WorldWideScience

Sample records for balancing radiation benefits

  1. Balancing radiation benefits and risks: The needs of an informed public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The American public`s perceptions regarding ionizing radiation do not always conform to or correlate with scientific evidence. The ultimate purpose of this coordinated Federal effort and report is to increase the public`s knowledge of the benefits and risks associated with ionizing radiation. This report is divided into five sections. The first section, Introduction, discusses the public`s knowledge of radiation, their perceptions of benefits versus risks, and the Federal government`s role in public education. The section also outlines the charge to the Subpanel. Radiation Issues and Public Reactions discusses several radiation issues important to Federal agencies for which public education programs need to be established or enhanced. Federal Programs describes Federal agencies with public education programs on radiation and the nature of the programs they support. Education Issues and Federal Strategies explores the elements identified by the Subpanel as critical to the development and implementation of an effective Federal program in the area of public education on radiation issues and nuclear technologies. An important issue repeatedly brought up during the public sector presentations to the Subpanel was the perceived lack of Federal credibility on radiation issues in the eyes of the public. To some degree, this concern was factored into all of the recommendations developed by the subpanel. The issues discussed in this section include the fragmented nature of Federal radiation programs and the need to improve credibility, promote agency responsiveness, and support the enhancement of scientific literacy. Finally, under Recommendations, the Subpanel discusses its overall findings and conclusions.

  2. Radiation balances and the solar constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crommelynck, D.

    1981-01-01

    The radiometric concepts are defined in order to consider various types of radiation balances and relate them to the diabetic form of the energy balance. Variability in space and time of the components of the radiation field are presented. A specific concept for sweeping which is tailored to the requirements is proposed. Finally, after establishing the truncated character of the present knowledge of the radiation balance. The results of the last observations of the solar constant are given. Ground and satellite measurement techniques are discussed.

  3. Radiation force and balance of electromagnetic momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, I.; Jiménez, J. L.; Roa-Neri, J. A. E.

    2016-07-01

    Some force densities can be expressed as a divergence of a stress tensor, as is the case with the electromagnetic force density. We have shown elsewhere that from the Maxwell equations several balance equations of electromagnetic momentum can be derived, depending on the form these equations are expressed in terms of fields E, D, B, H, and polarisations P and M. These balance equations imply different force densities and different stress tensors, providing a great flexibility to solve particular problems. Among these force densities we have found some proposed in the past with plausibility arguments, like the Einstein-Laub force density, while other proposed force densities appear as particular or limit cases of these general force densities, like the Helmholtz force density. We calculate the radiation force of an electromagnetic wave incident on a semi-infinite negligibly absorbing material using these balance equations, corroborating in this way that the surface integration of the stress tensor gives the same result that the calculation made through a volume integration of the force density, as done by Bohren. As is usual in applications of Gauss’s theorem, the surface on which the surface integral is to be performed must be chosen judiciously, and due care of discontinuities on the boundary conditions must be taken. Advanced undergraduates and graduate students will find a different approach to new aspects of the interaction of radiation with matter.

  4. Theoretical analysis of radiation-balanced double clad fiber laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ji-xin; SUI Zhan; CHEN Fu-shen; LI Ming-zhong; WANG Jian-jun

    2005-01-01

    In this letter,a theoretical model of radiation-balanced double clad fiber laser is presented.The characteristic of the laser with Yb doped double clad fiber is analyzed numerically.It is concluded that high output laser power can be obtained by selecting output coupling mirror with lower reflectivity,improving Yb doped concentration and choosing fiber length. This result can help us to design radiation balanced fiber laser.

  5. How to balance cardiorenometabolic benefits and risks of statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Soo; Oh, Pyung Chun; Sakuma, Ichiro; Koh, Kwang Kon

    2014-08-01

    Statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, are important for preventing adverse cardiovascular events not only in patients with a high risk of vascular disease but also in those with a low risk, by reducing the levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Statin is associated with deteriorating glucose homeostasis and an increased risk of diabetes mellitus. Moreover, these off-target effects are dose-dependent; it has also been suggested that renal insult can be caused dose-dependently by statin treatment, in contrast to previous studies showing a renoprotective effect. The 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines recommend the use of high-intensity statin therapy, and extend its use to more people at risk of vascular diseases. However, a European committee has expressed concerns about the potential side effects of using statins in a large fraction of the population for extended periods. This is true of Asian people, for whom the disease burden from cardiovascular disorders is not as great as among Western ethnic groups. There are still many unanswered questions on how to balance the cardiovascular benefits with the potential renometabolic risks of statins. Therefore, genetic or pharmacogenetic approaches are needed to define who is more vulnerable to developing diabetes mellitus or acute kidney injury. In particular, more information is required regarding the metabolism of statins, and their off-target or unknown actions and overall impact. These different renometabolic effects of statins should help in formulating optimal therapeutic strategies for patients for reducing overall morbidity and mortality and not just those associated with cardiovascular diseases.

  6. 76 FR 67105 - Cash Balance Plans; Benefit Determinations and Plan Valuations for Statutory Hybrid Plans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... would apply to all statutory hybrid plans. If a cash balance plan uses a fixed interest rate as of the..., however, when a cash balance plan uses a variable interest rate--e.g., a rate that changes annually under... CORPORATION 29 CFR Parts 4001, 4022, 4041, and 4044 RIN 1212-AB17 Cash Balance Plans; Benefit...

  7. Lung cancer screening in the NELSON trial: balancing harms and benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Horeweg (Nanda)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this thesis, the harms and benefits of lung cancer screening using low-dose computed tomography were investigated. Data of the Dutch-Belgian NELSON trial were used to quantify its harms and benefits and develop strategies to improve the balance between them. If the N

  8. Potential benefits of magnetic suspension and balance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawing, Pierce L.; Dress, David A.; Kilgore, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    The potential of Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems (MSBS) to improve conventional wind tunnel testing techniques is discussed. Topics include: elimination of model geometry distortion and support interference to improve the measurement accuracy of aerodynamic coefficients; removal of testing restrictions due to supports; improved dynamic stability data; and stores separation testing. Substantial increases in wind tunnel productivity are anticipated due to the coalescence of these improvements. Specific improvements in testing methods for missiles, helicopters, fighter aircraft, twin fuselage transports and bombers, state separation, water tunnels, and automobiles are also forecast. In a more speculative vein, new wind tunnel test techniques are envisioned as a result of applying MSBS, including free-flight computer trajectories in the test section, pilot-in-the-loop and designer-in-the-loop testing, shipboard missile launch simulation, and optimization of hybrid hypersonic configurations. Also addressed are potential applications of MSBS to such diverse technologies as medical research and practice, industrial robotics, space weaponry, and ore processing in space.

  9. Evaluating the UK and Dutch defined benefit policies using the holistic balance sheet framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Z.; Pelsser, A.; Ponds, E.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares the UK and Dutch occupational defined-benefit pension policies using the holistic balance sheet (HBS) framework. The UK DB pension system differs from the Dutch one in terms of the steering tools and adjustment mechanisms. In addition to the sponsor guarantee, the UK system has t

  10. Cancellation of coherent synchrotron radiation kicks with optics balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mitri, S; Cornacchia, M; Spampinati, S

    2013-01-01

    Minimizing transverse emittance is essential in linear accelerators designed to deliver very high brightness electron beams. Emission of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR), as a contributing factor to emittance degradation, is an important phenomenon to this respect. A manner in which to cancel this perturbation by imposing certain symmetric conditions on the electron transport system has been suggested.We first expand on this idea by quantitatively relating the beam Courant-Snyder parameters to the emittance growth and by providing a general scheme of CSR suppression with asymmetric optics, provided it is properly balanced along the line. We present the first experimental evidence of this cancellation with the resultant optics balance of multiple CSR kicks: the transverse emittance of a 500 pC, sub-picosecond, high brightness electron beam is being preserved after the passage through the achromatic transfer line of the FERMI@Elettra free electron laser, and emittance growth is observed when the optics balance is intentionally broken. We finally show the agreement between the theoretical model and the experimental results. This study holds the promise of compact dispersive lines with relatively large bending angles, thus reducing costs for future electron facilities.

  11. Work–life balance policies: Challenges and benefits associated with implementing flexitime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Downes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Helping employees to balance their work and family lives is a business imperative. Work–life balance policies (like flexitime aim to support employees to do so. However, implementing these policies is problematic.Research purpose: The aim of this article is to report on the challenges and benefits associated with implementing flexitime as a work–life balance policy.Motivation for the study: Organisations must develop and implement work–life balance policies. This requires human resource practitioners to investigate and understand experiences and perceptions about the challenges and benefits of flexitime.Research design, approach and method: The researcher used a qualitative research design with an exploratory approach. She drew a nonprobability purposive and voluntary sample (n = 15 from the financial sector. She used semi-structured in-depth interviews to collect the data and conducted content analyses to analyse and interpret them.Main findings: The researcher extracted four main themes (individual and general challenges, the aspects organisations need to implement flexitime effectively and the benefits that would follow its implementation from the data. Its benefits vary from work–life balance to employee loyalty and commitment. Some challenges are maintaining productivity, a shortage of critical resources and understanding flexitime.Practical/managerial implications: The research identified requirements that human resource practitioners should attend to in order to ensure that organisations use flexitime more effectively.Contribution/value-add: The researcher obtained unique findings about the minimum requirements for implementing flexitime effectively. They could assist organisations to address the challenges that employees face.

  12. Mass balance re-analysis of Findelengletscher, Switzerland; benefits of extensive snow accumulation measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo eSold

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A re-analysis is presented here of a 10-year mass balance series at Findelengletscher, a temperate mountain glacier in Switzerland. Calculating glacier-wide mass balance from the set of glaciological point balance observations using conventional approaches, such as the profile or contour method, resulted in significant deviations from the reference value given by the geodetic mass change over a five-year period. This is attributed to the sparsity of observations at high elevations and to the inability of the evaluation schemes to adequately estimate accumulation in unmeasured areas. However, measurements of winter mass balance were available for large parts of the study period from snow probings and density pits. Complementary surveys by helicopter-borne ground-penetrating radar (GPR were conducted in three consecutive years. The complete set of seasonal observations was assimilated using a distributed mass balance model. This model-based extrapolation revealed a substantial mass loss at Findelengletscher of -0.43m w.e. a^-1 between 2004 and 2014, while the loss was less pronounced for its former tributary, Adlergletscher (-0.30m w.e. a^-1. For both glaciers, the resulting time series were within the uncertainty bounds of the geodetic mass change. We show that the model benefited strongly from the ability to integrate seasonal observations. If no winter mass balance measurements were available and snow cover was represented by a linear precipitation gradient, the geodetic mass balance was not matched. If winter balance measurements by snow probings and snow density pits were taken into account, the model performance was substantially improved but still showed a significant bias relative to the geodetic mass change. Thus the excellent agreement of the model-based extrapolation with the geodetic mass change was owed to an adequate representation of winter accumulation distribution by means of extensive GPR measurements.

  13. Using the balanced scorecard to characterize benefits of integration in the safety net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Rebecca; Weiner, Bryan

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a comprehensive framework depicting the potential benefits of integration among health-care providers that serve vulnerable populations. Research teams interviewed participants in 12 integrated functions across seven community health-centre-led networks. Functions included clinical processes; managed care contracting; and administrative services such as human resources, finance, and information systems. Using a Balanced Scorecard framework, benefits were identified across financial, customer, internal business, and learning and growth perspectives. Financial benefits were more frequently cited relative to managed care and administrative functions than relative to clinical functions. Clinical functions were frequently characterized by perceived improvements in patient care quality, while managed-care functions appeared to yield most benefits in access. Administrative functions were most often associated with improvements in internal business operations. There were substantial findings in learning and growth across all three types of integration, in keeping with the early stages of the integrated functions in the study. Findings imply that integration among health-care providers yields a wide range of benefits, but not necessarily quickly or financial in nature.

  14. The variability of radiative balance elements and air temperature on the Asian region of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Kharyutkina

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The variability of spatial-temporal distribution of temperature and radiative and heat balances components is investigated for the Asian territory of Russia (45–80° N, 60–180° E using JRA-25, NCEP/DOE AMIP reanalysis data and observational data for the period of current global warming 1979–2008. It is shown that since the beginning of 90s of XX century the increase of back earth-atmosphere short-wave radiation is observed. Such tendency is in conformity with the cloud cover dynamics and downward short-wave radiation at the surface. Annual averaged radiative balance values at the top are negative; it is consistent with negative annual averaged air temperature, averaged over territory. The downward trend of radiative balance is the most obvious after the beginning of 90s of XX century.

  15. Radiation Dose Risk and Diagnostic Benefit in Imaging Investigations

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrescu, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents many facets of medical imaging investigations radiological risks. The total volume of prescribed medical investigations proves a serious lack in monitoring and tracking of the cumulative radiation doses in many health services. Modern radiological investigations equipment is continuously reducing the total dose of radiation due to improved technologies, so a decrease in per caput dose can be noticed, but the increasing number of investigations has determined a net increase of the annual collective dose. High doses of radiation are cumulated from Computed Tomography investigations. An integrated system for radiation safety of the patients investigated by radiological imaging methods, based on smart cards and Public Key Infrastructure allow radiation absorbed dose data storage.

