WorldWideScience

Sample records for balancing radiation risks

  1. Balancing Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Lene; Rossen, Camilla Blach; Buus, Niels

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how eight pregnant women diagnosed with depression managed the decision whether or not to take antidepressants during pregnancy. In total, 11 interviews were conducted and analysed by means of constructivist grounded theory. The major category constructed was Balancing risk......, with two minor categories: Assessing depression and antidepressants and Evaluating the impact of significant others. The participants tried to make the safest decision, taking all aspects of their life into consideration. They described successful decision-making in the context of managing social norms...

  2. Balancing radiation benefits and risks: The needs of an informed public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The American public`s perceptions regarding ionizing radiation do not always conform to or correlate with scientific evidence. The ultimate purpose of this coordinated Federal effort and report is to increase the public`s knowledge of the benefits and risks associated with ionizing radiation. This report is divided into five sections. The first section, Introduction, discusses the public`s knowledge of radiation, their perceptions of benefits versus risks, and the Federal government`s role in public education. The section also outlines the charge to the Subpanel. Radiation Issues and Public Reactions discusses several radiation issues important to Federal agencies for which public education programs need to be established or enhanced. Federal Programs describes Federal agencies with public education programs on radiation and the nature of the programs they support. Education Issues and Federal Strategies explores the elements identified by the Subpanel as critical to the development and implementation of an effective Federal program in the area of public education on radiation issues and nuclear technologies. An important issue repeatedly brought up during the public sector presentations to the Subpanel was the perceived lack of Federal credibility on radiation issues in the eyes of the public. To some degree, this concern was factored into all of the recommendations developed by the subpanel. The issues discussed in this section include the fragmented nature of Federal radiation programs and the need to improve credibility, promote agency responsiveness, and support the enhancement of scientific literacy. Finally, under Recommendations, the Subpanel discusses its overall findings and conclusions.

  3. Balancing radiation benefits and risks: The needs of an informed public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The American public's perceptions regarding ionizing radiation do not always conform to or correlate with scientific evidence. The ultimate purpose of this coordinated Federal effort and report is to increase the public's knowledge of the benefits and risks associated with ionizing radiation. This report is divided into five sections. The first section, Introduction, discusses the public's knowledge of radiation, their perceptions of benefits versus risks, and the Federal government's role in public education. The section also outlines the charge to the Subpanel. Radiation Issues and Public Reactions discusses several radiation issues important to Federal agencies for which public education programs need to be established or enhanced. Federal Programs describes Federal agencies with public education programs on radiation and the nature of the programs they support. Education Issues and Federal Strategies explores the elements identified by the Subpanel as critical to the development and implementation of an effective Federal program in the area of public education on radiation issues and nuclear technologies. An important issue repeatedly brought up during the public sector presentations to the Subpanel was the perceived lack of Federal credibility on radiation issues in the eyes of the public. To some degree, this concern was factored into all of the recommendations developed by the subpanel. The issues discussed in this section include the fragmented nature of Federal radiation programs and the need to improve credibility, promote agency responsiveness, and support the enhancement of scientific literacy. Finally, under Recommendations, the Subpanel discusses its overall findings and conclusions

  4. Radiation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report contains an evaluation of data available about the deleterious effects of exposure of people to ionising radiation, assuming that the total exposure is low (low dose) or that exposure to dose takes place gradually (low dose rate). It is a revision of the 1985 Health Council report on 'The scientific foundations for radiation protection policy based on the UNSCEAR-77, -82, and BEIR reports'. The report is also meant to be a reply to a request for advice made by the Minister of Welfare, Public Health and Culture in 1989. Scientific opinion on induction of cancer by radiation has clearly changed since 1988. This is a consequence of new publications of epidemiological studies among survivors of the atomic explosions of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The Committee that has produced the present report has paid much attention to this development. Besides, in the request for advice just mentioned it is asked whether the margins of uncertainty which complicated the quantitative assessment of the radiation risk can be reduced. Consequently the Committee has dealt extensively with the potential errors and uncertainties in available data. Especially these 2 elements - a careful consideration of a recent shift in scientific opinion and a constant attention for the magnitude of potential uncertainties - have had a predominant influence on the content and design of this report. The Committee has tried to answer as fully as possible the complex question how to transform results of scientific research into a well-organised data set on which the government can base its radiation protection policy. The Committee had also compared its evaluation to the recent recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the points of view of the Dutch policy directive 'Dealing with radiation risks'. (author). 111 refs.; 12 tabs

  5. Risk, Balanced Skills and Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsieh, Chihmao; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes that risk aversionencourages individuals to invest in balanced skillprofiles, making them more likely to become entrepreneurs.By not taking this possible linkage intoaccount, previous research has underestimated theimpacts of both risk aversion and balanced skills onthe likeli...... likelihood individuals choose entrepreneurship.Data on Dutch university graduates provide an illustrationsupporting our contention. We raise thepossibility that even risk-averse people might besuited to entrepreneurship; and it may also help...

  6. Radiation balances and the solar constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crommelynck, D.

    1981-01-01

    The radiometric concepts are defined in order to consider various types of radiation balances and relate them to the diabetic form of the energy balance. Variability in space and time of the components of the radiation field are presented. A specific concept for sweeping which is tailored to the requirements is proposed. Finally, after establishing the truncated character of the present knowledge of the radiation balance. The results of the last observations of the solar constant are given. Ground and satellite measurement techniques are discussed.

  7. Pregnancy and radiation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjidekova, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Diseases of the mother during pregnancy can indicates X-ray examination for diagnosis and treatment. Radiologist and the GP should be aware of the possible damage to the fetus from radiation and to assess the actual risk and benefit of X-ray tests during pregnancy. The doses received in the uterus are small and the risk for the developing embryo or fetus is small for most diagnostic X-ray investigations. Dose of 100 mGy embryo radiation is regarded as the highest limit, above which a therapeutic abortion should be considered. The risk of radiation induced carcinogenesis exists during entire period of pregnancy. It is 2-3 times higher for developing embryo and fetus, rather than for adults. Diagnostic X-ray tests for pregnant women that are not urgent should be delayed. Keywords: radiation and pregnancy, prenatal radiation exposure, radiation fetal syndrome [bg

  8. Mammography and radiation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, H.

    1998-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant neoplasia among women in Germany. The use of mammography as the most relevant diagnostic procedure has increased rapidly over the last decade. Radiation risks associated with mammography may be estimated from the results of numerous epidemiological studies providing risk coefficients for breast cancer in relation to age at exposure. Various calculations can be performed using the risk coefficients. For instance, a single mammography examination (bilateral, two views of each breast) of a women aged 45 may enhance the risk of developing breast cancer during her lifetime numerically from about 12% of 12.0036%. This increase in risk is lower by a factor of 3,300 as compared to the risk of developing breast cancer in the absence of radiation exposure. At the age of 40 or more, the benefit of mammography exceeds the radiation risk by a factor of about 100. At higher ages this factor increases further. Finally, the dualism of individual risk and collective risk is considered. It is shown that the individual risk of a patient, even after multiple mammography examinations, is vanishingly small. Nevertheless, the basic principle of minimising radiation exposure must be followed to keep the collective risk in the total population as low as reasonably achievable. (orig.) [de

  9. Radiation risks in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossman, K.L.; Hill, L.T.

    1982-01-01

    A major contraindication of radiodiagnostic procedures is pregnancy. Approximately 1% of all pregnant women are given abdominal x-rays during the first trimester of pregnancy. Evaluation of radiation exposure should involve consideration of the types of examinations performed and when performed, as well as radiation dose and risk estimation. This information is then weighed against other possible risks of the pregnancy as well as personal factors. In the authors' experiences, radiation exposures usually result in doses to the embryo of less than 5 cGy (rad); the resulting radiation risks are usually small compared with other risks of pregnancy. Procedures to minimize diagnostic x-ray exposure of the fetus are also discussed

  10. Perception of radiation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenot, J.

    1992-01-01

    Perception of risks by people depends on many factors, either characterizing the individuals, or specific to the risk sources. The risk concept, which confuses the issue, is precised first. Second, the perception phenomenon is presented as an interactive process involving the individual, the hazard, and the social context. Third, dimensions of perception are listed and used to describe the perception of radiation risks. Finally, the relation between perception and attitude is clarified. (author) 50 refs

  11. Radiation and risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, W.

    1983-01-01

    From the beginnings of the peaceful utilization of nuclear energy, the principles of prevention and optimization have greatly limited the emission of radioactive substances. In this way, the radiation exposure associated with emissions from nuclear power plants during normal operation has been kept low compared with natural radiation exposure and its variance. This also applies to the local public in the vicinities of such plants. The present health hazard to the public arising from ionizing radiation is only a small fraction of the man-made risk to which the public is exposed in this country. This is also due to the fact that radiation protection employs the principle of prevention, which has been laid down in legal regulations. In this respect, the concepts and criteria developed in radiation protection for evaluation, limitation and optimization may be useful examples to other areas of safety at work and environmental protection. The acceptance of nuclear power is decisively influenced by the remaining residual risk of accidents. Extremely careful inspection and supervision of the technical safety of such plants is indispensable to prevent major accidents. The German Risk Study for Nuclear Power Plants has made an important contribution to this end. It is being continued. However, risk research must always be accompanied by risk comparison to allow numerical risk data to be evaluated properly and important features to be distinguished from unimportant ones. (orig.) [de

  12. Radiation risk estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1981-11-01

    This report outlines the major publications between 1976 and 1981 that have contributed to the evolution of the way in which radiation risks (cancer and hereditary birth defects) are assessed. The publications include the latest findings of the UNSCEAR, BEIR and ICRP committees, epidemiological studies at low doses and new assessments of the doses received by the Japanese A-bomb survivors. This report is not a detailed critique of those publications, but it highlights the impact of their findings on risk assessment

  13. Offshore wind energy : balancing risk and reward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerland, C.

    2010-01-01

    Offshore wind energy developments are expected to increase as the demand for renewable energy sources grows. This poster presentation described a method of balancing risk and reward in offshore wind energy projects. The method was based on risk assessment strategies used by the oil and gas industry. The dedicated framework considered schedules; budgets; performance; and operating and maintenance costs. A value chain assessment method was used to optimize the balance between risk and reward by evaluating uncertainties and risk related to each project element and its relationship to other elements within an integrated dynamic model designed to determine the net present value of a project. The decision-making criteria included the RISKEX risk expenditure strategy designed to consider the balance between risk exposure, capital expenditures, and operational expenditures in relation to the statistical cost of unplanned repairs, and lost production capacity. A case study of a large offshore wind farm was used to demonstrate the method. tabs., figs.

  14. Genetic risks from radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, P.B.

    Two widely-recognized committees, UNSCEAR and BEIR, have reevaluated their estimates of genetic risks from radiation. Their estimates for gene mutations are based on two different approaches, one being the doubling-dose approach and the other being a new direct approach based on an empirical determination of the amount of dominant induced damage in the skeletons of mice in the first generation following irradiation. The estimates made by these committees are in reasonably good agreement and suggest that the genetic risks from present exposures resultng from nuclear power production are small. There is room for much improvement in the reliability of the risk estimates. The relatively new approach of measuring the amount of induced damage to the mouse skeleton shows great promise of improving knowledge about how changes in the mutation frequency affect the incidence of genetic disorders. Such findings may have considerable influence on genetic risk estimates for radiation and on the development of risk estimates for other less-well-understood environmental mutagens. (author)

  15. Balance Sheet Capacity and Endogenous Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Jon Danielsson; Hyun Song Shin; Jean-Pierre Zigrand

    2011-01-01

    Banks operating under Value-at-Risk constraints give rise to a well-defined aggregate balance sheet capacity for the banking sector as a whole that depends on total bank capital. Equilibrium risk and market risk premiums can be solved in closed form as functions of aggregate bank capital. We explore the empirical properties of the model in light of recent experience in the financial crisis and highlight the importance of balance sheet capacity as the driver of the financial cycle and market r...

  16. Risk Factors: Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation of certain wavelengths, called ionizing radiation, has enough energy to damage DNA and cause cancer. Ionizing radiation includes radon, x-rays, gamma rays, and other forms of high-energy radiation.

  17. Radiation balance of an alfalfa crop in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Yemeni, M.N.; Grace, J.

    1995-01-01

    Short-wave reflectivity or albedo is an important component of net radiation which represents the major determinant of radiation balance of crop surface. This study was conducted on an irrigated alfalfa crop field at Al-Kharj agricultural area in Saudi Arabia, grown according to normal agricultural practices. Data on radiation balance and crop cover were collected over a number of days from March to October 1986, crop albedo varying from 0–4 in early morning to 0–20 at noon, the overall mean value of the crop albedo being estimated at 0–26. The relation between the individual components of radiation balance was studied, and a significant correlation between incident radiation and net radiation was found. Possible causes responsible for changes in crop albedo were discussed. (author)

  18. Radiation balance in the sweet sorghum crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, F.N. de; Mendez, M.E.G.; Martins, S.R.; Verona, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    The fluxes of incident solar radiation, reflected and net radiation were measured during the growing cicle of two fields of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), cus. BR-501 and BR-503, maintained under convenient irrigation level. Resultant data allowed to estimate the crop albedo as well as the estimates of Rn. (M.A.C.) [pt

  19. System Risk Balancing Profiles: Software Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John C.; Sigal, Burton C.; Gindorf, Tom

    2000-01-01

    The Software QA / V&V guide will be reviewed and updated based on feedback from NASA organizations and others with a vested interest in this area. Hardware, EEE Parts, Reliability, and Systems Safety are a sample of the future guides that will be developed. Cost Estimates, Lessons Learned, Probability of Failure and PACTS (Prevention, Avoidance, Control or Test) are needed to provide a more complete risk management strategy. This approach to risk management is designed to help balance the resources and program content for risk reduction for NASA's changing environment.

  20. Radiation risks: critical analysis and commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Bruce; Stiles, Melissa; Patterson, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    1) To review and summarize what is known about the health risks of radiation. 2) To compare risks from medical imaging to background radiation and to exposure from nuclear accidents. Literature review and summative critical analysis. Over the past several years, physicians and patients have become increasingly aware of the potential risks of radiation exposure from medical imaging. The Fukushima disaster further heightened public awareness of hazards associated with radiation and radioactivity. In the case of medical imaging, small but real risks of cancer and other radiation-induced disease must be balanced against potential benefits of improved diagnostic accuracy. The ethical principle of autonomy tells us that patients should be informed of potential benefits and harms of radiation imaging, and should participate in shared decision making. In the case of nuclear power, benefits and especially harms are exceptionally difficult to estimate accurately. Nevertheless, we know that hazards from today's nuclear power plants will persist for many years, affecting future generations not benefiting from electrical power generated today. A deeper and more widespread understanding of potential benefits and harms of personal and societal choices relating to radiation exposure may lead to improved medical and societal decision-making. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The risks of radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettenen, Jorma K.

    1988-01-01

    The risks of radioactivity are a really complicated matter, yet they are much better known than are the risks relating to thousands of chemical poisons that occur in our environment. The greatest mistakes are probably made in the definition of safety margins. Except for the bombs dropped in Japan and one other case in the Marshall Islands, there has always—luckily—been a wide safety margin between fallout radiation and doses dangerous to health; the margin has actually been about 1000-fold. The Chernobyl dose of 0.5 mGy/year that we received is only 1/1000 of the acute dose of 0.5 Gy which would cause a slight and nonpermanent change in the blood picture. There is no such safety margin with respect to many air pollutants. The safety standards for sulfuric or nitric oxides, ozone and so on, have been set only just below the level that already causes a health hazard, and these standards are exceeded once in a while. Otherwise, traffic would have to be forbidden and many industrial plants, especially power stations using coal, would have to stop working whenever a low-temperature inversion occurred. Environmental radioactivity does not represent a likely health risk in Finland unless a nuclear war breaks out. Air pollutants, on the contrary, are a real and almost daily health risk that should be carefully considered when decisions about our energy production are being made. In spite of what happened at Chernobyl, global consumption of nuclear power will double by the year 2000, since there are about 140 nuclear power plants presently under construction. It is not likely that another catastrophe like Chernobyl will happen, yet nuclear plant accidents are of course possible, even if their likelihood is diminished by improving reactor safety and even if any eventual damage could be expected to be smaller. If a reactor is hooded by a containment structure, no significant release of radioactive materials should be possible even in case of an accident. However, we must

  2. Radiation risk and radiation protection concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerschel, B.

    1989-01-01

    The revised dosimetry for the survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki implies an increased risk from low LET radiation compared with that currently used. During its meeting in 1987 the ICRP stated that the new data at present do not require any change in the dose limits. However, two other factors can cause larger changes in the present risk estimates. Firstly, for some types of cancer the relative risk model seems to describe the observed data better than the absolute risk model currently used by the ICRP. Secondly, the shape of the dose-response relationship considerably influences the derived risks. In the present paper the factor causing a substantial increase in radiation risk are analyzed. Conclusions are drawn in how far a change in the currently recommended dose limits seems to be necessary. (author)

  3. Calculating Risk: Radiation and Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert Peter

    1987-01-01

    Considers who is at risk in a disaster such as Chernobyl. Assesses the difficulty in translating information regarding radiation to the public and in determining the acceptability of technological risks. (NKA)

  4. Perception of risk from radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovic, P.

    1996-01-01

    Perceptions of risk from radiation have been studied systematically for about 20 years. This paper summarises the key findings and conclusions from this research with regard to the nature of risk perceptions, the impacts of these perceptions, and the need for communication about radiological hazards. Perhaps the most important generalisation from research in this area is that there is no uniform or consistent perception of radiation risks. Public perception and acceptance is determined by the context in which the radiation is used -and the very different reactions to different uses provide insight into the nature of perception and the determinants of acceptable risk. (author)

  5. Does radiation risk exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passchier, W.

    1996-01-01

    Risk assessment and risk management are parts of a dynamic process with the objective to decide on the tolerability of risk and on measures to keep risk within accepted limits. It enables all relevant parties to express their concerns and preferences regarding the different options for the human action involved and regarding the relative importance of criteria to decide on the tolerability of risk. Risk assessment has three phases; problem definition, risk analysis and risk characterization. Risk analysis is primarily a technical and scientific endeavour. With regard to problem definition and ride characterization consultation between risk assessors and risk managers (and other parties concerned) is a must. (author)

  6. Ionizing radiation: benefits vs. risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    No one has been identifiably injured by radiation within the levels set by the NCRP and ICRP in 1934. This fact and the level of natural radiation (average dose 102 millirems/year) help provide standards against which the authors can view the relative increases in exposure from manmade sources of radiation. Because one person in five in the US will die of cancer from all causes, it is impossible to detect small increases in some types of cancer from radiation. A valid assumption is that any exposure to radiation carries some possibility of harm and should be kept below the level of the expected benefits. More is known about radiation toxicity than about any other potentially toxic substances. An obstacle to progress in the use of radioactive materials in biology and medicine is an exaggerated impression by the public of the risk of radiation. Several studies indicate that the public perceives the risk of radiation to be the greatest of all societal risks and at times does not distinguish peaceful from military uses of radiation. It behooves scientists and physicians to inform the public about the benefits as well as the risks of procedures involving radiation

  7. Population-based mammography screening below age 50: Balancing radiation-induced vs prevented breast cancer deaths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. de Gelder (Rianne); G. Draisma (Gerrit); E.A.M. Heijnsdijk (Eveline); H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction:Exposure to ionizing radiation at mammography screening may cause breast cancer. Because the radiation risk increases with lower exposure age, advancing the lower age limit may affect the balance between screening benefits and risks. The present study explores the

  8. Energy balance in coherent electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Coisson, R

    1994-01-01

    Bunched charges, as in the 'free electron laser', radiate more energy than unbunched ones. For a better understanding of how the forces between particles determine the conservation of energy, we take the simple model of two charges within a wavelength of a sinusodoidal wave, and show that the relative phase of the particle's motion with respect to the wave is modified by the force between the two particles, and this explains the extra work done by the wave. The phase shift is proportional to the emitted field and depends on the retardation (particle distance divided by speed of light), and turns out to be independent of distance. (author)

  9. Space Radiation Risk Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Project A: Integration and Review: A review of current knowledge from space radiation physics was accepted for publication in Reviews of Modern Physics (Durante and...

  10. Occupational radiation risk to radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettmann, W.

    1981-01-01

    A review is given of the most important publications dealing with attempts to estimate the occupational radiation risk to radiologists by comparing data on their mortality from leukemia and other forms of cancer with respective data for other physicians who were not occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. (author)

  11. Radiation risk education program - local

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushong, S.C.; Archer, B.R.

    1980-01-01

    This article points out the lack of knowledge by the general public and medical profession concerning the true risks of radiation exposure. The author describes an educational program which can be implemented at the local level to overcome this deficiency. The public must understand the enormous extent of benefit derived from radiation applications in our society

  12. Cancer risks after radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    A general overview of the effects of ionizing radiation on cancer induction is presented. The relationship between the degree of risk and absorbed dose is examined. Mortality from radiation-induced cancer in the US is estimated and percentages attributable to various sources are given

  13. Radiation risk in space exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmerling, W.; Wilson, J.W.; Cucinotta, F.; Kim, M.H.Y.

    1997-01-01

    Humans living and working in space are exposed to energetic charged particle radiation due to galactic cosmic rays and solar particle emissions. In order to keep the risk due to radiation exposure of astronauts below acceptable levels, the physical interaction of these particles with space structures and the biological consequences for crew members need to be understood. Such knowledge is, to a large extent, very sparse when it is available at all. Radiation limits established for space radiation protection purposes are based on extrapolation of risk from Japanese survivor data, and have been found to have large uncertainties. In space, attempting to account for large uncertainties by worst-case design results in excessive costs and accurate risk prediction is essential. It is best developed at ground-based laboratories, using particle accelerator beams to simulate individual components of space radiation. Development of mechanistic models of the action of space radiation is expected to lead to the required improvements in the accuracy of predictions, to optimization of space structures for radiation protection and, eventually, to the development of biological methods of prevention and intervention against radiation injury. (author)

  14. Sarcoma risk after radiation exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrington de Gonzalez Amy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sarcomas were one of the first solid cancers to be linked to ionizing radiation exposure. We reviewed the current evidence on this relationship, focusing particularly on the studies that had individual estimates of radiation doses. There is clear evidence of an increased risk of both bone and soft tissue sarcomas after high-dose fractionated radiation exposure (10 + Gy in childhood, and the risk increases approximately linearly in dose, at least up to 40 Gy. There are few studies available of sarcoma after radiotherapy in adulthood for cancer, but data from cancer registries and studies of treatment for benign conditions confirm that the risk of sarcoma is also increased in this age-group after fractionated high-dose exposure. New findings from the long-term follow-up of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors suggest, for the first time, that sarcomas can be induced by acute lower-doses of radiation (

  15. Radiation dose in paediatric computed tomography: risks and benefits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The best available risk estimates suggest that paediatric CT will result in significantly increased lifetime radiation risk over adult CT. Studies have shown that lower milliampere-second (mAs) settings can be used for children without significant loss of information. Although the risk–benefit balance is still strongly tilted toward ...

  16. Analysis of the temporal variation of radiation balance components in arid rice (Oryza sativa L.) culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prates, J.E.; Coelho, D.T.; Steinmetz, S.

    1988-01-01

    The time variation of measured radiation balance components in a cultived rice area (Oryza sativa L.) under arid conditions in the Brazil central-west region was analysed. The relation between global solar radiation, radiation balance, reflected radiation and terrestrial effective radiation in three different stages of the culture development: vegetative stage; blooming and maturation, was determined. (M.C.K.) [pt

  17. Estimation of health risks from radiation exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randolph, M.L.

    1983-08-01

    An informal presentation is given of the cancer and genetic risks from exposures to ionizing radiations. The risks from plausible radiation exposures are shown to be comparable to other commonly encountered risks.

  18. Quantifying Cancer Risk from Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Alexander P; Richardson, David B

    2017-12-06

    Complex statistical models fitted to data from studies of atomic bomb survivors are used to estimate the human health effects of ionizing radiation exposures. We describe and illustrate an approach to estimate population risks from ionizing radiation exposure that relaxes many assumptions about radiation-related mortality. The approach draws on developments in methods for causal inference. The results offer a different way to quantify radiation's effects and show that conventional estimates of the population burden of excess cancer at high radiation doses are driven strongly by projecting outside the range of current data. Summary results obtained using the proposed approach are similar in magnitude to those obtained using conventional methods, although estimates of radiation-related excess cancers differ for many age, sex, and dose groups. At low doses relevant to typical exposures, the strength of evidence in data is surprisingly weak. Statements regarding human health effects at low doses rely strongly on the use of modeling assumptions. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. Radiation risk and science education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eijkelhof, H.M.C.

    1996-01-01

    Almost everywhere the topic of radioactivity is taught in the physics or chemistry classes of secondary schools. The question has been raised whether the common approach of teaching this topic would contribute to a better understanding of the risks of ionising radiation: and, if the answer is negative, how to explain and improve this situation? In a Dutch research programme which took almost ten years, answers to this question have been sought by means of analyses of newspaper reports, curriculum development, consultation with radiation experts, physics textbook analysis, interviews and questionnaires with teachers and pupils, class observations and curriculum development. Th main results of this study are presented and some recommendations given for science teaching and for communication with the public in general as regards radiation risk. (author)

  20. Spectral radiation balance of absorbing aerosols over clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammes, Piet; de Graaf, Martin; Deneke, Hartwig

    2017-04-01

    Absorption by aerosols, like smoke and desert dust, may lead to strong atmospheric warming, surface cooling, and cloud dynamical responses. Therefore, detection of absorbing aerosols and assessment of their radiative effects is important. However, absorbing aerosols are difficult to detect, especially in cloudy scenes. Here we use a satellite detection technique which can be used to determine the spectral absorption effects of smoke aerosols over clouds, using the fact that aerosols have a much stronger effect at UV and visible wavelengths than at longer wavelengths. We also analyse the shortwave radiative balance of absorbing aerosols over clouds. We have developed a technique of measuring aerosols from their absorption effect using multi-spectral satellite data (De Graaf et al., JGR, 2012). Using a wide spectral range, from the UV (300-400 nm) up to the shortwave (SW) IR (1000-1750 nm), it is possible to distinguish the absorption by aerosols from the scattering by clouds. No microphysical assumptions are needed for the aerosols, except that their absorption must vanish at long wavelengths. With this method, called the Differential Aerosol Absorption (DAA) technique, which was applied to SCIAMACHY satellite data, we measured the direct radiative effect of absorbing biomass burning aerosols over clouds in the South-East Atlantic. We measured instantaneous direct radiative effects by the aerosols of the order of 100 W/m2 at top-of-atmosphere. The spectral radiation balance at both top-of-atmosphere and surface is needed to estimate the amount of absorption inside the aerosol layer. We therefore perform a simulation study, using accurate spectral RT modelling, in which we compute the profile of absorption in the aerosol layer. We find that the atmospheric absorption characteristics cannot be measured only from satellite by using reflected light, also the transmission at the surface has to be measured. Therefore, field campaigns are needed in addition to satellite

  1. Radiation risks and radiation protection at CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation exposure is an occupational hazard at CRNL. The predicted health effects of low levels of radiation are described and compared with other hazards of living. Data related to the health of radiation workers are also considered. Special attention is given to the expected effects of radiation on the unborn child. Measures taken to protect CRNL employees against undue occupational exposure to radiation are noted

  2. Risk after low radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streffer, C.

    1989-01-01

    The high-level data measured in radiation doses need to be extrapolated to lower dose ranges in order to be able to state the risk of leukaemia and cancer in low radiation doses. The assumption is that there is no threshold dose although there has been no scientific verification for this yet. Conceptual considerations concerning the radiation action mechanisms suggest that a threshold dose does not exist. The assumption is that leukaemia and cancer are induced by the fact that individual transformed and malignant cells possess a certain though low potential to cause a malignant disease (leukaemia or cancer). It is assumed that radiation exposure produces damage to the genetic material of the cell which results in a malignant transformation. The number of these events is greatly reduced by a highly effective repair mechanism. However, these repair processes at the DNA are not complete or may even result in a misrepair; even low radiation doses (less than 10 mSv, 1 rem) apparently may trigger such cellular effects (transformation). (orig./HSCH) [de

  3. Including risk in the balanced scorecard: Adoption rate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This finding is interesting because it would indicate that the previously reported and conceptualised problem of complexity does not seem to have such a great impact as previously thought. Key words: balanced scorecard, risk management, enterprise risk management, performance management, risk scorecard, risk ...

  4. Ionizing radiation and genetic risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaranarayanan, K.; Wassom, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    Recent estimates of genetic risks from exposure of human populations to ionizing radiation are those presented in the 2001 report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). These estimates incorporate two important concepts, namely, the following: (1) most radiation-induced mutations are DNA deletions, often encompassing multiple genes, but only a small proportion of the induced deletions is compatible with offspring viability; and (2) the viability-compatible deletions induced in germ cells are more likely to manifest themselves as multi-system developmental anomalies rather than as single gene disorders. This paper: (a) pursues these concepts further in the light of knowledge of mechanisms of origin of deletions and other rearrangements from two fields of contemporary research: repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in mammalian somatic cells and human molecular genetics; and (b) extends them to deletions induced in the germ cell stages of importance for radiation risk estimation, namely, stem cell spermatogonia in males and oocytes in females. DSB repair studies in somatic cells have elucidated the roles of two mechanistically distinct pathways, namely, homologous recombination repair (HRR) that utilizes extensive sequence homology and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) that requires little or no homology at the junctions. A third process, single-strand annealing (SSA), which utilizes short direct repeat sequences, is considered a variant of HRR. HRR is most efficient in late S and G 2 phases of the cell cycle and is a high fidelity mechanism. NHEJ operates in all cell cycle phases, but is especially important in G 1 . In the context of radiation-induced DSBs, NHEJ is error-prone. SSA is also an error-prone mechanism and its role is presumably similar to that of HRR. Studies in human molecular genetics have demonstrated that the occurrence of large deletions, duplications or other rearrangements

  5. Risk assessment of radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Michiaki

    2012-01-01

    This commentary describes the radiation cancer risk assessed by international organizations other than ICRP, assessed for radon and for internal exposure, in the series from the aspect of radiation protection of explaining the assessments done until ICRP Pub. 103. Statistic significant increase of cancer formation is proved at higher doses than 100-200 mSv. At lower doses, with use of mathematical model, United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) reported the death probability due to the excess lifetime risk (ELR) at 100 mSv of 0.36-0.77% for solid tumors and 0.03-0.05% for leukemia, and NRC in US, the risk of exposure-induced prevalence and death (REID) per 100 thousands persons of 800 (male)/1,310 (female) and 410/610, respectively. Both are essentially based on findings in A-bomb survivors. The assessment for Rn is described here not on dose. UK and US analyses of pooled raw data in case control studies revealed the significant increase of lung cancer formation at as low level as 100 Bq Rn/m3. Their analyses also showed the significance of smoking, which had been realized as a confounding factor in risk analysis of Rn for uranium miners. The death probability until the age of 85 y was found to be 1.2 x 10 -4 in non-smokers and 24 x 10 -4 in smokers/ Working Level Month (WLM). Increased thyroid cancer incidence has been known in Chernobyl Accident, which is realized as a result of internal exposure of radioiodine; however, the relationship between the internal dose to thyroid and its cancer prevalence resembles that in the case of external exposure. There is no certain evidence against the concept that risk of internal exposure is similar to and/or lower than, the external one although assessment of the internal exposure risk accompanies uncertainty depending on the used model and ingested dose. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations hitherto have been important and precious despite

  6. Including "evidentiary balance" in news media coverage of vaccine risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Christopher E; Dixon, Graham N; Holton, Avery; McKeever, Brooke Weberling

    2015-01-01

    Journalists communicating risk-related uncertainty must accurately convey scientific evidence supporting particular conclusions. Scholars have explored how "balanced" coverage of opposing risk claims shapes uncertainty judgments. In situations where a preponderance of evidence points to a particular conclusion, balanced coverage reduces confidence in such a consensus and heightens uncertainty about whether a risk exists. Using the autism-vaccine controversy as a case study, we describe how journalists can cover multiple sides of an issue and provide insight into where the strength of evidence lies by focusing on "evidentiary balance." Our results suggest that evidentiary balance shapes perceived certainty that vaccines are safe, effective, and not linked to autism through the mediating role of a perception that scientists are divided about whether a link exists. Deference toward science, moreover, moderates these relationships under certain conditions. We discuss implications for journalism practice and risk communication.

  7. Relationship between balance ability, training and sports injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, balance training has been used as part of the rehabilitation programme for ankle injuries. More recently, balance training has been adopted to try and prevent injuries to the ankle and knee joints during sport. The purpose of this review is to synthesise current knowledge in the area of balance ability, training and injury risk, highlight the findings and identify any future research needs. A number of studies have found that poor balance ability is significantly related to an increased risk of ankle injuries in different activities. This relationship appears to be more common in males than females. Multifaceted intervention studies that have included balance training along with jumping, landing and agility exercises have resulted in a significant decrease in ankle or knee injuries in team handball, volleyball and recreational athletes. It is unknown which component of the multifaceted intervention was most effective and whether the effects are additive. As a single intervention, balance training has been shown to significantly reduce the recurrence of ankle ligament injuries in soccer, volleyball and recreational athletes; however, it has not been clearly shown to reduce ankle injuries in athletes without a prior ankle injury. Balance training on its own has also been shown to significantly reduce anterior cruciate ligament injuries in male soccer players. Surprisingly, it was also found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of major knee injuries in female soccer players and overuse knee injuries in male and female volleyball players. The studies with the contrasting findings differed in aspects of their balance training programmes. It would appear that balance training, as a single intervention, is not as effective as when it is part of a multifaceted intervention. Research is required to determine the relative contribution of balance training to a multifaceted intervention so as to generate an effective and efficient preventative

  8. Managing industrial price risk: a balancing act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muse, J-F.

    2000-01-01

    The challenge of managing industrial price risk is assessed by a senior executive of Cargill, a diversified industrial conglomerate, involved in steel manufacturing and recycling, oilseeds, cocoa, beef, pork, and poultry processing, fertilizer and fruit juice production, in addition to trading and financial risk management. Energy is a key component in many of Cargill's businesses, hence the company has good reason to be concerned about price volatility. The effects of energy risk management on the company's shareholders are demonstrated by an analysis of month-to-month price fluctuations over the Nov 1999 to Oct 2000 period, showing the monthly value of risk at the 95 per cent confidence level as $4,832,195. The effects of alternatives for an end-user such as passing on cost to customers, improving energy efficiency. fuel switching and production curtailment, are explored and limitations and problems with each of the approaches are discussed. The best options for industrial end-users of natural gas are suggested to be a proactive risk management program in the short-term and asset diversification, fuel switching, and geographic relocation of production facilities in the long-term

  9. Farm household risk balancing: empirical evidence from Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mey, de Yann; Wauters, E.; Schmid, D.; Passel, van S.; Vancauteren, Mark; Lips, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the first empirical evidence on household risk balancing behavior, i.e., strategic off-farm decisions in response to changes in expected business risk. Using Swiss FADN data, we estimate a fixed effects seemingly unrelated regression model to analyze how farm households jointly

  10. Balancing sport risk and health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, G O

    1999-06-01

    A substantial part of our work as physicians involves treating sport- and exercise-related injuries. We also recommend exercise, knowing that it will result in a certain number of acute and overuse injuries. As team physicians, we attend competitive events despite awareness that participants in certain sports run a high risk of significant harm. So then, where do we stand in relation to the Hippocratic Oath: "First do no harm"?

  11. Relations between radiation risks and radiation protection measuring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, K.; Kraus, W.

    Relations between radiation risks and radiation protection measuring techniques are considered as components of the radiation risk. The influence of the exposure risk on type and extent of radiation protection measurements is discussed with regard to different measuring tasks. Based upon measuring results concerning the frequency of certain external and internal occupational exposures in the GDR, it has been shown that only a small fraction of the monitored persons are subjected to a high exposure risk. As a consequence the following recommendations are presented: occupationally exposed persons with small exposure risk should be monitored using only a long-term desimeter (for instance a thermoluminescence desimeter). In the case of internal exposure, the surface and air contamination levels should be controlled so strictly that routine measurements of internal contamination need not be performed

  12. Risk and benefits in ionizing radiation uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-08-01

    This meeting include: A tribute to Szeinfeld, presentation software for population dose, impact on radiation protection, radiation protection hospital and population exposed workers, regulation and licensing. radiological emergencies, risk, inspection, external radiotherapy and radiation protection with photons, brachytherapy, industrial, environmental monitoring, food irradiation, nuclear power, nuclear medicine.

  13. Balancing the risks: Choosing climate alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, C R

    2009-01-01

    Very aggressive reductions in greenhouse gas emissions are needed over the next ten years to avoid a 'planet on fire'. Current sub-national, national and international policy assumes that carbon sequestration, biofuels, nuclear power, ocean fertilization, atmospheric aerosols, and other such technologies, which heretofore have been considered too novel or too dangerous to use, will have to be deployed at large scale, globally. Moving forward with promising technologies that might preserve us from the consequences of global warming will be difficult because they also pose potential hazards, promise uncertain benefits, and in some cases are already burdened with restrictive legislation and poor public image. The lack of a rational process of risk assessment and public decision making is likely to lead to a poor long-term outcome. Moreover, the standard administrative and political processes used to assess such risks can take years, time that we do not have. Principled and practical policymaking demand citizens participate in the decision to develop and use these novel technologies. Environmental assessment, horizon scanning, and new research on human and organizational factors suggest techniques to improve technology development decisions.

  14. Content and style of radiation risk communication for pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder, Joshua S; Frush, Donald P

    2014-03-01

    The diagnostic benefits of medical imaging, including CT, must be weighed against the risks of ionizing radiation and communicated effectively to patients. Health care providers requesting and performing these examinations have a shared responsibility for this risk-benefit discussion. Effective and balanced communication of these risks requires style as well as content mastery. Fundamentals of communication are similar for all patients, but special attention is needed in the pediatric setting. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ionising radiation and cancer risk: software for risk estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siiskonen, T.

    2008-04-01

    Many authors, e.g. the BEIR (Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations) VII committee, have developed models for the risk of cancer resulting from an exposure to ionising radiation. This report describes a software, based on the BEIR VII risk models, which is used for the risk estimation. The risk models, calculation methods and the usage of the software are presented. Finally, illustrative examples are given. The software is developed in Radiation Dosimetry Laboratory of Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). (orig.)

  16. Radiation risk perception in Institute 'Vinca'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanovic, S.; Pavlovic, S

    1999-01-01

    The necessity for research and development of risk analysis methods arise from practical needs for safety for men and environment. Relating to speed of technological development risk is implemented in modern technological achievements. Complexity of approach to the concept of risk presents the essence of risk management. Risk management means to apply risk analysis in order to risk decrease and control. Database for risk management is in technical social, economic and political area. Risk perception is a construction in the field of social psychology i.e. public opinion research. These results are of importance for the risk management. Research presented in this paper has been done on the sample of 240 examines with two basic sub samples: person working with ionizing radiation (140 of them) and persons not working with ionizing radiation (100 of them). Attitudes to risk definition risk acceptance and relation to risk consequences. (author)

  17. Low-level radiation risks in people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goloman, M.; Filjushkin, V. lgor

    1993-01-01

    Using the limited human data plus the relationships derived from the laboratory, a leukemia risk model has been developed as well as a suggested model for other cancers in people exposed to low levels of radiation. Theoretical experimental and epidemiological evidence will be presented in an integrated stochastic model for projection of radiation-induced cancer risks

  18. Trends and new findings in the assessment of the somatic radiation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, W.

    1976-01-01

    New findings are described which enable a more precise estimation of the leukemia and cancer risk by radiation. They concern the risk ratio cancer to leukemia after whole body irradiation, the shape of the dose-risk-relationship and the time factor problem. Finally a balance of the somatic radiation risk from whole body irradiation is set up and the consequences for the establishment of dose limits are discussed. (orig.) [de

  19. New radiobiological, radiation risk and radiation protection paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodhead, Dudley T.

    2010-01-01

    The long-standing conventional paradigm for radiobiology has formed a logical basis for the standard paradigm for radiation risk of cancer and heritable effects and, from these paradigms, has developed the internationally applied system for radiation protection, but with many simplifications, assumptions and generalizations. A variety of additional radiobiological phenomena that do not conform to the standard paradigm for radiobiology may have potential implications for radiation risk and radiation protection. It is suggested, however, that the current state of knowledge is still insufficient for these phenomena, individually or collectively, to be formulated systematically into a new paradigm for radiobiology. Additionally, there is at present lack of direct evidence of their relevance to risk for human health, despite attractive hypotheses as to how they might be involved. Finally, it remains to be shown how incorporation of such phenomena into the paradigm for radiation protection would provide sufficient added value to offset disruption to the present widely applied system. Further research should aim for better mechanistic understanding of processes such as radiation-induced genomic instability (for all radiation types) and bystander effects (particularly for low-fluence high-LET particles) and also priority should be given to confirmation, or negation, of the relevance of the processes to human health risks from radiation.

  20. Assessment of risk from radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbaratnam, T.; Madhvanath, U.; Somasundaram, S.

    1976-01-01

    Assessment of risk from exposure to ionizing radiations from man-made radiation sources and nuclear installations has to be viewed from three aspects, namely, dose-effect relationship (genetic and somatic) for humans, calculation of doses or dose-commitments to population groups, assessment of risk to radiation workers and the population at large from the current levels of exposure from nuclear industry and comparison of risk estimates with other industries in a modern society. These aspects are discussed in brief. On the basis of available data, it is shown that estimated incidence of genetic diseases and cancers due to exposure of population to radiation from nuclear industry is negligible in comparison with their natural incidence, and radiation risks to the workers in nuclear industry are much lower than the risks in other occupations. (M.G.B.)

  1. The energy balance experiment EBEX-2000. Part III: Behaviour and quality of the radiation measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohsiek, W.; Liebethal, C.; Foken, T.; Vogt, R.; Oncley, S.P.; Bernhofer, C.; Debruin, H.A.R.

    2007-01-01

    An important part of the Energy Balance Experiment (EBEX-2000) was the measurement of the net radiation and its components. Since the terrain, an irrigated cotton field, could not be considered homogeneous, radiation measurements were made at nine sites using a variety of radiation instruments,

  2. Radiation induced cancer: risk assessment and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A number of factors have to be considered in defining the cancer risk from ionizing radiation. These include the radiation sensitivity of the target tissue(s), the temporal pattern of risk, the shape of the dose-incidence curve, the effects of low dose rates, host susceptibility factors, and synergism with other environmental exposures. For the population as a whole the largest sources of radiation exposure are natural background radiation and medical/dental radiation. Radiation exposures in the medical field make up the largest volume of occupational exposures as well. Although new technologies offer opportunities to lower exposures, worker training, careful exposure monitoring with remedial feedback, and monitoring to prevent unnecessary radiodiagnostic procedures may be even more important means of reducing radiation exposure. Screening of irradiated populations can serve a useful preventive function, but only for those who have received very high doses

  3. Characterising risk - aggregated metrics: radiation and noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passchier, W.

    1998-01-01

    The characterisation of risk is an important phase in the risk assessment - risk management process. From the multitude of risk attributes a few have to be selected to obtain a risk characteristic or profile that is useful for risk management decisions and implementation of protective measures. One way to reduce the number of attributes is aggregation. In the field of radiation protection such an aggregated metric is firmly established: effective dose. For protection against environmental noise the Health Council of the Netherlands recently proposed a set of aggregated metrics for noise annoyance and sleep disturbance. The presentation will discuss similarities and differences between these two metrics and practical limitations. The effective dose has proven its usefulness in designing radiation protection measures, which are related to the level of risk associated with the radiation practice in question, given that implicit judgements on radiation induced health effects are accepted. However, as the metric does not take into account the nature of radiation practice, it is less useful in policy discussions on the benefits and harm of radiation practices. With respect to the noise exposure metric, only one effect is targeted (annoyance), and the differences between sources are explicitly taken into account. This should make the metric useful in policy discussions with respect to physical planning and siting problems. The metric proposed has only significance on a population level, and can not be used as a predictor for individual risk. (author)

  4. Postural balance and the risk of falling during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Bulent; Ribeiro, Ana Paula; Inanir, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is a physiological process and many changes occur in a woman's body during pregnancy. These changes occur in all systems to varying degrees, including the cardiovascular, respiratory, genitourinary, and musculoskeletal systems. The hormonal, anatomical, and physiological changes occurring during pregnancy result in weight gain, decreased abdominal muscle strength and neuromuscular control, increased ligamentous laxity, and spinal lordosis. These alterations shift the centre of gravity of the body, altering the postural balance and increasing the risk of falls. Falls during pregnancy can cause maternal and foetal complications, such as maternal bone fractures, head injuries, internal haemorrhage, abruption placenta, rupture of the uterus and membranes, and occasionally maternal death or intrauterine foetal demise. Preventative strategies, such as physical exercise and the use of maternity support belts, can increase postural stability and reduce the risk of falls during pregnancy. This article reviews studies that have investigated changes in postural balance and risk of falling during pregnancy.

  5. Risk analysis of external radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvidsson, Marcus

    2011-09-01

    External radiation therapy is carried out via a complex treatment process in which many different groups of staff work together. Much of the work is dependent on and in collaboration with advanced technical equipment. The purpose of the research task has been to identify a process for external radiation therapy and to identify, test and analyze a suitable method for performing risk analysis of external radiation therapy

  6. Radiation in medicine: Origins, risks and aspirations.

    OpenAIRE

    Donya, M; Radford, M; ElGuindy, A; Firmin, D; Yacoub, MH

    2014-01-01

    The use of radiation in medicine is now pervasive and routine. From their crude beginnings 100 years ago, diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiation therapy have all evolved into advanced techniques, and are regarded as essential tools across all branches and specialties of medicine. The inherent properties of ionizing radiation provide many benefits, but can also cause potential harm. Its use within medical practice thus involves an informed judgment regarding the risk/benefit rati...

  7. Modeling the radiation balance within a planted trench system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Isaac; Agam, Nurit; Berliner, Pedro

    2017-04-01

    Micro-catchment systems (MCs) are designed to harvest and utilize rainwater, with the aim of supporting tree growth in arid regions. While MCs were traditionally built with shallow infiltration basins, recent research indicates that MCs with deeper basins retain more water than MCs with shallower basins, and that trees grown in deeper MCs outperform those grown in shallow MCs. This may be partially because the flux of incoming shortwave radiation reaching the surface is decreased in deeper basins. The degree to which the incoming radiation reaching the floor of the MC is reduced, however, depends on the system's dimensions and orientation, geographical location, canopy geometry, soil properties, date, and time. Existing radiation models are either capable of modeling radiation penetration into trenches, or describe transmission of radiation through canopy. None can describe the penetration of radiation through canopy into a trench. The goal of our research was to model the incoming shortwave and longwave radiation flux densities reaching a MC floor in which trees are planted. The model calculates the incoming shortwave and longwave radiation at any given point on the trench floor. In calculating the incoming shortwave radiation, the model considers direct radiation, diffuse radiation, and direct and diffuse radiation reflected from the walls of the MC system. The model also accounts for possible shading and attenuation of the radiation caused by the presence of a canopy in the system. Validation of the model is performed by comparing measured incoming shortwave radiation to modeled outputs. The measurements are conducted at various positions within existing trenches with width of 1 m and length of 12 m, in which three 6-year old olive trees are grown, with 4 m spacing between trees. The flexibility of the model and the ability to change the trench configurations will help enable the maximization of water use efficiency inside MC systems.

  8. Epidemiological data and radiation risk estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardis, E.

    2002-01-01

    The results of several major epidemiology studies on populations with particular exposure to ionizing radiation should become available during the first years of the 21. century. These studies are expected to provide answers to a number of questions concerning public health and radiation protection. Most of the populations concerned were accidentally exposed to radiation in ex-USSR or elsewhere or in a nuclear industrial context. The results will complete and test information on risk coming from studies among survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs, particularly studies on the effects of low dose exposure and prolonged low-dose exposure, of different types of radiation, and environmental and host-related factors which could modify the risk of radiation-induced effects. These studies are thus important to assess the currently accepted scientific evidence on radiation protection for workers and the general population. In addition, supplementary information on radiation protection could be provided by formal comparisons and analyses combining data from populations with different types of exposure. Finally, in order to provide pertinent information for public health and radiation protection, future epidemiology studies should be targeted and designed to answer specific questions, concerning, for example, the risk for specific populations (children, patients, people with genetic predisposition). An integrated approach, combining epidemiology and studies on the mechanisms of radiation induction should provide particularly pertinent information. (author)

  9. Balancing Life with an Increased Risk of Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Helle Vendel; Nilbert, Mef; Bernstein, Inge

    2014-01-01

    led us to explore lived experiences in healthy mutation carriers with Lynch syndrome. Individual interviews were subjected to descriptive phenomenological analysis. Four constitutions, namely, family context, interpretation and transformation, approach to risk and balancing life at risk were......Possibilities to undergo predictive genetic testing for cancer have expanded, which implies that an increasing number of healthy individuals will learn about cancer predisposition. Knowledge about how an increased risk of disease influences life in a long-term perspective is largely unknown, which...... identified and formed the essence of the phenomenon "living with knowledge about risk." Family context influences how experiences and knowledge are interpreted and transformed into thoughts and feelings, which relates to how risk is approached and handled. The constitutions influence each other in a dynamic...

  10. Response of normal stem cells to ionizing radiation: A balance between homeostasis and genomic stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harfouche, G.; Martin, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    Stem cells have been described in most adult tissues, where they play a key role in maintaining tissue homeostasis. As they self-renew throughout life, accumulating genetic anomalies can compromise their genomic integrity and potentially give rise to cancer. Stem cells (SCs) may thus be a major target of radiation carcinogenesis. In addition, unrepaired genotoxic damage may cause cell death and stem cell pool depletion, impairing lineage functionality and accelerating aging. Developments in SC biology enabled the characterization of the responses of stem cells to genotoxic stress and their role in tissue damage. We here examine how these cells react to ionizing radiation (IR), and more specifically their radiosensitivity, stress signaling and DNA repair. We first review embryonic SCs, as a paradigm of primitive pluri-potent cells, then three adult tissues, bone marrow, skin and intestine, capable of long-term regeneration and at high risk for acute radiation syndromes and long-term carcinogenesis. We discuss IR disruption of the fine balance between maintenance of tissue homeostasis and genomic stability. We show that stem cell radiosensitivity does not follow a unique model, but differs notably according to the turnover rates of the tissues. (authors)

  11. Some results of radiative balance in atmospheres with clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anduckia Avila, Juan Carlos; Pelkowski, Joaquin

    2000-01-01

    Vertical profiles of temperature for a semi grey three-Layer atmosphere are established using a radiative equilibrium condition. The approximation contains the greenhouse effect, scattering by clouds in one direction and isotropic diffuse reflection at the planet's surface. Absorption of short- wave radiation is also considered in one of the three layers. Similar models are contained therein

  12. Radiation as a source of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Kazuaki

    1999-01-01

    Essence and nature of ionizing radiation as a source of risk are reviewed. Following to the appeal of necessity and importance of campaign for enlightening risk management, of individual and of society, background knowledge and information helpful to the promotion and discussion are summarized, also. (author)

  13. Genetic risks of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaranarayanan, K.

    1990-01-01

    Quantitative genetic risk estimation is made using two methods: the direct method, and the doubling dose (DD) method. The doubling dose currently used is 1 Gy for low LET, low dose, low dose rate irradiation, and is based on mouse data. Tables present the 1988 UNSCEAR estimates of genetic risk using both methods. (L.L.) (Tab.)

  14. To manage the ionizing radiations risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metivier, H.; Romerio, F.

    2000-01-01

    Mister Romerio's work tackles the problem of controversy revealed by the experts in the field of estimation and management of ionizing radiations risks. The author describes the three paradigms at the base of the debate: the relationship without threshold (typified by the ICRP and its adepts), these ones that think that low doses risks are overestimated ( Medicine Academia for example) or that ones that believe that dose limits are too severe and induce unwarranted costs; then that ones that think that these risks are under-estimated and limits should be more reduced, even stop these practices that lead to public exposure to ionizing radiations. The author details the uncertainties about the risk estimations, refreshes the knowledge in radiation protection with the explanations of the different paradigms. At the end a table summarize the positions of the three paradigms

  15. Risk of radiation at low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beninson, D.

    1996-01-01

    Risk and risk sources have been increasingly studied in recent years. The essentials of risk consist of a combination of the idea of loss with that of chance or probability. The idea of chance is crucial: the inevitable can be utterly unpleasant but, lacking the element of chance, is not a risk. Even without analyzing the different components of the concept of 'loss', it should be recognized that to be exposed to risk is not necessarily bad. The achievements of modern life imply the exposure to several sources of risk, and past evolution would have been impossible without the risk incurred by our ancestors. A special type of risk, pertinent to our discussion, is exemplified by the health threats due to low levels of natural or man-made chemicals and low radiation levels. It constitutes a risk very difficult to analyze, not because the effects are unknown but because they are already very familiar, and exposed groups only manifest a slightly increased frequency of such effects. The linear non-threshold relationship, is at present the best tool to predict the risk probability of radiation at low doses. It fulfills all the requirements to be considered 'realistically representative', using modeling terminology. Practical decisions can be made under this relationship, and the radiation protection system, recommended by the ICRP provides a method for such decisions. (author)

  16. Measuring the Earth's global radiation balance through orbital dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkman, O.; Herranen, J.; Virtanen, J.; Näränen, J.; Peltoniemi, J.; Gritsevich, M.; Lahtinen, S.; Koivula, H.; Penttilä, A.; Poutanen, M.; Muinonen, K.

    2017-09-01

    We study the possibility of estimating the global scattered radiation flux of the Earth by its radiation-pressure effect on satellite orbits. We perform numerical simulations of typical GNSS orbits, computing various estimates of the magnitude of this effect. We find that changes to orbits caused by reasonable changes in Earth albedo are within detectable limits of modern observational technology, as long as other perturbing forces are modeled well enough.

  17. Risks associated with radiation: General information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baris, D.; Pomroy, C.; Chatterjee, R.M.

    1995-07-01

    Employers have a general responsibility to explain occupational risks to their workers. This document has been prepared to assist employers in this task. Employers should inform their workers about radiation risks associated with their work by: identifying the source(s) of radiation exposure; identifying the risk of health effects due to exposure to these sources, including the risk to the embryo and foetus of pregnant female workers; explaining the relationship between regulatory dose limits and the risk of health effects; and, explaining a worker's personal dose in terms of risk. This publication provides basic information on these subjects in a form that is clear and easy to understand. For further information, a list of suggested additional reading is included at the end of the text. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs

  18. Pricing Externalities to Balance Public Risks and Benefits of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Sebastian; Cotton-Barratt, Owen; Snyder-Beattie, Andrew

    How should scientific funders evaluate research with public health risks? Some risky work is valuable, but accepting too much risk may be ethically neglectful. Recent controversy over H5N1 influenza experiments has highlighted the difficulty of this problem. Advocates of the research claim the work is needed to understand pandemics, while opponents claim that accidents or misuse could release the very pandemic the work is meant to prevent. In an attempt to resolve the debate, the US government sponsored an independent evaluation that successfully produced a quantitative estimate of the risks involved, but only a qualitative estimate of the benefits. Given the difficulties of this "apples-to-oranges" risk-benefit analysis, what is the best way forward? Here we outline a general approach for balancing risks and benefits of research with public risks. Instead of directly comparing risks and benefits, our approach requires only an estimate of risk, which is then translated into a financial price. This estimate can be obtained either through a centrally commissioned risk assessment or by mandating liability insurance, which allows private markets to estimate the financial burden of risky research. The resulting price can then be included in the cost of the research, enabling funders to evaluate grants as usual-comparing the scientific merits of a project against its full cost to society. This approach has the advantage of aligning incentives by assigning costs to those responsible for risks. It also keeps scientific funding decisions in the hands of scientists, while involving the public on questions of values and risk experts on risk evaluation.

  19. BALANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, H.

    1953-01-01

    A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.

