a similar pattern but also showed little differentiation between all of the populations sampled in central and eastern Europe.

  14. An Englishman in Romania: An Imagological Reading of Mike Ormsby’s Never Mind the Balkans, Here’s Romania

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    Gabriela-Iuliana COLIPCĂ-CIOBANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Connecting back with an already well-established tradition of scholarly explorations of images of Romanianness, as emerging from (nonfictional representations of cross-cultural, Anglo-Romanian encounters, the present paper focuses on one of the most recent textual productions foregrounding an English traveller’s gaze on his Romanian hosts, namely Mike Ormsby’s collection of short stories Never Mind the Balkans, Here’s Romania (2008. Applying an imagological grid to it, the paper aims at providing evidence in defence of the idea that, at least after 1989, the English observers’ attitudes towards and, implicitly, textual mirroring of Romania have undergone significant changes. In doing that, it reflects upon the ‘game’ of auto- and hetero-images at the heart of the narrative discourse as meant to point to both an awareness of cultural differences and the need to overcome cultural biases in one’s mind with a view to successful intercultural communication in the context of globalisation-driven societal transformations.

  15. Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria

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    Briestenský Miloš

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The EU-TecNet monitoring network uses customized three-dimensional extensometers to record transient deformations across individual faults. This paper presents the first results from two newly established monitoring points in the Balkan Mountains in Bulgaria. The data from Saeva Dupka, recorded across an EEN-WWS striking fault, show sinistral strike-slip along the fault and subsidence of the southern block. Much of the subsidence occurred around the time of the distal MW = 5.6 Pernik Earthquake. An important transient deformation event, which began in autumn 2012, was reflected by significant compression and following extension, across the monitored fault. The data from Bacho Kiro, recorded across a NE–SW striking fault, show sinistral strike-slip along the fault and subsidence of the north-western block. The same important deformation event was reflected by changes in the strike-slip, dip-slip, and horizontal opening/closing trends. These results have been compared to data from other monitoring points in the Western Carpathians, External Dinarides, and Tian Shan. Many of the sites show evidence of simultaneous displacement anomalies and this observation is interpreted as a reflection of the plate-wide propagation of a tectonic pressure pulse towards the end of 2012.

  16. Essential Oil Composition of Centaurea atropurpurea and Centaurea orientalis Inflorescences from the Central Balkans - Ecological Significance and Taxonomic Implications.

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    Novaković, Jelica; Rajčević, Nemanja; Milanovici, Sretco; Marin, Petar D; Janaćković, Pedja

    2016-09-01

    The essential oil composition of Centaurea atropurpurea and Centaurea orientalis flowering heads (capitula) from Central Balkans have been determined by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In total, 121 compounds were identified, representing on average 97.7% of the oil composition. In all samples, sesquiterpenes were most abundant group, representing 53.9 - 74.0% of the total oil. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons dominated in all studied populations of C. orientalis and C. atropurpurea, except C. atropurpurea f. flava in which essential oil was characterized with high level of oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The dominant components differed between species, and also between typical C. atropurpurea and C. atropurpurea f. flava. The most abundant compounds of essential oil of C. orientalis were germacrene D and α-cadinol. In C. atropuruprea, germacrene D and β-caryophyllene were the most abundant, while caryophyllene oxide and β-caryophyllene were dominant in C. atropurpurea f. flava oil. Taxonomical and ecological implications are further discussed. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  17. Regional Conflicts in the Western Balkans and the Caucasus Revisited: Comparison of Kosovo to South Ossetia and Abkhazia

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    Vladimir Đorđević

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the things that the Western Balkans and the Caucasus have in common is an extremely challenging legacy of the past. The dissolution of two multinational states – the Soviet Union and Socialist Yugoslavia in the beginning of 1990s – led to ethno-nationalist conflicts on a large scale. While the Yugoslav crisis ended in 1999 after the FRY was bombed by NATO during its Kosovo campaign, the Caucasus still remains a conflict-ridden region where Russian and Western influences keep colliding. The purpose of this article is to present an analytical comparison of the three respective regional conflicts – Kosovo, Georgia and South Ossetia – by enumerating and analyzing similarities and differences between them, as this proves to be one of current and more intriguing issues of the contemporary international political scene. The article aims at providing answers to two different issues: Did Kosovo’s independence influence the establishment of a specific political pattern applicable to other disputed regions; and to what degree are the cases in question comparable to each other?

  18. Comparative Study of Composition, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils of Selected Aromatic Plants from Balkan Peninsula.

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    Stanković, Nemanja; Mihajilov-Krstev, Tatjana; Zlatković, Bojan; Matejić, Jelena; Stankov Jovanović, Vesna; Kocić, Branislava; Čomić, Ljiljana

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study to perform a comparative analysis of the chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of plant species Hyssopus officinalis, Achillea grandifolia, Achillea crithmifolia, Tanacetum parthenium, Laserpitium latifolium, and Artemisia absinthium from Balkan Peninsula. The chemical analysis of essential oils was performed by using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Monoterpenes were dominant among the recorded components, with camphor in T. parthenium, A. grandifolia, and A. crithmifolia (51.4, 45.4, and 25.4 %, respectively), 1,8-cineole in H. officinalis, A. grandifolia, and A. crithmifolia (49.1, 16.4, and 14.8 %, respectively), and sabinene in L. latifolium and A. absinthium (47.8 and 21.5 %). The antiradical and antioxidant activities were determined by using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging methods. The essential oil of A. grandifolia has shown the highest antioxidant activity [IC50 of 33.575 ± 0.069 mg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2.510 ± 0.036 mg vitamin C/g for the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assay]. The antimicrobial activity against 16 multiresistant pathogenic bacteria isolated from human source material was tested by the broth microdilution assay. The resulting minimum inhibitory concentration/minimum bactericidal concentration values ranged from 4.72 to 93.2 mg/mL. Therefore, the essential oils of the plant species included in this study may be considered to be prospective natural sources of antimicrobial substances, and may contribute as effective agents in the battle against bacterial multiresistance. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Legal and criminological aspects of the crime of genocide in the Balkans on the Serb population in XX century - Selected Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Ickiewicz-Sawicka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The text under the title Crime of Genocide Serbian population in the Balkans in the twentieth century, consists of threeparts. The first one describes the theoretical concepts idea Genocide, the other contains reflections on war crimes, crimesagainst humanity, etc. - also on the basis of theoretical concepts. The third part of the article was presented to the Croatianconcentration camp was set up to exterminate the Serbian civilian population into the territory of the Independent State ofCroatia. Text close to the conclusions, which are all considerations the conclusion contained in the article.

  20. Sibling vole species (Microtus in the fragmented landscape of south-eastern part of Thrace, Balkan Peninsula: species presence, habitat selection and craniometry

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    GEORGI MARKOV

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence of sibling vole species (Microtus in the most common forests and open landscapes in south-eastern part of Thrace (Balkan Peninsula of contemporary territories of Bulgaria and Turkey was studied. Only the southern vole (Microtus levis was found in the investigated region. In his northern part, the Southern vole is associated with semi dry, upland habitats such as deserted and overgrown with wild vegetation vines near sparse forests and large agricultural fields under autumn crops with adjacent non-arable lands with shrub vegetation. In the southern part, it is presented in open landscape related to water areas (meadows near rivers and wetlands. On the basis of trapping the Southern vole is a common species in the north part of Strandzha region. The established craniological characteristics of the Southern vole from investigated region, which can be considered as a zoogeographical crossroads, with a late Pleistocene connection between the Balkan Peninsula and the mammalian fauna of Anatolian peninsula, enriched the knowledge about its craniological variation in Europe.

  1. Natural Radioactivity of Intrusive-Metamorphic and Sedimentary Rocks of the Balkan Mountain Range (Serbia, Stara Planina

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    Sanna Masod Abdulqader

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Stara Planina (also known as the Balkan mountain range is known for numerous occurrences and deposits of uranium and associated radionuclides. It is also famous for its geodiversity. The geologic framework is highly complex. The mountain is situated between the latitudes of 43° and 44° N and the longitudes from 22°16′ to 23°00′ E. Uranium exploration and radioactivity testing on Stara Planina began back in 1948. Uranium has also been mined in the zone of Kalna, within the Janja granite intrusive. The naturally radioactive geologic units of Stara Planina are presented in detail in this paper. The main sources of radioactivity on Stara Planina can be classified as: 1. Granitic endogenous—syngenetic–epigenetic deposits and occurrences; 2. Metamorphogenic—syngenetic; and 3. Sedimentary, including occurrences of uranium deposition and fluctuation caused by water in different types of sedimentary rocks formed in a continental setting, which could be classified under epigenetic types. The area of Stara Planina with increased radioactivity (higher than 200 cps, measured by airborne gamma spectrometry, is about 380 square kilometers. The highest values of measured radioactivity and uranium grade were obtained from a sample taken from the Mezdreja uranium mine tailing dump, where 226Ra measures 2600 ± 100 Bq/kg and the uranium grade is from 76.54 to 77.65 ppm U. The highest uranium (and lead concentration, among all samples, is measured in graphitic schist with high concentrations of organic (graphitic material from the Inovska Series—99.47 ppm U and 107.69 ppm Pb. Thorium related radioactivity is the highest in granite samples from the Janja granite in the vicinity of the Mezdreja granite mine and the Gabrovnica granite mine tailing dump, and it is the same—250 ± 10 Bq/kg for 232Th, while the thorium grade varies from 30.82 to 60.27 ppm Th. In gray siltstones with a small amount of organic material, the highest radioactivity is

  2. Gas-particle partitioning of persistent organic pollutants in the Western Balkan countries affected by war conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radonic, Jelena; Sekulic, Maja Turk; Miloradov, Mirjana Vojinovic; Cupr, Pavel; Klánová, Jana

    2009-01-01

    Bombing and destruction of the industrial and military targets accompanied by complete or incomplete combustion during the war conflict and NATO operation in former Yugoslavia caused the emission of persistent organic pollutants into the atmosphere, water, and soil. A total of 129 ambient air samples from 24 background, urban, and industrial sites, including hot spots, were collected to assess a gas-particle partitioning behavior of various persistent organic pollutants. High volume sampling technique was applied with quartz filters that collect the atmospheric particles and polyurethane foam filters (PUF) that retain the gaseous compounds. Three to ten samples were taken at each site. GFs and PUFs were analyzed separately for their content of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Gas phase and particle phase concentrations of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in all samples were converted into the particle-bound fractions Phi. These fractions were found to be highly variable, but generally highest in Bosnia and Herzegovina due to the elevated levels of total suspended material in ambient air. Experimental values of particle-associated fraction were compared to the Junge-Pankow model. Interestingly, a model for urban/industrial environments provided a better prediction of partitioning behavior than a model for background and rural background sites. That is probably because the total amount of atmospheric particles is higher in the Balkan region than found in the previously published studies. Even though it has been stated in previous studies that less than 5% of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are bound to the particles, up to 67% of PCBs were particle associated at several sampling sites in this study. PCB-contaminated soils are probably still one of the strong sources of particles to the atmosphere. Information on the particle-bound fractions of POPs is important not only for prediction of their fate but

  3. New details of bio- and magnetostratigraphical correlations in the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary interval: Lókút (Transdanubial Range, Hngary), Veliky Kamenets (Pieniny Klippen Belt, Ukraine), Barlya (Western Balkan, Bulgaria)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grabowski, J.; Bakhmutov, V.; Haas, J.; Krobicki, M.; Lakova, I.; Petrova, S.; Reháková, D.; Schnabl, Petr; Stoykova, K.; Sobien, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 120 (2017), s. 100-100 ISSN 1017-8880. [International Symposium on the Cretaceous /10./. 21.08.2017-26.08.2017, Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : magnetostratigraphy * Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary interval * Transdanubian Range * Pieniny Klippen Belt * Western Balkan Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  4. A crisis of protection and safe passage: violence experienced by migrants/refugees travelling along the Western Balkan corridor to Northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenijević, Jovana; Schillberg, Erin; Ponthieu, Aurelie; Malvisi, Lucio; Ahmed, Waeil A Elrahman; Argenziano, Stefano; Zamatto, Federica; Burroughs, Simon; Severy, Natalie; Hebting, Christophe; de Vingne, Brice; Harries, Anthony D; Zachariah, Rony

    2017-01-01

    Pushed by ongoing conflicts and pulled by the desire for a better life, over one million migrants/refugees transited Balkan countries and arrived in Europe during 2015 and early 2016. To curb this influx, European countries instituted restrictive migration policies often characterized by building of razor-wire border fences and border closures. Among migrants/refugees who received mental health care in Serbia while travelling through Balkan countries to Northern Europe, we assessed the prevalence and patterns of violent events experienced including physical trauma. A mixed methods study among migrants/refugees attending mobile mental health clinics run by Médecins sans Frontières (MSF) between July 2015 and June 2016, in Serbia - a main transit hub to European countries. Clinics were conducted according to MSF guidelines by experienced psychologists who were supported by cultural mediators. The main outcome measures were violent events and associated physical trauma. Of 992 migrants/refugees attending MSF mental health clinics, the majority (72%) were from Syria and Afghanistan and included vulnerable groups (14%) such as unaccompanied minors and pregnant women. The most frequent mental health symptoms/signs were anxiety (29%) and adjustment reactions (26%). Of the 992 migrants/refugees, 270 (27%) had experienced violent events during their journey. Signs of physical trauma due to acts of violence were seen in 223(22%) of the 992 individuals, 144 (65%) being perpetrated by State authorities and involving women (11%) and children (13%). Border closures along the Balkan route were associated with a dramatic decrease in registered migrants/refugee arrivals in Serbia. Conversely, among those that made it across the borders, an increasing linear trend in reported violent events was observed at MSF mental health clinics ( X 2 for linear trend, P refugees seen in MSF clinics experienced violent events including physical trauma along their journey. State authorities

  5. Evaluating the response of Lake Prespa (SW Balkan) to future climate change projections from a high-resolution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schriek, Tim; Varotsos, Konstantinos V.; Giannakopoulos, Christos

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean stands out globally due to its sensitivity to (future) climate change. Projections suggest that the Balkans will experience precipitation and runoff decreases of up to 30% by 2100. However, these projections show large regional spatial variability. Mediterranean lake-wetland systems are particularly threatened by projected climate changes that compound increasingly intensive human impacts (e.g. water extraction, drainage, pollution and dam-building). Protecting the remaining systems is extremely important for supporting global biodiversity. This protection should be based on a clear understanding of individual lake-wetland hydrological responses to future climate changes, which requires fine-resolution projections and a good understanding of the impact of hydro-climate variability on individual lakes. Climate change may directly affect lake level (variability), volume and water temperatures. In turn, these variables influence lake-ecology, habitats and water quality. Land-use intensification and water abstraction multiply these climate-driven changes. To date, there are no projections of future water level and -temperature of individual Mediterranean lakes under future climate scenarios. These are, however, of crucial importance to steer preservation strategies on the relevant catchment-scale. Here we present the first projections of water level and -temperature of the Prespa Lakes covering the period 2071-2100. These lakes are of global significance for biodiversity, and of great regional socio-economic importance as a water resource and tourist attraction. Impact projections are assessed by the Regional Climate Model RCA4 of the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) driven by the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology global climate model MPI-ESM-LR under two RCP future emissions scenarios, the RCP4.5 and the RCP8.5, with the simulations carried out in the framework of EURO-CORDEX. Temperature, evapo(transpi)ration and

  6. The Slavs and Vlachs in the Byzantine system of provincial organization in the Southern Balkans until the XI century: Similarities and differencies

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    Cvetković Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to establishing the circumstances and manner under which the Slav tribes and Vlachs in the southern Balkans were being integrated into the Byzantine system of provincial administration. Constantinople militarily imposed sovereignty on the settled Slavs, which was the first step towards their integration into the Byzantine state and society. When it comes to Vlachs, there was no use of military force. Special methods were applied to fit their autonomous organization into the frames oh the empire. In this regard, the paper compares the patterns of the integration processes of the two mentioned ethnic groups. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177032: Tradicija, inovacija i identitet u vizantijskom svetu

  7. NATO advanced research workshop on implications of climate change and disasters on military activities: building resiliency and mitigating vulnerability in the Balkan Region

    CERN Document Server

    Veeravalli, Swathi

    2017-01-01

    This volume provides preliminary recommendations on ways to educate and develop experience-based expertise among disaster response, security and other professionals from diverse backgrounds, whose current and future interests relate to crisis management. The book takes a multidisciplinary approach to improving regional security cooperation and to addressing the complex issues of climate change and disasters on military activities. The main aims of this proceedings volume are: -to provide an Education and Individual Training Activity Common Core Curriculum, whose main purpose is to support increased awareness of the implications of Climate Change; -to identify broad issues on climate change and disasters, particularly those with the highest importance and relevance to regional security. The Crisis Management and Disaster Response Centre of Excellence (CMDR COE) conducted an Advanced Research Workshop “Climate Change Implications on Military Activities in the Balkans Region” between 05-07 July, 2016. The ev...