  16. Investigation of the Impacts of Measured and Calculated Radiation Balance Components on Evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akataş, Nilcan; Yeşilköy, Serhan; Şaylan, Levent

    2016-04-01

    Determination of surface energy balance over agricultural lands plays a crucial role to better investigation of sustainable agriculture and food security which are related to evapotranspiration. Surface energy balance components that include net shortwave and longwave radiation depend on surface conditions like surface albedo and climate of a region. Surface albedo is ratio between reflected longwave radiation and incoming shortwave radiation. There are many different crops in agriculture ecosystem. Thus, surface energy balance components vary by vegetation surfaces. Net radiation is most important component of surface energy balance which is difference between net shortwave and longwave radiation. These are calculated by commonly used equations and applied to the FAO Penman& Monteith equation using meteorological stations' data located in cities. However, there are differences between urban areas and agricultural ecosystems. This situation causes to the calculation errors. In this research, it is aimed to investigate the changes between estimated and measured surface energy balance components which are estimated by meteorological stations' data in the urban area and measurements from an rural area over winter wheat surface 2014-2015 growing season in Thrace Region located in the Northwestern part of Turkey, Kırklareli city. Keywords: Surface energy balance, winter wheat, FAO Penman-Monteith, Kırklareli/Turkey

  17. Communication of benefits and risks of medical radiation: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timins, Julie K

    2011-11-01

    X-rays were discovered by Wilhelm Röntgen in 1895. Within one year, benefits of x-rays, such as visualization of fractures, and detriments, such as x-ray dermatitis, were recognized. Nobel Laureates Pierre and Marie Sklodowska Curie discovered the radioactive element radium in 1898, and a year later the application of radiation to cure cancer was reported. A significant price was paid for this: Marie Curie died of aplastic anemia related to her radiation exposure, and her daughter Irene Joliot Curie, Nobelist for radiochemical research, died of radiation-induced leukemia. Internationally developed radiation protection recommendations were formalized starting in the late 1920s. The increasing use of ionizing radiation in medical diagnosis and radiation therapy has brought significant societal benefits. Known risks of therapeutic radiation include coronary artery disease and secondary malignancy. However, recently concerns have been raised of possible very small but incremental increases in malignancies due to diagnostic medical radiation. Patients are largely unaware of, and referring physicians and even radiologists often underestimate, the carcinogenic effects of radiation. There is a need to determine the appropriateness of imaging tests that use ionizing radiation prior to performance; optimize imaging protocols to reduce unnecessary radiation; include patients in the decision process and encourage and enable them to track their radiation exposure; and promote education about medical radiation to patients, referring physicians, radiologists, and members of the public. The basic radiation protection principles of justification, optimization, and application of dose limits still pertain.

  18. Radiative properties of the urban fabric derived from surface form analysis: A simplified solar balance model

    OpenAIRE

    BERNABE, Anne; Musy, Marjorie; ANDRIEU, Hervé; Calmet, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Urban shape determines the absorption and emission of radiation. Urban fabrics are characterized by the solar trapping effect due to multiple reflections of radiation within the geometry, in turn generating increased energy absorption that contributes to the urban heat island. Interactions between urban radiative properties and urban shape are studied through an analytical development. A simplified solar balance model is developed based on morphological indicators. A processing chain is perfo...

  19. Balancing Risk and Benefit in Heavy Drinkers Treated with Topiramate: Implications for Personalized Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinn, Richard; Curtis, Brenda; Kranzler, Henry R.

    2016-01-01

    Despite topiramate's ability to reduce heavy drinking, its adverse effects may limit its clinical utility. Methods To evaluate the risks and benefits of topiramate, we re-analyzed data from a completed trial of the medication in 138 heavy drinkers whose goal was to reduce their drinking to safe levels. We used no heavy drinking days during the last four weeks of treatment to calculate topiramate's number needed to treat (NNT). To balance the risks and benefits of topiramate, we adjusted the NNT using two different levels of adverse event severity: moderate or greater (NNT-AEmod+) and severe or greater (NNT-AEsev+). This helps to guide the clinical use of topiramate in heavy drinkers by incorporating both its beneficial and adverse effects in a single measure. Because a polymorphism (rs2832407) in the gene encoding a kainate receptor subunit appears to moderate topiramate's effects in heavy drinkers, we repeated the analyses based on rs2832407 genotype (C-homozygote vs. A-allele carrier) in the European-American (EA) subsample (n=122). Results Overall, the NNT for topiramate was 5.29, the NNT-AEmod+ 7.52, and the NNT-AEsev+ 6.12. Among EAs with the rs2832407*CC genotype, the NNT was 2.28, the NNT-AEmod+ was 2.63, and the NNT-AEsev+ was 2.56. In contrast, for rs2832407*A-allele carriers, the NNT was 180.00, the NNT-AEmod+ 322.16, and the NNT-AEsev+ 217.45. Conclusions In this sample of heavy drinkers, topiramate had a clinically important treatment effect that was most evident in EAs with the rs2832407*CC genotype. In that group, in particular, it had a robust treatment effect even when adjusted for adverse events. PMID:26891181

  20. BALANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, H.

    1953-01-01

    A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.

  1. Benefits of multi-session balance and gait training with multi-modal biofeedback in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Shannon B; Horslen, Brian C; Davis, Justin R; Allum, John H J; Carpenter, Mark G

    2016-06-01

    Real-time balance-relevant biofeedback from a wearable sensor can improve balance in many patient populations, however, it is unknown if balance training with biofeedback has lasting benefits for healthy older adults once training is completed and biofeedback removed. This study was designed to determine if multi-session balance training with and without biofeedback leads to changes in balance performance in healthy older adults; and if changes persist after training. 36 participants (age 60-88) were randomly divided into two groups. Both groups trained on seven stance and gait tasks for 2 consecutive weeks (3×/week) while trunk angular sway and task duration were monitored. One group received real-time multi-modal biofeedback of trunk sway and a control group trained without biofeedback. Training effects were assessed at the last training session, with biofeedback available to the feedback group. Post-training effects (without biofeedback) were assessed immediately after, 1-week, and 1-month post-training. Both groups demonstrated training effects; participants swayed less when standing on foam with eyes closed (EC), maintained tandem-stance EC longer, and completed 8 tandem-steps EC faster and with less sway at the last training session. Changes in sway and duration, indicative of faster walking, were also observed after training for other gait tasks. While changes in walking speed persisted post-training, few other post-training effects were observed. These data suggest there is little added benefit to balance training with biofeedback, beyond training without, in healthy older adults. However, transient use of wearable balance biofeedback systems as balance aides remains beneficial for challenging balance situations and some clinical populations.

  2. Climatic Benefit of Swiss Forest Cover Change: Including Albedo Change into Net Carbon Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaab, J.; Lehning, M.; Bebi, P.

    2012-12-01

    Forests influence climate through physical, chemical and biological processes. It has been shown that warming caused by the comparatively low albedo of forests (albedo-effect), can reduce or even exceed cooling caused by carbon storage in forests (CO2-effect). Although warming caused by albedo and the amount of carbon storage depend on local characteristics, studies are lacking that investigate the combined local patterns of albedo and CO2-effect. Our study area, Switzerland, provides a variety of geographical features and thus the possibility to show how different geographical variables influence the two effects. We used the concept of radiative forcing to compare the effect of a changing albedo and a change in atmospheric CO2 concentration due to land cover change in the past. The change of forest cover was analysed over a period of 12 years based on aerial photographs. We estimate the albedo-effect by combining albedo data derived from the satellite sensor MODIS and data on snow cover derived from the satellite sensor AVHRR. Changes in carbon storage were calculated as differences in biomass and soil stocks of specific land cover classes. We found carbon storage induced cooling to be higher than albedo induced warming everywhere in Switzerland. However, especially in altitudes over 1200 m the albedo-effect reduced the benefits of carbon storage by more than 50%. In lower altitudes the albedo change was less important. The albedo-effect in altitudes above 1200 m was more relevant because of a more persistent snow-cover, a slightly higher global radiation and less additional carbon storage. The relevance of warming caused by an albedo change did not only depend on altitude, but also on the characteristics of forest cover change. While transitions from open land to open forest were accompanied by high albedo changes, the albedo change was only marginal if open forest turned into closed forest. Since snow cover has a large influence on the albedo effect, we included

  3. Communication of radiation benefits and risks in decision making: some lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Paul A

    2011-11-01

    This paper is focused on summarizing the "lessons learned" from discussions at the 2010 NCRP Annual Meeting on effective communications on the subject of radiation benefits and risks in public exposures. Five main lessons learned are discussed in regard to effective methods of public communication: the use of new social media communication tools such as Facebook and Twitter, emergency situations that require rapid societal and personal messaging, medical radiological procedures where benefits must be described in comparison to long-term health risks of radiation exposures, and information that should be provided to stakeholders in situations such as environmental radionuclide contamination to which members of the public may be exposed. It is concluded that effective communications in which radiation benefits are contrasted with health risks of exposure are an important aspect of making and implementing decisions on employing radiation health protection procedures.

  4. A modified Wheeler cap method for radiation efficiency measurement of balanced electrically small antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jiaying; Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of radiation efficiency for ultra small antennas represents a great challenge due to influence of the feeding cable. The Wheeler cap method is often used to measure the radiation efficiency of small antennas. However, it is well applicable for antennas on a ground plane......, but not for balanced antennas like loops or dipoles. In this paper, a modified Wheeler cap method is proposed for the radiation efficiency measurement of balanced electrically small antennas and a three-port network model of the Wheeler cap measurement is introduced. The advantage of the modified method...... is that it is wideband, thus does not require any balun, and both the antenna input impedance and radiation efficiency can be obtained. An electrically small loop antenna and a wideband dipole were simulated and measured according to the proposed method and the results of measurements and simulations are presented...

  5. Benefit of regional energy balancing service on wind integration in the western interconnection of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, Michael; Kirby, Brendan; King, Jack [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Beuning, Stephen [Xcel Energy Inc., Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Interest in various wide-area balancing schemes to help integrate wind have generated significant interest. As we have shown in past work, large balancing areas not only help with wind integration, but can also increase the efficiency of operations in systems without wind. Recent work on the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) has found that combining balancing over the WestConnect footprint will increase the efficiency of commitment and dispatch at wind penetrations ranging from 10-30% of annual electricity demand, and will be essential for high penetrations and small balancing areas. In addition the northwest Wind Integration Action Plan recommended balancing area cooperation as a method to help integrate the large potential wind development. In this paper we investigate the potential impact of a proposed Energy Imbalance Service on the ability of the non-market portions of Western Electricity Coordinating Councils (WECC) United States footprint to integrate wind energy. We will utilize data adapted from the WWSIS for the Western Interconnection. The analysis uses time-synchronized wind and load data to evaluate the potential for ramp requirement reduction that could be achieved with combined operation. Chronological analysis and ramp duration analysis quantify the benefit in terms of not only the ramp sizes, but the frequency of the potentially avoided ramps that must be managed by the non-wind generation fleet. Multiple approaches that can be used to achieve these benefits are also suggested in the paper. We also suggest other approaches that can help achieve much of the benefit of full consolidation without requiring the physical consolidation of balancing areas. (orig.)

  6. [Balancing risks and benefits of mammography screening for breast cancer: would you support its recommendation in Peruvian women?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posso, Margarita; Puig, Teresa; Bonfill, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the balance between benefits and risks of population-based mammography screening programs in Peruvian women. We followed the criteria proposed by the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) working group. A generic search strategy for published studies was performed using Medline and other sources of national data (gray literature). The evidence of benefits, risks, costs and preferences of the population was used in order to state a recommendation in favour, or against, screening. We found five systematic reviews (SR) that evaluated the balance between benefit and risks, two economic evaluations based on Peruvian data, and one study that reported the preferences of Peruvian women. The quality of evidence of the SR was moderate in favour of screening in women aged 50-69 years. The balance of risks and benefits showed a higher probability of overdiagnosis compared with the reduction in mortality. The most cost-effective strategy was the triennial mammography. Perceived barriers could seriously compromise the participation of women. In conclusion, the recommendation of mammography screening for Peruvian women is weak, even more if we take into account other health necessities of the population. However, if implemented, triennial mammography in women aged 50-69 years could be the more suitable screening strategy.

  7. Study of the Radiation Balance in the Southern Mato Grosso Pantanal Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvalá, Regina C. S.; von Randow, Rita C. S.

    2009-03-01

    The results from two micrometeorological data sets obtained during both the dry season of 1999 (September), and the transition from the dry to the rainy season of 2000 (September to November) in the Southern Mato Grosso Pantanal are described. The components of the radiation balance were evaluated, as well as the estimation of the net radiation, through the global incident radiation and the short wave radiation balances. The estimation of the ratio between the photosynthetically active radiation and the global incident radiation was obtained for both data sets. The analysis of the net radiation in the near infrared region, plus the evaluation of the variability of the albedo in the short wave, PAR and near infrared regions, and the estimation of the albedo as a function of the solar zenith angle were carried out. The results show that, from one year to the other, there were significant variations in certain components of the radiation balance. They were due specially to the differences in the surface conditions, that is, drier vegetation in 1999, opposed to a greener subsequent year. The average value of the ratio between incident photosynthetically active and global incident radiations for the 1999 period was 0.48±0.02, while for the 2000 period it was 0.46±0.01. The average albedo of the solar (αK), of the PAR (αPAR) and of the NIR (αIR) radiations, for the days considered in 1999 were, respectively, 0.17±0.02, 0.08±0.01 and 0.26±0.03; for 2002, they were, respectively, 0.17±0.02, 0.06±0.01 and 0.26±0.06. Finally, it should be noted that the variation of the microclimatic and the radiation parameters between 1999 and 2000 are related with the different conditions observed in both periods, that is, the presence of aerosols in the atmosphere due to the occurrence of fires in the region in 1999, and the occurrence of rainfall and the changes in the cloudiness in 2000.