  20. Risk of cardiovascular disease following radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.; Vlahovich, S.; Cornett, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Excess radiation-induced cardiac mortalities have been reported among radiotherapy patients. Many case reports describe the occurrence of atherosclerosis following radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease and breast cancer. Some case reports describe the cerebral infarction following radiotherapy to neck region, and of peripheral vascular disease of the lower extremities following radiotherapy to the pelvic region. The association of atomic bomb radiation and cardiovascular disease has been examined recently by incidence studies and prevalence studies of various endpoints of atherosclerosis; all endpoints indicated an increase of cardiovascular disease in the exposed group. It is almost certain that the cardiovascular disease is higher among atomic bomb survivors. However, since a heavy exposure of 10-40 Gy is delivered in radiotherapy and the bomb survivors were exposed to radiation at high dose and dose-rate, the question is whether the results can be extrapolated to individuals exposed to lower levels of radiation. Some recent epidemiological studies on occupationally exposed workers and population living near Chernobyl have provided the evidence for cardiovascular disease being a significant late effect at relatively low doses of radiation. However, the issue of non-cancer mortality from radiation is complicated by lack of adequate information on doses, and many other confounding factors (e.g., smoking habits or socio-economic status). This presentation will evaluate possible radiobiological mechanisms for radiation-induced cardiovascular disease, and will address its relevance to radiation protection management at low doses and what the impact might be on future radiation risk assessments. (authors)

  1. Aircrew radiation exposure: sources-risks-measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duftschmid, K.E.

    1994-05-01

    A short review is given on the actual aircrew exposure and its sources. The resulting risks for harmful effects to the health and discuss methods for in-flight measurements of exposure is evaluated. An idea for a fairly simple and economic approach to a practical, airborne active dosimeter for the assessment of individual crew exposure is presented. The exposure of civil aircrew to cosmic radiation, should not be considered a tremendous risk to the health, there is no reason for panic. However, being significantly higher than the average exposure to radiation workers, it can certainly not be neglected. As recommended by ICRP, aircrew exposure has to be considered occupational radiation exposure and aircrews are certainly entitled to the same degree of protection, as other ground-based radiation workers have obtained by law, since long time. (author)

  2. Radiation and risk in physics education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eijkelhof, H.M.C.

    1990-01-01

    The study reported in this thesis deals with physics education, particularly with the teaching and learning of radioactivity and ionizing radiation. It is a follow up of earlier research and development work in the Dutch Physics Curriculum Development Project (PLON) on a unit called Ionizing Radiation. The central theme of this unit was the acceptability of the risks of ionizing radiation. Preliminary evaluation of the effectiveness of the PLON-unit showed that pupils appear to have lay-ideas which seem to be resistant to change. In this study the nature and persistence of these lay-ideas have been explored and a set of recommendations have been developed for writing curriculum materials and for teaching strategies, for physics lessons in secondary high school, in order to promote thoughtful risk analysis and assessment as regards applications of ionizing radiation. (H.W.). 225 refs.; 3 figs.; 41 tabs

  3. Epidemiology and risk assessment for radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badwe, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    The hazard and exposures from radiation are known with reasonable accuracy. However, at 'low levels' uncertainty persists as to whether the dose response relationship is linear and whether there is a dose threshold, below which there is no risk. Some have proposed that 'low' exposures to radiation may be beneficial, a hypothesis referred to as 'hormesis'. Over recent decades, various expert groups have adopted linear no-threshold dose-response models for radiation and cancer, based on review of epidemiological and biological evidence. The unexpected epidemic of thyroid cancer among children following the Chernobyl disaster was noticed. The research with epidemiological data and knowledge of the radionuclides to which the children were exposed is needed. Currently a debate concerning potential risks of high frequency electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones illustrates another need for further research

  4. Radiation and energy balance of lettuce culture inside a polyethylene greenhouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisina, V. de A.; Escobedo, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to describe the radiation and energy balance, during the lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L. cv. Verônica) crop cycle inside a polyethylene greenhouse. The radiation and energy balance was made inside a tunnel greenhouse with polyethylene cover (100 mm) and in an external area, both areas with 35 m 2 . Global, reflected and net radiation, soil heat flux and air temperature (dry and humid) were measured during the crop cycle. A Datalogger, which operated at 1 Hz frequency, storing 5 minutes averages was utilized. The global (K↓) and reflected (K) radiations showed that the average transmission of global radiation (K↓in / K↓ex) was almost constant, near to 79.59%, while the average ratio of reflected radiation (Kin / Kex) was 69.21% with 8.47% standard-deviation. The normalized curves of short-wave net radiation, in relation to the global radiation (K*/ K↓), found for both environments, were almost constant at the beginning of cycle; this relation decreased in the final stage of culture. The normalized relation (Rn/ K↓) was bigger in the external area, about 12%, when the green culture covered the soil surface. The long-wave radiation balance average (L*) was bigger outside, about 50%. The energy balance, estimated in terms of vertical fluxes, showed that, for the external area, in average, 83.07% of total net radiation was converted in latent heat evaporation (LE), and 18% in soil heat flux (G), and 9.96% in sensible heat (H), while inside of the greenhouse, 58.71% of total net radiation was converted in LE, 42.68% in H, and 28.79% in G. (author) [pt

  5. Comparison of radiation and chemical risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, G.

    1988-01-01

    Injury to living cells is caused by mechanisms which in many cases are similar for radiation and chemicals. It is thus not surprising that radiation and many chemicals can cause similar biological effects, e.g. cancer, fetal injury and hereditary disease. Both radiation and chemicals are always found in our environment. One agent may strengthen or weaken the effect of another, be it radiation in combination with chemicals or one chemical with another. The implications of such synergistic or antagonistic effects are discussed. Intricate mechanisms help the body to defend itself against threats to health from radiation and chemicals, even against cancer risks. In a strategy for health, it might be worth to exploit actively these defense mechanisms, in parallel with decreasing the exposures. On particular interest are the large exposures from commonly known sources such as smoking, sun tanning and high fat contents of food. (author)

  6. Radiation risk management at DOE accelerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyck, O.B. van.

    1997-01-01

    The DOE accelerator contractors have been discussing among themselves and with the Department how to improve radiation safety risk management. This activity-how to assure prevention of unplanned high exposures-is separate from normal exposure management, which historically has been quite successful. The ad-hoc Committee on the Accelerator Safety Order and Guidance [CASOG], formed by the Accelerator Section of the HPS, has proposed a risk- based approach, which will be discussed. Concepts involved are risk quantification and comparison (including with non-radiation risk), passive and active (reacting) protection systems, and probabilistic analysis. Different models of risk management will be presented, and the changing regulatory environment will also be discussed

  7. Radiation risks : the ethics of health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxey, M.N.

    1988-01-01

    Since the inception of commercial uses of nuclear technology, radiation protection standards established by regulatory agencies have reflected moral concerns based on two assumptions: (1) that the linear, zero-threshold hypothesis derives from scientific data in radiobiology which are virtually conclusive; (2) it is morally better for public health protection to assume that any radiation exposure, no matter how small, has some harmful effect which can and ought to be prevented. In the past few years these beliefs and related assumptions have received closer scrutiny, revealing hidden reasons for regulatory selection of radiation risks as objects of paramount ethical concern, with the result that greater risks to health have escaped comparison and mitigation. Based on this scrutiny this brief paper explores two questions: Are presupposed assumptions ethically justified on grounds of scientific evidence and ethical consistency? and should moral objections claiming to invalidate comparative risk assessments be accepted or rejected?

  8. Radiation risk due to occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kargbo, A.A

    2012-04-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation occurs in many occupations. Workers can be exposed to both natural and artificial sources of radiation. Any exposure to ionizing radiation incurs some risk, either to the individual or to the individual's progeny. This dissertation investigated the radiation risk due to occupational exposure in industrial radiography. Analysis of the reported risk estimates to occupational exposure contained in the UNSCEAR report of 2008 in industrial radiography practice was done. The causes of accidents in industrial radiography include: Lack of or inadequate regulatory control, inadequate training, failure to follow operational procedures, human error, equipment malfunction or defect, inadequate maintenance and wilful violation have been identified as primary causes of accidents. To minimise radiation risks in industrial radiography exposure devices and facilities should be designed such that there is intrinsic safety and operational safety ensured by establishing a quality assurance programme, safety culture fostered and maintained among all workers, industrial radiography is performed in compliance with approved local rules, workers engaged have appropriate qualifications and training, available safe operational procedures are followed, a means is provided for detecting incidents and accidents and an analysis of the causes and lessons learned. (author)

  9. Ionizing Radiation Environments and Exposure Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M. H. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Space radiation environments for historically large solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are simulated to characterize exposures to radio-sensitive organs for missions to low-Earth orbit (LEO), moon, near-Earth asteroid, and Mars. Primary and secondary particles for SPE and GCR are transported through the respective atmospheres of Earth or Mars, space vehicle, and astronaut's body tissues using NASA's HZETRN/QMSFRG computer code. Space radiation protection methods, which are derived largely from ground-based methods recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) or International Commission on Radiological Protections (ICRP), are built on the principles of risk justification, limitation, and ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable). However, because of the large uncertainties in high charge and energy (HZE) particle radiobiology and the small population of space crews, NASA develops distinct methods to implement a space radiation protection program. For the fatal cancer risks, which have been considered the dominant risk for GCR, the NASA Space Cancer Risk (NSCR) model has been developed from recommendations by NCRP; and undergone external review by the National Research Council (NRC), NCRP, and through peer-review publications. The NSCR model uses GCR environmental models, particle transport codes describing the GCR modification by atomic and nuclear interactions in atmospheric shielding coupled with spacecraft and tissue shielding, and NASA-defined quality factors for solid cancer and leukemia risk estimates for HZE particles. By implementing the NSCR model, the exposure risks from various heliospheric conditions are assessed for the radiation environments for various-class mission types to understand architectures and strategies of human exploration missions and ultimately to contribute to the optimization of radiation safety and well-being of space crewmembers participating in long-term space missions.

  10. Radiation and society: Comprehending radiation risk. V. 2. Poster papers. Proceedings of an international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This IAEA international conference on Radiation and Society was the first major international meeting devoted to the comprehension of radiation risk, public attitude towards radiation risk and hazards encountered by the general public in contaminated areas. Volume two of the proceedings mainly deals with assessment of radiation exposure levels, radiation health effects, impact of radiation on the environment, perception of and managing radiation risk. Refs, figs, tabs

  11. Radiation risk assessment of reprocessed uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas, Hugo R.; Perez, Aldo E.; Luna, Manuel F.; Becerra, Fabian A.

    1999-01-01

    Reprocessed uranium contains 232 U, which is not found in nature, as well as 234 U which is present in higher proportion than in natural uranium. Both isotopes modify the radiological properties of the material. The paper evaluates the increase of the internal and external radiation risk on the base of experimental data and theoretical calculations. It also suggests measures to be taken in the production of fuel elements with slightly enriched uranium.The radiation risk of reprocessed uranium is directly proportional to the content of 232 U and 234 U as well as to the aging time of the material

  12. Radiation risks and benefits: politics and morality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxey, M.N.

    1983-01-01

    The bioethical framework from which moral reasoning concerning nuclear technology has been derived is both seriously flawed and conceptually inadequate. The reasons are examined and are arranged in response to three questions. First, what is the status of alleged scientific evidence from which moral conclusions about the unacceptability of man-made radiation exposures are derived. Secondly, what criticisms of risk assessment reasoning are pertinent to ethical reflection. Finally, what revisions in an ethical framework are necessary if risk estimates of low-dose radiation exposure are to be conducted properly

  13. The Association of Flexibility, Balance, and Lumbar Strength with Balance Ability: Risk of Falls in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio J. Martínez-López Emilio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of a proprioceptive training program on older adults, as well as to analyze the association between flexibility, balance and lumbar strength (physical fitness test with balance ability and fall risk (functional balance tests. This study was a controlled, longitudinal trial with a 12-week follow-up period. Subjects from a population of older adults were allocated to the intervention group (n = 28 or to the usual care (control group (n = 26. Subjects performed proprioceptive training twice weekly (6 specific exercises with Swiss ball and BOSU. Each session included 50 minutes (10 minutes of warm-up with slow walk, 10 minutes of mobility and stretching exercises, 30 minutes of proprioceptive exercises. The outcome variables were physical fitness (lower-body flexibility, hip-joint mobility, dynamic balance, static balance, and lumbar strength and functional balance (Berg scale and Tinetti test. The experimental group obtained significantly higher values than the control group in lower-body flexibility, dynamic balance, and lumbar strength (p = 0.019, p < 0.001, and p = 0.034 respectively. Hip-joint mobility, dynamic balance, and lumbar strength were positively associated with balance ability (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p = 0.014, respectively and the prevention of falls (p = 0.001, p < 0.001, and p = 0.017 respectively. These findings suggest that a 12-week proprioception program intervention (twice a week significantly improves flexibility, balance, and lumbar strength in older adults. Hip-joint mobility, dynamic balance and lumbar strength are positively associated to balance ability and the risk of falls in older adults. This proprioceptive training does not show a significant improvement in hip-joint mobility or static balance.

  14. Emerging Radiation Health-Risk Mitigation Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.W.; Cucinotta, F.A.; Schimmerling, W.

    2004-01-01

    Past space missions beyond the confines of the Earth's protective magnetic field have been of short duration and protection from the effects of solar particle events was of primary concern. The extension of operational infrastructure beyond low-Earth orbit to enable routine access to more interesting regions of space will require protection from the hazards of the accumulated exposures of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR). There are significant challenges in providing protection from the long-duration exposure to GCR: the human risks to the exposures are highly uncertain and safety requirements places unreasonable demands in supplying sufficient shielding materials in the design. A vigorous approach to future radiation health-risk mitigation requires a triage of techniques (using biological and technical factors) and reduction of the uncertainty in radiation risk models. The present paper discusses the triage of factors for risk mitigation with associated materials issues and engineering design methods

  15. Portfolio balancing and risk adjusted values under constrained budget conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKay, J.A.; Lerche, I.

    1996-01-01

    For a given hydrocarbon exploration opportunity, the influences of value, cost, success probability and corporate risk tolerance provide an optimal working interest that should be taken in the opportunity in order to maximize the risk adjusted value. When several opportunities are available, but when the total budget is insufficient to take optimal working interest in each, an analytic procedure is given for optimizing the risk adjusted value of the total portfolio; the relevant working interests are also derived based on a cost exposure constraint. Several numerical illustrations are provided to exhibit the use of the method under different budget conditions, and with different numbers of available opportunities. When value, cost, success probability, and risk tolerance are uncertain for each and every opportunity, the procedure is generalized to allow determination of probable optimal risk adjusted value for the total portfolio and, at the same time, the range of probable working interest that should be taken in each opportunity is also provided. The result is that the computations of portfolio balancing can be done quickly in either deterministic or probabilistic manners on a small calculator, thereby providing rapid assessments of opportunities and their worth to a corporation. (Author)

  16. Radiation induced cancer risk, detriment and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, W.K.

    1992-01-01

    Recommendations on radiation protection limits for workers and for the public depend mainly on the total health detriment estimated to be the result of low dose ionizing radiation exposure. This detriment includes the probability of a fatal cancer, an allowance for the morbidity due to non-fatal cancer and the probability of severe hereditary effects in succeeding generations. In a population of all ages, special effects on the fetus particularly the risk of mental retardation at defined gestational ages, should also be included. Among these components of detriment after low doses, the risk of fatal cancer is the largest and most important. The estimates of fatal cancer risk used by ICRP in the 1990 recommendations were derived almost exclusively from the study of the Japanese survivors of the atomic bombs of 1945. How good are these estimates? Uncertainties associated with them, apart from those due to limitations in epidemiological observation and dosimetry, are principally those due to projection forward in time and extrapolation from high dose and dose rate to low dose and dose rate, each of which could after the estimate by a factor of 2 or so. Recent estimates of risk of cancer derived directly from low dose studies are specific only within very broad ranges of risk. Nevertheless, such studies are important as confirmation or otherwise of the estimates derived from the atomic bomb survivors. Recent U.S. British and Russian studies are examined in this light. (author)

  17. Risks to health from radiation at low dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentner, N.E.; Osborne, R.V.

    1997-01-01

    Our focus is on whether, using a balance-of-evidence approach, it is possible to say that at a low enough dose, or at a sufficiently low dose rate, radiation risk reduces to zero in a population. We conclude that insufficient evidence exists at present to support such a conclusion. In part this reflects statistical limitations at low doses, and in part (although mechanisms unquestionably exist to protect us against much of the damage induced by ionizing radiation) the biological heterogeneity of human populations, which means these mechanisms do not act in all members of the population at all times. If it is going to be possible to demonstrate that low doses are less dangerous than we presently assume, the evidence, paradoxically, will likely come from studies of higher dose and dose rate scenarios than are encountered occupationally. (author)

  18. Carcinogenic risks associated to pollution by radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latarjet, Raymond

    1976-01-01

    Four aspects of the problem of carcinogenic risks associated to pollution by radiations are taken into consideration: the carcinogenic pollution by non-ionizing radiations is limited to the case of solar ultraviolet, whose activity at ground level may be increased as a consequence of the stratospheric depletion of ozone, itself produced by certain chemical pollutants: nitrogen oxides from supersonic aircrafts, freon. As regards ionizing radiations, the discussion is focused on the fundamental problem of the 'threshold', and on the means by which one may obtain some quantitative data related to carcinogenesis by small radiation doses in Man. A new concept, that of a 'practical threshold' is proposed. One discusses a theory which links radiocarcinogenesis, as well as chemical carcinogenesis, to errors produced in the repair of lesions in the DNA. One present and discusses the 'rads-equivalent' project for chemical mutagens and carcinogens [fr

  19. A modified Wheeler cap method for radiation efficiency measurement of balanced electrically small antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jiaying; Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of radiation efficiency for ultra small antennas represents a great challenge due to influence of the feeding cable. The Wheeler cap method is often used to measure the radiation efficiency of small antennas. However, it is well applicable for antennas on a ground plane......, but not for balanced antennas like loops or dipoles. In this paper, a modified Wheeler cap method is proposed for the radiation efficiency measurement of balanced electrically small antennas and a three-port network model of the Wheeler cap measurement is introduced. The advantage of the modified method...... is that it is wideband, thus does not require any balun, and both the antenna input impedance and radiation efficiency can be obtained. An electrically small loop antenna and a wideband dipole were simulated and measured according to the proposed method and the results of measurements and simulations are presented...

  20. Radiation Risk Projections for Space Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis

    2003-01-01

    Space travelers are exposed to solar and galactic cosmic rays comprised of protons and heavy ions moving with velocities close to the speed of light. Cosmic ray heavy ions are known to produce more severe types of biomolecular damage in comparison to terrestrial forms of radiation, however the relationship between such damage and disease has not been fully elucidated. On Earth, we are protected from cosmic rays by atmospheric and magnetic shielding, and only the remnants of cosmic rays in the form of ground level muons and other secondary radiations are present. Because human epidemiology data is lacking for cosmic rays, risk projection must rely on theoretical understanding and data from experimental models exposed to space radiation using charged particle accelerators to simulate space radiation. Although the risks of cancer and other late effects from cosmic rays are currently believed to present a severe challenge to space travel, this challenge is centered on our lack of confidence in risk projections methodologies. We review biophysics and radiobiology data on the effects of the cosmic ray heavy ions, and the current methods used to project radiation risks . Cancer risk projections are described as a product of many biological and physical factors, each of which has a differential range of uncertainty due to lack of data and knowledge. Risk projections for space travel are described using Monte-Carlo sampling from subjective error di stributions that represent the lack of knowledge in each factor that contributes to the projection model in order to quantify the overall uncertainty in risk projections. This analysis is applied to space mi ssion scenarios including lunar colony, deep space outpost, and a Mars mission. Results suggest that the number of days in space where cancer mortality risks can be assured at a 95% confidence level to be below the maximum acceptable risk for radi ation workers on Earth or the International Space Station is only on the order

  1. Implications of radiation risk for practical dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Radiobiological experiments with animals and cells have led to an expectation that the risks of cancer and hereditary effects are reduced at low doses and low dose rates of low LET radiation. Risk estimates derived from human exposures at high doses and dose rates usually contain an allowance for low dose effects in comparison with high dose effects, but no allowance may have been made for low dose rate effects. Although there are reasons for thinking that leukaemia risks may possibly have been underestimated, the total cancer risk assumed by ICRP for occupational exposures is reasonably realistic. For practical dosimetry the primary dose concepts and limits have to be translated into secondary quantities that are capable of practical realisation and measurement, and which will provide a stable and robust system of metrology. If the ICRP risk assumptions are approximately correct, it is extremely unlikely that epidemiological studies of occupational exposures will detect the influence of radiation. Elaboration of dosimetry and dose recording for epidemiological purposes is therefore unjustified except possibly in relation to differences between high and low LET radiations. (author)

  2. Radiation quality and radiation risks - some current problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellerer, A.M.; Hahn, K.

    1989-01-01

    The newly evaluated cancer mortality data of the atomic bomb survivors suggest substantially enhanced risk estimates, and the various factors that are involved in the change are considered. The enhanced risk estimates have already led to added restrictions in the dose limits for radiation workers, and there may be a further tightening of regulations in the future. The impending revision of the quality factors in radiation protection may, therefore, lead to practical difficulties, and a careful consideration of the various aspects involved in a revision is required. A liaison group of ICRU and ICRP has proposed a reformulation of the quality factor that is related not to the LET, but to the microdosimetric variably y. The relation leads to increased quality factors for neutrons, but also to a quality factor for γ rays of only 0.5. Alternatives are presented that relate the quality factor to LET and that retain γ- rays as the reference radiation. One option corresponds to different quality factors for γ rays and X-rays, the other option sets the quality factor for photons approximately equal to unity, irrespective of energy. (author)

  3. Radiation risks to the developing nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriegel, H.; Schmahl, W.; Stieve, F.E.; Gerber, G.B.

    1986-01-01

    A symposium dealing with 'Radiation Risks to the Developing Nervous System' held at Neuherberg, June 18-20, 1985 was organised by the Radiation Protection Programme of the Commission of the European Communities and the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH. The proceedings of this symposium present up-to-date information on the development of the nervous system and the modifications caused by prenatal radiation there upon. A large part of the proceedings is devoted to the consequences of prenatal irradiation in experimental animals with respect to alterations in morphology, biochemistry and behaviour, to the influence of dose, dose rate and radiation quality and to the question whether damage of the brain can arise from a synergistic action of radiation together with other agents. Since animal models for damage to the human central nervous system have inherent short-comings due to the differences in structure, complexity and development it is discussed how experimental studies could be applied to the human situation. The most recent data on persons exposed in utero at Hiroshima and Nagasaki are reviewed. A round table discussion, published in full, analyses all this information with a view to radiation protection, and defines the areas where future studies are needed. Separate abstracts were prepared for papers in these proceedings. (orig./MG)

  4. Mammography and radiation risk; Mammographie und Strahlenrisiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Biophysik und Strahlenbiologie

    1998-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant neoplasia among women in Germany. The use of mammography as the most relevant diagnostic procedure has increased rapidly over the last decade. Radiation risks associated with mammography may be estimated from the results of numerous epidemiological studies providing risk coefficients for breast cancer in relation to age at exposure. Various calculations can be performed using the risk coefficients. For instance, a single mammography examination (bilateral, two views of each breast) of a women aged 45 may enhance the risk of developing breast cancer during her lifetime numerically from about 12% of 12.0036%. This increase in risk is lower by a factor of 3,300 as compared to the risk of developing breast cancer in the absence of radiation exposure. At the age of 40 or more, the benefit of mammography exceeds the radiation risk by a factor of about 100. At higher ages this factor increases further. Finally, the dualism of individual risk and collective risk is considered. It is shown that the individual risk of a patient, even after multiple mammography examinations, is vanishingly small. Nevertheless, the basic principle of minimising radiation exposure must be followed to keep the collective risk in the total population as low as reasonably achievable. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Mammakarzinom ist in Deutschland die haeufigste Krebserkrankung der Frau, und entsprechend oft wird die Mammographie als das derzeit wichtigste Diagnoseverfahren eingesetzt. Zur Beurteilung des mit einer mammographischen Untersuchung verbundenen Strahlenrisikos liegen die Resultate einer groesseren Anzahl strahlenepidemiologischer Studien vor. Diese liefern den Risikokoeffizienten fuer Brustkrebs in Abhaengigkeit vom Lebensalter bei Strahlenexposition und ermoeglichen somit die Berechnung des altersabhaengigen Strahlenrisikos. Beispielsweise wird durch eine einmalige Mammographie-Untersuchung (bilateral, je zwei Aufnahmen in zwei Ebenen) bei einer 45

  5. Perception of low dose radiation risks among radiation researchers in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Ki Moon; Kwon, TaeWoo; Seo, Songwon; Lee, Dalnim; Park, Sunhoo; Jin, Young Woo; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2017-01-01

    Expert's risk evaluation of radiation exposure strongly influences the public's risk perception. Experts can inform laypersons of significant radiation information including health knowledge based on experimental data. However, some experts' radiation risk perception is often based on non-conclusive scientific evidence (i.e., radiation levels below 100 millisievert), which is currently under debate. Examining perception levels among experts is important for communication with the public since these individual's opinions have often exacerbated the public's confusion. We conducted a survey of Korean radiation researchers to investigate their perceptions of the risks associated with radiation exposure below 100 millisievert. A linear regression analysis revealed that having ≥ 11 years' research experience was a critical factor associated with radiation risk perception, which was inversely correlated with each other. Increased opportunities to understand radiation effects at perception of radiation exposure. In addition, radiation researchers conceived that more scientific evidence reducing the uncertainty for radiation effects perception of radiation exposure.

  6. Ultrasound power measurements of HITU transducer with a more stable radiation force balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaboece, B; Sadiko'lu, E; Bilgic, E

    2011-01-01

    A new radiation force balance (RFB) system was established at Turkish National Metrology Institute (UME) Ultrasonics Laboratory for High intensity therapeutic ultrasound (HITU) power measurements. The new system is highly stable at high power levels up to 500 Watts. The measurement system consists of a Plexiglas cylindrical balance arm, target mounting scale disks, conical reflecting and absorbing targets, adjustment nuts, and a hanging wire. Both of the two sides of balance were mounted similar size and weight targets. The equilibrium of the balance arm can be adjusted with nuts on screws located at both sides of the balance arm. Transducer was mounted to bottom of water tank. Absorbers in the bottom and the near walls of the tank were used for reflecting target case. Ultrasound power was applied to one scale of the balance where the reflecting/absorbing target was mounted and corresponding force was measured on the other scale of balance where was connected to a balance with a thin wire while the thin rest standing on a support. Ultrasound power of two HITU transducers at frequencies 0.93 MHz, 1.1 MHz and 3.3 MHz were measured with conventional and new system, the values were compared and uncertainty components were assessed in this paper.

  7. Ultrasound power measurements of HITU transducer with a more stable radiation force balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaboece, B; Sadiko' lu, E; Bilgic, E, E-mail: baki.karaboce@ume.tubitak.gov.t [Tuebitak Ulusal Metroloji Enstituesue (UME), P.K. 54 41470 Gebze-Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2011-02-01

    A new radiation force balance (RFB) system was established at Turkish National Metrology Institute (UME) Ultrasonics Laboratory for High intensity therapeutic ultrasound (HITU) power measurements. The new system is highly stable at high power levels up to 500 Watts. The measurement system consists of a Plexiglas cylindrical balance arm, target mounting scale disks, conical reflecting and absorbing targets, adjustment nuts, and a hanging wire. Both of the two sides of balance were mounted similar size and weight targets. The equilibrium of the balance arm can be adjusted with nuts on screws located at both sides of the balance arm. Transducer was mounted to bottom of water tank. Absorbers in the bottom and the near walls of the tank were used for reflecting target case. Ultrasound power was applied to one scale of the balance where the reflecting/absorbing target was mounted and corresponding force was measured on the other scale of balance where was connected to a balance with a thin wire while the thin rest standing on a support. Ultrasound power of two HITU transducers at frequencies 0.93 MHz, 1.1 MHz and 3.3 MHz were measured with conventional and new system, the values were compared and uncertainty components were assessed in this paper.

  8. Radiation dose and risk assessment in hysterosalpingography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plećaš Darko V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hysterosalpingography is an important diagnostic method for the evaluation of the female reproductive tract involving the exposure of patients to ionizing radiation. The irradiation of ovaries is unavoidable and radiation exposure of the patient and the associated radiological risk for the foetus and born child during the period of growth should be considered, as well. The purpose of this work is to evaluate organ and patient doses and radiation risks during hysterosalpingography procedures performed in a dedicated gynecological hospital. The entrance surface air kerma was measured for a total of 31 patients during hysterosalpingography. Based on the results obtained, the radiogenic risk for hereditary effects and cancer induction was estimated. The patient dose levels are in the range of 3-15 mGy, with a median value of 10 mGy, in terms of entrance surface air kerma. Estimated median ovarian and uterus doses are 1.7 and 2.3 mGy, respectively. The risk for fatal cancer and hereditary effects is estimated to be 5.5×10-5 and 3.4 ×10-6, respectively. Although low compared to the natural incidence of genetic effects and cancer, it can be elevated in cases of prolonged or repeated procedures or procedures where the non-optimized protocol is used.

  9. Environmental radiation standards and risk limitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency and Nuclear Regulatory Commission have established environmental radiation standards for specific practices which correspond to limits on risk to the public that vary by several orders of magnitude and often are much less than radiation risks that are essentially unregulated, e.g., risks from radon in homes. This paper discusses a proposed framework for environmental radiation standards that would improve the correspondence with limitation of risk. This framework includes the use of limits on annual effective dose equivalent averaged over a lifetime, rather than limits on dose equivalent to whole body or any organ for each year of exposure, and consideration of exposures of younger age groups as well as adults; limits on annual effective dose equivalent averaged over a lifetime no lower than 0.25 mSv (25 mrem) per practice; maintenance of all exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA); and establishment of a generally applicable de minimis dose for public exposures. Implications of the proposed regulatory framework for the current system of standards for limiting public exposures are discussed. 20 refs

  10. Quantitative Risk in Radiation Protection Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, V. P.

    1979-01-03

    Although the overall aim of radiobiology is to understand the biological effects of radiation, it also has the implied practical purpose of developing rational measures for the control of radiation exposure in man. The emphasis in this presentation is to show that the enormous effort expended over the years to develop quantitative dose-effect relationships in biochemical and cellular systems, animals, and human beings now seems to be paying off. The pieces appear to be falling into place, and a framework is evolving to utilize these data. Specifically, quantitative risk assessments will be discussed in terms of the cellular, animal, and human data on which they are based; their use in the development of radiation protection standards; and their present and potential impact and meaning in relation to the quantity dose equivalent and its special unit, the rem.

  11. On ionising radiation and breast cancer risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattson, Anders

    1999-05-01

    A cohort of 3,090 women with clinical diagnosis of benign breast disease (BBD) was studied. Of these, 1,216 were treated with radiation therapy during 1925-54 (median age 40 years). The mean dose to the breasts was 5.8 Gy (range 0-50 Gy). Among other organs the lung received the highest scattered dose (0.75 Gy; range 0.004-8.98 Gy) and the rectum the lowest (0.008 Gy; range 0-0.06 Gy). A pooled analysis of eight breast cancer incidence cohorts was done, including: tumour registry data on breast cancer incidence among women in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors; women in Massachusetts who received repeated chest fluoroscopic during lung collapse treatment for tuberculosis; women who received x-ray therapy for acute post-partum mastitis; women who were irradiated in infancy for enlarged thymus glands ; two Swedish cohorts of women who received radiation treatments during infancy for skin hemangioma; and the BBD cohort. Together the cohorts included almost 78,000 women (-35,000 were exposed), around 1.8 million woman-years and 1500 cases. The breast cancer incidence rate as a function of breast dose was analysed using linear-quadratic Poisson regression models. Cell-killing effects and other modifying effects were incorporated through additional log-linear terms. Additive (EAR) and multiplicative (ERR) models were compared in estimating the age-at-exposure patterns and time related excess. The carcinogenic risks associated with radiation in mammographic mass screening is evaluated. Assessment was made in terms of breast cancer mortality and years of life. Effects were related to rates not influenced by a mammographic mass screening program and based on a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 40-year old women with no history of breast cancer being followed to 100 years of age. Two radiation risk assumptions were compared. The dose-response relationship is linear with little support in data for an upward curvature at low to medium doses. The competing effect

  12. Radiation risk perception and public information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boggs-Mayes, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    We as Health Physicists face what, at many times, appears to be a hopeless task. The task simply stated is informing the public about the risks (or lack thereof) of radiation. Unfortunately, the public has perceived radiation risks to be much greater than they actually are. An example of this problem is shown in a paper by Arthur C. Upton. Three groups of people -- the League of Women Voters, students, and Business and Professional Club members -- were asked to rank 30 sources of risk according to their contribution to the number of deaths in the United States. Not surprisingly, they ranked nuclear power much higher and medical x-rays much lower than the actual values. In addition to the perception problem, we are faced with another hurdle: health physicists as communicators. Members of the Health Physics Society (HPS) found that the communication styles of most health physicists appear to be dissimilar to those of the general public. These authors administered the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator to the HPS Baltimore-Washington Chapter. This test, a standardized test for psychological type developed by Isabel Myers, ask questions that provide a quantitative measure of our natural preferences in four areas. Assume that you as a health physicist have the necessary skills to communicate information about radiation to the public. Health physicists do nothing with these tools. Most people involved in radiation protection do not get involved with public information activies. What I will attempt to do is heighten your interest in such activities. I will share information about public information activities in which I have been involved and give you suggestions for sources of information and materials. 2 refs., 1 tab

  13. How health risk from radiation is assessed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahm-Crites, L.

    1994-07-01

    The likelihood that a dose of radiation will result in death from cancer at some future time can be estimated by multiplying the dose equivalent by a risk factor, or dose-to-risk conversion factor. Conversion factors, which are based on studies of atomic bomb survivors and others, provide approximate predictions of the health effects to be expected from a given radiological exposure. Following recommendations of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Department of Energy currently uses risk conversion factors of 4 x 10 -4 (0.0004 LCFs) per person-rem for workers and 5 x 10 -4 (0.0005 LCFs) per person-rem for the general public (NRC 1991; DOE 1993). The conversion factor for general public is slightly higher than that for workers because the general public includes infants and children, who are more susceptible to cancer. The current overall death rate from cancer in the United States is between 20 and 25 percent, in other words, cancer accounts for one out of nearly every four deaths. An action affecting a population of 20,000 people, with the estimated potential to induce one latent cancer fatality, should therefore be understood as adding one death from cancer to a normally expected total of 4500. Studies dedicated to improving their ability to predict radiation health effects are constantly in progress, nationally and internationally, and risk conversion factors are periodically revised to incorporate new experimental and epidemiological information

  14. Task oriented training improves the balance outcome & reducing fall risk in diabetic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazal, Javeria; Malik, Arshad Nawaz; Amjad, Imran

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to determine the balance impairments and to compare task oriented versus traditional balance training in fall reduction among diabetic patients. The randomized control trial with descriptive survey and 196 diabetic patients were recruited to assess balance impairments through purposive sampling technique. Eighteen patients were randomly allocated into two groups; task oriented balance training group TOB (n=8) and traditional balance training group TBT (n=10). The inclusion criteria were 30-50 years age bracket and diagnosed cases of Diabetes Mellitus with neuropathy. The demographics were taken through standardized & valid assessment tools include Berg Balance Scale and Functional Reach Test. The measurements were obtained at baseline, after 04 and 08 weeks of training. The mean age of the participants was 49 ±6.79. The result shows that 165(84%) were at moderate risk of fall and 31(15%) were at mild risk of fall among total 196 diabetic patients. There was significant improvement (p training group for dynamic balance, anticipatory balance and reactive balance after 8 weeks of training as compare to traditional balance training. Task oriented balance training is effective in improving the dynamic, anticipator and reactive balance. The task oriented training reduces the risk of falling through enhancing balance outcome.

  15. Risk management of radiation therapy. Survey by north Japan radiation therapy oncology group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Masahiko; Abe, Yoshinao; Yamada, Shogo; Hareyama, Masato; Nakamura, Ryuji; Sugita, Tadashi; Miyano, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    A North Japan Radiation Oncology Group (NJRTOG) survey was carried out to disclose the risk management of radiation therapy. During April 2002, we sent questionnaires to radiation therapy facilities in northern Japan. There were 31 replies from 27 facilities. Many incidents and accidents were reported, including old cases. Although 60% of facilities had a risk management manual and/or risk manager, only 20% had risk management manuals for radiation therapy. Eighty five percent of radiation oncologists thought that incidents may be due to a lack of manpower. Ninety percent of radiation oncologists want to know the type of cases happened in other facilities. The risk management system is still insufficient for radiation therapy. We hope that our data will be a great help to develop risk management strategies for radiation therapy for all radiation oncologists in Japan. (author)

  16. Influence of snow cover changes on surface radiation and heat balance based on the WRF model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lingxue; Liu, Tingxiang; Bu, Kun; Yang, Jiuchun; Chang, Liping; Zhang, Shuwen

    2017-10-01

    The snow cover extent in mid-high latitude areas of the Northern Hemisphere has significantly declined corresponding to the global warming, especially since the 1970s. Snow-climate feedbacks play a critical role in regulating the global radiation balance and influencing surface heat flux exchange. However, the degree to which snow cover changes affect the radiation budget and energy balance on a regional scale and the difference between snow-climate and land use/cover change (LUCC)-climate feedbacks have been rarely studied. In this paper, we selected Heilongjiang Basin, where the snow cover has changed obviously, as our study area and used the WRF model to simulate the influences of snow cover changes on the surface radiation budget and heat balance. In the scenario simulation, the localized surface parameter data improved the accuracy by 10 % compared with the control group. The spatial and temporal analysis of the surface variables showed that the net surface radiation, sensible heat flux, Bowen ratio, temperature and percentage of snow cover were negatively correlated and that the ground heat flux and latent heat flux were positively correlated with the percentage of snow cover. The spatial analysis also showed that a significant relationship existed between the surface variables and land cover types, which was not obviously as that for snow cover changes. Finally, six typical study areas were selected to quantitatively analyse the influence of land cover types beneath the snow cover on heat absorption and transfer, which showed that when the land was snow covered, the conversion of forest to farmland can dramatically influence the net radiation and other surface variables, whereas the snow-free land showed significantly reduced influence. Furthermore, compared with typical land cover changes, e.g., the conversion of forest into farmland, the influence of snow cover changes on net radiation and sensible heat flux were 60 % higher than that of land cover changes

  17. DNA Damage Signals and Space Radiation Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    Space radiation is comprised of high-energy and charge (HZE) nuclei and protons. The initial DNA damage from HZE nuclei is qualitatively different from X-rays or gamma rays due to the clustering of damage sites which increases their complexity. Clustering of DNA damage occurs on several scales. First there is clustering of single strand breaks (SSB), double strand breaks (DSB), and base damage within a few to several hundred base pairs (bp). A second form of damage clustering occurs on the scale of a few kbp where several DSB?s may be induced by single HZE nuclei. These forms of damage clusters do not occur at low to moderate doses of X-rays or gamma rays thus presenting new challenges to DNA repair systems. We review current knowledge of differences that occur in DNA repair pathways for different types of radiation and possible relationships to mutations, chromosomal aberrations and cancer risks.

  18. Effect of balance training on postural balance control and risk of fall in children with diplegic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shamy, Shamekh Mohamed; Abd El Kafy, Ehab Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of balance training on postural control and fall risk in children with diplegic cerebral palsy. Thirty spastic diplegic cerebral palsied children (10-12 years) were included in this study. Children were randomly assigned into two equal-sized groups: control and study groups. Participants in both groups received a traditional physical therapy exercise program. The study group additionally received balance training on the Biodex balance system. Treatment was provided 30 min/d, 3 d/week for 3 successive months. To evaluate the limit of stability and fall risk, participated children received baseline and post-treatment assessments using the Biodex balance system. Overall directional control, total time to complete the test, overall stability index of the fall risk test and total score of the pediatric balance scale were measured. Children in both groups showed significant improvements in the mean values of all measured variables post-treatment (p control group (p control in children with diplegic cerebral palsy.

  19. Medical radiation exposure and genetic risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    Everyone is exposed to background radiation throughout life (100 mrem/year to the gonads or 4 to 5 rem during the reproductive years). A lumbosacral series might deliver 2500 mrem to the male or 400 mrem to the female gonads. A radiologic procedure is a cost/benefit decision, and genetic risk is a part of the cost. Although cost is usually very low compared to benefit, if the procedure is unnecessary then the cost may be unacceptable. On the basis of current estimates, the doubling dose is assumed to be 40 rem (range 20 to 200) for an acute dose, and 100 rem for protracted exposure. Although there is no satisfactory way to predict the size of the risk for an individual exposed, any risk should be incentive to avoid unnecessary radiation to the gonads. Conception should be delayed for at least ten months for women and three or four months for men after irradiation of the gonads. The current incidence of genetically related diseases in the United States population is 60,000 per million live births. Based on the most conservative set of assumptions, an average gonadal dose of 1000 mrem to the whole population would increase the incidence of genetically related diseases by 0.2%

  20. Definition report on Radiation Indicators in the Environmental Balance and Environmental Outline reports of the Dutch government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruppers, M.J.M.; Aldenkamp, F.J.; Blaauboer, R.O.; Eggink, G.J.; Kwakman, P.J.M.

    1994-02-01

    For use in future versions of the integrative reports called 'Milieubalans' (Environmental Balance) and 'Milieuverkenning' (Environmental Outlook) RIVM has chosen to present an overview of environmental issues, especially those related to actual and future environmental policies in the Netherlands, in terms of so called target and related steering variables. This definition report describes the elaboration of the above-mentioned approach when it is applied to the complete area of interest: radiation. Together with other definition reports it is supposed to be the justification of choices which are made in defining the sequence of subjects and the minimum set of variables in the future versions of the 'Milieubalans' and the 'Milieuverkenning'. The elaboration is guided by the policy document 'Radiation protection and risk management' (Omgaan met risico's van straling). The policy can be characterized as risk management by focusing directly on the sources of radiation, i.e. steering at the beginning and setting limits at the end of the source-risk chain. Therefore, it is concluded that the complete source-risk chain has to be analyzed and modelled. The area of interest (radiation) is subdivided into areas corresponding to the source categories which are used in the policy document. For each area possible target and steering variables, together with related target and reference values, are collected. Present (diagnosis) and future (prognosis) values of the target variables are also investigated. In conclusion, an indication is given of the activities, which are advisable for the coming years in order to make the target variables operational. The next phases are roughly outlined. 6 tabs., 2 appendices, 19 refs

  1. Multidisciplinary approaches to radiation-balanced lasers (MARBLE): a MURI program by AFOSR (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2017-02-01

    An overview of the diverse research activities under the newly funded MURI project by AFOSR will be presented. The main goal is to advance the science of radiation-balanced lasers, also known as athermal lasers, in order to mitigate the thermal degradation of the high-power laser beams. The MARBLE project involves researchers from four universities and spans research activities in rare-earth doped crystals and fibers to semiconductor disc lasers.

  2. Understanding radiation and risk: the importance of primary and secondary education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Junichiro

    1999-01-01

    In Japan's primary and secondary schools, radiation and radioactivity are taught as part of the curriculum dealing with social science subjects. Students learn much about the hazardous features of radiation, but lack the scientific understanding necessary to build a more balanced picture. Although the same point applies to education covering the harmful effects of volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, electrical storms and so on, public understanding of these events is relatively high and students are generally able to make informed judgments about the risks involved. By contrast, their limited understanding of radiation often contributes to fears that it is evil or even supernatural. To correct this distortion, it is important that primary and secondary education includes a scientific explanation of radiation. Like heat and light, radiation is fundamental to the history of the universe; and scientific education programs should give appropriate emphasis to this important subject. Students would then be able to make more objective judgments about the useful and hazardous aspects of radiation. (author)

  3. Radiation risk of thyroid scintigraphy in newborns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beekhuis, H.; Piers, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Tumor risk factors were calculated for newborns who were investigated for congenital hypothyroidism (CHT) with radionuclides by thyroid scintigraphy. Figures for three radiopharmaceuticals, sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate, 123 I- and 131 I-sodium iodide for adults were extrapolated to newborns. The radiation dose to the normal thyroid gland in newborns was seven times higher for 123 I-NaI than for sup(99m)TcO 4- , the somatically effective total body dose was two times higher for 123 I-NaI than for sup(99m)TcO 4- . The use of 123 I-NaI was preferred because of better scintigraphic results. Risk estimates for thyroid scintigraphy in newborns in the diagnostic work-up of CHT are given using published age-dependent tumour induction figures derived from atomic bomb survivors. (orig.)

  4. Radiation doses and risks from internal emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, John; Day, Philip

    2008-01-01

    This review updates material prepared for the UK Government Committee Examining Radiation Risks from Internal Emitters (CERRIE) and also refers to the new recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and other recent developments. Two conclusions from CERRIE were that ICRP should clarify and elaborate its advice on the use of its dose quantities, equivalent and effective dose, and that more attention should be paid to uncertainties in dose and risk estimates and their implications. The new ICRP recommendations provide explanations of the calculation and intended purpose of the protection quantities, but further advice on their use would be helpful. The new recommendations refer to the importance of understanding uncertainties in estimates of dose and risk, although methods for doing this are not suggested. Dose coefficients (Sv per Bq intake) for the inhalation or ingestion of radionuclides are published as reference values without uncertainty. The primary purpose of equivalent and effective dose is to enable the summation of doses from different radionuclides and from external sources for comparison with dose limits, constraints and reference levels that relate to stochastic risks of whole-body radiation exposure. Doses are calculated using defined biokinetic and dosimetric models, including reference anatomical data for the organs and tissues of the human body. Radiation weighting factors are used to adjust for the different effectiveness of different radiation types, per unit absorbed dose (Gy), in causing stochastic effects at low doses and dose rates. Tissue weighting factors are used to take account of the contribution of individual organs and tissues to overall detriment from cancer and hereditary effects, providing a simple set of rounded values chosen on the basis of age- and sex-averaged values of relative detriment. While the definition of absorbed dose has the scientific rigour required of a basic physical quantity

  5. Balancing accuracy, efficiency, and flexibility in a radiative transfer parameterization for dynamical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, R.; Mlawer, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    Radiation is key process in numerical models of the atmosphere. The problem is well-understood and the parameterization of radiation has seen relatively few conceptual advances in the past 15 years. It is nonthelss often the single most expensive component of all physical parameterizations despite being computed less frequently than other terms. This combination of cost and maturity suggests value in a single radiation parameterization that could be shared across models; devoting effort to a single parameterization might allow for fine tuning for efficiency. The challenge lies in the coupling of this parameterization to many disparate representations of clouds and aerosols. This talk will describe RRTMGP, a new radiation parameterization that seeks to balance efficiency and flexibility. This balance is struck by isolating computational tasks in "kernels" that expose as much fine-grained parallelism as possible. These have simple interfaces and are interoperable across programming languages so that they might be repalced by alternative implementations in domain-specific langauges. Coupling to the host model makes use of object-oriented features of Fortran 2003, minimizing branching within the kernels and the amount of data that must be transferred. We will show accuracy and efficiency results for a globally-representative set of atmospheric profiles using a relatively high-resolution spectral discretization.

  6. International RADAGAST Experiment in Niamey, Niger: Changes and Drivers of Atmospheric Radiation Balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Slingo, A.; Bharmal, N.; Robinson, G. J.; Turner, David D.; Miller, Mark; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Miller, R.

    2009-03-11

    The Sahara desert is notorious as a source of massive dust storms. This dust dramatically influences the Earth-atmosphere energy budget through reflecting and absorbing the incoming sunlight. However, this budget is poorly understood, and in particular, we lack quantitative understanding of how the diurnal and seasonal variation of meteorological variables and aerosol properties influence the propagation of solar irradiance through the desert atmosphere. To improve our understanding of these influences, coincident and collocated observations of fluxes, measured from both space and the surface, are highly desirable. Recently, the unique capabilities of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) Experiment, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF), the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument, and the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) were combined effectively as part of a large international project: the Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using AMF, GERB data and AMMA Stations (RADAGAST), which took place in Niamey, Niger, in 2006. The RADAGAST objectives, instrumentation, and scientific background are presented in [1]. Initial results from RADAGAST documented the strong radiative impact of a major Saharan dust storm on the Earth’s radiation budget [2]. A special issue of the Journal of Geophysical Research will include a collection of papers with the more complete results from RADAGAST (e.g., [1,3], and references therein). In particular, a year-long time series from RADAGAST are used to investigate (i) the factors that control the radiative fluxes and the divergence of radiation across the atmosphere [3-5], (ii) seasonal changes in the surface energy balance and associated variations in atmospheric constituents (water vapor, clouds, aerosols) [6], and (iii) sensitivity of microphysical, chemical and optical properties of aerosols to their sources and the atmospheric conditions [7]. Here we show

  7. Scientific view of low-level radiation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    The average number of diagnostic x-ray procedures per year in the United States equals the total population and results in an annual collective effective dose equivalent of about 9 million person-rem. Possible deleterious effects include (a) genetic consequences, the risks of which can be assessed only from animal studies; (b) carcinogenesis, which can be assessed from survivors of nuclear bombings and patients exposed for medical reasons; and (c) effects on the developing embryo or fetus. For stochastic endpoints such as cancer and genetic anomalies, it is estimated that the current practice of radiology in the United States increases spontaneous frequency by less than 1%. No single procedure is likely to produce harm to the conceptus, but an accumulation of procedures in a pregnant woman could be hazardous during the sensitive period of 8-15 weeks after conception, with microcephaly and mental retardation the most likely deleterious effects. The balance of risk versus benefit in diagnostic radiology is heavily weighted toward benefit, but the risks are there, and constant efforts are needed to reduce radiation doses to the minimum necessary

  8. Energy and carbon balances in cheatgrass, an essay in autecology. [Shortwave radiation, radiowave radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinds, W.T.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment to determine the fates of energy and carbon in cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) was carried out on steep (40/sup 0/) north- and south-facing slopes on a small earth mound, using many small lysimeters to emulate swards of cheatgrass. Meteorological conditions and energy fluxes that were measured included air and soil temperatures, relative humidity, wind speed, incoming shortwave radiation, net all-wave radiation, heat flux to the soil, and evaporation and transpiration separately. The fate of photosynthetically fixed carbon during spring growth was determined by analysis of the plant tissues into mineral nutrients, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) for roots, shoots, and seeds separately. (auth)

  9. Perception of low dose radiation risks among radiation researchers in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Songwon; Lee, Dalnim; Park, Sunhoo; Jin, Young Woo; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2017-01-01

    Expert’s risk evaluation of radiation exposure strongly influences the public’s risk perception. Experts can inform laypersons of significant radiation information including health knowledge based on experimental data. However, some experts’ radiation risk perception is often based on non-conclusive scientific evidence (i.e., radiation levels below 100 millisievert), which is currently under debate. Examining perception levels among experts is important for communication with the public since these individual’s opinions have often exacerbated the public’s confusion. We conducted a survey of Korean radiation researchers to investigate their perceptions of the risks associated with radiation exposure below 100 millisievert. A linear regression analysis revealed that having ≥ 11 years’ research experience was a critical factor associated with radiation risk perception, which was inversely correlated with each other. Increased opportunities to understand radiation effects at risk perception of radiation exposure. In addition, radiation researchers conceived that more scientific evidence reducing the uncertainty for radiation effects risk perception of radiation exposure. PMID:28166286

  10. Seasonal changes in the radiation balance of subarctic forest and tundra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafleur, P.M.; Renzetti, A.V.; Bello, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the seasonal behavior of the components of the radiation budget of subarctic tundra and open forest near Churchill, Manitoba. Data were collected between late February and August 1990. The presence of the winter snowpack is the most important factor which affects the difference in radiation balances of tundra and forest. Overall, net radiation was about four to five times larger over the forest when snow covered the ground. Albedo differences were primarily responsible for this difference in net radiation; however, somewhat smaller net longwave losses were experienced at the tundra site. The step decrease in albedo from winter to summer (i.e. snow-covered to snow-free conditions) was significant at both sites. The forest albedo decreased by about three-fold while the tundra experienced a seven-fold decrease. Net radiation at both sites increased in direct response to the albedo change. Transmissivity of the atmosphere near Churchill also appeared to change at about the same time as the loss of the snow cover and may be related to changing air masses which bring about the final snow melt

  11. Balance 2003 of the risks control at the Cea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    As a research center on the energy, the information and health technologies and the defense, the Cea activities are indissociable from the risk control notion. To organize the risks management, the Cea decided to create in july 2003 a special pole of risks control and management. This presentation is based on some major topics of the risks control: the environmental impact control, the occupational risks control, the installations safety control and the hazardous matter transport control. (A.L.B.)

  12. Comments on the theory of radiation risk I Systematic outline of the theory of radiation risk

    CERN Document Server

    Neufeld, J

    1974-01-01

    Presents a systematic outline of the current theory of radiation risk. The most basic ideas of the theory can be expressed by two quantities which represent the administrative approach to radiation risk. These quantities are 'specific dose', D/sub s/, which relates to individual organs or tissues and 'overall dose', D/sub 0/, which relates to the entire human body. By taking D/sub s/ and D/sub 0/ as a starting point and by using postulational methods, two auxiliary quantities have been derived which are 'dose equivalent', D/sub e/(r), and quality factor, Q. Dose equivalent, D/sub e/(r), is a macroscopic field quantity and is, therefore, different from the ICRP defined dose equivalent, H, which is microscopic.

  13. Education on radiation risk in primary and middle schools in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Junichiro

    1999-01-01

    The (ionizing) radiation appears in the text of social studies in primary and middle school curriculums. The radiation is almost not involved in the text of science. Consequently, pupils know only the examples of disasters caused by the excessive radiation and have no chance to learn real natures and characters of the radiation after the compulsory education course. This situation means difficulties to give a lesson on the radiation risk. Erupting volcanoes, earthquakes and lightning are similar in danger of the excessive radiations. However, few pupils have a supernatural threat for these phenomena that ancient people do, because they have the adequate knowledge for theses after primary and middle school curriculums. This situation is a full of contrast to the case of the radiation on the major sensitivity that they have. The point is to let pupils learn that the radiation is one of the natural phenomena like heat and electricity, those exist before a birth of human being. Natural ionizing radiation sources are recommended for the first teaching material. Pupils know that the radiation is one of commonplace events, then. Radiation is one of the universe elements. Consequently, they will know that human being is evolving with the radiation exposures. The general perception on safety and danger is a kind of antinomy in Japan. A person who is following antinomy accepts only zero risk. Preschool educations will be needed to grow out of an antinomy concept on safety and danger, and to recognize the reality. A comprehensive knowledge should be provided with a full balance for the perception of risk. For an example, prejudices against HIV patients still remain in Japan, due to many belated campaigns on weak infection. People remember danger, and they do not remember the fact that is not dangerous. (Y. Tanaka)

  14. Education on radiation risk in primary and middle schools in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, Junichiro [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (SPring-8), Mikaduki, Hyogo (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    The (ionizing) radiation appears in the text of social studies in primary and middle school curriculums. The radiation is almost not involved in the text of science. Consequently, pupils know only the examples of disasters caused by the excessive radiation and have no chance to learn real natures and characters of the radiation after the compulsory education course. This situation means difficulties to give a lesson on the radiation risk. Erupting volcanoes, earthquakes and lightning are similar in danger of the excessive radiations. However, few pupils have a supernatural threat for these phenomena that ancient people do, because they have the adequate knowledge for theses after primary and middle school curriculums. This situation is a full of contrast to the case of the radiation on the major sensitivity that they have. The point is to let pupils learn that the radiation is one of the natural phenomena like heat and electricity, those exist before a birth of human being. Natural ionizing radiation sources are recommended for the first teaching material. Pupils know that the radiation is one of commonplace events, then. Radiation is one of the universe elements. Consequently, they will know that human being is evolving with the radiation exposures. The general perception on safety and danger is a kind of antinomy in Japan. A person who is following antinomy accepts only zero risk. Preschool educations will be needed to grow out of an antinomy concept on safety and danger, and to recognize the reality. A comprehensive knowledge should be provided with a full balance for the perception of risk. For an example, prejudices against HIV patients still remain in Japan, due to many belated campaigns on weak infection. People remember danger, and they do not remember the fact that is not dangerous. (Y. Tanaka)

  15. Radiation balance at the surface in the city of São Paulo, Brazil: diurnal and seasonal variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, M.J.; Oliveira, de A.P.; Soares, J.; Codato, G.; Wilde Barbaro, E.; Escobedo, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this work is to describe the diurnal and seasonal variations of the radiation balance components at the surface in the city of São Paulo based on observations carried out during 2004. Monthly average hourly values indicate that the amplitudes of the diurnal cycles of net radiation

  16. Are balance problems connected to reading speed or the familial risk of dyslexia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viholainen, Helena; Aro, Mikko; Ahonen, Timo; Crawford, Susan; Cantell, Marja; Kooistra, Libbe

    AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the connection between balance problems and reading speed in children with and without a familial risk of dyslexia by controlling for the effects of attention, hyperactivity, and cognitive and motor functioning. METHOD: The prevalence of balance problems was

  17. Informing people about radiation risks: a review of obstacles to public understanding and effective risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covello, V.T.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on informing people about radiation risks. The paper focuses on obstacles to public understanding and effective risk communication. The paper concludes with a set of guidelines for communicating information about radiation risks to the public. The paper also includes an appendix that reviews the literature on one of the most important tools for communicating information about radiation risks: risk comparisons

  18. Influences of deforestation on radiation and heat balances in tropical peat swamp forest in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, S.; Ishida, T.; Nagano, T.; Matsukawa, S.

    1997-01-01

    The difference of radiation and heat balances between a natural peat swamp forest and a deforested secondary forest has been investigated in Narathiwat Province, Thailand. Micrometeorological measurements were conducted continuously on observation towers 38 m and 4 m in heights in the primary forest and the secondary forest respectively. Results show that the deforestation of peat swamp forest leads to an increase in the sensible heat flux in the secondary forest. The yearly average ratio of the sensible heat flux to the net radiation was 20.9% in the peat swamp forest, and 33.2% in the secondary forest from Aug. 1995 to Jul. 1996. A ratio more than 40% was observed only in the dry season in the secondary forest. The change in sensible heat flux seemed to be influenced by the change in ground water levels. (author)

  19. Review of the current status of radiation risk estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, M.W.; Little, M.P.

    1988-10-01

    This report reviews the current status of radiation risk estimation for low linear energy transfer radiation. Recent statements by various national and international organisations regarding risk estimates are critically discussed. The recently published revised population risk estimates from the study of Japanese bomb survivors are also reviewed and used with some unpublished data from Japan to calculate risk figures for a general work force. (author)

  20. Use of MODIS Images to Quantify the Radiation and Energy Balances in the Brazilian Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio H. de C. Teixeira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available MODIS images during the year 2012 were used for modelling of the radiation and energy balance components with the application of the SAFER algorithm (Simple Algorithm for Evapotranspiration Retrieving in the Brazilian Pantanal area. Pixels from the main sub-regions of Barão de Melgaço (BR, Paiaguás (PA and Nhecolândia (NH were extracted in order to process microclimatic comparisons. In general, the net radiation (Rn relied much more on the global solar radiation (RG levels than on water conditions and ecosystem types, in accordance with the low Rn standard deviation values. The fraction of the available energy used as latent heat flux (λE were, on average, 65, 50 and 49% for the BR, PA and NH sub-regions, respectively. Horizontal heat advection, identified by the negative values of sensible heat flux (H, made several pixels with λE values higher than those for Rn in the middle of the year. Taking the evaporative fraction (Ef as a surface moisture indicator, the Tree-Lined Savanna (TLS was considered the moister ecosystem class, with 58% of the available energy being used as λE, while the driest one was the modified ecosystem Anthropogenic Changes (AC, presenting a λE/Rn fraction of 0.46. According to the spatial and temporal consistencies, and after comparisons with other previous point and large-scale studies, the SAFER algorithm proved to have sensibility to quantify and compare the large-scale radiation and energy balance components in the different ecosystems of the Brazilian Pantanal. The algorithm is useful for monitoring the energy exchange dynamics among the different terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem types throughout the seasons of the year.

  1. [Use of ionizing radiation sources in metallurgy: risk assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugni, U

    2012-01-01

    Use of ionizing radiation sources in the metallurgical industry: risk assessment. Radioactive sources and fixed or mobile X-ray equipment are used for both process and quality control. The use of ionizing radiation sources requires careful risk assessment. The text lists the characteristics of the sources and the legal requirements, and contains a description of the documentation required and the methods used for risk assessment. It describes how to estimate the doses to operators and the relevant classification criteria used for the purpose of radiation protection. Training programs must be organized in close collaboration between the radiation protection expert and the occupational physician.

  2. Minimizing and communicating radiation risk in pediatric nuclear medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Frederic H; Treves, S Ted; Adelstein, S James

    2012-03-01

    The value of pediatric nuclear medicine is well established. Pediatric patients are referred to nuclear medicine from nearly all pediatric specialties including urology, oncology, cardiology, gastroenterology, and orthopedics. Radiation exposure is associated with a potential, small, risk of inducing cancer in the patient later in life and is higher in younger patients. Recently, there has been enhanced interest in exposure to radiation from medical imaging. Thus, it is incumbent on practitioners of pediatric nuclear medicine to have an understanding of dosimetry and radiation risk to communicate effectively with their patients and their families. This article reviews radiation dosimetry for radiopharmaceuticals and also CT given the recent proliferation of PET/CT and SPECT/CT. It also describes the scientific basis for radiation risk estimation in the context of pediatric nuclear medicine. Approaches for effective communication of risk to patients' families are discussed. Lastly, radiation dose reduction in pediatric nuclear medicine is explicated.