  8. The role of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase and organic substances from coal in the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy: A new hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlovic, N.M.; Orem, W.H.; Tatu, C.A.; Lerch, H.E.; Bunnell, J.E.; Feder, G.L.; Kostic, E.N.; Ordodi, V.L. [University of Nis, Nis (Serbia)

    2008-03-15

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) occurs in Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Croatia. BEN has been characterized as a chronic, slowly progressive renal disease of unknown etiology. In this study, we examined the influence of soluble organic compounds in drinking water leached from Pliocene lignite from BEN-endemic areas on plasma lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity. We found that changes for all samples were the most prominent for the dilution category containing 90% plasma and 10% of diluting media. Water samples from BEN villages from Serbia and Romania showed higher LCAT inhibiting activity (P = 0.02) and (p = 0.003), respectively, compared to deionised water and non-endemic water. A secondary LCAT deficiency could result from this inhibitory effect of the organic compounds found in endemic water supplies and provide an ethiopathogenic basis for the development of BEN in the susceptible population.

  9. A unique LAMB3 splice-site mutation with founder effect from the Balkans causes lethal epidermolysis bullosa in several European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, B; Silló, P; Mazán, M; Pintér, D; Medvecz, M; Has, C; Castiglia, D; Petit, F; Charlesworth, A; Hatvani, Zs; Pamjav, H; Kárpáti, S

    2016-10-01

    We have encountered repeated cases of recessive lethal generalized severe (Herlitz-type) junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB gen sev) in infants born to Hungarian Roma parents residing in a small region of Hungary. To identify the disease-causing mutation and to investigate the genetic background of its unique carrier group. The LAMB3 gene was analysed in peripheral-blood genomic DNA samples, and the pathological consequences of the lethal defect were confirmed by cutaneous LAMB3cDNA sequencing. A median joining haplotype network within the Y chromosome H1a-M82 haplogroup of individuals from the community was constructed, and LAMB3 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) patterns were also determined. An unconventional intronic splice-site mutation (LAMB3, c.1133-22G>A) was identified. Thirty of 64 voluntarily screened Roma from the closed community carried the mutation, but none of the 306 Roma from other regions of the country did. The age of the mutation was estimated to be 548 ± 222 years. Within the last year, more patients with JEB gen sev carrying the same unusual mutation have been identified in three unrelated families, all immigrants from the Balkans. Two were compound heterozygous newborns, in Germany and Italy, and one homozygous newborn died in France. Only the French family recognized their Roma background. LAMB3SNP haplotyping confirmed the link between the apparently unrelated Hungarian, German and Italian male cases, but could not verify the same background in the female newborn from France. The estimated age of the mutation corresponds to the time period when Roma were wandering in the Balkans. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  10. SELECTED MACROECONOMIC FACTORS OBSERVATION IMPACT ON THE ECONOMY OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA AND THE WESTERN BALKANS IN THE OBSERVATION PERIOD 2000-2012, SHOWING RESULTS FROM 2008 TO 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOGDAN LABAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of the neoliberal concept in the Western Balkans has had effects on the economies of those countries that can say das resulted in unsustainable economic growth and macroeconomic instability. Besides the application of the same given the developments that had features of weakness especially since 2008., from the onset of the global economic crisis. The consequences of the liberalization of international economic developments have enabled the countries of the Western Balkans obtain foreign investment in the form of foreign direct investment, but their economies have done even more dependent on foreign capital, which is increasingly going in economic activities that have a faster way could fertilize the invested capital.

  11. Liminality of the »Balkan« Fast Food and Innovative Strategies of its »Europeization«: Čevapčiči with Truffles or Euro-Kebap?

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    Franc Trček

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper starts with the liminal state of the Balkan fast food in Slovenia and then analyzes innovative attempts of overcoming them by providers. These try to adapt its offer to our local tastes as well as to the change in tastes. In their attempts they are forced to compete with global fast food franchises. In spite of their innovative approaches, they are still in the liminal state that forces them again and again to invent of new flavors.

  12. SELECTED MACROECONOMIC FACTORS OBSERVATION IMPACT ON THE ECONOMY OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA AND THE WESTERN BALKANS IN THE OBSERVATION PERIOD 2000-2012, SHOWING RESULTS FROM 2008 TO 2012.

    OpenAIRE

    BOGDAN LABAN; ŽELJKO GRUBLJEŠIĆ; VERA POPOVIĆ; VLADIMIR MALETIĆ; VESNA PETROVIĆ

    2017-01-01

    The application of the neoliberal concept in the Western Balkans has had effects on the economies of those countries that can say das resulted in unsustainable economic growth and macroeconomic instability. Besides the application of the same given the developments that had features of weakness especially since 2008., from the onset of the global economic crisis. The consequences of the liberalization of international economic developments have enabled the countries of the West...

  13. The “rise and fall” of the corridor: Some reflections on the changes in the Balkans migratory route after the summer of 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Lunaček Brumen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the summer of 2015, the status quo of the European migration policy has been thoroughly shaken up. The unprecedented size and strength of the movement of migrants – daily arriving from Turkey to the Greek islands, and from there along the so-called Balkans migratory route – put pressure on Fortress Europe and finally achieved, in September 2015, the opening of a corridor for a (relatively quicker and safer passage from Greece to Austria. This article is an attempt to reflect the events of the last year – the establishment, the characteristics and transformations, as well as the final closure of this corridor. In the first part we propose a conceptual framework for the understanding of the difference between the Balkans migratory route and the corridor and present the timeline of the »rise and fall« of the corridor. In the second part, we try to shed light on the changes which the corridor brought to migration politics and praxis from the perspective of the autonomy of migration, and suggest that the establishment of the corridor should be understood as a victory of the liberatory movement of migrants, and the nature of the corridor as being anchored in an attempt to control the movement of people: when the control cannot be ensured through repression, it needs to be ensured through humanitarianism. In the third part, we reflect on the role of the corridor, and especially of its closure, in the affirmation of the global apartheid and thus attempt to place the corridor in the context of neoliberal capitalism. The global apartheid, reinforced through borders, produces different categories of people with differential access to rights. Through the isolation and the prevention of contact (by physical and discursive means between citizens and those, who have been excluded from citizenship, the corridor and its closure participate in the establishment of a parallel inner apartheid, which endangers solidarity and the recognition of

  14. [The Austrian Red Cross and Austrian bacteriologists in the Balkan wars 1912/13 - Centenary of the first application of the bacteriology in theatres of war].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, Heinz

    2012-04-01

    When Austria joined the Geneva Convention the "Patriotischer Hilfsverein" (Patriotic Aid Society) which was founded for the concerns of wounded soldiers, was named "Austrian Society of the Red Cross". It had to stand its first big test in 1912 in the first Balkan war; military surgeons and bacteriologists were deployed to all warring states. The cholera dominated under the infectious diseases among the various forces and the civilian populations. Upon request of the Bulgarian king renowned bacteriologists of the University of Vienna were dispatched. Their work presented the first action of bacteriology for disease control on theatres of war. The great success of the surgical and hygienic measures initiated in 1912 a reform of the Austrian Red Cross. In 1913 Austria made a detailed application to the International Committee of the Red Cross in order to extend the Geneva Convention to war epidemics. The Committee forwarded and recommended this application to all member states, however, the outbreak of the First World War then prevented its resolution.

  15. Changing what it means to 'become a man': participants' reflections on a school-based programme to redefine masculinity in the Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namy, Sophie; Heilman, Brian; Stich, Shawna; Crownover, John; Leka, Besnik; Edmeades, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Calls to engage men and boys in efforts to promote health, prevent violence and advance gender equality have grown in recent years. However, there remains little evidence or reflection on how most effectively to change harmful norms related to masculinity. The study addresses this gap by exploring the perspectives of participants in the Young Men Initiative (YMI), an innovative programme that aimed to promote healthier masculinities among boys attending vocational high schools in several Balkan countries through educational workshops, residential retreats and a social marketing campaign. Qualitative data were collected through 37 in-depth interviews and 11 focus-group discussions with boys, youth facilitators and teachers. Findings from four schools (in Belgrade, Sarajevo, Prishtina and Zagreb) suggest that several elements of the programme resonated strongly with participants and supported their meaningful engagement in project activities. Five themes emerged as most salient in identifying how and why specific aspects of YMI positively influenced participants: personal reflection, experience-based learning, connections with youth facilitators, new peer groups and aspirational messaging. Building on these insights, the study highlights potentially useful strategies for other programmes seeking to reach boys and transform their understanding of masculinity.

  16. Alone of all her sex? The Dutch Jeanne Merkus and the hitherto hidden other viragos in the Balkans during the great eastern crisis (1875-1878

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grémaux René

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the question as to whether the well-reported Dutch volunteer warrior Jeanne Merkus was indeed the sole female fighter at the time of the anti-Ottoman rebellions and the wars in the Balkan Peninsula from 1875 to 1878, when the Great Eastern Crisis raged. While this rich outlandish lady - who has only recently earned her official biography - attracted much attention from the contemporary press, and later often surfaced in memoirs of sorts as well, her few female colleagues, mainly home-grown and of modest background, went mostly unnoticed by the general public. This first attempt at settling the score of undeserved neglect sets out to establish the individual stories from the hard-to-find pieces of information in old newspapers and non-fiction literature. The existence of five other cases of actual fighting females could be proved, yet four of them were, unlike Miss Merkus, in male disguise. Moreover, a larger number of females trying to engage militarily on the battlefield have been discovered, some passing as males, some not.

  17. Traces of DU in samples of environmental bio-monitors (non-flowering plants, fungi) and soil from target sites of the Western Balkan region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zunic, Zora S. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , Mike Petrovica Alasa 12-14, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Mietelski, Jerzy W. [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-342 Krakow, Radzikowskiego 152 (Poland)], E-mail: jerzy.mietelski@ifj.edu.pl; Blazej, Sylwia; Gaca, Pawel; Tomankiewicz, Ewa [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-342 Krakow, Radzikowskiego 152 (Poland); Ujic, Predrag; Celikovic, Igor; Cuknic, Olivera; Demajo, Miroslav [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , Mike Petrovica Alasa 12-14, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2008-08-15

    This paper reports results of gamma and alpha spectrometric measurements for mosses, lichens, fungi and soil samples from areas in the Balkans targeted by depleted uranium (DU). Samples were collected in 2002 and 2003 in the vicinity of several villages, principally Han Pijesak (Bosnia and Herzegovina, hit by DU in 1995) and Bratoselce (South Serbia, hit by DU in 1999) and in lesser numbers from Gornja Stubla, Kosovo (which is identified as a high natural radon/thoron area) and Presevo close to the Kosovo border. In the course of gamma spectrometric measurements some results suggested samples with unusual high uranium contents which might be considered to be a signature for the presence of DU, although many samples had very high detection limits. Alpha spectrometric measurements directly proved the presence of DU for five samples, all from directly targeted places. These were samples of mosses, lichens and soil. For some samples homogeneity tests were applied which showed a rather even distribution of DU in these samples. No trace of DU was found in any sample from a dwelling.

  18. BALKANLAR’A UZANAN BİR KÖPRÜ: NAKŞİ DİVAN ŞAİRLERİ / A BRIDGE TO THE BALKANS: NAQSHI DIVAN POETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin SELÇUK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Osmanlı’da fetih düşüncesinin bir bütünlük arz etmesi ve bu bütünlük içerisinde kendi dilini, dinini, kültürünü, yaşayışını alternatif bir hayat tarzı olarak hâl diliyle gösteren dervişlerin kurdukları gönül köprüleri Balkanlar’da izleri bugün dahi rahatlıkla görülen uzun soluklu ve kalıcı etkinin sağlanmasında etkili olmuştur. Nakşibendî tarikatının ortaya koyduğu fikir ve usullerden bazı divan şairleri de etkilenmiştir. Bu şairlerden bir kısmı Nakşibendîliği yaymak ve yaşatmak amacıyla dünyanın dört bir tarafına yayılırken -bazı farklılıklar göstermekle birlikte- Orta Asya’dan Anadolu’ya geniş bir coğrafyanın mısralarındaki ortak duyguları tekrarlamış, aynı düşüncelerin Balkanlar’da makes bulmasıyla kurulan bu köprünün manevi mimarları arasındaki yerlerini almışlardır. Nakşi divan şairlerinden kimi, ulvi duygularla hicret ettiği yerde ölene dek kalarak, kimi eğitim-öğretim, ticaret, memuriyet gibi sebeplerle; kimi verdiği eser ve ortaya koyduğu düşüncelerle; kimi de gittikleri yerdeki insanlarla akrabalık tesis etme gibi birçok farklı usulle Balkanlar’a uzanan köprüyü inşa etmişlerdir. Balkanlar’la aramızda kurulan manevi köprünün mimarları arasında yer alan Nakşi divan şairleri ve ortaya koydukları düşünceler hakkında bir fikir verebilmesi açısından kaynaklardan tespit edilebilen bazı Nakşi şairler ve varsa şiirlerinden örnekler çalışmanın son kısmında verilmiştir. That the idea of conquest constitutes integrity in Ottoman and in this integrity, the hearts bridges founded by dervishes to show their language, religion, culture, and way of life as an alternative life style through the state language have been effective in achieving long-term and lasting impact, traces of which can easily be seen even today in the Balkans. Some divan poets were also affected by the ideas and methods the Naqshbandi

  19. Distribution and Taxonomic Significance of Secondary Metabolites Occurring in the Methanol Extracts of the Stonecrops (Sedum L., Crassulaceae) from the Central Balkan Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovic, Gordana S; Jovanović, Snežana C; Zlatković, Bojan K

    2015-06-01

    The present study is engaged in the chemical composition of methanol extracts of Sedum taxa from the central part of the Balkan Peninsula, and representatives from other genera of Crassulaceae (Crassula, Echeveria and Kalanchoe) considered as out-groups. The chemical composition of extracts was determined by HPLC analysis, according to retention time of standards and characteristic absorption spectra of components. Identified components were considered as original variables with possible chemotaxonomic significance. Relationships of examined plant samples were investigated by agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis (AHC). The obtained results showed how the distribution of methanol extract components (mostly phenolics) affected grouping of the examined samples. The obtained clustering showed satisfactory grouping of the examined samples, among which some representatives of the Sedum series, Rupestria and Magellensia, are the most remote. The out-group samples were not clearly singled out with regard to Sedum samples as expected; this especially applies to samples of Crassula ovata and Echeveria lilacina, while Kalanchoe daigremontiana was more separated from most of the Sedum samples.

  20. Changing what it means to ‘become a man’: participants’ reflections on a school-based programme to redefine masculinity in the Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namy, Sophie; Heilman, Brian; Stich, Shawna; Crownover, John; Leka, Besnik; Edmeades, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Calls to engage men and boys in efforts to promote health, prevent violence and advance gender equality have grown in recent years. However, there remains little evidence or reflection on how most effectively to change harmful norms related to masculinity. The study addresses this gap by exploring the perspectives of participants in the Young Men Initiative (YMI), an innovative programme that aimed to promote healthier masculinities among boys attending vocational high schools in several Balkan countries through educational workshops, residential retreats and a social marketing campaign. Qualitative data were collected through 37 in-depth interviews and 11 focus-group discussions with boys, youth facilitators and teachers. Findings from four schools (in Belgrade, Sarajevo, Prishtina and Zagreb) suggest that several elements of the programme resonated strongly with participants and supported their meaningful engagement in project activities. Five themes emerged as most salient in identifying how and why specific aspects of YMI positively influenced participants: personal reflection, experience-based learning, connections with youth facilitators, new peer groups and aspirational messaging. Building on these insights, the study highlights potentially useful strategies for other programmes seeking to reach boys and transform their understanding of masculinity. PMID:26680537

  1. The Cretaceous/Paleogene (K/Pg boundary in the Mezdra and Lyutidol syncline, Vratza District (West-Fore Balkan, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolkičev Nikola A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the unjustified assignment (based on calcareous nannofossils of a large portion of the Maastrichtian strata in the Mezdra and Lyutidol synclines (West Fore Balkan, Bulgaria to the Paleogene. The co-occurrence of Paleocene nannofossils, reported by some authors, and Maastrichtian macrofossil taxa in these sections indicates diachronism in the appearance of macro- and nannofossils across the K/Pg boundary. Thus, this boundary cannot be precisely localized except if the Maastrichtian fossils are assumed to have been redeposited, but there is no evidence of resedimentation. Maastrichtian macrofossils are found not only within the range of the Paleogene nannofossil zones, but also in sections overlying them in the Kajlâka Formation where new Maastrichtian macrofossil taxa, such as the echinoid Hemipneustes striatoradiatus (LESKE, appear and some inoceramid and cephalopod taxa range into this unit. These facts shed doubt over the applicability of nannofossils in determining the K/Pg boundary where this has already been firmly documented by macrofauna.

  2. Impact of Origin and Biological Source on Chemical Composition, Anticholinesterase and Antioxidant Properties of Some St. John’s Wort Species (Hypericum spp., Hypericaceae from the Central Balkans

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    Biljana Božin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study shows the influence of the origin of plant material and biological source on the in vitro antioxidant (neutralization of DPPH and OH radical, nitric oxide, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation and anticholinesterase activity of chemically characterized and quantified ethanol extracts of ten St. John’s wort samples. The investigated samples were: five Hypericum perforatum species representatives collected at different localities, one commercial sample of Hyperici herba purchased at a local market and four Hypericum species autochtonous to the Balkan Peninsula (H. maculatum subsp. immaculatum, H. olympicum, H. richeri subsp. grisebachii and H. barbatum. All the examined extracts exhibited notable antioxidant potential, but in most of the cases indigenous Hypericum species expressed stronger effects compared to the original source of the drug, H. perforatum. The changes in the content of phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, hyperforin and hypericin, related to the source of the drug affected the investigated activities. Since all of the investigated species have shown prominent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase in vitro activity, they could be further investigated as potential substances in preventing of Alzheimer’s disease.