  8. The long-term benefits of a multi-component exercise intervention to balance and mobility in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, M; Hill, K D; Ball, M; Hetherington, S; Williams, A D

    2011-01-01

    We examined the long-term effects of a multi-component exercise program on balance, mobility and exercise behavior. The benefits of a community-based resistance and flexibility exercise intervention in a group of healthy older (60-75 years) individuals were recorded 12 months after completion of the randomized control intervention. Differences between those participants who continued to exercise and those who discontinued were investigated. Significant improvements from baseline in sit to stand (pexercise intervention group, with a control group unchanged. Participants who continued exercising had significantly greater improvements in strength immediately after the intervention, compared to those who discontinued (p=0.004). Those who continued regular resistance training performed better in the step test at 12-month follow up (p=0.009) and believed that the program was of more benefit to their physical activity (pexercising. Benefits to balance and mobility persist 1 year after participation in a multi-component exercise program, due in part to some continuing participation in resistance training. Motivation to continue resistance training may be related real and perceived benefits attained from the intervention as well as the environmental context of the intervention.

  9. The benefit of the European User Community from transnational access to national radiation facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrier, Elise; Manuel Braz Fernandes, Francisco; Bujan, Maya

    2014-01-01

    Transnational access (TNA) to national radiation sources is presently provided via programmes of the European Commission by BIOSTRUCT-X and CALIPSO with a major benefit for scientists from European countries. Entirely based on scientific merit, TNA allows all European scientists to realise...

  10. Balancing benefits and costs of autmated task allocation in mobile surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streefkerk, J.W.; Esch-Bussemakers, M. van; Neerincx, M.

    2010-01-01

    Motivation - Automated task allocation systems are prone to errors (e.g. incorrect advice) due to context events. Empirical assessment is needed of how the costs of incorrect task allocation advice relate to the benefits. Research approach - Claims regarding benefits and costs are tested in a team s

  11. Influence of snow cover changes on surface radiation and heat balance based on the WRF model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lingxue; Liu, Tingxiang; Bu, Kun; Yang, Jiuchun; Chang, Liping; Zhang, Shuwen

    2016-07-01

    The snow cover extent in mid-high latitude areas of the Northern Hemisphere has significantly declined corresponding to the global warming, especially since the 1970s. Snow-climate feedbacks play a critical role in regulating the global radiation balance and influencing surface heat flux exchange. However, the degree to which snow cover changes affect the radiation budget and energy balance on a regional scale and the difference between snow-climate and land use/cover change (LUCC)-climate feedbacks have been rarely studied. In this paper, we selected Heilongjiang Basin, where the snow cover has changed obviously, as our study area and used the WRF model to simulate the influences of snow cover changes on the surface radiation budget and heat balance. In the scenario simulation, the localized surface parameter data improved the accuracy by 10 % compared with the control group. The spatial and temporal analysis of the surface variables showed that the net surface radiation, sensible heat flux, Bowen ratio, temperature and percentage of snow cover were negatively correlated and that the ground heat flux and latent heat flux were positively correlated with the percentage of snow cover. The spatial analysis also showed that a significant relationship existed between the surface variables and land cover types, which was not obviously as that for snow cover changes. Finally, six typical study areas were selected to quantitatively analyse the influence of land cover types beneath the snow cover on heat absorption and transfer, which showed that when the land was snow covered, the conversion of forest to farmland can dramatically influence the net radiation and other surface variables, whereas the snow-free land showed significantly reduced influence. Furthermore, compared with typical land cover changes, e.g., the conversion of forest into farmland, the influence of snow cover changes on net radiation and sensible heat flux were 60 % higher than that of land cover changes

  12. The variability of radiative balance elements and air temperature over the Asian region of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Kharyutkina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The variability of spatial-temporal distribution of temperature and heat balance elements is investigated for the Asian territory of Russia (45–80° N, 60–180° E using JRA-25, NCEP/DOE AMIP-II reanalysis data and observational data for the period of global warming 1979–2008. It is shown that temperature trend over the territory is 1.4 °C for the period under study according to reanalysis data. Since the beginning of 90s of 20th century the increase of back earth-atmosphere shortwave radiation is observed. Such tendency is in conformity with the cloud cover distribution and downward shortwave radiation at the surface. Regression model describing temperature variability with variability of heat balance elements was presented. We conclude that possible applications for the model include the convenient estimate of temperature variability according to reanalysis data.

  13. Current and future impacts of ultraviolet radiation on the terrestrial carbon balance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W. Kolby SMITH; Wei GAO; Heidi STELTZER

    2009-01-01

    One of the most documented effects of human activity on our environment is the reduction of stratospheric ozone resulting in an increase of biologically harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation. In a less predictable manner, UV radiation incident at the surface of the earth is expected to be further modified in the future as a result of altered cloud condition, atmospheric aerosol concentration, and snow cover. Although UV radiation comprises only a small fraction of the total solar radiation that is incident at the earth's surface, it has the greatest energy per unit wavelength and, thus, the greatest potential to damage the biosphere. Recent investigations have highlighted numerous ways that UV radiation could potentially affect a variety of ecological processes, including nutrient cycling and the terrestrial carbon cycle. The objectives of the following literature review are to summarize and synthesize the available information relevant to the effects of UV radiation and other climate change factors on the terrestrial carbon balance in an effort to highlight current gaps in knowledge and future research directions for UV radiation research.

  14. The Impact of Balanced Risk-Benefit Information and Initial Attitudes on Post-Information Attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van H.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Jonge, de J.; Rowe, G.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    In a realistic social context, people are confronted with both positive and negative information, yet research on this topic is relatively scarce. We present 2 studies examining the role of initial attitudes on the impact of one-sided vs. balanced positive and negative information on attitudes towar

  15. Psychological Benefits of Nonpharmacological Methods Aimed for Improving Balance in Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šumec, Rastislav; Filip, Pavel; Sheardová, Kateřina; Bareš, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a serious condition with a major negative impact on patient's physical and mental health. Postural instability is one of the cardinal difficulties reported by patients to deal with. Neuroanatomical, animal, and clinical studies on nonparkinsonian and parkinsonian subjects suggest an important correlation between the presence of balance dysfunction and multiple mood disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and apathy. Considering that balance dysfunction is a very common symptom in PD, we can presume that by its management we could positively influence patient's state of mind too. This review is an analysis of nonpharmacological methods shown to be effective and successful for improving balance in patients suffering from PD. Strategies such as general exercise, robotic assisted training, Tai Chi, Qi Gong, Yoga, dance (such as tango or ballet), box, virtual reality-based, or neurofeedback-based techniques and so forth can significantly improve the stability in these patients. Beside this physical outcome, many methods have also shown effect on quality of life, depression level, enjoyment, and motivation to continue in practicing the method independently. The purpose of this review is to provide information about practical and creative methods designed to improve balance in PD and highlight their positive impact on patient's psychology.

  16. Use of benefit-cost analysis in establishing Federal radiation protection standards: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, L.E.

    1979-10-01

    This paper complements other work which has evaluated the cost impacts of radiation standards on the nuclear industry. It focuses on the approaches to valuation of the health and safety benefits of radiation standards and the actual and appropriate processes of benefit-cost comparison. A brief historical review of the rationale(s) for the levels of radiation standards prior to 1970 is given. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established numerical design objectives for light water reactors (LWRs). The process of establishing these numerical design criteria below the radiation protection standards set in 10 CFR 20 is reviewed. EPA's 40 CFR 190 environmental standards for the uranium fuel cycle have lower values than NRC's radiation protection standards in 10 CFR 20. The task of allocating EPA's 40 CFR 190 standards to the various portions of the fuel cycle was left to the implementing agency, NRC. So whether or not EPA's standards for the uranium fuel cycle are more stringent for LWRs than NRC's numerical design objectives depends on how EPA's standards are implemented by NRC. In setting the numerical levels in Appendix I to 10 CFR 50 and 40 CFR 190 NRC and EPA, respectively, focused on the costs of compliance with various levels of radiation control. A major portion of the paper is devoted to a review and critique of the available methods for valuing health and safety benefits. All current approaches try to estimate a constant value of life and use this to vaue the expected number of lives saved. This paper argues that it is more appropriate to seek a value of a reduction in risks to health and life that varies with the extent of these risks. Additional research to do this is recommended. (DC)

  17. Benefits of active transmit balanced antenna fed by differential power amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Sagor, Md. Hasanuzzaman; Callaghan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A differential amplifier feeding a balanced antenna is investigated experimentally. This approach would suit modern RFIC design rather than using a 50Ω unbalanced connection. As such the balun or power-combining network is eliminated resulting in a compact RF front-end design with wider bandwidth and lower losses. Experimental result shows that this technique promises higher output power compared to conventional feeding approach while using same RFIC and same power supply.

  18. Exercise in children with common congenital heart lesions: balancing benefits with risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Melanie; Selvadurai, Hiran; Sherwood, Megan; Fitzgerald, Dominic A

    2013-10-01

    Children with corrected common congenital heart lesions are often withheld from regular exercise by their parents. While there are some modest risks with exercise, they should be seen in perspective, and the life-long benefits of regular exercise on general health, mood and well-being should be emphasised.

  19. Balancing the harms and benefits of early detection of prostate cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van Leeuwen (Pim); D. Connolly (David); T.L. Tammela (Teuvo); A. Auvinen (Anssi); R. Kranse (Ries); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique); F.H. Schröder (Fritz); A.T. Gavin (Anna)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The benefits of prostate cancer screening on an individual level remain unevaluated. METHODS: Between 1993 and 1999, a total of 43,987 men, aged 55-74 years, were included in the intervention arm of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) sectio

  20. Balancing the Harms and Benefits of Early Detection of Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Pim J.; Connolly, David; Tammela, Teuvo L. J.; Auvinen, Anssi; Kranse, Ries; Roobol, Monique J.; Schroder, Fritz H.; Gavin, Anna

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The benefits of prostate cancer screening on an individual level remain unevaluated. METHODS: Between 1993 and 1999, a total of 43,987 men, aged 55-74 years, were included in the intervention arm of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) section in the Net

  1. Energy and carbon balances in cheatgrass, an essay in autecology. [Shortwave radiation, radiowave radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinds, W.T.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment to determine the fates of energy and carbon in cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) was carried out on steep (40/sup 0/) north- and south-facing slopes on a small earth mound, using many small lysimeters to emulate swards of cheatgrass. Meteorological conditions and energy fluxes that were measured included air and soil temperatures, relative humidity, wind speed, incoming shortwave radiation, net all-wave radiation, heat flux to the soil, and evaporation and transpiration separately. The fate of photosynthetically fixed carbon during spring growth was determined by analysis of the plant tissues into mineral nutrients, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) for roots, shoots, and seeds separately. (auth)

  2. Task and error analysis balancing benefits over business of electronic medical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Deborah Sater; Rodriguez, Walter; Wood, Michael B

    2014-01-01

    Task and error analysis research was performed to identify: a) the process for healthcare organisations in managing healthcare for patients with mental illness or substance abuse; b) how the process can be enhanced and; c) if electronic medical records (EMRs) have a role in this process from a business and safety perspective. The research question is if EMRs have a role in enhancing the healthcare for patients with mental illness or substance abuse. A discussion on the business of EMRs is addressed to understand the balancing act between the safety and business aspects of an EMR.

  3. Meridional trends in the radiative energy balance of the Venus mesosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. J.; Titov, D.; Ignatiev, N.; Tellmann, S.; Paetzold, M.; Piccioni, G.

    2012-04-01

    The Venus clouds play an important role in the radiative energy balance. Thermal cooling to space occurs from the cloud tops. Also almost half of the solar energy received by Venus is deposited at about the same altitude by the unknown UV absorber. Observations revealed the latitudinal trend in the aerosol structure with cloud top altitude decreasing from ~68 km in low latitudes to ~62 km in polar region and aerosol scale height changing from ~4 km to ~1-2 km. This results in significant changes in the radiative energy balance at the cloud tops and the mesosphere as well as global energy balance of the planet. Here we present calculations of the thermal flux in the 0-99 km altitude range using the latitude dependent cloud top structure. Aerosol and temperature profiles are based on the radio science experiment (VeRa) and the thermal spectrometer (VIRTIS) onboard Venus Express [1]. We used radiative transfer model merged with a fast line-by-line routine to calculate thermal fluxes in the broad wavenumber range from 50 to 2590 cm-1 (=3.86-200.0 μm). The cloud layers are responsible for thermal cooling below ~70 km altitude. The meridional changes in the upper clouds result in cooling rate variation 6-10 K/day along the latitude. Contribution of the CO2 emission to the outgoing flux becomes dominant above 70 km altitude. The outgoing flux shows maxima at equator (164 W/m2) and pole (171 W/m2) and a minimum (133 W/m2) in the "cold collar" region (50-60° S). The earlier studies of the solar heating rate were used to derive a meridional trend of the radiative energy balance. The comparison shows dominant thermal cooling in high latitudes and strong solar heating at low latitudes suggesting radiative disequilibrium, that implies a need for another, possibly dynamical, mechanism to maintain the observed temperature and cloud structure [2,3].