  3. Some problems of risk balancing for regulating environmental hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.

    1984-01-01

    Rational regulation of environmental hazards may be based on the implicit underlying principles that government actions should enhance the average quality of life for those governed and maintain some degree of equity in the distribution of benefits, costs, and risks. Issues arising from these principles have practical implications for risk management policy in general and for the development and application of radiological protection criteria in particular. One of the issues is the appropriate distribution of expenditures for regulating different risks. The total resources available for risk regulation are finite; hence, minimizing the total risk subject to this constraint is an appropriate strategy for optimum risk management. Using a simple model, it is shown that this strategy leads to a distribution of expenditures between different risks such that a greater fraction is allocated to a risk with a higher cost of mitigation or control but the allocation is limited in such a manner that the fractional contribution of that risk to the total risk is also higher. The effect of deviating from this strategy is examined. It is shown that reducing a single risk of concern below the optimum value by a factor 1/F can increase the total risk by about F times the risk of concern. Taking into account the large uncertainties in risk assessment for establishing radiological protection criteria, it is argued that an optimum strategy for remedial action should (1) set basic risk limits as high as reasonable; (2) use realistic, case-specific data and analyses in deriving allowable residual contamination levels from basic risk limits; and (3) implement a policy of reducing residual contamination to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) within the constraints imposed by optimum resource allocation. 10 references

  4. Problems of risk balancing for regulating environmental hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    Rational regulation of environmental hazards may be based on the implicit underlying principles that government actions should enhance the average quality of life for those governed and maintain some degree of equity in the distribution of benefits, costs, and risks. Issues arising from these principles have practical implications for risk management policy in general and for the development and application of radiological protection criteria in particular. One of the issues is the appropriate distribution of expenditures for regulating different risks. The total resources available for risk regulation are finite; hence, minimizing the total risk subject to this constraint is an appropriate strategy for optimum risk management. Using a simple model, it is shown that this strategy leads to a distribution of expenditures between different risks such that a greater fraction is allocated to a risk with a higher cost of mitigation or control but the allocation is limited in such a manner that the fractional contribution of that risk to the total risk is also higher. The effect of deviating from this strategy is examined. It is shown that reducing a single risk of concern below the optimum value by a factor 1/F can increase the total risk by about F times the risk of concern. Taking into account the large uncertainties in risk assessment for establishing radiological protection criteria, it is argued that an optimum strategy for remedial action should (1) set basic risk limits as high as reasonable; (2) use realistic, case-specific data and analyses in deriving allowable residual contamination levels from basic risk limits; and (3) implement a policy of reducing residual contamination to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) within the constraints imposed by optimum resource allocation. 10 references, 1 figure

  5. EDITORIAL: The Earth radiation balance as driver of the global hydrological cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Martin; Liepert, Beate

    2010-06-01

    Variations in the intensity of the global hydrological cycle can have far-reaching effects on living conditions on our planet. While climate change discussions often revolve around possible consequences of future temperature changes, the adaptation to changes in the hydrological cycle may pose a bigger challenge to societies and ecosystems. Floods and droughts are already today amongst the most damaging natural hazards, with floods being globally the most significant disaster type in terms of loss of human life (Jonkman 2005). From an economic perspective, changes in the hydrological cycle can impose great pressures and damages on a variety of industrial sectors, such as water management, urban planning, agricultural production and tourism. Despite their obvious environmental and societal importance, our understanding of the causes and magnitude of the variations of the hydrological cycle is still unsatisfactory (e.g., Ramanathan et al 2001, Ohmura and Wild 2002, Allen and Ingram 2002, Allan 2007, Wild et al 2008, Liepert and Previdi 2009). The link between radiation balance and hydrological cycle Globally, precipitation can be approximated by surface evaporation, since the variability of the atmospheric moisture storage is negligible. This is the case because the fluxes are an order of magnitude larger than the atmospheric storage (423 x 1012 m3 year-1 versus 13 x 1012 m3 according to Baumgartner and Reichel (1975)), the latter being determined by temperature (Clausius-Clapeyron). Hence the residence time of evaporated water in the atmosphere is not more than a few days, before it condenses and falls back to Earth in the form of precipitation. Any change in the globally averaged surface evaporation therefore implies an equivalent change in precipitation, and thus in the intensity of the global hydrological cycle. The process of evaporation requires energy, which it obtains from the surface radiation balance (also known as surface net radiation), composed of the

  6. Radiation doses and radiation risk in foreign nuclear objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tvehlov, Yu.

    2001-01-01

    Data on levels of irradiation on NPP operating in different regions of the world obtained from the data of the International Information System ISOE created by IAEA in association with the Nuclear Energetic Agency OECD are performed. Effect of commissioning new NPP, sacrifice of radiation situation at the Ignalina NPP in 1996, importance of the development and introduction of programs on perfecting of radiation protection and culture of safety are noted [ru

  7. Regional Modeling of Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing over East Asia using WRF-Chem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Siyu; Zhao, Chun; Qian, Yun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, J.; Huang, Zhongwei; Bi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wu; Shi, Jinsen; Yang, Lei; Li, Deshuai; Li, Jinxin

    2014-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to investigate the seasonal and annual variations of mineral dust over East Asia during 2007-2011, with a focus on the dust mass balance and radiative forcing. A variety of measurements from in-stu and satellite observations have been used to evaluate simulation results. Generally, WRF-Chem reproduces not only the column variability but also the vertical profile and size distribution of mineral dust over and near the dust source regions of East Asia. We investigate the dust lifecycle and the factors that control the seasonal and spatial variations of dust mass balance and radiative forcing over the seven sub-regions of East Asia, i.e. source regions, the Tibetan Plateau, Northern China, Southern China, the ocean outflow region, and Korea-Japan regions. Results show that, over the source regions, transport and dry deposition are the two dominant sinks. Transport contributes to ~30% of the dust sink over the source regions. Dust results in a surface cooling of up to -14 and -10 W m-2, atmospheric warming of up to 20 and 15 W m-2, and TOA cooling of -5 and -8 W m-2 over the two major dust source regions of East Asia, respectively. Over the Tibetan Plateau, transport is the dominant source with a peak in summer. Over identified outflow regions, maximum dust mass loading in spring is contributed by the transport. Dry and wet depositions are the comparably dominant sinks, but wet deposition is larger than dry deposition over the Korea-Japan region, particularly in spring (70% versus 30%). The WRF-Chem simulations can generally capture the measured features of dust aerosols and its radaitve properties and dust mass balance over East Asia, which provides confidence for use in further investigation of dust impact on climate over East Asia.

  8. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SPORTS SPECIFIC BALANCE TRAINING PROGRAM IN REDUCING RISK OF ANKLE SPRAIN IN BASKETBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Choo LEE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the effectiveness of four weeks sports specific balance training program to improve balance, thus reducing the risk of ankle sprain among Sultan Idris Education University basketball players. Method: There were 20 males basketball players (aged 19-24 years volunteered in this study. After screening process, there were14 male players met the inclusion criteria. They were randomized into two groups i.e experimental group (EG: n=7 and control group (CG: n=7. The EG undergone the four weeks sports specific balance training program three times per week while the CG followed their normal standard basketball training program. Balance Error Scoring System (BESS was used to assess static balance while Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT is utilized to examine the dynamic balance. Pretest and posttest of balance measures were recorded using BESS and SEBT for both EG and CG. The data were analyzed using independent sample t-test (p=0.05. Results: The study findings indicated that there were significant differences between EG and CG for the static balance on firm surface (t=-4.642, p=0.001 and on foam surface (t=-8.590, P=0.000 as well as dynamic balance on left leg stance (t=2.350, P=0.037 and on right leg stance (t=3.145, P=0.008. Conclusion: The study findings indicated that the four weeks sports specific balance training program could improve balance ability in male basketball players, thus may reducing the risk of ankle sprain.

  9. Radiation risk for women undergoing mammography examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabiszewska, E.; Bulski, W.; Jezierska, I.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Introduction: The application of X-rays in mammography examinations requires not only constant control of physical and technical parameters of the equipment used, but also an evaluation of the radiation risk for patients, particularly in mammography screening programs. There exist a number of methods of dose evaluation in mammography. Some of them are included in the dosimetry protocols. The tolerances for measured values, limiting the dose to the patients have also been established. One of the methods, proposed by Dance, applies to establishing the doses to individual patients. It requires the knowledge clinical and exposition parameters. Another method, recommended by the E.C., requires establishing the phantom dose for reference exposition, as part of quality control tests. This approach is simpler but less precise, because at most mammography facilities the conditions of reference exposition are different than those of routine clinical exposition as it was shown in an exercise of quality control tests in a group of 32 mammography facilities in Poland. The method proposed in this study is an intermediate solution recommending measurement of phantom dose for the routine clinical exposition. Material and Methods: The material contains the data of 230 expositions performed in 6 mammography facilities Poland. This data was used to establish individual dose for ever y patient undergoing mammography examination according to the method proposed by Dance. For each mammography facility the mean glandular dose (M.G.D. F.) was established for reference and routine expositions according to the E.C. Dosimetry Protocol. The limits for phantom dose were established, which, according to the E.C. protocol, depend on the optical density (over background) of the image of the PMMA phantom 4.5 cm thick. Results and Discussion: The phantom dose determined for each mammography facility were below the limits. The lowest value of the mean dose received

  10. Cancer risks following diagnostic and therapeutic radiation exposure in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A. [National Institutes of Health, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, EPS 7044, Rockville, MD (United States)

    2006-09-15

    The growing use of interventional and fluoroscopic imaging in children represents a tremendous benefit for the diagnosis and treatment of benign conditions. Along with the increasing use and complexity of these procedures comes concern about the cancer risk associated with ionizing radiation exposure to children. Children are considerably more sensitive to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation than adults, and children have a longer life expectancy in which to express risk. Numerous epidemiologic cohort studies of childhood exposure to radiation for treatment of benign diseases have demonstrated radiation-related risks of cancer of the thyroid, breast, brain and skin, as well as leukemia. Many fewer studies have evaluated cancer risk following diagnostic radiation exposure in children. Although radiation dose for a single procedure might be low, pediatric patients often receive repeated examinations over time to evaluate their conditions, which could result in relatively high cumulative doses. Several cohort studies of girls and young women subjected to multiple diagnostic radiation exposures have been informative about increased mortality from breast cancer with increasing radiation dose, and case-control studies of childhood leukemia and postnatal diagnostic radiation exposure have suggested increased risks with an increasing number of examinations. Only two long-term follow-up studies of cancer following cardiac catheterization in childhood have been conducted, and neither reported an overall increased risk of cancer. Most cancers can be induced by radiation, and a linear dose-response has been noted for most solid cancers. Risks of radiation-related cancer are greatest for those exposed early in life, and these risks appear to persist throughout life. (orig.)

  11. Acceptable level of radiation risk and its perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Tomoko; Shinozaki, Motoshi; Yoshizawa, Yasuo

    1987-01-01

    The acceptable level of radiation risk for public members, that is 10 -5 /y, was proposed by ICRP and other international organizations. We studied to survey basic procedures of deriving this value and to derive an acceptable risk value in Japan by using similar procedures. The basic procedures to derive 10 -5 /y were found as follows; (1) 0.1 percent of annual mortality from all diseases, (2) 0.1 percent of life time risk, (3) one percent of mortality from all causes in each age cohort and (4) corresponding value to 1 mSv annual radiation exposure. From these bases we derived the value of 10 -5 /y as acceptable risk level in Japan. The perception to risk level of 10 -5 /y in conventional life was investigated by means of questionnaires for 1,095 college students living in Tokyo. The risks considered in this study were natural background radiation, coffee, skiing, X-ray diagnosis, spontaneous cancer, passive smoking and air pollution. The most acceptable risk was the risk related with natural background radiation. And the risk of natural background radiation was more easily accepted by the students who had knowledges on natural background radiation. On the other hand, the risk from air pollution or passive smoking was the most adverse one. (author)

  12. Risk communication, radiation, and radiological emergencies: strategies, tools, and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covello, Vincent T

    2011-11-01

    Risk communication is the two-way exchange of information about risks, including risks associated with radiation and radiological events. The risk communication literature contains a broad range of strategies for overcoming the psychological, sociological, and cultural factors that create public misperceptions and misunderstandings about risks. These strategies help radiation risk communicators overcome the challenges posed by three basic observations about people under stress: (1) people under stress typically want to know that you care before they care about what you know; (2) people under stress typically have difficulty hearing, understanding, and remembering information; (3) people under stress typically focus more on negative information than positive information.

  13. Occuptional radiation exposures and thyroid cancer risk among radiologic technologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Eun Kyeong; Lee, Won Jin [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Mina [Dankook University Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Young [Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Jae Kwan [National Cancer Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Young Won [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Medical radiation workers were among the earliest occupational groups exposed to external ionizing radiation due to their administration of a range of medical diagnostic procedures and accounted for 7.4 million worldwide in 2008. Ionizing radiation is the confirmed human carcinogen for most organ sites. The aims of the study is to evaluate the association between occupational practices including radiation exposure and thyroid cancer risk among radiologic technologists. We found no significant association between the risk of thyroid cancer and the majority of work practices among diagnostic radiation technologists in general. However workers performing fluoroscopy and interventional procedures showed increased risks although the lack of a clear exposure– response gradient makes it difficult to draw clear conclusions. Future studies with larger sample size and detailed work practices implementation are needed to clarify the role of occupational radiation work in thyroid cancer carcinogenesis.

  14. Medical interventional procedures--reducing the radiation risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousins, C. E-mail: claire.cousins@addenbrookes.nhs.uk; Sharp, C

    2004-06-01

    Over the last 40 years, the number of percutaneous interventional procedures using radiation has increased significantly, with many secondary care clinicians using fluoroscopically guided techniques. Many procedures can deliver high radiation doses to patients and staff, with the potential to cause immediate and delayed radiation effects. The challenge for interventionists is to maximize benefit, whilst minimizing radiation risk to patients and staff. Non-radiologist clinicians are often inadequately trained in radiation safety and radiobiology. However, clinical governance and legislation now requires a more rigorous approach to protecting patients and staff. Protection can be ensured, and risks can be controlled, by appropriate design, procurement and commissioning of equipment; quality assurance; and optimal operational technique, backed by audit. Interventionists need knowledge and skills to reduce the risks. Appropriate training should include awareness of the potential for radiation injury, equipment operational parameters, doses measurement and recording methods and dose reduction techniques. Clinical governance requires informed consent, appropriate patient counselling and follow-up.

  15. Radiation - Risk and protection in manned space flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, V.M.; Kovalev, E.E.; Sakovich, V.A.

    1981-09-01

    Radiation hazard for cosmonauts and necessary protective measures are considered. The radiation is either permanent, such as in the inner terrestrial radiation belts, or temporary, such as in the fluctuating outer belts, from solar flares, or from cosmic ray showers. An effective level of 33 rem is offered as a justified risk dose, based on U.S.S.R. and international safety standards. Estimated radiation levels are provided for a one year spaceflight, noting that exposures to 50 rem doses should be more than one month apart. Increased orbital inclination, lengthy flight duration, and higher orbits all lead to increased radiation risks, and shielding with aluminum to 5 g/sq cm is recommended, along with a radiation shelter for long term workers on space stations. The calculated permissible dose rates are designed to bring the probabilities of death due to tumors caused by radiation in line with hazards faced in other occupations, such as test pilots.

  16. Carcinogenic risks associated with radiation pollution. [UV radiation, sunlight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latarjet, R.

    1976-01-01

    The cancerogenic pollution by non-ionizing radiations is limited to the case of solar ultraviolet, whose activity at ground level may be increased as a consequence of the stratospheric depletion of ozone, produced by certain chemical pollutants: nitrogen oxides from supersonic aircrafts, freon. As regards ionizing radiations, the discussion is focused on the fundamental problem of the threshold, and on the means by which one may obtain some quantitative data related to carcinogenesis by small radiation doses in man. A new concept, that of a practical threshold, is proposed. A theory which links radiocancerogenesis, as well as chemical cancerogenesis, to errors produced in the repair of lesions in the DNA is discussed. The rads-equivalent project for chemical mutagens and carcinogens is described.

  17. Investment, firm value, and risk for a system operator balancing energy grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dockner, Engelbert J.; Kucsera, Dénes; Rammerstorfer, Margarethe

    2013-01-01

    With the liberalization of energy markets integrated energy companies have separated into entities that specialize in production and/or transmission of energy. Transmission of energy requires balancing the grid to guarantee system security, which is performed by the (independent) system operator (SO). When the SO faces stochastic demand, grid balancing has sizeable consequences on current and future profits, and hence, on firm value and firm risk. We explore these value and risk consequences with and without an investment option to expand transmission capacity. We show that firm value consists of the value of the transmission capacity in place plus the value of a short put and a short call option that are the result of the SO's balancing actions. Firm risk without investment option is non-linear and determined by the short option positions. It is decreasing with increasing energy demand. The existence of an option to expand transmission capacity increases firm value and firm risk. - Highlights: ► Grid balancing under stochastic demand affect current and future revenues, and firm value and firm risk. ► Balancing firm value consists of the value of the transmission capacity plus the value of a short strangle. ► Firm risk without investment option is determined by the short strangle and decreasing with increasing energy demand. ► The existence of an expansion option implies that transmission capacity increases firm value and firm risk

  18. Radiation and society: Comprehending radiation risk. V. 3. Proceedings of an international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This IAEA international conference on Radiation and Society was the first major international meeting devoted to the comprehension of radiation risk, public attitude towards radiation risk and hazards encountered by the general public in contaminated areas. Volume three of the proceedings contains the speeches, ten introductory papers, summaries of the technical discussion sessions, the key note paper on uncertainties in the health impact of environmental pollutants. Refs, figs, tabs

  19. Radiative energy balance of Venus based on improved models of the middle and lower atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haus, R.; Kappel, D.; Tellmann, S.; Arnold, G.; Piccioni, G.; Drossart, P.; Häusler, B.

    2016-07-01

    The distribution of sources and sinks of radiative energy forces the atmospheric dynamics. The radiative transfer simulation model described by Haus et al. (2015b) is applied to calculate fluxes and temperature change rates in the middle and lower atmosphere of Venus (0-100 km) covering the energetic significant spectral range 0.125-1000 μm. The calculations rely on improved models of atmospheric parameters (temperature profiles, cloud parameters, trace gas abundances) retrieved from Venus Express (VEX) data (mainly VIRTIS-M-IR, but also VeRa and SPICAV/SOIR with respect to temperature results). The earlier observed pronounced sensitivity of the radiative energy balance of Venus to atmospheric parameter variations is confirmed, but present detailed comparative analyses of possible influence quantities ensure unprecedented insights into radiative forcing on Venus by contrast with former studies. Thermal radiation induced atmospheric cooling rates strongly depend on temperature structure and cloud composition, while heating rates are mainly sensitive to insolation conditions and UV absorber distribution. Cooling and heating rate responses to trace gas variations and cloud mode 1 abundance changes are small, but observed variations of cloud mode 2 abundances and altitude profiles reduce cooling at altitudes 65-80 km poleward of 50°S by up to 30% compared to the neglect of cloud parameter changes. Cooling rate variations with local time below 80 km are in the same order of magnitude. Radiative effects of the unknown UV absorber are modeled considering a proxy that is based on a suitable parameterization of optical properties, not on a specific chemical composition, and that is independent of the used cloud model. The UV absorber doubles equatorial heating near 68 km. Global average radiative equilibrium at the top of atmosphere (TOA) is characterized by the net flux balance of 156 W/m2, the Bond albedo of 0.76, and the effective planetary emission temperature of 228

  20. Risks from ionizing radiation during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mehrdad Gholami

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Gholami M1, Abedini MR2, Khossravi HR3, Akbari S4 1. Instructor, Department of medical physics, Faculty of medicine, Lorestan University of medical sciences 2. Assistant professor, Department of radiology, Faculty of medicine, Lorestan University of medical sciences 3. Assistant professor, Department of radiation protection, Iranian Atomic Energy Organization 4. Assistant professor, Department of gynecology, Faculty of medicine, Lorestan University of medical sciences Abstract Background: The discovery of the X-ray in November 1895 by the W. C. Roentgen caused the increasing use of x-ray, because of the benefits that patients get from the resultant the diagnosis. Since medical radiation exposure are mainly in artificial radiation sources, immediately after the x- ray discovery, progressive dermatitis and ophthalmic diseases were occurred in the early physicians and physicists. But delay effects were observed approximately 20 years after the x-ray discovery. History: Based on the studies, ionizing radiation is a potential hazard to the developing fetus, avoiding unnecessary radiation exposure to pregnant women is a standard practice in radiology, unless there are important clinical indications. Due to difference in stages of fetus development, using of the current radiation protection standards includes: justification of a practice, optimization of radiation protection procedures and dose limitation to prevent of serious radiation induced conditions is necessary. Conclusion: Conversely the somatic and genetic effects of x-rays, since the X-ray has the benefit effects, special in diagnostic and treatment procedures, there is increasing use of x-ray, so using of the latest radiation protection procedures is necessary. Radiation protection not only is a scientific subject but also is a philosophy, Moral and reasonable. since the ionizing radiation is a potential hazard to the developing fetus, avoiding unnecessary radiation exposure to the pregnant

  1. Radiation Risks and Mitigation in Electronic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, B

    2015-01-01

    Electrical and electronic systems can be disturbed by radiation-induced effects. In some cases, radiation-induced effects are of a low probability and can be ignored; however, radiation effects must be considered when designing systems that have a high mean time to failure requirement, an impact on protection, and/or higher exposure to radiat ion. High-energy physics power systems suffer from a combination of these effects: a high mean time to failure is required, failure can impact on protection, and the proximity of systems to accelerators increases the likelihood of radiation-induced events. This paper presents the principal radiation-induced effects, and radiation environments typical to high-energy physics. It outlines a procedure for designing and validating radiation-tolerant systems using commercial off-the-shelf components. The paper ends with a worked example of radiation-tolerant power converter controls that are being developed for the Large Hadron Collider and High Luminosity-Large Hadron Colli...

  2. Physician Knowledge of Radiation Exposure and Risk in Medical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Jason B; Goldstein, Noah; Lind, Kimberly E; Elder, Deirdre; Dodd, Gerald D; Borgstede, James P

    2018-01-01

    Medical imaging is an increasingly important source of radiation exposure for the general population, and there are risks associated with such exposure; however, recent studies have demonstrated poor understanding of medical radiation among various groups of health care providers. This study had two aims: (1) analyze physicians' knowledge of radiation exposure and risk in diagnostic imaging across multiple specialties and levels of training, and (2) assess the effectiveness of a brief educational presentation on improving physicians' knowledge. From 2014 to 2016, 232 health care providers from multiple departments participated in an educational presentation and pre- and postpresentation tests evaluating knowledge of radiation exposure and risk at a large academic institution. Knowledge of radiation exposure and risk was relatively low on the prepresentation test, including particularly poor understanding of different imaging modalities, with 26% of participants unable to correctly identify which modalities expose patients to ionizing radiation. Test scores significantly increased after the educational presentation. Radiologists had higher prepresentation test scores than other specialties, and therefore less opportunity for improvement, but also demonstrated improvement in radiation safety knowledge after education. Aside from radiology, there was no significant difference in initial knowledge of radiation exposure and risk among the other specialties. Providers' knowledge of radiation exposure and risk was low at baseline but significantly increased after a brief educational presentation. Efforts to educate ordering providers about radiation exposure and risk are needed to ensure that providers are appropriately weighing the risks and benefits of medical imaging and to ensure high-quality, patient-centered care. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effective doses and standardised risk factors from paediatric diagnostic medical radiation exposures: Information for radiation risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibbo, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    In the paediatric medical radiation setting, there is no consistency on the radiation risk information conveyed to the consumer (patient/carer). Each communicator may convey different information about the level of risk for the same radiation procedure, leaving the consumer confused and frustrated. There is a need to standardise risks resulting from medical radiation exposures. In this study, paediatric radiographic, fluoroscopic, CT and nuclear medicine examination data have been analysed to provide (i) effective doses and radiation induced cancer risk factors from common radiological and nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures in standardised formats, (II) awareness of the difficulties that may be encountered in communicating risks to the layperson, and (iii) an overview of the deleterious effects of ionising radiation so that the risk communicator can convey with confidence the risks resulting from medical radiation exposures. Paediatric patient dose data from general radiographic, computed tomography, fluoroscopic and nuclear medicine databases have been analysed in age groups 0 to <5 years, 5 to <10 years, 10 to <15 years and 15 to <18 years to determine standardised risk factors. Mean, minimum and maximum effective doses and the corresponding mean lifetime risks for general radiographic, fluoroscopic, CT and nuclear medicine examinations for different age groups have been calculated. For all examinations, the mean lifetime cancer induction risk is provided in three formats: statistical, fraction and category. Standardised risk factors for different radiological and nuclear medicine examinations and an overview of the deleterious effects of ionising radiation and the difficulties encountered in communicating the risks should facilitate risk communication to the patient/carer.

  4. Radiation-Induced Second Cancer Risk Estimates From Radionuclide Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Bryan; Besemer, Abigail

    2017-09-01

    The use of radionuclide therapy in the clinical setting is expected to increase significantly over the next decade. There is an important need to understand the radiation-induced second cancer risk associated with these procedures. In this study the radiation-induced cancer risk in five radionuclide therapy patients was investigated. These patients underwent serial SPECT imaging scans following injection as part of a clinical trial testing the efficacy of a 131Iodine-labeled radiopharmaceutical. Using these datasets the committed absorbed doses to multiple sensitive structures were calculated using RAPID, which is a novel Monte Carlo-based 3D dosimetry platform developed for personalized dosimetry. The excess relative risk (ERR) for radiation-induced cancer in these structures was then derived from these dose estimates following the recommendations set forth in the BEIR VII report. The radiation-induced leukemia ERR was highest among all sites considered reaching a maximum value of approximately 4.5. The radiation-induced cancer risk in the kidneys, liver and spleen ranged between 0.3 and 1.3. The lifetime attributable risks (LARs) were also calculated, which ranged from 30 to 1700 cancers per 100,000 persons and were highest for leukemia and the liver for both males and females followed by radiation-induced spleen and kidney cancer. The risks associated with radionuclide therapy are similar to the risk associated with external beam radiation therapy.

  5. Comparison of the effects of virtual reality-based balance exercises and conventional exercises on balance and fall risk in older adults living in nursing homes in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşilyaprak, Sevgi Sevi; Yıldırım, Meriç Şenduran; Tomruk, Murat; Ertekin, Özge; Algun, Z Candan

    2016-01-01

    There is limited information on effective balance training techniques including virtual reality (VR)-based balance exercises in residential settings and no studies have been designed to compare the effects of VR-based balance exercises with conventional balance exercises in older adults living in nursing homes in Turkey. The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of VR-based balance exercises on balance and fall risk in comparison to conventional balance exercises in older adults living in nursing homes. A total sample of 18 subjects (65-82 years of age) with fall history who were randomly assigned to either the VR group (Group 1, n = 7) or the conventional exercise group (Group 2, n = 11) completed the exercise training. In both groups, Berg balance score (BBS), timed up & go duration, and left leg stance and tandem stance duration with eyes closed significantly improved with time (p 0.05) after training, indicating that neither the exercise method was superior. Similar improvements were found in balance and fall risk with VR-based balance training and conventional balance training in older adults living in the nursing home. Both exercise trainings can be preferable by health care professionals considering fall prevention. Appropriate patient selection is essential.

  6. Identification of risk aversion factor for radiation workers in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadul, Abdulbagi [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Na, Seong H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Radiation aversion factor reflects the degree of avoidance of radiation exposure which is considered a fundamental element in the optimization of radiation protection and a key factor in determining the real monetary value of the man-Sievert (Sv). This study provides an adjusted risk aversion factor, which was prescribed by the Korea Institute for Nuclear Safety (KINS), a regulatory body in Korea. Specifically, the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) evaluated the monetary value of the man-Sv for Korean Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) workers. This monetary value was assessed by the radiation aversion factor. Consequently, identifying the monetary value of the man-Sv in this study will enhance not only the effectiveness of optimization of radiation protection in Korea but also contribute to reduce doses to As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) when accounting for economic and societal aspects. The primary purpose of this study is to obtain the risk aversion factor for radiation workers in medical and industrial facilities in Korea. The secondary purpose is to evaluate the real monetary value of the man-Sv.These objectives will be accomplished by collecting data from surveys that consider a variety of socio-economic conditions. The value of 1.45 represents considerable avoidance of radiation risk for the majority of NDT radiographers due to familiarity and work experience with radiation hazards. On the other hand, the value 1.57 indicates that most of radiation medical practitioners, in particular, interventional radiologists have a strong will to avoid radiation risk. However, they will accept more risk with incremental salary increases. For international comparison, the concept of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) should be adopted to obtain the alpha values in real term. Certainly, this monetary value of the man-Sv is expected to contribute effectively in optimization of radiation protection in both medical and industrial fields. The findings of this study

  7. Balancing risk and benefit with oral hypoglycemic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamnvik, Ole-Petter R; McMahon, Graham T

    2009-06-01

    Clinicians are faced with an expansive array of treatment choices when caring for patients with type 2 diabetes. Because patient compliance may be affected when media sensationalism about controversial findings is misunderstood, we sought to clarify the recent controversy surrounding the cardiovascular and bone-health risks of thiazolidinediones, the risk of lactic acidosis with metformin, and the risk of hypoglycemia with oral therapies. The side effect profile of thiazolidinediones includes fluid retention, heart failure; and an increased risk of fracture. A recent controversial meta-analysis suggested that rosiglitazone increases the risk of myocardial infarction, which is possibly related to thiazolidinedione-induced lipid changes, weight gain, congestive heart failure, and anemia. Metformin is restricted to patients with normal renal function because of concerns that metformin may cause lactic acidosis. However, few cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis have been reported, and most have occurred in patients with other reasons for developing lactic acidosis, such as sepsis or renal failure. Although the use of metformin continues to increase, observational studies have not been able to demonstrate an increased incidence of lactic acidosis in metformin-treated patients, even when it is used in populations with relative contraindications. Some oral hypoglycemic medications can cause hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia is especially common in older patients, alcoholics, and patients with liver or renal disease. Patients on sulfonylureas and meglitinides have the highest incidence of hypoglycemia because of their pharmacological action of increasing insulin secretion. Of the sulfonylureas, glyburide presents the highest risk of hypoglycemia. Combination therapies, especially those regimens containing a sulfonylurea, increase the risk of hypoglycemia. (c) 2009 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  8. Discussions about nuclear and radiation risk information communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bo; Wang Erqi; Peng Xianxun

    2013-01-01

    This paper described the definition and the objective of risk communication and the development of the risk communication research. It stated that how to establish a trustworthy relationship with public and the 8 aspects that should be done for keeping the relationship. With the analysis of the cognition and the influencing of the nuclear and radiation risk, this article figured out the factors which could influence the cognition of public on nuclear and radiation risk. Moreover, it explained the principles for enhancing the efficiency of the risk communication and the specific works in each phase of the risk communication. Finally, the suggestions for the development of the risk communication of the nuclear and radiation in China had been provided. (authors)

  9. Acceptability of risk from radiation: Application to human space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This one of NASA's sponsored activities of the NCRP. In 1983, NASA asked NCRP to examine radiation risks in space and to make recommendations about career radiation limits for astronauts (with cancer considered as the principal risk). In conjunction with that effort, NCRP was asked to convene this symposium; objective is to examine the technical, strategic, and philosophical issues pertaining to acceptable risk and radiation in space. Nine papers are included together with panel discussions and a summary. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  10. Acceptability of risk from radiation: Application to human space flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-30

    This one of NASA`s sponsored activities of the NCRP. In 1983, NASA asked NCRP to examine radiation risks in space and to make recommendations about career radiation limits for astronauts (with cancer considered as the principal risk). In conjunction with that effort, NCRP was asked to convene this symposium; objective is to examine the technical, strategic, and philosophical issues pertaining to acceptable risk and radiation in space. Nine papers are included together with panel discussions and a summary. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. Troughs in Ice Sheets and Other Icy Deposits on Mars: Analysis of Their Radiative Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, A.; Kargel, J.; Lewis, K.; MacAyeal, D.; Pfeffer, T.; Zwally, H. J.

    2000-01-01

    It has long been known that groove-like structures in glaciers and ice sheets can trap more incoming solar radiation than is the case for a 'normal' flat, smooth surface. In this presentation, we shall describe the radiative regimes of typical scarps and troughs on icy surfaces of Mars, and suggest how these features originate and evolve through time. The basis of our analysis is the radiation balance model presented by Pfeffer and Bretherton. Their model considers the visible band radiation regime of a V-shaped groove on a terrestrial ice surface, and shows that absorbed energy can be enhanced by up to 50 percent for grooves with small opening angles and with typical polar values of the solar zenith angle. Our work extends this model by considering: (a) departures from V-shaped geometry, (b) both englacial and surficial dust and debris, and (c) the infrared spectrum. We apply the extended model to various features on the Martian surface, including the spiral-like scarps on the Northern and Southern ice sheets, the large-scale chasms (e.g., Chasm Borealis), and groove-like lineations on valley floors thought to be filled with mixtures of dust and icy substances. In conjunction with study of valley-closure experiments, we suggest that spiral-like scarps and chasms are stable features of the Martian climate regime. We also suggest that further study of scarps and chasms may shed light on the composition (i.e., relative proportions of water ice, carbon-dioxide ice and dust) of the Martian ice sheets and valley fills.

  12. Space radiation risks to the central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Alp, Murat; Sulzman, Frank M.; Wang, Minli

    2014-07-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) risks which include during space missions and lifetime risks due to space radiation exposure are of concern for long-term exploration missions to Mars or other destinations. Possible CNS risks during a mission are altered cognitive function, including detriments in short-term memory, reduced motor function, and behavioral changes, which may affect performance and human health. The late CNS risks are possible neurological disorders such as premature aging, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) or other dementia. Radiation safety requirements are intended to prevent all clinically significant acute risks. However the definition of clinically significant CNS risks and their dependences on dose, dose-rate and radiation quality is poorly understood at this time. For late CNS effects such as increased risk of AD, the occurrence of the disease is fatal with mean time from diagnosis of early stage AD to death about 8 years. Therefore if AD risk or other late CNS risks from space radiation occur at mission relevant doses, they would naturally be included in the overall acceptable risk of exposure induced death (REID) probability for space missions. Important progress has been made in understanding CNS risks due to space radiation exposure, however in general the doses used in experimental studies have been much higher than the annual galactic cosmic ray (GCR) dose (∼0.1 Gy/y at solar maximum and ∼0.2 Gy/y at solar minimum with less than 50% from HZE particles). In this report we summarize recent space radiobiology studies of CNS effects from particle accelerators simulating space radiation using experimental models, and make a critical assessment of their relevance relative to doses and dose-rates to be incurred on a Mars mission. Prospects for understanding dose, dose-rate and radiation quality dependencies of CNS effects and extrapolation to human risk assessments are described.

  13. A Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Program for American Indians with Metabolic Syndrome: The Balance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Elisa T.; Jobe, Jared B.; Yeh, Jeunliang; Ali, Tauqeer; Rhoades, Everett R.; Knehans, Allen W.; Willis, Diane J.; Johnson, Melanie R.; Zhang, Ying; Poolaw, Bryce; Rogers, Billy

    2012-01-01

    The Balance Study is a randomized controlled trial designed to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in 200 American Indian (AI) participants with metabolic syndrome who reside in southwestern Oklahoma. Major risk factors targeted include weight, diet, and physical activity. Participants are assigned randomly to one of two groups, a guided or a…

  14. Risks and management of radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Loren G

    2013-09-01

    High-energy ionizing radiation is harmful. Low-level exposure sources include background, occupational, and medical diagnostics. Radiation disaster incidents include radioactive substance accidents and nuclear power plant accidents. Terrorism and international conflict could trigger intentional radiation disasters that include radiation dispersion devices (RDD) (a radioactive dirty bomb), deliberate exposure to industrial radioactive substances, nuclear power plant sabotage, and nuclear weapon detonation. Nuclear fissioning events such as nuclear power plant incidents and nuclear weapon detonation release radioactive fallout that include radioactive iodine 131, cesium 137, strontium 90, uranium, plutonium, and many other radioactive isotopes. An RDD dirty bomb is likely to spread only one radioactive substance, with the most likely substance being cesium 137. Cobalt 60 and strontium 90 are other RDD dirty bomb possibilities. In a radiation disaster, stable patients should be decontaminated to minimize further radiation exposure. Potassium iodide (KI) is useful for iodine 131 exposure. Prussian blue (ferric hexacyanoferrate) enhances the fecal excretion of cesium via ion exchange. Ca-DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) and Zn-DTPA form stable ionic complexes with plutonium, americium, and curium, which are excreted in the urine. Amifostine enhances chemical and enzymatic repair of damaged DNA. Acute radiation sickness ranges in severity from mild to lethal, which can be assessed by the nausea/vomiting onset/duration, complete blood cell count findings, and neurologic symptoms.

  15. Spatiotemporal Variability of Earth's Radiation Balance Components from Russian Radiometer IKOR-M

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherviakov, M.

    2016-12-01

    The radiometer IKOR-M was created in National Research Saratov State University for satellite monitoring of the outgoing reflected short-wave radiation, which is one of the components of Earth's radiation budget. Such information can be used in different models of long-term weather forecasts, in researches of climate change trends and in calculation of absorbed solar radiation values and albedo of the Earth-atmosphere system. The IKOR-M product archive is available online at all times. A searchable catalogue of data products is continually updated and users may search and download data products via the Earth radiation balance components research laboratory website as soon as they become available. Two series of measurements from two different IKOR-M are available. The first radiometer had worked from October 2009 to August 2014 and second - from August 2014 to the present. Therefore, there is a period when both radiometers work at the same time. Top-of-atmosphere fluxes deduced from the "Meteor-M" No 1 measurement in August, 2014 show very good agreement with the fluxes determined from "Meteor-M" No 2. The scale relationship of the IKOR-M radiometers on "Meteor - M" No 1 and No 2 satellites found by comparing of the global distribution maps for monthly averaged albedo values. The seasonal and interannual variations of OSR, albedo and ASR were discussed. The variations between SW radiation budget components seem to be within observational uncertainty and natural variability governed by cloudiness, water vapor and aerosol variations. It was assessed spatial and temporal variations of albedo and the absorbed solar radiation over different regions. Latitudinal distributions of albedo and ASR were estimated in more detail. Meridional cross sections over oceans and land were used separately for this estimation. It was shown that the albedo and ASR data received from the radiometer IKOR-M can be used to detect El Nino in the Pacific Ocean. The reported study was funded by

  16. Cardiovascular disease beyond traditional risk factors; balancing lipids and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernelot Moens, S.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we aim to identify subjects at increased cardiovascular disease risk, not recognized or optimally treated by current guidelines. Part one of this thesis concerns lipids: we assess the inflammatory potential of LDL cholesterol, and the effects of available potent LDL lowering therapies

  17. New Strategies for Managing Risks: A Balancing Act for Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The stately collegiate gothic buildings that define the iconic West Campus at Duke University evoke a strong sense of stability and the status quo. Like all institutions of higher learning, Duke faces many potential challenges to campus equilibrium--some of which could prove devastating to the university. Risk is inherent in academe, yet colleges…

  18. Are balance problems connected to reading speed or the familial risk of dyslexia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viholainen, Helena; Aro, Mikko; Ahonen, Timo; Crawford, Susan; Cantell, Marja; Kooistra, Libbe

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the connection between balance problems and reading speed in children with and without a familial risk of dyslexia by controlling for the effects of attention, hyperactivity, and cognitive and motor functioning. The prevalence of balance problems was studied in 94 children (48 females, 46 males) with a familial risk of dyslexia (at-risk group) and 85 children (38 females, 47 males) without a risk of dyslexia (comparison group). Further, the relationships between balance problems (at age 8y 6mo), reading proficiency (at age 9y), attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (at age 8y), and cognitive (at age 8y 6mo) and motor functioning (at age 6y 6mo) were examined. Inclusion criteria for the at-risk group were that at least one parent had a confirmed reading problem and one or more of the parents' close relatives also had a reading problem. The Good Balance System was used to assess static standing balance, word-list and text reading tasks were used to measure reading proficiency. The Behavioural Assessment System for Children - Parent Rating Scale was used to assess attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children was used to assess cognitive functioning, and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children was used to measure motor functioning. Balance (F((1,177)) =4.82; p=0.029; =0.027) and reading (F((1,176)) =11.95; p=0.001; =0.064) problems were more common in the at-risk group than in the comparison group. Furthermore, attention, hyperactivity, IQ, and motor functioning were not related to balance problems. However, attention (F((1,154)) =10.80; p=0.001; =0.066) and IQ (F((1,170)) =22.08; preading speed. Balance problems alone could not produce any differences in reading skills. Instead, both balance problems and reduced reading skills were mainly associated separately with a familial risk of dyslexia. This indicates that there may be a shared genetic mechanism between balance and reading

  19. Test models for estimating radiation balance in different scales for Jaboticabal, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquíria de Alencar Beserra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The net radiation (Rn in agroecosystems is the amount of energy that is available in the environment to heating processes of living organisms, air and soil; perspiration of animals and plants; photosynthesis and water evaporation. The Rn defines the type of climate and weather conditions prevailing in a region affecting the availability and thermal water, the fundamental understanding of genotype-environment, which ultimately determine the productivity of the agricultural system. Rn usually is used in models of weather and climate studies. The sustainability and economic viability of zootechnical activity is dependent on the positive interaction between animal and environment. Environmental factors such as water, shading, thermal exchanges sensible heat (conduction, convection and radiation skin and latent heat losses (evaporation and transpiration, conditioned by Rn, must be managed to provide the best results. The present study was conducted to develop and test models for accurate and precise radiation balance on the scales daily, monthly and seasonal ten-day for Jaboticabal - SP, due to the importance of estimates of net radiation for agricultural activities. We used daily meteorological data from weather station located in Jaboticabal, SP (coordinates: 21 ° 14'05 "South, 48 ° 17'09" West, 615m altitude at Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio Mesquita Filho" - FCAV/UNESP in a situation of default grass "Bahiagrass" during the period 20/08/2005 to 20/01/2012. The data used were the maximum temperature (Tmax, minimum (Tmin and mean (TMED; maximum relative humidity (URMáx, minimum (URMín and average (URMéd precipitation (mm, average velocity (m/s, Qo, solar radiation (MJ m-2, sunshine (hour meter (MJ m², soil temperature at two depths (Tsoil2CM, Tsoil5CM and class A pan evaporation (TCA (mm. The measures taken by the balance radiometer were taken as a reference to test other models. The models tested were those reported by NORMAN et al

  20. Occupational exposure to ionising radiation: the risk in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnell, J.A.; Harte, G.

    1978-01-01

    Details are given of calculations of the risks of somatic and genetic disease incurred by people exposed to ionizing radiations either through occupational exposure or as members of the general public. I.C.R.P. risk factors were used, together with a simple risk-time relationship. Accurate records of deaths in the United Kingdom from cancer or genetic damage are kept by the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, and this information has been used to calculate the existing risk of death from these causes for males in England and Wales at various ages. The additional risk posed by radiation exposure to levels of radiation recommended by I.C.R.P is shown to be very small. A simple risk-benefit analysis is presented for the collective dose commitment from nuclear power generation in the U.K. (U.K.)

  1. Biological consequences of radiation: risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This publication is a syllabus of a course on Radiation Protection. The publication offers an overview of the biological radiation effects at cellular level. For that purpose, different forms of cancers and their incidence are first discussed; structure and functioning of normal cells are considered and an introduction in genetics is given. Finally, an overview is presented of the character of tissue damage after high-dose irradiation. (G.J.P.)

  2. Identifying Balance and Fall Risk in Community-Dwelling Older Women: The Effect of Executive Function on Postural Control

    OpenAIRE

    Muir-Hunter, Susan W.; Clark, Jennifer; McLean, Stephanie; Pedlow, Sam; Van Hemmen, Alysia; Montero Odasso, Manuel; Overend, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The mechanisms linking cognition, balance function, and fall risk among older adults are not fully understood. An evaluation of the effect of cognition on balance tests commonly used in clinical practice to assess community-dwelling older adults could enhance the identification of at-risk individuals. The study aimed to determine (1) the association between cognition and clinical tests of balance and (2) the relationship between executive function (EF) and balance under single- and d...

  3. Assessment of health risks from exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    Rapid development in the assessment of health risks from exposure to ionizing radiation has produced an impressive array of risk differentials of presumed biologic significance. In the human data these differentials involve: (1) the variety of cancer, especially its size; (2) host factors, especially age; (3) time following exposure; (4) magnitude of dose; and (5) type of radiation. From experimental work we may presume that dose-rate also plays a role, especially for sparsely ionizing radiation. Current research is extending the scope of differentials with respect to these and other variables, including cell type and concomitant environmental risk factors, and testing dose-response models suggested by experimental and theoretical work. As facts to be explained, differentials in risk may lead to hypotheses to be explored experimentally and improve our understanding of how ionizing radiation causes cancer. 74 references

  4. Balance Training Reduces Falls Risk in Older Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Steven; Colberg, Sheri R.; Mariano, Mira; Parson, Henri K.; Vinik, Arthur I.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study assessed the effects of balance/strength training on falls risk and posture in older individuals with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Sixteen individuals with type 2 diabetes and 21 age-matched control subjects (aged 50–75 years) participated. Postural stability and falls risk was assessed before and after a 6-week exercise program. RESULTS Diabetic individuals had significantly higher falls risk score compared with control subjects. The diabetic group also e...

  5. Social impacts induced by radiation risk in Fukushima prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Takehiko

    2011-01-01

    An accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant induced by an earthquake of M9.0 and subsequent tsunami gave various kinds of impacts around the plant. After reviewing arguments of local governments for low dose radiation risk, this paper analyzed social impacts by the risk in terms of a gap of emergency response between national and local governments, corruption of communities in various levels induced by plural statements for risk levels in low level radiation, and economic impacts for agricultural crops made in Fukushima prefecture. Afterwards, clues for improving the situation were discussed, which include understanding of characteristics of public perception, attitudes of experts and interactive risk communication. (author)

  6. Executive function predicts risk of falls in older adults without balance impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buracchio, Teresa J; Mattek, Nora C; Dodge, Hiroko H; Hayes, Tamara L; Pavel, Misha; Howieson, Diane B; Kaye, Jeffrey A

    2011-11-09

    Executive dysfunction has previously been found to be a risk factor for falls. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between executive dysfunction and risk of falling and to determine if this association is independent of balance. Participants were 188 community-dwelling individuals aged 65 and older. All participants underwent baseline and annual evaluations with review of health history, standardized neurologic examination, neuropsychological testing, and qualitative and quantitative assessment of motor function. Falls were recorded prospectively using weekly online health forms. During 13 months of follow-up, there were 65 of 188 participants (34.6%) who reported at least one fall. Univariate analysis showed that fallers were more likely to have lower baseline scores in executive function than non-fallers (p = 0.03). Among participants without balance impairment we found that higher executive function z-scores were associated with lower fall counts (p = 0.03) after adjustment for age, sex, health status and prior history of falls using negative binomial regression models. This relationship was not present among participants with poor balance. Lower scores on executive function tests are a risk factor for falls in participants with minimal balance impairment. However, this effect is attenuated in individuals with poor balance where physical or more direct motor systems factors may play a greater role in fall risk.

  7. Executive function predicts risk of falls in older adults without balance impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buracchio Teresa J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Executive dysfunction has previously been found to be a risk factor for falls. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between executive dysfunction and risk of falling and to determine if this association is independent of balance. Methods Participants were 188 community-dwelling individuals aged 65 and older. All participants underwent baseline and annual evaluations with review of health history, standardized neurologic examination, neuropsychological testing, and qualitative and quantitative assessment of motor function. Falls were recorded prospectively using weekly online health forms. Results During 13 months of follow-up, there were 65 of 188 participants (34.6% who reported at least one fall. Univariate analysis showed that fallers were more likely to have lower baseline scores in executive function than non-fallers (p = 0.03. Among participants without balance impairment we found that higher executive function z-scores were associated with lower fall counts (p = 0.03 after adjustment for age, sex, health status and prior history of falls using negative binomial regression models. This relationship was not present among participants with poor balance. Conclusions Lower scores on executive function tests are a risk factor for falls in participants with minimal balance impairment. However, this effect is attenuated in individuals with poor balance where physical or more direct motor systems factors may play a greater role in fall risk.

  8. Delineating organs at risk in radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Ausili Cèfaro, Giampiero; Perez, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    This book offers an invaluable guide to the delineation of organs at risk of toxicity in patients undergoing radiotherapy. It details the radiological anatomy of organs at risk as seen on typical radiotherapy planning CT scans.

  9. Cancer as a risk of exposure to medicinal radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeser, H.

    1975-01-01

    'Radiocancer' arises in a tissue or organ damaged by radiation; the ionising rays have caused somatic radiation damage but have not produced cancer. A higher risk of cancer as a sequel to constantly increasing exposure to medicinal radiation has not been demonstrated so far. The statements quoted in the paper are due in particular to faulty comparative evaluations in retrospective surveys and to inadmissible extrapolations of findings after the action of high radiation doses to expected effects with low doses. In addition to radiobiology and radiophysics, knowledge of oncology and clinical radiology must also be taken into account in future. (orig.) [de

  10. Risk evaluation for protection of the public in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    Evaluation of the risk that would be involved in the exposure of the public in the event of a radiation accident requires information on the biological consequences expected of such an exposure. This report defines a range of reference doses of radiation and their corresponding risks to the public in the event of a radiation accident. The reference doses and the considerations on which they were based will be used for assessing the hazards of nuclear installations and for policy decisions by the authorities responsible for measures taken to safeguards the public in the case of a nuclear accident.

  11. Cancer risk from low doses of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auvinen, A.

    1997-06-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate cancer risk from small doses of ionizing radiation from various sources, including both external and internal exposure. The types of radiation included alpha, gamma, and neutron radiation. A nationwide follow-up study covering the years up to 1992 revealed no significant association between fallout from the Chernobyl accident and incidence of childhood leukemia. An excess of eight cases or more per year could be excluded. However, some indication of an increase was evident in the most heavily affected areas. Furthermore, the risk estimates were in accordance with those reported from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, although the confidence intervals were wide. (282 refs.)

  12. Cancer risk from low doses of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auvinen, A.

    1997-06-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate cancer risk from small doses of ionizing radiation from various sources, including both external and internal exposure. The types of radiation included alpha, gamma, and neutron radiation. A nationwide follow-up study covering the years up to 1992 revealed no significant association between fallout from the Chernobyl accident and incidence of childhood leukemia. An excess of eight cases or more per year could be excluded. However, some indication of an increase was evident in the most heavily affected areas. Furthermore, the risk estimates were in accordance with those reported from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, although the confidence intervals were wide. (282 refs.).

  13. The effect of hemodialysis on balance measurements and risk of fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erken, Ertugrul; Ozelsancak, Ruya; Sahin, Safak; Yılmaz, Emine Ece; Torun, Dilek; Leblebici, Berrin; Kuyucu, Yunus Emre; Sezer, Siren

    2016-10-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have increased risk of falls and fall-related complications. Other than aging and factors related to chronic kidney disease, treatment of hemodialysis may also contribute to this increased risk. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the impairment of balance after a session of hemodialysis with a quantitative assessment and reveal an increased fall risk that would possibly be related to treatment of hemodialysis for patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Fifty-six patients with ESRD on chronic hemodialysis program and 53 healthy individuals were involved in this study. Fall Index percentages were calculated, and fall risk categories were determined for all patients and healthy controls using Tetrax posturography device (Sunlight Medical Ltd Israel). The patient group was evaluated twice for balance, before and after a routine session of hemodialysis. Fall Index scores of healthy controls were lower than that of ESRD patients (p = 0.001). In the patient group, we found the mean Fall Index to be significantly higher at the post-dialysis assessment compared to the pre-dialysis assessment (p = 0.003). The number of patients with high risk of falling also increased at the post-dialysis assessment yet the difference did not reach significance. Fall Index was correlated with the increase in age only at the pre-dialysis balance measurement (p = 0.038). Patients with better dialysis adequacy had significantly lower Fall Index scores than the others at the pre-dialysis balance measurement (p = 0.004). The difference was not significant at the post-dialysis measurement. In the current study, we evaluated the balance of ESRD patients before and after a routine session of hemodialysis treatment. This is the first study to investigate the effect of hemodialysis on balance, using an electronic posturographic balance system. We found the Fall Index score to be significantly higher after hemodialysis, indicating a negative

  14. Instrumentation and control balancing the risks and benefits of modernization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshi, P.K.; Rawlins, D.H.; Falascino, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the benefits and risks of modernization of instrumentation and control (I and C) systems for nuclear power plants. It will draw conclusions on how to proceed with such modernization across the spectrum from operating reactors to new plant designs. Lessons learned from Westinghouse's application of digital systems to the Temelin Nuclear Power Plant in the Czech Republic, and other nuclear plant upgrades will be used to support principles and conclusions drawn in the paper. A long term view of the modernization program is essential, even if piecemeal or individual upgrades are envisioned. A framework for considering these risks and goals into a long range strategic plan will be presented. The framework will be presented in the form of I and C architectures which permit long term growth, planning ahead for technological obsolescence, selectron of suppliers for term relationships, and effective integration of individual upgrades. Potential upgrade areas will be summarized for functional improvements, I and C hardware upgrades, and man-machine interface improvements. Examples from Westinghouse's I and C experience will be presented to clarify the principles and framework described in the paper. Lessons learned from the application of the Eagle product line to operating reactors and the emergence of distributed computer information systems as an integration vehicle for I and C upgrades will be discussed. Westinghouse is currently modernizing the Temelin Nuclear Power Plant I and C system in the Czech Republic. An overview of this program will be included as it relates to the modernization framework presented in the paper. (authors)

  15. Application of the modified Wheeler cap method for radiation efficiency measurement of balanced electrically small antennas in complex environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jiaying; Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, application of a modified Wheeler cap method for the radiation efficiency measurement of balanced electrically small antennas is presented. It is shown that the limitations on the cavity dimension can be overcome and thus measurement in a large cavity is possible. The cavity loss...

  16. Radiation and cancer risk in atomic-bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, K; Ozasa, K; Okubo, T

    2012-03-01

    With the aim of accurately assessing the effects of radiation exposure in the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation has, over several decades, conducted studies of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, comprising 93 000 atomic-bomb survivors and 27 000 controls. Solid cancer: the recent report on solid cancer incidence found that at age 70 years following exposure at age 30 years, solid cancer rates increase by about 35%  Gy(-1) for men and 58% Gy(-1) for women. Age-at-exposure is an important risk modifier. In the case of lung cancer, cigarette smoking has been found to be an important risk modifier. Radiation has similar effects on first-primary and second-primary cancer risks. Finally, radiation-associated increases in cancer rates appear to persist throughout life. Leukaemia: the recent report on leukaemia mortality suggests that radiation effects on leukaemia mortality persisted for more than 50 years. Moreover, significant dose-response for myelodysplastic syndrome was observed in Nagasaki LSS members even 40-60 years after radiation exposure. Future perspective: given the continuing solid cancer increase in the survivor population, the LSS will likely continue to provide important new information on radiation exposure and solid cancer risks for another 15-20 years, especially for those exposed at a young age.

  17. Risk of occupational radiation-induced cataract in medical workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snezana, Milacic

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was determination of criteria for recognition of a pre senile cataract as a professional disease in health care personnel exposed to small doses of ionizing radiation. Method: The study included 3240 health workers in medical centers of Serbia in the period 1992-2002. A total of 1560 workers were employed in the zone (group A) and 1680 out of ionizing radiation zone (group B). Among group A, two groups had been selected: 1. Group A-1: Health workers in the ionizing radiation zone who contracted lens cataract during their years of service while dosimetry could not reveal higher absorbed dose (A-1=115); 2. Group A-2: Health workers in the ionizing radiation zone with higher incidence of chromosomal aberrations and without cataract (A-2=100). Results: More significant incidence of cataract was found in group A, χ 2 =65.92; p<0.01. Radiation risk was higher in health workers in radiation zone than in others, relative risk is 4, 6. Elevated blood sugar level was found in higher percentage with health workers working in radiation zone who developed cataract. Conclusion: Low doses of radiation are not the cause of occupational cataract as individual occupational disease. X-ray radiation may be a significant cofactor of cataract in radiological technicians. (author)

  18. Factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-11-01

    The collective influence of biologic and physical factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer introduces uncertainties sufficient to deny precision of estimates of human cancer risk that can be calculated for low-dose radiation in exposed populations. The important biologic characteristics include the tissue sites and cell types, baseline cancer incidence, minimum latent period, time-to-tumor recognition, and the influence of individual host (age and sex) and competing etiologic influences. Physical factors include radiation dose, dose rate, and radiation quality. Statistical factors include time-response projection models, risk coefficients, and dose-response relationships. Other modifying factors include other carcinogens, and other biological sources (hormonal status, immune status, hereditary factors).

  19. Factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-11-01

    The collective influence of biologic and physical factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer introduces uncertainties sufficient to deny precision of estimates of human cancer risk that can be calculated for low-dose radiation in exposed populations. The important biologic characteristics include the tissue sites and cell types, baseline cancer incidence, minimum latent period, time-to-tumor recognition, and the influence of individual host (age and sex) and competing etiologic influences. Physical factors include radiation dose, dose rate, and radiation quality. Statistical factors include time-response projection models, risk coefficients, and dose-response relationships. Other modifying factors include other carcinogens, and other biological sources (hormonal status, immune status, hereditary factors)

  20. Radiation and health risks: a bioethical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxey, M.N.

    1983-01-01

    The author suggests that radiation and radioactivity have acquired a set of attributes that tend almost inevitably to intensify public alarm as public concern over nuclear energy and nuclear weapons has escalated. She discusses the moral argument that widespread use of radioactive substances seems tantamount to an immoral violation of human rights no matter what the benefits might be

  1. Radiation Exposure and Health Risks for Orthopaedic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayda, Roman A; Hsu, Raymond Y; DePasse, J Mason; Gil, Joseph A

    2018-03-22

    Orthopaedic surgeons are routinely exposed to intraoperative radiation and, therefore, follow the principle of "as low as reasonably achievable" with regard to occupational safety. However, standardized education on the long-term health effects of radiation and the basis for current radiation exposure limits is limited in the field of orthopaedics. Much of orthopaedic surgeons' understanding of radiation exposure limits is extrapolated from studies of survivors of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Epidemiologic studies on cancer risk in surgeons and interventional proceduralists and dosimetry studies on true radiation exposure during trauma and spine surgery recently have been conducted. Orthopaedic surgeons should understand the basics and basis of radiation exposure limits, be familiar with the current literature on the incidence of solid tumors and cataracts in orthopaedic surgeons, and understand the evidence behind current intraoperative fluoroscopy safety recommendations.

  2. A systematic review of balance and fall risk assessments with mobile phone technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeing, Kathleen L; Hsieh, Katherine L; Sosnoff, Jacob J

    2017-11-01

    Falls are a major health concern for older adults. Preventative measures can help reduce the incidence and severity of falls. Methods for assessing balance and fall risk factors are necessary to effectively implement preventative measures. Research groups are currently developing mobile applications to enable seniors, caregivers, and clinicians to monitor balance and fall risk. The following systematic review assesses the current state of mobile health apps for testing balance as a fall risk factor. Thirteen studies were identified and included in the review and analyzed based on study design, population, sample size, measures of balance, main outcome measures, and evaluation of validity and reliability. All studies successfully tested their applications, but only 38% evaluated the validity, and 23% evaluated the reliability of their applications. Of those, all applications were found to accurately and reliably measure balance on select variables. Four of the 13 studies included special populations groups. Out of the 13 studies, 12 reported clinicians as their intended user and seven reported seniors as their intended user. Further research should examine the validity of mobile health applications as well as report on the application's usability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiation Risk Associated with Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation: Irrational Fear or Real Danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reshetin, V.

    2007-01-01

    The established worldwide practice of protecting people from radiation based on the assessments of radiation risk received in the researches carried out earlier costs hundreds of billions of dollars a year to implement. In the opinion of the well-known experts, the maintenance of the existing radiation protection regulations or moreover acceptance of more tough regulations can influence the development of nuclear power engineering. The accepted practice of assessment of human health risk from radiation may also significantly affect our perception of threats of radiation terrorism. In this work, the critical analysis of publications on the assessment of the effects of small doses of radiation on human health is carried out. In our analysis, we especially emphasize the data on cancer mortality among survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who received instantaneous radiation doses of less than 200 mSv including the data on leukemia and solid cancer, as well as epidemiological studies in the regions of India and China with high level of natural radiation. Since the investigations of radiation risk is a base for formulating modern radiation protection regulations, their reliability and validity are of great importance. As follows from the analysis, the subsequent, during three decades, toughening of radiation protection regulations has already led to exceedingly prohibitive standards and impractical recommendations the science-based validity of which can cause serious doubts. Now, a number of world-wide known scientists and authoritative international organizations call for revision of these standards and of the radiation safety concept itself. (author)

  4. Risky business: challenges and successes in military radiation risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Mark A; Geckle, Lori S; Davidson, Bethney A

    2012-01-01

    Given the general public's overall lack of knowledge about radiation and their heightened fear of its harmful effects, effective communication of radiation risks is often difficult. This is especially true when it comes to communicating the radiation risks stemming from military operations. Part of this difficulty stems from a lingering distrust of the military that harkens back to the controversy surrounding Veteran exposures to Agent Orange during the Vietnam War along with the often classified nature of many military operations. Additionally, there are unique military exposure scenarios, such as the use of nuclear weapons and combat use of depleted uranium as antiarmor munitions that are not found in the civilian sector. Also, the large, diverse nature of the military makes consistent risk communication across the vast and widespread organization very difficult. This manuscript highlights and discusses both the common and the distinctive challenges of effectively communicating military radiation risks, to include communicating through the media. The paper also introduces the Army's Health Risk Communication Program and its role in assisting in effective risk communication efforts. The authors draw on their extensive collective experience to share 3 risk communication success stories that were accomplished through the innovative use of a matrixed, team approach that combines both health physics and risk communication expertise.