  3. Impact of origin and biological source on chemical composition, anticholinesterase and antioxidant properties of some St. John's wort species (Hypericum spp., Hypericaceae) from the Central Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Božin, Biljana; Kladar, Nebojša; Grujić, Nevena; Anačkov, Goran; Samojlik, Isidora; Gavarić, Neda; Conić, Branislava Srđenović

    2013-09-25

    The study shows the influence of the origin of plant material and biological source on the in vitro antioxidant (neutralization of DPPH and OH radical, nitric oxide, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation) and anticholinesterase activity of chemically characterized and quantified ethanol extracts of ten St. John's wort samples. The investigated samples were: five Hypericum perforatum species representatives collected at different localities, one commercial sample of Hyperici herba purchased at a local market and four Hypericum species autochtonous to the Balkan Peninsula (H. maculatum subsp. immaculatum, H. olympicum, H. richeri subsp. grisebachii and H. barbatum). All the examined extracts exhibited notable antioxidant potential, but in most of the cases indigenous Hypericum species expressed stronger effects compared to the original source of the drug, H. perforatum. The changes in the content of phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, hyperforin and hypericin, related to the source of the drug affected the investigated activities. Since all of the investigated species have shown prominent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase in vitro activity, they could be further investigated as potential substances in preventing of Alzheimer's disease.

  4. Offspring of parents with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy have higher C-reactive protein levels suggestive of inflammatory processes: a longitudinal study

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    Tsolova Svetla

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the characteristic extensive tubulointerstitial fibrosis, Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN is usually considered a non-inflammatory disease. Methods We examined a marker of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP, in the offspring of patients with BEN, a population at risk for BEN, prior to development of established disease to determine if an inflammatory process could be identified in the early stages of the disease. In 2003/04, 102 adult offspring whose parents had BEN and a control group of 99 adult offspring of non-BEN patients were enrolled in this prospective study. This cohort was re-examined yearly for four consecutive years. Levels of serum CRP were measured in years 3 and 4 and compared between groups. The data were analyzed with mixed models. Results Compared to controls, offspring of BEN parents had statistically higher CRP levels in two consecutive years, suggestive of early inflammatory reactivity. Whenever the mother was affected by BEN (both parents, or mother only, serum CRP was significantly increased, but not if only the father had BEN. CRP was inversely related to kidney cortex width but not to markers or renal function. Conclusion Early stages of BEN may involve inflammatory processes. The observation of a maternal involvement supports the concept of fetal programming, which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of other chronic kidney diseases.

  5. Current status of transplantation and organ donation in the Balkans--could it be improved through the South-eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN) initiative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasovski, Goce; Busic, Mirela; Pipero, Pellumb; Sarajlić, Lada; Popović, Andreja Subotić; Dzhaleva, Theodora; Codreanu, Igor; Ratković, Marina Mugosa; Popescu, Irinel; Lausević, Mirjana; Avsec, Danica; Raley, Lydia; Ekberg, Henrik; Ploeg, Rutger; Delmonico, Francis

    2012-04-01

    Organ donation and transplantation activity in the majority of Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria) are lagging far behind international averages. Inadequate financial resources, unclear regional data and lack of government infrastructure are some of the issues which should be recognized to draw attention and lead to problem-solving decisions. The Regional Health Development Centre (RHDC) Croatia, a technical body of the South-eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN), was created in 2011 after Croatia's great success in the field over the last 10 years. The aim of the RHDC is to network the region and provide individualized country support to increase donation and transplantation activity in collaboration with professional societies (European Society of Organ Transplantation, European Transplant Coordinators Organization, The Transplantation Society and International Society of Organ Donation and Procurement). Such an improvement would in turn likely prevent transplant tourism. The regional data from 2010 show large discrepancies in donation and transplantation activities within geographically neighbouring countries. Thus, proposed actions to improve regional donation and transplantation rates include advancing living and deceased donation through regular public education, creating current and accurate waiting lists and increasing the number of educated transplant nephrologists and hospital coordinators. In addition to the effort from the professionals, government support with allocated funds per deceased donation, updated legislation and an established national coordinating body is ultimately recognized as essential for the successful donation and transplantation programmes. By continuous RHDC communication and support asked from the health authorities and motivated professionals from the SEEHN initiative, an increased number of deceased as well as living donor kidney

  6. Common Polymorphisms in GSTA1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 Are Associated with Susceptibility to Urinary Bladder Cancer in Individuals from Balkan Endemic Nephropathy Areas of Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matic, Marija; Dragicevic, Biljana; Pekmezovic, Tatjana; Suvakov, Sonja; Savic-Radojevic, Ana; Pljesa-Ercegovac, Marija; Dragicevic, Dejan; Smiljic, Jelena; Simic, Tatjana

    2016-09-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a chronic familial form of interstitial nephritis that might eventually lead to end stage renal disease. This nephropathy affects individuals living along of the Danube River and its tributaries in Serbia, Bosnia, Croatia, Bulgaria and Romania. The increased incidence of urinary tract tumors in the BEN areas is well described, but its specific genetic predisposition is still unclear. Certain nephrocarcinogenic compounds, including those associated with BEN, are metabolized by glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily of phase II detoxication enzymes. Importantly, the GST-mediated detoxification may result in formation of more toxic compounds. We examined the association of common GST polymorphisms and bladder cancer (BC) risk in individuals from BEN areas in Serbia. A hospital-based case-control study included 201 BC cases (67 from BEN region) and 122 controls. Each polymorphism was identified by a PCR-based method. Individuals from BEN region with low-expression GSTA1 genotype (AB+BB) exhibited a 2.6-fold higher BC risk compared to those with GSTA1 (AA) genotype who were from non-BEN region (OR = 2.60, p = 0.015). In contrast, carriers of GSTM1-active genotype from BEN region had a 2.9-fold increased BC risk compared to those with GSTM1-active genotype from non-BEN region (OR = 2.90, p = 0.010). Likewise, carriers with GSTT1-active genotype from BEN region exhibited 2.1-fold higher BC risk compared to those from non-BEN region with GSTT1-active genotype (OR = 2.10, p = 0.027). Thus, common polymorphisms in GSTA1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 are associated with susceptibility to BC in individuals from BEN areas of Serbia.

  7. Bringing Europe and Third countries closer together through renewable Energies (BETTER). D2.1. EU RES cooperation initiatives with third Countries. North Africa, West Balkans and Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uslu, A.; Dalla Longa, F.; Veum, K.C.; Straver, K. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Karakosta, C [National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2013-03-15

    One major element of EU's external energy policy is expanding its energy norms and regulations to neighbourhood countries and beyond to achieve its energy policy priorities - safe, secure, affordable and sustainable energy supply. The importance of external energy policy has been acknowledged in the European Union's 2007 'energy package', and Second Strategic Energy Review and the European Commission's Communication on security of energy supply and international cooperation. The EU Renewable Energy Directive provides another element to crossborder cooperation by allowing Member States to fulfil their 2020 renewable energy (RES) targets by implementing joint projects in third countries. Even though the Member States' national renewable energy action plans (NREAPs) to reach their RES targets do not indicate any significant use of this mechanism, the RES Directive acknowledges the importance of renewable energy as part of external energy policy. This report aims at presenting the political framework between the EU and the BETTER project target regions (North Africa, Western Balkans and Turkey) with regards to (renewable) energy and the relevant initiatives and the projects to set the scene for RES joint projects as defined in Article 9 of the RES Directive. The main objectives of this study report are (1) to review energy treaties, agreements, and partnerships to assess their relevance to cooperation mechanism with Third countries; and (2) to analyse the relevance of the recent projects and initiatives to BETTER project and improve and trigger the communication and synergies between BETTER project partners and the relevant projects.

  8. The frequency of genotypes for the SNP Ser/Ser in the studied population of Albanian women is higher in the Balkan region

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    Zafer Gashi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In women undergoing natural cycles, just one oocyte is usually selected for ovulation, yet routine clinical techniques to support the development of multiple follicles using additional gonadotrophins result in numerous ovulations. Several parameters have been postulated as predictors of ovarian response (inhibin B, 17-β-estradiol and antiMüllerian hormone. Nevertheless, the FSH level on the day 3 of menstrual cycle remains, the most widely used biomarker due to its low cost, although, the genetic background of individuals seems to determine the response of patients to rFSH stimulation better than the stimulation design. Consequently, the variants of FSHR were explored and they may be involved in the role of FSH receptor in mediated signal transduction and with ovarian response in infertile women submitted to ovarian stimulation. In this study we examined, for the first time, the prevalence of genotype variants Asn680Ser in population Albanian women from Kosovo Dukagjin region who took part in IVF / ICSI program. The frequencies of the Asn680Ser genotype variants were as follows: Asn/Asn 22.1%, Asn/Ser 47.1%, and Ser/Ser 30.8%, respectively (Table 1. bE2 levels between the three genotype variants showed slight but statistically significant difference (p= 0.0308. No difference was also found between the genotype groups either in terms of AFC, amount of the FSH required for ovulation induction, stimulation length days, number of dominant follicles, oocyte retrieval number or endometrial thickness (Table 2. BMI was significantly higher in the Ser/Ser group as compared to those from the Asn/Ser or the Asn/Asn group (p= 0.0010 (Table 2. In the study population of Albanian women Dukagjin region of Kosovo had a higher incidence of Ser / SER genotype compared to Asn / Asn genotype. Our research results in the Albanian population differ from published data for other ethnic groups in the Balkans.

  9. Petrology, geochemistry and Sm-Nd analyses on the Balkan-Carpathian Ophiolite (BCO - Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria): Remnants of a Devonian back-arc basin in the easternmost part of the Variscan domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plissart, Gaëlle; Monnier, Christophe; Diot, Hervé; Mărunţiu, Marcel; Berger, Julien; Triantafyllou, Antoine

    2017-04-01

    The pre-Alpine basement of the Southern Carpathians/Western Balkans contains four ophiolitic massifs dismembered by Alpine tectonics, which define the ;Balkan-Carpathian Ophiolite; (BCO) for which the tectonic setting and age of formation are still debated (Precambrian or Early Devonian). In this contribution, we demonstrate that, in light of a Pre-Alpine restoration, the four massifs belonged to a unique slice of very complete, obducted oceanic lithosphere and we re-evaluate its tectonic setting. Large chromitite volumes with Al-rich spinel compositions (Cr# = 0.39-0.48), as well as major and trace geochemical results on basalts (slightly enriched N-MORBs with low negative Nb anomaly associated with calk-alkaline BABBs), point to a formation in a back-arc basin. Mantle spinel composition (Cr# = 0.49-0.51) and melting modeling indicate mean melting extents of 8.5-11% favouring intermediate spreading rate. New Sm-Nd dating on lower gabbroic rocks give a whole rock isochron, interpreted as the age of formation of the BCO crust at 409 ± 38 Ma, thus confirming an Early Devonian oceanic crust. The previous ∼563 Ma U-Pb zircon age can be interpreted as casual inheritance indicating the proximity of an old continental lithosphere. Taking into account the lithological evidences and paleocontinental affinities of the two recognized terranes separated by the BC oceanic basin (Balkans and Sredna Gora) and by analogy with other Variscan ophiolites in Western/Central Europe, we suggest that the BC ophiolite belong to the ∼400 Ma ophiolites group obducted between West and East Galatia and belonging to the southern Variscan suture. However, the BC ophiolite is the only one of this group obducted to the north and not involved in the Lower Allochthon/ophiolite/Upper Allochthon thrust pile, likely explaining its exceptional preservation. Finally, we tentatively propose a new unifying tectonic model where different terrane drift rates and highly oblique displacements create two

  10. Islamic Revival in the Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    www.usatoday.com/news/sept11/2002/05/01/charity-terrorism.htm last accessed on March 13, 2006. Keck, Margaret E. and Sikkink , Kathryn , Activists beyond...international pressure that result in their socialization in the target state – something described as the Boomerang effect by Kick and Sikkink

  11. Practical Applications of the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) as a Tool for Very Early Warning of Droughts and Floods in the Balkans Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Southern Europe is repeatedly identified in IPCC Reports as being particularly vulnerable to water resource impacts with risks being assessed as medium to high with current (low) levels of adaptation. Drought frequency will likely increase by the end of the 21st century under IPCC RCP8.5 (medium confidence) . The Balkans region has encountered some of its most significant ever floods and droughts since 2000, highly symptomatic of intense climate change. Foremost of these are the regional catastrophic floods in Albania (2009-10) (2010-11), Bosnia, Herzegovina and Serbia (2014), and the widespread droughts of 2007-08 and 2013-14. There is an urgent need to improve the awareness and implementation of drought and flood risk management tools in the national Ministries and National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMSs) of s.e. Europe generally. This paper describes the development and application of a practical user-friendly tool to calculate SPI across a range of timescales as recommended by the WMO , using a conventional 'Year Book' format to enter monthly precipitation values, coupled with some automated and relatively simple VBA code. Since the tool is spreadsheet based, it is user-friendly and graphically intuitive. The conditional formatting capability introduces a visualisation element to the SPI which is extremely helpful to NHMSs and other non-expert decision makers in understanding SPI significance. Recent practical application of the tool in relation to significant recent floods and droughts in Albania, Kosovo and Macedonia has demonstrated its value as a Very Early Warning tool. However, there are some implicit dangers in simply tracking the SPI 1, 2, n value per se without taking account of the actual accumulated deficits that may generate agricultural and ultimately hydrological droughts. It is conventionally assumed that the sum of the SPI for all months within a drought event can be termed the drought's "magnitude". In fact this is not the case. In regions

  12. The Perception of Yugoslav-Bulgarian Relations in the Daily “Politika” in the Context of the Pan-Balkan Entente Concept in the First Part of the 1930s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Michalak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Perception of Yugoslav-Bulgarian Relations in the Daily “Politika” in the Context of the Pan-Balkan Entente Concept in the First Part of the 1930s. The Yugoslav-Bulgarian rapprochement, initiated by the king Aleksandar I Karadjordjević in the early 30s of the twentieth century, with an idea of inclusion of Bulgaria to the planned Balkan Pact was one of the biggest reorientation in the Yugoslav policy at the turn of 20s and 30s. Since the end of the Great War, the eastern neighbour of Yugoslavia was treated rather as one of the greatest threats to the postwar order in the Balkans. This reorientation, resulting primarily from the geopolitical situation in Europe required propaganda action of warming the image of Bulgaria in the eyes of the Yugoslav society. This would not be possible without the support of the press, which in the first half of twentieth century, was still the most popular and definitely most accessible medium of information, which could significantly affected on the perception of current political events by the public opinion. The aim of the author was to present changes in the way of presenting the Yugoslav-Bulgarian relations in the daily Politika, the biggest and most read newspaper in the interwar Yugoslavia, in the context of political activities of king Aleksandar I towards the creation of the so-called Balkan Entente.   Postrzeganie stosunków jugosłowiańsko-bułgarskich na łamach dziennika „Politika” w kontekście idei tzw. Ententy Bałkańskiej w pierwszej połowie lat 30. XX wieku Zbliżenie jugosłowiańsko-bułgarskie zainicjowane przez króla Aleksandra I Karađorđevicia w latach 30. XX w. z myślą o włączeniu Bułgarii do planowanego tzw. Paktu Bałkańskiego było jedną z najpoważniejszych reorientacji w jugosłowiańskiej polityce zagranicznej przełomu lat 20. i 30. XX w. Od zakończenia I wojny światowej wschodni sąsiad Jugosławii traktowany był raczej jako jedno z największych zagro

  13. Bizánc és a Balkán: integrációs tényezők, stratégiák, struktúrák - Byzantium and the Balkans: Integrating Factors, Strategies and Structures

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    SZÖLLŐSI, János

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The author of this paper intends to give an overall picture about the particular relationship of the Eastern Roman Empire with the Balkans. The peoples of the Balkan were very rapidly assimilated into the ‘Byzantine Commonwealth’. This extraordinary term denotes an extraordinary concept of Dimitri Obolensky, a Russian-born historian and Byzantinist. It signifies a supranational structure with religion (liturgy and church organization, culture (language and literacy, recognition of the emperor’s political supremacy (to varying degrees and a kind of early medieval ‘cosmopolitism’ as cohesive powers. In other words, the peoples of the Balkan were receptive to imperial influences. However, the early period was a real dark age in the history of the Balkans: between the 5th and the 8th centuries the Huns and Avars invaded from the steppe and destroyed the former Roman heritage. The Slavic tribes arrived in the 6th and 7th centuries, later the Onogur Bulgars or ‘proto-Bulgarians’ settled in the region at the end of 7th century. Consequently, Byzantium lost these provinces. These were unsettled times for the Basileia Romaion’s as well. The pacification of these peoples was a complicated task, but the slow and consistent application of the ‘divide et impera’ policy and the development in the 9th century (the rule of Michael III and the Macedonian dynasty had their effects. The expeditions, the regained domination over the Balkans, the ‘Hellenization’ of the Peloponnesian Slavs, the ‘remorse’ of the Serbs and the assimilation of the Bulgarian population were some consequences of the ‘Pax Byzantina’. The events of the 10th century generated new dimensions in the international connections, but this era was not an integrating period, it was rather the war between the Empire and the new powerful Bulgaria and the baptism of new nations in the region. The present essay focuses on the wide network of examples and analogies which

  14. Environmental conditions on the corridor of human migration between 40,000 and 14,000 a BP in the Balkan region. A multi-proxy approach on loess-paleosol profiles

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    Janina BÖSKEN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This contribution focuses on two PhD projects, which are integrated within the collaborative research centre 806 “Our way to Europe” at the University of Cologne and the RWTH Aachen University (Germany. The main research focus is the migration of anatomical modern human (AMH to Europe. We concentrate on the paleoenvironmental conditions on the route through southeastern Europe. This links the region with the earliest fossils of Homo sapiens sapiens (so far known in the Middle East, Anatolia, the Northwestern Black Sea, the Balkans and the Pannonian Basin. One PhD topic deals with the sedimentological and geochemical approach mainly from loess and loess-like sediments to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental conditions; the other PhD topic places an emphasis on the exact timing of those sedimentary records via luminescence dating. In particular the investigation of loess-paleosol sequences plays a central role. Geoarchives in Hungary, Serbia and Romania are of main interest for the project. The investigations will focus mainly on the loess and loess like sediments. However, data will be compared to further geoarchives, such as lacustrine sediments, speleothemes and marine records, to get a complete insight into the climatic evolution. First analyses include the loess-paleosol sequences at Bodrogkereztúr (Hungary, east of Miskolz, Orlovat (Serbia, north of Belgrade, Ságvár (Hungary, southeast of Lake Balaton, and Stalać (Serbia, confluence of South and West Morava.