  4. Do fallers and nonfallers equally benefit from balance specific exercise program? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugelj, Darja; Tomšič, Marija; Sevšek, France

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the sample size that would allow broad generalizability of the results. To investigate the differences in the responsiveness of fallers and nonfallers to a multicomponent functional balance specific program, 23 participating subjects (70.1 ± 6.6 years) were divided into nonfallers group (13) and fallers group (10). The components of the balance specific program were (1) changing of the center of gravity (CoG) in the vertical direction, (2) shifting of the CoG to the border of stability, (3) rotation of the head and body about the vertical axis, (4) standing and walking on soft surface, and (5) walking over obstacles or on a narrow path. At the end of eight months of the training program, there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding postural sway. The total center of pressure path length was used as the principal outcome measure for the sample size calculation. Based on these results the a priori sample size calculation yielded the estimate of 110 subjects required to be enrolled in order to get 20 subjects in fallers and 30 subjects in nonfallers group for the 80% power to detect the results as significant.

  5. Radiation balance at the surface in the city of São Paulo, Brazil: diurnal and seasonal variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, M.J.; Oliveira, de A.P.; Soares, J.; Codato, G.; Wilde Barbaro, E.; Escobedo, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this work is to describe the diurnal and seasonal variations of the radiation balance components at the surface in the city of São Paulo based on observations carried out during 2004. Monthly average hourly values indicate that the amplitudes of the diurnal cycles of net radiation (

  6. Radiative energy balance of Venus: An approach to parameterize thermal cooling and solar heating rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haus, R.; Kappel, D.; Arnold, G.

    2017-03-01

    Thermal cooling rates QC and solar heating rates QH in the atmosphere of Venus at altitudes between 0 and 100 km are investigated using the radiative transfer and radiative balance simulation techniques described by Haus et al. (2015b, 2016). QC strongly responds to temperature profile and cloud parameter changes, while QH is less sensitive to these parameters. The latter mainly depends on solar insolation conditions and the unknown UV absorber distribution. A parameterization approach is developed that permits a fast and reliable calculation of temperature change rates Q for different atmospheric model parameters and that can be applied in General Circulation Models to investigate atmospheric dynamics. A separation of temperature, cloud parameter, and unknown UV absorber influences is performed. The temperature response parameterization relies on a specific altitude and latitude-dependent cloud model. It is based on an algorithm that characterizes Q responses to a broad range of temperature perturbations at each level of the atmosphere using the Venus International Reference Atmosphere (VIRA) as basis temperature model. The cloud response parameterization considers different temperature conditions and a range of individual cloud mode factors that additionally change cloud optical depths as determined by the initial latitude-dependent model. A QH response parameterization for abundance changes of the unknown UV absorber is also included. Deviations between accurate calculation and parameterization results are in the order of a few tenths of K/day at altitudes below 90 km. The parameterization approach is used to investigate atmospheric radiative equilibrium (RE) conditions. Polar mesospheric RE temperatures above the cloud top are up to 70 K lower and equatorial temperatures up to 10 K higher than observed values. This radiative forcing field is balanced by dynamical processes that maintain the observed thermal structure.

  7. EDITORIAL: The Earth radiation balance as driver of the global hydrological cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Martin; Liepert, Beate

    2010-06-01

    Variations in the intensity of the global hydrological cycle can have far-reaching effects on living conditions on our planet. While climate change discussions often revolve around possible consequences of future temperature changes, the adaptation to changes in the hydrological cycle may pose a bigger challenge to societies and ecosystems. Floods and droughts are already today amongst the most damaging natural hazards, with floods being globally the most significant disaster type in terms of loss of human life (Jonkman 2005). From an economic perspective, changes in the hydrological cycle can impose great pressures and damages on a variety of industrial sectors, such as water management, urban planning, agricultural production and tourism. Despite their obvious environmental and societal importance, our understanding of the causes and magnitude of the variations of the hydrological cycle is still unsatisfactory (e.g., Ramanathan et al 2001, Ohmura and Wild 2002, Allen and Ingram 2002, Allan 2007, Wild et al 2008, Liepert and Previdi 2009). The link between radiation balance and hydrological cycle Globally, precipitation can be approximated by surface evaporation, since the variability of the atmospheric moisture storage is negligible. This is the case because the fluxes are an order of magnitude larger than the atmospheric storage (423 x 1012 m3 year-1 versus 13 x 1012 m3 according to Baumgartner and Reichel (1975)), the latter being determined by temperature (Clausius-Clapeyron). Hence the residence time of evaporated water in the atmosphere is not more than a few days, before it condenses and falls back to Earth in the form of precipitation. Any change in the globally averaged surface evaporation therefore implies an equivalent change in precipitation, and thus in the intensity of the global hydrological cycle. The process of evaporation requires energy, which it obtains from the surface radiation balance (also known as surface net radiation), composed of the

  8. Earth radiation balance as observed and represented in CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Martin; Folini, Doris; Schär, Christoph; Loeb, Norman; König-Langlo, Gert

    2014-05-01

    The genesis and evolution of Earth's climate is largely regulated by the Earth radiation balance. Despite of its key role in the context of climate change, substantial uncertainties still exist in the quantification of the magnitudes of its different components, and its representation in climate models. While the net radiative energy flows in and out of the climate system at the top of atmosphere are now known with considerable accuracy from new satellite programs such as CERES and SORCE, the energy distribution within the climate system and at the Earth's surface is less well determined. Accordingly, the magnitudes of the components of the surface energy balance have recently been controversially disputed, and potential inconsistencies between the estimated magnitudes of the global energy and water cycle have been emphasized. Here we summarize this discussion as presented in Chapter 2.3 of the 5th IPCC assessment report (AR5). In this context we made an attempt to better constrain the magnitudes of the surface radiative components with largest uncertainties. In addition to satellite observations, we thereby made extensive use of the growing number of surface observations to constrain the radiation balance not only from space, but also from the surface. We combined these observations with the latest modeling efforts performed for AR5 (CMIP5) to infer best estimates for the global mean surface radiative components. Our analyses favor global mean values of downward surface solar and thermal radiation near 185 and 342 Wm-2, respectively, which are most compatible with surface observations (Wild et al. 2013). These estimates are on the order of 10 Wm-2 lower and higher, respectively, than in some of the previous global energy balance assessments, including those presented in previous IPCC reports. It is encouraging that these estimates, which make full use of the information contained in the surface networks, coincide within 2 Wm-2 with the latest satellite

  9. Regional Modeling of Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing over East Asia using WRF-Chem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Siyu; Zhao, Chun; Qian, Yun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, J.; Huang, Zhongwei; Bi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wu; Shi, Jinsen; Yang, Lei; Li, Deshuai; Li, Jinxin

    2014-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to investigate the seasonal and annual variations of mineral dust over East Asia during 2007-2011, with a focus on the dust mass balance and radiative forcing. A variety of measurements from in-stu and satellite observations have been used to evaluate simulation results. Generally, WRF-Chem reproduces not only the column variability but also the vertical profile and size distribution of mineral dust over and near the dust source regions of East Asia. We investigate the dust lifecycle and the factors that control the seasonal and spatial variations of dust mass balance and radiative forcing over the seven sub-regions of East Asia, i.e. source regions, the Tibetan Plateau, Northern China, Southern China, the ocean outflow region, and Korea-Japan regions. Results show that, over the source regions, transport and dry deposition are the two dominant sinks. Transport contributes to ~30% of the dust sink over the source regions. Dust results in a surface cooling of up to -14 and -10 W m-2, atmospheric warming of up to 20 and 15 W m-2, and TOA cooling of -5 and -8 W m-2 over the two major dust source regions of East Asia, respectively. Over the Tibetan Plateau, transport is the dominant source with a peak in summer. Over identified outflow regions, maximum dust mass loading in spring is contributed by the transport. Dry and wet depositions are the comparably dominant sinks, but wet deposition is larger than dry deposition over the Korea-Japan region, particularly in spring (70% versus 30%). The WRF-Chem simulations can generally capture the measured features of dust aerosols and its radaitve properties and dust mass balance over East Asia, which provides confidence for use in further investigation of dust impact on climate over East Asia.

  10. An examination of Mars' north seasonal polar cap using MGS: Composition and infrared radiation balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Gary B.

    2013-08-01

    A detailed analysis of data from one revolution of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) is presented. Approximately 80% of this revolution observes the mid-winter northern seasonal polar cap, which covers the surface to night. The surface composition and temperature are determined through analysis of 6-50 μm infrared spectra from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES). The infrared radiative balance, which is the entire heat balance in the polar night except for small subsurface and atmospheric advection terms, is calculated for the surface and atmospheric column. The primary constituent, CO2 ice, also dominates the infrared spectral properties by variations in its grain size and by admixtures of dust and water ice, which cause large variations in the 20-50 μm emissivity. This is modified by incomplete areal coverage, and clouds or hazes. This quantitative analysis reveals CO2 grain radii ranging from ˜100 μm in isolated areas, to 1-5 mm in more widespread regions. The water ice content varies from none to about one part per thousand by mass, with a clear increase towards the periphery of the polar cap. The dust content is typically a few parts per thousand by mass, but is as much as an order of magnitude less abundant in "cold spot" regions, where the low emissivity of pure CO2 ice is revealed. This is the first quantitative analysis of thermal spectra of the seasonal polar cap and the first to estimate water ice content. Our models show that the cold spots represent cleaner, dust-free ice rather than finer grained ice than the background. Our guess is that the dust in cold spots is hidden in the center of the CO2 frost particles rather than not present. The fringes of the cap have more dust and water ice, and become patchy, with warmer water snow filling the gaps on the night side, and warmer bare soil on the day side. A low optical depth (night side, and appears with smaller optical depth on the day side. The infrared radiative balance at the surface is typically

  11. Role of net radiation on energy balance closure in heterogeneous grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Shao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Low energy balance closure (EBC at a particular eddy-covariance flux site increased the uncertainties of carbon, water and energy measurements and thus hampered the urgent research of scaling up and modeling analysis through site combinations. A series of manipulative experiments were conducted in this study to explore the role of net radiation (Rn in the EBC in relation to spatial variability of vegetation characteristics, source area, sensor type, and dome condition in the Inner Mongolian grassland of Northern China. At all three sites, the daytime peak residual fluxes of EBC were consistently about 100 W m−2 regardless of radiometers (i.e., REBS Q7.1 or CNR1. The spatial variability in net radiation was 19 W m−2 (5% of Rn during the day and 7 W m−2 (16% at night, with an average of 13 W m−2 (11% from eight plot measurements across the three sites. Net radiation results were affected more by measurement source area in unclipped heterogeneous system than in clipped homogeneous vegetation. Large area measurement significantly (P<0.0001 increased by 9 W m−2 during the day and decreased by 4 W m−2 at night in unclipped treatments. With an increase in clipping intensity, net radiation decreased by 25 W m−2 (6% of Rn at midday and 81 MJ m−2 (6% during a growing season with heavier regular clipping than that in unclipped treatments. Additional effort in EBC between 9:00 and 15:00 LT is needed for future research because of high variation. Using this method, the EBC difference derived from the two types of net radiometers was only 6 W m−2. Results from Q7.1 with new domes were higher during the day but lower at night than those with used domes. Overall, the inclusion of the uncertainty in available energy accounted for 60% of the 100 W m−2 shortfalls in the lack

  12. A Mechanism of Solar Variability Effect on Radiative Balance of the Earth Atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. A. Zherebtsov; V.A. Kovalenko; S.I. Molodykh

    2005-01-01

    Possible mechanisms of solar-climatic connections, which may be of importance as over short and long time intervals, are discussed. The variations of energetic balance of Earth's climatic system for the last fifty years are estimated. It is ascertained that the disbalance between the flux of solar energy that comes to the Earth and radiates to space is of 0.1% for the last ten years. The suggested mechanism makes it possible to explain not only the observed variation of the enthalpy of the Earth's climatic system for the period 1910-1980, but also the climate anomalies during last thousand years: the climate optimum in 12 century, and"small glacial period" in 16-17 centuries.

  13. Survival Benefit of Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for Gastric Cancer following Gastrectomy and Extended Lymphadenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Snyder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Although randomized trials suggest a survival benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy (XRT for gastric adenocarcinoma, its use in patients who undergo an extended lymphadenectomy is less clear. The purpose of this study was to determine if a survival benefit exists in gastric cancer patients who receive adjuvant XRT following resection with extended lymphadenectomy. Methods. The SEER registry was queried for records of patients with resected gastric adenocarcinoma from 1988 to 2007. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to assess independent prognostic factors affecting overall survival (OS and disease-specific survival (DSS. Results. Of 15,060 patients identified, 3,208 (21% received adjuvant XRT. Adjuvant XRT was independently associated with improved OS (HR 0.67, CI 0.64–0.71 and DSS (HR 0.69, CI 0.65–0.73 in stages IB through IV (M0. This OS and DSS benefit persisted regardless of the extent of lymphadenectomy. Furthermore, lymphadenectomy with >25 LN resected was associated with improved OS and DSS compared with 25 LNs results in improved OS and DSS compared with patients who have fewer LNs resected.