  5. Radiation risk estimation based on measurement error models

    CERN Document Server

    Masiuk, Sergii; Shklyar, Sergiy; Chepurny, Mykola; Likhtarov, Illya

    2017-01-01

    This monograph discusses statistics and risk estimates applied to radiation damage under the presence of measurement errors. The first part covers nonlinear measurement error models, with a particular emphasis on efficiency of regression parameter estimators. In the second part, risk estimation in models with measurement errors is considered. Efficiency of the methods presented is verified using data from radio-epidemiological studies.

  6. Prototype Biology-Based Radiation Risk Module Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, Douglas; Clayton, Ronald G.; Patel, Zarana; Hu, Shaowen; Huff, Janice

    2015-01-01

    Biological effects of space radiation and risk mitigation are strategic knowledge gaps for the Evolvable Mars Campaign. The current epidemiology-based NASA Space Cancer Risk (NSCR) model contains large uncertainties (HAT #6.5a) due to lack of information on the radiobiology of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and lack of human data. The use of experimental models that most accurately replicate the response of human tissues is critical for precision in risk projections. Our proposed study will compare DNA damage, histological, and cell kinetic parameters after irradiation in normal 2D human cells versus 3D tissue models, and it will use a multi-scale computational model (CHASTE) to investigate various biological processes that may contribute to carcinogenesis, including radiation-induced cellular signaling pathways. This cross-disciplinary work, with biological validation of an evolvable mathematical computational model, will help reduce uncertainties within NSCR and aid risk mitigation for radiation-induced carcinogenesis.

  7. Changes of snow cover, temperature, and radiative heat balance over the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisman, Pavel YA.; Karl, Thomas R.; Knight, Richard W.; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    1994-01-01

    Contemporary large-scale changes in satellite-derived snow cover were examined over the Northern Hemisphere extratropical land (NEL) areas. These areas encompass 55% of the land in the Northern Hemisphere. Snow cover (S) transient regions, the 'centers of action' relative to interannual variations of snow cover, were identified for the years 1972-1992. During these years a global retreat in snow cover extent (SE) occurred in the second half of the hydrologic year (April-September). Mean annual SE has decreased by 10% (2.3 x 10(exp 6) sq km). Negative trends account for one-third to one-half of the interannual continental variance of SE. The historical influence of S on the planetary albedo and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) is investigated. The mean annual response of the S feedback on the radiative balance (RB) is negative and suggests a largescale heat redistribution. During autumn and early winter (up to January), however, the feedback of S on the planetary RB may be positive. Only by February does the cooling effect of S (due to albedo increase) dominate the planetary warming due to reduced OLR over the S. Despite a wintertime maximum in SE, the feedback in spring has the greatest magnitude. The global retreat of spring SE should lead to a positive feedback on temperature. Based on observed records of S, changes in RB are calculated that parallel an observed increase of spring temperature during the past 20 years. The results provide a partial explanation of the significant increase in spring surface air temperature observed over the land areas of the Northern Hemisphere during the past century. The mean SE in years with an El Nino and La Nina were also evaluated. El Nino events are generally accompanied by increased SE over the NEL during the first half of the hydrological year. In the second half of the hydrologic year (spring and summer), the El Nino events are accompanied by a global retreat of SE.

  8. Estimation of radiation risks at low dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The report presents a review of the effects caused by radiation in low doses, or at low dose rates. For the inheritable (or ''genetic''), as well as for the cancer producing effects of radiation, present evidence is consistent with: (a) a non-linear relationship between the frequency of at least some forms of these effects, with comparing frequencies caused by doses many times those received annually from natural sources, with those caused by lower doses; (b) a probably linear relationship, however, between dose and frequency of effects for dose rates in the region of that received from natural sources, or at several times this rate; (c) no evidence to indicate the existence of a threshold dose below which such effects are not produced, and a strong inference from the mode of action of radiation on cells at low dose rates that no such thresholds are likely to apply to the detrimental, cancer-producing or inheritable, effects resulting from unrepaired damage to single cells. 19 refs

  9. Risk perception in the process of working with radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, J.C.G.; Levy, D.; Sanches, M.P.; Rodrigues, D.L.; Sordi, G.M.A.A.

    2017-01-01

    This study discusses occupational risk under three distinct aspects, which are often interconnected or interdependent in the work environment. These are: environmental risks, human failures and equipment failures. The article addresses the potential exposure in the workplace, caused by the agent's physical radiation risk, resulting from handling with sources of ionizing radiation. Based on the history of accidents occurring in normal operations, the study summarizes the main accidents in various facilities and possible causes involving the three aspects of risk. In its final considerations, it presents the lessons learned and the measures to be taken with the intention of contributing to the prevention and mitigation of risks in the work environment. The analysis of accident cases and their causes provide valuable information to prevent the risk of similar accidents and contribute to the improvement of operational projects and procedures

  10. Radiation risk and its estimation for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, F.W.

    1979-01-01

    The level of knowledge achieved in estimating risks due to the operation of nuclear facilities is discussed. In this connection it is analyzed to what extent risk estimates may be used for establishing requirements for facilities and measures of radiation protection and accident prevention. At present, estimates of risks are subject to great uncertainties. However, the results attainable already permit to discern the causes of possible accidents and to develop effective measures for preventing such accidents. For the time being (and maybe in principle) risk estimation is possible only with more or less arbitrary premises. Within the foreseeable future, cost-benefit comparisons cannot compensate for discretionary decisions in establishing requirements for measures of radiation protection and accident prevention. In preparing such decisions based on experience, expert opinions, political and socio-economic reflections and views, comparison of the risk of novel technologies with existing ones or accepted risks may be a useful means. (author)

  11. Exposure Risks Among Children Undergoing Radiation Therapy: Considerations in the Era of Image Guided Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, Clayton B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University California Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Thompson, Holly M. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Benedict, Stanley H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University California Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Seibert, J. Anthony [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Wong, Kenneth [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Vaughan, Andrew T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University California Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Chen, Allen M., E-mail: allenmchen@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Recent improvements in toxicity profiles of pediatric oncology patients are attributable, in part, to advances in the field of radiation oncology such as intensity modulated radiation (IMRT) and proton therapy (IMPT). While IMRT and IMPT deliver highly conformal dose to targeted volumes, they commonly demand the addition of 2- or 3-dimensional imaging for precise positioning—a technique known as image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). In this manuscript we address strategies to further minimize exposure risk in children by reducing effective IGRT dose. Portal X rays and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) are commonly used to verify patient position during IGRT and, because their relative radiation exposure is far less than the radiation absorbed from therapeutic treatment beams, their sometimes significant contribution to cumulative risk can be easily overlooked. Optimizing the conformality of IMRT/IMPT while simultaneously ignoring IGRT dose may result in organs at risk being exposed to a greater proportion of radiation from IGRT than from therapeutic beams. Over a treatment course, cumulative central-axis CBCT effective dose can approach or supersede the amount of radiation absorbed from a single treatment fraction, a theoretical increase of 3% to 5% in mutagenic risk. In select scenarios, this may result in the underprediction of acute and late toxicity risk (such as azoospermia, ovarian dysfunction, or increased lifetime mutagenic risk) in radiation-sensitive organs and patients. Although dependent on variables such as patient age, gender, weight, body habitus, anatomic location, and dose-toxicity thresholds, modifying IGRT use and acquisition parameters such as frequency, imaging modality, beam energy, current, voltage, rotational degree, collimation, field size, reconstruction algorithm, and documentation can reduce exposure, avoid unnecessary toxicity, and achieve doses as low as reasonably achievable, promoting a culture and practice of “gentle IGRT.”.

  12. Ionizing radiation risk assessment, BEIR IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    This report of the Subpanel discusses the potential impact on Federal agencies and indicates individual risk factors that could be used by them in risk assessment. The approach used in this CIRRPC report was to consider the risk factors presented in BEIR IV for each radionuclide (or group radioelements) and to make some judgments regarding their validity and/or the uncertainties involved. The coverage of Radon-222 and its progeny dominated the BEIR IV report and this Subpanel felt is was proper to devote more attention to this radionuclide family. This risk factor presented in BEIR IV for radon is 350 cancer deaths per million person-working level months (WLM) of exposure for a lifetime. There is a range of opinions on the conversion from WLM to absorbed dose. As discussed in the text, the use of the WLM concept makes it difficult or infeasible to compare the risk factor for radon with that of other radionuclides which are based on organ dose. This report also includes a discussion of certain fundamental scientific and operational issues that may have decisive effect upon risk factor selection. These adjunct items are dealt with under separate headings and include discussions of threshold dose considerations, extrapolation to low doses, and age at exposure

  13. Balance, falls risk, and related disability in untreated vestibular schwannoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saman, Yougan; Bamiou, Doris-Eva; Murdin, Louisa; Tsioulos, K; Davies, Rosalyn; Dutia, Mayank B; Obholzer, Rupert; Gleeson, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Background Many vestibular schwannoma (VS) patients complain of balance dysfunction; however, validated standardized assessments are lacking. The relative contribution of imbalance and factors like anxiety to disability is unknown. Because imbalance significantly affects quality of life in this group and vestibular rehabilitation may improve outcomes, determining the severity of balance dysfunction is important to understand long-term rehabilitation needs. Aim To assess functional balance (Vertigo Symptom Scale-Vertigo [VSS-VER] and Functional Gait Assessment [FGA]) and the relative contribution of symptom severity (VSS-VER), ambulant posture (FGA), and anxiety symptoms (Vertigo Symptom Scale-Anxiety [VSS-SA]) to disability in untreated patients. Methods Patients not exposed to surgery completed the VSS, Vertigo Handicap Questionnaire (VHQ), and FGA. VSS scores were compared with migrainous vertigo (MV) patients, a mixed neuro-otological group, and healthy controls. Results A correlation was found between decreased FGA and increasing age (r = - 0.35; p  60 years of age the FGA score was ≤ 22 suggesting increased falls risk. VSS-VER scores were higher than in healthy controls (p balance symptoms were higher than normal controls (p Balance symptoms are more severe than in healthy controls but less than other neuro-otological patients. Balance symptom severity, anxiety symptoms, and ambulant posture were significant contributors to disability and should be the focus of vestibular rehabilitation strategies.

  14. Understanding radiation and risk: the importance of primary and secondary education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, Junichiro [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (SPring-8), Mikaduki, Hyogo (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    In Japan's primary and secondary schools, radiation and radioactivity are taught as part of the curriculum dealing with social science subjects. Students learn much about the hazardous features of radiation, but lack the scientific understanding necessary to build a more balanced picture. Although the same point applies to education covering the harmful effects of volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, electrical storms and so on, public understanding of these events is relatively high and students are generally able to make informed judgments about the risks involved. By contrast, their limited understanding of radiation often contributes to fears that it is evil or even supernatural. To correct this distortion, it is important that primary and secondary education includes a scientific explanation of radiation. Like heat and light, radiation is fundamental to the history of the universe; and scientific education programs should give appropriate emphasis to this important subject. Students would then be able to make more objective judgments about the useful and hazardous aspects of radiation. (author)

  15. [Ionizing and non-ionizing radiation (comparative risk estimations)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, Iu G

    2012-01-01

    The population has widely used mobile communication for already more than 15 years. It is important to note that the use of mobile communication has sharply changed the conditions of daily exposure of the population to EME We expose our brain daily for the first time in the entire civilization. The mobile phone is an open and uncontrollable source of electromagnetic radiation. The comparative risk estimation for the population of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation was carried out taking into account the real conditions of influence. Comparison of risks for the population of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation leads us to a conclusion that EMF RF exposure in conditions of wide use of mobile communication is potentially more harmful than ionizing radiation influence.

  16. Radiation polluton and cancer: comparative risks and proof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    A case study of the comparative risks from nuclear radiation and coal burning is presented for a given level of energy production. Mr. Cohen indicates results that might be realized under judicial reforms. Cohen notes the typical overstatement of health hazards from low-level radiation, when current risk assessment methodology derives it from high-level radiation statistics. However, he sees public attention focused on the danger of even low-level radiation brought about by radioactive waste disposal uncertainties. Cohen accuses the information media of generating bad news even when facts point in the opposite direction. He offers as an example, a rationale for the Best-Collins proposal to adjudicate pollution engendered torts under the guidance of reputable authorities rather than impressionable juries guided by proximate case. The paper ends with the question, How can the ajudication system be reformed, given such perverse incentives

  17. Harmonization of risk management approaches: radiation and chemical exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, P.

    2006-01-01

    Assessment of occupational and public risk from the environmental pollutants like chemicals, radiation, etc demands that the effects be considered not only from each individual pollutant, but from the combination of all the pollutants. An integrated risk assessment system needs to be in place to have an overall risk perspective for the benefit of policy makers and decision takers to try to achieve risk reduction in totality. The basis for risk-based radiation dose limits is derived from epidemiological studies, which provide a rich source of data largely unavailable to chemical risk assessors. In addition, use of the principle of optimization as expressed in the ALARA concept has resulted in a safety culture, which is much more than just complying with stipulated limits. The conservative hypothesis of no-threshold dose-effect relation (ICRP) is universally assumed. The end-points and the severity of different classes of pollutants and even different pollutants in a same class vary over a wide range. Hence, it is difficult to arrive at a quantitative value for the net detriment that weighs the various types of end-points and various classes of pollutants. Once the risk due to other pollutants is quantified by some acceptable methodology, it can be expressed in terms of the Risk Equivalent Radiation Dose (R.E.R.D.) for easy comparison with options involving radiation exposure. This paper is an effort to use to quantify and present the risk due to exposure to chemicals and radiation in a common scale for the purpose of easy comparison to facilitate decision taking. (authors)

  18. Harmonization of risk management approaches: radiation and chemical exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, P. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Radiation Safety Systems Div., Mumbai (India)

    2006-07-01

    Assessment of occupational and public risk from the environmental pollutants like chemicals, radiation, etc demands that the effects be considered not only from each individual pollutant, but from the combination of all the pollutants. An integrated risk assessment system needs to be in place to have an overall risk perspective for the benefit of policy makers and decision takers to try to achieve risk reduction in totality. The basis for risk-based radiation dose limits is derived from epidemiological studies, which provide a rich source of data largely unavailable to chemical risk assessors. In addition, use of the principle of optimization as expressed in the ALARA concept has resulted in a safety culture, which is much more than just complying with stipulated limits. The conservative hypothesis of no-threshold dose-effect relation (ICRP) is universally assumed. The end-points and the severity of different classes of pollutants and even different pollutants in a same class vary over a wide range. Hence, it is difficult to arrive at a quantitative value for the net detriment that weighs the various types of end-points and various classes of pollutants. Once the risk due to other pollutants is quantified by some acceptable methodology, it can be expressed in terms of the Risk Equivalent Radiation Dose (R.E.R.D.) for easy comparison with options involving radiation exposure. This paper is an effort to use to quantify and present the risk due to exposure to chemicals and radiation in a common scale for the purpose of easy comparison to facilitate decision taking. (authors)

  19. Radiation risk factors and dose limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barendsen, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    The contents of the ICRP publications 9 (1965) and 26 (1977) are outlined and the research conducted during these years considered. Expressions are derived for the frequency for induction of cancer from the most common irradiations - X rays, gamma rays and electrons. The dose limits advised by the ICRP are discussed and the first two fundamental principles are presented - that no one should be subjected to radiation without useful cause and that in those cases where irradiation is thought necessary, the medical, scientific, social and economic advantages need to be carefully considered with respect to the possible disadvantages. (C.F.)

  20. Study on technology for minimizing radiation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Ho; Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Kang Suk; Kim, Kug Chan; Chun, Ki Chung.

    1997-01-01

    Apoptosis, also called programmed cell death to discriminate it from necrosis, is characterized by : chromatin condensation, apoptotic body formation, fragmentation of DNA into oligonucleosome sized pieces, swelling and progressive cell degradation. We examined morphological and biochemical changes of T-lymphocytes following gamma irradiation exposure. The results are followings. 1) Murine lymphocytes have several characteristics : The irradiated cells undergo morphological and biochemical changes characteristic of apoptosis, causing growth delay. (0.01, 0.1, 1.0 Gy) 2) The onset of DNA fragmentation in cells occurs after one more cell divisions. 3) DNA fragmentation in cells occurs in all irradiated group (0.1, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 Gy, 24 hours following gamma radiation exposure) 4) Apoptotic bodies were detected by confocal microscope with ease when compared with electron microscope. For the developing technology for minimizing radiation damage, the following experimental works have been done. 1) Establishment of experimental system for pre-screening of radioprotectants - Screening of protective substances using TSH bioindicator - Efficacy test of some radioprotective materials 2) TSH bioindicator system can make a scientific role in screening unknown materials for their possible radioprotective effect. (author). 42 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs

  1. Study on technology for minimizing radiation risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Ho; Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Kang Suk; Kim, Kug Chan; Chun, Ki Chung

    1997-01-01

    Apoptosis, also called programmed cell death to discriminate it from necrosis, is characterized by : chromatin condensation, apoptotic body formation, fragmentation of DNA into oligonucleosome sized pieces, swelling and progressive cell degradation. We examined morphological and biochemical changes of T-lymphocytes following gamma irradiation exposure. The results are followings. (1) Murine lymphocytes have several characteristics : The irradiated cells undergo morphological and biochemical changes characteristic of apoptosis, causing growth delay. (0.01, 0.1, 1.0 Gy) (2) The onset of DNA fragmentation in cells occurs after one more cell divisions. (3) DNA fragmentation in cells occurs in all irradiated group (0.1, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 Gy, 24 hours following gamma radiation exposure) (4) Apoptotic bodies were detected by confocal microscope with ease when compared with electron microscope. For the developing technology for minimizing radiation damage, the following experimental works have been done. (1) Establishment of experimental system for pre-screening of radioprotectants - Screening of protective substances using TSH bioindicator - Efficacy test of some radioprotective materials (2) TSH bioindicator system can make a scientific role in screening unknown materials for their possible radioprotective effect. (author). 42 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  2. Risks and hazards from conventional and radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, P.S.; Ganguly, A.K.

    1978-01-01

    Beneficial uses of radioisotopes in medicine, industry, agriculture and research are discussed. In absence of adequate safety precautions, uses of radiation may also result in harmful biological effects or genetic effects. Radiation risks and hazards are evaluated by comparing with other risks and hazards which are routinely encountered. The risk of fatality per year by various causes in U.S.A. is given. It is stated with examples and observations that some of the routine habits and necessities and minor luxuries are more risky than radiation risks. Countrywide radiation safety program in India by the Department of Atomic Energy is described in brief. Data are given to show that the risks from radiation are much lower in comparison with many conventional sources. More efficient equipment such as image intensifier is recommended to help to reduce the patient dose. It is stated that caution has to be exercised while handling the X-ray machines which may be harmful not only to patients but to doctors also. As regards, nuclear medicine, it is mentioned that though it is a fast expanding speciality in India, the number of procedures carried out in various centres is small as compared to U.S.A. and France. Some instances are given to show the consequences of the ignorance of the radiation hazards in operating machines in X-ray and gamma ray beam therapy facilities. A survey made by DRP, BARC revealed that some research laboratories lacked basic radiation protection requirements in using X-ray crystallography or analytical equipment. (B.G.W.)

  3. Medical effects and risks of exposure to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettler, Fred A

    2012-01-01

    Effects and risk from exposure to ionising radiation depend upon the absorbed dose, dose rate, quality of radiation, specifics of the tissue irradiated and other factors such as the age of the individual. Effects may be apparent almost immediately or may take decades to be manifest. Cancer is the most important stochastic effect at absorbed doses of less than 1 Gy. The risk of cancer induction varies widely across different tissues; however, the risk of fatal radiation-induced cancer for a general population following chronic exposure is about 5% Sv −1 . Quantification of cancer risk at doses of less than 0.1 Gy remains problematic. Hereditary risks from irradiation that might result in effects to offspring of humans appear to be much lower and any such potential risks can only be estimated from animal models. At high doses (over 1 Gy) cell killing and modification causes deterministic effects such as skin burns, and bone marrow depression, in which case immunosuppression becomes a critical issue. Acute whole body penetrating gamma irradiation at doses in excess of 2 Gy results in varying degrees of acute radiation sickness and doses over 10 Gy are usually lethal as a result of combined organ injury. (note)

  4. Radiation Risk and Possible Consequences for Ukrainian Population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pivovarov, Alexander [Ukrainian State Chemical-Technology Univ., Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine)

    2006-09-15

    The paper deals with the values of risk related to environmental pollution with radionuclides from the main sources located both on the territory of Ukraine and outside, which affect the Ukrainian population, in the context of long-range outlook. Ratios of risk for stochastic effects occurrence are given per unit of individual or collective dose, as well as for occurrence of fatal cancer, non-fatal cancer or serious hereditary effects. Besides, the paper mentions not only the impact of ionizing radiation, but severe population stress as well, which in certain regions turns into radiophobia. It is shown that for essential decrease of radiation risk in Ukraine, global problems should be solved, first of all, at the governmental level. Whereas a number of issues connected with the Chernobyl catastrophe are at least partially solved, the problems concerning the effects of radon and other radiation-dangerous factors are still to be tackled.

  5. NASA Space Radiation Risk Project: Overview and Recent Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattnig, Steve R.; Chappell, Lori J.; George, Kerry A.; Hada, Megumi; Hu, Shaowen; Kidane, Yared H.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Kovyrshina, Tatiana; Norman, Ryan B.; Nounu, Hatem N.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Space Radiation Risk project is responsible for integrating new experimental and computational results into models to predict risk of cancer and acute radiation syndrome (ARS) for use in mission planning and systems design, as well as current space operations. The project has several parallel efforts focused on proving NASA's radiation risk projection capability in both the near and long term. This presentation will give an overview, with select results from these efforts including the following topics: verification, validation, and streamlining the transition of models to use in decision making; relative biological effectiveness and dose rate effect estimation using a combination of stochastic track structure simulations, DNA damage model calculations and experimental data; ARS model improvements; pathway analysis from gene expression data sets; solar particle event probabilistic exposure calculation including correlated uncertainties for use in design optimization.

  6. Radiation Risk and Possible Consequences for Ukrainian Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivovarov, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    The paper deals with the values of risk related to environmental pollution with radionuclides from the main sources located both on the territory of Ukraine and outside, which affect the Ukrainian population, in the context of long-range outlook. Ratios of risk for stochastic effects occurrence are given per unit of individual or collective dose, as well as for occurrence of fatal cancer, non-fatal cancer or serious hereditary effects. Besides, the paper mentions not only the impact of ionizing radiation, but severe population stress as well, which in certain regions turns into radiophobia. It is shown that for essential decrease of radiation risk in Ukraine, global problems should be solved, first of all, at the governmental level. Whereas a number of issues connected with the Chernobyl catastrophe are at least partially solved, the problems concerning the effects of radon and other radiation-dangerous factors are still to be tackled

  7. Probabilistic methodology for estimating radiation-induced cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Leggett, R.W.; Williams, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    The RICRAC computer code was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide a versatile and convenient methodology for radiation risk assessment. The code allows as input essentially any dose pattern commonly encountered in risk assessments for either acute or chronic exposures, and it includes consideration of the age structure of the exposed population. Results produced by the analysis include the probability of one or more radiation-induced cancer deaths in a specified population, expected numbers of deaths, and expected years of life lost as a result of premature fatalities. These calculatons include consideration of competing risks of death from all other causes. The program also generates a probability frequency distribution of the expected number of cancers in any specified cohort resulting from a given radiation dose. The methods may be applied to any specified population and dose scenario

  8. Ionizing radiation risks to satellite power systems (SPS) workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The radiation risks to the health of workers who will construct and maintain solar power satellites in the space environment were examined. For ionizing radiation, the major concern will be late or delayed health effects, particularly the increased risk of radiation-induced cancer. The estimated lifetime risk for cancer is 0.8 to 5.0 excess deaths per 10,000 workers per rad of exposure. Thus, for example, in 10,000 workers who completed ten missions with an exposure of 40 rem per mission, 320 to 2000 additional deaths in excess of the 1640 deaths from normally occurring cancer, would be expected. These estimates would indicate a 20 to 120% increase in cancer deaths in the worker-population. The wide range in these estimates stems from the choice of the risk-projection model and the dose-response relationsip. The choice between a linear and a linear-quadratic dose-response model may alter the risk estimate by a factor of about two. The method of analysis (e.g., relative vs absolute risk model) can alter the risk estimate by an additional factor of three. Choosing different age and sex distributions can further change the estimate by another factor of up to three. The potential genetic consequences could be of significance, but at the present time, sufficient information on the age and sex distribution of the worker population is lacking for precise estimation of risk. The potential teratogenic consequences resulting from radiation are considered significant. Radiation exposure of a pregnant worker could result in developmental abnormalities

  9. Ionizing radiation risks to satellite power systems (SPS) workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyman, J.T.; Ainsworth, E.J.; Alpen, E.L.; Bond, V.; Curtis, S.B.; Fry, R.J.M.; Jackson, K.L.; Nachtwey, S.; Sondhaus, C.; Tobias, C.A.; Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-11-01

    The radiation risks to the health of workers who will construct and maintain solar power satellites in the space environment were examined. For ionizing radiation, the major concern will be late or delayed health effects, particularly the increased risk of radiation-induced cancer. The estimated lifetime risk for cancer is 0.8 to 5.0 excess deaths per 10,000 workers per rad of exposure. Thus, for example, in 10,000 workers who completed ten missions with an exposure of 40 rem per mission, 320 to 2000 additional deaths in excess of the 1640 deaths from normally occurring cancer, would be expected. These estimates would indicate a 20 to 120% increase in cancer deaths in the worker-population. The wide range in these estimates stems from the choice of the risk-projection model and the dose-response relationsip. The choice between a linear and a linear-quadratic dose-response model may alter the risk estimate by a factor of about two. The method of analysis (e.g., relative vs absolute risk model) can alter the risk estimate by an additional factor of three. Choosing different age and sex distributions can further change the estimate by another factor of up to three. The potential genetic consequences could be of significance, but at the present time, sufficient information on the age and sex distribution of the worker population is lacking for precise estimation of risk. The potential teratogenic consequences resulting from radiation are considered significant. Radiation exposure of a pregnant worker could result in developmental abnormalities.

  10. A mathematical foundation for controlling radiation health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumazawa, S.

    2000-01-01

    Radiation protection is to attain an adequate control of radiation health risk compared with other risks. Our society in the 21 st century is predicted by some experts to seek the high priority of safety for expanding activity of human beings. The law of controlling risks will be a key subject to serve the safety of human beings and their environment. The main principles of the ICRP system of radiological system are strongly relating to the general law of various risk controls. The individual-based protection concept clearly gives us a mathematical model of controlling risks in general. This paper discusses the simplest formulation of controlling risks in the ICRP system, including other relating systems. First, the basic characteristics of occupational exposure as a risk control is presented by analyzing the data compiled over half a century. It shows the relation ship between dose control levels and individually controlled doses. The individual-based control also exerts some influence on the resultant collective dose. The study of occupational exposure concludes the simple mathematical expression of controlling doses under the ICRP system as shown by Kumazawa and Numakunai. Second, the typical characteristics of biological effects with repair or recovery of bio-systems are given by analyzing the data published. Those show the relationship between dose and biologically controlled or regulated response. The bio-system is undoubtedly relating to cybernetics that contains many functions of controlling risks. Consequently radiation effects might somewhat express the feature of biological risk controls. The shouldered survival of irradiated cells shows cybernetic characteristics that are assumed to be the mathematical foundation of controlling risks. The dose-response relationship shows another type of cybernetic characteristics, which could be reduced to the same basic form of controlling risks. The limited study of radiation effects definitely confirms the two

  11. Comparative analysis of different approaches to the computation of long-wave radiation balance of water air systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukovskii, K.; Nourani, Y.; Monte, L.

    1999-01-01

    In the present paper, the net long-wave radiation balance of the water-air environmental systems is analysed on the base of several semi-empirical approaches. Various theoretical models of infrared atmospheric radiation are reviewed. Factors, affecting their behavior are considered. Special attention is paid to physical conditions under which those models are applicable. Atmospheric and net infrared radiation fluxes are computed and compared under clear and cloudy sky. Results are presented in graphical form. Conclusions are made on the applicability of models considered for evaluating infrared radiation fluxes in environmental conditions of Central Italy. On the base of present analysis Anderson's model is chosen for future calculations of heat budget of lakes in Central Italy [it

  12. Perception of radiation risk from a cross cultural perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenot, J.; Hessler, A.; Joussen, W.; Sjoeberg, L.

    1996-01-01

    Regarding radiation risk individual coping strategies range from apathy, no worry, avoidance, information seeking, changes in life style, inter alia. How they occur and when, is a necessary information for the development of better risk communication programmes. To address these points four particular situations involving radiation were chosen, namely indoor radon exposure, X-ray diagnostic, consumption of irradiated food, and radioactive waste management. Situations correspond to very different contexts, natural exposure (with indoor radon), daily life (with medical diagnostic and food consumption) and the industrial and energy context (with waste). From a cross-cultural perspective it was deemed fruitful to compare these situations in various countries. (author)

  13. Radiation Balance of Urban Materials and Their Thermal Impact in Semi-Desert Region: Mexicali, México Study Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Santillán-Soto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Net radiation is an essential forcing of climate in the lower layers of Earth’s atmosphere. In this paper, radiation balance is measured in clay soil and green grass, and is compared with three urban materials. These materials: asphalt, concrete and white painted elastomeric polystyrene roofing sheet are widely used in Mexicali, Baja California, México. This study was carried out during August of 2011, the hottest time of the year. The 24-hour average values of net radiation found were: 137.2 W·m−2 for asphalt, 119.1 for concrete, 104.6 for clay soil, 152 for green grass and 29.2 for the polystyrene insulation. The latter two types of materials are likely to be the most effective in reducing urban heat island effects. This variation in the radiation balance has widespread implications for human living conditions, as land cover change tends to be towards surfaces that have higher levels of net radiation.

  14. Radiation protection standards: A practical exercise in risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Roger H.

    1992-01-01

    Within 12 months of the discovery of x-rays in 1895, it was reported that large doses of radiation were harmful to living human tissues. The first radiation protection standards were set to avoid the early effects of acute irradiation. By the 1950s, evidence was mounting for late somatic effects - mainly a small excess of cancers - in irradiated populations. In the late 1980's, sufficient human epidemiological data had been accumulated to allow a comprehensive assessment of carcinogenic radiation risks following the delivery of moderately high doses. Workers and the public are exposed to lower doses and dose-rates than the groups from whom good data are available so that risks have had to be estimated for protection purposes. However, in the 1990s, some confirmation of these risk factors has been derived occupationally exposed populations. If an estimate is made of the risk per unit dose, then in order to set dose limits, an unacceptable level of risk must be established for both workers and the public. There has been and continues to be a debate about the definitions of 'acceptable' and 'tolerable' and the attributing of numerical values to these definitions. This paper discusses the issues involved in the quantification of these terms and their application to setting dose limits on risk grounds. Conclusions are drawn about the present protection standards and the application of the methods to other fields of risk assessment. (author)

  15. A review of radiation risk estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    Three authoritative reports (UNSCEAR-1988, BEIR-V-1990, and ICRP-1990 Recommendations) on risk estimates have been reviewed and compared to previous risk estimates published by the same organizations. The ICRP now uses the term 'probability' in place of the term 'risk'. For fatal cancers, the new ICRP probability estimates are 5.0 x 10 -2 Sv -1 for a population of all ages and 4.0 x 10 -2 Sv -1 for a population of working age. For serious hereditary effects summarized over all generations, the ICRP probability coefficients are 1.0 x 10 -2 Sv -1 for a population of all ages and 0.6 x 10 -2 Sv -1 for a population of working age. For prenatal irradiation, at 8 - 15 weeks after conception, there may be a decrease of 30 I.Q. points per Sv and a risk of cancer which may lie in the range of 2 to 10 x 10 -2 Sv -1 . Based mainly on the new probability estimates the ICRP recommends a limit on effective dose of 20 mSv per year, averaged over 5 years (100 mSv in 5 years) with the further provision that the effective dose should not exceed 50 mSv in any single year. For public exposure the ICRP recommends an annual limit on effective dose of 1 mSv. However, in special circumstances, a higher value of effective dose could be allowed in a single year provided that the average over 5 five years does not exceed 1 mSv per year. Once pregnancy has been declared, the conceptus should be protected by applying a supplementary equivalent dose limit to the surface of the woman's abdomen of 2 mSv for the remainder of the pregnancy and by limiting intakes of radionuclides to about 1/20 of the annual limit on intake. A brief survey of epidemiological studies of workers and the risks from radon and thoron progeny is also included. (110 refs, 29 tabs., 10 figs.)

  16. Radiation risk analysis of tritium in PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Maochun; Wang Shimin

    1999-03-01

    Tritium is a common radionuclide in PWR nuclear power plant. In the normal operation conditions, its radiation risk to plant workers is the internal radiation exposure when tritium existing in air as HTO (hydrogen tritium oxide) is breathed in. As the HTO has the same physical and chemical characteristics as water, the main way that HTO entering the air is by evaporation. There are few opening systems in Nuclear Power Plant, the radiation risk of tritium mainly exists near the area of spent fuel pit and reactor pit. The highest possible radiation risk it may cause--the maximum concentration in air is the level when equilibrium is established between water and air phases for tritium. The author analyzed the relationship among the concentration of HTO in water, in air and the water temperature when equilibrium is established, the equilibrated HTO concentration in air increases with HTO concentration in water and water temperature. The analysis revealed that at 30 degree C, the equilibrated HTO concentration in air might reach 1 DAC (derived air concentration) when the HTO concentration in water is 28 GBq/m 3 . Owing to the operation of plant ventilation systems and the existence of moisture in the input air of the ventilation, the practical tritium concentration in air is much lower than its equilibrated levels, the radiation risk of tritium in PWR plant is quite limited. In 1997, Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant's practical monitoring result of the HTO concentration in the air of the nuclear island and the urine of workers supported this conclusion. Based on this analysis, some suggestions to the reduction of tritium radiation risk were made

  17. Radiation-Induced Leukemia at Doses Relevant to Radiation Therapy: Modeling Mechanisms and Estimating Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuryak, Igor; Sachs, Rainer K.; Hlatky, Lynn; Mark P. Little; Hahnfeldt, Philip; Brenner, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Because many cancer patients are diagnosed earlier and live longer than in the past, second cancers induced by radiation therapy have become a clinically significant issue. An earlier biologically based model that was designed to estimate risks of high-dose radiation induced solid cancers included initiation of stem cells to a premalignant state, inactivation of stem cells at high radiation doses, and proliferation of stem cells during cellular repopulation after inactivation. This earlier model predicted the risks of solid tumors induced by radiation therapy but overestimated the corresponding leukemia risks. Methods: To extend the model to radiation-induced leukemias, we analyzed in addition to cellular initiation, inactivation, and proliferation a repopulation mechanism specific to the hematopoietic system: long-range migration through the blood stream of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from distant locations. Parameters for the model were derived from HSC biologic data in the literature and from leukemia risks among atomic bomb survivors v^ ho were subjected to much lower radiation doses. Results: Proliferating HSCs that migrate from sites distant from the high-dose region include few preleukemic HSCs, thus decreasing the high-dose leukemia risk. The extended model for leukemia provides risk estimates that are consistent with epidemiologic data for leukemia risk associated with radiation therapy over a wide dose range. For example, when applied to an earlier case-control study of 110000 women undergoing radiotherapy for uterine cancer, the model predicted an excess relative risk (ERR) of 1.9 for leukemia among women who received a large inhomogeneous fractionated external beam dose to the bone marrow (mean = 14.9 Gy), consistent with the measured ERR (2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.2 to 6.4; from 3.6 cases expected and 11 cases observed). As a corresponding example for brachytherapy, the predicted ERR of 0.80 among women who received an inhomogeneous low

  18. Mechanisms of Enhanced Cell Killing at Low Doses: Implications for Radiation Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Peter J. Johnston; Dr. George D. Wilson

    2003-10-15

    We have shown that cell lethality actually measured after exposure to low-doses of low-LET radiation, is markedly enhanced relative to the cell lethality previously expected by extrapolation of the high-dose cell-killing response. Net cancer risk is a balance between cell transformation and cell kill and such enhanced lethality may more than compensate for transformation at low radiation doses over a least the first 10 cGy of low-LET exposure. This would lead to a non-linear, threshold, dose-risk relationship. Therefore our data imply the possibility that the adverse effects of small radiation doses (<10 cGy) could be overestimated in specific cases. It is now important to research the mechanisms underlying the phenomenon of low-dose hypersensitivity to cell killing, in order to determine whether this can be generalized to safely allow an increase in radiation exposure limits. This would have major cost-reduction implications for the whole EM program.

  19. Can radiation research impact the estimation of risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, R Julian

    2017-10-01

    This review is a contribution to the memory of Dr William (Bill) Morgan and highlights an area of research and deliberation that he considered extremely important in support of the setting of protective radiation dose limits. Biological research has generally played a minor role in the estimation of adverse health outcomes following exposure to low doses and low dose rates of radiation. The reliance has been on the available, quite extensive data base of epidemiology studies. The major concern is that such studies are for moderate to high doses requiring risk extrapolation methodologies for estimating low dose effects. There are significant uncertainties associated with this approach. This review will discuss how radiation biology studies can potentially reduce this uncertainty through the use of a key events/adverse outcome pathways approach to identify bioindicators of cancer and non-cancer effects for use as parameters in biologically-based dose-response (BBDR) models. Such models would allow for an improved extrapolation approach for estimating health effects at low doses and low dose rates of radiation. Based on reported and ongoing studies for environmental chemicals, the adverse outcome/key events approach is a viable one for enhanced risk assessment (and risk management practice). The identification of informative bioindicators of adverse health effects will be a challenge but with modern molecular and advanced computational techniques, it is certainly feasible. This approach provides a framework for defining a low dose radiation research program; something that was of great importance to Bill Morgan.

  20. Radiation risk in the context of liability for injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, Peter

    2003-01-01

    It is perceived by the man in the street that low-level radiation from a nuclear facility is more dangerous than that from other practices. The radiation protection system, in particular the ALARA principle, leads to concerns that even the smallest exposure to radiation is abnormal and dangerous. Public perception of the radiation risk leads to fear in the minds of the public. A consequence of this fear itself may be damage to health in the form of psychological damage or nervous shock. The paper draws attention to the liability for damages by radiation, in particular under the common law of the UK and US, and how liability, determined by the court, is not necessarily influenced by scientific rationality. A natural conclusion may be that a claimant suffering injury of the type caused by radiation and who had been exposed to radiation, no matter how small a dose, that could be shown to come from a nuclear installation would be awarded damages against the licensee of the site of the installation unless it could be shown that the injury was predominantly caused by another source (radioactive or otherwise)

  1. Medicine and ionizing radiation: help cards for risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauron, C.

    2004-01-01

    Following an inquiry in Ile de France on radiation protection, a scientific committee associating several institutions and different experts has elaborated cards for help to risk analysis. A first series of this cards is published in this issue documents for the labour physician and will be next on Internet. the other fields of medical use will be covered in the future. (N.C.)

  2. Lung Size and the Risk of Radiation Pneumonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briere, Tina Marie, E-mail: tmbriere@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Krafft, Shane [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Liao, Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Martel, Mary K. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify patient populations treated for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who may be more at risk of radiation pneumonitis. Methods and Materials: A total of 579 patients receiving fractionated 3D conformal or intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for NSCLC were included in the study. Statistical analysis was performed to search for cohorts of patients with higher incidences of radiation pneumonitis. In addition to conventional risk factors, total and spared lung volumes were analyzed. The Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) and cure models were then used to fit the incidence of radiation pneumonitis as a function of lung dose and other factors. Results: Total lung volumes with a sparing of less than 1854 cc at 40 Gy were associated with a significantly higher incidence of radiation pneumonitis at 6 months (38% vs 12% for patients with larger volumes, P<.001). This patient cohort was overwhelmingly female and represented 22% of the total female population of patients and nearly 30% of the cases of radiation pneumonitis. An LKB fit to normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) including volume as a dose modifying factor resulted in a dose that results in a 50% probability of complication for the smaller spared volume cohort that was 9 Gy lower than the fit to all mean lung dose data and improved the ability to predict radiation pneumonitis (P<.001). Using an effective dose parameter of n=0.42 instead of mean lung dose further improved the LKB fit. Fits to the data using the cure model produced similar results. Conclusions: Spared lung volume should be considered when treating NSCLC patients. Separate dose constraints based on smaller spared lung volume should be considered. Smaller spared lung volume patients should be followed closely for signs of radiation pneumonitis.

  3. Recent evolution of large-value payment systems : balancing liquidity and risk

    OpenAIRE

    Antoine Martin

    2005-01-01

    Large-value payment systems have evolved rapidly in the last 20 years, continually striking a balance between providing liquidity and keeping settlement risk under control. Changes to the design or to the risk management policies of such systems were needed, in part, due to the growth in the value of transactions on these systems. For example, in the United States the value of transactions on Fedwire, the Federal Reserve’s large-value payment system, increased from about 50 times GDP in 1989 ...

  4. Heel spur radiotherapy and radiation carcinogenesis risk estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surenkok, Serdar; Dirican, Bahar; Beyzadeoglu, Murat; Oysul, Kaan

    2006-10-01

    Radiotherapy is a nonsurgical alternative therapy of painful heel spur patients. Nonetheless, cancer induction is the most important somatic effect of ionizing radiation. This study was designed to evaluate the carcinogenesis risk factor in benign painful heel spur patients treated by radiotherapy. Between 1974 and 1999, a total of 20 patients received mean 8.16 Gy total irradiation dose in two fractions. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD(100)) were placed on multiple phantom sites in vivo within the irradiated volume to verify irradiation accuracy and carcinogenesis risk factor calculation. The 20 still-alive patients, who had a minimum 5-year and maximum 29-year follow-up (mean 11.9 years), have been evaluated by carcinogenic radiation risk factor on the basis of tissue weighting factors as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 60. Reasonable pain relief has been obtained in all 20 patients. The calculated mean carcinogenesis risk factor is 1.3% for radiation portals in the whole group, and no secondary cancer has been clinically observed. Radiotherapy is an effective treatment modality for relieving pain in calcaneal spur patients. The estimated secondary cancer risk factor for irradiation of this benign lesion is not as high as was feared.

  5. Communicating Radiation Risk to the Population of Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, N.; Taira, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Nakashima-Hashiguchi, K.; Orita, M.; Yamashita, S.

    2016-01-01

    Radiological specialists from Nagasaki University have served on the medical relief team organized at Fukushima Medical University Hospital (Fukushima City) ever since the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. Furthermore, we have conducted the radiation crisis communication efforts by spreading correct information on the health effects of radiation as 'advisors on radiation health risk control'. Nagasaki University has been assisting the reconstruction efforts of Kawauchi Village in Fukushima Prefecture, which was the first village to declare that residents could safely return to their homes because radiation doses were found to be at comparatively low levels. In April 2013, Nagasaki University and the Kawauchi government office concluded an agreement concerning comprehensive cooperation toward reconstruction of the village. As a result, we established a satellite facility of the university in the village. In conclusion, training of specialists who can take responsibility for long-term risk communication regarding the health effects of radiation as well as crisis communication in the initial phase of the accident is an essential component of all such recovery efforts. Establishment of a training system for such specialists will be very important both for Japan and other countries worldwide. (authors)

  6. Are smokers at greater risk from radiation exposure than nonsmokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    Current information suggests that, if cigarette smoking interacts with radiation in the induction of lung cancer, it is probably as a promoting agent. There is some evidence of such an interaction in miners who were exposed to relatively high levels of radon and its decay products over extended periods, and there is evidence from experimental rats that were exposed to cigarette smoke after exposures to radon had been completed. Other data from both humans and experimental animals suggest that concomitant exposures may actually diminish the interaction of cigarette smoke with alpha radiation from radon decay products; however, the possibility of a multiplicative effect for other exposure regimes has not been dismissed. In recent experimental animal studies cigarette smoking depressed clearance of insoluble particles, e.g., 239 PuO 2 , from the pulmonary regions of the lungs. However, this effect depended upon exposure to cigarette smoke both before and after inhalation of insoluble plutonium. Whether the effect on clearance actually increased the lung cancer risk is unknown. It is still unclear whether cigarette smokers are at greater risk than nonsmokers to radiation-induced lung cancer at relatively high radiation doses and even more uncertain at low radiation doses. (orig./HP)

  7. Fears, feelings, and facts: interactively communicating benefits and risks of medical radiation with patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauer, Lawrence T; Thornton, Raymond H; Hay, Jennifer L; Balter, Rochelle; Williamson, Matthew J; St Germain, Jean

    2011-04-01

    As public awareness of medical radiation exposure increases, there has been heightened awareness among patients and physicians of the importance of holistic benefit-and-risk discussions in shared medical decision making. We examine the rationale for informed consent and risk communication, draw on the literature on the psychology of radiation risk communication to increase understanding, examine methods commonly used to communicate radiation risk, and suggest strategies for improving communication about medical radiation benefits and risk.

  8. Radiation Dose-Response Relationships and Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    The notion of a dose-response relationship was probably invented shortly after the discovery of poisons, the invention of alcoholic beverages, and the bringing of fire into a confined space in the forgotten depths of ancient prehistory. The amount of poison or medicine ingested can easily be observed to affect the behavior, health, or sickness outcome. Threshold effects, such as death, could be easily understood for intoxicants, medicine, and poisons. As Paracelsus (1493-1541), the 'father' of modern toxicology said, 'It is the dose that makes the poison.' Perhaps less obvious is the fact that implicit in such dose-response relationships is also the notion of dose rate. Usually, the dose is administered fairly acutely, in a single injection, pill, or swallow; a few puffs on a pipe; or a meal of eating or drinking. The same amount of intoxicants, medicine, or poisons administered over a week or month might have little or no observable effect. Thus, before the discovery of ionizing radiation in the late 19th century, toxicology ('the science of poisons') and pharmacology had deeply ingrained notions of dose-response relationships. This chapter demonstrates that the notion of a dose-response relationship for ionizing radiation is hopelessly simplistic from a scientific standpoint. While useful from a policy or regulatory standpoint, dose-response relationships cannot possibly convey enough information to describe the problem from a quantitative view of radiation biology, nor can they address societal values. Three sections of this chapter address the concepts, observations, and theories that contribute to the scientific input to the practice of managing risks from exposure to ionizing radiation. The presentation begins with irradiation regimes, followed by responses to high and low doses of ionizing radiation, and a discussion of how all of this can inform radiation risk management. The knowledge that is really needed for prediction of individual risk is presented

  9. Radiation Dose-Response Relationships and Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2005-07-05

    The notion of a dose-response relationship was probably invented shortly after the discovery of poisons, the invention of alcoholic beverages, and the bringing of fire into a confined space in the forgotten depths of ancient prehistory. The amount of poison or medicine ingested can easily be observed to affect the behavior, health, or sickness outcome. Threshold effects, such as death, could be easily understood for intoxicants, medicine, and poisons. As Paracelsus (1493-1541), the 'father' of modern toxicology said, 'It is the dose that makes the poison.' Perhaps less obvious is the fact that implicit in such dose-response relationships is also the notion of dose rate. Usually, the dose is administered fairly acutely, in a single injection, pill, or swallow; a few puffs on a pipe; or a meal of eating or drinking. The same amount of intoxicants, medicine, or poisons administered over a week or month might have little or no observable effect. Thus, before the discovery of ionizing radiation in the late 19th century, toxicology ('the science of poisons') and pharmacology had deeply ingrained notions of dose-response relationships. This chapter demonstrates that the notion of a dose-response relationship for ionizing radiation is hopelessly simplistic from a scientific standpoint. While useful from a policy or regulatory standpoint, dose-response relationships cannot possibly convey enough information to describe the problem from a quantitative view of radiation biology, nor can they address societal values. Three sections of this chapter address the concepts, observations, and theories that contribute to the scientific input to the practice of managing risks from exposure to ionizing radiation. The presentation begins with irradiation regimes, followed by responses to high and low doses of ionizing radiation, and a discussion of how all of this can inform radiation risk management. The knowledge that is really needed for prediction of

  10. Increased fall risk is associated with elevated co-contraction about the ankle during static balance challenges in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Wong, Erika; Appell, Ryan; McKay, Mike; Nawaz, Hannah; Roth, Joanna; Sigler, Robert; Third, Jacqueline; Walker, Mark

    2012-04-01

    Falls are a leading contributor to disability in older adults. Increased muscle co-contraction in the lower extremities during static and dynamic balance challenges has been associated with aging, and also with a history of falling. Co-contraction during static balance challenges has not been previously linked with performance on clinical tests designed to ascertain fall risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between co-contraction about the ankle during static balance challenges with fall risk on a commonly used dynamic balance assessment, the Four Square Step Test (FSST). Twenty-three volunteers (mean age 73 years) performed a series of five static balance challenges (Romberg eyes open/closed, Sharpened Romberg eyes open/closed, and Single Leg Standing) with continuous electromyography (EMG) of bilateral tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles. Participants then completed the FSST and were categorized as 'at-risk' or 'not-at-risk' to fall based on a cutoff time of 12 s. Co-contraction was quantified with co-contraction index (CCI). CCI during narrow base conditions was positively correlated with time to complete FSST. High CCIs during all static balance challenges with the exception of Romberg stance with eyes closed were predictive of being at-risk to fall based on FSST time, odds ratio 19.3. The authors conclude that co-contraction about the ankle during static balance challenges can be predictive of performance on a dynamic balance test.

  11. Identifying measures to balance the risk profile of the Tihange 2 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Eer, A.M.; Monniez, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    In Belgium, each Nuclear Power Plant is subject to a periodic safety reassessment. In this context, it was found to be desirable to perform a Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) in support of the ten yearly back-fitting process. The Tihange 2 NPP is a 3-loop PWR having a thermal capacity of 2905 MW. Analysis of the plant's risk profile shows that implementing feasible measures for improvement of the shutdown risk, would be beneficial. This is because a configuration leading to significant risk, namely cold pressurization when the residual heat removal system is lost during reduced primary inventory, thus can be avoided. As a result the risk between reactor shutdown and power operation will be balanced. The presentation describes the lessons learnt regarding the Tihange 2 shutdown PSA model and the expected benefits following implementation of one of the proposed measures. (author)

  12. A new perspective on radiation risk communication in Fukushima, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svendsen, E.R.

    2013-01-01

    The March 11, 2011 cascading disasters of the historic earthquake, unprecedented tsunami, and subsequent radioactive substances release from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant have shocked the world. But the specter of radiation exposure has complicated the earthquake and tsunami disaster aid activities. Herein is a personal commentary on the current status of the risk communication activities within the disaster populations in Fukushima prefecture. A literature review of the current scientific literature was performed focusing on risk communication within the Fukushima region during the disaster recovery phase. I have limited my commentary to only the 5 most relevant of the publications which focus exclusively on the issue of risk communication and the problems which have generated the urgency to improve risk communication. There were several themes which were consistently identified across the articles and echo some of the personal observations of the many types of responses which victims are now demonstrating: fear, anger, distrust, denial, confusion, uncertainty, ambivalence, and hyperbole stood out regarding their varied responses to the current radiological situation and, regarding the government role in risk communication, corruption and lack of transparency. Two recommendations for helping to address these issues in risk communication are the inclusion of a community intermediary and great use of community engagement in the disaster recovery process. Improved risk communication, perhaps using established guidelines and including both community intermediaries and improved community engagement, may prove useful within the radiation affected populations of Japan. (author)

  13. Correction to: Importance of the green color, absorption gradient, and spectral absorption of chloroplasts for the radiative energy balance of leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Atsushi

    2018-02-21

    The article "Importance of the green color, absorption gradient, and spectral absorption of chloroplasts for the radiative energy balance of leaves", written by Atsushi Kume, was originally published Online First without open access.

  14. Adequacy of relative and absolute risk models for lifetime risk estimate of radiation-induced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBride, M.; Coldman, A.J.

    1988-03-01

    This report examines the applicability of the relative (multiplicative) and absolute (additive) models in predicting lifetime risk of radiation-induced cancer. A review of the epidemiologic literature, and a discussion of the mathematical models of carcinogenesis and their relationship to these models of lifetime risk, are included. Based on the available data, the relative risk model for the estimation of lifetime risk is preferred for non-sex-specific epithelial tumours. However, because of lack of knowledge concerning other determinants of radiation risk and of background incidence rates, considerable uncertainty in modelling lifetime risk still exists. Therefore, it is essential that follow-up of exposed cohorts be continued so that population-based estimates of lifetime risk are available

  15. Radiation doses and cancer risks from breast imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, R Edward

    2010-10-01

    To compare radiation doses and lifetime attributable risks (LARs) of radiation-induced cancer incidence and mortality from breast imaging studies involving the use of ionizing radiation. Recent literature on radiation doses from radiologic procedures and organ doses from nuclear medicine procedures, along with Biologic Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII age-dependent risk data, is used to estimate LARs of radiation-induced cancer incidence and mortality from breast imaging studies involving ionizing radiation, including screen-film mammography, digital mammography, digital breast tomosynthesis, dedicated breast computed tomography, breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI), and positron emission mammography (PEM). Two-view digital mammography and screen-film mammography involve average mean glandular radiation doses of 3.7 and 4.7 mGy, respectively. According to BEIR VII data, these studies are associated, respectively, with LARs of fatal breast cancer of 1.3 and 1.7 cases per 100,000 women aged 40 years at exposure and less than one case per one million women aged 80 years at exposure. Annual screening digital or screen-film mammography performed in women aged 40-80 years is associated with an LAR of fatal breast cancer of 20-25 cases in 100,000. A single BSGI study involving a label-recommended dose of 740-1100 MBq (20-30 mCi) of technetium 99m-sestamibi is estimated to involve an LAR of fatal cancer that is 20-30 times that of digital mammography in women aged 40 years. A single PEM study involving a labeled dose of 370 MBq (10 mCi) of fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose is estimated to involve an LAR of fatal cancer that is 23 times higher than that of digital mammography in women aged 40 years. A single BSGI or PEM study is associated with a fatal radiation-induced cancer risk higher than or comparable to that of annual screening mammography in women aged 40-80 years.

  16. Urban pollution by electromagnetic radiation. What risk for human health?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressa, G.

    1999-01-01

    Power lines, domestic appliances, radios, TV sets, cell-phones, radar, etc., they are all instruments which, entering our everyday life, cause electromagnetic pollution. The risks for human health as a consequence of being exposed to this kind of radiation haven't been clearly ascertained yet, even if there is proof of the connection between the onset of some tumoral forms and exposure to electromagnetic fields. Many countries, among which Italy, are tackling the problem of safety distances, necessary to reduce exposure to non-ionising radiation, by issuing bills suitable for human health protection [it

  17. Human exposure to high natural background radiation: what can it teach us about radiation risks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, Jolyon H; Sohrabi, Mehdi; Burkart, Werner; Simon, Steven L; Wojcik, Andrzej; Cardis, Elisabeth; Laurier, Dominique; Tirmarche, Margot; Hayata, Isamu

    2009-01-01

    Natural radiation is the major source of human exposure to ionising radiation, and its largest contributing component to effective dose arises from inhalation of 222 Rn and its radioactive progeny. However, despite extensive knowledge of radiation risks gained through epidemiologic investigations and mechanistic considerations, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure are still poorly understood. The present paper reviews the possible contribution of studies of populations living in high natural background radiation (HNBR) areas (Guarapari, Brazil; Kerala, India; Ramsar, Iran; Yangjiang, China), including radon-prone areas, to low dose risk estimation. Much of the direct information about risk related to HNBR comes from case-control studies of radon and lung cancer, which provide convincing evidence of an association between long-term protracted radiation exposures in the general population and disease incidence. The success of these studies is mainly due to the careful organ dose reconstruction (with relatively high doses to the lung), and to the fact that large-scale collaborative studies have been conducted to maximise the statistical power and to ensure the systematic collection of information on potential confounding factors. In contrast, studies in other (non-radon) HNBR areas have provided little information, relying mainly on ecological designs and very rough effective dose categorisations. Recent steps taken in China and India to establish cohorts for follow-up and to conduct nested case-control studies may provide useful information about risks in the future, provided that careful organ dose reconstruction is possible and information is collected on potential confounding factors.

  18. Human exposure to high natural background radiation: what can it teach us about radiation risks?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendry, Jolyon H; Sohrabi, Mehdi; Burkart, Werner [Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Simon, Steven L [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Wojcik, Andrzej [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Cardis, Elisabeth [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar) and CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica - CIBERESP, Barcelona (Spain); Laurier, Dominique; Tirmarche, Margot [Radiobiology and Epidemiology Department, Radiological and Human Health Division, Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Hayata, Isamu [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)], E-mail: jhendry2002uk@yahoo.com

    2009-06-01

    Natural radiation is the major source of human exposure to ionising radiation, and its largest contributing component to effective dose arises from inhalation of {sup 222}Rn and its radioactive progeny. However, despite extensive knowledge of radiation risks gained through epidemiologic investigations and mechanistic considerations, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure are still poorly understood. The present paper reviews the possible contribution of studies of populations living in high natural background radiation (HNBR) areas (Guarapari, Brazil; Kerala, India; Ramsar, Iran; Yangjiang, China), including radon-prone areas, to low dose risk estimation. Much of the direct information about risk related to HNBR comes from case-control studies of radon and lung cancer, which provide convincing evidence of an association between long-term protracted radiation exposures in the general population and disease incidence. The success of these studies is mainly due to the careful organ dose reconstruction (with relatively high doses to the lung), and to the fact that large-scale collaborative studies have been conducted to maximise the statistical power and to ensure the systematic collection of information on potential confounding factors. In contrast, studies in other (non-radon) HNBR areas have provided little information, relying mainly on ecological designs and very rough effective dose categorisations. Recent steps taken in China and India to establish cohorts for follow-up and to conduct nested case-control studies may provide useful information about risks in the future, provided that careful organ dose reconstruction is possible and information is collected on potential confounding factors.