  15. Health hazards of uranium dust from radioactive battlefields of the Balkan conflicts, Eastern Afghanistan and Iraq after the Gulf wars. Lessons for civil protection in the terrorist scenario of radiological dispersion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durakovic, A.; Klimaschewski, F.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify key health hazards of uranium dust from the radioactive battlefields (Balkan, Middle East and Eastern Afghanistan conflicts) to draw lessons for civil protection in the terrorist scenario of radiological dispersion devices (RDD). Gulf War I (GW I) in 1991 resulted in 350 metric tons of depleted uranium (DU) deposited in the environment and 3 to 6 million grams of DU aerosol dust particles released into the atmosphere, by the most conservative estimates. Its possible legacy (Gulf War disease) continues after the military conflicts (Operation Enduring Freedom, OEF, in Afghanistan and Gulf War II in Iraq). The symptoms of the multiorgan incapacitating progressive disease have been as numerous as their names, including incapacitating fatigue, musculoskeletal and joint pains, headaches, neuropsychiatric disorders, affects changes, confusion, visual problems, changes of gait, loss of memory, lympadenopathies, respiratory impairment, impotence, and urinary tract morphological and functional alterations. The disease is still a matter of controversy regarding etiology and pathogenesis of the syndrome commonly named Gulf War disease. It was underestimated and subsequently evolved in its clinical description through recognition of progressive symptomatology. Methods: UMRC's studies of the human contamination with uranium isotopes were conducted with the exposed subjects of Jalalabad, Spin Gar, Tora Bora, and Kabul areas in Afghanistan after OEF as well as Samawah, Baghdad and Basrah in Iraq after GW II. The urine samples of the subjects were analysed by the plasma mass spectrometry. The analytical methodology involved pre-concentration of the uranium using co-precipitation and/or evaporation, oxidation of organic matter, purification of uranium with ion exchange chromatography, and mass spectrometry with a double focusing Thermo-Elemental Plasma54 multi-collector ICP-MS equipped with a

  16. Is increased susceptibility to Balkan endemic nephropathy in carriers of common GSTA1 (*A/*B) polymorphism linked with the catalytic role of GSTA1 in ochratoxin a biotransformation? Serbian case control study and in silico analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reljic, Zorica; Zlatovic, Mario; Savic-Radojevic, Ana; Pekmezovic, Tatjana; Djukanovic, Ljubica; Matic, Marija; Pljesa-Ercegovac, Marija; Mimic-Oka, Jasmina; Opsenica, Dejan; Simic, Tatjana

    2014-08-08

    Although recent data suggest aristolochic acid as a putative cause of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), evidence also exists in favor of ochratoxin A (OTA) exposure as risk factor for the disease. The potential role of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, such as the glutathione transferases (GSTs), in OTA biotransformation is based on OTA glutathione adducts (OTHQ-SG and OTB-SG) in blood and urine of BEN patients. We aimed to analyze the association between common GSTA1, GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 polymorphisms and BEN susceptibility, and thereafter performed an in silico simulation of particular GST enzymes potentially involved in OTA transformations. GSTA1, GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genotypes were determined in 207 BEN patients and 138 non-BEN healthy individuals from endemic regions by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Molecular modeling in silico was performed for GSTA1 protein. Among the GST polymorphisms tested, only GSTA1 was significantly associated with a higher risk of BEN. Namely, carriers of the GSTA1*B gene variant, associated with lower transcriptional activation, were at a 1.6-fold higher BEN risk than those carrying the homozygous GSTA1*A/*A genotype (OR = 1.6; p = 0.037). In in silico modeling, we found four structures, two OTB-SG and two OTHQ-SG, bound in a GSTA1 monomer. We found that GSTA1 polymorphism was associated with increased risk of BEN, and suggested, according to the in silico simulation, that GSTA1-1 might be involved in catalyzing the formation of OTHQ-SG and OTB-SG conjugates.

  17. Is Increased Susceptibility to Balkan Endemic Nephropathy in Carriers of Common GSTA1 (*A/*B Polymorphism Linked with the Catalytic Role of GSTA1 in Ochratoxin A Biotransformation? Serbian Case Control Study and In Silico Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Reljic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Although recent data suggest aristolochic acid as a putative cause of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN, evidence also exists in favor of ochratoxin A (OTA exposure as risk factor for the disease. The potential role of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, such as the glutathione transferases (GSTs, in OTA biotransformation is based on OTA glutathione adducts (OTHQ-SG and OTB-SG in blood and urine of BEN patients. We aimed to analyze the association between common GSTA1, GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 polymorphisms and BEN susceptibility, and thereafter performed an in silico simulation of particular GST enzymes potentially involved in OTA transformations. GSTA1, GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genotypes were determined in 207 BEN patients and 138 non-BEN healthy individuals from endemic regions by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Molecular modeling in silico was performed for GSTA1 protein. Among the GST polymorphisms tested, only GSTA1 was significantly associated with a higher risk of BEN. Namely, carriers of the GSTA1*B gene variant, associated with lower transcriptional activation, were at a 1.6-fold higher BEN risk than those carrying the homozygous GSTA1*A/*A genotype (OR = 1.6; p = 0.037. In in silico modeling, we found four structures, two OTB-SG and two OTHQ-SG, bound in a GSTA1 monomer. We found that GSTA1 polymorphism was associated with increased risk of BEN, and suggested, according to the in silico simulation, that GSTA1-1 might be involved in catalyzing the formation of OTHQ-SG and OTB-SG conjugates.

  18. The phylogenetic position of the enigmatic Balkan Aulopyge huegelii (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from the perspective of host-specific Dactylogyrus parasites (Monogenea), with a description of Dactylogyrus omenti n. sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benovics, Michal; Kičinjaová, Maria Lujza; Šimková, Andrea

    2017-11-03

    . vastator ex A. huegelii and D. vastator ex C. gibelio collected in Balkan Peninsula suggests that A. huegelii was secondarily parasitized by D. vastator, originating from C. gibelio after introduction of this fish species from Asia to Europe.

  19. Late Precambrian Balkan-Carpathian ophiolite — a slice of the Pan-African ocean crust?: geochemical and tectonic insights from the Tcherni Vrah and Deli Jovan massifs, Bulgaria and Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savov, Ivan; Ryan, Jeff; Haydoutov, Ivan; Schijf, Johan

    2001-10-01

    The Balkan-Carpathian ophiolite (BCO), which outcrops in Bulgaria, Serbia and Romania, is a Late Precambrian (563 Ma) mafic/ultramafic complex unique in that it has not been strongly deformed or metamorphosed, as have most other basement sequences in Alpine Europe. Samples collected for study from the Tcherni Vrah and Deli Jovan segments of BCO include cumulate dunites, troctolites, wehrlites and plagioclase wehrlites; olivine and amphibole-bearing gabbros; anorthosites; diabases and microgabbros; and basalts representing massive flows, dikes, and pillow lavas, as well as hyaloclastites and umbers (preserved sedimentary cover). Relict Ol, Cpx and Hbl in cumulate peridotites indicate original orthocumulate textures. Plagioclase in troctolites and anorthosites range from An60 to An70. Cumulate gabbro textures range from ophitic to poikilitic, with an inferred crystallization order of Ol-(Plag+Cpx)-Hbl. The extrusive rocks exhibit poikilitic, ophitic and intersertal textures, with Cpx and/or Plag (Oligoclase-Andesine) phenocrysts. The major opaques are Ti-Magnetite and Ilmenite. The metamorphic paragenesis in the mafic samples is Chl-Trem-Ep, whereas the ultramafic rocks show variable degrees of serpentinization, with lizardite and antigorite as dominant phases. Our samples are compositionally and geochemically similar to modern oceanic crust. Major element, trace element and rare earth element (REE) signatures in BCO basalts are comparable to those of MORB. In terms of basalt and dike composition, the BCO is a 'high-Ti' or 'oceanic' ophiolite, based on the classification scheme of Serri [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 52 (1981) 203]. Our petrologic and geochemical results, combined with the tectonic position of the BCO massifs (overlain by and in contact with Late Cambrian island arc and back-arc sequences), suggest that the BCO may have formed in a mid-ocean ridge setting. If the BCO records the existence of a Precambrian ocean basin, then there may be a relationship

  20. The phylogenetic position of the enigmatic Balkan Aulopyge huegelii (Teleostei: Cyprinidae from the perspective of host-specific Dactylogyrus parasites (Monogenea, with a description of Dactylogyrus omenti n. sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Benovics

    2017-11-01

    . On other hand, the genetic similarity between D. vastator ex A. huegelii and D. vastator ex C. gibelio collected in Balkan Peninsula suggests that A. huegelii was secondarily parasitized by D. vastator, originating from C. gibelio after introduction of this fish species from Asia to Europe.

  1. New floristic reports in the Balkans: 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giannopoulos, K.; Tan, Kit

    2011-01-01

    This paper continues a series of new plant records based on further floristic investigations in Greece. The floristic regions adopted follow those circumscribed in Flora Hellenica (Strid & Tan 1997). The flora of Ilia prefecture is a long-standing interest of the first author (KG) for many years ...

  2. Balkanization and Unification of Probabilistic Inferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chong-Ho

    2005-01-01

    Many research-related classes in social sciences present probability as a unified approach based upon mathematical axioms, but neglect the diversity of various probability theories and their associated philosophical assumptions. Although currently the dominant statistical and probabilistic approach is the Fisherian tradition, the use of Fisherian…

  3. Hate crimes: American and Balkan experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Jovan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the nineties of the last century it was noticed in the U.S.A. that suddenly the number of crimes with violence in the inter-racial and inter-ethnical conflicts rose. Also the phenomenon of ignition of churches, religious and sacral objects, especially in the south of the U.S.A., objects which were used by black people, was recorded. Directly in relation to that - the term „hate crimes“ then arose in science and became outspread very quickly, primarily in criminology. Several events, and above all the murder of a young homosexual in Wyoming influenced for both the violence and the crimes commited towards the homosexuals and all due to the prejudices towards this sexual minority to be included in this term. Today, this term is used not only in the U.S.A. and not only in a criminological sense, but also in a purely legal sense to denote the crimes which were carried out under the influence of hate towards a correspondent racial, ethnical or sexual minority. This term is linked also to the terminology and thus the problems which are related to the „hate speech“. The author of this paper writes about how this term arose in the first place and which problems emerge related to hate crimes and primarily in relation to the issues of expansion of democracy and tolerance, and also education, primarily among the police force and the young population. The author also ascertains that only with the law, no great effects in the battle against this phenomenon can be achieved and that before the criminal-legal intervention some other measures have to be approached, like the creation of an atmosphere of tolerance and the education of the citizens about the phenomenon of hate crimes.

  4. New floristic records in the Balkans: 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Issigoni, Margarita

    2008-01-01

    New chorological data are presented for 106 species and subspecies from Bulgaria (records no. 72-79, 84-94, 105-106), Greece (2-60, 95-104) and Turkey-in-Europe (1, 61-71, 80-83). The taxa belong to the following families: Amaranthaceae (18, 19), Amaryllidaceae (49, 50, 77), Apiaceae (3, 84, 85, ...

  5. The German heritage in Balkan languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Wilhelm Schaller

    2015-09-01

    W słownictwie każdego z języków bałkańskich występują pewne germańskie elementy, poczynając od starobułgarskich tekstów biblijnych, a kończąc na współczesnych językach bałkańskich, jakimi są: bułgarski, macedoński, serbski, albański, rumuński i nowogrecki. W badaniach nad etymologią należy wyraźnie rozgraniczać dwa nurty rozwojowe: germański i bałkański. Katalog zapożyczeń ograniczamy do wyrazów obecnych w językach bałkańskich, których etymologię możemy prześledzić wstecz do gockiego, staro- i środkowo-wysoko-niemieckiego oraz współczesnego niemieckiego. Nie tylko słownictwo, lecz także onomastyka wykazują okazjonalnie wpływy niemieckie, jednak w żadnym razie nie ma podstaw, by mówić o germańskim substracie czy adstracie w takim sensie, w jakim mówimy o substracie trackim czy iliryjskim, bądź adstracie romańskim lub greckim.

  6. The Balkans Air Campaign Study: Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    president of the Yugoslav ian League of Commu nists as a plat form to whip up the ethnic pride and para noia of the Serb commu nity of Serbia. Mi...lists with UN ground command ers and with British major gen eral David Penny fa ther, chief of staff of the NATO Rapid Reac tion Force, which had been...ment boxes lying around, Admi ral Smith, General Ryan, General Hornburg (the di rec tor of the CAOC), and Hornburg’s dep­ uty, Brig Gen David A

  7. New floristic records in the Balkans: 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Burkhard; Tan, Kit

    2008-01-01

    ew chorological data are presented for 90 species and subspecies from Bulgaria (records no. 49-52), Greece (2-36, 53-90) and Turkey-in-Europe (1, 37-48). The taxa belong to the following families: Apiaceae (21), Araceae (87), Asteraceae (5-9, 22-26, 82), Boraginaceae (53, 83), Brassicaceae (54-56...

  8. Bedste bog om Balkans beskidte krig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    Anmeldelse af: "Vi troede ikke, det kunne ske her. Jugoslaviens sammenbrud 1991-1999" af Christian Axboe Nielsen. Kristeligt Dagblads Forlag, 2018. 410 sider......Anmeldelse af: "Vi troede ikke, det kunne ske her. Jugoslaviens sammenbrud 1991-1999" af Christian Axboe Nielsen. Kristeligt Dagblads Forlag, 2018. 410 sider...

  9. A fresh breeze in the Balkans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, W.

    1997-01-01

    Since the fall of the Ceausescu dictatorship, the electric power industry in Romania has undergone radical reform. An autonomous authority, RENEL, has replaced the old Ministry control. The changes are likely to be drastic including higher electricity prices, staff reductions, and subsidy removal. Uneconomic enterprises are likely to be closed, with monopolies being broken up and government owned assets being sold off to domestic and foreign investors. These changes and their likely political consequences are described. Information on electricity production between 1994 and 1996 from various fuel sources is also given. (UK)

  10. A fresh breeze in the Balkans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, W.

    1997-04-01

    Since the fall of the Ceausescu dictatorship, the electric power industry in Romania has undergone radical reform. An autonomous authority, RENEL, has replaced the old Ministry control. The changes are likely to be drastic including higher electricity prices, staff reductions, and subsidy removal. Uneconomic enterprises are likely to be closed, with monopolies being broken up and government owned assets being sold off to domestic and foreign investors. These changes and their likely political consequences are described. Information on electricity production between 1994 and 1996 from various fuel sources is also given. (UK)

  11. New floristic records in the Balkans: 9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Sfikas, George; Vold, Gert

    2008-01-01

    (16), Aristolochiaceae (17), Asclepiaceae (18), Aspleniaceae (9-12), Asteraceae (44, 45, 50-54, 69, 76), Balsaminaceae (19), Boraginaceae (49), Brassicaceae (20, 70, 77, 83), Campanulaceae (46, 84), Caryophyllaceae (21, 55, 85, 86), Chenopodiaceae (22, 23), Cistaceae (24, 87), Convolvulaceae (25......), Solanaceae (33) and Violaceae (59). The publication includes contributions by M. Aybeke (1), M. Aybeke & F. Dane (2-7), M. Aybeke, C. Kurt & A. Semerci (8), N. Basak, N. Güler & F. Dane (9-13), B. Biel & Kit Tan (14-43), F. Dane, Ç. Meriç & G. Yilmaz (44-45), V. Goranova, H. Pedashenko & K. Vassilev (46), N...

  12. New floristic records in the Balkans: 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Sfikas, George; Vold, Gert

    2008-01-01

    (76), Solanaceae (17, 33), Thelypteridaceae (3) and Woodsiaceae (4). First report for Turkey-in-Europe is Eremopyrum bonaepartis subsp. bonaepartis (1). The publication includes contributions by M. Aybeke, C. Kurt & A. Semerci (1), B. Biel & Kit Tan (2-36), F. Dane, M. Aybeke & B. Tutel (37-41), Ç...

  13. New floristic records in the Balkans: 9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Raabe, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    ), Solanaceae (33) and Violaceae (59). The publication includes contributions by M. Aybeke (1), M. Aybeke & F. Dane (2-7), M. Aybeke, C. Kurt & A. Semerci (8), N. Basak, N. Güler & F. Dane (9-13), B. Biel & Kit Tan (14-43), F. Dane, Ç. Meriç & G. Yilmaz (44-45), V. Goranova, H. Pedashenko & K. Vassilev (46), N...