  14. Test models for estimating radiation balance in different scales for Jaboticabal, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquíria de Alencar Beserra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The net radiation (Rn in agroecosystems is the amount of energy that is available in the environment to heating processes of living organisms, air and soil; perspiration of animals and plants; photosynthesis and water evaporation. The Rn defines the type of climate and weather conditions prevailing in a region affecting the availability and thermal water, the fundamental understanding of genotype-environment, which ultimately determine the productivity of the agricultural system. Rn usually is used in models of weather and climate studies. The sustainability and economic viability of zootechnical activity is dependent on the positive interaction between animal and environment. Environmental factors such as water, shading, thermal exchanges sensible heat (conduction, convection and radiation skin and latent heat losses (evaporation and transpiration, conditioned by Rn, must be managed to provide the best results. The present study was conducted to develop and test models for accurate and precise radiation balance on the scales daily, monthly and seasonal ten-day for Jaboticabal - SP, due to the importance of estimates of net radiation for agricultural activities. We used daily meteorological data from weather station located in Jaboticabal, SP (coordinates: 21 ° 14'05 "South, 48 ° 17'09" West, 615m altitude at Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio Mesquita Filho" - FCAV/UNESP in a situation of default grass "Bahiagrass" during the period 20/08/2005 to 20/01/2012. The data used were the maximum temperature (Tmax, minimum (Tmin and mean (TMED; maximum relative humidity (URMáx, minimum (URMín and average (URMéd precipitation (mm, average velocity (m/s, Qo, solar radiation (MJ m-2, sunshine (hour meter (MJ m², soil temperature at two depths (Tsoil2CM, Tsoil5CM and class A pan evaporation (TCA (mm. The measures taken by the balance radiometer were taken as a reference to test other models. The models tested were those reported by NORMAN et al

  15. Radiative energy balance of Venus based on improved models of the middle and lower atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haus, R.; Kappel, D.; Tellmann, S.; Arnold, G.; Piccioni, G.; Drossart, P.; Häusler, B.

    2016-07-01

    The distribution of sources and sinks of radiative energy forces the atmospheric dynamics. The radiative transfer simulation model described by Haus et al. (2015b) is applied to calculate fluxes and temperature change rates in the middle and lower atmosphere of Venus (0-100 km) covering the energetic significant spectral range 0.125-1000 μm. The calculations rely on improved models of atmospheric parameters (temperature profiles, cloud parameters, trace gas abundances) retrieved from Venus Express (VEX) data (mainly VIRTIS-M-IR, but also VeRa and SPICAV/SOIR with respect to temperature results). The earlier observed pronounced sensitivity of the radiative energy balance of Venus to atmospheric parameter variations is confirmed, but present detailed comparative analyses of possible influence quantities ensure unprecedented insights into radiative forcing on Venus by contrast with former studies. Thermal radiation induced atmospheric cooling rates strongly depend on temperature structure and cloud composition, while heating rates are mainly sensitive to insolation conditions and UV absorber distribution. Cooling and heating rate responses to trace gas variations and cloud mode 1 abundance changes are small, but observed variations of cloud mode 2 abundances and altitude profiles reduce cooling at altitudes 65-80 km poleward of 50°S by up to 30% compared to the neglect of cloud parameter changes. Cooling rate variations with local time below 80 km are in the same order of magnitude. Radiative effects of the unknown UV absorber are modeled considering a proxy that is based on a suitable parameterization of optical properties, not on a specific chemical composition, and that is independent of the used cloud model. The UV absorber doubles equatorial heating near 68 km. Global average radiative equilibrium at the top of atmosphere (TOA) is characterized by the net flux balance of 156 W/m2, the Bond albedo of 0.76, and the effective planetary emission temperature of 228

  16. Uncertainty in modeling dust mass balance and radiative forcing from size parameterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zhao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the uncertainties in simulating mass balance and radiative forcing of mineral dust due to biases in the dust size parameterization. Simulations are conducted quasi-globally (180° W–180° E and 60° S–70° N using the WRF-Chem model with three different approaches to represent dust size distribution (8-bin, 4-bin, and 3-mode. The biases in the 3-mode or 4-bin approaches against a relatively more accurate 8-bin approach in simulating dust mass balance and radiative forcing are identified. Compared to the 8-bin approach, the 4-bin approach simulates similar but coarser size distributions of dust particles in the atmosphere, while the 3-mode approach retains more fine dust particles but fewer coarse dust particles due to its prescribed σg of each mode. Although the 3-mode approach yields up to 10 days longer dust mass lifetime over the remote oceanic regions than the 8-bin approach, the three size approaches produce similar dust mass lifetime (3.2 days to 3.5 days on quasi-global average, reflecting that the global dust mass lifetime is mainly determined by the dust mass lifetime near the dust source regions. With the same global dust emission (∼6000 Tg yr-1, the 8-bin approach produces a dust mass loading of 39 Tg, while the 4-bin and 3-mode approaches produce 3% (40.2 Tg and 25% (49.1 Tg higher dust mass loading, respectively. The difference in dust mass loading between the 8-bin approach and the 4-bin or 3-mode approaches has large spatial variations, with generally smaller relative difference (-2 and atmospheric warming (0.39∼0.96 W m-2 and in a tremendous difference of a factor of ∼10 in dust TOA cooling (-0.24∼-2.20 W m-2. An uncertainty of a factor of 2 is quantified in dust emission estimation due to the different size parameterizations. This study also highlights the uncertainties in modeling dust mass and number loading, deposition fluxes, and radiative forcing resulting from different size

  17. On energy balance and the structure of radiated waves in kinetics of crystalline defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Basant Lal

    2016-11-01

    Traveling waves, with well-known closed form expressions, in the context of the defects kinetics in crystals are excavated further with respect to their inherent structure of oscillatory components. These are associated with, so called, Frenkel-Kontorova model with a piecewise quadratic substrate potential, corresponding to the symmetric as well as asymmetric energy wells of the substrate, displacive phase transitions in bistable chains, and brittle fracture in triangular lattice strips under mode III conditions. The paper demonstrates that the power expended theorem holds so that the sum of rate of working and the rate of total energy flux into a control strip moving steadily with the defect equals the rate of energy sinking into the defect, in the sense of N.F. Mott. In the conservative case of the Frenkel-Kontorova model with asymmetric energy wells, this leads to an alternative expression for the mobility in terms of the energy flux through radiated lattice waves. An application of the same to the case of martensitic phase boundary and a crack, propagating uniformly in bistable chains and triangular lattice strips, respectively, is also provided and the energy release is expressed in terms of the radiated energy flux directly. The equivalence between the well-known expressions and their alternative is established via an elementary identity, which is stated and proved in the paper as the zero lemma. An intimate connection between the three distinct types of defects is, thus, revealed in the framework of energy balance, via a structural similarity between the corresponding variants of the 'zero' lemma containing the information about radiated energy flux. An extension to the dissipative models, in the presence of linear viscous damping, is detailed and analog of the zero lemma is proved. The analysis is relevant to the dynamics of dislocations, brittle cracks, and martensitic phase boundaries, besides possible applications to analogous physical contexts which are

  18. Does adjuvant radiation therapy benefit women with small mammography-detected breast cancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerzak, K.; Dudalski, N.; Pritchard, K.; Sun, P.; Narod, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Women with small nonpalpable breast tumours have an excellent prognosis. The benefit of radiotherapy in this group of low-risk women is unknown. Methods A cohort of 1595 women with stages i–iii invasive breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery were followed for local recurrence. Using t-tests, baseline demographic data and tumour characteristics were compared for the women who had palpable (n = 1023) and mammography-detected (n = 572) breast cancers. The 15-year actuarial risk of local recurrence was estimated using a Kaplan–Meier method, stratified for adjuvant radiation therapy (yes or no), tumour palpability (palpable or not), and tumour size (≤1 cm or >1 cm). Hazard ratios (hrs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% cis) were calculated using a multivariate Cox regression model. Results were considered statistically significant if 2-tailed p values were less than 0.05. Results Among women with a nonpalpable tumour, the 15-year actuarial rates of local recurrence were, respectively, 13.9% and 18.3% for those treated and not treated with adjuvant radiation therapy (hr: 0.65; 95%ci: 0.40 to 1.06; p = 0.08). Among women with small nonpalpable breast cancers (≤1.0 cm), the rates were 14.6% and 13.4% respectively (p = 0.67). The absolute reduction in 15-year local recurrence was 11.0% for women with palpable tumours. Conclusions Our results suggest that women with small (<1 cm) screen-detected nonpalpable breast cancers likely derive little benefit from adjuvant radiotherapy; however, an adequately powered randomized trial would be required to make definitive conclusions. PMID:28270722

  19. Great Lakes waters: radiation dose commitments, potential health effects, and cost-benefit considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainsworth, E.J.

    1977-07-01

    In 1972, a Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement was signed by the United States and Canadian Governments. It was stipulated that the operation and effectiveness of the agreement were to be reviewed comprehensively in 1977. Aspects of the agreement concern nondegradation of Great Lakes waters and maintenance of levels of radioactivity or other potential pollutants at levels considered as low as practicable. A refined radioactivity objective of one millirem is proposed in the Water Quality Agreement. The implications of adoption of this objective are not known fully. The Division of Environmental Impact Studies was commissioned by ERDA's Division of Technology Overview to summarize the information available on the current levels of radioactivity in Great Lakes waters, compute radiation-dose commitment (integrated dose over 50 years after consumption of 2.2 liters of water of one year), and to comment on the feasibility and cost-benefit considerations associated with the refined one-millirem objective. Current levels of radioactivity in the waters of Lakes Michigan, Ontario, Erie, and Huron result in dose commitments in excess of 1 mrem for whole body and 6 mrem for bone. Future projections of isotope concentrations in Great lakes water indicate similar dose commitments for drinking water in the year 2050. Reduction of the levels of radioactivity in Great Lakes waters is not feasible, but cost-benefit considerations support removal of /sup 226/Ra and /sup 90/Sr through interceptive technology before water consumption. Adoption of the one-millirem objective is not propitious.

  20. Who Benefits From Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for Gastric Cancer? A Meta-Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohri, Nitin, E-mail: ohri.nitin@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Garg, Madhur K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Aparo, Santiago; Kaubisch, Andreas [Department of Medical Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Tome, Wolfgang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Kennedy, Timothy J. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Kalnicki, Shalom; Guha, Chandan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Large randomized trials have demonstrated significant survival benefits with the use of adjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiation therapy for gastric cancer. The importance of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) remains unclear. We performed an up-to-date meta-analysis of randomized trials testing the use of RT for resectable gastric cancer. Methods and Materials: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomized trials testing adjuvant (including neoadjuvant) RT for resectable gastric cancer. Hazard ratios describing the impact of adjuvant RT on overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were extracted directly from the original studies or calculated from survival curves. Pooled estimates were obtained using the inverse variance method. Subgroup analyses were performed to determine whether the efficacy of RT varies with chemotherapy use, RT timing, geographic region, type of nodal dissection performed, or lymph node status. Results: Thirteen studies met all inclusion criteria and were used for this analysis. Adjuvant RT was associated with a significant improvement in both OS (HR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.70-0.86, P<.001) and DFS (HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.63-0.80, P<.001). In the 5 studies that tested adjuvant chemoradiation therapy against adjuvant chemotherapy, similar effects were seen for OS (HR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.67-1.03, P=.087) and DFS (HR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.91-0.65, P=.002). Available data did not reveal any subgroup of patients that does not benefit from adjuvant RT. Conclusion: In randomized trials for resectable gastric cancer, adjuvant RT provides an approximately 20% improvement in both DFS and OS. Available data do not reveal a subgroup of patients that does not benefit from adjuvant RT. Further study is required to optimize the implementation of adjuvant RT for gastric cancer with regard to patient selection and integration with systemic therapy.

  1. Low-level radiation: biological interactions, risks, and benefits. A bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-09-01

    The bibliography contains 3294 references that were selected from the Department of Energy's data base (EDB). The subjects covered are lower-level radiation effects on man, environmental radiation, and other biological interactions of radiation that appear to be applicable to the low-level radiation problem.

  2. Reconstruction of daily erythemal UV radiation values for the last century - The benefit of modelled ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junk, J.; Feister, U.; Rozanov, E.; Krzyścin, J. W.

    2013-05-01

    Solar erythemal UV radiation (UVER) is highly relevant for numerous biological processes that affect plants, animals, and human health. Nevertheless, long-term UVER records are scarce. As significant declines in the column ozone concentration were observed in the past and a recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer is anticipated by the middle of the 21st century, there is a strong interest in the temporal variation of UVER time series. Therefore, we combined groundbased measurements of different meteorological variables with modeled ozone data sets to reconstruct time series of daily totals of UVER at the Meteorological Observatory Potsdam, Germany. Artificial neural networks were trained with measured UVER, sunshine duration, the day of year, measured and modeled total column ozone, as well as the minimum solar zenith angle. This allows for the reconstruction of daily totals of UVER for the period from 1901 to 1999. Additionally, analyses of the long-term variations from 1901 until 1999 of the reconstructed, new UVER data set are presented. The time series of monthly and annual totals of UVER provide a long-term meteorological basis for epidemiological investigations in human health and occupational medicine for the region of Potsdam and Berlin. A strong benefit of our ANN-approach is the fact that it can be easily adapted to different geographical locations, as successfully tested in the framework of the COSTAction 726.