  19. Human exposure to high natural background radiation: what can it teach us about radiation risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Jolyon H; Simon, Steven L; Wojcik, Andrzej; Sohrabi, Mehdi; Burkart, Werner; Cardis, Elisabeth; Laurier, Dominique; Tirmarche, Margot; Hayata, Isamu

    2014-01-01

    Natural radiation is the major source of human exposure to ionising radiation, and its largest contributing component to effective dose arises from inhalation of 222Rn and its radioactive progeny. However, despite extensive knowledge of radiation risks gained through epidemiologic investigations and mechanistic considerations, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure are still poorly understood. The present paper reviews the possible contribution of studies of populations living in high natural background radiation (HNBR) areas (Guarapari, Brazil; Kerala, India; Ramsar, Iran; Yangjiang, China), including radon-prone areas, to low dose risk estimation. Much of the direct information about risk related to HNBR comes from case–control studies of radon and lung cancer, which provide convincing evidence of an association between long-term protracted radiation exposures in the general population and disease incidence. The success of these studies is mainly due to the careful organ dose reconstruction (with relatively high doses to the lung), and to the fact that large-scale collaborative studies have been conducted to maximise the statistical power and to ensure the systematic collection of information on potential confounding factors. In contrast, studies in other (non-radon) HNBR areas have provided little information, relying mainly on ecological designs and very rough effective dose categorisations. Recent steps taken in China and India to establish cohorts for follow-up and to conduct nested case–control studies may provide useful information about risks in the future, provided that careful organ dose reconstruction is possible and information is collected on potential confounding factors. PMID:19454802

  20. CANCER RISKS ATTRIBUTABLE TO LOW DOSES OF IONIZING RADIATION - ASSESSING WHAT WE REALLY KNOW?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer Risks Attributable to Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation - What Do We Really Know?AbstractHigh doses of ionizing radiation clearly produce deleterious consequences in humans including, but not exclusively, cancer induction. At very low radiation doses the situatio...

  1. Assessment of balance and risk for falls in a sample of community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older

    OpenAIRE

    Colonvega Makasha; Rupert Ronald; Hyland John K; Hawk Cheryl; Hall Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Falls are a major health concern for older adults and their impact is a significant public health problem. The chief modifiable risk factors for falls in community-dwellers are psychotropic drugs, polypharmacy, environmental hazards, poor vision, lower extremity impairments, and balance impairments. This study focused on balance impairments. Its purpose was to assess the feasibility of recruiting older adults with possible balance problems for research conducted at a chiro...

  2. Care home manager attitudes to balancing risk and autonomy for residents with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Elizabeth A; Perkins, Elizabeth; Clarke, Pam; Haines, Alina; Baldwin, Ashley; Whittington, Richard

    2018-02-01

    To determine how care home managers negotiate the conflict between maintaining a safe environment while enabling the autonomy of residents with dementia. This is important because there is limited research with care home managers; yet, they are key agents in the implementation of national policies. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 managers from care homes offering dementia care in the Northwest of England. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. There were three areas in which care home staff reported balancing safety and risk against the individual needs of residents. First, the physical environment created a tension between safety and accessibility to the outside world, which meant that care homes provided highly structured or limited access to outdoor space. Second, care home managers reflected a balancing act between an individual's autonomy and the need to protect their residents' dignity. Finally, care home managers highlighted the ways in which an individual's needs were framed by the needs of other residents to the extent that on some occasions an individual's needs were subjugated to the needs of the general population of a home. There was a strong, even dominant, ethos of risk management and keeping people safe. Managing individual needs while maintaining a safe care home environment clearly is a constant dynamic interpersonal process of negotiating and balancing competing interests for care home managers.

  3. An approach for balancing health and ecological risks at hazardous waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, G.W. II; Hull, R.N.; Stack, M.; Cornaby, B.W.; Hadden, C.T.; Zafran, F.A.

    1995-01-01

    Human health and ecological risks must be balanced at hazardous waste sites in order to ensure that remedial actions prevent unacceptable risks of either type. Actions that are designed to protect humans may fail to protect nonhuman populations and ecosystems or may damage ecosystems. However, there is no common scale of health and ecological risk that would allow comparisons to be performed. This paper presents an approach to addressing this problem based on classifying all risks (i.e., health and ecological risks due contaminants and remediation) as insignificant (de minimis), highly significant (de manifestis), or intermediate. For health risks the classification is based on standard criteria. However, in the absence of national guidance concerning the acceptability of ecological risks, new ecological criteria are proposed based on an analysis of regulatory precedents. Matrices and flow charts are presented to guide the use of these risk categories in remedial decision making. The assessment of mercury contamination of the East Fork Poplar Creek is presented as an example of the implementation of the approach. 15 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Identifying balance and fall risk in community-dwelling older women: the effect of executive function on postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir-Hunter, Susan W; Clark, Jennifer; McLean, Stephanie; Pedlow, Sam; Van Hemmen, Alysia; Montero Odasso, Manuel; Overend, Tom

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms linking cognition, balance function, and fall risk among older adults are not fully understood. An evaluation of the effect of cognition on balance tests commonly used in clinical practice to assess community-dwelling older adults could enhance the identification of at-risk individuals. The study aimed to determine (1) the association between cognition and clinical tests of balance and (2) the relationship between executive function (EF) and balance under single- and dual-task testing. Participants (24 women, mean age of 76.18 [SD 16.45] years) completed six clinical balance tests, four cognitive tests, and two measures of physical function. Poor balance function was associated with poor performance on cognitive testing of EF. In addition, the association with EF was strongest under the dual-task timed up-and-go (TUG) test and the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale. Measures of global cognition were associated only with the dual-task performance of the TUG. Postural sway measured with the Standing Balance Test, under single- or dual-task test conditions, was not associated with cognition. Decreased EF was associated with worse performance on functional measures of balance. The relationship between EF and balance was more pronounced with dual-task testing using a complex cognitive task combined with the TUG.

  5. Identifying Balance and Fall Risk in Community-Dwelling Older Women: The Effect of Executive Function on Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jennifer; McLean, Stephanie; Pedlow, Sam; Van Hemmen, Alysia; Montero Odasso, Manuel; Overend, Tom

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The mechanisms linking cognition, balance function, and fall risk among older adults are not fully understood. An evaluation of the effect of cognition on balance tests commonly used in clinical practice to assess community-dwelling older adults could enhance the identification of at-risk individuals. The study aimed to determine (1) the association between cognition and clinical tests of balance and (2) the relationship between executive function (EF) and balance under single- and dual-task testing. Methods: Participants (24 women, mean age of 76.18 [SD 16.45] years) completed six clinical balance tests, four cognitive tests, and two measures of physical function. Results: Poor balance function was associated with poor performance on cognitive testing of EF. In addition, the association with EF was strongest under the dual-task timed up-and-go (TUG) test and the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale. Measures of global cognition were associated only with the dual-task performance of the TUG. Postural sway measured with the Standing Balance Test, under single- or dual-task test conditions, was not associated with cognition. Conclusions: Decreased EF was associated with worse performance on functional measures of balance. The relationship between EF and balance was more pronounced with dual-task testing using a complex cognitive task combined with the TUG. PMID:24799756

  6. Radiation effects and risks: overview and a new risk perception index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehani, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty provides opportunities for differences in perception, and radiation risks at low level of exposures involved in few computed tomography scans fall in this category. While there is good agreement among national and international organisations on risk probability of cancer, risk perception has barely been dealt with by these organisations. Risk perception is commonly defined as the subjective judgment that people make about the characteristics and severity of a risk. Severity and latency are important factors in perception. There is a need to connect all these. Leaving risk perception purely as a subjective judgement provides opportunities for people to amplifying risk. The author postulates a risk perception index as severity divided by latency that becomes determining factor for risk perception. It is hoped that this index will bring rationality in risk perception. (authors)

  7. National Chernobyl registry of Russia: Radiation risks analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.K.; Tsyb, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    Ten years have elapsed after the Chernobyl accident. The problem concerning the estimation of the total integral damage to life and health of people exposed to radiation remains very complicated. A negative influence of the Chernobyl included a spectrum of factors which may reinforce each other. In particular, to date there are no theoretical models or practical recommendations on integral estimating the contribution of social and psycho-emotional factors to the risks of diseases due to radiological accidents. On the other hand, for maximum effective rehabilitation of suffered people the ranging and impartial determination of contribution both of proper radiation and non-radiation components of influence are needed. Therefore, continuation of long-standing investigations is of great practical importance to diminish health consequences of the accident. 5 refs, 7 figs, 4 tabs

  8. Total Risk Management for Low Dose Radiation Exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simic, Z.; Mikulicic, V.; Sterc, D.

    2012-01-01

    Our civilization is witnessing about century of nuclear age mixed with enormous promises and cataclysmic threats. Nuclear energy seems to encapsulate both potential for pure good and evil or at least we humans are able to perceive that. These images are continuously with us and they are both helping and distracting from making best of nuclear potentials for civilization. Today with nuclear use significantly present and with huge potential to further improve our life with energy and medical use it is of enormous importance to try to have calmed, rational, and objective view on potential risks and certain benefits. Because all use of nuclear energy proved that their immediate risks are negligible (i.e., Three Mile Island and Fukushima) or much smaller than from the other alternatives (i.e., Chernobyl) it seems that the most important issue is the amount of risk from the long term effects to people from exposure to small doses of radiation. A similar issue is present in the increased use of modern computational tomography and other radiation sources use in medicine for examination and therapy. Finally, extreme natural exposures are third such potential risk sources. Definition of low doses varies depending on the way of delivery (i.e., single, multiple or continuous exposures), and for this paper usual dose of 100 mSv is selected as yearly upper amount. There are three very different scientifically supported views on the potential risks from the low doses exposure. The most conservative theory is that all radiation is harmful, and even small increments from background levels (i.e., 2-3 mSv) present additional risk. This view is called linear no threshold theory (LNT) and it is accepted as a regulatory conservative simple approach which guarantees safety. Risk is derived from the extrapolation of the measured effects of high levels of radiation. Opposite theory to LNT is hormesis which assumes that in fact small doses of radiation are helpful and they are improving our

  9. Quantitative falls risk estimation through multi-sensor assessment of standing balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, Barry R; McGrath, Denise; Walsh, Lorcan; Doheny, Emer P; McKeown, David; Garattini, Chiara; Cunningham, Clodagh; Crosby, Lisa; Caulfield, Brian; Kenny, Rose A

    2012-01-01

    Falls are the most common cause of injury and hospitalization and one of the principal causes of death and disability in older adults worldwide. Measures of postural stability have been associated with the incidence of falls in older adults. The aim of this study was to develop a model that accurately classifies fallers and non-fallers using novel multi-sensor quantitative balance metrics that can be easily deployed into a home or clinic setting. We compared the classification accuracy of our model with an established method for falls risk assessment, the Berg balance scale. Data were acquired using two sensor modalities—a pressure sensitive platform sensor and a body-worn inertial sensor, mounted on the lower back—from 120 community dwelling older adults (65 with a history of falls, 55 without, mean age 73.7 ± 5.8 years, 63 female) while performing a number of standing balance tasks in a geriatric research clinic. Results obtained using a support vector machine yielded a mean classification accuracy of 71.52% (95% CI: 68.82–74.28) in classifying falls history, obtained using one model classifying all data points. Considering male and female participant data separately yielded classification accuracies of 72.80% (95% CI: 68.85–77.17) and 73.33% (95% CI: 69.88–76.81) respectively, leading to a mean classification accuracy of 73.07% in identifying participants with a history of falls. Results compare favourably to those obtained using the Berg balance scale (mean classification accuracy: 59.42% (95% CI: 56.96–61.88)). Results from the present study could lead to a robust method for assessing falls risk in both supervised and unsupervised environments. (paper)

  10. Review of European research trends of low dose radiation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Yoshida, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Large research projects on low dose radiation effects in Europe and US over the past decade have provided limited scientific knowledge which could underpin the validation of radiation protection systems. Recently in Europe, there have been repeated discussions and dialogues to improve the situation, and as the consequence, the circumstances surrounding low dose radiation risks are changing. In 2009, Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative (MELODI) was established as a trans-national organization capable of ensuring appropriate governance of research in the pursuit of a long term shared vision, and Low Dose Research towards Multidisciplinary Integration (DoReMi) network was launched in 2010 to achieve fairly short term results in order to prove the validity of the MELODI approach. It is expected to be very effective and powerful activities to facilitate the reduction of uncertainties in the understanding of low dose risks, but the regulatory requests rushing the reinforcement of radiological protection regulations based on the precautional principles are more increasing. To develop reasonable radiological protection systems based on scientific evidences, we need to accelerate to collect scientific evidences which could directly underpin more appropriate radiation protection systems even in Japan. For the purpose, we Japan need to develop from an independent standpoint and share as a multidisciplinary vision a long term and holistic research strategy which enables to enhance Japanese advantages such as low dose rate facilities and animal facilities, as soon as possible. (author)

  11. Understanding the risk coming from the radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierzo, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    From 1972, the National Academy has published a series of reports on the biological effects of ionizing radiation (BEIR) in relation to the health effects of the low level radiation. The Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Energy and the Academy of Sciences of US, began in 1996 the first phase of the BEIR VII report about the health risks associated to the exposure to low level ionizing radiation. The purpose of the first phase of the study is to revise the literature and to decide if enough novel information existed to guarantee the complete study. The National Academies concluded that enough information existed with an appropriate time to carry out the reanalysis. Among the conclusions of BEIR VII are that the current scientific evidence is concordant with the hypothesis of the existence of a linear model without threshold (LSU) in the dose-response relationship among the exposure to ionizing radiation and the cancer development in humans. This implies that very low dose even has the potential of causing deleterious effects in the health, although the risk to low dose is very small. (Author)

  12. Individual-based model for radiation risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, O.

    A mathematical model is developed which enables one to predict the life span probability for mammals exposed to radiation. It relates statistical biometric functions with statistical and dynamic characteristics of an organism's critical system. To calculate the dynamics of the latter, the respective mathematical model is used too. This approach is applied to describe the effects of low level chronic irradiation on mice when the hematopoietic system (namely, thrombocytopoiesis) is the critical one. For identification of the joint model, experimental data on hematopoiesis in nonirradiated and irradiated mice, as well as on mortality dynamics of those in the absence of radiation are utilized. The life span probability and life span shortening predicted by the model agree with corresponding experimental data. Modeling results show the significance of ac- counting the variability of the individual radiosensitivity of critical system cells when estimating the radiation risk. These findings are corroborated by clinical data on persons involved in the elimination of the Chernobyl catastrophe after- effects. All this makes it feasible to use the model for radiation risk assessments for cosmonauts and astronauts on long-term missions such as a voyage to Mars or a lunar colony. In this case the model coefficients have to be determined by making use of the available data for humans. Scenarios for the dynamics of dose accumulation during space flights should also be taken into account.

  13. Survey of Tsuruga inhabitants concerning radiation and its risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinoda, Yoshihiko; Yamano, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident has led to changes in the acceptance of nuclear power in many people. The authors conducted an opinion survey of 300 adult inhabitants of Tsuruga city in Fukui prefecture, Japan. The aim of this survey is to obtain people's opinions concerning radiation and its risks. Authors classified Tsuruga inhabitants on the basis of responses to questions on the concept and knowledge of risk and the cognition of radiation by factor and cluster analyses of multivariable analysis. Using the results of these analyses, Tsuruga inhabitants have been assigned to five categories: “acceptance group,” “anxiety group,” and three intermediate groups. (author)

  14. Radiation risk evaluation and reference doses in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulkner, K.; Vano, E.; Padovani, R.; Zoetelief, J.

    2001-01-01

    In interventional radiology, there are two potential hazards to the patient. These are somatic risks and, for certain procedures, deterministic injuries. The task of radiation protection in interventional radiology is to minimise somatic risks and avoid deterministic injuries. Radiation protection tools and protocols must be developed to achieve these two objectives. Reference doses have been proposed as a method of identifying high dose centres and equipment. The role of reference doses in interventional radiology will be discussed. There are two approaches to reference doses in interventional radiology. These are the measurement of patient entrance skin dose or skin dose rate, or image intensifier input dose rate. Alternatively, dose area product or effective dose to the patient may be monitored. These two main approaches have their advantages and disadvantages. (author)

  15. Commercial viability of CNS drugs: balancing the risk/reward profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ginger S

    2014-01-01

    CNS has historically been a formidable therapeutic area in which to innovate owing to biological (e.g., complex neurobiology, difficulty reaching the target), as well as clinical (e.g., subjective clinical endpoints, high placebo response, lack of biomarkers) challenges. In the current market where many of the larger diseases are dominated by a generic standard of care, commercial challenges now make the triple threat of scientific-clinical-commercial risk too much for many players to tackle. However, opportunities do exist for smaller biotech companies to concentrate on narrowly focused patient populations associated with high unmet need for which risk can be tightly defined. In CNS, there are two major areas to balance the risk/reward profile and create commercially viable opportunities: To realize value, all companies (start-ups and big players) must define, measure and quantify clear and meaningful value to all stakeholders: physicians, patients, caregivers and payers. © 2013.

  16. Perception of radiation related risks among three population groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihai, L.T.; Milu, C.; Voicu, B.; Enachescu, D.

    2003-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted among three groups that mainly differ in socioeconomic status and professional exposure to ionizing radiations. Seventy-seven (26.3%) of the respondents were professionally exposed to radiation, 35 (11.9%) were medical doctors without professional exposure and 177 (68.4%) belonged to the general population group. The level of anxiety toward radiation, expressed as a concernedness index, is significantly lower in people who are professionally exposed to radiation compared to medical doctors and general population (0.81±0.94, 1.42±1.21 and 1.72±1.34 respectively, p < 0.001). In a similar manner, concernedness index values varied with the education status, with lowest values among medical university graduates and highest among public school graduates (p < 0.001). Both university-graduated groups significantly differ from the non-university groups (p < 0.05). Knowledge about radiation and knowledge about emergency plans in nuclear accident/incident were also checked in relation with concernedness, the results confirming the hypothesis that better knowledge associates lower concernedness. The extent to which people accept the civil utilization of nuclear power is also related to concernedness and knowledge, significant associations having been found. The results suggest that a political decision in radiation matter requires a valid analysis of the public's understanding and acceptance. For that reason, it is important that radiological protection authorities develop new plans and materials for communicating with people, in order to improve knowledge upon ionizing radiation, irradiation risks and safety of nuclear energy application for civil purposes. (author)

  17. Risks, radiation dose and image quality of mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menges, V.

    1979-01-01

    For some time to come, early detection of breast cancer will remain the only way to improve the therapeutical success. Mammography is an absolutely indispensible way to take advantage of this opportunity. Today, mammography is undoubtedly the most reliable method of examination for an early detection of breast cancer. Only mammography can detect carcinomas smaller than the critical tumour size of 1cm. If carried out properly and with present dose levels, it involves hardly any radiation risk. (orig.) [de

  18. Radiation dose and radiation risk to foetuses and newborns during X-ray examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettunen, A. [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the way in which the demands set by degree 423/2000 by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health are fulfilled with respect to the most radiosensitive groups, the foetus and the child, by estimating the radiation dose and radiation risk to the foetus from x-ray examinations of an expectant mother's pelvic region, finding out the practice involved in preventing doses to embryos and foetuses and assessing dose practices in cases where an embryo or foetus is or shall be exposed, and by estimating radiation dose and risk due to the radiation received by a new-born being treated in a paediatric intensive care unit. No statistics are available in Finland to indicate how many x-ray examinations of the pelvic region and lower abdomen are made to pregnant patients or to show the dose and risk to the foetus due these examinations. In order to find out the practices in radiological departments concerning the pelvic x-ray examination of fertile woman and the number of foetuses exposed, a questionnaire was sent to all radiation safety officers responsible for the safe use of radiation (n = 290). A total of 173 questionnaires were returned. This study recorded the technique and Dose-Area Product of 118 chest examinations of newborns in paediatric intensive care units. Entrance surface doses and effective doses were calculated separately to each newborn. Based on the patient records, the number of all x-ray examinations during the study was calculated and the effective doses were estimated retrospectively to each child. The radiation risk was estimated both for the foetuses and for the newborns. According to this study, it is rare in Finland to expose a pregnant woman to radiation. On the other hand, with the exception of pelvimetry examinations, there are no compiled statistics concerning the number of pelvic x-ray examinations of a pregnant woman. There was no common practice on how to exclude the possibility of pregnancy. The dose

  19. Usage of geotechnologies for risk management in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, T.A.A.; Marques, F.A.P.; Murta, Y.L.

    2017-01-01

    Through the use of geotechnologies an important tool can be created for risk management in radiation accidents. With the use of the QGIS software (Las Palmas version), it is shown its applicability in situations of radiological emergency, as in the case of the accident with cesium-137 in Goiânia. The work analyses the risk of a possible accident with the deposit of cesium wastes that still remains in the region, aiming to protect the population with the best exit routes and forms of allocation of the residents

  20. The effect of aerosol on closure of the regionale short-wave radiation balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henzing JS; Knap WH; Stammes P; ten Brink HM; Kos GPA; Even A; Swart DPJ; Bergwerff JP; Apituley A; NOP

    2001-01-01

    IPPC reports the aerosol radiative forcing per major aerosol category, like sulphate and fossil fuel derived carbon. Part of this carbon is reflective and part of the material (black carbon "soot") absorbs radiation. We find that in the Netherlands sulphate contributes some 30% to the

  1. Single-leg balance and core motor control in children: when does the risk for ACL injury occurs?

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchinson, Allison B; Yao, Paul; Hutchinson, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    Introduction While numerous publications have demonstrated the correlation of poor single-leg balance and core motor control with an increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in skeletally mature female athletes, few have analysed the preadolescent population regarding when indeed comparative deficits in balance and core control actually occur. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the neuromotor factors that place mature females at increased risk of ACL injury act...

  2. A modified Wheeler cap method for radiation efficiency measurement of balanced electrically small antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jiaying; Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of radiation efficiency for ultra small antennas represents a great challenge due to influence of the feeding cable. The Wheeler cap method is often used to measure the radiation efficiency of small antennas. However, it is well applicable for antennas on a ground plane, but not for b......Measurement of radiation efficiency for ultra small antennas represents a great challenge due to influence of the feeding cable. The Wheeler cap method is often used to measure the radiation efficiency of small antennas. However, it is well applicable for antennas on a ground plane...... is that it is wideband, thus does not require any balun, and both the antenna input impedance and radiation efficiency can be obtained. An electrically small loop antenna and a wideband dipole were simulated and measured according to the proposed method and the results of measurements and simulations are presented...

  3. Doses of low level ionizing radiation; a misunderstood risk, however unavoidable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolli, D.

    1988-01-01

    The treatment given by international organizations and associations to the problems of radiation exposures, and the recommendations and norms for calculating risks of low level radiation are analysed. It is shown that there are not zero risks for nuclear energy, and emphasis is given to the risks of natural radiation from environment. (M.C.K.) [pt

  4. EFFECT OF SWISS BALL EXERCISE TOWARD THE BODY BALANCE TO LESS THE RISK FALL OF OLDER AT UPT SOCIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Syapitri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The balance of body is one of the main factor in doing fungsional activity. In every activity, the body always need control of the body balance, because basically every phisic activity right static or dinamic will take someone on unstable position with big risk to having fell. Swiss Ball exercise as support is believed on labile surface will make spine have big chance to stabling the muscle between vebra and increase the dinamic balance to restrain the repeats stability. The research object to know The Effect of Swiss Ball Exercise toward The Body Balance to Less The Risk Fall of Older at UPT Social Service of Older and Children Under Five district Binjai and Medan in Year 2016. The research type is Quasi Experiment with pre test-post test one group only design method. Population in this research all of older at UPT Social Service district Binjai as much as 172 older with number of man is 81 and woman is 91, with Purposive sampling Technique that is 15 respondences. Data collecting using observation sheet with analysis that used is univariat: respondence characteristics, the body balance of older before and after doing Swiss Ball practice, and bivariat with Paired t-Test. The research result showing the average of body balance before doing Swiss Ball as much (Mean 38,07 and after (Mean 46,33. Conclusion: there is the effect of Swiss Ball toward body balance to less the risk fall of older (p=0,000 ; p=< 0,05. Sugessted for older to practice the balance himself more steady so that not easy to have risk fall further. Influenced, and for the next researcher can research about another factor that foregrounded the risk fall of older. Keywords    : Swiss Ball, Balance Exercise, Risk Fall

  5. Balancing risks and benefits fairly across generations: cost/benefit considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catron, B.L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper has been prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Workshop on the environmental and ethical aspects of long-lived radioactive waste disposal. The workshop is intended as a step toward preparation of a collective opinion on deep geological storage of nuclear waste. As requested, this paper answers to the following specific questions : 1) Discounting of costs with time is a widely applied technique in the evaluation of the impact of economic and industrial decisions. Could or should discounting of long-term health risks due to radioactive waste disposal be envisaged? 2) Is it possible to assess what is passed on to future generations in terms of health risks, other detriments and possible benefits of all sorts, directly or indirectly? Should such an assessment be applied generically to human activities in a broad sense or should it concern only waste disposal issues? 3) How can the immediate needs of the current generations for example for energy generation or public health protection be balanced with inter generational equity requirements in the very long term? 4) Are resources devoted to assuring safety of radioactive waste disposal appropriately balanced with risks given that these resources could be applied to other societal goals? 5) Is it preferable to take all physical actions today to minimize any bequest of liabilities for waste management actions to future generations. If not how should financial assets be set aside to meet the liabilities? 6) What guidelines and principles should we follow to balance these risks? Does the proposition that we should not expose future generations to a risk that is not acceptable today appropriately address this issue? 7) Should measures of risk acceptability be considered in the context of individual rights or local rights or the collective rights of the population? 8) What measures are necessary in the siting of repositories to assure that disadvantaged populations do not bear disproportionate burdens? 9) Is

  6. Radiation efficacy and biological risk from whole-breast irradiation via intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desantis, David M.

    Radiotherapy is an established modality for women with breast cancer. During the delivery of external beam radiation to the breast, leakage, scattered x-rays from the patient and the linear accelerator also expose healthy tissues and organs outside of the breast, thereby increasing the patient's whole-body dose, which then increases the chance of developing a secondary, radiation-induced cancer. Generally, there are three IntensityModulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) delivery techniques from a conventional linear accelerator; forward planned (FMLC), inverse planned 'sliding window' (DMLC), and inverse planned 'step-and-shoot' (SMLC). The goal of this study was to determine which of these three techniques delivers an optimal dose to the breast with the least chance of causing a fatal, secondary, radiation-induced cancer. A conventional, non-IMRT, 'Wedge' plan also was compared. Computerized Tomography (CT) data sets for both a large and small sized patient were used in this study. With Varian's Eclipse AAA algorithm, the organ doses specified in the revised ICRP 60 publication were used to calculate the whole-body dose. Also, an anthropomorphic phantom was irradiated with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) at each organ site for measured doses. The risk coefficient from the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII report of 4.69 x 10-2 deaths per Gy was used to convert whole-body dose to risk of a fatal, secondary, radiation-induced cancer. The FMLC IMRT delivered superior tumor coverage over the 3D conventional plan and the inverse DMLC or SMLC treatment plans delivered clinically equivalent tumor coverage. However, the FMLC plan had the least likelihood of inadvertently causing a fatal, secondary, radiation-induced cancer compared to the inverse DMLC, SMLC, and Wedge plans.

  7. Functional measures show improvements after a home exercise program following supervised balance training in older adults with elevated fall risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisher, Kristen; Mann, Kimberly; VanDyke, Sarah; Johansson, Charity; Vallabhajosula, Srikant

    2018-03-05

    Supervised balance training shows immediate benefit for older adults at fall risk. The long-term effectiveness of such training can be enhanced by implementing a safe and simple home exercise program (HEP). We investigated the effects of a12-week unsupervised HEP following supervised clinic-based balance training on functional mobility, balance, fall risk, and gait. Six older adults with an elevated fall risk obtained an HEP and comprised the HEP group (HEPG) and five older adults who were not given an HEP comprised the no HEP group (NoHEPG). The HEP consisted of three static balance exercises: feet-together, single-leg stance, and tandem. Each exercise was to be performed twice for 30-60 s, once per day, 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Participants were educated on proper form, safety, and progression of exercises. Pre- and post-HEP testing included Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go, Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) assessments, Activities-Balance Confidence, Late-Life Functional Disability Instrument and instrumented assessments of balance and gait (Limits of Stability, modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance, Gait). A healthy control group (HCG; n = 11) was also tested. For most of the measures, the HEPG improved to the level of HCG. Though task-specific improvements like BBS and SPPB components were seen, the results did not carry over to more dynamic assessments. Results provide proof of concept that a simple HEP can be independently implemented and effective for sustaining and/or improving balance in older adults at elevated fall-risk after they have undergone a clinic-based balance intervention.

  8. Radiation risk, medical surveillance programme and radiation protection in mining and milling of uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakshit, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    Mining and milling of uranium ores comprise multiple operations such as developement, drilling, blasting, handling, crushing, grinding, leaching of the ore and concentration, drying, packaging and storing of the concentrate product. Apart from the hazards of any metal mining and milling operations due to dust, noise, chemicals, accidents etc there are radiation risks also resulting from exposure to airborne radioactivity and external radiation. The inhalation risk is of more concern in underground mines than in open pit mines. The objective of a Medical Surveillance Programme (an occupational Health Programme) is to ensure a healthy work force. It should ultimately lead to health maintenance and improvement, less absenteeism increased productivity and the achievement of worker and corporate goals. The programme includes prevention, acute care, counselling and rehabilitation. Radiological workers require special monitoring for their work-related radiation exposure effect by film monitoring service, whole body counting and bioassay. Radiation protection in the mining and milling of Uranium ores include the use of personal protective equipment, work station protection, personal hygiene and house keeping. (author). 15 refs

  9. Risks of carcinogenesis from electromagnetic radiation of mobile telephony devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakymenko, I; Sidorik, E

    2010-07-01

    Intensive implementation of mobile telephony technology in everyday human life during last two decades has given a possibility for epidemiological estimation of long-term effects of chronic exposure of human organism to low-intensive microwave (MW) radiation. Latest epidemiological data reveal a significant increase in risk of development of some types of tumors in chronic (over 10 years) users of mobile phone. It was detected a significant increase in incidence of brain tumors (glioma, acoustic neuroma, meningioma), parotid gland tumor, seminoma in long-term users of mobile phone, especially in cases of ipsilateral use (case-control odds ratios from 1.3 up to 6.1). Two epidemiological studies have indicated a significant increase of cancer incidence in people living close to the mobile telephony base station as compared with the population from distant area. These data raise a question of adequacy of modern safety limits of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure for humans. For today the limits were based solely on the conception of thermal mechanism of biological effects of RF/MW radiation. Meantime the latest experimental data indicate the significant metabolic changes in living cell under the low-intensive (non-thermal) EMR exposure. Among reproducible biological effects of low-intensive MWs are reactive oxygen species overproduction, heat shock proteins expression, DNA damages, apoptosis. The lack of generally accepted mechanism of biological effects of low-intensive non-ionizing radiation doesn't permit to disregard the obvious epidemiological and experimental data of its biological activity. Practical steps must be done for reasonable limitation of excessive EMR exposure, along with the implementation of new safety limits of mobile telephony devices radiation, and new technological decisions, which would take out the source of radiation from human brain.

  10. Heart irradiation as a risk factor for radiation pneumonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ellen X.; El Naqa, Issam; Deasy, Joseph O.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Hope, Andrew J.; Lindsay, Patricia E.; Trovo, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the potential role of incidental heart irradiation on the risk of radiation pneumonitis (RP) for patients receiving definitive radiation therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Material and methods. Two hundred and nine patient datasets were available for this study. Heart and lung dose-volume parameters were extracted for modeling, based on Monte Carlo-based heterogeneity corrected dose distributions. Clinical variables tested included age, gender, chemotherapy, pre-treatment weight-loss, performance status, and smoking history. The risk of RP was modeled using logistic regression. Results. The most significant univariate variables were heart related, such as heart heart V65 (percent volume receiving at least 65 Gy) (Spearman Rs = 0.245, p < 0.001). The best-performing logistic regression model included heart D10 (minimum dose to the hottest 10% of the heart), lung D35, and maximum lung dose (Spearman Rs 0.268, p < 0.0001). When classified by predicted risk, the RP incidence ratio between the most and least risky 1/3 of treatments was 4.8. The improvement in risk modeling using lung and heart variables was better than using lung variables alone. Conclusions. These results suggest a previously unsuspected role of heart irradiation in many cases of RP

  11. Personalized Cancer Risk Assessments for Space Radiation Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M. Weil

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Individuals differ in their susceptibility to radiogenic cancers and there is evidence that this inter-individual susceptibility extends to HZE ion-induced carcinogenesis. Three components of individual risk: sex, age at exposure and prior tobacco use, are already incorporated into the NASA cancer risk model used to determine safe days in space for US astronauts. Here we examine other risk factors that could potentially be included in risk calculations. These include personal and family medical history, the presence of pre-malignant cells that could undergo malignant transformation as a consequence of radiation exposure, the results from phenotypic assays of radiosensitivity, heritable genetic polymorphisms associated with radiosensitivity, and post-flight monitoring. Inclusion of these additional risk or risk reduction factors has the potential to personalize risk estimates for individual astronauts and could influence the determination of safe days in space. We consider how this type of assessment could be used and explore how the provisions of the federal Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act could impact the collection, dissemination and use of this information by NASA.

  12. A Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Program for American Indians with Metabolic Syndrome: The Balance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobe, Jared B.; Yeh, Jeunliang; Ali, Tauqeer; Rhoades, Everett R.; Knehans, Allen W.; Willis, Diane J.; Johnson, Melanie R.; Zhang, Ying; Poolaw, Bryce; Rogers, Billy

    2014-01-01

    The Balance Study is a randomized controlled trial designed to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in 200 American Indian (AI) participants with metabolic syndrome who reside in southwestern Oklahoma. Major risk factors targeted include weight, diet, and physical activity. Participants are assigned randomly to one of two groups, a guided or a self-managed group. The guided group attends intervention meetings that comprise education and experience with the following components: diet, exercise, AI culture, and attention to emotional wellbeing. The self-managed group receives printed CVD prevention materials that are generally available. The duration of the intervention is 24 months. Several outcome variables will be compared between the two groups to assess the effectiveness of the intervention program. PMID:22941041

  13. Patient absorbed dose and radiation risk in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, E.; Cochrane, P.

    1992-01-01

    Since the introduction of technetium-99m labelled radiopharmaceuticals used as imaging agents in the nuclear medicine departments of Australian hospitals, patients have voiced concern about the effect of having radioactive materials injected into their bodies. The danger of X-ray exposure is widely known and well accepted, as is exposure to ultrasound, computed tomography scans and other imaging techniques. However, radioactivity is an unknown, and fear of the unknown can occasionally lead to patients refusing to undergo a nuclear medicine procedure. The authors emphasised that the radiation dose to a patient from a typical procedure would depend on the patient's medical history and treatment; the average dose being approximately 50 times the exposure received from the natural environmental background radiation. Furthermore, over an extended period the body can repair most minor damage caused by radiation, just as the body can repair the damage caused by sunburn resulting from too much exposure to sunlight. The risk of genetic effects as a result of a medical radiation dose is than very small

  14. Scientific uncertainties associated with risk assessment of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, P.; Fagnani, F.

    1989-05-01

    The proper use and interpretation of data pertaining to biological effects of ionizing radiations is based on a continuous effort to discuss the various assumptions and uncertainties in the process of risk assessment. In this perspective, it has been considered useful by the Committee to review critically the general scientific foundations that constitute the basic framework of data for the evaluation of health effects of radiation. This review is an attempt to identify the main sources of uncertainties, to give, when possible, an order of magnitude for their relative importance, and to clarify the principal interactions between the different steps of the process of risk quantification. The discussion has been restricted to stochastic effects and especially to cancer induction in man: observations at the cellular levels and animal and in vitro experiments have not been considered. The consequences which might result from abandoning the hypothesis of linearity have not been directly examined in this draft, especially in respect to the concept of collective dose. Since another document dealing with 'Dose-response relationships for radiation-induced cancer' is in preparation, an effort has been made to avoid any overlap by making reference to that document whenever necessary

  15. A comparative review of radiation-induced cancer risk models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hee; Kim, Ju Youl [FNC Technology Co., Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seok Jung [Risk and Environmental Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    With the need for a domestic level 3 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), it is essential to develop a Korea-specific code. Health effect assessments study radiation-induced impacts; in particular, long-term health effects are evaluated in terms of cancer risk. The objective of this study was to analyze the latest cancer risk models developed by foreign organizations and to compare the methodology of how they were developed. This paper also provides suggestions regarding the development of Korean cancer risk models. A review of cancer risk models was carried out targeting the latest models: the NUREG model (1993), the BEIR VII model (2006), the UNSCEAR model (2006), the ICRP 103 model (2007), and the U.S. EPA model (2011). The methodology of how each model was developed is explained, and the cancer sites, dose and dose rate effectiveness factor (DDREF) and mathematical models are also described in the sections presenting differences among the models. The NUREG model was developed by assuming that the risk was proportional to the risk coefficient and dose, while the BEIR VII, UNSCEAR, ICRP, and U.S. EPA models were derived from epidemiological data, principally from Japanese atomic bomb survivors. The risk coefficient does not consider individual characteristics, as the values were calculated in terms of population-averaged cancer risk per unit dose. However, the models derived by epidemiological data are a function of sex, exposure age, and attained age of the exposed individual. Moreover, the methodologies can be used to apply the latest epidemiological data. Therefore, methodologies using epidemiological data should be considered first for developing a Korean cancer risk model, and the cancer sites and DDREF should also be determined based on Korea-specific studies. This review can be used as a basis for developing a Korean cancer risk model in the future.

  16. Balancing public health and resource limitations: A role for ethical low-level risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinn, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Recognition of the pervasiveness of risk in everyday life in modern industrial society has elicited calls for greater efforts to protect individual and public health. Yet, it is increasingly clear that decisions to do so must often be made in the context of significant limits in the amounts of financial resources available for achieving that protection. Achieving risk-free work, residential, and community environments may be so expensive as to render a private business unit uncompetitive or as to divert resources from or prelude commencing with other governmental projects with equal or greater health benefit potential. Ethical low-level risk communication (LLRC) is something risk-generating entities are morally obligated to do. However, such communication also offers important opportunities for such entities to move toward achieving better balances between health and the costs of protecting it. In this paper, the authors elaborate on several features of an ethically ideal LLRC process, focusing on those with aspects they hope are not obvious or common knowledge. In discussing these features, they provide examples of conflicts between health risks and resource limits at the level of the individual private firm, the local community, or the national government, such that LLRC with the feature in question provides an opportunity for mitigating or at least clarifying the conflict in question

  17. Risk estimates for the health effects of alpha radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.C.; McNeill, K.G.

    1981-09-01

    This report provides risk estimates for various health effects of alpha radiation. Human and animal data have been used to characterize the shapes of dose-response relations and the effects of various modifying factors, but quantitative risk estimates are based solely on human data: for lung cancer, on miners in the Colorado plateau, Czechoslovakia, Sweden, Ontario and Newfoundland; for bone and head cancers, on radium dial painters and radium-injected patients. Slopes of dose-response relations for lung cancer show a tendency to decrease with increasing dose. Linear extrapolation is unlikely to underestimate the excess risk at low doses by more than a factor of l.5. Under the linear cell-killing model, our best estimate

  18. Identification of Elderly Falling Risk by Balance Tests Under Dual Tasks Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Aslankhani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to identify elderly fallers and non-fallers by balance test under dual tasks conditions. Methods & Materials: This study was an analyze-comparative study. Subjects were from three park of Tehran. Subjects were 20 older adults with outhistory of falls (aged 75.95±6.28 years and 21 older adults with a history of 2 or more falls in the previous one year (aged 72.50±7.31 Years . All subjects performed Timed Up & Go test under 3 conditions (TimedUp & Go, Timed Up & Go with numbers counter randomly [TUG cognitive], and Timed Up & Go while carrying a full cup of water [TUG manual]. A multivariate analysis of variance and logistic regression analyses were performed. Results: The results showed significant difference between elderly fallers and non fallers in fall risk composed dependent variable (P=0.0005, as the non fallers had greater score than the elderly fallers. Also, results showed that TUG cognitive has prediction capacity of elderly fall (P=0.013. Conclusion: Consequently, balance under cognitive dual task conditions could be useful method in identification of risk of falling and planning dual task exercise program and physiotherapy to preventfalls.

  19. Financial risk analysis in the synthesis and design of processing networks: Balancing risk and return

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaglia, Alberto; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2014-01-01

    The construction of a processing network is a corporate investment, that processing companies make with the goal of creating the conditions to increase their value. In a previous work, a computer-aided framework supporting the design of processing network under uncertainty has been presented...... and financial risk models. Through the solution of a small benchmark problem, the impact of financial factors on the optimal network configuration is presented and discussed....

  20. Getting the balance right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This 8 page leaflet is published by the Nuclear Electricity Information Group (NEIG) which is made up of eight different bodies working within the nuclear industry. It aims to present a balanced outline of the facts needed to form an opinion about energy policy in the UK. It looks at the price of electricity, other sources of electricity, (oil and coal, solar power, wind power, water power), safety in the nuclear industry, nuclear waste disposal and risks from radiation. The NEIG is in favour of a balanced energy programme with nuclear energy being only a part of the overall scheme. (U.K.)

  1. Literature search on risks related to ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Anoma, G.; Bijaoui, A.; Gauron, C.

    2013-09-01

    The authors propose a selection of information sources regarding risks related to ionizing radiations. They present knowledge bases which can be found on different Internet sites belonging to different bodies and agencies (IRSN, CEA, INRS, SFRP, CNRS, Radioprotection Cirkus, EDF) and in different books. They present information sources dealing with radionuclides which can be found in French and international Internet sites and in books, information sources concerning different professional activities and sectors (ASN, IRSN, INRS, medical-professional sheets proposed by the CISME, sheets proposed by the Labour Ministry and other bodies). It presents information sources dealing with radiological incidents, accidents and emergencies, dealing with radioactive wastes, with the legal European and French framework. Some additional tools of general or more detailed information are indicated (CIPR, IAEA, UNSCAR, IRPA, IRSN, SFRP, CEA, CEPN, Radiation Cirkus, books). Ways to get an updated search are indicated for different databases, as well as some practical services

  2. First characterization and comparison of TEB model simulations with in situ measurements regarding radiation balance in a single urban canyon at the BOKU site (Vienna)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Sandro; Trimmel, Heidelinde; Revesz, Michael; Nadeem, Imran; Masson, Valéry; Weihs, Philipp

    2017-04-01

    According to the World Health Organization more than half of the world population lives in a city since 2010. Predictions foresee that by 2030 six out of ten people will live in an urban area. As a result, many cities are expanding in size. Almost 10% of all urban dwellers live in megacities (defined according to UN HABITAT as a city with a population of more than 10 million). There are several effects in cities which strongly influence human health. Visible influences like the severe emissions of air pollutants by industry and traffic (e.g. Mayer H., 1999, Grimmond et al., 2010) are obvious to people but thermal stress in urban areas is only recently recognized for its strong devastating effect on human health. As a consequence, the urban environment virtually influences all weather parameters that have an impact on human comfort and thermal stress. Within this study, we investigate effects of city growth and the development of outlying districts on the local climate of Vienna. We focus particularly on the influence of urban heat island and consequent the risk for heat related illnesses or thermal stress for people. To quantify radiation balance and other important meteorological factors, we performed an extensive field campaign with three types of net radiometer in three different heights at BOKU site in August 2016. The first results indicated a strong correlation (ρ=0.96) between the Town Energy Balance (TEB) model and the measurements of the top net radiometer regarding radiation balance at roof level, meanwhile the TEB results are slightly underestimated. Further check if the measurements are reasonable, a comparison of the input values (global and direct solar radiation) for the TEB simulation with Secondary Standard measurements of ARAD site Wien Hohe Warte shows a deviation under 2% concerning interquartile range on clear sky days. The next steps will enclose TEB simulations, coupled with the mesoscale Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, for

  3. Prostate Cancer Radiation Therapy and Risk of Thromboembolic Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosco, Cecilia, E-mail: Cecilia.t.bosco@kcl.ac.uk [Translational Oncology & Urology Research (TOUR), Division of Cancer Studies, King' s College London, London (United Kingdom); Garmo, Hans [Translational Oncology & Urology Research (TOUR), Division of Cancer Studies, King' s College London, London (United Kingdom); Regional Cancer Centre, Uppsala, Akademiska Sjukhuset, Uppsala (Sweden); Adolfsson, Jan [CLINTEC Department, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Stattin, Pär [Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology, Umeå University, Umeå (Sweden); Holmberg, Lars [Translational Oncology & Urology Research (TOUR), Division of Cancer Studies, King' s College London, London (United Kingdom); Regional Cancer Centre, Uppsala, Akademiska Sjukhuset, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Nilsson, Per; Gunnlaugsson, Adalsteinn [Department of Hematology, Oncology and Radiation Physics, Skane University Hospital, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Widmark, Anders [Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology, Umeå University, Umeå (Sweden); Van Hemelrijck, Mieke [Translational Oncology & Urology Research (TOUR), Division of Cancer Studies, King' s College London, London (United Kingdom); Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate the risk of thromboembolic disease (TED) after radiation therapy (RT) with curative intent for prostate cancer (PCa). Patients and Methods: We identified all men who received RT as curative treatment (n=9410) and grouped according to external beam RT (EBRT) or brachytherapy (BT). By comparing with an age- and county-matched comparison cohort of PCa-free men (n=46,826), we investigated risk of TED after RT using Cox proportional hazard regression models. The model was adjusted for tumor characteristics, demographics, comorbidities, PCa treatments, and known risk factors of TED, such as recent surgery and disease progression. Results: Between 2006 and 2013, 6232 men with PCa received EBRT, and 3178 underwent BT. A statistically significant association was found between EBRT and BT and risk of pulmonary embolism in the crude analysis. However, upon adjusting for known TED risk factors these associations disappeared. No significant associations were found between BT or EBRT and deep venous thrombosis. Conclusion: Curative RT for prostate cancer using contemporary methodologies was not associated with an increased risk of TED.

  4. Risk of potential radiation accidental situations at TESLA accelerator installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spasic Jokic, Vesna [TESLA Accelerator Installation, Lab. of Physics, VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (Serbia); Orlic, Milan [VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Lab. of radioisotopes, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (Serbia); Djurovic, Branka [Military Medical Academy, Radiation Protection Dept., Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (Serbia)

    2006-07-01

    The main aim of this paper is to recognize some of the numerous risks of potential exposure and to quantify requirements and probability of failure of radiation protection system due to design event tree. Nature of design and construction of Tesla Accelerator Installation (T.A.I.) make possibility of potential exposure as a result of proven design and modification, trade off, human error as well as defense in depth. In the case of potential exposure human risk is the result of two random events: first, the occurrence of the event that causes the exposure, and the second, the appearance of a harmful effect. The highest doses during potential exposure at T.A.I. can be received at the entrance to primary beam space (V.I.N.C.Y. cyclotron vault) as well as in space with target for fluorine production, high energy experimental channels, proton therapy channel and channel for neutron researches. Expected values of prompt radiation equivalent dose rate in the cyclotron vault is considerably high, in order of 10 Sv/h. Serious problem deals with such large research installation is a number of workers, as visiting research workers of different educational levels and people in Institute who are not professionally connected with ionizing radiation. They could cause willing or unwilling opening of the cyclotron vault doors. Considering some possible scenarios we assumed that during 7000 working hours per year it is reasonably to expect 300 unsafe entries per year. It can be concluded that safety system should be designed so that probability of failure of radiation protection system has to be less than 1.9 10{sup -6}. (authors)

  5. Balance of longwave radiation employing the rate of solar radiation for Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Zanini Righi

    Full Text Available New coefficients were determined for the weighting term for cloudiness in the Brunt-Penman equation using the rate of solar radiation (RK in place of the rate of sunshine duration (n/N. The coefficients in the Brutsaert method proposed for daytime in southern Brazil were also tested and adjusted, and the method was selected which gave the more accurate daily results in relation to the original Brunt-Penman equation, for Santa Maria in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (RS. Meteorological data covering 2,472 days obtained from the automatic and conventional weather stations in Santa Maria were used. The coefficients were adjusted by linear and nonlinear regression methods depending on the model, using 2/3 of the data. The adjusted equations were tested with the remaining 1/3 of the data. The Brunt-Penman equation modified by the term for cloudiness weighted both for solar radiation incident on the surface with no cloudiness (RK,R and for solar radiation incident at the top of the atmosphere (RK,K, were those that resulted in the best statistical indices relative to the original Brunt-Penman equation. In those equations the boundary conditions, 0.3 ≥ RK,R ≥ 1 or RK,K ≤ 0.22, were imposed. Although having similar statistical indices, a sensitivity analysis showed that the Brutsaert equation and other weightings for cloudiness resulted in larger deviations when compared to the original Brunt-Penman equation, in addition to having greater complexity for practical application.

  6. REDUCING THE IMPACT OF RADIATION FACTORS IN AREAS WITH HIGH LEVEL OF RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Zaredinov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the modern problems of radioecology. The study reveals the problems of radioecological situation in some regions of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The main attention of the authors is paid to the ecologically hazardous objects in the uranium mining industry. The characteristics of wastes from uranium mining and stages of development of the mining industry are described. The historical background of the accumulation of the wastes in dumps, the ore-bearing rocks, and other off-balance ores is given. The practical experience and directions radio-ecological safety are generalized, achieving improvements of the environmental quality in areas with high risk. In conclusion, the authors recommend carrying out some measures to reduce an impact of the radiation factor on human health and to stabilize the radioecological situation at the studied regions.

  7. Supervised Balance Training and Wii Fit-Based Exercises Lower Falls Risk in Older Adults With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Steven; Simmons, Rachel; Colberg, Sheri R; Parson, Henri K; Vinik, Aaron I

    2018-02-01

    This study examined the benefits of and differences between 12 weeks of thrice-weekly supervised balance training and an unsupervised at-home balance activity (using the Nintendo Wii Fit) for improving balance and reaction time and lowering falls risk in older individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Before-after trial. University research laboratory, home environment. Sixty-five older adults with type 2 diabetes were recruited for this study. Participants were randomly allocated to either supervised balance training (mean age 67.8 ± 5.2) or unsupervised training using the Nintendo Wii Fit balance board (mean age 66.1 ± 5.6). The training period for both groups lasted for 12 weeks. Individuals were required to complete three 40-minute sessions per week for a total of 36 sessions. The primary outcome measure was falls risk, which was as derived from the physiological profile assessment. In addition, measures of simple reaction time, lower limb proprioception, postural sway, knee flexion, and knee extension strength were also collected. Persons also self-reported any falls in the previous 6 months. Both training programs resulted in a significant lowering of falls risk (P balance ability. Interestingly, the reduced falls risk occurred without significant changes in leg strength, suggesting that interventions to reduce falls risk that target intrinsic risk factors related to balance control (over muscle strength) may have positive benefits for the older adult with T2DM at risk for falls. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Are passive smoking, air pollution and obesity a greater mortality risk than major radiation incidents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jim T

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following a nuclear incident, the communication and perception of radiation risk becomes a (perhaps the major public health issue. In response to such incidents it is therefore crucial to communicate radiation health risks in the context of other more common environmental and lifestyle risk factors. This study compares the risk of mortality from past radiation exposures (to people who survived the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs and those exposed after the Chernobyl accident with risks arising from air pollution, obesity and passive and active smoking. Methods A comparative assessment of mortality risks from ionising radiation was carried out by estimating radiation risks for realistic exposure scenarios and assessing those risks in comparison with risks from air pollution, obesity and passive and active smoking. Results The mortality risk to populations exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident may be no higher than that for other more common risk factors such as air pollution or passive smoking. Radiation exposures experienced by the most exposed group of survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki led to an average loss of life expectancy significantly lower than that caused by severe obesity or active smoking. Conclusion Population-averaged risks from exposures following major radiation incidents are clearly significant, but may be no greater than those from other much more common environmental and lifestyle factors. This comparative analysis, whilst highlighting inevitable uncertainties in risk quantification and comparison, helps place the potential consequences of radiation exposures in the context of other public health risks.

  9. Radiation risk to patients from nuclear medicine procedures in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigido, O.; Montalván, A.; Barreras, A.; Hernández, J.

    2015-01-01

    Man-made radiation exposure to the Cuban population predominantly results from the medical use of ionizing radiation. It was therefore the aim of the present study, to provide public health information concerning diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures carried out in Camagüey and Ciego de Ávila provinces between 2000 and 2005. Population radiation dose estimation due to administration of radiopharmaceuticals in Camagüey and Ciego de Ávila provinces was carried out using Medical Internal Radiation Dose scheme (MIRD). Data were gathered on the type of radiopharmaceuticals used, the administered activity, the numbers of each kind of examination, and the age and sex of the patients involved during the period 2000 – 2005. The average annual frequency of examinations was estimated to be 3.34 per 1000 population. The results show that imaging nuclear medicine techniques of thyroid and bone explorations with 13.3 and 12.9%, respectively and iodide uptake with 50% are the main techniques implicated in the relative contribution to the total annual effective collective dose which averaged 95 man⋅Sv for the studied period. Radiation risks for the Camagüey-Ciego de Avila population caused by nuclear medicine examinations in the period studied were calculated: the total number of fatal and non-fatal cancers was 34.2 and the number of serious hereditary disturbance was 7.4 as a result of 24139 nuclear medicine procedures, corresponding a total detriment of 1.72 per 1000 examination. (authors)

  10. Radiation chemistry of water at low dose rates with emphasis on the energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.W.

    1982-09-01

    There has been considerable interest in absorbed dose water calorimetry. In order to accurately relate the temperature change to the absorbed dose, the energy balance of the overall chemistry of the system must be known. The radiolytic products and their yields are affected by dose rate, dose and added solutes. The yields of the radiolytic products have been calculated using a computer program developed at Atomic Energy of Canada. The chemical energy balance was determined as a function of dose for various dose rates and initial concentrations of hydrogen (H 2 ), oxygen (O 2 ), and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). In solutions containing H 2 O 2 or O 2 and H 2 the chemical reactions were exothermic; in other cases they were endothermic. Approach to equilibrium and equilbrium conditions are discussed

  11. Breast Cancer Risk in Female Survivors of Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Lower Risk After Smaller Radiation Volumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, Marie L.; Sparidans, Judith; van't Veer, Mars B.; Noordijk, Evert M.; Louwman, Marieke W. J.; Zijlstra, Josée M.; van den Berg, Hendrik; Russell, Nicola S.; Broeks, Annegien; Baaijens, Margreet H. A.; Aleman, Berthe M. P.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose We assessed the long-term risk of breast cancer (BC) after treatment for Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). We focused on the volume of breast tissue exposed to radiation and the influence of gonadotoxic chemotherapy (CT). Patients and Methods We performed a cohort study among 1,122 female 5-year

  12. [Socio-psychological and ecological aspects within the system of nuclear radiation risk mitigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydov, B I; Ushakov, I B; Zuev, V G

    2004-01-01

    The authors bring into light several aspects of nuclear radiation risks, i.e. physical safety of nuclear technologies and ecology, place of operator within the nuclear radiation safety system (proficiency, protective culture, safety guides) and consider approaches to the human factor quantification within the system of mitigation of risks from nuclear technologies, and IAEA recommendations on probable risk estimation. Future investigations should be aimed at extension of the radiation sensitivity threshold, personnel selection as by psychological so genetic testing for immunity to ionizing radiation, development of pharmachemical and physical protectors and methods of enhancing nonspecific resistance to extreme, including radiation, environments, and building of radiation event simulators for training.

  13. Risk assessment and management of radiofrequency radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabala, Dana; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile; Neamtu, Camelia

    2013-01-01

    Radiofrequency radiation (RFR) industry managers, occupational physicians, security department, and other practitioners must be advised on the basic of biophysics and the health effects of RF electromagnetic fields so as to guide the management of exposure. Information on biophysics of RFR and biological/heath effects is derived from standard texts, literature and clinical experiences. Emergency treatment and ongoing care is outlined, with clinical approach integrating the circumstances of exposure and the patient's symptoms. Experimental risk assessment model in RFR chronic exposure is proposed. Planning for assessment and monitoring exposure, ongoing care, safety measures and work protection are outlining the proper management

  14. A method to adjust radiation dose-response relationships for clinical risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane Lindegaard; Vogelius, Ivan R

    2012-01-01

    Several clinical risk factors for radiation induced toxicity have been identified in the literature. Here, we present a method to quantify the effect of clinical risk factors on radiation dose-response curves and apply the method to adjust the dose-response for radiation pneumonitis for patients...

  15. The Role of Cerenkov Radiation in the Pressure Balance of Cool Core Clusters of Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieu, Richard [Department of Physics, University of Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2017-03-20

    Despite the substantial progress made recently in understanding the role of AGN feedback and associated non-thermal effects, the precise mechanism that prevents the core of some clusters of galaxies from collapsing catastrophically by radiative cooling remains unidentified. In this Letter, we demonstrate that the evolution of a cluster's cooling core, in terms of its density, temperature, and magnetic field strength, inevitably enables the plasma electrons there to quickly become Cerenkov loss dominated, with emission at the radio frequency of ≲350 Hz, and with a rate considerably exceeding free–free continuum and line emission. However, the same does not apply to the plasmas at the cluster's outskirts, which lacks such radiation. Owing to its low frequency, the radiation cannot escape, but because over the relevant scale size of a Cerenkov wavelength the energy of an electron in the gas cannot follow the Boltzmann distribution to the requisite precision to ensure reabsorption always occurs faster than stimulated emission, the emitting gas cools before it reheats. This leaves behind the radiation itself, trapped by the overlying reflective plasma, yet providing enough pressure to maintain quasi-hydrostatic equilibrium. The mass condensation then happens by Rayleigh–Taylor instability, at a rate determined by the outermost radius where Cerenkov radiation can occur. In this way, it is possible to estimate the rate at ≈2 M {sub ⊙} year{sup −1}, consistent with observational inference. Thus, the process appears to provide a natural solution to the longstanding problem of “cooling flow” in clusters; at least it offers another line of defense against cooling and collapse should gas heating by AGN feedback be inadequate in some clusters.

  16. Dose dependence on stochastic radiobiological effect in radiation risk estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komochkov, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of the results in dose -- effect relationship observation has been carried out on the cell and organism levels, with the aim to obtain more precise data on the risk coefficients at low doses. The results are represented by two contrasting groups of dose dependence on effect: a downwards concave and a J-shaped curve. Both types of dependence are described by the equation solutions of an assumed unified protective mechanism, which comprises two components: constitutive and adaptive or inducible ones. The latest data analysis of the downwards concave dependence curves shows a considerable underestimation of radiation risk in all types of cancer, except leukemia, for a number of critical groups in a population, at low doses comparing to the ICRP recommendations. With the dose increase, the decrease of the effect value per dose unit is observed. It may be possibly related to the switching of the activity of the adaptive protective mechanism, with some threshold dose values being exceeded

  17. Risks posed by ionizing radiation and chemo-toxic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haehnel, S.; Heller, H.

    1992-01-01

    Concern over the risks from exposure to radiation or chemical toxins now appears to be forming an integral part of everyday life for a large percentage of the population. In this volume, attempts have therefore been made to compile well documented information relating to those topics as well as to give insights into relevant interconnections and to elucidate certain terms that are not closely enough defined or even have contradictory uses. In the two introductory reports, the multifarious perceptions of what may constitute a risk are outlined and discussed on a large scale stretching from mathematical to purely intuitive factors. The subsequent contributions focus on individual aspects pertinent to dangers from ionizing rays and chemical toxins and examine their wider implications in terms of social, ethical and psychological influences. Of the ten contributions to this volume two were prepared for individual retrieval. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Evaluation of radiation risk and work practices during cerebral interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingstone, Roshan S; Raghuram, L; Korah, Ipeson P; Raj, D Victor [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Christian Medical College, Vellore 632004 (India)

    2003-09-01

    This study was intended to evaluate radiation risk to patients during cerebral interventions and the contribution to this risk from work practices. Thirty nine patients undergoing cerebral interventions in a digital subtraction angiography suite were included in this study. Patients who underwent cerebral interventions were categorised into two groups according to the number of cerebral interventions performed on them, and their effective doses were calculated. The effective dose for patients undergoing a single cerebral intervention (group A) varied from 1.55 to 15.9 mSv and for multiple cerebral interventions (group B) varied from 16.52 to 43.52 mSv. Two patients who underwent multiple cerebral interventions (group B) had alopecia of the irradiated scalp.