  14. Balkan Cooperation on War Crimes Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Julie

    2008-01-01

    .... Only two other ICTY indicted individuals are still at large, including Gen. Ratko Mladic, who along with Karadzic is under indictment for genocide and crimes against humanity occurring during the 1992- 1995 Bosnian war...

  15. Balkan Cooperation on War Crimes Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Julie

    2005-01-01

    In December 2005, top Croatian indicted war crimes fugitive Gen. Ante Gotovina was arrested in Spain and transferred to the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in The Hague...

  16. New floristic records in the Balkans: 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Issigoni, Margarita

    2008-01-01

    (104), Poaceae (1, 57-60, 78, 93-94), Polypodiaceae (2, 16, 17), Portulacaceae(41), Primulaceae (42), Ranunculaceae (61- 65), Rosaceae (75, 76, 91), Rubiaceae (12, 43, 98), Salviniaceae (72), Sapindaceae (44), Scrophulariaceae (45, 46), Solanaceae (47) and Urticaceae (48). First reports for countries...

  17. New floristic records in the Balkans: 10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    , 104), (85), Orchidaceae (3, 30, 45, 68-71, 89, 95), Paeoniaceae (2, 27), Poaceae (14-16, 47-50, 72-74, 93, 94, 105- 109, 116, 117), Rosaceae (28, 41, 62, 102, 115), Rubiaceae (63), Saxifragaceae (64), Scrophulariaceae (86), Solanaceae (87, 88), Thymeleaceae (29), Valerianaceae (103) and Vitaceae (91...

  18. New floristic records in the Balkans: 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Burkhard; Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    ), Scrophulariaceae (42, 43, 49, 50, 104, 132, 133), Solanaceae (19, 20, 70), Typhaceae (138), Valerianaceae (60), Verbenaceae (134, 135), Violaceae (71), Vitaceae (129) and Zygophyllaceae (44). First reports for countries are: Montenegro - Salvia aethiopis (81); Serbia - Onobrychis caput-galli (139); Turkey...

  19. New floristic records in the Balkans: 12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    -54), Linaceae (23, 81), Nyctaginaceae (24), Ophioglossaceae (39), Orchidaceae (55-57), Oxalidaceae (25), Poaceae (36, 102), Portulacaceae (26), Primulaceae (27, 47), Ranunculaceae (8, 48, 49), (25), (36, 102), (26), (27, 47), (8, 48, 49), Rosaceae (9), Sapindaceae (89), Scrophulariaceae (10, 101) and Solanaceae...

  20. New floristic records in the Balkans: 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Burkhard; Tan, Kit

    2008-01-01

    -72), Liliaceae s.l. (34, 89), Onagraceae (15), Ophioglossaceae (18), Orchidaceae (78-81, 90), Papaveraceae (29), Plantaginaceae (37-41, 73), Poaceae (1, 35, 36), Polygalaceae (74), Polygonaceae (30), Primulaceae (31), Ranunculaceae (51, 75, 86), Rubiaceae (16), Rutaceae (52), Santalaceae (32), Scrophulariaceae...

  1. New floristic records in the Balkans: 17

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarkos, G.; Christodolou, V.; Tan, Kit

    2011-01-01

    New chorological data are presented for 142 species and subspecies from Bulgaria (70–93, 108–130), Greece (4–19, 23–69, 94–107, 131–142), and Turkey-in-Europe (1–3, 20–22). The taxa belong to the following families: Amaranthaceae (20–22), Amaryllidaceae (62), Apiaceae (4, 25, 73, 95), Araceae (63......), Saxifragaceae (85, 112), Scrophulariaceae (59, 60, 86), Solanaceae (61), Thymelaeaceae (102) and Verbenaceae (141)...

  2. New floristic records in the Balkans: 11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    . (66), (37), (76), (77, 78), (notes after record no. 30), Scrophulariaceae (6, 21) and Solanaceae (67). First reports for countries are: Greece - Tradescantia fluminensis (22) and Ludwigia grandiflora (64). The publication includes contributions by A. Asenov (1-6), M. Aybeke (7), M. Aybeke, C. Kurt & A...

  3. New floristic records in the Balkans: 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    ), (51), (20, 38-40, 54-56, 64-66), (52, 53, 65, 66, 80-84), Rubiaceae (85, 93), Saxifragaceae (57), Scrophulariaceae (21, 86, 100), Urticaceae (58). Cerastium decalvans subsp. decalvans var. kitanovii D. Dimitrov (50) is described as a new for science subsp. var. D. Dimitrov (50) is described as a new...

  4. New floristic records in the Balkans: 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    ), Rhamnaceae (9), (79, 95), (93), (14, 23, 24, 35), (64), Rosaceae (65), Rubiaceae (66), Scrophulariaceae (25, 26, 36, 73, 77, 81), Solanaceae (10, 11, 74), Thymelaeaceae (30, 67, 82), Valerianaceae (37), Verbenaceae (12), Violaceae (27) and Vitaceae (75). (30, 67, 82), (37), (12), (27) and (75).First reports...

  5. New floristic records in the Balkans: 9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Burkhard; Tan, Kit

    2008-01-01

    , 106-108), Linaceae (99, 100), Malvaceae (80), Orchidaceae (47, 48, 62), Plantaginaceae (101), Poaceae (73, 74), Polygalaceae (102, 103), Polypodiaceae (14, 15), Ranunculaceae (30), Rosaceae (104), Rubiaceae (31, 56, 75), Santalaceae (105), Scrophulariaceae (32, 57, 58, 72), Sinopteridaceae (13...

  6. New floristic records in the Balkans: 16

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarkos, G.; Christodoulou, V.; Tan, Kit

    2011-01-01

    New chorological data are presented for 88 species and subspecies from Bulgaria (62–72) and Greece (1–61, 73–88). The taxa belong to the following families: Acanthaceae (20), Adiantaceae (62), Alismataceae (52), Apiaceae (21–23, 80), Araceae (53), Aristolochiaceae (63), Asteraceae (24, 25, 73), B......), Saxifragaceae (49), Scrophulariaceae (15, 16), Solanaceae (86), Typhaceae (61), Valerianaceae (50, 51) and Violaceae (17). First report for a country is: Greece – Chenopodium strictum (7)....

  7. New floristic records in the Balkans: 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    ), Saxifragaceae (59, 192), Scrophulariaceae (60-63, 82, 105, 193, (191), (243), (59, 192), (60-63, 82, 105, 193, 194, 226, 238), Taxaceae (132), Thelypteridaceae (14), Thymelaeaceae (195, 227), Tiliaceae (196), and Violaceae (64, 239). (64, 239). First reports for countries are: Greece - Callitriche hamulata (37...

  8. New floristic records in the Balkans: 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    -14, 32, 65), Rosaceae (33, 66, 97), Rubiaceae (56, 73), Salicaceae (50), Scrophulariaceae (51), Valerianaceae (15) and Violaceae (57, 67). First reports for countries are: Bosnia & Herzegovina - Lactuca visianii (72), Potamogeton rutilus (29); Bulgaria - Convolvulus pilosellifolius (36), Deschampsia...

  9. 76 FR 38002 - Western Balkans Stabilization Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... procedure, Banks, Banking, Blocking of assets, Credit, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements... intangible, including but not limited to currency, financial instruments, securities, or any other.... 588.504: See Sec. 501.603 of this chapter for mandatory reporting requirements regarding financial...

  10. New floristic records in the Balkans: 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Issigoni, Margarita

    2007-01-01

    (14), Malvaceae (15), Orchidaceae (110-115), Paeoniaceae (39), Papaveraceae (40, 122), Poaceae (28-36, 57, 73-79, 140), Polygonaceae (16, 17, 128), Polypodiaceae (82), Ranunculaceae (99, 100), Resedaceae (41), Rhamnaceae (101, 102), Rosaceae (68), Rubiaceae (18, 48, 103), Sapindaceae (69...

  11. New floristic records in the Balkans: 17

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    , 107), Orobanchaceae (101), Phytolaccaceae (48), Plumbaginaceae (49), Poaceae (16, 17, 91–93, 118–123, 130), Polygalaceae (50), Potamogetonaceae (18), Ranunculaceae (51, 52), Rhamnaceae (10), Rosaceae (11, 12, 53–55, 84, 111, 115–117, 140), Rubiaceae (56, 57), Ruppiaceae (19), Salicaceae (58...

  12. Populism from Below in the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Brentin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The last several years have witnessed a so-called “political earthquake” of populist successes in consolidated democracies throughout Europe. Populist movements and parties have manifested themselves most markedly through right-wing agendas including opposition to modernization, globalization, regional integration, immigration, appeals to working class fears of social decline, and resentment of elites. Consequently an entire body of literature has examined the basic tenets of populism, populist strategies and rhetoric, determinants of its success, and its effects on people, parties, and polities. Much of the social research on the issue however, both historical and contemporary, has been excessively focused on populism among elites and institutions. By applying a relatively narrow methodological approach, most of the existing literature is leaving the agency of individuals and social groups and their representation largely unproblematized. In this special edition, we thus attempt to draw attention to an issue generally overlooked by researchers: populism from below.

  13. War in the Balkans, 1991-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    house that would buy them time to prepare for independence, and the Slovenes in particular pushed hard to provoke a break as soon as possible...Endeavor was to enter with intimidating power and force consent, a concept more in line with peace enforcement via intimidation and compulsion than...catastrophe,” a cataclysmic defeat that brought a violent end to the 283 millennial Hellenistic civilization of Asia Minor. Like other countries whose

  14. A condição humana, essa invariante antropológica: notas sobre produções fílmicas dos Bálcãs (The human condition, this anthropological invariance: notes about Balkans´ films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Siqueira Guimarães

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: As concepções evolucionistas, funcionalistas e historicistas em Antropologia, sob a égide da ciência moderna, trataram de compreender a condição humana relacionada ao tempo cronológico. Este artigo busca repensar a questão da condição humana, partindo de uma revisão sobre a temporalidade, implicando-a com as dimensões míticas e simbólicas da existência. Para tanto, relaciona os conceitos da Antropologia do Imaginário, da Psicologia Analítica e Psicologia Arquetípica com alguns exemplos em produções fílmicas dos Bálcãs sobre os conflitos político-culturais ocorridos em meados da década de 1990 nessa região.Abstract: The evolutionary, functionalist and historicist conceptions in Anthropology, like modern science conceptions, comprehend the human condition in relationship with the chronological time. This article objective to rethink the human condition, with the focus on temporality, projected on mythical and symbolical dimensions of the existence. The concepts of Anthropology of Imaginariness, Analytical Psychology and Archetypical Psychology were analyzed on some Balkans´ fi lmic productions about the conflicts occurred in the 1990´s.

  15. Balkanization Makes It Unclear Just What the Doctor Ordered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkner, Richard Mark

    2016-09-01

    Physicians are a disparate lot. At last count, there were more than 300 member organizations of the American Association of Medical Societies. These organizations tread common ground on a host of issues in play in this upcoming election cycle. They also part ways on some important issues, including their stance on the Affordable Care Act.

  16. Balkanization and the future of electricity R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, R.A.; Schneider, T.R.

    1999-07-01

    The December issue of The Electricity Journal featured two articles addressing different aspects of electric power research: Bell and Seden focused on changes in utility R and D as a result of restructuring, while Yeager, Gehl, Barker, and Knight descried the need and initial directions for a comprehensive R and D roadmap. This article attempts to go beyond the article of Bell and Seden by examining actions by the states and proposed federal legislation, identifying arguments for continued collective R and D, and trying to anticipate what the future will bring. In its essence, the problem is that a substantial stranded benefit has emerged that is neither supported by current market forces nor adequately addressed by state of federal programs. That stranded benefit is the collective and collaborative public-benefit R and D programs of the electric utility industry. Most of this investment was through the Electric Power Research Institute, now known simply as EPRI. As the individual electric utility companies are restructured, re-regulated, and seek to achieve competitive advantage, both collaboration and collective action will be far more difficult.

  17. Managing Teacher Balkanization in Times of Implementing Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shun-wing

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to report an exploratory study which was designed to illuminate how school cultures and teachers' value orientations are affected by the educational change of parental involvement. Design/methodology/approach: The qualitative research that informs this paper is conceptualized within the interpretive…

  18. Studies in the Albanian vocabulary (Balkan etymologies 76.- 91

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir E. Orel

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Alb.gloq  'matter from eyes, rheum (in eyes; testis', dial. gĕuq id.(Cipo 1954, 14li Kristoforidhi 1961,'-114; Marin 1948, 128 is synonymous with g(ĕ lepë and it seems quite probable that both of them are morphologically similar. This structural resemblance is of special importance, since the etymology of gloq is unknown, while it is widely accepted.that g(ëlepë re- flects Proto-Albanian (= PAlb. prefix *ka- and the stem *laipa derived from IE *leip - 'to stick, to cling' (cf. Skt. avalepa­ 'ointment' < *oųo-loipa. Postulating the same prefix (gë - < PAlb. *ka- in gloq, gëluq, one comes to a stem -loq /-luq­ which it is correct to identify with loqe 'penis, testis' rela­ ted to Lith. liaukà 'gland'. Both loqe and liaukà reflect a long diphthong in *lēuk- connected with IE *leuk   'white'. The matter from eyes is actually white and IE *leuk fis the desi­ gnation of this kind of pus as well as the term for glands (cf. Slav. *belbmo 'wall-eye'< *belb 'white'. Another semantic pattern is represented in a(ëlepë, with a very interesting pa­ rallei in Lat. lippus 'discharging matter (from the eyes' con­ nected with IE *leip-.

  19. Correlates of sex trafficking in three Balkan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena Smith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trafficking of human beings has reached epidemic proportions: There are approximately 20 to 30 million slaves in the world today whereas the total value of the trade has been estimated to be around $32 billion. Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Bulgaria have been particularly hit by human slavery. The author has investigated the common correlates that have facilitated the problem in these countries, such as long term poverty, passive societies, low resistance to bribery, high levels of corruption, and weak legal framework. Obstacles rising from the inability to proceed with cross-national prosecutions in combination with low sentences imposed on traffickers in both developed and developing European countries, have rendered the situation explosive. Despite the European Union’s effort to implement the new rules of the Anti-Trafficking Directive which proposes higher penalties for offenders, increased protection for victims and facilitates cross-border prosecution, only six out of the 27 EU members have fully transposed it into their national legislation.

  20. Third Intensive Balkan Telemedicine and e-Health Seminar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    group of naturally occurring, heat-resistant fibrous silicates” Dust – Coal – Talc – Cigarette Smoke Current Technologies Technology provides more...UNCLASSIFIED 26 JAN 2009 Slide 16 of 32COL Poropatich/301-619-7967/ron.poropatich@amedd.army.mil • Medical Maintenance Dashboard • Statistical data...Croatia, Denmark, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, India, Italy, Japan, Malaysia , Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Poland, Russia

  1. Population genetic studies in the Balkans. I. Serum proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheil, H G; Scheffrahn, W; Schmidt, H D; Huckenbeck, W; Efremovska, L; Xirotiris, N

    2001-09-01

    Within a study of the genetics of Southeastern European populations seven serum protein polymorphisms (AMY2, BF, C3, CP, GC, HPA, TF) were examined in three samples of Aromuns (Albania: the village of Andon Poci, province Gjirocaster, Republic of Macedonia: Stip region, Romania: the village Kogalniceanu, province Dobruja) and four reference samples (Albanians: Tirana, Romanians: Constanta and Ploiesti as well as Greeks (Northeastern Greece)). The Aromun samples from Albania and Romania form one separate cluster and the reference samples together with the Aromuns from Macedonia (Stip region) form a second one.

  2. Conflict Containment in the Balkans: Testing Extended Deterrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-01

    is either incapable of continuing due to exhaustion --lack of resources, or due to a lack of interest. 336 Robert T. Holt and Robert W. van de Veld ...identified by Holt and van de Veld are essentially equivalent to the traditional three elements of national power: diplomatic, economic and military, with...strategy.52 ൹ Ibid, p. 49. While some critics suggest that a policy of tit for tat is less provocative than a policy of strength, others such as Henry

  3. Cultural Identity and Regional Security in the Western Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    linguist and translator , famous for his translation of holly Bible into Serbian language, following Karadzic’s reformed alphabet. 46Ramet, Three...Mihailovic, who translated The Mountain Wreath into English , described the foundation of the work as: “his [Njegos’] own renditions of the overriding...40 English as a Second Language

  4. Trapped in Development Crisis and Balkanization: Africa versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Undoubtedly, globalisation is a complex process. It is touted as having the potential to accelerate Africa\\'s development if the continent\\'s economies would be reformed in accordance with market principles. But clearly, globalisation is widening the disparities between the developed and developing economies. Africa\\'s ...

  5. A Roadmap for Future Security in the West Balkans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berzani, Roland

    2008-01-01

    ..., such as: the unlimited postponement and just definition of Kosovo's status, delays to the Euro- Atlantic integration process, minority and human rights issues, economic prosperity, and organized crime...