  3. An overview of current practice in external beam radiation oncology with consideration to potential benefits and challenges for nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Raymond B; McMahon, Stephen J; Hyland, Wendy B; Jain, Suneil; Butterworth, Karl T; Prise, Kevin M; Hounsell, Alan R; McGarry, Conor K

    2017-01-01

    Over the past two decades, there has been a significant evolution in the technologies and techniques employed within the radiation oncology environment. Over the same period, extensive research into the use of nanotechnology in medicine has highlighted a range of potential benefits to its incorporation into clinical radiation oncology. This short communication describes key tools and techniques that have recently been introduced into specific stages of a patient's radiotherapy pathway, including diagnosis, external beam treatment and subsequent follow-up. At each pathway stage, consideration is given towards how nanotechnology may be combined with clinical developments to further enhance their benefit, with some potential opportunities for future research also highlighted. Prospective challenges that may influence the introduction of nanotechnology into clinical radiotherapy are also discussed, indicating the need for close collaboration between academic and clinical staff to realise the full clinical benefit of this exciting technology.

  4. Radiation Balance of Urban Materials and Their Thermal Impact in Semi-Desert Region: Mexicali, México Study Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Santillán-Soto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Net radiation is an essential forcing of climate in the lower layers of Earth’s atmosphere. In this paper, radiation balance is measured in clay soil and green grass, and is compared with three urban materials. These materials: asphalt, concrete and white painted elastomeric polystyrene roofing sheet are widely used in Mexicali, Baja California, México. This study was carried out during August of 2011, the hottest time of the year. The 24-hour average values of net radiation found were: 137.2 W·m−2 for asphalt, 119.1 for concrete, 104.6 for clay soil, 152 for green grass and 29.2 for the polystyrene insulation. The latter two types of materials are likely to be the most effective in reducing urban heat island effects. This variation in the radiation balance has widespread implications for human living conditions, as land cover change tends to be towards surfaces that have higher levels of net radiation.

  5. Application of the modified Wheeler cap method for radiation efficiency measurement of balanced electrically small antennas in complex environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jiaying; Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, application of a modified Wheeler cap method for the radiation efficiency measurement of balanced electrically small antennas is presented. It is shown that the limitations on the cavity dimension can be overcome and thus measurement in a large cavity is possible. The cavity loss...... is investigated, and a modified radiation efficiency formula that includes the cavity loss is introduced. Moreover, a modification of the technique is proposed that involves the antenna working complex environment inside the Wheeler Cap and thus makes possible measurement of an antenna close to a hand or head...

  6. Benefit of Consolidative Radiation Therapy for Primary Bone Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Randa; Allen, Pamela K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Rodriguez, Alma [Department of Lymphoma and Myeloma, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Shihadeh, Ferial; Pinnix, Chelsea C.; Arzu, Isadora; Reed, Valerie K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Oki, Yasuhiro; Westin, Jason R.; Fayad, Luis E.; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey [Department of Lymphoma and Myeloma, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dabaja, Bouthaina, E-mail: bdabaja@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: Outcomes for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) differ according to the site of presentation. With effective chemotherapy, the need for consolidative radiation therapy (RT) is controversial. We investigated the influence of primary bone presentation and receipt of consolidative RT on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with DLBCL. Methods and Materials: We identified 102 patients with primary bone DLBCL treated consecutively from 1988 through 2013 and extracted clinical, pathologic, and treatment characteristics from the medical records. Survival outcomes were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, with factors affecting survival determined by log-rank tests. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done with a Cox regression model. Results: The median age was 55 years (range, 16-87 years). The most common site of presentation was in the long bones. Sixty-five patients (63%) received R-CHOP–based chemotherapy, and 74 (72%) received rituximab. RT was given to 67 patients (66%), 47 with stage I to II and 20 with stage III to IV disease. The median RT dose was 44 Gy (range, 24.5-50 Gy). At a median follow-up time of 82 months, the 5-year PFS and OS rates were 80% and 82%, respectively. Receipt of RT was associated with improved 5-year PFS (88% RT vs 63% no RT, P=.0069) and OS (91% vs 68%, P=.0064). On multivariate analysis, the addition of RT significantly improved PFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.14, P=.014) with a trend toward an OS benefit (HR=0.30, P=.053). No significant difference in PFS or OS was found between patients treated with 30 to 35 Gy versus ≥36 Gy (P=.71 PFS and P=.31 OS). Conclusion: Patients with primary bone lymphoma treated with standard chemotherapy followed by RT can have excellent outcomes. The use of consolidative RT was associated with significant benefits in both PFS and OS.

  7. Psychological Benefits of Nonpharmacological Methods Aimed for Improving Balance in Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rastislav Šumec; Pavel Filip; Kateřina Sheardová; Martin Bareš

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a serious condition with a major negative impact on patient’s physical and mental health. Postural instability is one of the cardinal difficulties reported by patients to deal with. Neuroanatomical, animal, and clinical studies on nonparkinsonian and parkinsonian subjects suggest an important correlation between the presence of balance dysfunction and multiple mood disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and apathy. Considering that balance dysfunction is a very co...

  8. How gamma radiation processing systems are benefiting from the latest advances in information technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Wayne H.; Levesque, Daniel

    2000-03-01

    This paper discusses how gamma irradiation plants are putting the latest advances in computer and information technology to use for better process control, cost savings, and strategic advantages. Some irradiator operations are gaining significant benefits by integrating computer technology and robotics with real-time information processing, multi-user databases, and communication networks. The paper reports on several irradiation facilities that are making good use of client/server LANs, user-friendly graphics interfaces, supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems, distributed I/O with real-time sensor devices, trending analysis, real-time product tracking, dynamic product scheduling, and automated dosimetry reading. These plants are lowering costs by fast and reliable reconciliation of dosimetry data, easier validation to GMP requirements, optimizing production flow, and faster release of sterilized products to market. There is a trend in the manufacturing sector towards total automation using "predictive process control". Real-time verification of process parameters "on-the-run" allows control parameters to be adjusted appropriately, before the process strays out of limits. Applying this technology to the gamma radiation process, control will be based on monitoring the key parameters such as time, and making adjustments during the process to optimize quality and throughput. Dosimetry results will be used as a quality control measurement rather than as a final monitor for the release of the product. Results are correlated with the irradiation process data to quickly and confidently reconcile variations. Ultimately, a parametric process control system utilizing responsive control, feedback and verification will not only increase productivity and process efficiency, but can also result in operating within tighter dose control set points.

  9. Psychological Benefits of Nonpharmacological Methods Aimed for Improving Balance in Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Šumec

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a serious condition with a major negative impact on patient’s physical and mental health. Postural instability is one of the cardinal difficulties reported by patients to deal with. Neuroanatomical, animal, and clinical studies on nonparkinsonian and parkinsonian subjects suggest an important correlation between the presence of balance dysfunction and multiple mood disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and apathy. Considering that balance dysfunction is a very common symptom in PD, we can presume that by its management we could positively influence patient’s state of mind too. This review is an analysis of nonpharmacological methods shown to be effective and successful for improving balance in patients suffering from PD. Strategies such as general exercise, robotic assisted training, Tai Chi, Qi Gong, Yoga, dance (such as tango or ballet, box, virtual reality-based, or neurofeedback-based techniques and so forth can significantly improve the stability in these patients. Beside this physical outcome, many methods have also shown effect on quality of life, depression level, enjoyment, and motivation to continue in practicing the method independently. The purpose of this review is to provide information about practical and creative methods designed to improve balance in PD and highlight their positive impact on patient’s psychology.

  10. The communication of the radiation risk from CT in relation to its clinical benefit in the era of personalized medicine: part 2: benefits versus risk of CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Sjirk J

    2014-10-01

    In order to personalize the communication of the CT risk, we need to describe the risk in the context of the clinical benefit of CT, which will generally be much higher, provided a CT scan has a well-established clinical indication. However as pediatric radiologists we should be careful not to overstate the benefit of CT, being aware that medico-legal pressures and the realities of health care economics have led to overutilization of the technology. And even though we should not use previously accumulated radiation dose to a child as an argument against conducting a clinically indicated scan (the "sunk-cost" bias), we should consider patients' radiation history in the diagnostic decision process. As a contribution to future public health, it makes more sense to look for non-radiating alternatives to CT in the much larger group of basically healthy children who are receiving occasional scans for widely prevalent conditions such as appendicitis and trauma than to attempt lowering CT use in the smaller group of patients with chronic conditions with a limited life expectancy. When communicating the CT risk with individual patients and their parents, we should acknowledge and address their concerns within the framework of informed decision-making. When appropriate, we may express the individual radiation risk, based on estimates of summated absorbed organ dose, as an order of magnitude rather than as an absolute number, and compare this with the much larger natural cancer incidence over a child's lifetime, and with other risks in medicine and daily life. We should anticipate that many patients cannot make informed decisions on their own in this complex matter, and we should offer our guidance while maintaining respect for patient autonomy. Proper documentation of the informed decision process is important for future reference. In concert with our referring physicians, pediatric radiologists are well-equipped to tackle the complexities associated with the communication

  11. The communication of the radiation risk from CT in relation to its clinical benefit in the era of personalized medicine. Pt. 2. Benefits versus risk of CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westra, Sjirk J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    In order to personalize the communication of the CT risk, we need to describe the risk in the context of the clinical benefit of CT, which will generally be much higher, provided a CT scan has a well-established clinical indication. However as pediatric radiologists we should be careful not to overstate the benefit of CT, being aware that medico-legal pressures and the realities of health care economics have led to overutilization of the technology. And even though we should not use previously accumulated radiation dose to a child as an argument against conducting a clinically indicated scan (the ''sunk-cost'' bias), we should consider patients' radiation history in the diagnostic decision process. As a contribution to future public health, it makes more sense to look for non-radiating alternatives to CT in the much larger group of basically healthy children who are receiving occasional scans for widely prevalent conditions such as appendicitis and trauma than to attempt lowering CT use in the smaller group of patients with chronic conditions with a limited life expectancy. When communicating the CT risk with individual patients and their parents, we should acknowledge and address their concerns within the framework of informed decision-making. When appropriate, we may express the individual radiation risk, based on estimates of summated absorbed organ dose, as an order of magnitude rather than as an absolute number, and compare this with the much larger natural cancer incidence over a child's lifetime, and with other risks in medicine and daily life. We should anticipate that many patients cannot make informed decisions on their own in this complex matter, and we should offer our guidance while maintaining respect for patient autonomy. Proper documentation of the informed decision process is important for future reference. In concert with our referring physicians, pediatric radiologists are well-equipped to tackle the complexities

  12. Estimated clinical benefit of protecting neurogenesis in the developing brain during radiation therapy for pediatric medulloblastoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomstrand, M.; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Munck af Rosenschöld, Per Martin

    2012-01-01

    to the whole-brain irradiation that is part of standard management. Neurogenesis is very sensitive to radiation, and limiting the radiation dose to the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ) may preserve neurocognitive function. Radiotherapy plans were created using 4 techniques: standard opposing...

  13. Nuclear energy and health: and the benefits of low-dose radiation hormesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttler, Jerry M; Pollycove, Myron

    2009-01-01

    Energy needs worldwide are expected to increase for the foreseeable future, but fuel supplies are limited. Nuclear reactors could supply much of the energy demand in a safe, sustainable manner were it not for fear of potential releases of radioactivity. Such releases would likely deliver a low dose or dose rate of radiation, within the range of naturally occurring radiation, to which life is already accustomed. The key areas of concern are discussed. Studies of actual health effects, especially thyroid cancers, following exposures are assessed. Radiation hormesis is explained, pointing out that beneficial effects are expected following a low dose or dose rate because protective responses against stresses are stimulated. The notions that no amount of radiation is small enough to be harmless and that a nuclear accident could kill hundreds of thousands are challenged in light of experience: more than a century with radiation and six decades with reactors. If nuclear energy is to play a significant role in meeting future needs, regulatory authorities must examine the scientific evidence and communicate the real health effects of nuclear radiation. Negative images and implications of health risks derived by unscientific extrapolations of harmful effects of high doses must be dispelled.

  14. Comparative analysis of different approaches to the computation of long-wave radiation balance of water air systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhukovsii, K.; Nourani, Y.; Monte, L. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Energia

    1999-07-01

    In the present paper, the net long-wave radiation balance of the water-air environmental systems is analysed on the base of several semi-empirical approaches. Various theoretical models of infrared atmospheric radiation are reviewed. Factors, affecting their behavior are considered. Special attention is paid to physical conditions under which those models are applicable. Atmospheric and net infrared radiation fluxes are computed and compared under clear and cloudy sky. Results are presented in graphical form. Conclusions are made on the applicability of models considered for evaluating infrared radiation fluxes in environmental conditions of Central Italy. On the base of present analysis Anderson's model is chosen for future calculations of heat budget of lakes in Central Italy. [Italian] Nel presente rapporto viene analizzato il bilancio della radiazione infrarossa per i sistemi acquatici sulla base di alcune formule semi-empiriche. Vengono esaminati vari modelli della radiazione infrarossa atmosferica e i fattori che la influenzano. I flussi di radiazione infrarossa dall'atmosfera in condizioni di cielo sereno e nuvoloso vengono calcolati e confrontati. L'analisi dell'applicabilita' dei modelli considerati per il calcolo dei flussi di radiazione infrarossa in corrispondenza delle condizioni ambientali dell'Italia centrale suggerisce di scegliere il modello di Anderson per la valutazione del bilancio calorico die laghi vulcanici.