  19. Risk evaluation - conventional and low level effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.; Varma, M.N.

    1984-04-01

    Any discussion of the risk of exposure to potentially-hazardous agents in the environment inevitably involves the question of whether the dose effect curve is of the threshold or linear, non-threshold type. A principal objective of this presentation is to show that the function is actually two separate relationships, each representing distinctly different functions with differing variables on the axes, and each characteristic of quite different functions with differing variables on the axes, and each characteristic of quite different disciplines (i.e., the threshold function, of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Medicine [PTM]; the linear, non-threshold function, of Public Health including safety and accident statistics [PHS]). It is shown that low-level exposure (LLE) to radiation falls clearly in the PHS category. A function for cell dose vs. the fraction of single cell quantal responses is characterized, which reflects the absolute and relative sensitivities of cells. Acceptance of this function would obviate any requirement for the use in Radiation Protection of the concepts of a standard radiation, Q, dose equivalent and rem. 9 references, 4 figures

  20. Epistemological problems in assessing cancer risks at low radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walinder, G.

    1987-01-01

    Historically, biology has not been subjected to any epistemological analysis as has been the case with mathematics and physics. Our knowledge of the effects in biological systems of various stimuli proves to be dualistic in a complementary (although not mutually exclusive) way, which bears resemblance to the knowledge of phenomena in quantum physics. The dualistic limbs of biological knowledge are the action of stimuli and the response of the exposed, biological system. With regard to radiogenic cancer, this corresponds to the action of the ionizations and the response of the exposed mammal to that action, respectively. The following conclusions can be drawn from the present analysis: Predictions as to radiogenic cancer seem often if not always to have neglected the response variability (variations in radiosensitivity) in individuals or among individuals in populations, i.e. the predictions have been based exclusively on radiation doses and exposure conditions. The exposed individual or population, however, must be considered an open statistical system, i.e. a system in which predictions as to the effect of an agent are only conditionally possible. The knowledge is inverse to the size of the dose or concentration of the active agent. On epistemological grounds, we can not gain knowledge about the carcinogenic capacity of very low (non-dominant) radiation doses. Based on the same principle, we can not predict cancer risks at very low (non-dominant) radiation doses merely on the basis of models, or otherwise interpolated or extrapolated high-dose effects, observed under special exposure conditions

  1. Commentary on Using LNT for Radiation Protection and Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttler, Jerry M

    2010-02-04

    An article by Jerome Puskin attempts to justify the continued use of the linear no-threshold (LNT) assumption in radiation protection and risk assessment. In view of the substantial and increasing amount of data that contradicts this assumption; it is difficult to understand the reason for endorsing this unscientific behavior, which severely constrains nuclear energy projects and the use of CT scans in medicine. Many Japanese studies over the past 25 years have shown that low doses and low dose rates of radiation improve health in living organisms including humans. Recent studies on fruit flies have demonstrated that the original basis for the LNT notion is invalid. The Puskin article omits any mention of important reports from UNSCEAR, the NCRP and the French Academies of Science and Medicine, while citing an assessment of the Canadian breast cancer study that manipulated the data to obscure evidence of reduced breast cancer mortality following a low total dose. This commentary provides dose limits that are based on real human data, for both single and chronic radiation exposures.

  2. Responding to the Marketplace: Workforce Balance and Financial Risk at Academic Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retchin, Sheldon M

    2016-07-01

    Elsewhere in this issue, Welch and Bindman present research demonstrating that academic health centers (AHCs) continue to disproportionately comprise specialists and subspecialist faculty physicians compared with community-based physician groups. This workforce composition has served AHCs well through the years-specialists fuel the clinical engine of the major tertiary and quaternary missions of AHCs, and they also dominate much of the clinical and translational research enterprise. AHCs are not alone-less than one-third of U.S. physicians practice primary care. However, health reform has prompted many health systems to reconsider this configuration. Payers, employers, and policy makers are shifting away from fee-for-service toward value-based care. Large community-based physician groups and their parent health systems appear to be far ahead of AHCs with a more balanced physician workforce. Many are leveraging their emphasis on primary care to participate in population health initiatives, such as accountable care organizations, and some own their own health plans. These approaches largely assume some element of financial risk and require both a more balanced workforce and an infrastructure to accommodate the management of covered lives. It remains to be seen whether AHCs will reconsider their own physician specialty composition to emphasize primary care-and, if they do, whether the traditional academic model, or a more community-based approach, will prevail.

  3. Models for the risk of secondary cancers from radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasu, Alexandru; Toma-Dasu, Iuliana

    2017-10-01

    The interest in the induction of secondary tumours following radiotherapy has greatly increased as developments in detecting and treating the primary tumours have improved the life expectancy of cancer patients. However, most of the knowledge on the current levels of risk comes from patients treated many decades ago. As developments of irradiation techniques take place at a much faster pace than the progression of the carcinogenesis process, the earlier results could not be easily extrapolated to modern treatments. Indeed, the patterns of irradiation from historically-used orthovoltage radiotherapy and from contemporary techniques like conformal radiotherapy with megavoltage radiation, intensity modulated radiation therapy with photons or with particles are quite different. Furthermore, the increased interest in individualised treatment options raises the question of evaluating and ranking the different treatment plan options from the point of view of the risk for cancer induction, in parallel with the quantification of other long-term effects. It is therefore inevitable that models for risk assessment will have to be used to complement the knowledge from epidemiological studies and to make predictions for newer forms of treatment for which clinical evidence is not yet available. This work reviews the mathematical models that could be used to predict the risk of secondary cancers from radiotherapy-relevant dose levels, as well as the approaches and factors that have to be taken into account when including these models in the clinical evaluation process. These include the effects of heterogeneous irradiation, secondary particles production, imaging techniques, interpatient variability and other confounding factors. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Estimation of radiation cancer risk in CT-KUB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, M. K. A.; Hashim, S.; Bakar, K. A.; Bradley, D. A.; Ang, W. C.; Bahrudin, N. A.; Mhareb, M. H. A.

    2017-08-01

    The increased demand for computed tomography (CT) in radiological scanning examinations raises the question of a potential health impact from the associated radiation exposures. Focusing on CT kidney-ureter-bladder (CT-KUB) procedures, this work was aimed at determining organ equivalent dose using a commercial CT dose calculator and providing an estimate of cancer risks. The study, which included 64 patients (32 males and 32 females, mean age 55.5 years and age range 30-80 years), involved use of a calibrated CT scanner (Siemens-Somatom Emotion 16-slice). The CT exposures parameter including tube potential, pitch factor, tube current, volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose-length product (DLP) were recorded and analyzed using CT-EXPO (Version 2.3.1, Germany). Patient organ doses, including for stomach, liver, colon, bladder, red bone marrow, prostate and ovaries were calculated and converted into cancer risks using age- and sex-specific data published in the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII report. With a median value scan range of 36.1 cm, the CTDIvol, DLP, and effective dose were found to be 10.7 mGy, 390.3 mGy cm and 6.2 mSv, respectively. The mean cancer risks for males and females were estimated to be respectively 25 and 46 out of 100,000 procedures with effective doses between 4.2 mSv and 10.1 mSv. Given the increased cancer risks from current CT-KUB procedures compared to conventional examinations, we propose that the low dose protocols for unenhanced CT procedures be taken into consideration before establishing imaging protocols for CT-KUB.

  5. Predictions of space radiation fatality risk for exploration missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A; To, Khiet; Cacao, Eliedonna

    2017-05-01

    In this paper we describe revisions to the NASA Space Cancer Risk (NSCR) model focusing on updates to probability distribution functions (PDF) representing the uncertainties in the radiation quality factor (QF) model parameters and the dose and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factor (DDREF). We integrate recent heavy ion data on liver, colorectal, intestinal, lung, and Harderian gland tumors with other data from fission neutron experiments into the model analysis. In an earlier work we introduced distinct QFs for leukemia and solid cancer risk predictions, and here we consider liver cancer risks separately because of the higher RBE's reported in mouse experiments compared to other tumors types, and distinct risk factors for liver cancer for astronauts compared to the U.S. The revised model is used to make predictions of fatal cancer and circulatory disease risks for 1-year deep space and International Space Station (ISS) missions, and a 940 day Mars mission. We analyzed the contribution of the various model parameter uncertainties to the overall uncertainty, which shows that the uncertainties in relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors at high LET due to statistical uncertainties and differences across tissue types and mouse strains are the dominant uncertainty. NASA's exposure limits are approached or exceeded for each mission scenario considered. Two main conclusions are made: 1) Reducing the current estimate of about a 3-fold uncertainty to a 2-fold or lower uncertainty will require much more expansive animal carcinogenesis studies in order to reduce statistical uncertainties and understand tissue, sex and genetic variations. 2) Alternative model assumptions such as non-targeted effects, increased tumor lethality and decreased latency at high LET, and non-cancer mortality risks from circulatory diseases could significantly increase risk estimates to several times higher than the NASA limits. Copyright © 2017 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR

  6. Predictions of space radiation fatality risk for exploration missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; To, Khiet; Cacao, Eliedonna

    2017-05-01

    In this paper we describe revisions to the NASA Space Cancer Risk (NSCR) model focusing on updates to probability distribution functions (PDF) representing the uncertainties in the radiation quality factor (QF) model parameters and the dose and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factor (DDREF). We integrate recent heavy ion data on liver, colorectal, intestinal, lung, and Harderian gland tumors with other data from fission neutron experiments into the model analysis. In an earlier work we introduced distinct QFs for leukemia and solid cancer risk predictions, and here we consider liver cancer risks separately because of the higher RBE's reported in mouse experiments compared to other tumors types, and distinct risk factors for liver cancer for astronauts compared to the U.S. population. The revised model is used to make predictions of fatal cancer and circulatory disease risks for 1-year deep space and International Space Station (ISS) missions, and a 940 day Mars mission. We analyzed the contribution of the various model parameter uncertainties to the overall uncertainty, which shows that the uncertainties in relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors at high LET due to statistical uncertainties and differences across tissue types and mouse strains are the dominant uncertainty. NASA's exposure limits are approached or exceeded for each mission scenario considered. Two main conclusions are made: 1) Reducing the current estimate of about a 3-fold uncertainty to a 2-fold or lower uncertainty will require much more expansive animal carcinogenesis studies in order to reduce statistical uncertainties and understand tissue, sex and genetic variations. 2) Alternative model assumptions such as non-targeted effects, increased tumor lethality and decreased latency at high LET, and non-cancer mortality risks from circulatory diseases could significantly increase risk estimates to several times higher than the NASA limits.

  7. The Australasian radiation protection society's position statement on risks fro low levels of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higson, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Controversy continues in the radiation protection literature on whether or not ionizing radiation is harmful at low doses, with unresolved scientific uncertainty about effects below a few tens of millisieverts. To settle what regulatory controls (if any) should apply in this dose region, an assumption has to be made relating dose to the possibility of harm or benefit. The assumption made and the way it is applied can have far-reaching effects, not only on the scale of regulatory compliance required but also on public perception of risk, and therefore on the technological choices made by society. It is important therefore that decisions reached concerning the regulation of low doses of ionizing radiation derive from rational arguments and are perceived to have an ethical basis. It is also important that such decisions are neither portrayed nor perceived as resolving the scientific uncertainties: rather, they serve merely to facilitate the implementation of appropriate measures to ensure safety. At its Annual General Meeting in 2004, the Australasian Radiation Protection Society (ARPS) set up a working group to draft a statement of the Society's position on this matter. The resulting position statement was adopted by the Society at its Annual General Meeting on 14 November 2005. Its salient features are as follows: There is insufficient evidence to establish a dose-effect relationship for doses that are less than a few tens of millisieverts in a year. A linear extrapolation from higher dose levels should be assumed only for the purpose of applying regulatory controls; Estimates of collective dose arising from individual doses that are less than some tens of millisieverts in a year should not be used to predict numbers of fatal cancers; The risk to an individual of doses significantly less than 100 microsieverts in a year is so small, if it exists at all, that regulatory requirements to control exposure at this level are not warranted. The paper will

  8. A proposed methodology for performing risk analysis of state radiation control programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornsife, W.P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is comprised of viewgraphs from a conference presentation. Topics discussed include barriers to effective risk assessment and management, and real versus perceived risk for various radiation programs in the state of Pennsylvania. Calculation results for Pennsylvania are provided for low-level radioactive waste transportation risks, indoor radon risk, and cancer morbidity risk from x-rays. A methodology for prioritizing radiation regulatory programs based on risk is presented with calculations for various Pennsylvania programs

  9. Multicomponent risk inherent to nuclear or radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poyarkov, V.A.

    1997-01-01

    A nuclear or radiation emergency response planning is based on expected avertable doses for a short (4 hours, 2 days, 1 week) and a long (50 or 70 years) periods of time. On calculating the doses one should take into account not only the sources of ionizing radiation with their foreseen characteristics, e.g. a half-life, but also the possibility of their probabilistic transformations. It can be illustrated by the chronicle of Chernobyl accident, where for nine days it was impossible to envisage with reliability the quantities of released radionuclides due to many uncontrolled factors related to the scope and character of the zone wreckage. Any other developments of the accident, such as destruction of the under reactor support plate, sinking of the melted zone into a highly radioactive water down at the reactor cavity or changing of the wind could have resulted in a substantial contamination of 3 mln. Kiev and other densely populated area of Ukraine. Another factor to be taken into account in the emergency response is a way of an actual risk perception by the population. The article suggests an approach to take into account the time-dependent secondary sources of exposure and the disparity in accepting the hazard of real risk of an accident by the trained workers and population. (author)

  10. Risk coordination in the computation of operating balancing reserves for wind power integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menemenlis, N.; Huneault, M. [IREQ, Varennes, QC (Canada); Robitaille, A. [Hydro-Quebec Production, Montreal, QC (Canada). Dir. Planification de la production eolienne, Direction generale

    2011-07-01

    Recently, with the advent of wind generation, utilities acknowledged that they must modify their operating reserve levels to mitigate the effects of the combined inherent uncertainties. In our previous work, we presented a methodology to compute balancing reserves (BRs), for the time-horizon of 1-48 hours ahead, based on a short term reliability criterion called risk. Our methodology allowed the computation of dynamic reserves but the risk target was treated as an input. It was pointed out that these reserves have an economic value. Maintaining BRs using stand-by capacity comes at a cost, which may be split into three components: a fixed cost for maintaining capacity for BRs, a variable cost when they are deployed and an opportunity costs of power not sold to maintain the reserves beyond useful levels. Here we undertake a study of the problem of establishing adequate risk targets for the computation of BRs, and consequently of determining the amount of unused power capacity that could be freed for sale on export markets. The problem is essentially formulated as an economic problem in the particular HQ context. The solution results in a trade-off between the sale revenues and the expected cost of reserves. (orig.)

  11. MDS. A disease with high radiation-risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Sadayuki; Sudo, Hitomi; Saegusa, Kumiko; Sagara, Masashi; Imai, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    A preliminary epidemiological study demonstrated that myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) has an excess relative risk per sievert of 13 in atomic bomb survivors. MDS is the only other radiogenic blood disease apart from leukemia. Clinically, MDS involves dysplastic hematopoiesis and an increased risk of leukemic transformation. Because it is uncertain whether MDS pathogenesis affects lymphoid progenitor cells as well as myeloid progenitor cells, we investigated the micronucleus (MN) frequency in peripheral T lymphocytes of twenty-three atomic bomb survivors with MDS and five normal individuals. The spontaneous- and X-ray-induced-MN frequencies were significantly higher in MDS patients than in normal individuals. Interestingly, radiation sensitivity increased along with the severity of MDS clinical subtypes. Because many of the patients in this study had not been exposed to chemo- or radiation-therapy, their unusual radiosensitivities may be related to their chromosomal or genomic instability. To explain the cause of unusual radiosensitivity, we measured the expression levels of four nucleotide excision repair (NER) genes (ERCC1, ERCC3, ERCC5 and XPC) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells using a reverse transcripts-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. The ERCC5 gene was expressed at reduced levels in only one of 10 patients with mild symptom. Reduction of NER genes was expressed in four of 11 patients with severe symptom. Immortalized lymphoid cell lines were established from B-lymphocytes infected with Epstein-Barr virus in vitro. The abrogation of radiation-induced-G2/M arrnst was observed in some of MDS-B lymphoid cell lines, but not in the normal B lymphoid cell lines. Our data suggest that the control of chromosomal stability is impaired in pluripotent stem cells of MDS patients, and that DNA repair defects and loss of G2/M arrest may be involved in the pathophysiology of disease progression. (authors)

  12. Balance Sheet Network Analysis of Too-Connected-to-Fail Risk in Global and Domestic Banking Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge A Chan-Lau

    2010-01-01

    The 2008/9 financial crisis highlighted the importance of evaluating vulnerabilities owing to interconnectedness, or Too-Connected-to-Fail risk, among financial institutions for country monitoring, financial surveillance, investment analysis and risk management purposes. This paper illustrates the use of balance sheet-based network analysis to evaluate interconnectedness risk, under extreme adverse scenarios, in banking systems in mature and emerging market countries, and between individual b...

  13. Uncertainties in fatal cancer risk estimates used in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Michiaki

    1999-01-01

    Although ICRP and NCRP had not described the details of uncertainties in cancer risk estimates in radiation protection, NCRP, in 1997, firstly reported the results of uncertainty analysis (NCRP No.126) and which is summarized in this paper. The NCRP report pointed out that there are following five factors which uncertainty possessing: uncertainty in epidemiological studies, in dose assessment, in transforming the estimates to risk assessment, in risk prediction and in extrapolation to the low dose/dose rate. These individual factors were analyzed statistically to obtain the relationship between the probability of cancer death in the US population and life time risk coefficient (% per Sv), which showed that, for the latter, the mean value was 3.99 x 10 -2 /Sv, median, 3.38 x 10 -2 /Sv, GSD (geometrical standard deviation), 1.83 x 10 -2 /Sv and 95% confidential limit, 1.2-8.84 x 10 -2 /Sv. The mean value was smaller than that of ICRP recommendation (5 x 10 -2 /Sv), indicating that the value has the uncertainty factor of 2.5-3. Moreover, the most important factor was shown to be the uncertainty in DDREF (dose/dose rate reduction factor). (K.H.)

  14. Cancer risk after ionizing radiation exposure during childhood scanner examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baysson, Helene

    2013-01-01

    Among examinations using ionizing radiation for diagnostic purposes, CT scans, more irradiant than conventional imaging are increasingly used, especially in pediatrics. This is especially concerning for children because they have a higher radiosensitivity than adults. They also have a longer life expectancy and therefore more years at risk of developing cancer. The first study published by M. Pearce in 2012 (1) showed a significant increased risk of brain cancer and leukemia in children exposed to several scanners. This second major study by Mathews et al. shows an excess risk of any cancer, including leukemia and brain tumors after examinations by CT. Despite the undeniable benefits of the CT examinations, continuing efforts to reduce the doses and the number of radiological examinations in childhood is essential, under, in particular, the ALARA principle to be implemented in pediatric imaging. The risk assessment published by Miglioretti et al. shows that reducing the highest 25 % of doses could reduce by 43 % the number of cancers induced by annual paediatrics exams performed in the USA. (author)

  15. ADVISORY ON UPDATED METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING CANCER RISKS FROM EXPOSURE TO IONIZING RADIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) published the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) committee's report (BEIR VII) on risks from ionizing radiation exposures in 2006. The Committee analyzed the most recent epidemiology from the important exposed cohorts and factor...

  16. GERMcode: A Stochastic Model for Space Radiation Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Ponomarev, Artem L.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2012-01-01

    A new computer model, the GCR Event-based Risk Model code (GERMcode), was developed to describe biophysical events from high-energy protons and high charge and energy (HZE) particles that have been studied at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) for the purpose of simulating space radiation biological effects. In the GERMcode, the biophysical description of the passage of HZE particles in tissue and shielding materials is made with a stochastic approach that includes both particle track structure and nuclear interactions. The GERMcode accounts for the major nuclear interaction processes of importance for describing heavy ion beams, including nuclear fragmentation, elastic scattering, and knockout-cascade processes by using the quantum multiple scattering fragmentation (QMSFRG) model. The QMSFRG model has been shown to be in excellent agreement with available experimental data for nuclear fragmentation cross sections. For NSRL applications, the GERMcode evaluates a set of biophysical properties, such as the Poisson distribution of particles or delta-ray hits for a given cellular area and particle dose, the radial dose on tissue, and the frequency distribution of energy deposition in a DNA volume. By utilizing the ProE/Fishbowl ray-tracing analysis, the GERMcode will be used as a bi-directional radiation transport model for future spacecraft shielding analysis in support of Mars mission risk assessments. Recent radiobiological experiments suggest the need for new approaches to risk assessment that include time-dependent biological events due to the signaling times for activation and relaxation of biological processes in cells and tissue. Thus, the tracking of the temporal and spatial distribution of events in tissue is a major goal of the GERMcode in support of the simulation of biological processes important in GCR risk assessments. In order to validate our approach, basic radiobiological responses such as cell survival curves, mutation, chromosomal

  17. The correlation between white matter hyperintensity and balance disorder and fall risk: An observational, prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Chao Shen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The presence of an association between white matter hyperintensity (WMH and the risk of falls in older people is uncertain, with little supporting prospective evidence available at present. We aimed to determine whether WMH was associated with dysfunctions of balance and gait, and other sensorimotor factors leading to falls, and the independent factors related to falls in older Chinese people. The protective effect of exercise against falls was also addressed. Methods: In a representative sample of hospital-based individuals aged 50 years and older in China, the patients' history of falls, magnetic resonance imaging data, scores on the 9-item Berg Balance Scale (BBS-9 test and timed up-and-go test (TUGT, and sensorimotor measures of computerized dynamic posturography (CDP were analyzed. Incident falls were recorded prospectively over a 12-month period. Using regression modeling, the association between the risk of falls and baseline WMH was estimated. Results: Only individuals with severe WMH were at an increased risk of falls, and CDP was more sensitive than BBS-9 in detecting WMH-related balance and gait dysfunction. However, WMH was not an independent predictor of falls. Taller height and overweight or obese body habitus were identified as novel protective factors for falls. Female, fall history, and increased TUGT score were identified as independent risk factors for falls in older Chinese people. Conclusion: Although WMH was associated with an increased risk of falls, it was not an independent predictor. Keywords: White matter hyperintensity, Balance disorder, Gait disorder, Fall risk

  18. Modelling radiation and energy balances with Landsat 8 images under different thermohydrological conditions in the Brazilian semi-arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    de C. Teixeira, Antônio H.; Leivas, Janice F.; Andrade, Ricardo G.; Hernandez, Fernando B. T.; Momesso, Franco R. A.

    2015-10-01

    Four Landsat 8 images were used together with a net of seven agro-meteorological stations for modelling the large-scale radiation and energy balances in the mixed agro-ecosystems inside a semi-arid area composed by irrigated crops and natural vegetation of the Petrolina municipality, Northeast Brazil, along the year 2014. The SAFER algorithm was used to calculate the latent heat flux (λE), net radiation (Rn) was acquired by the Slob equation, ground heat flux (G) was considered as a fraction of Rn and the sensible flux (H) was retrieved by residue in the energy balance equation. For classifying the vegetation into irrigated crops and natural vegetation, the SUREAL algorithm was applied to determine the surface resistance (rs) and threshold values for rs were used to characterize the energy fluxes from these types of vegetated surfaces. Clearly one could see higher λE from irrigated crops than from natural vegetation with some situations of heat horizontal advection increasing its values until 23% times larger than Rn, with respective average λE ranges of 5.7 (64% of Rn) to 7.9 (79% of Rn) and 0.4 (4% of Rn) to 4.3 (37% of Rn) MJ m-2 d-1. The corresponding H mean values were from 1.8 (18% of Rn) to 3.2 (28% of Rn) and 5.4 (60% of Rn) to 9.2 (94% of Rn) MJ m-2 d-1. Average G pixel values ranged from 0.3 to 0.4 MJ m-2 d-1, representing 3 and 4% of Rn for natural vegetation and irrigated crops, respectively.

  19. Toxicity risk of non-target organs at risk receiving low-dose radiation: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yu-Jen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The spine is the most common site for bone metastases. Radiation therapy is a common treatment for palliation of pain and for prevention or treatment of spinal cord compression. Helical tomotherapy (HT, a new image-guided intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT, delivers highly conformal dose distributions and provides an impressive ability to spare adjacent organs at risk, thus increasing the local control of spinal column metastases and decreasing the potential risk of critical organs under treatment. However, there are a lot of non-target organs at risk (OARs occupied by low dose with underestimate in this modern rotational IMRT treatment. Herein, we report a case of a pathologic compression fracture of the T9 vertebra in a 55-year-old patient with cholangiocarcinoma. The patient underwent HT at a dose of 30 Gy/10 fractions delivered to T8-T10 for symptom relief. Two weeks after the radiotherapy had been completed, the first course of chemotherapy comprising gemcitabine, fluorouracil, and leucovorin was administered. After two weeks of chemotherapy, however, the patient developed progressive dyspnea. A computed tomography scan of the chest revealed an interstitial pattern with traction bronchiectasis, diffuse ground-glass opacities, and cystic change with fibrosis. Acute radiation pneumonitis was diagnosed. Oncologists should be alert to the potential risk of radiation toxicities caused by low dose off-targets and abscopal effects even with highly conformal radiotherapy.

  20. Preoperative and postoperative serial assessments of postural balance and fall risk in patients with arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokalp, Oguzhan; Akkaya, Semih; Akkaya, Nuray; Buker, Nihal; Gungor, Harun R; Ok, Nusret; Yorukoglu, Cagdas

    2016-04-27

    Impaired postural balance due to somatosensory data loss with mechanical instability has been shown in patients with ACL deficiency. To assess postural balance in patients with ACL insufficiency prior to surgery and following reconstruction with serial evaluations. Thirty patients (mean age of 27.7 ± 6.7 years) who underwent arthroscopic reconstruction of ACL with bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft were examined for clinical and functional variables at preoperative day and postoperative 12th week. Posturographic analysis were performed by using Tetrax Interactive Balance System (Sunlight Medical Ltd, Israel) at preoperative day, at 4th, 8th, and 12th weeks following reconstruction. Data computed by posturographic software by the considerations of the oscillation velocities of body sways is fall risk as a numeric value (0-100, lower values indicate better condition). All of the patients (mean age of 27.7 ± 6.7 years) had significant improvements for clinical, functional evaluations and fall risk (pfall risk was within high-risk category (59.9 ± 22.8) preoperatively. The highest fall risk was detected at postoperative 4th week. Patients had high fall risk at 8th week similar to preoperative value. Mean fall risk decreased to low level risk at 12th week. Preoperative symptom duration had relationships with preoperative fall risk and postoperative improvement of fall risk (p= 0.001, r= -0.632, p= 0.001, r= -0.870, respectively). The improvement of fall risk was higher in patients with symptoms shorter than 6 months (p= 0.001). According to these results, mean fall risk of patients with ACL insufficiency was within high risk category preoperatively, and fall risk improves after surgical reconstruction, but as the duration of complaints lengthens especially longer than 6 months, the improvement of fall risk decreases following reconstruction.

  1. Risky Business: The Science and Art of Radiation Risk Communication in the High Risk Context of Space Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgart, Shona Robin; Shavers, Mark; Huff, Janice; Patel, Zarana; Semones, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Successfully communicating the complex risks associated with radiation exposure is a difficult undertaking; communicating those risks within the high-risk context of space travel is uniquely challenging. Since the potential risks of space radiation exposure are not expected to be realized until much later in life, it is hard to draw comparisons between other spaceflight risks such as hypoxia and microgravity-induced bone loss. Additionally, unlike other spaceflight risks, there is currently no established mechanism to mitigate the risks of incurred radiation exposure such as carcinogenesis. Despite these challenges, it is the duty of the Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG) at NASA's Johnson Space Center to provide astronauts with the appropriate information to effectively convey the risks associated with exposure to the space radiation environment. To this end, astronauts and their flight surgeons are provided with an annual radiation risk report documenting the astronaut's individual radiation exposures from space travel, medical, and internal radiological procedures throughout the astronaut's career. In an effort to improve this communication and education tool, this paper critically reviews the current report style and explores alternative report styles to define best methods to appropriately communicate risk to astronauts, flight surgeons, and management.

  2. The assessment of risks from exposure to low-levels of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1992-06-01

    This report is concerned with risk assessments for human populations receiving low level radiation doses; workers routinely exposed to radiation, Japanese victims of nuclear bombs, and the general public are all considered. Topics covered include risk estimates for cancer, mortality rates, risk estimates for nuclear site workers, and dosimetry

  3. The assessment of risks from exposure to low-levels of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1992-06-01

    This report is concerned with risk assessments for human populations receiving low level radiation doses; workers routinely exposed to radiation, Japanese victims of nuclear bombs, and the general public are all considered. Topics covered include risk estimates for cancer, mortality rates, risk estimates for nuclear site workers, and dosimetry.

  4. Comparison of fluoro and cine coronary angiography: balancing acceptable outcomes with a reduction in radiation dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olcay, Ayhan; Guler, Ekrem; Karaca, Ibrahim Oguz; Omaygenc, Mehmet Onur; Kizilirmak, Filiz; Olgun, Erkam; Yenipinar, Esra; Cakmak, Huseyin Altug; Duman, Dursun

    2015-04-01

    Use of last fluoro hold (LFH) mode in fluoroscopy, which enables the last live image to be saved and displayed, could reduce radiation during percutaneous coronary intervention when compared with cine mode. No previous study compared coronary angiography radiation doses and image quality between LFH and conventional cine mode techniques. We compared cumulative dose-area product (DAP), cumulative air kerma, fluoroscopy time, contrast use, interobserver variability of visual assessment between LFH angiography, and conventional cine angiography techniques. Forty-six patients were prospectively enrolled into the LFH group and 82 patients into the cine angiography group according to operator decision. Mean cumulative DAP was higher in the cine group vs the LFH group (50058.98 ± 53542.71 mGy•cm² vs 11349.2 ± 8796.46 mGy•cm²; Pcine group vs the LFH group (3.87 ± 5.08 minutes vs 1.66 ± 1.51 minutes; Pcine group vs the LFH group (112.07 ± 43.79 cc vs 88.15 ± 23.84 cc; Pcine and LFH angiography groups (0.66680 ± 0.19309 vs 0.54193 ± 0.31046; P=.20). Radiation doses, contrast use, and fluoroscopy times are lower in fluoroscopic LFH angiography vs cine angiography. Interclass variability of visual stenosis estimation between three operators was not different between cine and LFH groups. Fluoroscopic LFH images conventionally have inferior diagnostic quality when compared with cine coronary angiography, but with new angiographic systems with improved LFH image quality, these images may be adequate for diagnostic coronary angiography.

  5. Radiation risks and monitoring of transboundary rivers of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Solodukhin, V.P.; Khazhekber, S.; Poznyak, V.L.; Chernykh, E.E.; Passell, H.D.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The condition of the water resources of the Republic of Kazakhstan is characterized with their whole deficiency as well as their high pollution and desiccation. The situation is also aggravated with much relaxation of work coordination on regulation of trans-boundary river flows and control of their water quality as a result of the USSR collapse and isolation of separate republics. The absence of objective information on water condition of rivers and their contamination sources creates a danger of high ecological risk and psychological stress for inhabitants, localities of that related to the basins of these rivers, and serves as reasoning for claims (occasionally unreasonable) to neighboring countries. Following rivers are the largest trans-boundary ones in Kazakhstan: Ile, Syrdarya, Ural and Irtysh. All these rivers are of great importance for people's life-support of the republic. At the same time presence of a number of large industrial centers, agricultural enterprises and radiation-dangerous objects in the basins of these rivers creates a potential danger of chemical and radiation contamination for their water flows. Objective information on its influence rate is required. The most acceptable form of the control of radiation and hydro-chemical situation in the basins of transboundary rivers is their monitoring based on modern nuclear-and-physical methods of analysis. Very important factor in organization of such monitoring system is participation of all the countries concerned with the basin of the river under the control. There is a work experience of many years in Central Asia on monitoring of large Syrdarya and Amudarya rivers. These works have been carried out since 2000 with the framework of the International project NAVRUZ. Participants of this project are organizations of nuclear profile from Uzbekistan, Kirghizia, Tajikistan and Kazakhstan. The collaborator of this project is the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), USA. Experience of these

  6. Communicating the benefits/risks of radiation therapy: maintaining context, perspective, and reassurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Lawrence B

    2011-11-01

    When communicating the benefits and risks of radiation therapy, it is important to provide context, perspective, and reassurance. Radiation is inherently frightening. While this may make discussions about medical radiation's benefits-risks challenging, it also reinforces our responsibility for meaningful and clear discussions with patients, families, colleagues in non-radiation fields, and the public. We need to clearly acknowledge the risks of radiation but also reinforce therapeutic benefits of radiation. For most clinical situations, the benefit-risk ratio is favorable for radiation. Further, we must provide reassurance that we are doing what we can to minimize the risks. This approach helps to build confidence in the radiation team. Obtaining informed consent for patients recently diagnosed with cancer is challenging, since receiving the diagnosis is often extraordinarily stressful. Many patients do not remember or understand verbal discussions at the time of initial consultation. Thus, it is often helpful to provide written information that can be digested by the patient over time. Formal benefit-risk discussions often continue throughout the course of radiation. Further, patients' interactions with all members of the radiation team (e.g., asking questions, understanding the processes) help to augment these formal discussions and build confidence in the entire team-a critical component of informed consent. Since many of the risks of radiation occur months to years post-treatment, discussions with patients need also to consider their prognosis and longevity.

  7. The Australasian radiation protection society's position statement on risks from low levels of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Don, Higson; Ches, Mason; Andrew, McEwan; Peter, Burns; Riaz, Akber; Ron, Cameron; Pamela, Sykes; Joe, Young

    2006-01-01

    At its Annual General Meeting in 2004, the Australasian Radiation Protection Society (A.R.P.S.) set up a working group to draft a statement of the Society's position on risks from low levels of exposure to ionizing radiation. The resulting position statement was adopted by the Society at its Annual General Meeting in 2005. Its salient features are as follows: First, there is insufficient evidence to establish a dose-effect relationship for doses that are less than a few tens of milli sieverts in a year. A linear extrapolation from higher dose levels should be assumed only for the purpose of applying regulatory controls. Secondly, estimates of collective dose arising from individual doses that are less than some tens of milli sieverts in a year should not be used to predict numbers of fatal cancers. Thirdly, the risk to an individual of doses significantly less than 100 micro sieverts in a year is so small, if it exists at all, that regulatory requirements to control exposure at this level are not warranted. (authors)

  8. Benefits and Risks for People and Livestock of Keeping Companion Animals: Searching for a Healthy Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterneberg-van der Maaten, T; Turner, D; Van Tilburg, J; Vaarten, J

    2016-07-01

    The mission of the CALLISTO (Companion Animals multisectoriaL interprofessionaL Interdisciplinary Strategic Think tank On zoonoses) project was to provide an overview of the current situation on the role of companion animals as a source of infectious diseases for people and food animals. It also aimed to identify knowledge and technology gaps for the most important zoonoses and propose targeted actions to reduce the risk of zoonotic diseases transmitted via companion animals. After a 3-year study, its members have developed practical recommendations for improved data collection on companion animal numbers and the mechanisms for disease surveillance in companion animals. They highlight the importance of introducing a system for the unique identification of dogs and other companion animals with an implanted microchip transponder and storage of the details it contains on an internationally accessible online database. Their report also emphasises the need for balanced communication with the public on the risks and benefits of pet ownership and the value of the 'One Health' concept to encourage closer collaboration between veterinary and human medical professionals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Calculation of the quantities of radiation risk in Japanese population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yuji

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reevaluate various kinds of indicators of radiation risks using additive projection and multiplicative projection models, as proposed by ICRP. Total death probability rate (1985) and probability rate of cancer death (1983 to 1987) were used as data base. The following indicators were calculated: total conditional death probability rate and conditional death probability rate; normalized death age probability density and unconditional death probability rate; attributable life-time probability of cancer death; and other risk indicators, including mean loss of life expectancy, reduction of life expectancy, mean annually committed probability of attributable cancer deaths, annual extra probability of cancer death, probability density of the age of death, maximum relative death probability rate (age at maximum relative rate), and probabilistic aging. In terms of calculations of these risk indicators for the comprehensive cancer death, there was no great difference between the Japanese population and ICRP. When calculating according to sites of cancer, calculations of indicators for cancer mortality (or cancer cure rate) in the Japanese population might bedifferent from ICRP's calculation. (N.K.) different from ICRP's calculations. (N.K.)

  10. A simple method to compute the change in earth-atmosphere radiative balance due to a stratospheric aerosol layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoble, J.; Tanre, D.; Deschamps, P. Y.; Herman, M.

    1982-01-01

    A computer code was developed in terms of a three-layer model for the earth-atmosphere system, using a two-stream approximation for the troposphere and stratosphere. The analysis was limited to variable atmosphere loading by solar radiation over an unperturbed section of the atmosphere. The scattering atmosphere above a Lambertian ground layer was considered in order to derive the planar albedo and the spherical albedo. Attention was given to the influence of the aerosol optical thickness in the stratosphere, the single scattering albedo and asymmetry factor, and the sublayer albedo. Calculations were performed of the zonal albedo and the planetary radiation balance, taking into account a stratospheric aerosol layer containing H2SO4 droplets and volcanic ash. The resulting ground temperature disturbance was computed using a Budyko (1969) climate model. Local decreases in the albedo in the summer were observed in high latitudes, implying a heating effect of the aerosol. An accompanying energy loss of 23-27 W/sq m was projected, which translates to surface temperature decreases of either 1.1 and 0.45 C, respectively, for background and volcanic aerosols.

  11. Comparative risk assessment: an element for a more rational and ethical approach to radiation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danesi, P.R.

    2006-01-01

    Peaceful nuclear technologies are still perceived by a large fraction of the general public, the media as well as by some decision makers, as more risky than many other 'conventional' technologies. One of the approaches that can help bringing more rationality and ethics into the picture is to present the risk associated with radiation and nuclear technologies in the frame of correctly conducted comparative risk assessments. However, comparing different risks is not so straightforward because quantifying different risks on a comparable scale requires overcoming both conceptual and practical difficulties. Risk (R) can be expressed as the product of the probability (P) that a given undesired event, the risk, will occur, times the consequences of this event (C), i.e. R = P x C. Although in principle risks could be compared by simply ranking them according to the different values of R, this simplistic approach is not always possible because to correctly compare risks all factors, circumstances and assumptions should be mutually equivalent and quantified and the (often large) uncertainties taken into proper account. In the case of radiation risk, ICRP has assumed as valid the LNT model, (probability coefficient of 5 % per Sievert for attributable death from cancer) and selected the present equivalent dose limit of 1 mSv per year for public exposure. This dose corresponds to 50 lethal cancers by 1 million people exposed and is approximately equivalent (in terms of probability of death) to the risk of bicycling for 600 km, driving for 3200 km, crossing a busy road twice a day for 1 year, smoking 2.5 packets of cigarettes or being X-rayed once for kidney metabolism. However, according to many scientists on the basis of both epidemiological and biological results and considerations, the actual risk is far lower than that predicted by the LNT model. Nevertheless, the policies and myths that were created about half a century ago are still persisting and have lead the general

  12. Dust radiative forcing in snow of the Upper Colorado River Basin: 1. A 6 year record of energy balance, radiation, and dust concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Thomas H.; Skiles, S. Mckenzie; Deems, Jeffrey S.; Bryant, Ann C.; Landry, Christopher C.

    2012-07-01

    Dust in snow accelerates snowmelt through its direct reduction of snow albedo and its further indirect reduction of albedo by accelerating the growth of snow grains. Since the westward expansion of the United States that began in the mid-19th century, the mountain snow cover of the Colorado River Basin has been subject to five-fold greater dust loading, largely from the Colorado Plateau and Great Basin. Radiative forcing of snowmelt by dust is not captured by conventional micrometeorological measurements, and must be monitored by a more comprehensive suite of radiation instruments. Here we present a 6 year record of energy balance and detailed radiation measurements in the Senator Beck Basin Study Area, San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA. Data include broadband irradiance, filtered irradiance, broadband reflected flux, filtered reflected flux, broadband and visible albedo, longwave irradiance, wind speed, relative humidity, and air temperatures. The gradient of the snow surface is monitored weekly and used to correct albedo measurements for geometric effects. The snow is sampled weekly for dust concentrations in plots immediately adjacent to each tower over the melt season. Broadband albedo in the last weeks of snow cover ranged from 0.33 to 0.55 across the 6 years and two sites. Total end of year dust concentration in the top 3 cm of the snow column ranged from 0.23 mg g-1 to 4.16 mg g-1. These measurements enable monitoring and modeling of dust and climate-driven snowmelt forcings in the Upper Colorado River Basin.

  13. Development of methodological tools for assessing enterprise credit worthiness taking into account off-balance sheet risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Vygovska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the improvement of methodical tools for assessing the credit worthiness of enterprises’ legal entities taking into account the impact of off-balance-sheet risks on the definite integral class of a debtor-borrower. The authors substantiate that the non-accounting of off-balance sheet commitments in assessing the borrower’s credit worthiness leads to false managerial decisions on granting a loan and increasing the level of credit risk of the bank. The purpose of the article is to study the questions of methodical tools for assessing the credit worthiness of economic entities and develop directions for improving its analytical support taking into account the impact of off-balance-sheet risks. The object of the research is the analytical support for assessing the credit worthiness of a borrower-legal entity taking into account off-balance-sheet risks. The authors put forward and proved the hypothesis that, acting as the guarantor or principal of another enterprise, the assessment of the borrower's credit worthiness undergoes significant changes. The coefficient analysis of the methodological provision for assessing the borrower's credit rating by the current method number 351 is carried out, as a result of which the influence on the integral index and the debtor class is proved. When determining the reliability class of the borrower, the most affected are solvency ratios (especially for short-term loans and financial sustainability (for long-term loans to the borrower. The current methodology for defining these indicators does not take into account the effect of off-balance sheet risks, which is due to the use of financial reporting data, which does not include data on off-balance sheet instruments. The methodological support of credit-worthiness analysis is proposed, taking into account the impact of off-balance sheet risks on it. The prospects for further research should be formulated in the direction of improving the

  14. Foraging patch selection in winter: a balance between predation risk and thermoregulation benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villén-Pérez, Sara; Carrascal, Luis M; Seoane, Javier

    2013-01-01

    In winter, foraging activity is intended to optimize food search while minimizing both thermoregulation costs and predation risk. Here we quantify the relative importance of thermoregulation and predation in foraging patch selection of woodland birds wintering in a Mediterranean montane forest. Specifically, we account for thermoregulation benefits related to temperature, and predation risk associated with both illumination of the feeding patch and distance to the nearest refuge provided by vegetation. We measured the amount of time that 38 marked individual birds belonging to five small passerine species spent foraging at artificial feeders. Feeders were located in forest patches that vary in distance to protective cover and exposure to sun radiation; temperature and illumination were registered locally by data loggers. Our results support the influence of both thermoregulation benefits and predation costs on feeding patch choice. The influence of distance to refuge (negative relationship) was nearly three times higher than that of temperature (positive relationship) in determining total foraging time spent at a patch. Light intensity had a negligible and no significant effect. This pattern was generalizable among species and individuals within species, and highlights the preponderance of latent predation risk over thermoregulation benefits on foraging decisions of birds wintering in temperate Mediterranean forests.

  15. Foraging patch selection in winter: a balance between predation risk and thermoregulation benefit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Villén-Pérez

    Full Text Available In winter, foraging activity is intended to optimize food search while minimizing both thermoregulation costs and predation risk. Here we quantify the relative importance of thermoregulation and predation in foraging patch selection of woodland birds wintering in a Mediterranean montane forest. Specifically, we account for thermoregulation benefits related to temperature, and predation risk associated with both illumination of the feeding patch and distance to the nearest refuge provided by vegetation. We measured the amount of time that 38 marked individual birds belonging to five small passerine species spent foraging at artificial feeders. Feeders were located in forest patches that vary in distance to protective cover and exposure to sun radiation; temperature and illumination were registered locally by data loggers. Our results support the influence of both thermoregulation benefits and predation costs on feeding patch choice. The influence of distance to refuge (negative relationship was nearly three times higher than that of temperature (positive relationship in determining total foraging time spent at a patch. Light intensity had a negligible and no significant effect. This pattern was generalizable among species and individuals within species, and highlights the preponderance of latent predation risk over thermoregulation benefits on foraging decisions of birds wintering in temperate Mediterranean forests.

  16. Radiation exposure and risk of pediatric thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyakawa, Megumi

    2012-01-01

    A large amount of radioactive substances were released in air following the Great East Japan Earthquake, tsunami and Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident (Mar. 2011), of which subsequent medical and pediatric events are reported herein. Many residents who had lived close to the Plant had to dwell in the evacuation area. The risk of their pediatric thyroid cancer has become a subject of anxiety since the incidence of the cancer alone is known to have increased post Chernobyl nuclear accident. The cancer is quite rare in the pediatric field, the tissue type is mostly of differentiated papillocarcinoma, and the long prognosis is reportedly as good as that of the cancer not due to radiation exposure if surgically treated appropriately. After the Accident, Radiation Medical Science Center for Fukushima Health Management Survey was founded in Fukushima Medical University, where the whole lifetime health management of Fukushima prefectural residents is to be continued. Among them, the ultrasonic examination of the thyroid started in Oct. 2011 to 360 thousands children of the age 20 mm cyst or >5 mm solid node. It is important to carefully watch the health of children involving their mental side as they suffer from the experience of ''exposed'', rather than the actual physical effect. (T.T.)

  17. Weighing the risks and benefits of cardiac imaging with ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Thomas C; Gibbons, Raymond J

    2010-05-01

    The potential risk of fatal malignancy related to cardiac imaging with ionizing radiation is frequently discussed in the medical literature and in the lay press. Clinicians must weigh this risk against the potential benefits of cardiac imaging, which are typically not considered in these reports about radiation risk. This review summarizes the evidence regarding both the radiation risks and clinical benefits of cardiac imaging to provide guidance to the clinician in specific clinical scenarios. Choosing the right test for the right patient, and performing it with the lowest possible radiation dose, remains a challenge. Copyright 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of sea ice loss on sea salt aerosol concentrations and the radiative balance in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Struthers

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding Arctic climate change requires knowledge of both the external and the local drivers of Arctic climate as well as local feedbacks within the system. An Arctic feedback mechanism relating changes in sea ice extent to an alteration of the emission of sea salt aerosol and the consequent change in radiative balance is examined. A set of idealized climate model simulations were performed to quantify the radiative effects of changes in sea salt aerosol emissions induced by prescribed changes in sea ice extent. The model was forced using sea ice concentrations consistent with present day conditions and projections of sea ice extent for 2100. Sea salt aerosol emissions increase in response to a decrease in sea ice, the model results showing an annual average increase in number emission over the polar cap (70–90° N of 86 × 106 m−2 s−1 (mass emission increase of 23 μg m−2 s−1. This in turn leads to an increase in the natural aerosol optical depth of approximately 23%. In response to changes in aerosol optical depth, the natural component of the aerosol direct forcing over the Arctic polar cap is estimated to be between −0.2 and −0.4 W m−2 for the summer months, which results in a negative feedback on the system. The model predicts that the change in first indirect aerosol effect (cloud albedo effect is approximately a factor of ten greater than the change in direct aerosol forcing although this result is highly uncertain due to the crude representation of Arctic clouds and aerosol-cloud interactions in the model. This study shows that both the natural aerosol direct and first indirect effects are strongly dependent on the surface albedo, highlighting the strong coupling between sea ice, aerosols, Arctic clouds and their radiative effects.

  19. Balancing Radiation and Contrast Media Dose in Single-Pass Abdominal Multidetector CT: Prospective Evaluation of Image Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camera, Luigi; Romano, Federica; Liccardo, Immacolata; Liuzzi, Raffaele; Imbriaco, Massimo; Mainenti, Pier Paolo; Pizzuti, Laura Micol; Segreto, Sabrina; Maurea, Simone; Brunetti, Arturo

    2015-11-01

    As both contrast and radiation dose affect the quality of CT images, a constant image quality in abdominal contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography (CE-MDCT) could be obtained balancing radiation and contrast media dose according to the age of the patients. Seventy-two (38 Men; 34 women; aged 20-83 years) patients underwent a single-pass abdominal CE-MDCT. Patients were divided into three different age groups: A (20-44 years); B (45-65 years); and C (>65 years). For each group, a different noise index (NI) and contrast media dose (370 mgI/mL) was selected as follows: A (NI, 15; 2.5 mL/kg), B (NI, 12.5; 2 mL/kg), and C (NI, 10; 1.5 mL/kg). Radiation exposure was reported as dose-length product (DLP) in mGy × cm. For quantitative analysis, signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) ratios were calculated for both the liver (L) and the abdominal aorta (A). Statistical analysis was performed with a one-way analysis of variance. Standard imaging criteria were used for qualitative analysis. Although peak hepatic enhancement was 152 ± 16, 128 ± 12, and 101 ± 14 Hounsfield units (P contrast media dose (mL) administered were 476 ± 147 and 155 ± 27 for group A, 926 ± 291 and 130 ± 16 for group B, and 1981 ± 451 and 106 ± 15 for group C, respectively (P contrast media dose administered to patients of different age. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A methodology for spacecraft technology insertion analysis balancing benefit, cost, and risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearden, David Allen

    Emerging technologies are changing the way space missions are developed and implemented. Technology development programs are proceeding with the goal of enhancing spacecraft performance and reducing mass and cost. However, it is often the case that technology insertion assessment activities, in the interest of maximizing performance and/or mass reduction, do not consider synergistic system-level effects. Furthermore, even though technical risks are often identified as a large cost and schedule driver, many design processes ignore effects of cost and schedule uncertainty. This research is based on the hypothesis that technology selection is a problem of balancing interrelated (and potentially competing) objectives. Current spacecraft technology selection approaches are summarized, and a Methodology for Evaluating and Ranking Insertion of Technology (MERIT) that expands on these practices to attack otherwise unsolved problems is demonstrated. MERIT combines the modern techniques of technology maturity measures, parametric models, genetic algorithms, and risk assessment (cost and schedule) in a unique manner to resolve very difficult issues including: user-generated uncertainty, relationships between cost/schedule and complexity, and technology "portfolio" management. While the methodology is sufficiently generic that it may in theory be applied to a number of technology insertion problems, this research focuses on application to the specific case of small (engineering community are its: unique coupling of the aspects of performance, cost, and schedule; assessment of system level impacts of technology insertion; procedures for estimating uncertainties (risks) associated with advanced technology; and application of heuristics to facilitate informed system-level technology utilization decisions earlier in the conceptual design phase. MERIT extends the state of the art in technology insertion assessment selection practice and, if adopted, may aid designers in determining

  1. Alpha-risk: a European project on the quantification of risks associated with multiple radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurier, D.; Monchaux, G.; Tirmarche, M.; Darby, S.; Cardis, E.; Binks, K.; Hofmann, W.; Muirhead, C.

    2006-01-01

    The Alpha-Risk research project is being conducted within the Sixth European Framework Programme (EC-FP6, 2005 -2008). It aims to improve the quantification of risks associated with multiple exposures, taking into account the contribution of different radionuclides and external exposure using specific organ dose calculations. The Alpha-Risk Consortium involves 18 partners from 9 countries, and is coordinated by the IRSN. Its composition allows a multidisciplinary collaboration between researchers in epidemiology, dosimetry, statistics, modelling and risk assessment. Alpha-Risk brings together major epidemiological studies in Europe, which are able to evaluate long-term health effects of internal exposure from radionuclides. It includes large size cohort and case-control studies, with accurate registration of individual annual exposures: uranium miner studies, studies on lung cancer and indoor radon exposure, and studies of lung cancer and leukaemia among nuclear workers exposed to transuranic nuclides (mainly uranium and plutonium), for whom organ doses will be reconstructed individually. The contribution of experts in dosimetry will allow the calculation of organ doses in presence of multiple exposures (radon decay products, uranium dust and external gamma exposure). Expression of the risk per unit organ dose will make it possible to compare results with those from other populations exposed to external radiation. The multidisciplinary approach of Alpha-Risk promotes the development of coherent and improved methodological approaches regarding risk modelling. A specific work - package is dedicated to the integration of results and their use for risk assessment, especially for radon. Alpha-Risk will contribute to a better understanding of long-term health risks following chronic low doses from internal exposures. The project also has the great potential to help resolve major public health concerns about the effects of low and/or protracted exposures, especially

  2. An evaluation of early countermeasures to reduce the risk of internal radiation exposure after the Fukushima nuclear incident in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shuhei; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Gilmour, Stuart; Hayano, Ryugo S; Watanabe, Yuni N; Kami, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Yukio; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi

    2016-05-01

    After a radiation-release incident, intake of radionuclides in the initial stage immediately following the incident may be the major contributor to total internal radiation exposure for individuals in affected areas. However, evaluation of early internal contamination risk is greatly lacking. This study assessed the relationship between initial stage evacuation/indoor sheltering and internal radiation contamination levels 4 months after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear incident in Japan and estimated potential pathways of the contamination. The study population comprised 525 participants in the internal radiation screening program at Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital, 23 km north of the Fukushima nuclear plant. The analysed dataset included the results of a screening performed in July 2011, 4 months after the incident, and of a questionnaire on early-incident response behaviours, such as sheltering indoors and evacuations, completed by participants. Association between such early countermeasures and internal contamination levels of cesium-134 were assessed using Tobit multiple regression analyses. Our study shows that individuals who evacuated to areas outside Fukushima Prefecture had similar contamination levels of cesium-134 to individuals who stayed in Fukushima (relative risk: 0.86; 95% confidence interval: 0.74-0.99). Time spent outdoors had no significant relationship with contamination levels. The effects of inhalation from radiological plumes released from the nuclear plant on total internal radiation contamination might be so low as to be undetectable by the whole-body counting unit used to examine participants. Given the apparent limited effectiveness of evacuation and indoor sheltering on internal contamination, the decision to implement such early responses to a radiation-release incident should be made by carefully balancing their potential benefits and health risks. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For

  3. Risk concepts in various fields including radiation protection. A historical review and some recent topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Michiaki

    2000-01-01

    This is a review by the expert group concerning risks in radiation protection and in chemical management, recent state of protection and of health-risk assessment of low dose radiation, and risk concepts in other fields. Risk concepts in radiation protection are described mainly on ICRP: Its history leading to its Publication 1 (1958), Pub. 9 (1965), Pub. 26 (1977) and Pub. 60 (1990). In that recent publication, the term, risk, is used only for the established one like estimated risk or excess relative risk. Risk management of chemicals involves that against pollution from environmental and ecological aspects, and assessment of dioxin and chemicals from toxicology and carcinogenicity aspects. Recently, risks of low dose radiation have been actively discussed conceivably because of possible reduction of the exposure limit in ICRP Recommendation 1990, Chernobyl accident, advances of radiation biology and radiation protection problem in the radioactive waste disposition. Globally, many academic societies such as American Health-Physics Society published Position Statements and Reports and there are activities like the Research program plan for the risk and an international conference of bridging radiation policy and science. Risk concepts involve technological and ecological ones, insurance ones and health ones. Risk assessment or analysis is done through recognition, measurement and prediction, thus through the scientific process based on objective facts. (K.H.)

  4. Radiation risk statement in the participant information for a research protocol that involves exposure to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caon, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) is required to scrutinise the protocols of clinical drug trials that recruit patients as participants. If the study involves exposing the participants to ionizing radiation the information provided to the participant should contain a radiation risk statement that is understandable by the Committee and the participant. The information that should be included in the risk statement is available from a variety of published sources and is discussed. The ARPANSA Code of Practice Exposure of Humans to Ionizing Radiation for Research Purposes (2005) states explicitly what the responsibilities of the researcher and the HREC are. Some research protocols do not provide the information required by good radiation protection practice and explicitly called for by the Code. Nine points (including: state that ionizing radiation is involved; that the radiation is additional to standard care; the effective dose to be received; the dose compared to natural background; the dose to the most exposed organs; a statement of risk; the benefits accruing from the exposure; ask the participant about previous exposures; name a contact person from whom information may be sought) that should be considered for inclusion in the participant information are presented and discussed. An example of a radiation risk statement is provided

  5. Systematic review on physician's knowledge about radiation doses and radiation risks of computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krille, Lucian, E-mail: lucian.krille@unimedizin-mainz.d [Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg - University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Str. 69, 55131 Mainz (Germany); Hammer, Gael P.; Merzenich, Hiltrud [Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg - University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Str. 69, 55131 Mainz (Germany); Zeeb, Hajo [Bremen Institute for Prevention Research and Social Medicine (BIPS), Department of Prevention and Evaluation, Linzer Strasse 10, D-28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    Background: The frequent use of computed tomography is a major cause of the increasing medical radiation exposure of the general population. Consequently, dose reduction and radiation protection is a topic of scientific and public concern. Aim: We evaluated the available literature on physicians' knowledge regarding radiation dosages and risks due to computed tomography. Methods: A systematic review in accordance with the Cochrane and PRISMA statements was performed using eight databases. 3091 references were found. Only primary studies assessing physicians' knowledge about computed tomography were included. Results: 14 relevant articles were identified, all focussing on dose estimations for CT. Overall, the surveys showed moderate to low knowledge among physicians concerning radiation doses and the involved health risks. However, the surveys varied considerably in conduct and quality. For some countries, more than one survey was available. There was no general trend in knowledge in any country except a slight improvement of knowledge on health risks and radiation doses in two consecutive local German surveys. Conclusions: Knowledge gaps concerning radiation doses and associated health risks among physicians are evident from published research. However, knowledge on radiation doses cannot be interpreted as reliable indicator for good medical practice.

  6. The Role of Cognitive Factors in Predicting Balance and Fall Risk in a Neuro-Rehabilitation Setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Saverino

    Full Text Available There is a consistent body of evidence supporting the role of cognitive functions, particularly executive function, in the elderly and in neurological conditions which become more frequent with ageing. The aim of our study was to assess the role of different domains of cognitive functions to predict balance and fall risk in a sample of adults with various neurological conditions in a rehabilitation setting.This was a prospective, cohort study conducted in a single centre in the UK. 114 participants consecutively admitted to a Neuro-Rehabilitation Unit were prospectively assessed for fall accidents. Baseline assessment included a measure of balance (Berg Balance Scale and a battery of standard cognitive tests measuring executive function, speed of information processing, verbal and visual memory, visual perception and intellectual function. The outcomes of interest were the risk of becoming a faller, balance and fall rate.Two tests of executive function were significantly associated with fall risk, the Stroop Colour Word Test (IRR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.03 and the number of errors on part B of the Trail Making Test (IRR 1.23, 95% CI 1.03-1.49. Composite scores of executive function, speed of information processing and visual memory domains resulted in 2 to 3 times increased likelihood of having better balance (OR 2.74 95% CI 1.08 to 6.94, OR 2.72 95% CI 1.16 to 6.36 and OR 2.44 95% CI 1.11 to 5.35 respectively.Our results show that specific subcomponents of executive functions are able to predict fall risk, while a more global cognitive dysfunction is associated with poorer balance.