  6. Traditional dentistry knowledge among Serbs in several Balkan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Ilic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: There are still unrevealed treasures of traditional dental medicine that are the reason to investigate and present various ways in treatment of oral and orofacial tissues as well as magic and religious elements involved in representative areas among Serbs. Methods: Information was collected from the elderly non-professional folk dentists and herbalists with additional help from local physicians and dentists that was done through questionnaire and personal interviews. Results: Classified and prepared material consists of total 1038 enquiry sheets. The 41 data were averagely obtained by inquiry form i.e. 41984 information for the whole research. The most voluminous was group of 64 recipes: gums diseases 39 and toothache 25 while only seven for magic way of treatment. Among them 18 prescriptions were of non-herbal origin. The study revealed 84 herbal original prescriptions including 67 plant species (29 families including local name, synonyms and preparation mode. Traditional healers used predominantly herbal recipes to treatpainful tooth, gum disease, blisters - herpetic ulcers /lips and mouth/, stomatitis /painful mouth, ptyalismus/, maxillary sinusitis, bad breath, teeth cleaning and bleaching. Very few methods of treatment appeared as inadequate (magical practice, whereas majority were noted as beneficial ones (herbal medicine. Still many people in distant non-urban areas use various plant recipes especially as the first aid in oral disease healing. Conclusions: The significance of plants obtained from unpolluted areas whose active ingredients have not yet been used in dental pharmaceutics should be investigated further. KEY WORDS: medicinal plants, ethnomedicine, dental ethnopharmacology, traditional dentistry, phytotherapy [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(2.000: 223-233

  7. Thicker than Water? Kin, Religion, and Conflict in the Balkans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liotta, P. H; Simmons, Anna

    1998-01-01

    Listen then, to what you do not know. The three rivers of the ancient world of the dead--the Acheron, the Phlegethon, and the Cocytus--today belong to the underworlds of Islam, Judaism, and Christianity...

  8. Visa liberalisation and economic implication for the Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ylber Sela

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most promising post-Cold War developments in Marxian thought have been stimulated by problems facing Marxists in Western Europe, to that extent they all seem to lay bare, intentionally or otherwise, the lacking of qualities, of Marx’s prediction. The most significant example of the failure of Marxist theory to be realised in practice is the persistent survival of the capitalist mode of production. The inevitable crisis foreseen by Marx, which would lead to revolution, failed to materialise and that claim is now itself historical, since capitalism has become the norm for social organisation in most of the world’s nations. By asking the question how capitalism can persist amid crisis, Gramsci, provided the most promising way of revision to the stunted Marxian orthodoxy. Today for us is important to ask whether Marxist analysis of neoliberal global strategy or globalisation and fragmentation invite reconsideration of the tendency on the part of many international relations scholarships to ignore and simply dismiss Marxism. It is also important to consider whether the significance of Marxist project of developing a critical approach to international politics, is but one way in which Marxism progressed beyond the traditional Anglo-American scholarship to IR.

  9. Defining Political Extremism in the Balkans. The Case of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Marko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Political extremism (and particularly right wing political extremism remains relatively insufficiently explored due to the fact that the phenomenon is controversial and hard to define. Its ambiguity and variability depending on time and spatial point of view further complicates its definition. Its structure is amorphous and eclectic as it often includes elements from different ideologies and connects incompatible ideas. A multidimensional conceptualization and an interdisciplinary approach - sociological, social, psychological and historical, are the Author’s tools in explaining the phenomenon of political extremism in Serbia, hopefully contributing to its clarification and laying a foundation for its further explanatory theoretical studies.

  10. Mass Violence against Civilians during the Balkan Wars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ungor, U.U.

    2015-01-01

    On 17 October 1912, Serbia, Montenegro, Greece and Bulgaria declared war on the Ottoman Empire. Out-powered, demoralized, unprepared and poorly equipped, the Ottoman army fought fourteen battles and lost them all, except for one. After the cessation of hostilities, the Empire was heavily truncated

  11. Cosmogonies and mythopoesis in the Balkans and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Badalanova Geller

    2014-11-01

    W artykule zostały porównane trzy typy narracji zawierających wątki kosmogoniczne i eschatologiczne, które funkcjonują w słowiańskiej i bałkańskiej tradycji ustnej, literaturze parabiblijnej oraz poezji doby modernizmu. Przedmiotem uwagi stała się grupa motywów poświadczonych w narracji o stworzeniu, znanej z Legendy o Morzu Tyberiadzkim. Analizom poddane zostały dwie wersje: południowosłowiańska, odkryta w 1845 roku przez W. Grigorowicza w Monastyrze w Slepče, oraz ruska – z XVIII wieku, znajdująca się w kodeksie MS № 21.11.3 (fols. 3a–5b, przechowywanym w Oddziale Rękopisów Biblioteki Akademii Nauk w Sankt Petersburgu – skomponowana najprawdopodobniej w środowisku staroobrzędowców (rękopis ten jest tu publikowany po raz pierwszy. Następnie przeprowadzona została analiza odpowiedników folklorystycznych apokryficznej Legendy o Morzu Tyberiadzkim, ze szczegól­nym uwzględnieniem narracji ustnych funkcjonujących w bułgarskiej diasporze w Besarabii (Bóg i Diabeł tworzą świat w przyjaźni ale potem stają się wrogami. Na końcu został poddany interpretacji poemat z XX wieku autorstwa bułgarskiego modernisty Penczo Sławejkowa [Пенчо Славейков] z antologii Na wyspie błogosławionych [На острова на блажените]; poemat ten, zatytułowany Jak Bóg zezwolił, aby powstała ziemia i co potem uczynił Satanael?, został nazwany przez samego autora „legendą Bogomiłów”, i skompilowany w jego tekstach z dualistycznymi motywami występującymi w chrześcijaństwie tego regionu, a rozpoznawa­nymi jako haeresis bulgarica.

  12. : Instrumental borders of gender and religious conversions in the Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Doja, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Traduit par Smoki Musaraj de l'original en anglais, Publié in: *Religion, State & Society*, vol. 36 (1), 2008, pp. 55-63, doi:10.1080/09637490701809738 (http://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00425476/fr/); International audience; In this paper I explore the ways and extents to which religious identifications and affiliations become instrumental political resources for ascertaining hierarchical relations among social groups and individuals, with extensive use of gendered metaphors referrin...

  13. Corporate governance in Balkan financial institution, case of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezart Dibra

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance has at its backbone a set of transparent relationships between an institution’s management, its board, shareholders and other stakeholders. In this article, in the first part, the nature and purpose of corporate governance has been discussed with special emphasis on the problems of banks in the field of corporate governance. Corporate governance involves regulatory and market mechanisms, and the roles and relationships between a company’s management, its board, its shareholders and other stakeholders, and the goals for which the corporation is governed. Lately, corporate governance has been comprehensively defined as "a system of law and sound approaches by which corporations are directed and controlled focusing on the internal and external corporate structures with the intention of monitoring the actions of management and directors and thereby mitigating agency risks which may stem from the misdeeds of corporate officers. The financial crisis exposed flaws throughout financial markets and prompted much investigation into the way banks work. The ‘2008 crisis in the financial industry, among other causes, brought to light the conflict of interest between achieving aggressive results by the executives in order to obtain bonuses and the long-term risk associated with the commercial company in its business. This paper focuses on one line of investigation—the corporate governance of banks. It examines why governance of banks differs from governance of nonfinancial firms and where the governance of banks failed during the crisis; it also offers recommendations for improving the governance system. Bank governance has been the topic of much recent academic work and policy discussion (Senior Supervisors Group 2008, 2009; Walker Report 2009; Committee of European Banking Supervisors 2010. Because of their contemporaneous nature, there has been little connection between the academic approach and policy analysis. The purpose of this paper is to make such connections and ground the policy debate on scientific evidence. The Corporate Governance in banks is one of the most important discussions overall the world, being reinforced especially after the crises period. It is related with the sensitive situation and the stage of developments of the local economy and moreover with the impact of the crises that is still ongoing. As an answer, during late 2008 and beginning 2009, it has been noticed a fast reaction and total focus from all banks on building (if missing and improving their structures of Corporate Governance. The liquidity problems suddenly affecting the banking sector constrained Banks to enlarge their activities / operations and forced them in better evaluating their investments. The importance of a strong financial sector in impacting the country’s economy growth through both level of banking development and stock market liquidity (Levine and Sara Zervos 1996, 1998 is quite evident even in the developing countries. Moreover, Peter Rousseau and Watchel (2000 findings’ confirm the positive impact of the stock market activity and the banking development. For this reason the governments in the developing countries are insisting in increasing credits of banks towards the private firms. The banking system in Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia and Albania has certain similarities in terms of development stage, related with the economic growth rate as well. The banking system, there is operating for more than 100 years instead of 15-20 years of development in the remaining countries.

  14. Violence in transition: Reforms and rights in the Western Balkans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kurian (Rachel); E. Charkiewicz (Ewa)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe 1990s saw the breakdown of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia which, since World War II, had developed a distinct economic system that included specific market and socialist self-management principles in production, distribution and decision-making processes. At the

  15. Thicker than Water? Kin, Religion, and Conflict in the Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Christianity; their flow divides the three hells--Gehenna, Hades, and the icy hell of the Mohammedans--beneath the one-time Khazar lands. And there, at the...the next. NOTES 1. Milorad Pavic, The Dictionary of the Khazars : A Lexicon Novel in 100,000 Words (Male Edition), trans. from the Serbo-Croatian

  16. Globalization and the Balkanization of States: The Myth of American Exceptionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Gerald R.; Kidd, Timothy

    2002-01-01

    The world has experienced a dramatic increase in the number of new states in the past couple of decades. Many of these new countries are the result of ethnic nationalist movements dividing an existing state. Is the United States susceptible to the forces of division which we more commonly associate with the rest of the world? Or is the United…

  17. The Balkanization of Nigeria's Federal System: A Case Study in the Political Geography of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, John R.

    1977-01-01

    By means of a case study of Nigeria, this paper examines the issue of national unity and identity in the face of tribally based regionalism, diversity, and suspicion. Maps and tables accompany the article. (Author/AV)

  18. Balkanization, Bilingualism, and Comparisons of Language Situations at Home and Abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, John E.

    1997-01-01

    English-only proponents cite linguistic divisions in Canada and Belgium as reason to avoid bilingualism. Data on language shift, language demographics, and language prestige indicate that the situations in these two countries are not comparable to the United States. A better lesson to draw from these two countries' experiences is that coercive…

  19. Balkanizing the primate orbitofrontal cortex: Distinct subregions for comparing and contrasting values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudebeck, Peter H.; Murray, Elisabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    The primate orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is often treated as a single entity, but architectonic and connectional neuroanatomy indicates that it has distinguishable parts. Nevertheless, few studies have attempted to dissociate the functions of its subregions. Here we review findings from recent neuropsychological and neurophysiological studies that do so. The lateral OFC seems to be important for learning, representing and updating specific object–reward associations. Medial OFC seems to be important for value comparisons and choosing among objects on that basis. Rather than viewing this dissociation of function in terms of learning versus choosing, however, we suggest that it reflects the distinction between contrasts and comparisons: differences versus similarities. Making use of high-dimensional representations that arise from the convergence of several sensory modalities, the lateral OFC encodes contrasts among outcomes. The medial MFC reduces these contrasting representations of value to a single dimension, a common currency, in order to compare alternative choices. PMID:22145870

  20. The Balkanization of Special Education: Proliferation of Categories for "New" Behavioral Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forness, Steven R.; Kavale, Kenneth A.

    1994-01-01

    This article addresses the advantages, disadvantages, and possible solutions to increased administrative problems posed by five proposed new categories of behavioral disorders: (1) attention deficit disorder, (2) traumatic brain injury, (3) fetal alcohol syndrome, (4) prenatal substance abuse, and (5) fragile X syndrome. (DB)

  1. The Balkanization of the High School Reading Specialist: Searching for an Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    There is a lack of research on how Wisconsin's high schools are addressing the literacy needs of their students. State Statute 118.015 requires a district reading specialist, but there has been very little research done on compliance; therefore, the first phase of the study was to collect and analyze both demographic and descriptive data via a…

  2. Return of the Balkans: Challenges to European Integration and U.S. Disengagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The establishment of a Bosniak Academy of Arts and Sciences (BANU) by the heads of Muslim commu- nities in Bosnia and Serbia, with dual headquarters in...Croat Academy of Arts and Sci- ences in Mostar in western Herzegovina. Bosnian Serbs founded their own Academy of Arts and Sci- ences of the...grievances are the lack of funding for cultural activi- ties; the absence of national institutions to develop folklore and ethnography ; and no national

  3. Contemporarity of history: Ottoman cultural heritage and its Bulgarian perception (from the Balkan perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordanka Bibina

    2015-08-01

    W związku z tym narracje na temat czynów bohaterów narodowych, którzy poświęcili życie za wyzwolenie, stawały się podłożem narodowej dumy. Ta tendencja utrzymywała się również po drugiej wojnie światowej. Dopiero w latach siedemdziesiątych XX wieku, wraz z rozwojem osmanistyki jako dyscypliny naukowej i wykształceniem profesjonalnych badaczy sięgających do ogromnych zasobów archiwów osmańskich, zaczęto podważać stereotypy na temat przeszłości, do tego stopnia, że w latach dziewięćdziesiątych XX wieku doszło wręcz do odrzucenia terminu „niewola turecka”. W początkach XXI wieku napięcie między tak zwaną „historiografią tradycyjną”, uprawianą przez „stare” pokolenia historyków, a postmodernistycznym podejściem „młodych” historyków nowatorów stało się podłożem niejawnego sporu na temat obecnej sytuacji i dalszych perspektyw nauk historycznych.

  4. Early results of studies on the levels of depleted uranium excreted by Balkan residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, N.D.; Thirlwell, M.

    2002-01-01

    Urine samples collected from residents of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo were analysed to determine their natural and depleted uranium content using MC-ICP-MS. All may have been exposed to depleted uranium released as a consequence of the deployment of armour-piercing rounds by the US Air Force. A 236 U tracer was employed to determine chemical recovery. Early results suggest that the levels of natural and depleted uranium excretion by the subjects, which ranged in age from 1 to 71 years, ranged from 2.8 - 58.2 ng d -1 and 1.3 - 46.3 ng d -1 , respectively. The results suggest accumulated body burdens of depleted uranium ranging from close to zero to 46 μg. All the body burdens predicted are lower than published values for the uranium content of the body (90μg) and health effects are not predicted. Further studies are underway to check the provenance of the results. (author)

  5. Russian emigration in the Balkans: The problem of understanding and cultural interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antanasievič Irina N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of understanding and cultural interaction on the -example of the Russian emigration, which happened after the revolution in Yugoslavia will be considered in the analysis of behavioral models and analysis of everyday culture, in forms that are fixed on the pages of Russian satirical magazine.

  6. PCR verification of microplate phenotypic system identification for LAB from traditional Western Balkan raw milk cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Paveljšek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation and ripening specificity of traditional cheeses are predominantly directed by the natural microbial community present in milk selected by the cheese-making environment and technology. Therefore the traditional cheeses are unique products with specific microbiota biodiversity. There are several approaches for the identification of microbial population, however all of them have certain advantages and disadvantages. In this study the eligibility and performance of the Biolog phenotypic identification system (Biolog, Inc. with GEN III microplates was tested. Parallel to this method, polymerase chain reaction with genus- and species-specific primers was performed. One hundred sixty-five isolates from nine types of artisan cheeses were isolated and analysed. Cheeses were produced from raw ewe’s milk in Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia. The Biolog phenotypic identification system identified 90 isolates, but only 55 identifications acquired by the Biolog system were supported by polymerase chain reaction at a genus level and 28 at a species level. The obtained results showed that the reliability of commercial phenotypic identification systems was inadequate when analysing lactic acid bacteria isolates from natural, spontaneous fermentations and needs to be additionally corroborated by genotypic identification methods.

  7. Patterns of fine-scale plant species richness in dry grasslands across the eastern Balkan Peninsula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palpurina, S.; Chytrý, M.; Tzonev, R.; Danihelka, Jiří; Axmanová, I.; Merunková, K.; Duchoň, M.; Karakiev, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 63, February (2015), s. 36-46 ISSN 1146-609X R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : alpha diversity * soil chemistry * steppe Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.420, year: 2015

  8. Addressing the military gap in the western Balkans and closing the gap through regional cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    Membership Action Plan, Security Environment, European Union, NATO, Joint Enabling Capabilities 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT...Explosive Ordinance Device EU European Union GDP Gross Domestic Product MAP Membership Action Plan NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization...collective defense. The research also addresses the potential capabilities of the A-5 countries, which can be used as a complementary capability for

  9. Climate Change and Poor Water Resource Management Will Have Serious Security Implications in the Balkan Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    floods had the same huge effect in Greece and Turkey. Even, where there were existing systems and agreements for early warning and prevention of...change has already started. The extreme weather events occurring in the region ( floods , droughts , heat waves, intense storms), are increasing...

  10. Europe’s Role in Nation-Building: From the Balkans to the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    especially in the Albanian community, whose jobless youth filled the ranks of the rebel army. The crisis precipitated a recession and threatened to derail...of the return to growth, the basic economic situation remained problematic. The main challenge was continuing high unemployment . Joblessness had...179 Australia as the Lead Nation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 Contents ix

  11. Morphological variability of the Hermann's tortoise (Testudo hermanni in the Central Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Ljubisavljević

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Variation in a number of morphological characters were analysed in five populations of Testudo hermanni from Serbia and Montenegro. Tortoises from Serbia appeared significantly larger than those from Montenegro. An insular population of Montenegro was distinct due to its extremely small body size and mass and dark plastral pigmentation. Although the majority of tortoises had the supracaudal scute divided, many tortoises had the scute undivided. Effects of possible genetic divergence and/or adaptation to different environmental conditions on observed morphological variation were discussed.