  15. Balancing the benefits of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the risks of methylmercury exposure from fish consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahaffey, K. R.; Sunderland, E. M.; Chan, H. M.;

    2011-01-01

    risks of certain forms of heart disease in adults. However, fish and shellfish can also be a major source of methylmercury (MeHg), a known neurotoxicant that is particularly harmful to fetal brain development. This review documents the latest knowledge on the risks and benefits of seafood consumption......Fish and shellfish are widely available foods that provide important nutrients, particularly n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), to many populations globally. These nutrients, especially docosahexaenoic acid, confer benefits to brain and visual system development in infants and reduce...... for perinatal development of infants. It is possible to choose fish species that are both high in n-3 PUFAs and low in MeHg. A framework for providing dietary advice for women of childbearing age on how to maximize the dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs while minimizing MeHg exposures is suggested. (C) 2011...

  16. Radiation and energy balance dynamics over young chir pine (Pinus roxburghii) system in Doon of western Himalayas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nilendu Singh; Bimal K Bhattacharya; M K Nanda; Prafulla Soni; Jai Singh Parihar

    2014-10-01

    The regional impacts of future climate changes are principally driven by changes in energy fluxes. In this study, measurements on micrometeorological and biophysical variables along with surface energy exchange were made over a coniferous subtropical chir pine (Pinus roxburghii) plantation ecosystem at Forest Research Institute, Doon valley, India. The energy balance components were analyzed for two years to understand the variability of surface energy fluxes, their drivers, and closure pattern. The period covered two growth cycles of pine in the years 2010 and 2011 without and with understory growth. Net short wave and long wave radiative fluxes substantially varied with cloud dynamics, season, rainfall induced surface wetness, and green growth. The study clearly brought out the intimate link of albedo dynamics in chir pine system with dynamics of leaf area index (LAI), soil moisture, and changes in understory background. Rainfall was found to have tight linear coupling with latent heat fluxes. Latent heat flux during monsoon period was found to be higher in higher rainfall year (2010) than in lower rainfall year (2011). Higher or lower pre-monsoon sensible heat fluxes were succeeded by noticeably higher or lower monsoon rainfall respectively. Proportion of latent heat flux to net radiation typically followed the growth curve of green vegetation fraction, but with time lag. The analysis of energy balance closure (EBC) showed that the residual energy varied largely within ±30% of net available energy and the non-closure periods were marked by higher rainspells or forced clearance of understory growths.

  17. Balance of longwave radiation employing the rate of solar radiation for Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Zanini Righi

    Full Text Available New coefficients were determined for the weighting term for cloudiness in the Brunt-Penman equation using the rate of solar radiation (RK in place of the rate of sunshine duration (n/N. The coefficients in the Brutsaert method proposed for daytime in southern Brazil were also tested and adjusted, and the method was selected which gave the more accurate daily results in relation to the original Brunt-Penman equation, for Santa Maria in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (RS. Meteorological data covering 2,472 days obtained from the automatic and conventional weather stations in Santa Maria were used. The coefficients were adjusted by linear and nonlinear regression methods depending on the model, using 2/3 of the data. The adjusted equations were tested with the remaining 1/3 of the data. The Brunt-Penman equation modified by the term for cloudiness weighted both for solar radiation incident on the surface with no cloudiness (RK,R and for solar radiation incident at the top of the atmosphere (RK,K, were those that resulted in the best statistical indices relative to the original Brunt-Penman equation. In those equations the boundary conditions, 0.3 ≥ RK,R ≥ 1 or RK,K ≤ 0.22, were imposed. Although having similar statistical indices, a sensitivity analysis showed that the Brutsaert equation and other weightings for cloudiness resulted in larger deviations when compared to the original Brunt-Penman equation, in addition to having greater complexity for practical application.

  18. The impact of deforestation in the Amazonian atmospheric radiative balance: a remote sensing assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. Sena

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the Amazonian radiative budget after considering three aspects of deforestation: (i the emission of aerosols from biomass burning due to forest fires; (ii changes in surface albedo after deforestation and (iii modifications in the column water vapour amount over deforested areas. Simultaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES shortwave fluxes and aerosol optical depth (AOD retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MODIS were analysed during the peak of the biomass burning seasons (August and September from 2000 to 2009. A discrete-ordinate radiative transfer (DISORT code was used to extend instantaneous remote sensing radiative forcing assessments into 24-h averages. The mean direct radiative forcing of aerosols at the top of the atmosphere (TOA during the biomass burning season for the 10-yr studied period was −5.6 ± 1.7 W m−2. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of the direct radiative forcing of aerosols over Amazon was obtained for the biomass burning season of each year. It was observed that for high AOD (larger than 1 at 550 nm the imbalance in the radiative forcing at the TOA may be as high as −20 W m−2 locally. The surface reflectance plays a major role in the aerosol direct radiative effect. The study of the effects of biomass burning aerosols over different surface types shows that the direct radiative forcing is systematically more negative over forest than over savannah-like covered areas. Values of −15.7 ± 2.4 W m−2550 nm and −9.3 ± 1.7 W m−2550 nm were calculated for the mean daily aerosol forcing efficiencies over forest and savannah-like vegetation respectively. The overall mean annual albedo-change radiative forcing due to deforestation over the state of Rondônia, Brazil, was determined as −7.3 ± 0.9 W m−2. Biomass burning aerosols impact the radiative

  19. Energy balance and cost-benefit analysis of biogas production from perennial energy crops pretreated by wet oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uellendahl, Hinrich; Wang, Guangtao; Møller, H.B.

    2008-01-01

    oxidation to the perennial crops, however, the specific methane yield increases significantly and the ratio of energy output to input and of costs to benefit for the whole chain of biomass supply and conversion into biogas becomes higher than for corn. This will make the use of perennial crops as energy....... The conversion into biogas in anaerobic digestion plants shows however much lower specific methane yields for the raw perennial crops like miscanthus and willow due to their lignocellulosic structure. Without pretreatment the net energy gain is therefore lower for the perennials than for corn. When applying wet...

  20. Long-term benefit of electron beam radiation therapy in the treatment of scleredema of Buschke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Skrepnik, MD

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Scleredema of Buschke is a rare connective tissue disorder commonly treated with multimodal therapy, but it can be effectively and durably controlled with RT alone. This case report documents the durability of the benefit achieved with RT and suggests that RT should be considered earlier in the treatment of this disease.

  1. External Costs and Optimum Use of Nitrogen Fertilizer Based on the Balance of Economic and Ecological Benefits in the Paddy Field System of the Dongting Lake Area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Ping-an; ZHOU Yan; JIANG Ju-ao; ZHENG Hua; YAN Hui-min; HUANG Huang

    2007-01-01

    The external costs and the optimum use of nitrogen fertilizer based on the balance of economic and ecological benefits was studied with the paddy field system of Dongting Lake area, one of the main food production regions in China. The environmental impact was economically evaluated using methods of the environmental impact economical evaluation.The optimum use of nitrogen fertilizer was calculated based on the exterior diseconomy theory and by using the production function model. Both ecological benefits and farmers' economic benefits were considered. It was calculated on the data from 2002 that the losses caused by inappropriate utilization of nitrogen fertilizer in the process of food production were fishery, 0.1 × 107 RMB yuan; water treatment, 1.02 × 108 RMB yuan; tour business, 0.11 × 108 RMB yuan, and habitation environment, 0.3 × 107 RMB yuan, totally equivalent to 0.41 RMB yuan kg-1 N. The economically satisfactory and the ecological agronomic nitrogen fertilizer dose for current production was 138 and 137 kg ha-1, respectively. The research showed that the actual nitrogen fertilizer application amount in the paddy field system of the Dongting Lake area already reached or exceeded the farmers' economic satisfaction and the ecological agronomic nitrogen fertilizer dose for current production. An environmental tax is suggested to impose on over-use of nitrogen fertilizer.

  2. The Role of Cerenkov Radiation in the Pressure Balance of Cool Core Clusters of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieu, Richard

    2017-03-01

    Despite the substantial progress made recently in understanding the role of AGN feedback and associated non-thermal effects, the precise mechanism that prevents the core of some clusters of galaxies from collapsing catastrophically by radiative cooling remains unidentified. In this Letter, we demonstrate that the evolution of a cluster's cooling core, in terms of its density, temperature, and magnetic field strength, inevitably enables the plasma electrons there to quickly become Cerenkov loss dominated, with emission at the radio frequency of ≲350 Hz, and with a rate considerably exceeding free–free continuum and line emission. However, the same does not apply to the plasmas at the cluster's outskirts, which lacks such radiation. Owing to its low frequency, the radiation cannot escape, but because over the relevant scale size of a Cerenkov wavelength the energy of an electron in the gas cannot follow the Boltzmann distribution to the requisite precision to ensure reabsorption always occurs faster than stimulated emission, the emitting gas cools before it reheats. This leaves behind the radiation itself, trapped by the overlying reflective plasma, yet providing enough pressure to maintain quasi-hydrostatic equilibrium. The mass condensation then happens by Rayleigh–Taylor instability, at a rate determined by the outermost radius where Cerenkov radiation can occur. In this way, it is possible to estimate the rate at ≈2 M ⊙ year‑1, consistent with observational inference. Thus, the process appears to provide a natural solution to the longstanding problem of “cooling flow” in clusters; at least it offers another line of defense against cooling and collapse should gas heating by AGN feedback be inadequate in some clusters.

  3. Energy balance and cost-benefit analysis of biogas production from perennial energy crops pretreated by wet oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uellendahl, Hinrich; Wang, Guangtao; Møller, Henrik B.

    2008-01-01

    Perennial crops need far less energy to plant, require less fertilizer and pesticides, and show a lower negative environmental impact compared with annual crops like for example corn. This makes the cultivation of perennial crops as energy crops more sustainable than the use of annual crops....... The conversion into biogas in anaerobic digestion plants shows however much lower specific methane yields for the raw perennial crops like miscanthus and willow due to their lignocellulosic structure. Without pretreatment the net energy gain is therefore lower for the perennials than for corn. When applying wet...... oxidation to the perennial crops, however, the specific methane yield increases significantly and the ratio of energy output to input and of costs to benefit for the whole chain of biomass supply and conversion into biogas becomes higher than for corn. This will make the use of perennial crops as energy...

  4. What is the best balance of benefits and risks among anti-resorptive therapies for postmenopausal osteoporosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P D; Derman, R J

    2010-11-01

    Pharmacologic osteoporosis therapy, particularly anti-resorptives, is recommended in postmenopausal women with clinical risk factors for fracture. Treatment decisions should be made based on the relative benefit-risk profile in different patient populations. Emerging options [e.g., selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and denosumab] may hold promise for providing protection from bone loss and for fracture risk reduction.Osteoporosis, the most common clinical disorder of bone metabolism, is characterized by low bone mineral density, deterioration of microarchitecture, and a consequent increase in bone fragility and risk of fracture. Pharmacologic therapy is recommended in postmenopausal women with clinical risk factors for fracture and includes anti-resorptive agents such as bisphosphonates, hormone therapy, SERMs, and calcitonin. The anabolic agent teriparatide (parathyroid hormone) is usually reserved for high-risk patients or those with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Strontium ranelate, available outside the USA, has both anti-resorptive and anabolic properties. Supplementation with calcium and vitamin D is recommended for all women aged 50 years and older. Bisphosphonates are often considered first-line therapy for osteoporosis and have the largest base of clinical trial data showing efficacy for global fracture risk reduction. Low-dose hormone therapy is appropriate for younger women who are experiencing other menopausal symptoms. In women for whom bisphosphonates are not appropriate or not tolerated or in younger postmenopausal women who have a low risk for hip fracture, SERMs are a suitable treatment option. Calcitonin is designated for patients who are unable or unwilling to tolerate other osteoporosis agents. Emerging options, including newer SERMs (e.g., bazedoxifene and lasofoxifene) and the monoclonal antibody denosumab, may hold promise for providing protection from bone loss and for fracture risk reduction. Because no single agent is

  5. Practical approaches to effective management of intestinal radiation injury: Benefit of resectional surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nikolaos Perrakis; Evangelos Athanassiou; Dimitra Vamvakopoulou; Maria Kyriazi; Haris Kappos; Nikolaos C Vamvakopoulos; Iakovos Nomikos

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To study the outcome of patients undergoing surgical resection of the bowel for sustained radiation-induced damage intractable to conservative management.METHODS: During a 7-year period we operated on 17 cases (5 male, 12 female) admitted to our surgical department with intestinal radiation injury (IRI). They were originally treated for a pelvic malignancy by surgical resection followed by postoperative radiotherapy. During follow-up, they developed radiation enteritis requiring surgical treatment due to failure of conservative management.RESULTS: IRI was located in the terminal ileum in 12 patients, in the rectum in 2 patients, in the descending colon in 2 patients, and in the cecum in one patient. All patients had resection of the affected region(s). There were no postoperative deaths, while 3 cases presented with postoperative complications (17.7%). All patients remained free of symptoms without evidence of recurrence of IRI for a median follow-up period of 42 mo (range, 6-96 mo).CONCLUSION: We report a favorable outcome without IRI recurrence of 17 patients treated by resection of the diseased bowel segment.