  7. Analysis of balance function, falling risk and gait in the early and middle stages of patients with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-shu YUAN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the balance function, falling risk and gait in the early and middle stages of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD for provide clinical basis for patients' rehabilitation treatment.  Methods There were 30 PD patients in the early and middle stages and 15 healthy subjects matched in gender, age and degree of education. Berg Balance Scale (BBS was used to evaluate balance function. Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT, Chair Rising Test (CRT and Tandem Gait Test (TGT were used to evaluate falling risk. The gait analysis system was used to evaluate gait.  Results Compared with healthy subjects, PD patients obtained lower scores on BBS (P = 0.001. In the falling risk, PD patients spent more seconds in performing TUGT (P = 0.003 and CRT (P = 0.002 and finished fewer numbers of steps on TGT (P = 0.041. In 10 - Meter Walk Test (10MWT, PD patients had shorter step length (P =0.020, decreased step speed (P = 0.038, increased ratio of toe touches (P = 0.000 and decreased left and right ankle dorsiflexion in swing phase (P = 0.005, 0.006.  Conclusions In the early and middle stages, PD patients have decreased balance function, increased falling risk and unusual gait. The rehabilitation treatment should be given as soon as possible. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.05.007

  8. Social and scientific issues in the acceptability of radiation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.A.

    1990-09-01

    Ionising radiation hazards are perhaps the most documented and regulated occupational and environmental hazard. In the radiological protection field a single expert advisory organisation has held an unusually large influence on the international standard setting process. This is the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Two common, and opposing views, exist over the formulation of protection recommendations by the ICRP. The first, and most widely accepted, is that its recommendations are scientifically determined. The second view, is that its recommendations are politically or socially determined. A third view, provided by studies of the origins of the scientific controversy, suggests that both science and social factors are important in the assessment and limitation of risk. The aim of this thesis is to assess the process through which the ICRP formulates its radiological protection recommendations and comment on the extent that these are influenced by the affiliations of its members. This thesis concludes that the ICRP's recommendations have been shaped by a complex relationship of scientific and social considerations, in which a socio-technical commitment to nuclear energy has played a key role. The Commission has responded to new scientific data by making complex changes to its philosophy and methods of describing risk. Where reductions in numerical limits have been applied they have been accompanied by practical measures designed to limit the impact of the change and provide continuity with the old limits and flexibility in the application of the new recommendations. (author)

  9. Estimation of radiation risks due to ingestion of water in Ogba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The radiation dose is the amount of energy absorbed in the body from radiation interaction. The risk of damage to tissues, cells, DNA and other vital molecules increases with every exposure to radiation. Each exposure can cause cell death, genetic mutation, cancers, leukemia, birth defects and endocrine system disorders.

  10. Elements of risk while using ionizing radiation in teaching of physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, A.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.; Hansen, K.G.

    1980-01-01

    Problems related to ionizing radiations are taught extensively in the course of physics. Some risks of biological effects for both teachers and students have to be considered. Types of ionizing radiations, concepts and units are described, permissible dose rates and safety regulations for open and sealed radiation sources, X-ray equipment etc. are given in form of recommendation for school labs. (EG)

  11. Methodology in use for the assessment of carcinogenic risk. II. Radiation. Oncology overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    Oncology Overviews are a service of the International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB) Program of the National Cancer Institute, intended to facilitate and promote the exchange of information between cancer scientists by keeping them aware of literature related to their research being published by other laboratories throughout the world. Each Oncology Overview represents a survey of the literature associated with a selected area of cancer research. It contains abstracts of articles which have been selected and organized by researchers associated with the field. Contents: Assessment of carcinogenic risk from environmental and occupational exposures to ionizing radiation; Assessment of carcinogenic risk from exposure to ionizing radiation used for medical diagnosis or treatment; Assessment of carcinogenic risk from exposure to ionizing radiation following nuclear bomb explosions; Comparison of risk from radiation sources with risk from nonradiation sources; Experimental studies to assess risk of carcinogenesis following exposure to ionizing radiation; Theoretical aspects of dose-response relationships in the assessment of carcinogenic risk from exposure to ionizing radiation; Public policy and standards for acceptable risk from exposure to ionizing radiation; General reviews on the assessment of risk from exposure to ionizing radiation

  12. How to promote risk literacy of atomic energy and radiation in public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Junko

    2005-01-01

    According to broad use of radiation and nuclear energy in our society we recognize that the promotion of risk literacy in public is urgently needed. Necessary topics as follows are explained and discussed. 1. view-points of micro-, macro- and human-world, 2.how to measure risks objectively, 3. why we need to consider nuclear/radiation risks, 4. nuclear/radiation safety measures, 5. how to protect ourselves from risks, and 6. needs to establish new system of comprehensive risk education in the future. (author)

  13. Balancing risk in regulatory decision making: the Port Granby Project case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, L.; Kleb, H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the trade-offs that are routinely considered in regulatory decision making, and the policy basis and methods for making those trade-offs. Regulatory decisions under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA) and the Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA) normally consider potential risks to the environment, human health and safety, if a project were to proceed. There is only limited consideration, under such circumstances, of the risks to the environment, human health and safety if the project were not to proceed. The focus is on the potential adverse effects of the project, except in the event of an emergency, where the focus shifts to the economic and other beneficial effects. The Port Granby long-term low-level radioactive waste management project is a project to clean up and provide appropriate local, long-term management of historic low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) in the Port Granby, Ontario area. Approximately 0.4 M m 3 of LLRW, presently located at the Port Granby Waste Management Facility, is to be transported to a newly constructed long-term waste management facility ~700 m north of the bluff face where the facility is located. Accordingly, the project is subject to environmental assessment and licensing processes under the CEAA and the NSCA, respectively. While the Port Granby Project does not represent an emergency situation, it does represent a situation that could result in a significant degree of environmental risk if the project were not to proceed. Over the course of the various studies that have been undertaken at the Waste Management Facility, it has become apparent that the facility is subject to erosion and gullying along the bluff face. The potential for the leaching of contaminants from the existing facility and the erosion of the Lake Ontario bluffs are recognized as ongoing risks that will continue and potentially worsen if the project does not proceed. The economic and other considerations that

  14. Ultrafiltration Therapy for Heart Failure: Balancing Likely Benefits against Possible Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazory, Amir

    2016-08-08

    Heart failure remains a major public health concern because of its high prevalence, morbidity, mortality, and financial burden. The poor clinical outcomes associated with acute decompensated heart failure, suboptimal efficacy and safety profile of conventional treatment regimens, and unsatisfactory experiences with the newer classes of pharmacologic therapy underlie the interest in the use of extracorporeal isolated ultrafiltration in this setting. In this article, selected mechanistic aspects of ultrafiltration therapy are briefly reviewed followed by a critical overview of the largest trials in this field. I will discuss the clinical relevance of renal dysfunction and decongestion as two commonly used end points of safety and efficacy in the ultrafiltration trials, with emphasis on the emerging pertinent notions that could challenge our conventional thinking. Finally, a number of practical recommendations (e.g., customization of ultrafiltration rates) are provided for ultrafiltration therapy in the setting of acute decompensated heart failure. Because of a paucity of evidence, universally accepted consensus guidelines cannot yet be generated. As such, when considering ultrafiltration therapy for acute decompensated heart failure, the likely benefits should be carefully balanced against the potential risks for an individual patient. A conceivable implication of the ultrafiltration trials is that collaborative heart failure programs benefiting from nephrology expertise and resources could improve the outcomes and reduce the cost. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  15. The ability of clinical balance measures to identify falls risk in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gillian; Comber, Laura; Galvin, Rose; Coote, Susan

    2017-12-01

    To determine the ability of clinical measures of balance to distinguish fallers from non-fallers and to determine their predictive validity in identifying those at risk of falls. AMED, CINAHL, Medline, Scopus, PubMed Central and Google Scholar. First search: July 2015. Final search: October 2017. Inclusion criteria were studies of adults with a definite multiple sclerosis diagnosis, a clinical balance assessment and method of falls recording. Data were extracted independently by two reviewers. Study quality was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 scale and the modified Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. Statistical analysis was conducted for the cross-sectional studies using Review Manager 5. The mean difference with 95% confidence interval in balance outcomes between fallers and non-fallers was used as the mode of analysis. We included 33 studies (19 cross-sectional, 5 randomised controlled trials, 9 prospective) with a total of 3901 participants, of which 1917 (49%) were classified as fallers. The balance measures most commonly reported were the Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go and Falls Efficacy Scale International. Meta-analysis demonstrated fallers perform significantly worse than non-fallers on all measures analysed except the Timed Up and Go Cognitive ( p Balance Confidence Scale had the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value (0.92), but without reporting corresponding measures of clinical utility. Clinical measures of balance differ significantly between fallers and non-fallers but have poor predictive ability for falls risk in people with multiple sclerosis.

  16. Lifetime attributable risk for cancer from occupational radiation exposure among radiologic technologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Eun Kyeong; Lee, Won Jin [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Medical radiation workers were among the earliest occupational groups exposed to external ionizing radiation due to their administration of a range of medical diagnostic procedures. Ionizing radiation is a confirmed human carcinogen for most organ sites. This study, therefore, was aimed to estimate lifetime cancer risk from occupational exposure among radiologic technologists that has been recruited in 2012-2013. Our findings showed a small increased cancer risk in radiologic technologists from their occupational radiation exposure in Korea. However, continuous dose monitoring and strict regulation on occupational safety at the government level should be emphasized to prevent any additional health hazards from occupational radiation exposure. Our findings showed a small increased cancer risk in radiologic technologists from their occupational radiation exposure in Korea. However, continuous dose monitoring and strict regulation on occupational safety at the government level should be emphasized to prevent any additional health hazards from occupational radiation exposure.

  17. Lifetime attributable risk for cancer from occupational radiation exposure among radiologic technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Eun Kyeong; Lee, Won Jin

    2016-01-01

    Medical radiation workers were among the earliest occupational groups exposed to external ionizing radiation due to their administration of a range of medical diagnostic procedures. Ionizing radiation is a confirmed human carcinogen for most organ sites. This study, therefore, was aimed to estimate lifetime cancer risk from occupational exposure among radiologic technologists that has been recruited in 2012-2013. Our findings showed a small increased cancer risk in radiologic technologists from their occupational radiation exposure in Korea. However, continuous dose monitoring and strict regulation on occupational safety at the government level should be emphasized to prevent any additional health hazards from occupational radiation exposure. Our findings showed a small increased cancer risk in radiologic technologists from their occupational radiation exposure in Korea. However, continuous dose monitoring and strict regulation on occupational safety at the government level should be emphasized to prevent any additional health hazards from occupational radiation exposure.

  18. A brief decisional balance intervention increases motivation and behavior regarding condom use in high-risk heterosexual college men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrie, Joseph W; Pedersen, Eric R; Thompson, Alysha D; Earleywine, Mitch

    2008-04-01

    Male college students constitute one of a number of at-risk populations susceptible to receiving and transferring sexually transmitted infections. Interventions designed to increase condom use have produced mixed results, but increasing motivation to use condoms may decrease risky sexual behavior. The current study examined the decisional balance, a component of Motivational Interviewing (MI), as an intervention to promote condom use. A total of 41 college men at-risk for negative outcomes from both unsafe sex and drinking participated. They reported both infrequent condom use and heavy drinking. Immediately following a decisional balance on condom use, three separate measures of motivation to change condom use increased. Further, participants reported increases in actual condom use at a 30-day follow-up. Participants did not alter their drinking behavior or their motivation to decrease problematic alcohol use. The findings provide preliminary support for the efficacy of a brief decisional balance intervention to increase safer-sex motivation and behaviors, but similar designs with true control groups receiving assessment only and larger numbers of participants are required before they can be generalized to the greater population of college students. College health professionals might adopt similar brief motivational enhancement interventions with the decisional balance to promote safer sex among at-risk college students.

  19. Influence of the length of institutionalization on older adults' postural balance and risk of falls: a transversal study1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Wagner Oliveira; Alves, Edmundo de Drummond; Porto, Flávia; Pereira, Fabio Dutra; Santana, Rosimere Ferreira; Gurgel, Jonas Lírio

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to ascertain the influence of the length of institutionalization on older adults' balance and risk of falls. METHOD: to evaluate the risk of falls, the Berg Balance Scale and the Timed Get Up and Go test were used; and for measuring postural balance, static stabilometry was used, with acquisition of the elliptical area of 95% and mean velocities on the x and y axes of center of pressure displacement. Parametric and nonparametric measures of association and comparison (αinstitutionalization and the tests for evaluation of risk of falling, neither was there difference between groups and within subgroups, stratified by length of institutionalization and age. In the stabilometric measurements, there was a negative correlation between the parameters analyzed and the length of institutionalization, and difference between groups and within subgroups. CONCLUSION: this study's results point to the difficulty of undertaking postural control tasks, showing a leveling below the clinical tests' reference scores. In the stabilometric behavior, one should note the reduction of the parameters as the length of institutionalization increases, contradicting the assumptions. This study's results offer support for the development of a multi-professional model for intervention with the postural control and balance of older adults living in homes for the aged. PMID:25296149

  20. Influence of the length of institutionalization on older adults' postural balance and risk of falls: a transversal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Wagner Oliveira; Alves Junior, Edmundo de Drummond; Porto, Flávia; Pereira, Fabio Dutra; Santana, Rosimere Ferreira; Gurgel, Jonas Lírio

    2014-01-01

    to ascertain the influence of the length of institutionalization on older adults' balance and risk of falls. to evaluate the risk of falls, the Berg Balance Scale and the Timed Get Up and Go test were used; and for measuring postural balance, static stabilometry was used, with acquisition of the elliptical area of 95% and mean velocities on the x and y axes of center of pressure displacement. Parametric and nonparametric measures of association and comparison (αinstitutionalization and the tests for evaluation of risk of falling, neither was there difference between groups and within subgroups, stratified by length of institutionalization and age. In the stabilometric measurements, there was a negative correlation between the parameters analyzed and the length of institutionalization, and difference between groups and within subgroups. this study's results point to the difficulty of undertaking postural control tasks, showing a leveling below the clinical tests' reference scores. In the stabilometric behavior, one should note the reduction of the parameters as the length of institutionalization increases, contradicting the assumptions. This study's results offer support for the development of a multi-professional model for intervention with the postural control and balance of older adults living in homes for the aged.

  1. Risk associated with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation kept in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnell, J.A.; Harte, G.

    1978-01-01

    The risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiations are placed in perspective by a study of the natural incidence of those diseases in the United Kingdom that can be induced by radiation exposure. It is apparent that at ICRP recommended annual dose equivalent limits the small risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiations are acceptable, bearing in mind the obvious benefits that accrue from activities such as power production. This applies both to genetic and somatic diseases. (author)

  2. Activity of 30 different cheeses on cholesterol plasma levels and Oxidative Balance Risk Index (OBRI) in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelli, Umberto; Bondiolotti, Gianpietro; Battelli, Giovanna; Zanoni, Giuseppe; Finco, Annarosa; Recchia, Martino

    2015-01-01

    Cheese is considered to increase the total cholesterol levels (CH) due to the high-saturated fat content. New models are needed to measure the relationship between cholesterol and cheese. Thirty different cheeses produced in Val Brembana, Italy ("furmai da mut", "caprino" and "stracchino"), were added to the diet of 30 groups of 4 rats. Cheeses were analyzed to differentiate the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the cholesterol content (Ch(f)). The body weight, CH, urine volume and oxidative balance were measured. Three new indexes in relation to CH were calculated: OI (oxidative index), PI (protective index) and OBRI (oxidative balance risk index). None of the cheeses increased CH. Some of the "furmai de mut" were significantly decreasing CH and improved the oxidative balance. Ch(f) was not affecting the CH levels in plasma. In terms of VOCs, the acetic acid content was correlated (p cheese can reduce significantly CH levels and improve the antioxidant capacity.

  3. Contemporary radiotherapy in head and neck cancer: balancing chance for cure with risk for complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Alvin R; Yoo, David S; Brizel, David M

    2013-07-01

    Radiotherapy plays an integral role in the management of most patients with cancers of the head and neck. Better understanding of radiobiology and radiation physics has allowed radiation oncologists to enhance the tumoricidal effects of radiation and reduce the severity of normal tissue toxicities. This article reviews the biologic foundation of head and neck radiotherapy, the physical principles and technological innovations that enable delivery of highly conformal radiation, the acute and late complications of radiation-based treatments, and the clinical evidence supporting contemporary practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of balance and risk for falls in a sample of community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colonvega Makasha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls are a major health concern for older adults and their impact is a significant public health problem. The chief modifiable risk factors for falls in community-dwellers are psychotropic drugs, polypharmacy, environmental hazards, poor vision, lower extremity impairments, and balance impairments. This study focused on balance impairments. Its purpose was to assess the feasibility of recruiting older adults with possible balance problems for research conducted at a chiropractic research center, and to explore the utility of several widely used balance instruments for future studies of the effect of chiropractic care on balance in older adults. Methods This descriptive study was conducted from September through December 2004. Participants were recruited through a variety of outreach methods, and all were provided with an educational intervention. Data were collected at each of two visits through questionnaires, interviews, and physical examinations. Balance was assessed on both visits using the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABCS, the Berg Balance Scale (BBS, and the One Leg Standing Test (OLST. Results A total of 101 participants enrolled in the study. Advertising in the local senior newspaper was the most effective method of recruitment (46%. The majority of our participants were white (86% females (67%. About one third (32% of participants had a baseline BBS score below 46, the cut-off point for predicting risk of falling. A mean improvement in BBS scores of 1.7 points was observed on the second visit. For the subgroup with baseline scores below 46, the mean change was 4.5 points, but the group mean remained below 46 (42.5. Conclusion Recruitment of community-dwelling seniors for fall-related research conducted at a chiropractic research center appears feasible, and the most successful recruitment strategies for this center appeared to be a combination of targeted newspaper ads and personal contact through

  5. Studies on risk estimation to public from medical radiation (III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hai Yong; Kim, Jong Hyung; Kim, Hyeog Ju; Kim, Ji Soon; Oh, Hyeon Joo; Kim, Cheol Hyeon; Yang, Hyun Kyu [Korea Food and Drug Administraion, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chan Il [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    A nationwide survey was conducted to give representative levels of effective doses to patient for 17 types of CT examination and also representative level of MGD (mean glandular dose) to standard breast for mammography X-ray equipment. The effective doses to patient from 16 CT scanners were estimated from measurement of CTDI (Computed Tomography Dose Index) in air by multiplying conversion coefficients which are specified by National Radiological Protection Board in United Kingdom. The lowest and hightest mean values of effective dose measured to patient from CT scanner were 0.05 mSv for IAM examination and 17.75 mSv for routine abdomen examination, respectively. The average values of 17 effective doses were lower than other results of foreign countrys' surveys. The mean glandular doses to a standard breast for 26 mammography units were estimated from measurement of the air kerma at the surface of a 40 mm plain Perspex phantom by applying conversion factors described in Report 59 of the Institute of Physical Sciences in Medicine of United Kingdom. The exposure factors for this measurement were those used clinically at each hospital. The average MGD to standard breast was 1.06 mGy in units with grid and 0.49 mGy in units without grid. These results are lower than guidance levels by IPSM and AAPM. These results will be used for risk estimation to the Korean public from the medical radiation.

  6. 2013 Space Radiation Standing Review Panel Status Review for: The Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure, The Risk of Acute Radiation Syndromes Due to Solar Particle Events (SPEs), The Risk Of Degenerative Tissue Or Other Health Effects From Radiation Exposure, and The Risk of Radiation Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) was impressed with the strong research program presented by the scientists and staff associated with NASA's Space Radiation Program Element and National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI). The presentations given on-site and the reports of ongoing research that were provided in advance indicated the potential Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure (CNS) and were extensively discussed by the SRP. This new data leads the SRP to recommend that a higher priority should be placed on research designed to identify and understand these risks at the mechanistic level. To support this effort the SRP feels that a shift of emphasis from Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) and carcinogenesis to CNS-related endpoints is justified at this point. However, these research efforts need to focus on mechanisms, should follow pace with advances in the field of CNS in general and should consider the specific comments and suggestions made by the SRP as outlined below. The SRP further recommends that the Space Radiation Program Element continue with its efforts to fill the vacant positions (Element Scientist, CNS Risk Discipline Lead) as soon as possible. The SRP also strongly recommends that NASA should continue the NASA Space Radiation Summer School. In addition to these broad recommendations, there are specific comments/recommendations noted for each risk, described in detail below.

  7. Use of mass and toxicity balances in risk-based corrective action decisions at contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevigny, J.H.; Lintott, D.; Wrubleski, R.M.; Drury, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    The contaminated groundwater at a sour gas plant facility was studied to identify the chemicals of environmental concern. Simple mass balance principles were used to determine the proportion of organic carbon, organic nitrogen and Microtox R toxicity that can be attributed to two process chemicals that have contaminated several sour gas plants in western Canada. The two process chemicals are sulfolane and diisopropanolamine (DIPA). The organic carbon balance was calculated by determining the molar contribution of sulfolane and DIPA relative to the mass of carboxylic acid-corrected dissolved organic carbon. Organic carbon balances ranged from 44 to 96 per cent. The organic nitrogen balance was calculated by determining the molar contribution of DIPA relative to the mass of ammonium ion-corrected dissolved Kjeldahl nitrogen. The nitrogen balances were highly variable between 8 to 48 per cent for samples with organic nitrogen concentrations between 10 and 32 mg/L. The Microtox R toxicity balance was calculated by determining the proportions of toxicity that could be accounted for by pure phase sulfolane and DIPA. The Microtox R toxicity balance for samples that showed significant toxicity ranged from 71 to 122 per cent

  8. [Balancing risks and benefits of mammography screening for breast cancer: would you support its recommendation in Peruvian women?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posso, Margarita; Puig, Teresa; Bonfill, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the balance between benefits and risks of population-based mammography screening programs in Peruvian women. We followed the criteria proposed by the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) working group. A generic search strategy for published studies was performed using Medline and other sources of national data (gray literature). The evidence of benefits, risks, costs and preferences of the population was used in order to state a recommendation in favour, or against, screening. We found five systematic reviews (SR) that evaluated the balance between benefit and risks, two economic evaluations based on Peruvian data, and one study that reported the preferences of Peruvian women. The quality of evidence of the SR was moderate in favour of screening in women aged 50-69 years. The balance of risks and benefits showed a higher probability of overdiagnosis compared with the reduction in mortality. The most cost-effective strategy was the triennial mammography. Perceived barriers could seriously compromise the participation of women. In conclusion, the recommendation of mammography screening for Peruvian women is weak, even more if we take into account other health necessities of the population. However, if implemented, triennial mammography in women aged 50-69 years could be the more suitable screening strategy.

  9. Radiation-induced cancer from low doses of ionizing radiation: risk analysis using the cell dose concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinendegen, L.E.; Booz, J.

    1990-01-01

    High doses of ionizing radiations are known to bear the risk of cancer to the exposed individual. In order to appreciate potential carcinogenesis from low doses also, the action of ionizing radiation in the human body has to be considered in holistic approach: energy depositions to individual cells trigger effects within a hierachical structure of interacting levels of biological systems, consisting consecutively of atoms, molecules, cells and organ tissue. The present paper describes the cell dose concept which is an essential factor in assessing the risk due to the ionizing radiation to the cells and tissues. Low dose of ionizing radiation induces adaptive response in individual cells which could be linked to the action of molecular radicals. Enzyme activities in bone marrow cells and bilayer lipid membranes and radicals are directly related to radiation effects. Temporary improvements of the detoxification of molecular radicals also improve the cellular defence. The risk analysis calls for more attention as it is important for radiation protection and other beneficial effects due to low doses of irradiation. (author). 18 refs

  10. What is risk perception in general and in radiation protection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, David Te-Yao

    2000-01-01

    In view of the universal roll Risk Perception plays in our daily life, the author makes an effort to understand this notion better. For such a subtle task, it will be good to know something about the person, who undertakes such a challenge. Thus, he first makes a short description of himself in a number of relevant personal feature, emphasising rather what he is not: cadre of insurance company.... etc. He starts with a literal understanding of the idiom Risk Perception in English and in other languages (in Chinese). This formulation, still abstract, is framed with concrete objects, and materialised into touchable structures. He then puts life into these structures, and makes them accessible to emotion and experience. Now that this notion is animated, he follows it's way into life in the field of Radiation Protection, and find among others that the term Cost and Benefit correspond to the Chinese idiom, and that the system of Justification and Optimisation is as difficult to achieve objectively as an Upright Walk on the Confucian Path to-ward the Middle. One of the difficulties lies in the difference in the scale in estimating values. For instance, though the idea of Asian and Western Values are rather diffuse, their difference is never-the-less high enough to render it to be insurmountable, at least at present. These observation belong actually to common experience of Health physicists, and nothing new or spectacular is presented. The author emphasises only, again not a new idea of his own, only putting weight to, that perception depends on point of view, or rather on stand of viewing points, and rarely represent the whole story, the true situation. This leads, according to the author, to the well known and accepted term of Risk Residuum, in German, Rest Risiko. Despite of partialness of all perceptions, solid decisions are based on perception. We all know mournful consequences of unsound decision in our daily life. It is tragic, when this happens in history. The

  11. Balancing Potency of Platelet Inhibition with Bleeding Risk in the Early Treatment of Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slattery, David E

    2009-08-01

    challenge in choosing appropriate therapy in the emergency department lies in balancing the need for potent platelet inhibition with the potential for increased risk of bleeding and future interventions the patient is likely to receive during the index hospitalization.[WestJEM. 2009;10:163-175.

  12. Current issues regarding radiation risk education in Medical Universities of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuzuki, Teruhisa; Hosoi, Yoshio; Matsuda, Naoki; Kanda, Reiko; Hosoya, Noriko; Miyagawa, Kiyoshi; Awai, Kazuo; Kondo, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of radiation research is to understand the biological effects of radiation exposure to humans, the molecular mechanisms of biological response m organisms, and its sale application for medical and industrial use. In order to know the current state or education on fundamentals of radiology including radiation biology, a nation-wide questionnaire survey had been performed at medical schools and different co-medical courses in Japanese universities, during the period of 2004 and 2005. The survey results showed: (1) Difference in teaching hours for education on radiation between medical schools with and without department or division of radiation biology or radiation-related field. (2) Teaching hours for education on radiation in nursing course were very limited among the co-medical courses. Although, some improvement have been found about the state of education on radiation risk at medical schools, after the disaster of nuclear accident at Fukushima No.1 Nuclear Power Plant of TEPCO in March 2011. However, still much more effort t is needed to improve basic education on radiation. Science Council of Japan issued the recommendation on September 4, 2014 'Making radiation health risk education compulsory in medical education'. The working group for this purpose was set up under the Council of Head of National Medical Schools of Japan, on January 28, 2015. Here, we describe the details and current issues regarding radiation risk education in medical schools of Japan, as well as the efforts required for its betterment. (author)

  13. ERRAPRI Project: estimation of radiation risk to patients in interventional radiology, initial results and proposed levels of complexity; Proyecto ERRAPRI: estimacion del riesgo radiologico a los pacientes en radiologia intervencionista. Primeros resultados y propuestas de indices de complejidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Cruces, R.; Vano, E.; Hernandez-Armas, J.; Carrera, F.; Diaz, F.; Gallego Beuther, J. F.; Ruiz Munoz-Canela, J. P.; Sanchez Casanueva, R.; Perez Martinez, M.; Fernandez Soto, J. M.; Munoz, V.; Moreno, F.; Moreno, C.; Martin-Palanca, A.

    2011-07-01

    The project ERRAPRI (2009 - 2012) will assess the most relevant aspects of the radiological risk associated with interventional radiology techniques (IR) guided by fluoroscopy in a sample of Spanish hospitals of three autonomous regions. Specific objectives include: assessing procedural protocols, especially the parameters related to radiation dose and diagnostic information obtained to establish balances cost (radiation risk) benefit to the procedures evaluated, and propose an index of complex procedures on several levels, based on the difficulty of making the same, assessing its relationship with the radiation dose values.

  14. Influence of inhomogeneous surface heat capacity on the estimation of radiative response coefficients in a two-zone energy balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungmin; Choi, Yong-Sang

    2018-04-01

    Observationally constrained values of the global radiative response coefficient are pivotal to assess the reliability of modeled climate feedbacks. A widely used approach is to measure transient global radiative imbalance related to surface temperature changes. However, in this approach, a potential error in the estimate of radiative response coefficients may arise from surface inhomogeneity in the climate system. We examined this issue theoretically using a simple two-zone energy balance model. Here, we dealt with the potential error by subtracting the prescribed radiative response coefficient from those calculated within the two-zone framework. Each zone was characterized by the different magnitude of the radiative response coefficient and the surface heat capacity, and the dynamical heat transport in the atmosphere between the zones was parameterized as a linear function of the temperature difference between the zones. Then, the model system was forced by randomly generated monthly varying forcing mimicking time-varying forcing like an observation. The repeated simulations showed that inhomogeneous surface heat capacity causes considerable miscalculation (down to -1.4 W m-2 K-1 equivalent to 31.3% of the prescribed value) in the global radiative response coefficient. Also, the dynamical heat transport reduced this miscalculation driven by inhomogeneity of surface heat capacity. Therefore, the estimation of radiative response coefficients using the surface temperature-radiation relation is appropriate for homogeneous surface areas least affected by the exterior.

  15. Senior medical students' awareness of radiation risks from common diagnostic imaging examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scali, Elena; Mayo, John; Nicolaou, Savvas; Kozoriz, Michael; Chang, Silvia

    2017-12-01

    Senior medical students represent future physicians who commonly refer patients for diagnostic imaging studies that may involve ionizing radiation. The radiology curriculum at the University of British Columbia provides students with broad-based knowledge about common imaging examinations. The purpose of this study was to investigate students' awareness of radiation exposures and risks. An anonymous multiple-choice cross-sectional questionnaire was distributed to final year medical students to assess knowledge of radiation from common diagnostic examinations and radiation-related risks following completion of the longitudinal radiology curriculum, carried out over the four years of medical training. Sixty-three of 192 eligible students participated (33% response rate). The majority felt that knowledge of radiation doses of common imaging examinations is somewhat or very important; however, only 12% (N = 8) routinely discuss radiation-related risks with patients. While all respondents recognized children as most sensitive to the effects of radiation, only 24% (N = 15) correctly identified gonads as the most radiation-sensitive tissue. Almost all respondents recognized ultrasound and MRI as radiation free modalities. Respondents who correctly identified the relative dose of common imaging examinations in chest x-ray equivalents varied from 3-77% (N = 2 - 49); the remaining responses were largely underestimates. Finally, 44% (N = 28) correctly identified the excess risk of a fatal cancer from an abdominal CT in an adult, while the remainder underestimated this risk. Medical students acknowledge the importance of radiation-related issues to patient care. While almost all students are familiar with radiation-free modalities, many are not familiar with, and commonly underestimate, the relative doses and risks of common imaging studies. This may expose patients to increasing imaging investigations and exposure to radiation hazards.

  16. Estimates of radiation doses and cancer risk from food intake in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Eun Kyeong; Lee, Won Jin; Ha, Wi Ho; Seo, Song Won; Jin, Young Woo; Jeong, Kyu Hwan; Yoon, Hae Jung; Kim, Hyoung Soo; Hwang, Myung Sil; Choi, Hoon

    2016-01-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, a widespread public concern for radiation exposure through the contamination of domestic or imported food has continued worldwide. Because the internal exposure from contaminated food is an important consideration for human health effect, some studies for estimating radiation doses and cancer risk from the Fukushima nuclear accident have been conducted in several countries (1). The aims of the study is to estimate internal radiation dose and lifetime risks of cancer from food ingestion in Korean population. Our findings suggest no discernible increase n radiation doses or excess fatal cancer risk from food ingestion at this stage in Korea, and provide scientific evidence of the risk communication with general public associated with low-dose radiation exposure.

  17. Estimates of radiation doses and cancer risk from food intake in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Eun Kyeong; Lee, Won Jin [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Wi Ho; Seo, Song Won; Jin, Young Woo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Kyu Hwan [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Hae Jung; Kim, Hyoung Soo; Hwang, Myung Sil [Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hoon [Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, a widespread public concern for radiation exposure through the contamination of domestic or imported food has continued worldwide. Because the internal exposure from contaminated food is an important consideration for human health effect, some studies for estimating radiation doses and cancer risk from the Fukushima nuclear accident have been conducted in several countries (1). The aims of the study is to estimate internal radiation dose and lifetime risks of cancer from food ingestion in Korean population. Our findings suggest no discernible increase n radiation doses or excess fatal cancer risk from food ingestion at this stage in Korea, and provide scientific evidence of the risk communication with general public associated with low-dose radiation exposure.

  18. Communication of benefits and risks of medical radiation: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timins, Julie K

    2011-11-01

    X-rays were discovered by Wilhelm Röntgen in 1895. Within one year, benefits of x-rays, such as visualization of fractures, and detriments, such as x-ray dermatitis, were recognized. Nobel Laureates Pierre and Marie Sklodowska Curie discovered the radioactive element radium in 1898, and a year later the application of radiation to cure cancer was reported. A significant price was paid for this: Marie Curie died of aplastic anemia related to her radiation exposure, and her daughter Irene Joliot Curie, Nobelist for radiochemical research, died of radiation-induced leukemia. Internationally developed radiation protection recommendations were formalized starting in the late 1920s. The increasing use of ionizing radiation in medical diagnosis and radiation therapy has brought significant societal benefits. Known risks of therapeutic radiation include coronary artery disease and secondary malignancy. However, recently concerns have been raised of possible very small but incremental increases in malignancies due to diagnostic medical radiation. Patients are largely unaware of, and referring physicians and even radiologists often underestimate, the carcinogenic effects of radiation. There is a need to determine the appropriateness of imaging tests that use ionizing radiation prior to performance; optimize imaging protocols to reduce unnecessary radiation; include patients in the decision process and encourage and enable them to track their radiation exposure; and promote education about medical radiation to patients, referring physicians, radiologists, and members of the public. The basic radiation protection principles of justification, optimization, and application of dose limits still pertain.

  19. Component greenhouse gas fluxes and radiative balance from two deltaic marshes in Louisiana: Pairing chamber techniques and eddy covariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; Holm, Guerry O.; Perez, Brian C.; McWhorter, David E.; Cormier, Nicole; Moss, Rebecca; Johnson, Darren; Neubauer, Scott C; Raynie, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Coastal marshes take up atmospheric CO2 while emitting CO2, CH4, and N2O. This ability to sequester carbon (C) is much greater for wetlands on a per-area basis than from most ecosystems, facilitating scientific, political, and economic interest in their value as greenhouse gas sinks. However, the greenhouse gas balance of Gulf of Mexico wetlands is particularly understudied. We describe the net ecosystem exchange (NEEc) of CO2 and CH4 using eddy covariance (EC) in comparison with fluxes of CO2, CH4, and N2O using chambers from brackish and freshwater marshes in Louisiana, USA. From EC, we found that 182 g C m-2 y-1 was lost through NEEc from the brackish marsh. Of this, 11 g C m-2 y-1 resulted from net CH4 emissions and the remaining 171 g C m-2 y-1 resulted from net CO2 emissions. In contrast, -290 g C m2 y-1 was taken up through NEEc by the freshwater marsh, with 47 g C m-2 y-1 emitted as CH4 and -337 g C m-2 y-1 taken up as CO2. From chambers, we discovered that neither site had large fluxes of N2O. Sustained-flux greenhouse gas accounting metrics indicated that both marshes had a positive (warming) radiative balance, with the brackish marsh having a substantially greater warming effect than the freshwater marsh. That net respiratory emissions of CO2 and CH4 as estimated through chamber techniques were 2-4 times different from emissions estimated through EC requires additional understanding of the artifacts created by different spatial and temporal sampling footprints between techniques.

  20. Space Radiation Heart Disease Risk Estimates for Lunar and Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Chappell, Lori; Kim, Myung-Hee

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Space Radiation Program performs research on the risks of late effects from space radiation for cancer, neurological disorders, cataracts, and heart disease. For mortality risks, an aggregate over all risks should be considered as well as projection of the life loss per radiation induced death. We report on a triple detriment life-table approach to combine cancer and heart disease risks. Epidemiology results show extensive heterogeneity between populations for distinct components of the overall heart disease risks including hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, stroke, and cerebrovascular diseases. We report on an update to our previous heart disease estimates for Heart disease (ICD9 390-429) and Stroke (ICD9 430-438), and other sub-groups using recent meta-analysis results for various exposed radiation cohorts to low LET radiation. Results for multiplicative and additive risk transfer models are considered using baseline rates for US males and female. Uncertainty analysis indicated heart mortality risks as low as zero, assuming a threshold dose for deterministic effects, and projections approaching one-third of the overall cancer risk. Medan life-loss per death estimates were significantly less than that of solid cancer and leukemias. Critical research questions to improve risks estimates for heart disease are distinctions in mechanisms at high doses (>2 Gy) and low to moderate doses (<2 Gy), and data and basic understanding of radiation doserate and quality effects, and individual sensitivity.

  1. Role of homeostatic dis balance in formation of the late consequences for radiation exposure in Kazakhstan population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galich, B.V.; Belikhina, T.I.; Moldagaliev, T.Zh.; Tretyakova, E.B.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of research is to study localizations and level of homeostatic disturbances in the key organism systems forming the social important illness for the realization of State and regional rehabilitation programs in the Kazakhstan population exposed to radiation and non-radiation risk factors. The object of research was the data of medical examinations in the exposed population living in Abaisky, Beskaragaisky, Zhanasemejsky districts of East-Kazakhstan area for the period from 1962 to 2006 in three time intervals: 1962-1966; 1968-1987; 2002-2006. The control data was the results of medical examination of the population of Shadrinskoe village of Pavlodar area and Kokpekty village of East-Kazakhstan area for the same time period. We have studied two dose groups: 1 group of exposed population (dose 0,5 > Sv); II group of exposed population (dose 0,2-0,25 Sv). Study of dynamics for prevalence of cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases connected with damage in haemopoietic, immune and vegetative homeostasis was carried out in 987 exposed persons and persons included to control group.

  2. Radiation balance of coffee hedgerows Balanço de radiação de renques de cafeeiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz R. Angelocci

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The radiation balance of hedgerows is an important variable in studies of mass and energy exchanges between parcial ground cover crops and the atmosphere. This paper describes a device with eight net radiometers encompassing the plants of a hedgerow. The radiometers were moved along a length of hedgerow, in a continuous and reversible movement. The canopy net radiation in this length (Rnc was found by integration of the measurements over the notional cylinder formed. The device showed good performance and provided reliable measurements of Rnc of coffee hedgerows, showing itselfto be an useful technique of measurement in field conditions. Good correlations between Rnc and global solar radiation, turfgrass and coffee crop net radiation were found in 15-min, daytime and 24-hr periods, allowing the possibility of estimating Rnc from these simple measurements. Beer’s law was also used to have an independent estimation of Rnc. A good agreement was found between values of Rnc estimated by this law of attenuation and those integrated by the device in periods of 15 min, with overestimation of 10%, whereas for values integrated over daytime periods the agreement was not satisfactory.A radiação, tanto de ondas curtas como de ondas longas, absorvida por um renque de plantas de uma cultura que cobre de forma descontínua o solo, é uma variável importante para os estudos das trocas de massa e de energia com a atmosfera. Este trabalho apresenta um dispositivo que movimenta oito saldo-radiômetros dispostos em torno de um renque. O movimento de ida e volta ao longo de um trecho de um renque, permite a integração do saldo de radiação na superfície de um cilindro nocional de medidas, representando o balanço de radiação (Rnc do trecho amostrado. O equipamento apresentou um bom desempenho quando empregado em dois cafezais, mostrando potencial para a realização de medidas de campo, com valores medidos confiáveis. Foram obtidas boas correla

  3. Review of NASA approach to space radiation risk assessments for Mars exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A

    2015-02-01

    Long duration space missions present unique radiation protection challenges due to the complexity of the space radiation environment, which includes high charge and energy particles and other highly ionizing radiation such as neutrons. Based on a recommendation by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, a 3% lifetime risk of exposure-induced death for cancer has been used as a basis for risk limitation by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for low-Earth orbit missions. NASA has developed a risk-based approach to radiation exposure limits that accounts for individual factors (age, gender, and smoking history) and assesses the uncertainties in risk estimates. New radiation quality factors with associated probability distribution functions to represent the quality factor's uncertainty have been developed based on track structure models and recent radiobiology data for high charge and energy particles. The current radiation dose limits are reviewed for spaceflight and the various qualitative and quantitative uncertainties that impact the risk of exposure-induced death estimates using the NASA Space Cancer Risk (NSCR) model. NSCR estimates of the number of "safe days" in deep space to be within exposure limits and risk estimates for a Mars exploration mission are described.

  4. Risk-informed profitability-based analysis support of nuclear power station balance-of-plant change management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liming, J.K.; Kee, E.J.; Grantom, C.R.; Richards, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a three-phased method is proposed for the STP Nuclear Operating Company (STPNOC) Risk and Reliability Analysis Section (RRA) to perform analyses and decision-making support for the STPNOC Balance-of-Plant (BOP)Task Force in managing change to simultaneously optimize plant safety and maximize long-term return-on-asset (or profitability) for the South Texas Project Electric Generating Station (STPEGS). (authors)

  5. Risk-informed profitability-based analysis support of nuclear power station balance-of-plant change management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liming, J.K. [EQE International, Inc., An ABS Group Company, Irvine, CA (United States); Kee, E.J.; Grantom, C.R.; Richards, A.M. [STP Nuclear Operating Company, Wadsworth, TX (United States)

    2001-07-01

    In this paper, a three-phased method is proposed for the STP Nuclear Operating Company (STPNOC) Risk and Reliability Analysis Section (RRA) to perform analyses and decision-making support for the STPNOC Balance-of-Plant (BOP)Task Force in managing change to simultaneously optimize plant safety and maximize long-term return-on-asset (or profitability) for the South Texas Project Electric Generating Station (STPEGS). (authors)

  6. Perception of Radiation Risk by Japanese Radiation Specialists Evaluated as a Safe Dose Before the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Miwa; Ono, Koji; Yamauchi, Motohiro; Matsuda, Naoki

    2016-06-01

    From October to December 2010, just before the radiological accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, 71 radiation professionals from radiation facilities in Japan were asked what they considered as a "safe dose" of radiation for themselves, their partners, parents, children, siblings, and friends. Although the 'safe dose' they noted varied widely, from less than 1 mSv y to more than 100 mSv y, the average dose was 35.6 mSv y, which is around the middle point between the legal exposure dose limits for the annual average and for any single year. Similar results were obtained from other surveys of members of the Japan Radioisotope Association (36.9 mSv y) and of the Oita Prefectural Hospital (36.8 mSv y). Among family members and friends, the minimum average "safe" dose was 8.5 mSv y for children, for whom 50% of the responders claimed a "safe dose" of less than 1 mSv. Gender, age and specialty of the radiation professional also affected their notion of a "safe dose." These findings suggest that the perception of radiation risk varies widely even for radiation professionals and that the legal exposure dose limits derived from regulatory science may act as an anchor of safety. The different levels of risk perception for different target groups among radiation professionals appear similar to those in the general population. The gap between these characteristics of radiation professionals and the generally accepted picture of radiation professionals might have played a role in the state of confusion after the radiological accident.

  7. Medical radiation workers and the risk of cancer: A retrospective follow-up study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Seul Ki; Cha, Eun Shil; Lee, Won Jin [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Medical radiation workers are important population to study of chronic low dose radiation exposure and the numbers are continuously increasing worldwide. We have launched a retrospective cohort for medical radiation workers to investigate their health status and to assess the association with occupational radiation exposure. In this first analysis of cancer incidence using data from national dose registry, a number of significant findings at specific cancer sites were observed. Further investigation is needed to assess the association with observed cancer risk and occupational radiation exposure. In this first analysis of cancer incidence using data from national dose registry, a number of significant findings at specific cancer sites were observed.

  8. The influence of diffusion and of reabsorption of radiation on the particle and energy balance of an infinitely long quasi-cylindrical discharge in hydrogen gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedheer, W.J.

    1978-09-01

    A numerical study of the pressure and temperature profiles of an infinitely long quasi-cylindrical discharge in hydrogen gas is presented. In particular the influence of the diffusion of atoms in the ground state and the reabsorption of Lyman-α and Lyman-β radiation on both the particle balance and the energy balance of the discharge is studied. Because the transport of the charged particles is corrected for toroidal effects in the regime of high collisionality which is present in the discharge, the model is quasi-cylindrical. The results obtained show an increase of the neutral density on the axis and of the ion and electron density near the wall of the discharge, as compared with earlier calculations in which both diffusion and reabsorption of radiation were neglected. The results are in agreement with measurements in the 'Ringboog' experiment. (Auth.)

  9. Machines that go "ping" may improve balance but may not improve mobility or reduce risk of falls: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, Amy M; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of computer-based electronic devices that provide feedback in improving mobility and balance and reducing falls. Randomized controlled trials were searched from the earliest available date to August 2013. Standardized mean differences were used to complete meta-analyses, with statistical heterogeneity being described with the I-squared statistic. The GRADE approach was used to summarize the level of evidence for each completed meta-analysis. Risk of bias for individual trials was assessed with the (Physiotherapy Evidence Database) PEDro scale. Thirty trials were included. There was high-quality evidence that computerized devices can improve dynamic balance in people with a neurological condition compared with no therapy. There was low-to-moderate-quality evidence that computerized devices have no significant effect on mobility, falls efficacy and falls risk in community-dwelling older adults, and people with a neurological condition compared with physiotherapy. There is high-quality evidence that computerized devices that provide feedback may be useful in improving balance in people with neurological conditions compared with no therapy, but there is a lack of evidence supporting more meaningful changes in mobility and falls risk.

  10. Assessment of radiation risk as a part of ecological risk in the Republic of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saltanova, Irina; Saltanov, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The purpose of the work: foundation for principles of planning protection measures, that provide safety for population activity on the territories, contaminated with radio-nuclides, by analysing radio-chemical situation, using risk assessment methods. Problems set in the work: -) Analyses of radiation risk in the structure of ecological risk in the territory of the Republic of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident; -) Investigation of chemical risk level, connected with air pollution from stationary objects exhausts, for the territories, contaminated with Chernobyl radio-nuclides; -) Modelling of the combined impact of ionising radiation and chemical carcinogen for the possible ecological risk assessment; -) Involving modern geo informational systems in the radio-ecological risk assessment process; -) Foundation for the assessment methodology of the complex influence of negative factors in the territories, contaminated with Chernobyl radio-nuclides. The problems are solved by carrying out specific experiments and by analysing published and own data on radioactive and chemical contamination of some regions of Belarus. Major findings: Radiation input to the really registered carcinogens is estimated to app. 10 %. In case of multiple factors influence of different contaminators of industrial and natural origin (i.e. radiation is not the only negative factor), ignorance of non-radiation origin factors may seriously distort estimation of radiation risk, when it is related to the registered effects. Radiation should be in no way treated as the major factor of real ecological risk in Belarus. Method for comparative analysis of territories' ecological risk level is developed and implemented. A GIS segment, that includes subsystem of the real and forecasted radio-ecological mapping, is created. The authors grounded the experimental model for study the complex influence of radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical carcinogen) factors. Revealed dependencies 'dose

  11. An Overview of NASA's Risk of Cardiovascular Disease from Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Zarana S.; Huff, Janice L.; Simonsen, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    The association between high doses of radiation exposure and cardiovascular damage is well established. Patients that have undergone radiotherapy for primary cancers of the head and neck and mediastinal regions have shown increased risk of heart and vascular damage and long-term development of radiation-induced heart disease [1]. In addition, recent meta-analyses of epidemiological data from atomic bomb survivors and nuclear industry workers has also shown that acute and chronic radiation exposures is strongly correlated with an increased risk of circulatory disease at doses above 0.5 Sv [2]. However, these analyses are confounded for lower doses by lifestyle factors, such as drinking, smoking, and obesity. The types of radiation found in the space environment are significantly more damaging than those found on Earth and include galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), solar particle events (SPEs), and trapped protons and electrons. In addition to the low-LET data, only a few studies have examined the effects of heavy ion radiation on atherosclerosis, and at lower, space-relevant doses, the association between exposure and cardiovascular pathology is more varied and unclear. Understanding the qualitative differences in biological responses produced by GCR compared to Earth-based radiation is a major focus of space radiation research and is imperative for accurate risk assessment for long duration space missions. Other knowledge gaps for the risk of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease include the existence of a dose threshold, low dose rate effects, and potential synergies with other spaceflight stressors. The Space Radiation Program Element within NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is managing the research and risk mitigation strategies for these knowledge gaps. In this presentation, we will review the evidence and present an overview of the HRP Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Other Degenerative Tissue Effects from Radiation Exposure.

  12. Environmental radiation: basic principles, biological facts, potential risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodemann, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    This book describes the complex processes that underlie the effects of different types of radiation at the cellular, organ and organismic level. Technical terms central to the subject matter are printed in italicize and explained in a glossary along with all physical quantities and dimensional units referred to. Through a systematic presentation of various aspects of the effects of environmental radiation on humans the author has endeavoured to make it clear that any discussion on potential health hazards must be conducted specific to the type of radiation in question. Furthermore, to study these issues meaningfully one must have a knowledge of the scientific basis of interactions between the various types of radiation and biological systems and be able to assess the relative impact of environmental radiation compared with other environmental health hazards

  13. [Effects of physical activity on cognitive functions, balance and risk of falls in elderly patients with Alzheimer's dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Salma S S; Coelho, Flávia G M; Gobbi, Sebastião; Stella, Florindo

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the effects of regular, systematic and supervised activity on the cognitive functions, balance and risk of falls of elderly patients with Alzheimer's Dementia (AD). Sixteen elderly patients (mean age 78.5+/-6.8 years) were divided into two groups: intervention group (IG; n=9) and routine group (RG; n=7). The IG exercised systematically for six months, and both groups were submitted to the following tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up-and-Go (TUG) and the agility/dynamic balance (AGIBAL) item of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) test battery. There was a statistically significant interaction (two-way ANOVA; F1,14=32.07; p=0.01) between groups and moments for the AGIBAL. The Mann Whitney U test indicated significant differences between groups (p=0.03), only at the post-intervention moment for the TUG measured in steps and for BBS. Therefore, no significant intergroup differences were found for the TUG, BBS and MMSE at the pre-intervention moment or at post-intervention moment for the TUG measured in seconds and MMSE. The intragroup analysis by means of the Wilcoxon test showed a significant decline in the TUG, BBS and MMSE for the RG, but not for the IG. Spearman's coefficient showed a significant correlation between the results of the MMSE and AGIBAL. Physical activity may be an important non-pharmacological approach that can benefit cognitive functions and balance and reduce the risk of falls. Moreover, agility and balance are associated with cognitive functions in elderly patients with AD.

  14. Risk of cataract among medical staff in neurosurgical department occupationally exposed to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankova-Mileva, I.; Vassileva, J.; Djounova, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we present the risk of cataract among medical staff in neurosurgical department occupationally exposed to radiation compared to those of non-radiation workers. Cataract is the most common degenerative opacity of the crystalline lens developing with aging. Other risk factors for cataract are: infrared and ultraviolet radiation, systemic diseases (diabetes, hypertonic disease), eye diseases (glaucoma, high myopia), drugs (steroids), etc. High risk of developing cataract we find among staff occupationally exposed to radiation during operations - interventional cardiologists and neurosurgeons. This study includes 30 people between 33 and 60 years of age working in neurosurgical department and control group (the same amount and age of people not exposed to radiation in their work). After visual acuity measurement, the lens was examined by retroillumination method (red reflex) and using a bio microscope. The patients were asked for presence of ocular and systemic diseases, eye trauma, drug, alcohol and tobacco abuse and for how many years they work in this department. There was one case with cataract among neurosurgeons. The doctor doesn't have eye or systemic diseases, doesn't take any drugs and is not alcohol or tobacco abuser. In the control group there were two persons with subcapsular cataract but they have diabetes. Radiation is one of the risk factors for cataract. Continuing of this epidemiological survey will provide further knowledge on the potential risk of occupational radiation-induced cataract among neurosurgical staff and will contribute for optimization of radiation protection. (authors)

  15. Comparison of primary radiation versus robotic surgery plus adjuvant radiation in high-risk prostate cancer: A single center experience

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhsimranjot Singh; Prashant Desai; Shruthi Arora; Anthony H Pham; A Gabriella Wernicke; Michael Smith; Dattatreyudu Nori; K S Clifford Chao; Bhupesh Parashar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare robotic-prostatectomy plus adjuvant radiation therapy (RPRAT) versus primary RT for high-risk prostate cancer (HRPCa). Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed for the HRPCa patients treated in our institution between 2000 and 2010. One hundred and twenty-three patients with high-risk disease were identified. The Chi-square test and Fisher′s exact test were used to compare local control and distant failure rate...

  16. Radiation and other risk issues in Norwegian newspapers ten years after Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Aa.; Reitan, J.B.; Toennesen, A.; Waldahl, R.

    1997-09-01

    Content analysis of risk articles has been performed in 1996 for five Norwegian newspapers four weeks before and four weeks after the 10th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The main focus has been on radiation and/or nuclear risks. The report is part of an international project on risk perception and communication. 94 refs.

  17. Radiation and other risk issues in Norwegian newspapers ten years after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Aa.; Reitan, J.B.; Toennesen, A.; Waldahl, R.

    1997-09-01

    Content analysis of risk articles has been performed in 1996 for five Norwegian newspapers four weeks before and four weeks after the 10th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The main focus has been on radiation and/or nuclear risks. The report is part of an international project on risk perception and communication. 94 refs

  18. Review of the controversy on risks from low levels of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higson, D.

    2001-01-01

    The need for regulation of low levels of radiation exposure, and the estimation of risks from such exposures, are based on the assumption that risk is proportional to dose without a threshold, the 'linear no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis'. This assumption is not supported by scientific data. There is no clear evidence of harm from low levels of exposure, up to at least 20 mSv (acute dose) or total dose rates of at least 50 mSv per year. Even allowing for reasonable extrapolation from radiation levels at which harmful effects have been observed, the LNT assumption should not be used to estimate risks from doses less than 100 mSv. Laboratory and epidemiological evidence, and evolutionary expectations of biological effects from low level radiation, suggest that beneficial health effects (sometimes called 'radiation hormesis') are at least as likely as harmful effects from such exposures. Controversy on this matter strikes at the basis of radiation protection practice

  19. The Risk of Radiation Exposure to the Eyes of the Interventional Pain Physician

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, D.E.; Kim, A.; Ornelas, C.; Song, S.; Pangarkar, S.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the use of medical imaging continues to grow across the globe as does the concern for radiation safety. The danger of lens opacities and cataract formation related to radiation exposure is well documented in the medical literature. However, there continues to be controversy regarding actual dose thresholds of radiation exposure and whether these thresholds are still relevant to cataract formation. Eye safety and the risk involved for the interventional pain physician is not entirely clear. Given the available literature on measured radiation exposure to the interventionist, and the controversy regarding dose thresholds, it is our current recommendation that the interventional pain physician use shielded eye wear. As the breadth of interventional procedures continues to grow, so does the radiation risk to the interventional pain physician. In this paper, we attempt to outline the risk of cataract formation in the scope of practice of an interventional pain physician and describe techniques that may help reduce them

  20. Stroke After Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer: What Is the Risk?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthurs, Erin; Hanna, Timothy P.; Zaza, Khaled; Peng, Yingwei; Hall, Stephen F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A retrospective population-based cohort study was conducted to determine the risk of ischemic stroke with respect to time, associated with curative radiation therapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Methods and Materials: On the basis of data from the Ontario Cancer Registry and regional cancer treatment centers, 14,069 patients were identified with diagnoses of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, larynx, and pharynx who were treated for cure between 1990 and 2010. Hazards of stroke and time to stroke were examined, accounting for the competing risk of death. Stroke risk factors identified through diagnostic and procedural administrative codes were adjusted for in the comparison between treatment regimens, which included surgery alone versus radiation therapy alone and surgery alone versus any exposure to radiation therapy. Results: Overall, 6% of patients experienced an ischemic stroke after treatment, with 5% experiencing a stroke after surgery, 8% after radiation therapy alone, and 6% after any exposure to radiation therapy. The cause-specific hazard ratios of ischemic stroke after radiation therapy alone and after any exposure to radiation therapy compared with surgery were 1.70 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.41-2.05) and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.23-1.73), respectively, after adjustment for stroke risk factors, patient factors, and disease-related factors. Conclusions: Radiation therapy was associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke compared with surgery alone: for both radiation therapy alone and after all treatment modalities that included any radiation treatment were combined. Because of a shift toward a younger HNSCC patient population, our results speak to the need for adequate follow-up and survivorship care among patients who have been treated with radiation therapy. Advances in treatment that minimize chronic morbidity also require further evaluation.

  1. Stroke After Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer: What Is the Risk?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, Erin [Department of Public Health Sciences, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Hanna, Timothy P. [Division of Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Department of Oncology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Zaza, Khaled [Department of Oncology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Peng, Yingwei [Department of Public Health Sciences, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Hall, Stephen F., E-mail: sfh@queensu.ca [Division of Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Department of Otolaryngology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: A retrospective population-based cohort study was conducted to determine the risk of ischemic stroke with respect to time, associated with curative radiation therapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Methods and Materials: On the basis of data from the Ontario Cancer Registry and regional cancer treatment centers, 14,069 patients were identified with diagnoses of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, larynx, and pharynx who were treated for cure between 1990 and 2010. Hazards of stroke and time to stroke were examined, accounting for the competing risk of death. Stroke risk factors identified through diagnostic and procedural administrative codes were adjusted for in the comparison between treatment regimens, which included surgery alone versus radiation therapy alone and surgery alone versus any exposure to radiation therapy. Results: Overall, 6% of patients experienced an ischemic stroke after treatment, with 5% experiencing a stroke after surgery, 8% after radiation therapy alone, and 6% after any exposure to radiation therapy. The cause-specific hazard ratios of ischemic stroke after radiation therapy alone and after any exposure to radiation therapy compared with surgery were 1.70 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.41-2.05) and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.23-1.73), respectively, after adjustment for stroke risk factors, patient factors, and disease-related factors. Conclusions: Radiation therapy was associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke compared with surgery alone: for both radiation therapy alone and after all treatment modalities that included any radiation treatment were combined. Because of a shift toward a younger HNSCC patient population, our results speak to the need for adequate follow-up and survivorship care among patients who have been treated with radiation therapy. Advances in treatment that minimize chronic morbidity also require further evaluation.

  2. Fundamentals of risk/benefit analysis in radiation uses in preventive medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieve, F.E.