  12. From ideological construction to war and thereafter : a socio-anthropological account of the Balkan wars

    OpenAIRE

    Abazi, Enika; Doja, Albert

    2017-01-01

    The paper introduces the socio-anthropological concept of international representations to examine the relationship between a civilizational rhetoric, the West European and the international politics of otherization and containment of Southeast Europe, and an essentialist and timeless bias in international relations theory, including both radical and constructivist trends...

  13. Marine gateway vs. fluvial stream within the Balkans from 6 to 5Ma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suc, Jean Pierre; Popescu, Speranta Maria; Do Couto, Damien; Clauzon, Georges; Rubino, Jean Loup; Melinte-Dobrinescu, Mihaela Carmen; Quillévéré, Frédéric; Brun, Jean Pierre; Dumurdžanov, Nikola; Zagorchev, Ivan; Lesić, Vesna; Tomić, Dragana; Sokoutis, Dimitrios; Meyer, Bertrand; Macaleţ, Rodica; Rifelj, Helena

    Since the discovery of calcareous nannofossils, dinoflagellate cysts and planktonic foraminifers in deposits from the Dacic Basin, intensive research has been performed in order to evidence which gateway this microplankton used to connect Paratethys and the Mediterranean prior and after the

  14. Mental disorders following war in the Balkans: a study in 5 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, S.; Bogic, M.; Ajdukovic, D.; Franciskovic, T.; Galeazzi, G.M.; Kucukalic, A.; Lecic-Tosevski, D.; Morina, N.; Popovski, M.; Wang, D.; Schützwohl, M.

    2010-01-01

    Context: War experience may affect mental health. However, no community-based study has assessed mental disorders several years after war using consistent random sampling of war-affected people across several Western countries. Objectives: To assess current prevalence rates of mental disorders in an

  15. The ways of suffering in the Balkans: Patior and πάσχω intertwined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlajić-Popović Jasna

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a re-examination of the hitherto supposed Latin ancestry of Rum. păţi, Arum. pat, Alb. pësoj, Bulg., Bя, Mac. пaти, S.-Cr.. _.-C all meaning "to suffer, endure, etc." and argues in favour of Greek πάσχω i.e. παθαίνω as the more probable common ultimate prototype, rather than VLat. *patire < Lat. patior.

  16. Source apportionment of atmospheric PAHs in the Western Balkans by natural abundance radiocarbon analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zdenek Zencak; Jana Klanova; Ivan Holoubek; Oerjan Gustafsson [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden). Department of Applied Environmental Science

    2007-06-01

    Progress in source apportionment of priority combustion-derived atmospheric pollutants can be made by an inverse approach to inventory emissions, namely, receptor-based compound class-specific radiocarbon analysis (CCSRA) of target pollutants. In the present study, CCSRA of the combustion-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in the atmosphere of the countries of the former republic of Yugoslavia was performed. The carbon stable isotope composition ({delta}{sup 13}C) of PAHs varied between -27.68 and -27.19{per_thousand}, whereas {Delta}{sup 14}C values ranged from -568{per_thousand} for PAHs sampled in Kosovo to -288{per_thousand} for PAHs sampled in the Sarajevo area. The application of an isotopic mass balance model to these {Delta}{sup 14}C data revealed a significant contribution (35-65%) from the combustion of non-fossil material to the atmospheric PAH pollution, even in urban and industrialized areas. Furthermore, consistency was observed between the isotopic composition of PAHs obtained by high-volume sampling and those collected by passive sampling. This encourages the use of passive samplers for CCSRA applications. This marks the first time that a CCSRA investigation could be executed on a geographically wide scale, providing a quantitative field-based source apportionment, which points out that also non-fossil combustion processes should be targeted for remedial action. 36 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  17. The Last Glacial cycle in SW Balkans: an interdisciplinary study at Lake Prespa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotopoulos, K.; Boehm, A.; Schaebitz, F.; Wagner, B.

    2012-12-01

    The transboundary Lake Prespa (AL/FYROM/GR) has been recognized as a conservation priority wetland. The catchment area has a remarkably diverse flora that points to its refugial properties. Lake sediments retrieved from a distal core location were investigated using sedimentological, geochemical, physical, palynological and stable isotope analyses. Based on tephrochronology, radiocarbon and ESR dating, the age model suggests that the basal part of core Co1215 reaches back to 92 ka cal BP. Here we present the response of this mid-altitude site (849 m a.s.l.) to climate oscillations during this interval and assess its sensitivity to millennial-scale variability. Periods of pronounced phytoplankton blooms (inferred from green algae and dinoflagellate concentrations) suggest that the trophic state and lake levels underwent substantial fluctuations. Calcite precipitation occurred in MIS 5 and MIS 1 and was synchronous to periods of increased primary production (terrestrial and/or lacustrine), while siderite peaks were confined to the glacial. Forest dynamics, cover and density are discussed in an altitudinal context and the existence of temperate tree refugia is examined. This project is part of the Collaborative Research Center 806: "Our way to Europe; Culture-Environment Interaction and Human Mobility in the Late Quaternary".

  18. Phytoplankton community and chlorophyll a as trophic state indices of Lake Skadar (Montenegro, Balkan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakocevic-Nedovic, Jelena; Hollert, Henner

    2005-01-01

    Phytoplankton, as a first step in trophic cascades of lakes, can be a good indicator of trophic states, considering that every environmental change affects this community and many species of this community are sensitive to changes, and that they response very quickly. In this study, we tried to assess and predict the trophic state of Lake Skadar according to phytoplankton data. Water samples were collected using Ruttner sampling bottle. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, ph, conductivity and transparence were measured in situ using portable equipment. Nutrients and chlorophyll a were measured using standard spectrophotometric methods. A determination of phytoplankton species was performed using relevant keys and the counting of cells was performed using sedimentation methods. The species composition of Lake Skadar revealed 95 taxa, with Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae being represented best. According to an average chlorophyll a concentration of 5.9 pg/l, Lake Skadar belongs to the mesotrophic level of the trophic scale. Developed prediction equation for chlorophyll a revealed a good prediction (R2 = 0.71) and the parameter Secchi depth was primarily correlated with chlorophyll a concentration. Trophic state indices derived from chlorophyll a and transparency, were close together, but both were below the phosphorous index. Values of trophic state indices rank the Lake Skadar as being mesotrophic. This study also showed that indices of diversity based on phytoplankton are weak indicators of trophic status and that they can well characterize only differences between assemblages and associations. According to calculated saprobic indices (ranging from 1.5 to 2.15), Lake Skadar is on betamesosaprobic level of saprobity, which means that it is moderately polluted with organic compounds. Total phosphorus is not the main limiting factor for the phytoplankton community in Lake Skadar. Disagreements between chlorophyll and the transparency index, on the one hand, and the total phosphorus index, on the other, suggest that the phytoplankton in Lake Skadar is probably limited by other factors than phosphorus, such as nitrogen, toxic substances or intense zooplankton grazing. According to the majority of investigated parameters and indices derived from phytoplankton data, Lake Skadar is mesotrophic, with tendencies toward eutrophic levels during the summer period. Long-term monitoring is required for a better estimation of state and the conditions of Lake Skadar. Further studies on factors influencing the phytoplankton community, especially zooplankton grazing and toxic substances, which were not included in this study, should be continued in the future to improve the efficiency of phytoplankton usage in estimating the ecological and trophic conditions of Lake Skadar.

  19. The status of Albanian in relation to the other Balkan languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardh Rugova

    2015-09-01

    Język albański pozostaje w stałym kontakcie z innymi językami niemal na całym swoim terytorium. Natomiast relacje międzyjęzykowe są różne w zależności od konkretnego miejsca. W tym artykule omówiono status języka albańskiego, w poszczególnych lokacjach jego użycia oraz jego relacje z innymi miejscowymi językami.

  20. Ethnic Conflict in Central Europe and the Balkans: A Framework and U.S. Policy Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    transforming the heterogeneous French, Celtic , Germanic, Flemish, Basque, Spanish, and Italian-speaking people inhabiting France at the end of the...34inalienable" lands of an ethnic group; for example, Kosovo has special nationalist mythologi - cal associations for Serbs, while Transylvania holds

  1. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic origin of brown trout Salmo trutta populations in eastern Balkans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohout, Jan; Šedivá, Alena; Apostolou, A.; Stefanov, T.; Marić, S.; Gaffaroglu, M.; Šlechta, Vlastimil

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 6 (2013), s. 1229-1237 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS500450513 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Danube * microsatellites * mitochondrial DNA Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.696, year: 2013

  2. The root infinitive stage in a null subject language: Romance in the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Avram

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to determine which early non-finite verbal form is the Root Infinitive analogue in Romanian, an Inflection-licensed null subject language. In particular, we investigate whether the RI-analogue is the imperative, as predicted by Salustri and Hyams’s (2003 hypothesis, or whether it is a language specific underspecified form, overused during the early stages of acquisition, as predicted by Wexler et al. (2004.

  3. Aspects of solid state 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy in coals from the Balkan peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREAS GEORGAKOPOULOS

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The cross-polarized magic-angle-spinning NMR (CPMAS-NMR technique was used in this work to assess the carbon distribution in coals of different rank (peat, lignite, xylite, sub-bituminous coal from important deposits in Greece and Bulgaria. The technique is assumed to be only semiquantitative, due to a number of interferences, such as spinning side bands (SSB in the spectra, paramagnetic species in the samples, and low or remote protonation of aromatic carbons. The Bulgarian sub-bituminous coal shows the greatest amounts of aromatic structures. The lignite sample from the Drama basin, Northern Greece, is relatively unaltered and largely unweathered, and shows the greatest amounts of aliphatic groups. The 13C-NMR spectra of Pliocene lignites from endemic areas in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia, taken from published papers, show significantly more intense resonances for methoxyl, phenolic, and polysaccharide moieties compared to the Drama lignite NMR spectrum. Xylite reveals high contents of carbohydrates.

  4. The Ideological Aspects of Contemporary Cyrillic Alphabet Transliteration Practices in the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giustina Selvelli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article illustrates the new rules on the transliteration of the Cyrillic alphabet adopted in Bulgaria, Serbia and the Republic of Macedonia over the last few years. It also considers the possible political and identity reasons underlying changes to such practices. To this aim, I contextualize the question within various ongoing debates in the respective countries, with reference to the ideologies that have emerged in the most recent post-socialist period.

  5. Revision of Boletus section Appendiculati (Boletaceae) in Bulgaria with a key to the Balkan species

    OpenAIRE

    ASSYOV, Boris

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the results from the taxonomic revision of Boletus section Appendiculati in Bulgaria. Descriptions are provided based on Bulgarian specimens for the 5 species of the section: Boletus appendiculatus, B. fechtneri, B. fuscoroseus, B. regius, and B. subappendiculatus. The priority of the name B. fuscoroseus against B. pseudoregius is briefly discussed. A dichotomous key for the determination of members is also included.

  6. Open Competition or Balkanized Coexistence? the Effects of Market Segments on Toronto Private Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro Milian, Roger; Davies, Scott

    2017-01-01

    For over 25 years, school choice advocates have argued that market competition drives educational organizations to become more differentiated and technically-oriented. However, empirical research has only partially supported this view, observing such outcomes only under certain conditions. To better understand the contingent nature of market…

  7. The Balkan wet grassland vegetation: a prerequisite to better understanding of European habitat diversity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Michal; Hájková, Petra; Sopotlieva, D.; Apostolova, I.; Velev, N.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 195, č. 2 (2008), s. 197-213 ISSN 1385-0237 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB6163302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : climate * vegetation * grasslands Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2008

  8. The Dilaridae of the Balkan Peninsula and of Anatolia (Insecta, Neuropterida, Neuroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Aspöck

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Basing upon all available information on type material of Dilar turcicus Hagen, 1858, Dilar syriacus Navás, 1909, and Dilar lineolatus Navás, 1909, together with a large number of dilarid specimens, the pleasing lacewings of Anatolia and Southeast Europe are revised. The current taxonomic concept of D. turcicus is confirmed, and a lectotype is designated. Dilar turcicus is widely distributed in the southeast of Europe (being the only representative of Dilaridae in this region, in Anatolia, and, most probably, in the Caucasus region. Dilar syriacus and D. lineolatus remain nomina dubia. Dilar syriacus might occur in Anatolia, while D. lineolatus is a species occurring in western Central Asia. Two new species, Dilar anatolicus sp. n. and Dilar fuscus sp. n. are described from Anatolia. Wings and genital segments of the three species occurring in Anatolia are illustrated, and a map documenting the known distribution of these species is provided.

  9. Ottoman Pacification of the Balkans, 1450-1650 C.E

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-12

    always welcome correction of my pronunciation of various Turkish words and phrases. Many thanks also go to my committee, Dr. Beckenbaugh, Mr. Turgeon...and Mr. Leakey, whose efforts corrected many grammatical errors and who were always willing to provide helpful criticism. Especially appreciated is...Route to State Centralization, 124. 30 W. Miller, "Europe and the Ottoman Power before the Nineteenth Century." The English Historical Review 16, no

  10. Groundhog Day: Expectation Management by Examining Warfare in the Early Twentieth Century Balkans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Athey, John R

    2007-01-01

    .... History leading up to the Twentieth century contained numerous conflicts between nations on the peninsula and the first 50 years of the Twentieth century contained four additional major conflicts...

  11. Published records of limno-terrestrial tardigrades (Tardigrada: Heterotardigrada, Eutardigrada from Vrachanski Balkan Nature Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DILIAN GEORGIEV

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The following 6 species were reported for the area by Iharos (1961: Echiniscus testudo, Ramazzottius oberhaeuseri, Hypsibius convergens, Macrobiotus hufelandi, Minibiotus intermedius, Paramacrobiotus richtersi. Specimens from the Macrobiotus hufelandi species group were recorded and during present study from one locality.

  12. Water bulls of Balkan and other world’s traditions: Origins of conception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trubarac-Matić Đorđina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The efforts to determine the origin of beliefs in the aquatic daimon called water bull (which are ethnographically attested in Serbia, Macedonia and Bulgaria, and for which there have not been found parallels in other Slavic traditions, led the scholarship to see it as a recidive from the Greco-Roman period. The two major hypotheses tried to link the stories about killing of the water bull with: 1 the Athenian bouphonia; 2 the mithraic scene of tauroctony. The paper discusses these hypotheses and their weaknesses, and proposes a new approach: shifting attention towards other worlds’ traditions in which the water bulls are attested - those of Yakuts, Mongols, Celts, Mapuche, Khoekhoe and San - with the aim to establish the level, and determine the type of the possible similarities between them. The results of the comparative analysis show a very high degree of overlapping of ideas - those that probably were parts of a pristine concept of a water bull. They concern: the appearance, habitat, characteristics, behavior, as well as a number of phenomena associated with water bulls (predictions, thunder, lightning, storm, medicine. This leads the author to conclude that the conception of the water bull is very archaic and probably originating from a same, although uncertain source, which cannot be explained by intercultural contacts. The beliefs and the religious and magical practice of the Khoisan show that water bulls operate functionally - with the fullness of their religious potential - in animistic type of religious traditions (where the origin of the concept should be looked for. This indicates that these animistic ideas might lie at the root of the bull-like features of the storm gods from the posterior polytheistic religions. Further investigation in this direction is proposed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47016: Interdisciplinarno istraživanje kulturnog i jezičkog nasleđa Srbije. Izrada multimedijalnog portala ‘Pojmovnik srpske kulture’

  13. Soviet Policy in the Post-Tito Balkans. Volume 4. Studies in Communist Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Yale University Press. 1964) for more detailed analysis of the origins. functions. and mechanics of COMECON. 25 13. Jan F. Triska and David D. Finley...p. 205. 21. CDSP, XIV. No. 35 (September 26, 1962). pp. 7 and 4. 22. David Floyd, Rumania: Russia’s Dissident Ally (New York: Frederick A. Praeger...Slights for Rift," NYT, July 31, 1978, pp. Al and A2. 41. Ibid. 42. "Albania Charges China With Using Blackmail," p. A3. 43. Franklyn D. Holzman

  14. Essential oil composition of Salvia fruticosa Mill. populations from Balkan Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Cvetkovikj

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the yield and chemical composition of the essential oil (EO isolated from 19 different populations of Salvia fruticosa Mill. (Greek sage, Lamiaceae from nine different regions of Albania and Greece. The EO yield ranged from 0.25% to 4.00%. Eighteen of the total analyzed populations met the Ph.Eur.8.0 minimal requirements concerning the essential oil yield. Performing GC/FID/MS analyses, a total of 75 components were detected, representing 79.15-97.83% of the oils. Thirteen components (α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, myrcene, 1,8-cineole, γ-terpinene, cis-thujone, trans-thujone, camphor, terpinene-4-ol, trans-(E-caryophyllene, aromadendrene and α-humulene were identified in all samples, with 1,8-cineole as a predominant constituent. Statistical analysis showed that the geographical origin of plants did not have significant influence on the variation in chemical composition of the Greek sage essential oil.

  15. The National Guard State Partnership Program and Regional Security in the Western Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    real estates as well as mines , factories, and other key infrastructure such as gas stations. This phenomenon is present in other countries of the...Southern European Task Force, concurs that the SPP really works. During a visit to Botswana , he said that while his active-duty soldiers were given a

  16. Preventing Balkan Conflict: The Role of Euroatlantic Institutions. Strategic Forum, Number 226, April 2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simon, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    ...) and the European Union (EU) in 2007. Bosnia-Herzegovina still requires the presence of NATO and EU police and peacekeepers and, along with newly independent Montenegro, needs help in building basic institutions...