    1977-01-01

    The term 'risk' stems from the insurance branch. It serves to estimate the probability of making statements about future events on the basis of events which have taken place. Risk estimations are increasingly being made in medicine, especially for determining the advantages and dangers brought to the population by preventive measures. The international radiation protection commission has, for some time, been expressing the dangers of ionising radiation in terms of risk and using these terms as basis for the dose limit values it determined for the professional and general population. This paper deals with possibilities of determining risks in preventive medicine. For doing this, acceptable risk values must be determined and risks resulting from diseases, esp. from those which were not recognized in time, must be compared with those resulting from the application of ionising radiation. (orig.) [de

  3. Proceedings of the fourth JAEA-US EPA workshop on radiation risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Akira; Boyd, Michael

    2007-02-01

    This report is the proceedings of the fourth workshop jointly organized by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) under the terms of agreement for cooperation in the field of radiation protection. The workshop was sponsored by the Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate and was held at the Nuclear Science Research Institute, the Tokai Research and Development Center, JAEA, on November 7-8, 2006. The objective of the workshop was to exchange and discuss recent information on radiation effects, radiation risk assessment, radiation dosimetry, emergency response, radiation protection standards, and waste management. Twenty-two papers were presented by experts from JAEA, US EPA, the National Academies, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Washington State University and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Three keynotes addressed research on radiation effects and radiation protection at JAEA, the latest report on health risks from exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation published by the National Research Council (BEIR VII Phase 2), and recent developments in Committee 2 for the forthcoming recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The workshop provided a good opportunity for identifying future research needed for radiation risk assessment. The 22 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  4. Epidemiological data and radiation risk estimates; Donnees epidemiologiques et estimations de risques radio-induits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardis, E. [Centre International de Recherche sur le Cancer, Unite Rayonnement et Cancer, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2002-01-01

    The results of several major epidemiology studies on populations with particular exposure to ionizing radiation should become available during the first years of the 21. century. These studies are expected to provide answers to a number of questions concerning public health and radiation protection. Most of the populations concerned were accidentally exposed to radiation in ex-USSR or elsewhere or in a nuclear industrial context. The results will complete and test information on risk coming from studies among survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs, particularly studies on the effects of low dose exposure and prolonged low-dose exposure, of different types of radiation, and environmental and host-related factors which could modify the risk of radiation-induced effects. These studies are thus important to assess the currently accepted scientific evidence on radiation protection for workers and the general population. In addition, supplementary information on radiation protection could be provided by formal comparisons and analyses combining data from populations with different types of exposure. Finally, in order to provide pertinent information for public health and radiation protection, future epidemiology studies should be targeted and designed to answer specific questions, concerning, for example, the risk for specific populations (children, patients, people with genetic predisposition). An integrated approach, combining epidemiology and studies on the mechanisms of radiation induction should provide particularly pertinent information. (author)

  5. An update on standards for radiation in the environment and associated estimates of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    This presentation reviews current and proposed standards, recommendations, and guidances for limiting routine radiation exposures of the public, and estimates the risk corresponding to standards, recommendations, and guidances. These estimates provide a common basis for comparing different criteria for limiting public exposures to radiation, as well as hazardous chemicals

  6. Assessment of radiation-induced cancer risks from the Chernobyl fallout in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servomaa, A.; Komppa, T.; Suomela, M.

    1997-01-01

    Application of detailed radiation risk models to populations affected by radiation doses from the Chernobyl fallout allows forecasting and estimation of the consequences of the accident in countries far from the place of the accident, and comparison of the model estimates with epidemiological observations in low-dose conditions among large populations. 14 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab

  7. Effective Patient Education in Medical Imaging: Public Perceptions of Radiation Exposure Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Rebecca L.; Turner, Lori W.

    2002-01-01

    In a cross-sectional survey of 200 adults, less than half agreed with experts on the risks of radiation exposure; 75-90% thought that medical imaging providers should be highly regulated; and less than one-quarter knew that most radiation damage is not permanent. (SK)

  8. Natural and anthropogeneous radiation in the Erzgebirge: Risk factor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, W.

    1992-01-01

    The geological formations in the saxoinian-thuringian low mountain range contain rocks with a relatively high share of uranium ( 238 U) and its follow-up product radium ( 226 Ra). Independent of mining this results in increased radiation levels to which the local population has always been exposed. Natural radiation levels may, of course, vary strongly from one location to the next and therefore human exposure varies accordingly. (orig.) [de

  9. Radiation risks in the 20. Century: reality, illusions and ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworowski, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Average global natural ionizing radiation dose for man is 2.4 mSv/year ranging in various geographical regions from about 1 to 220 mSv/year. At the dawn of life this dose was by a factor of three to five higher than now. The entire man-made contribution to radiation dose is only about 0.2% of natural radiation. From medical radiodiagnostics the average global dose is about 0.5 mSv/year, from nuclear explosions was in 1963 <0.2 mSv/year, from Chernobyl accident was in 1986-1987 0.05 mSv/year, and from nuclear power in 1995 about 0.007 mSv/year. Radiation is rather a weak noxious agent as compared with other natural and man-made hazards. Radiophobia has its source not in real peace-time radiation hazard to population, but in politics and group interests. Current excessive radiation protection standards, e.g. 1mSv/year, are based on an arbitrary assumption on linearity and a lack of threshold in dose/effect relationship, and on ignoring the beneficial effects of low doses of radiation. A whole body dose rate of 1mSv/year causes about 2 DNA damages in each cell. This can be compared with 70 million natural DNA damaging events occurring in each cell per year. Regulations based on this assumption lead to the wasting of resources desperately needed to deal with real health problems, and to strangulation of development of environmentally and human friendly nuclear technologies. Radiation standards should be based on 'practical threshold', one below which induction of detectable radiogenic cancers or genetic effects is not expected. (author)

  10. Improvements to the Ionizing Radiation Risk Assessment Program for NASA Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semones, E. J.; Bahadori, A. A.; Picco, C. E.; Shavers, M. R.; Flores-McLaughlin, J.

    2011-01-01

    To perform dosimetry and risk assessment, NASA collects astronaut ionizing radiation exposure data from space flight, medical imaging and therapy, aviation training activities and prior occupational exposure histories. Career risk of exposure induced death (REID) from radiation is limited to 3 percent at a 95 percent confidence level. The Radiation Health Office at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is implementing a program to integrate the gathering, storage, analysis and reporting of astronaut ionizing radiation dose and risk data and records. This work has several motivations, including more efficient analyses and greater flexibility in testing and adopting new methods for evaluating risks. The foundation for these improvements is a set of software tools called the Astronaut Radiation Exposure Analysis System (AREAS). AREAS is a series of MATLAB(Registered TradeMark)-based dose and risk analysis modules that interface with an enterprise level SQL Server database by means of a secure web service. It communicates with other JSC medical and space weather databases to maintain data integrity and consistency across systems. AREAS is part of a larger NASA Space Medicine effort, the Mission Medical Integration Strategy, with the goal of collecting accurate, high-quality and detailed astronaut health data, and then securely, timely and reliably presenting it to medical support personnel. The modular approach to the AREAS design accommodates past, current, and future sources of data from active and passive detectors, space radiation transport algorithms, computational phantoms and cancer risk models. Revisions of the cancer risk model, new radiation detection equipment and improved anthropomorphic computational phantoms can be incorporated. Notable hardware updates include the Radiation Environment Monitor (which uses Medipix technology to report real-time, on-board dosimetry measurements), an updated Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counter, and the Southwest Research Institute

  11. Dosimetric analysis of varying cord planning organ at risk volume in spine stereotactic body radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Owen, MD, PhD

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Current guidelines may overestimate the risk of myelopathy from spine SBRT. The current study's population included both radiation-naïve and retreatment cases, but no myelopathy was observed despite exceeding recommended spine limits.

  12. Assessment of the Interactions Among Tropospheric Aerosol Loading, Radiative Balance and Clouds Through Examination of Their Multi-decadal Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    While aerosol radiative effects have been recognized as some of the largest sources of uncertainty among the forcers of climate change, the verification of the spatial and temporal variability of aerosol radiative forcing has remained challenging. Anthropogenic emissions of prima...

  13. The Impact of Balanced Risk-Benefit Information and Initial Attitudes on Post-Information Attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van H.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Jonge, de J.; Rowe, G.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    In a realistic social context, people are confronted with both positive and negative information, yet research on this topic is relatively scarce. We present 2 studies examining the role of initial attitudes on the impact of one-sided vs. balanced positive and negative information on attitudes

  14. Biological effects of radiation and health risks from exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotian, Rahul P.; Kotian, Sahana Rahul; Sukumar, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    The very fact that ionizing radiation produces biological effects is known from many years. The first case of injury reported by Sir Roentgen was reported just after a few months after discovery of X-rays in 1895. As early as 1902, the first case of X-ray induced cancer was reported in the literature. Early human evidence of harmful effects as a result of exposure to radiation in large amounts existed in the 1920s and 1930s, based upon the experience of early radiologists, miners exposed to airborne radioactivity underground, persons working in the radium industry, and other special occupational groups. The long-term biological significance of smaller, repeated doses of radiation, however, was not widely appreciated until relatively recently, and most of our knowledge of the biological effects of radiation has been accumulated since World War II. The mechanisms that lead to adverse health effects after exposure to ionizing radiation are still not fully understood. Ionizing radiation has sufficient energy to change the structure of molecules, including DNA, within the cells of the body. Some of these molecular changes are so complex that it may be difficult for the body's repair mechanisms to mend them correctly. However, the evidence is that only a small fraction of such changes would be expected to result in cancer or other health effects. The most thoroughly studied individuals for the evaluation of health effects of ionizing radiation are the survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings, a large population that includes all ages and both sexes.The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in Japan has conducted followup studies on these survivors for more than 50 years. An important finding from these studies is that the occurrence of solid cancers increases in proportion to radiation dose. More than 60% of exposed survivors received a dose of radiation of less than 100 mSv (the definition of low dose used by the BEIR VII report). (author)

  15. Interactive Decision-Support Tool for Risk-Based Radiation Therapy Plan Comparison for Hodgkin Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodin, N. Patrik; Maraldo, Maja V.; Aznar, Marianne C.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To present a novel tool that allows quantitative estimation and visualization of the risk of various relevant normal tissue endpoints to aid in treatment plan comparison and clinical decision making in radiation therapy (RT) planning for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). METHODS AND MATERIALS...... and a volumetric modulated arc therapy plan for a patient with mediastinal HL. CONCLUSION: This multiple-endpoint decision-support tool provides quantitative risk estimates to supplement the clinical judgment of the radiation oncologist when comparing different RT options....

  16. The relevance of animal experimental results for the assessment of radiation genetic risks in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, G.

    1981-01-01

    No suitable data are available from man for the quantitative assessment of genetic radiation risk. Therefore, the results from experiments on animals must be utilized. Two hypotheses are presented here in drawing analogical conclusions from one species to another. Although the extrapolation of results from animal experiments remains an open question, the use of experimental results from mice seems to be justified for an assessment of the genetic radiation risk in man. (orig.) [de

  17. Concepts and challenges in cancer risk prediction for the space radiation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Burma, Sandeep; Fornace, Albert J.; Gerson, Stanton; Hlatky, Lynn; Kirsch, David G.; Luderer, Ulrike; Shay, Jerry; Wang, Ya; Weil, Michael M.

    2015-07-01

    Cancer is an important long-term risk for astronauts exposed to protons and high-energy charged particles during travel and residence on asteroids, the moon, and other planets. NASA's Biomedical Critical Path Roadmap defines the carcinogenic risks of radiation exposure as one of four type I risks. A type I risk represents a demonstrated, serious problem with no countermeasure concepts, and may be a potential "show-stopper" for long duration spaceflight. Estimating the carcinogenic risks for humans who will be exposed to heavy ions during deep space exploration has very large uncertainties at present. There are no human data that address risk from extended exposure to complex radiation fields. The overarching goal in this area to improve risk modeling is to provide biological insight and mechanistic analysis of radiation quality effects on carcinogenesis. Understanding mechanisms will provide routes to modeling and predicting risk and designing countermeasures. This white paper reviews broad issues related to experimental models and concepts in space radiation carcinogenesis as well as the current state of the field to place into context recent findings and concepts derived from the NASA Space Radiation Program.

  18. Fire-induced albedo change and surface radiative forcing in sub-Saharan Africa savanna ecosystems: Implications for the energy balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dintwe, Kebonye; Okin, Gregory S.; Xue, Yongkang

    2017-06-01

    Surface albedo is a critical parameter that controls surface energy balance. In dryland ecosystems, fires play a significant role in decreasing surface albedo, resulting in positive radiative forcing. Here we investigate the long-term effect of fire on surface albedo. We devised a method to calculate short-, medium-, and long-term effect of fire-induced radiative forcing and their relative effects on energy balance. We used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data in our analysis, covering different vegetation classes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Our analysis indicated that mean short-term fire-induced albedo change in SSA was -0.022, -0.035, and -0.041 for savannas, shrubland, and grasslands, respectively. At regional scale, mean fire-induced albedo change in savannas was -0.018 and -0.024 for northern sub-Saharan of Africa and the southern hemisphere Africa, respectively. The short-term mean fire-induced radiative forcing in burned areas in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) was 5.41 W m-2, which contributed continental and global radiative forcings of 0.25 and 0.058 W m-2, respectively. The impact of fire in surface albedo has long-lasting effects that varies with vegetation type. The long-term energetic effects of fire-induced albedo change and associated radiative forcing were, on average, more than 19 times greater across SSA than the short-term effects, suggesting that fires exerted far more radiative forcing than previously thought. Taking into account the actual duration of fire's effect on surface albedo, we conclude that the contribution of SSA fires, globally and throughout the year, is 0.12 W m-2. These findings provide crucial information on possible impact of fire on regional climate variability.

  19. Epidemiological studies on the effects of low-level ionizing radiation on cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori

    2010-01-01

    The health effects of low-level ionizing radiation are yet unclear. As pointed out by Upton in his review (Upton, 1989), low-level ionizing radiation seems to have different biological effects from what high-level radiation has. If so, the hazard identification of ionizing radiation should he conducted separately for low- and high-level ionizing radiation; the hazard identification of low-level radiation is yet to be completed. What makes hazard identification of ionizing radiation difficult, particularly in the case of carcinogenic effect, is the difficulty in distinguishing radiation-induced cancer from other cancers with respect to clinicopathological features and molecular biological characteristics. Actually, it is suspected that radiation-induced carcinogenesis involves mechanisms not specific for radiation, such as oxidative stress. Excess risk per dose in medium-high dose ranges can be extrapolated to a low-dose range if dose-response can be described by the linear-non-threshold model. The cancer risk data of atomic-bomb survivors describes leukemia risk with a linear-quadratic (LQ) model and solid-cancer risk with linear non-threshold (LNT) model. The LQ model for leukemia and the LNT model for solid cancer correspond to the two-hit model and the one-hit model, respectively. Although the one-hit model is an unlikely dose-response for carcinogenesis, there is no convincing epidemiological evidence supporting the LQ model or non-threshold model for solid cancer. It should be pointed out, however, even if the true dose response is non-linear various noises involved in epidemiological data may mask the truth. In this paper, the potential contribution of epidemiological studies on nuclear workers and residents in high background radiation areas will be discussed. (author)

  20. Radiation risk perception: a discrepancy between the experts and the general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perko, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Determining the differences in the perception of risks between experts who are regularly exposed to radiation, and lay people provides important insights into how potential hazards may be effectively communicated to the public. In the present study we examined lay people's (N = 1020) and experts' (N = 332) perception of five different radiological risks: nuclear waste, medical x-rays, natural radiation, an accident at a nuclear installation in general, and the Fukushima accident in particular. In order to link risk perception with risk communication, media reporting about radiation risks is analysed using quantitative and qualitative content analyses. The results showed that experts perceive radiological risks differently from the general public. Experts' perception of medical X-rays and natural radiation is significantly higher than in general population, while for nuclear waste and an accident at a nuclear installation, experts have lower risk perception than the general population. In-depth research is conducted for a group of workers that received an effective dose higher than 0.5 mSv in the year before the study; for this group we identify predictors of risk perception. The results clearly show that mass media don't use the same language as technical experts in addressing radiological risks. The study demonstrates that the discrepancy in risk perception and the communication gap between the experts and the general population presents a big challenge in understanding each other

  1. Diagnostic Dental Radiation Risk during Pregnancy: Awareness among General Dentists in Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahmineh Razi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Pregnant women often do not receive proper dental care in emergency visits due to a lack of awareness of the effect of radiation doses and the involved risks for the fetus. The aim of the present study was to assess the awareness of general dentists practicing in Tabriz, Iran, of the risks involved during exposure to diagnostic dental radiation in pregnant women. Materials and methods. In this descriptive/cross-sectional study, 250 general dentists, who had attended continuing education courses under the supervision of the Faculty of Dentistry, filled out questionnaires on their awareness of radiation risks. Data was analyzed by Spearman's correlation coefficient test. Results. The mean of correct answers was 6.47±1.66, with the least and highest correct answers of 2 and 10, respectively. The highest and the lowest levels of awareness were related to the use of a lead apron (92% and a long rectangular collimator (3.2%, respectively. There was a statistically significant correlation between the age of practitioners and awareness of radiation risks (P=0.02. However, no statistically significant correlation was observed between job experience (P=0.25 and the number of continuing education courses attended (P=0.16 and awareness of radiation risks. Conclusion. The studied population of dentists does not seem to have the sufficient knowledge regarding the diagnostic dental radiation risk during pregnancy. Further educational courses and pamphlets are recommended for increasing their awareness of this subject.

  2. Radiation-related risk of basal cell carcinoma: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Tanya C; Inskip, Peter D; Stratton, Kayla; Smith, Susan A; Kry, Stephen F; Sigurdson, Alice J; Stovall, Marilyn; Leisenring, Wendy; Robison, Leslie L; Mertens, Ann C

    2012-08-22

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignancy in the United States. Ionizing radiation is an established risk factor in certain populations, including cancer survivors. We quantified the association between ionizing radiation dose and the risk of BCC in childhood cancer survivors. Participants in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study who reported a BCC (case subjects, n = 199) were matched on age and length of follow-up to three study participants who had not developed a BCC (control subjects, n = 597). The radiation-absorbed dose (in Gy) to the BCC location was calculated based on individual radiotherapy records using a custom-designed dosimetry program. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between demographic and treatment factors, therapeutic radiation dose, and surrogate markers of sun sensitivity (skin and hair color) and the risk of BCC. A linear dose-response model was fitted to evaluate the excess odds ratio per Gy of radiation dose. Among case subjects, 83% developed BCC between the ages of 20 and 39 years. Radiation therapy, either alone or in combination with chemotherapy, was associated with an increased risk of BCC compared with no chemotherapy or radiation. The odds ratio for subjects who received 35 Gy or more to the skin site vs no radiation therapy was 39.8 (95% CI = 8.6 to 185). Results were consistent with a linear dose-response relationship, with an excess odds ratio per Gy of 1.09 (95% CI = 0.49 to 2.64). No other treatment variables were statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of BCC. Radiation doses to the skin of more than 1 Gy are associated with an increased risk of BCC.

  3. Space radiation risks for astronauts on multiple International Space Station missions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis A Cucinotta

    Full Text Available Mortality and morbidity risks from space radiation exposure are an important concern for astronauts participating in International Space Station (ISS missions. NASA's radiation limits set a 3% cancer fatality probability as the upper bound of acceptable risk and considers uncertainties in risk predictions using the upper 95% confidence level (CL of the assessment. In addition to risk limitation, an important question arises as to the likelihood of a causal association between a crew-members' radiation exposure in the past and a diagnosis of cancer. For the first time, we report on predictions of age and sex specific cancer risks, expected years of life-loss for specific diseases, and probability of causation (PC at different post-mission times for participants in 1-year or multiple ISS missions. Risk projections with uncertainty estimates are within NASA acceptable radiation standards for mission lengths of 1-year or less for likely crew demographics. However, for solar minimum conditions upper 95% CL exceed 3% risk of exposure induced death (REID by 18 months or 24 months for females and males, respectively. Median PC and upper 95%-confidence intervals are found to exceed 50% for several cancers for participation in two or more ISS missions of 18 months or longer total duration near solar minimum, or for longer ISS missions at other phases of the solar cycle. However, current risk models only consider estimates of quantitative differences between high and low linear energy transfer (LET radiation. We also make predictions of risk and uncertainties that would result from an increase in tumor lethality for highly ionizing radiation reported in animal studies, and the additional risks from circulatory diseases. These additional concerns could further reduce the maximum duration of ISS missions within acceptable risk levels, and will require new knowledge to properly evaluate.

  4. Space radiation risks for astronauts on multiple International Space Station missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A

    2014-01-01

    Mortality and morbidity risks from space radiation exposure are an important concern for astronauts participating in International Space Station (ISS) missions. NASA's radiation limits set a 3% cancer fatality probability as the upper bound of acceptable risk and considers uncertainties in risk predictions using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) of the assessment. In addition to risk limitation, an important question arises as to the likelihood of a causal association between a crew-members' radiation exposure in the past and a diagnosis of cancer. For the first time, we report on predictions of age and sex specific cancer risks, expected years of life-loss for specific diseases, and probability of causation (PC) at different post-mission times for participants in 1-year or multiple ISS missions. Risk projections with uncertainty estimates are within NASA acceptable radiation standards for mission lengths of 1-year or less for likely crew demographics. However, for solar minimum conditions upper 95% CL exceed 3% risk of exposure induced death (REID) by 18 months or 24 months for females and males, respectively. Median PC and upper 95%-confidence intervals are found to exceed 50% for several cancers for participation in two or more ISS missions of 18 months or longer total duration near solar minimum, or for longer ISS missions at other phases of the solar cycle. However, current risk models only consider estimates of quantitative differences between high and low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. We also make predictions of risk and uncertainties that would result from an increase in tumor lethality for highly ionizing radiation reported in animal studies, and the additional risks from circulatory diseases. These additional concerns could further reduce the maximum duration of ISS missions within acceptable risk levels, and will require new knowledge to properly evaluate.

  5. The impacts of urban surface characteristics on radiation balance and meteorological variables in the boundary layer around Beijing in summertime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiting; Han, Zhiwei; Wu, Jian; Hu, Yonghong; Li, Jiawei

    2017-11-01

    In this study, some key geometric and thermal parameters derived from recent field and satellite observations in Beijing were collected and incorporated into WRF-UCM (Weather Research and Forecasting) model instead of previous default ones. A series of sensitivity model simulations were conducted to investigate the influences of these parameters on radiation balance, meteorological variables, turbulence kinetic energy (TKE), as well as planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) in regions around Beijing in summer 2014. Model validation demonstrated that the updated parameters represented urban surface characteristics more realistically and the simulations of meteorological variables were evidently improved to be closer to observations than the default parameters. The increase in building height tended to increase and slightly decrease surface air temperature at 2 m (T2) at night and around noon, respectively, and to reduce wind speed at 10 m (WS10) through a day. The increase in road width led to significant decreases in T2 and WS10 through the whole day, with the maximum changes in early morning and in evening, respectively. Both lower surface albedo and inclusion of anthropogenic heat (AH) resulted in increases in T2 and WS10 over the day, with stronger influence from AH. The vertical extension of the impact of urban surface parameters was mainly confined within 300 m at night and reached as high as 1600 m during daytime. The increase in building height tended to increase TKE and PBLH and the TKE increase was larger at night than during daytime due to enhancements of both mechanical and buoyant productions. The increase in road width generally reduced TKE and PBLH except for a few hours in the afternoon. The lower surface albedo and the presence of AH consistently resulted in increases of TKE and PBLH through both day and night. The increase in building height induced a slight divergence by day and a notable convergence at night, whereas the increase in road width

  6. Effects of Antigravity Treadmill Training on Gait, Balance, and Fall Risk in Children With Diplegic Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shamy, Shamekh Mohamed

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of antigravity treadmill training on gait, balance, and fall risk in children with diplegic cerebral palsy. Thirty children with diplegic cerebral palsy were selected for this randomized controlled study. They were randomly assigned to (1) an experimental group that received antigravity treadmill training (20 mins/d, 3 d/wk) together with traditional physical therapy for 3 successive mos and (2) a control group that received only traditional physical therapy program for the same period. Outcomes included selected gait parameters, postural stability, and fall risk. Outcomes were measured at baseline and after 3 mos of intervention. Children in both groups showed significant improvements in the mean values of all measured variables (P fall risk in children with diplegic cerebral palsy.

  7. Relationship between balance and gait in children with a risk of developmental coordination disorders and their typically developing peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Agricola

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Developmental coordination disorder (DCD, also known as developmental dyspraxia, is a chronic neurological disorder beginning in childhood, that can affect planning of movements and coordination. Balance dysfunction is one of the most common sensorimotor impairments observed among children with DCD, which may have influence on daily living activities, such as walking. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare spatio-temporal parameters of gait between typically development (TD children and children at risk of DCD, who had also problems with balance and assess the impact of these problems on selected parameters and phases in a gait cycle. Methods: Children (n = 28, Mage = 8.6 ± 1.0 years were part of this study. The results of MABC-2 were used to classify motor competence level in children and also for a determinantion of the balance level. Optojump-Next was used to collect spatio-temporal parameters related to the gait patterns. The IBM SPSS-21 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: The results showed that children at risk of DCD were different from TD children in the step length (p < .001, in the stride length (p < .001, in the stance phase (p = .007, resp. p = .017, in the double support phase (p = .011, resp. p = .032, in the single support phase (p < .001, in the contact phase (p = .021, in the loading phase (p = .047, in the pre-swing phase (p = .002, in the swing phase (p = .015, resp. p = .004 and in the step speed (p < .001. Conclusion: The majority of previous works, which are focused on walking in children at risk of DCD, are based only on results of the evaluation of the complex motor level of children and they ignore the results of the balance level. This can largely distort conclusions, because not all the children with DCD have balance problems. It is necessary to work with the result of single tests, which are closely connected with the task and not only with the total test

  8. Assessing risks from occupational exposure to low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1989-06-01

    Currently, several epidemiological studies of workers who have been exposed occupationally to radiation are being conducted. These include workers in the United States, Great Britain, and Canada, involved in the production of both defense materials and nuclear power. A major reason for conducting these studies is to evaluate possible adverse health effects that may have resulted because of the radiation exposure received. The general subject of health effects resulting from low levels of radiation, including these worker studies, has attracted the attention of various news media, and has been the subject of considerable controversy. These studies provide a good illustration of certain other aspects of the statistician's role; namely, communication and adequate subject matter knowledge. A competent technical job is not sufficient if these other aspects are not fulfilled

  9. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The chapter one presents the composition of matter and atomic theory; matter structure; transitions; origin of radiation; radioactivity; nuclear radiation; interactions in decay processes; radiation produced by the interaction of radiation with matter

  10. Library 2.0: Balancing the Risks and Benefits to Maximise the Dividends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brian; Bevan, Paul; Akerman, Richard; Alcock, Jo; Fraser, Josie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a number of examples of how Web 2.0 technologies and approaches (Library 2.0) are being used within the library sector. The paper acknowledges that there are a variety of risks associated with such approaches. The paper describes the different types of risks and outlines a risk assessment and risk…

  11. Study warns of radiation risk in medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2009-10-01

    A study of a million US patients suggests that some who undergo medical imaging could be exposed to more ionizing radiation than those who work with radioactive materials in nuclear power plants. The study, reported in The New England Journal of Medicine (361 849), implies that current exposure to radiation from conventional X-ray equipment as well as computed tomography (CT) and positron-emission tomography (PET) scanners could lead to tens of thousands of extra cases of cancer in the US alone.

  12. Leukaemia risks and exposure to ionizing radiations. ASN seminar, Tuesday, June 9, 2015, report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niel, Jean-Christophe; Samain, Jean-Paul; Colonna, Marc; Maynadie, Marc; Richardson, David; Bey, Pierre; Leuraud, Klervi; Laurier, Dominique; Hemon, Denis; Spycher, Ben; Kosti, Ourania; Bouville, Andre; Grosche, Bernd; Ziegelberger, Gunde; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Clavel, Jacqueline; Smeesters, Patrick; Murith, Christophe

    2015-08-01

    This seminar aims at proposing a review of present knowledge on leukaemia risks for children and adults associated with ionizing radiations, and at sharing knowledge between experts. After an introduction which outlined the interest of the ASN in research issues, and the importance awarded by the ASN to the variety of points of view, a first session addressed leukaemia and exposures to ionizing radiations. The contributions addressed some general aspects (an overview of leukaemia in France, the different types of adult and child leukaemia), leukaemia and acute exposures to ionizing radiations (ionizing radiation and leukaemia among Japanese bomb survivors, risks of leukaemia after radiotherapy), leukaemia and chronic exposures to ionizing radiations (assessment of epidemiological studies for adult chronic exposures). The second session addressed childhood leukaemia and ionizing radiations. The contributions of this second session more particularly addressed the following topics: childhood leukaemia and natural radioactivity (French studies, synthesis of international studies and a new Swiss study), childhood leukaemia and proximity of nuclear base installations (assessment of national and international studies, analysis of cancer risks in populations near nuclear facilities in the US, calculation of dose at the medulla as example of dosimetry of ionizing radiations and leukaemia, conclusions of the 2012 MELODI workshop), childhood leukaemia and scanner (recent results and perspectives), childhood leukaemia and other risk factors (etiology of childhood leukaemia - presentation of French studies initiated by the INSERM, and presentation of studies initiated by BfS)

  13. Ischemic heart disease in workers at Mayak PA: latency of incidence risk after radiation exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristoforo Simonetto

    Full Text Available We present an updated analysis of incidence and mortality from atherosclerotic induced ischemic heart diseases in the cohort of workers at the Mayak Production Association (PA. This cohort constitutes one of the most important sources for the assessment of radiation risk. It is exceptional because it comprises information on several other risk factors. While most of the workers have been exposed to external gamma radiation, a large proportion has additionally been exposed to internal radiation from inhaled plutonium. Compared to a previous study by Azizova et al. 2012, the updated dosimetry system MWDS-2008 has been applied and methods of analysis have been revised. We extend the analysis of the significant incidence risk and observe that main detrimental effects of external radiation exposure occur after more than about 30 years. For mortality, significant risk was found in males with an excess relative risk per dose of 0.09 (95% CI: 0.02; 0.16 [Formula: see text] while risk was insignificant for females. With respect to internal radiation exposure no association to risk could be established.

  14. Genetic predisposition to radiation-related cancer and potential implications for risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigurdson, A.J.; Stram, D.O.

    2012-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that risk estimates for cancer associated with radiation exposure incorporate individuals who are more and less inherently susceptible to the carcinogenic effects of radiation, and the technology to further evaluate this issue is now available. For example, genome-wide association scan studies could be undertaken to address, at least in part, the direction of causality in the observations of differential sensitivity to radiomimetic agents in cancer cases compared with normal individuals, thereby building on previous observations that sensitivity to these agents is higher in apparently normal individuals carrying gene mutations in NBS and ATM. Direct studies of risk of second cancers in relation to radiation are underway, and some results have been reported (e.g. for the PRDM1 gene as related to sensitivity to radiation-related cancers after treatment for Hodgkin’s lymphoma). It is important to understand the risk synergies between variants affecting associations with various cancers defining susceptibility in unexposed populations and the excess risk in populations therapeutically or occupationally exposed to radiation for the purpose of risk protection, especially as additional baseline risk variants are discovered in increasingly large-scale analyses. While there are studies that are beginning to address these questions, there have been no compelling new discoveries, to date, to indicate that predisposition information should be included in risk assessment. The conclusions in ICRP Publications 79 and 103 appear relevant today.

  15. Vertical Distribution of Radiation and Energy Balance Partitioning Within and Above a Lodgepole Pine Stand Recovering from a Recent Insect Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmel, Carmen; Paul-Limoges, Eugenie; Black, Thomas Andrew; Christen, Andreas

    2013-11-01

    The current outbreak of mountain pine beetle (MPB) that started in the late 1990s in British Columbia, Canada, is the largest ever recorded in the north American native habitat of the beetle. The killing of trees is expected to change the vertical distribution of net radiation () and the partitioning of latent () and sensible () heat fluxes in the different layers of an attacked forest canopy. During an intensive observation period in the summer of 2010, eddy-covariance flux and radiation measurements were made at seven heights from ground level up to 1.34 times the canopy height in an MPB-attacked open-canopy forest stand in the interior of British Columbia, Canada. The lodgepole pine dominated stand with a rich secondary structure (trees and understorey not killed by the beetle) was first attacked by the MPB in 2003 and received no management. In this study, the vertical distribution of the energy balance components and their sources and sinks were analyzed and energy balance closure (EBC) was determined for various levels within the canopy. The low stand density resulted in approximately 60 % of the shortwave irradiance and 50 % of the daily total reaching the ground. Flux divergence calculations indicated relatively strong sources of latent heat at the ground and where the secondary structure was located. Only very weak sources of latent heat were found in the upper part of the canopy, which was mainly occupied by dead lodgepole pine trees. was the dominant term throughout the canopy, and the Bowen ratio () increased with height in the canopy. Soil heat flux () accounted for approximately 4 % of . Sensible heat storage in the air () was the largest of the energy balance storage components in the upper canopy during daytime, while in the lower canopy sensible heat storage in the boles () and biochemical energy storage () were the largest terms. was almost constant from the bottom to above the canopy. , and latent heat storage in the air () varied more than

  16. Radiobiology in clinical radiation therapy: Long term risks - Carcinogenic, hereditary, and teratogenetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, David J.

    1997-01-01

    The long-term risks induced by radiation are of much concern to patients and clinicians alike. As an example, perceived radiation risks are frequently cited in a woman's decision to choose a radical mastectomy over lumpectomy + radiation. In consequence, the actual radiation risks are often considerably overstated, or unreasonably downplayed. In this lecture we will discuss just what is known about the long term risks following radiotherapy, both from the human experience and from the laboratory. We will discuss risks both to the patient and to radiotherapy personnel. A good deal is known about the carcinogenic effects of high and low doses of radiation, in large part thanks to the careful study of the survivors of the atomic bombing in Japan, as well as studies of individuals exposed to medical x rays. It is possible to make an estimate, which is probably good to within a factor of, perhaps, three to five, of the cancer risks faced by a patient of a particular age and sex who is going to undergo a particular radiotherapeutic regimen. It is also possible to make an estimate of the risks faced by radiotherapy and nursing staff exposed to low doses. Brachytherapy related risk estimates are likely to be somewhat more uncertain, due to the poorly known sparing effects of the low dose rates used; for the radiotherapy personnel in brachytherapy, because of the doses which can be received, the risks can be quite significant. A recent complication in external-beam radiotherapy is the advent of high-energy linacs, which can produce a significant fast neutron dose which, dose for dose, may be ten to fifty times more carcinogenic than gamma rays. Data relating to the risks of hereditary effects of radiation come almost entirely from laboratory experiments in animals. Studies involving several million mice form the basis of most of our current understanding of hereditary effects. The results of these studies indicate that radiation is a relatively inefficient mutagen. The

  17. Radiobiology in clinical radiation therapy - Part IV: Long term risks - Carcinogenic, hereditary, and teratogenetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, David J.

    1996-01-01

    The long-term risks induced by radiation are of much concern to patients and clinicians alike. As an example, perceived radiation risks are frequently cited in a woman's decision to choose a radical mastectomy over lumpectomy + radiation. In consequence, the actual radiation risks are often considerably overstated, or unreasonably downplayed. In this lecture we will discuss just what is known about the long term risks following radiotherapy, both from the human experience and from the laboratory. We will discuss risks both to the patient and to radiotherapy personnel. A good deal is known about the carcinogenic effects of high and low doses of radiation, in large part thanks to the careful study of the survivors of the atomic bombing in Japan, as well as studies of individuals exposed to medical x rays. It is possible to make an estimate, which is probably good to within a factor of, perhaps, three to five, of the cancer risks faced by a patient of a particular age and sex who is going to undergo a particular radiotherapeutic regimen. It is also possible to make an estimate of the risks faced by radiotherapy and nursing staff exposed to low doses. Brachytherapy related risk estimates are likely to be somewhat more uncertain, due to the poorly known sparing effects of the low dose rates used; for the radiotherapy personnel in brachytherapy, because of the doses which can be received, the risks can be quite significant. A recent complication in external-beam radiotherapy is the advent of high-energy linacs, which can produce a significant fast neutron dose which, dose for dose, may be ten to fifty times more carcinogenic than gamma rays. Data relating to the risks of hereditary effects of radiation come almost entirely from laboratory experiments in animals. Studies involving several million mice form the basis of most of our current understanding of hereditary effects. The results of these studies indicate that radiation is a relatively inefficient mutagen. The

  18. [Current problems of estimation of genetic risk of human exposure to radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, V A

    2000-01-01

    The methodology of assessing the genetic risk of radiation exposure is based on the concept of "hitting the target" in development of which N.V. Timofeeff-Ressovsky has played and important role. To predict genetic risk posed by irradiation, the UN Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has worked out direct and indirect methods of assessment, extrapolational, integral and populational criteria of risk analysis that together permit calculating the risk from human exposure on the basis of data obtained for mice. Laboratory mice are the main objects in studying radiation mutagenesis due to the fact that the data on the frequency of radiation-induced human mutations are rather scarce. The method of doubling dose based on the determination of a dose doubling the level of natural mutational process in humans is the main one used to predict the genetic risk. The evolution of views about the genetics risk of human exposure to radiation for last 40 years is considered. Till 1972 the main model for assessing the genetic risk was the "human/mouse" model (the use of data on the spontaneous human variability and data on the frequency of induced mutations in mice). In the period form 1972 till 1994 the "mouse/mouse" model was intensively elaborated in many laboratories. This model was also used in this period by UNSCEAR experts to analyze the genetic risk from human irradiation. Recent achievements associated with the study of the molecular nature of many hereditary human diseases as well as the criticism of number fundamental principles of the "mouse/mouse" model for estimating the genetic risk on a new basis. The estimates of risk for the different classes of genetic diseases have been obtained using the doubling-dose method. The estimate of doubling dose used in the calculations is 1 Gy for low dose/chronic low-LET radiation conditions.

  19. Attitudes of Kuwaiti public towards the radiation risks of nuclear medicine diagnositic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgazzar, AH; Al-Ghani, HE; Collier, BD; Al-Saeedi, F; Al-Shammari, J; Mahmoud, AM; Omar, A

    2004-01-01

    Public perception of radiation risks of diagnostic imaging procedures differs from that of professionals working in the field. The perception probably varies among societies and may vary within the same society. The objective of this study is to determine the public perception in Kuwait represented by patients referred for nuclear medicine diagnostic studies. With the assistance of Arabic speaking investigators, 239 patients (139 males and 100 females) with a mean age of 37 years (Range of 15 to 90 years) completed a questionnaire about their opinion of radiation fear from the nuclear medicine procedures as well as their education, income, ability to speak English and foreign travel experience. Radiation phobia was measured by asking the patient to to the statement 'Radiation from nuclear medicine examination is likely to harm my body' by one of 5 choices, 1 strongly agree, 2 somewhat agree, 3 uncertain, 4 somewhat disagree, 5 strongly disagree. Responses 1 and 2 were classified as radiation phobia. Pearson correlation coefficient and logistic regression analysis were used for data analysis. Forty four percent of patients had radiation phobia. Only education significantly correlated with radiation phobia. Income, ability to speak English, age, gender or travel experience did not show significant correlation. Our study indicates that radiation phobia is common and is probably widespread throughout the society. Patient education should emphasize radiation benefits and actual risks and include the entire community. (authors)

  20. How Space Radiation Risk from Galactic Cosmic Rays at the International Space Station Relates to Nuclear Cross Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zi-Wei; Adams, J. H., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Space radiation risk to astronauts is a major obstacle for long term human space explorations. Space radiation transport codes have thus been developed to evaluate radiation effects at the International Space Station (ISS) and in missions to the Moon or Mars. We study how nuclear fragmentation processes in such radiation transport affect predictions on the radiation risk from galactic cosmic rays. Taking into account effects of the geomagnetic field on the cosmic ray spectra, we investigate the effects of fragmentation cross sections at different energies on the radiation risk (represented by dose-equivalent) from galactic cosmic rays behind typical spacecraft materials. These results tell us how the radiation risk at the ISS is related to nuclear cross sections at different energies, and consequently how to most efficiently reduce the physical uncertainty in our predictions on the radiation risk at the ISS.

  1. Risks associated with low level ionizing radiation (with special reference to nuclear power workers)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This document describes a project to use epidemiological studies of workers in the nuclear industry to estimate the cancer risk associated with low-dose chronic exposure to ionizing radiation. The project aims both to improve the basis for radiation risk assessment and to test the validity of currently used models for the extrapolation of radiation risk. This report focusses on the former aim, and summarizes discussions at two meetings held in June 1988. One of these was a small working group consisting mainly of epidemiologists who had carried out studies of nuclear workers; the other included nominees of the nuclear industries of eleven countries as well as epidemiologists and radiation physicists and biologists. As a result of the meetings, efforts are underway to pool existing data and a feasibility study is addressing the possibility of an international collaborative study of unstudied groups of nuclear workers

  2. Communication of radiation benefits and risks in decision making: some lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Paul A

    2011-11-01

    This paper is focused on summarizing the "lessons learned" from discussions at the 2010 NCRP Annual Meeting on effective communications on the subject of radiation benefits and risks in public exposures. Five main lessons learned are discussed in regard to effective methods of public communication: the use of new social media communication tools such as Facebook and Twitter, emergency situations that require rapid societal and personal messaging, medical radiological procedures where benefits must be described in comparison to long-term health risks of radiation exposures, and information that should be provided to stakeholders in situations such as environmental radionuclide contamination to which members of the public may be exposed. It is concluded that effective communications in which radiation benefits are contrasted with health risks of exposure are an important aspect of making and implementing decisions on employing radiation health protection procedures.

  3. Ethical trials to determine the risks and benefits of radiation exposure from coronary CT angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramati, Linda B

    2008-10-01

    This essay discusses the ethical implications of medical research using ionizing radiation in the diagnostic imaging range. Coronary CT angiography will be used as an example. Since coronary artery disease is the most common cause of death in the United States, any change in the work-up or management of patients with coronary artery disease has enormous clinical and economic implications. Risks of diagnostic radiation differ from those encountered in routine medical research as radiation-related cancers and heritable genetic damage can manifest in the irradiated individual or in subsequent generations. The risk to research subjects is ethically troubling because the research may not offer direct benefit to participants, although the benefits to society and future patients could be considerable. The American College of Radiology has a mandate to lead in the discussion of how to best minimize the risks of diagnostic radiation exposure in clinical research while encouraging studies likely to maximize benefits for future patients.

  4. The 15-Country Collaborative Study of Cancer Risk among Radiation Workers in the Nuclear Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardis, E; Vrijheid, M; Blettner, M

    2007-01-01

    A 15-Country collaborative cohort study was conducted to provide direct estimates of cancer risk following protracted low doses of ionizing radiation. Analyses included 407,391 nuclear industry workers monitored individually for external radiation and 5.2 million person-years of follow-up. A sign......A 15-Country collaborative cohort study was conducted to provide direct estimates of cancer risk following protracted low doses of ionizing radiation. Analyses included 407,391 nuclear industry workers monitored individually for external radiation and 5.2 million person-years of follow...... of malignancies studied, a significant association was found for lung cancer (ERR/Sv 1.86, 90% CI 0.49, 3.63; 1457 deaths) and a borderline significant (P = 0.06) association for multiple myeloma (ERR/Sv 6.15, 90% CI ... will be important to better assess the role of tobacco and other occupational exposures in our risk estimates....

  5. Novel breast cancer risk alleles and interaction with ionizing radiation among U.S. Radiologic Technologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Parveen; Doody, Michele M.; Rajaraman, Preetha; Alexander, Bruce H.; Yeager, Meredith; Hutchinson, Amy; Burdette, Laurie; Thomas, Gilles; Hunter, David J.; Simon, Steven L.; Weinstock, Robert M.; Rosenstein, Marvin; Stovall, Marilyn; Preston, Dale L.; Linet, Martha S.; Hoover, Robert N.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Sigurdson, Alice J.

    2010-01-01

    As genome-wide association studies of breast cancer are replicating findings and refinement studies are narrowing the signal location, additional efforts are necessary to elucidate the underlying functional relationships. One approach is to evaluate variation in risk by genotype based on known breast carcinogens, such as ionizing radiation. Given the public health concerns associated with recent increases in medical radiation exposure, this approach may also identify potentially susceptible sub-populations. We examined interaction between 27 newly identified breast cancer risk alleles (identified within the NCI Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility and the Breast Cancer Association Consortium genome-wide association studies) and occupational and medical diagnostic radiation exposure among 859 cases and 1083 controls nested within the United States Radiologic Technologists cohort. We did not find significant variation in the radiation-related breast cancer risk for the variant in RAD51L1 (rs10483813) on 14q24.1 as we had hypothesized. In exploratory analyses, we found that the radiation-associated breast cancer risk varied significantly by linked markers in 5p12 (rs930395, rs10941679, rs2067980, and rs4415084) in the mitochondrial ribosomal protein S30 (MRPS30) gene (pinteraction=0.04). Chance, however, may explain these findings, and as such, these results need to be confirmed in other populations with low to moderate levels of radiation exposure. Even though a complete understanding by which these variants may increase breast cancer risk remains elusive, this approach may yield clues for further investigation. PMID:20095854

  6. Risks of increased UV-B radiation for humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybilla, B.; Eberlein-Koenig, B.; Bergner, T.

    1994-01-01

    If not compensated in any way, depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer leads to an increase of UV-B radiation at the earth's surface, especially towards the short-wave range, which is biologically the more active. The most concerning effect here is that of UV-B induced skin reactions, in particular malignant skintumors (malignant melanoma, spinocellular carcinoma, basalioma), whose incidence is expected to increase in future. As some photoreactions can be inhibited or enhanced also by radiation outside their action spectrum, it is possible for changes in solar spectral radiation flux density to influence photo-induced reactions that are driven at wavelengths outside the UV-B range. The authors have performed studies for developing methods of quantifying individual UV sensitivity. In vitro studies have shown that UV-A dependent photoreactions can be partly inhibited by UV-B. A number of drugs, as well as sulphites, which are used as preservatives amongst other things, have been shown to have phototoxic properties that may be relevant to photocarcinogenesis. Irradiation tests on cell cultures for different UV-B ranges have shown that irradiation at shorter wavelengths leads to a stronger release of proinflammatory cytokines that ar longer wavelengths with the same dose. Altogether it can be said that despite compelling theoretical evidence it is not easily possible to predict the actual consequences of an increase in particular of short-wave UV-B radiation at the earth's surface. The assumed effects must be examined individually by appropriate methods. (orig.) [de

  7. Comparative risk assessment of radiation and other mutagenic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leenhouts, H.P.; Pruppers, M.J.M.; Wijngaard, E.; Sijsma, M.J.; Bouwens, B.T.; Chadwick, K.H.

    1990-04-01

    This is the final report of a contract of RIVM in the framework of the Radiation Protection Programme of the Commission of the European Communities. The aim of the project was to investigate the nature of the dose-effect relationship for radiobiological effects after different types of ionizing radiation and UV. The results support the idea that the linear-quadratic dose relationship for radiobiological effects does reflect a 2-hit or 2-event type of radiation effect. The track structure calculations of the linear term indicate that the DNA double-strand break could be the crucial lesion and that the 2 simultaneous events should occur close to each strand of the DNA molecule in a single track. The experimental data indicate that the quadratic term arises from the combination of 2 time independently induced events the role of which can be modified by repair but these data do not provide any information on the nature of the radiation induced lesions. (author). 8 refs.; 7 figs

  8. Risk assessment and multiple stages in radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, F.J.; Sawey, M.J.; Hosselet, S.; Garte, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    Epithelial cancers are induced in rat skin by ionizing radiation in a manner that is consistent with the dual action (i.e., 2 alterations) hypothesis of radiation effects on DNA. This hypothesis states that 2 initial alterations are necessary to start a normal cell on the pathway to career. The expected cancer yield, Y(D,t), as a function of dose, D, and time, t, has the form Y(D,t) = C(aLD + BD 2 )t,/sup n/, where L is the average LET, D is the radiation dose, a, B are constants and n is an integer. In accordance with multistage theory, n was assumed to be 2 on the basis of the best fit to cancer onset data. Values for a and B were estimated from cancer induction experiments in rat skin exposed to monoenergetic electrons (LET = 0.34 keV/μ) or argon ions (LET = 125 keV/μ). The repair halftime for carcinogenic alterations was found in split dose protocols to be 3.5 +- 1.0 hrs for electron radiation and >24 hrs for argon ions. As an approach to identifying cancer-relevant DNA alterations, skin tumor DNA was analyzed for oncogene activation. K-ras and c-myc oncogenes were activated in highly anaplastic rat skin cancers, whereas only one of these oncogenes, usually c-myc, was activated in squamous cell carcinomas and in comparatively benign basal cell carcinomas. 18 refs., 6 figs

  9. Radiation dose and cancer risk among pediatric patients undergoing interventional neuroradiology procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierry-Chef, Isabelle; Simon, Steven L.; Miller, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    During interventional neuroradiology procedures, patients can be exposed to moderate to high levels of radiation. Special considerations are required to protect children, who are generally more sensitive to the short- and long-term detrimental effects of radiation exposure. Estimates of dose to the skin of children from certain interventional procedures have been published elsewhere, but we are not aware of data on dose to the brain or on the long-term risk of cancer from brain radiation. Our goals were to estimate radiation doses to the brain in 50 pediatric patients who had undergone cerebral embolization and to assess their lifetime risks of developing radiation-related brain cancer. Entrance-peak skin dose and various assumptions on conditions of exposure were used as input for dosimetric calculations to estimate the spatial pattern of dose within the brain and the average dose to the whole brain for each child. The average dose and the age of the child at time of exposure were used to estimate the lifetime risk of developing radiation-related brain cancer. Among the 50 patients, average radiation doses to the brain were estimated to vary from 100 mGy to 1,300 mGy if exposed to non-collimated fields and from 20 mGy to 160 mGy for collimated, moving fields. The lifetime risk of developing brain cancer was estimated to be increased by 2% to 80% as a result of the exposure. Given the very small lifetime background risk of brain tumor, the excess number of cases will be small even though the relative increase might be as high as 80%. ALARA principles of collimation and dose optimization are the most effective means to minimize the risk of future radiation-related cancer. (orig.)

  10. The potential impact of bystander effects on radiation risks in a Mars mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, D. J.; Elliston, C. D.; Hall, E. I. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Densely ionizing (high-LET) galactic cosmic rays (GCR) contribute a significant component of the radiation risk in free space. Over a period of a few months-sufficient for the early stages of radiation carcinogenesis to occur-a significant proportion of cell nuclei will not be traversed. There is convincing evidence, at least in vitro, that irradiated cells can send out signals that can result in damage to nearby unirradiated cells. This observation can hold even when the unirradiated cells have been exposed to low doses of low-LET radiation. We discuss here a quantitative model based on the a formalism, an approach that incorporates radiobiological damage both from a bystander response to signals emitted by irradiated cells, and also from direct traversal of high-LET radiations through cell nuclei. The model produces results that are consistent with those of a series of studies of the bystander phenomenon using a high-LET microbeam, with the end point of in vitro oncogenic transformation. According to this picture, for exposure to high-LET particles such as galactic cosmic rays other than protons, the bystander effect is significant primarily at low fluences, i.e., exposures where there are significant numbers of untraversed cells. If the mechanisms postulated here were applicable in vivo, using a linear extrapolation of risks derived from studies using intermediate doses of high-LET radiation (where the contribution of the bystander effect may be negligible) to estimate risks at very low doses (where the bystander effect may be dominant) could underestimate the true risk from low doses of high-LET radiation. It would be highly premature simply to abandon current risk projections for high-LET, low-dose radiation; however, these considerations would suggest caution in applying results derived from experiments using high-LET radiation at fluences above approximately 1 particle per nucleus to risk estimation for a Mars mission.

  11. Balancing the benefits and risks of low-dose glucocorticoid in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Santiago

    2015-01-01

    -dose GCs in RA. This contention cannot be resolved without a clear understanding of the potential risks of adverse effects of these drugs. Unfortunately, currently available evidence is limited, but the need to optimize benefit-risk ratio of GCs represents a continuous challenge to the practicing clinician. This review reinforces the need for balancing risks and benefits of GCs use in RA, with a focus on chronic oral therapy. First, we address the rapid effect of GCs on disease activity and their long-term effects on radiographic damage, followed by their prolonged use in controlled disease. Next, we discuss the toxicity of low-dose GC therapy. Finally, we describe strategies and recommendations for its safe use and new therapeutic approaches, including chronotherapy, which may improve our ability to tailor treatment to the individual patient’s needs. A. Benefits Symptomatic benefit In active RA, prednisone is frequently added for a short period to the treatment regimen to rapidly minimize disease activity while awaiting a clinical response to a slower-acting disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD. A review (3 provided evidence of short-term benefit in RA: a dose below prednisolone 15 mg/day is more effective than either placebo or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID, with a large effect size of 1.75 on pain. In 2000, a Cochrane meta-analysis (4 including 7 studies (253 patients in total evaluating the symptomatic effect of GCs treatment in RA, concluded that prednisone (or a comparable GC preparation at a mean dosage of less than or equal to 15 mg/day for a period of 6 months, was significantly more effective than placebo controls, with an effect size for pain of 0.43. Significant improvement was also documented in other outcomes measures: standardized mean difference for tender joints = -0.37 (95%CI: -0. 59 to -0.14, swollen joints = -0.41 (-0.67 to -0.16 and functional status = -0.57 (-0.92 to -0.22. Another meta-analysis of short-term (median length

  12. Falls efficacy, postural balance, and risk for falls in older adults with falls-related emergency department visits: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pua, Yong-Hao; Ong, Peck-Hoon; Clark, Ross Allan; Matcher, David B; Lim, Edwin Choon-Wyn

    2017-12-21

    Risk for falls in older adults has been associated with falls efficacy (self-perceived confidence in performing daily physical activities) and postural balance, but available evidence is limited and mixed. We examined the interaction between falls efficacy and postural balance and its association with future falls. We also investigated the association between falls efficacy and gait decline. Falls efficacy, measured by the Modified Falls Efficacy Scale (MFES), and standing postural balance, measured using computerized posturography on a balance board, were obtained from 247 older adults with a falls-related emergency department visit. Six-month prospective fall rate and habitual gait speed at 6 months post baseline assessment were also measured. In multivariable proportional odds analyses adjusted for potential confounders, falls efficacy modified the association between postural balance and fall risk (interaction P = 0.014): increasing falls efficacy accentuated the increased fall risk related to poor postural balance. Low baseline falls efficacy was strongly predictive of worse gait speed (0.11 m/s [0.06 to 0.16] slower gait speed per IQR decrease in MFES; P balance were at greater risk for falls than those with low falls efficacy; however, low baseline falls efficacy was strongly associated with worse gait function at follow-up. Further research into these subgroups of older adults is warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01713543 .

  13. Breast Cancer Risk After Radiation Therapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma : Influence of Gonadal Hormone Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, Inge M; Opstal-van Winden, Annemieke W J; Aleman, Berthe M P; Janus, Cécile P M; van Eggermond, Anna M; De Bruin, Marie L; Hauptmann, Michael; Krol, Augustinus D G; Schaapveld, Michael; Broeks, Annegien; Kooijman, Karen R; Fase, Sandra; Lybeert, Marnix L; Zijlstra, Josée M; van der Maazen, Richard W M; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Diallo, Ibrahima; de Vathaire, Florent; Russell, Nicola S; van Leeuwen, Flora E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Young women treated with chest radiation therapy (RT) for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) experience a strongly increased risk of breast cancer (BC). It is unknown whether endogenous and exogenous gonadal hormones affect RT-associated BC risk. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study

  14. Breast Cancer Risk After Radiation Therapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma: Influence of Gonadal Hormone Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, I.M.; Opstal-van Winden, A.W.J.; Aleman, B.M.P.; Janus, C.P.; Eggermond, A.M. van; Bruin, M.L. De; Hauptmann, M.; Krol, A.D.; Schaapveld, M.; Broeks, A.; Kooijman, K.R.; Fase, S.; Lybeert, M.L.; Zijlstra, J.M.; Maazen, R.W.M. van der; Kesminiene, A.; Diallo, I.; Vathaire, F. de; Russell, N.S.; Leeuwen, F.E. van

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Young women treated with chest radiation therapy (RT) for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) experience a strongly increased risk of breast cancer (BC). It is unknown whether endogenous and exogenous gonadal hormones affect RT-associated BC risk. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study

  15. How safe is safe enough? Radiation risk for a human mission to Mars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis A Cucinotta

    Full Text Available Astronauts on a mission to Mars would be exposed for up to 3 years to galactic cosmic rays (GCR--made up of high-energy protons and high charge (Z and energy (E (HZE nuclei. GCR exposure rate increases about three times as spacecraft venture out of Earth orbit into deep space where protection of the Earth's magnetosphere and solid body are lost. NASA's radiation standard limits astronaut exposures to a 3% risk of exposure induced death (REID at the upper 95% confidence interval (CI of the risk estimate. Fatal cancer risk has been considered the dominant risk for GCR, however recent epidemiological analysis of radiation risks for circulatory diseases allow for predictions of REID for circulatory diseases to be included with cancer risk predictions for space missions. Using NASA's models of risks and uncertainties, we predicted that central estimates for radiation induced mortality and morbidity could exceed 5% and 10% with upper 95% CI near 10% and 20%, respectively for a Mars mission. Additional risks to the central nervous system (CNS and qualitative differences in the biological effects of GCR compared to terrestrial radiation may significantly increase these estimates, and will require new knowledge to evaluate.

  16. Chemical and radiation environmental risk management at the crossroads: Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, N.; Burke, T.; Locke, P.

    1999-01-01

    Although many of the major environmental risk management decisions we face today require the simultaneous evaluation and control of both radiological and chemical risks, the separation of radiation and chemical risk management persists along legal, regulatory, programmatic, training and professional practice levels. In June 1998, a panel of 40 chemical and radiation risk experts met at an interactive workshop entitled 'Addressing the Similarities and Differences in Chemical and Radiation Environmental Risk Management,' in Annapolis, Maryland to discuss several perspectives on harmonizing chemical and radiation risk management approaches. At the conclusion of the meeting, workshop participants recommended that case studies of clean-up sites at which radioactive materials and hazardous chemical risks were addressed, be developed to help educate participants in the harmonization dialogue about their counterpart's issues, stimulate discussion and sharpen issues in a way that they can be resolved. Several key risk management issues that were highlighted from the discussion at the Annapolis meeting are being evaluated in the case studies. They include: decision criteria, costs and public/stakeholder input. This paper presents these key issues and the approach taken in the case studies. (author)

  17. Sarcopenia, balance and risk of falling in a sample of Portuguese community-dwelling older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Beatriz; Tomás, Mª Teresa; Quirino, Diogo

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims: Given the growing aging index, Portuguese population is particularly exposed to a higher risk of falls, which is related to decreased levels of lower limbs muscle mass and strength. These factors are a consequence of sarcopenia which has been associated with higher risk of falling. Handgrip strength is a clinical marker of risk of disability and cut-off points for defining sarcopenia through handgrip strength have been identified. The purpose of this study was to characte...

  18. Risk of cancer after low doses of ionising radiation: retrospective cohort study in 15 countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardis, E; Vrijheid, M; Blettner, M; Gilbert, E; Hakama, M; Hill, C; Howe, G; Kaldor, J; Muirhead, C R; Schubauer-Berigan, M; Yoshimura, T; Bermann, F; Cowper, G; Fix, J; Hacker, C; Heinmiller, B; Marshall, M; Thierry-Chef, I; Utterback, D; Ahn, Y-O; Amoros, E; Ashmore, P; Auvinen, A; Bae, J-M; Solano, J Bernar; Biau, A; Combalot, E; Deboodt, P; Sacristan, A Diez; Eklof, M; Engels, H; Engholm, G; Gulis, G; Habib, R; Holan, K; Hyvonen, H; Kerekes, A; Kurtinaitis, J; Malker, H; Martuzzi, M; Mastauskas, A; Monnet, A; Moser, M; Pearce, M S; Richardson, D B; Rodriguez-Artalejo, F; Rogel, A; Tardy, H; Telle-Lamberton, M; Turai, I; Usel, M; Veress, K

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To provide direct estimates of risk of cancer after protracted low doses of ionising radiation and to strengthen the scientific basis of radiation protection standards for environmental, occupational, and medical diagnostic exposures. Design Multinational retrospective cohort study of cancer mortality. Setting Cohorts of workers in the nuclear industry in 15 countries. Participants 407 391 workers individually monitored for external radiation with a total follow-up of 5.2 million person years. Main outcome measurements Estimates of excess relative risks per sievert (Sv) of radiation dose for mortality from cancers other than leukaemia and from leukaemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, the main causes of death considered by radiation protection authorities. Results The excess relative risk for cancers other than leukaemia was 0.97 per Sv, 95% confidence interval 0.14 to 1.97. Analyses of causes of death related or unrelated to smoking indicate that, although confounding by smoking may be present, it is unlikely to ex