  17. Balkanizing the primate orbitofrontal cortex: distinct subregions for comparing and contrasting values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudebeck, Peter H; Murray, Elisabeth A

    2011-12-01

    The primate orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is often treated as a single entity, but architectonic and connectional neuroanatomy indicate that it has distinguishable parts. Nevertheless, few studies have attempted to dissociate the functions of its subregions. Here we review findings from recent neuropsychological and neurophysiological studies that do so. The lateral OFC seems to be important for learning, representing, and updating specific object-reward associations. The medial OFC seems to be important for value comparisons and choosing among objects on that basis. Rather than viewing this dissociation of function in terms of learning versus choosing, however, we suggest that it reflects the distinction between contrasts and comparisons: differences versus similarities. Making use of high-dimensional representations that arise from the convergence of several sensory modalities, the lateral OFC encodes contrasts among outcomes. The medial OFC reduces these contrasting representations of value to a single dimension, a common currency, in order to compare alternative choices. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. The Parliamentary Legislative Process in the Accession Countries of the Western Balkans / Zsolt Szabó

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Szabó, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    Õigusaktide menetlemisest ja vastuvõtmisest Balkani riikide parlamentides. Ka põhiandmed nende riikide parlamentide kohta (parlamendi ingliskeelne ja omakeelne nimetus, liikmete ja komiteede arv jne)

  19. Environmental fate of depleted uranium at three sites contaminated during the balkan conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radenkovic, M.; Joksic, J.; Todorovic, D.; Kovacevic, M.

    2006-01-01

    A study on depleted uranium fate in the sites contaminated during the 1999 war conflict in Serbia was conducted in phases until the clean up activities were completed. The ammunition remains found at the locations in the surface soil were collected in the first phase during the radiation survey of the affected areas. The most of depleted uranium penetrators left buried deep into the ground exposed to the weathering and corrosion processes. The contamination level in the air, water, soil and bio -indicators was controlled all the time by routine gamma and alpha spectrometry measurements. Depleted uranium migration was studied through the soil profile surrounding the penetrator during the 2001 at the Bratoselce location showing the contamination level fall to the 1% of its value at approximately 15 cm distance to the source. The samples taken from the soil layers at different distances in the profile are subjected to a modified Tessiers five-step sequential extraction procedure. The uranium and heavy metals contents were determined in the obtained fractions. Results have specified carbonates and iron hydrous-oxides as the most probable substrates for uranium physical/chemical associations formed in the soil for the time elapsed. A very strong dependence of substrate onto contamination level was found. The correlation of uranium and other heavy metals was obtained. The 234 U/ 238 U and 235 U/ 238 U ratios are determined in extracts by alpha spectrometry after appropriate radiochemical separation procedure and thin alpha sources electroplating. The analysis has shown the share of depleted in total uranium content in exchangeable, carbonate, hydrous or crystalline iron/manganese, organic and residue phases indicating the bioavailability of depleted uranium present in the soil. The results are discussed related to detailed geochemical analysis of the particular soil type common for this region. Depleted uranium content in soil samples taken at the locations after the cleanup steps has shown up to double background level. (authors)

  20. Does hypocrisy matter? National reputational damage and British anti-corruption mentoring in the Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Xenakis, Sappho; Ivanov, K.

    2017-01-01

    In the late 2000s, numerous prominent public commentators raised concerns that corruption scandals were harming Britain’s ability to play a leadership role in anti-corruption initiatives abroad. With a view to contributing to critical criminological scholarship on international policy transfer and double standards in criminal justice policy and practice, this article explores the extent to which reputational damage curtailed Britain’s appeal as an anti-corruption mentor in South-East Europe d...

  1. REGARDING THE CULTURE OF MULTI-ETHNICITY AND COHABITATION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Akova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The media, an inseparable part of daily life, influences the thoughts, behaviour and attitudes of millions of people through the transmission of cultural images such as music, themes and visuals, has succeeded in reaching the masses with an attractive form of presentation and in a sense, has incorporates - almost immediately in the world of today - universal truths and developments into the lives of individuals with pictures and sounds, reporting on events and people, allowing individuals to internalise the images presented and has become a point of reference in social life. Together with the development of modern technology, media of mass communication and in extension, media channels, have transcended national and cultural boundaries to reach the masses. Developing in the second half of the 20th century, the television, as one of the most effective mass communication media of the modern age, has combined sound and images to create a technical medium where culture is produced, transmitted, circulated and consumed and subsequently recycled to reach the target audiences, while in terms of the transmission of messages, the television has become the flagship of the media economy in comparison with other mass communication media and channels. As the influences of globalisation have been felt upon the creative processes of film and serial instruments and in the adoption and dissemination of strategic objectives, global cultural transmission is more varied, wider in scope and with more intense content than ever before. Furthermore, as a result of the constant development, regeneration and transformation of communication technology, we can postulate that television serial and film scenarios are a new form of marketing communication, as they are deeply intertwined with daily life and culture in the modern world. However, mass communication media gather groups of people with a common language and interest, causing groups to become communities. The role of mass communication media in forming communities with common characteristics and interests has developed in parallel with the development of mass communication media. These communication media have negated geographical boundaries, forming common ground for social relationships, while the importance of communication media has increased as the media reaches more isolated communities, constantly increasing the size of the masses. The experience of the world as cultural cosmopolitanism and the globalisation of the media through the simulation of metaphorical images in relation to the globalisation of communication has led to the internalisation of feelings of globalisation by individuals under the influence of the media, forming the basis for a social and industrial discourse.

  2. High variability of indoor radon concentrations in uraniferous bedrock areas in the Balkan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žunić, Z S; Ujić, P; Nađđerđ, L; Yarmoshenko, I V; Radanović, S B; Komatina Petrović, S; Čeliković, I; Komatina, M; Bossew, P

    2014-12-01

    In this work the strong influence of geological factors on the variability of indoor radon is found in two of three geologically very different regions of South-Eastern Europe. A method to estimate the annual mean concentration when one seasonal measurement is missing is proposed. Large differences of radon concentrations in different rooms of the same house and significant difference in radon concentrations in one season comparing it to the others are noted in certain cases. Geological factors that can lead to such behavior are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. CONSTANŢA TOWN, DOBRUDJA AND THE ROMANIAN STRATEGIC PLANS DURING THE SECOND BALKAN WARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BULACU Iulia-Cristina

    2014-09-01

    behaviour of the neighbours from the south towards the Romanians during the time they were in charge of Dobrudja in the later world war and the Romanians from Constanta received the punishment to the full.

  4. The Supermarket Revolution in the Balkan Countries: The Case of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Lovre, Koviljko; Brankov, Tatjana Papic

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we have analyzed the modern grocery retail trends in Serbia in the transition process as well as its influence on the end consumer. Our research has shown that the retail market in Serbia is still immature, as it is of low concentration; it has poor format structure and under-represented private label market share. The supermarket revolution has so far not brought any benefits to the consumers in the sense of lowering food prices. Compared to the base year (2004-2006=100), in t...

  5. The National Liberation Struggle of the Balkan Peoples and the Crimean War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Belova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the stages of the national liberation struggle of the peoples of South- Eastern Europe against the Ottoman Empire. The Russian Empire supported the Christian population and helped the southern Slavs and the Greeks to get free from the Ottoman dependency. But Emperor Nicholas I opposed the revolution. The 1850s were marked by the strained political and economic relations between Russia, Turkey, Britain, France and other European States. The Bulgarian and the Greek bourgeoisie had moved from enlightment activity to the political one. Bulgarians, Serbs, Moldovans, Greeks joined the volunteers and defended national interests with the weapon in hands. During the Crimean war the Russian command created military units on the territory of the Danubian principalities. Volunteers fought on the Danube, in Moldavia and Wallachia, and the Crimea. They protected the borders, defended the bastions of Sevastopol. The subject of the research is the organization of volunteer groups, national and social composition of the groups. The role of volunteers was of an exclusive political significance. The number of volunteers in the ranks of Russian troops was insignificant. But the volunteers were guides of Russian policy in the Turkish lands. They represented the fighting core.

  6. A Comparison of Stereotypes of German and Turkish Students towards Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ültanir, Gürcan; Ültanir, Emel; Irkörücü, Ayse

    2016-01-01

    Effective emotional thoughts like attitudes, stereotyped judgments and preconceptions are dependent on both collective and individual experiences. Experiences like reading an article or watching a movie that is based on a context determined by the curriculum might cause individual or collective discrimination towards different ethnic or cultural…

  7. International Assistance and Media Democratization in the Western Balkans: A Cross-National Comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Irion, K.; Jusić, T.

    2014-01-01

    International media assistance programs accompanied the democratic media transition in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Macedonia and Serbia with varying intensity. In addition, these countries untertook a range of media reforms to conform with accession requirements of the European Union

  8. REGARDING THE CULTURE OF MULTI-ETHNICITY AND COHABITATION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Akova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The media, an inseparable part of daily life, influences the thoughts, behaviour and attitudes of millions of people through the transmission of cultural images such as music, themes and visuals, has succeeded in reaching the masses with an attractive form of presentation and in a sense, has incorporates - almost immediately in the world of today - universal truths and developments into the lives of individuals with pictures and sounds, reporting on events and people, allowing individuals to internalise the images presented and has become a point of reference in social life. Together with the development of modern technology, media of mass communication and in extension, media channels, have transcended national and cultural boundaries to reach the masses.

  9. Corruption in the Balkans: An Examination of the Ties Between Government and Crime in Several Southeast European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    citizens of the region consider corruption to be the third most important problem facing the region, after poverty and unemployment. An astounding 80... poverty in its significance to the public.101 With more than 80 percent of the population interacting with corruption at some point during a given year...Hodak, 26 years of age, had seemingly been shot to death as a message to her father. Astonishingly, police pinned the murder on a lone homeless man

  10. Does Depressive Symptomatology Influence Teenage Patients and Their Mothers’ Experience of Doctor-Patient Relationship in Two Balkan Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaitsa Giannouli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Doctor-patient relationship is considered to be a special relationship and a keystone of medical care. A fundamental factor in this sort of relationship is the communication, which is strictly examined between the two involving parts, without taking into consideration in the case of children and teenagers the possible influence of their parents. The mothers more often accompany their children to the doctor and they become a third part of the doctor-patient relationship. In Greece during February-May 2013, 196 mothers and their teenage children (suffering from acute or chronic illnesses completed two questionnaires: the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D and a series of questions on a Likert scale from the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ about the experienced satisfaction with the characteristics of this communication. In Bulgaria during July-August 2013, 60 mothers and their children completed the same questionnaires. The results revealed an unexpected finding only for the Greek sample - the quality of relationship between doctor and patient (for both Greek mothers and adolescents was negatively associated with their scores on CES-D (i.e. low level of depression together with low satisfaction derived from the relationship with the doctor, while no differences were found between the participants’ groups (mothers, children, acute or chronic disease. This surprising finding of high depression-high satisfaction was not found in the Bulgarian sample and therefore needs further investigation.

  11. Shining a Light on the Western Balkans: Internal Vulnerabilities and Malign Influence from Russia, Terrorism, and Transnational Organized Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    www.economist.com/ blogs /erasmus/ 2016/12/ecclesiastical-diplomacy. 16 Montenegro, Macedonia, Kosovo, and Albania.32 Russia has provided...for International Media Assistance, March 10, 2016, http://www.cima.ned.org/ blog /serbia-and-montenegro/. 34 “Russian overtures: Moscow is regaining...Freedom at Issue, June 20, 2016, https://freedomhouse.org/ blog /terror-southeastern-europe-s-failing-states, accessed September 17, 2016. 61

  12. Isolated Asian steppe element in the Balkans: habitats of Proterebia afra (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) and associated butterfly communities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartoňová, Alena; Kolář, Vojtěch; Marešová, Jana; Šašić, M.; Šlancarová, Jana; Sucháček, P.; Konvička, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2017), s. 559-571 ISSN 1366-638X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-33733S Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 04-168/2013/P; GA JU(CZ) 152/2016/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Proterebia afra * Proterebia phegea * butterfly communities Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.462, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10841-017-9995-x

  13. Welcome to the Largest International Fair of the Balkans: The Borderli-ness of Kara Boaz Fair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Antova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The location of this study is the border area of the North – West Bulgaria at Bulgarian – Serbian border, near the town of Belogradchik. As a result of several times redrawing of nation state borders between Serbia (Yugoslavia and Bulgaria during 20th century the borderland population, named Torlatsi had been separated. The Kada Boaz Fair creates a safe space and time for meeting of the separated families and friends, living at the both sides of the border. Very significant point is that the place of the Kada Boaz Fair is widely exploited of all local and governmental authorities from both sides since 2000 as a place to re-construct economic and social relations. The aim of the paper is to discuss which are the factors influencing the real openness and the making borders pervious. The paper explores the border crossing of Bulgarian and Serbian population, living at both sides of national borders on an everyday level, while trying to explain its notions in different periods of time (Socialist past, Yugo-embargo, EU accession of Bulgaria. The presentation answers the question how people use the political situations and politicians so that they could benefit from certain circumstances on their everyday level of life.

  14. Critical Factors Controlling Pd and Pt Potential in Porphyry Cu–Au Deposits: Evidence from the Balkan Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetrios G. Eliopoulos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Porphyry Cu–Au–Pd±Pt deposits are significant Au resources, but their Pd and Pt potential is still unknown. Elevated Pd, Pt (hundreds of ppb and Au contents are associated with typical stockwork magnetite-bornite-chalcopyrite assemblages, at the central parts of certain porphyry deposits. Unexpected high grade Cu–(Pd+Pt (up to 6 ppm mineralization with high Pd/Pt ratios at the Elatsite porphyry deposit, which is found in a spatial association with the Chelopech epithermal deposit (Bulgaria and the Skouries porphyry deposit, may have formed during late stages of an evolved hydrothermal system. Estimated Pd, Pt and Au potential for porphyry deposits is consistent with literature model calculations demonstrating the capacity of aqueous vapor and brine to scavenge sufficient quantities of Pt and Pd, and could contribute to the global platinum-group element (PGE production. Critical requirements controlling potential of porphyry deposits may be from the metals contained in magma (metasomatized asthenospheric mantle wedge as indicated by significant Cr, Co, Ni and Re contents. The Cr content may be an indicator for the mantle input.

  15. Understanding ‘Chance and Uncertainty’ in Clausewitz’s On War: Reflections on the Balkan Wars (1991-1995)

    OpenAIRE

    FLEMING, Colin M.

    2010-01-01

    In the opening chapter of Carl Von Clausewitz’s On War (1831), he explains to readers that ‘only one more element is needed to make war a gamble 'chance'. No other human activity is so continuously or universally bound up with chance.’ He continues: ‘And through the element chance, guesswork and luck come to play a great part in war’. Yet, how should the reader of On War interpret Clausewitz’s inclusion of chance into his general theory? Why is war so ‘universally’ bound to the pervasive tend...

  16. Understanding Cultural Landmines in the Balkans: How the Land and Its History Have Kept a People at War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Statham, Dawn

    2001-01-01

    .... Old alliances crumbled and new nations emerged so often and so suddenly that for a time it was hard to keep track of the latest developments, and practically a waste of time to redraw old boundary...

  17. A newly discovered population of the Balkan spiny loach Sabanejewia balcanica (Karaman, 1922) in the River Jihlava, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Halačka, Karel; Muška, Milan; Mendel, Jan; Vetešník, Lukáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 3 (2017), s. 163-166 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12580S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : loaches * rare native species * sequence analysis * NATURA 2000 Subject RIV: EG - Zoology; EG - Zoology (BC-A) OBOR OECD: Zoology; Zoology (BC-A) Impact factor: 0.739, year: 2016

  18. Genetic variation and phylogeography of free-living mouse species (genus Mus) in the Balkans and the Middle East

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macholán, Miloš; Vyskočilová, Martina; Bonhomme, F.; Kryštufek, B.; Orth, A.; Vohralík, V.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 22 (2007), s. 4774-4788 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6045307 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/2334 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515; CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : glacial refugia * M. cypriacus * M. spicilegus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 5.169, year: 2007 http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2007.03526.x

  19. FOR CULTURAL TOURISM IN THE SCOPE OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM: THE OTTOMAN PERIOD IN THE BALKANS TRACKS TO BELGRAD'S TURKISH CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    KARACAN, Sami; KARACAN, Esin; GÜNGÖR, Yüksel

    2017-01-01

    Depletion of natural resources, environmentalpollution, disruption of ecological balance for the fate of the world in theface of these adverse conditions is the result of 20. the concept ofsustainability has emerged in the last quarter of the century. As the wordsustainability; diversity and continuity of productivity, while maintaining theability to be permanent is defined as. Our field is limited to theunderstanding of tourism in terms of tourism sustainability, as we willconsider. Dependin...

  20. The diet and health status of the early neolitihic communities of the Central Balkans (6200-5200 BC)

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović, Jelena

    2017-01-01

    With climatic improvement at the beginning of the Holocene, small human groups across the world experienced important changes that over the following several millennia significantly impacted their lifestyles. The process began of the transition from mobile foragers to sedentary agro-pastoralists and, in a few thousand years, the world population increased. This process is known as the Neolithic Demographic Transition and represents one of the major events in human prehistory which significant...