  6. Balancing the risks and benefits associated with cosmetic dentistry - a joint statement by UK specialist dental societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alani, A; Kelleher, M; Hemmings, K; Saunders, M; Hunter, M; Barclay, S; Ashley, M; Djemal, S; Bishop, K; Darbar, U; Briggs, P; Fearne, J

    2015-05-08

    Cosmetic dentistry has become increasingly popular, largely as a result of social trends and increased media coverage. This understandable desire for the alleged 'perfect smile' needs to be tempered with an appropriate awareness of the significant risks associated with invasive cosmetic procedures such as veneers and crowns. Patients need to be properly informed that elective removal of healthy enamel and dentine can result in pulpal injury and poorer periodontal health in the longer term, particularly if they are young. The duty of candour means that they ought to be informed that aggressive reduction of sound tooth tissue is not biologically neutral and results in structural weakening of their teeth. Less invasive procedures such as bleaching on its own or for example, combined with direct resin composite bonding, can satisfy many patient's demands, while still being kinder to teeth and having much better fall-back positions for their future requirements. It is the opinion of the British Endodontic Society, British Society for Restorative Dentistry, Restorative Dentistry UK, Dental Trauma UK, British Society of Prosthodontics and the British Society of Paediatric Dentistry that elective invasive cosmetic dental treatments can result in great benefit to patients, but that some aggressive treatments used to achieve them can produce significant morbidities in teeth which were previously healthy. This is a worrying and growing problem with many ethical, legal and biologic aspects, but many adverse outcomes for patients who request cosmetic dental improvements are preventable by using biologically safer initial approaches to treatment planning and its provision.

  7. Balancing benefits and risks in patients receiving incretin-based therapies: focus on cardiovascular and pancreatic side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluzík, Martin; Mráz, Miloš; Svačina, Štěpán

    2014-12-01

    Incretin-based therapies either increase endogenous levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 by prolonging its half-life (DPP-4 inhibitors) or directly stimulate its receptor (glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues; GLP-1 RA). They are currently widely used for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus owing to good antidiabetic efficacy, low risk of hypoglycemia, and relatively few other side effects. They also offer potential additional benefits such as weight neutrality or weight loss, positive effects on blood pressure and lipid levels, and potential cardio- and neuroprotectivity. Some experimental and clinical studies have raised concerns with respect to potential cardiovascular and pancreatic side effects of these therapies such as increased risk of heart failure with DPP-4 inhibitors as well as acute pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer with both classes. The available data are at present not robust enough to enable firm conclusions regarding these potential associations. Nevertheless, some recent data suggest a possibility of slightly increased risk of acute pancreatitis with GLP-1 RAs while they do not indicate increased risk of pancreatic cancer. Ongoing cardiovascular outcome trials will shed more light on the possible cardioprotective effects of incretin-based therapies as well as on the possible interconnection of DPP-4 inhibitors and heart failure.

  8. Energy balance and cost-benefit analysis of biogas production from perennial energy crops pretreated by wet oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uellendahl, H; Wang, G; Møller, H B; Jørgensen, U; Skiadas, I V; Gavala, H N; Ahring, B K

    2008-01-01

    Perennial crops need far less energy to plant, require less fertilizer and pesticides, and show a lower negative environmental impact compared with annual crops like for example corn. This makes the cultivation of perennial crops as energy crops more sustainable than the use of annual crops. The conversion into biogas in anaerobic digestion plants shows however much lower specific methane yields for the raw perennial crops like miscanthus and willow due to their lignocellulosic structure. Without pretreatment the net energy gain is therefore lower for the perennials than for corn. When applying wet oxidation to the perennial crops, however, the specific methane yield increases significantly and the ratio of energy output to input and of costs to benefit for the whole chain of biomass supply and conversion into biogas becomes higher than for corn. This will make the use of perennial crops as energy crops competitive to the use of corn and this combination will make the production of biogas from energy crops more sustainable.

  9. Lack of survival benefit of post-operative radiation therapy in prostate cancer patients with positive lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, P A S; Assikis, V; Goodman, M; Ward, K C; Riffenburgh, R H; Master, V

    2007-01-01

    Randomized data from SWOG 8794 and EORTC 22911 confirm the benefit of post-operative radiation therapy (RT) for selected patients with pT3 prostate cancer (CaP) after radical prostatectomy (RP). However, data regarding the potential benefit of RT for patients post-RP with positive lymph node (+LN) involvement are limited. We analyzed the Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER) registry for population-based data on efficacy of post-operative RT for +LN patients after RP. As LN data have only been captured by SEER since 1988, we analyzed data for 1988-1992, with specific attention to 10-year relative survival (defined as observed survival divided by the survival of a gender-, age- and race-matched population cohort without disease). Specifically analyzed were data for 1921 patients with nonmetastatic prostate cancer who underwent surgery alone, or surgery followed by RT, and who had +LNs documented. SEER does not code the interval between surgery and RT, so the ratio of patients receiving salvage versus adjuvant therapy is unknown. Using follow-up data through 2002, post-diagnosis survival was examined by number of +LNs. There was no significant relative survival benefit for +LN patients receiving post-operative RT (chi(2)P=0.270). These data do not support routine use of post-operative RT for patients with +LNs in the surgical specimen.

  10. Balancing Benefits and Risks of Immortal Data: Participants' Views of Open Consent in the Personal Genome Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate, Oscar A; Brody, Julia Green; Brown, Phil; Ramirez-Andreotta, Mónica D; Perovich, Laura; Matz, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    An individual's health, genetic, or environmental-exposure data, placed in an online repository, creates a valuable shared resource that can accelerate biomedical research and even open opportunities for crowd-sourcing discoveries by members of the public. But these data become "immortalized" in ways that may create lasting risk as well as benefit. Once shared on the Internet, the data are difficult or impossible to redact, and identities may be revealed by a process called data linkage, in which online data sets are matched to each other. Reidentification (re-ID), the process of associating an individual's name with data that were considered deidentified, poses risks such as insurance or employment discrimination, social stigma, and breach of the promises often made in informed-consent documents. At the same time, re-ID poses risks to researchers and indeed to the future of science, should re-ID end up undermining the trust and participation of potential research participants. The ethical challenges of online data sharing are heightened as so-called big data becomes an increasingly important research tool and driver of new research structures. Big data is shifting research to include large numbers of researchers and institutions as well as large numbers of participants providing diverse types of data, so the participants' consent relationship is no longer with a person or even a research institution. In addition, consent is further transformed because big data analysis often begins with descriptive inquiry and generation of a hypothesis, and the research questions cannot be clearly defined at the outset and may be unforeseeable over the long term. In this article, we consider how expanded data sharing poses new challenges, illustrated by genomics and the transition to new models of consent. We draw on the experiences of participants in an open data platform-the Personal Genome Project-to allow study participants to contribute their voices to inform ethical consent

  11. Radiative Energy Balance in the Tropical Tropopause Layer: An Investigation with ARM Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Qiang

    2013-10-22

    The overall objective of this project is to use the ARM observational data to improve our understanding of cloud-radiation effects in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), which is crucial for improving the simulation and prediction of climate and climate change. In last four and half years, we have been concentrating on (i) performing the comparison of the ice cloud properties from the ground-based lidar observations with those from the satellite CALIPSO lidar observations at the ARM TWP sites; (ii) analyzing TTL cirrus and its relation to the tropical planetary waves; (iii) calculating the radiative heating rates using retrieved cloud microphysical properties by combining the ground-based lidar and radar observations at the ARM TWP sites and comparing the results with those using cloud properties retrieved from CloudSat and CALIPSO observations; (iv) comparing macrophysical properties of tropical cirrus clouds from the CALIPSO satellite and from ground-based micropulse and Raman lidar observations; (v) improving the parameterization of optical properties of cirrus clouds with small effective ice particle sizes; and (vi) evaluating the enhanced maximum warming in the tropical upper troposphere simulated by the GCMs. The main results of our research efforts are reported in the 12 referred journal publications that acknowledge the DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-09ER64769.

  12. Dust radiative forcing in snow of the Upper Colorado River Basin: 1. A 6 year record of energy balance, radiation, and dust concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Thomas H.; Skiles, S. Mckenzie; Deems, Jeffrey S.; Bryant, Ann C.; Landry, Christopher C.

    2012-07-01

    Dust in snow accelerates snowmelt through its direct reduction of snow albedo and its further indirect reduction of albedo by accelerating the growth of snow grains. Since the westward expansion of the United States that began in the mid-19th century, the mountain snow cover of the Colorado River Basin has been subject to five-fold greater dust loading, largely from the Colorado Plateau and Great Basin. Radiative forcing of snowmelt by dust is not captured by conventional micrometeorological measurements, and must be monitored by a more comprehensive suite of radiation instruments. Here we present a 6 year record of energy balance and detailed radiation measurements in the Senator Beck Basin Study Area, San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA. Data include broadband irradiance, filtered irradiance, broadband reflected flux, filtered reflected flux, broadband and visible albedo, longwave irradiance, wind speed, relative humidity, and air temperatures. The gradient of the snow surface is monitored weekly and used to correct albedo measurements for geometric effects. The snow is sampled weekly for dust concentrations in plots immediately adjacent to each tower over the melt season. Broadband albedo in the last weeks of snow cover ranged from 0.33 to 0.55 across the 6 years and two sites. Total end of year dust concentration in the top 3 cm of the snow column ranged from 0.23 mg g-1 to 4.16 mg g-1. These measurements enable monitoring and modeling of dust and climate-driven snowmelt forcings in the Upper Colorado River Basin.

  13. Quantification of radiation-induced lung damage with CT scans - The possible benefit for radiogenomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Ruysscher, Dirk [Radiation Oncology, Univ. Hospitals Leuven/KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Dept. of Radiation Oncology (Maastro clinic), Maastricht Univ. Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands)], e-mail: dirk.deruysscher@uzleuven.be; Sharifi, Hoda [Dept. of Radiation Oncology (Maastro clinic), Maastricht Univ. Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands); Defraene, Gilles [Radiation Oncology, Univ. Hospitals Leuven/KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)] [and others

    2013-10-15

    Background: Radiation-induced lung damage (RILD) is an important problem. Although physical parameters such as the mean lung dose are used in clinical practice, they are not suited for individualised radiotherapy. Objective, quantitative measurements of RILD on a continuous instead of on an ordinal, semi-quantitative, semi-subjective scale, are needed. Methods: Hounsfield unit (HU) changes before versus three months post-radiotherapy were correlated per voxel with the radiotherapy dose in 95 lung cancer patients. Deformable registration was used to register pre- and post-CT scans and the density increase was quantified for various dose bins. The dose-response curve for increased HU was quantified using the slope of a linear regression (HU/Gy). The end-point for the toxicity analysis was dyspnoea = grade 2. Results: Radiation dose was linearly correlated with the change in HU (mean R2 = 0.74 {+-} 0.28). No differences in HU/Gy between groups treated with stereotactic radiotherapy, conventional radiotherapy alone, sequential or concurrent chemo-radiotherapy were observed. In the whole patient group, 33/95 (34.7%) had dyspnoea {>=} G2. Of the 48 patients with a HU/Gy below the median, 16 (33.3%) developed dyspnoea = G2, while in the 47 patients with a HU/Gy above the median, 17 (36.1%) had dyspnoea {>=}G2 (not significant). Individual patients showed a nearly 21-fold difference in radiosensitivity, with HU/Gy ranging from 0 to 10 HU/Gy. Conclusions: HU changes identify objectively the whole range of individual radiosensitivity on a continuous, quantitative scale. CT density changes may allow more robust and accurate radiogenomics studies.

  14. The effect of sea ice loss on sea salt aerosol concentrations and the radiative balance in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Struthers

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding Arctic climate change requires knowledge of both the external and the local drivers of Arctic climate as well as local feedbacks within the system. An Arctic feedback mechanism relating changes in sea ice extent to an alteration of the emission of sea salt aerosol and the consequent change in radiative balance is examined. A set of idealized climate model simulations were performed to quantify the radiative effects of changes in sea salt aerosol emissions induced by prescribed changes in sea ice extent. The model was forced using sea ice concentrations consistent with present day conditions and projections of sea ice extent for 2100. Sea salt aerosol emissions increase in response to a decrease in sea ice, the model results showing an annual average increase in number emission over the polar cap (70–90° N of 86×106 m−2 s−1 (mass emission increase of 23 μg m−2 s−1. This in turn leads to an increase in the natural aerosol optical depth of approximately 23%. In response to changes in aerosol optical depth, the natural component of the aerosol direct forcing over the Arctic polar cap is estimated to be between −0.2 and −0.4 W m−2 for the summer months, which results in a negative feedback on the system. The model predicts that the change in first indirect aerosol effect (cloud albedo effect is approximately a factor of ten greater than the change in direct aerosol forcing although this result is highly uncertain due to the crude representation of Arctic clouds and aerosol-cloud interactions in the model. This study shows that both the natural aerosol direct and first indirect effects are strongly dependent on the surface albedo, highlighting the strong coupling between sea ice, aerosols, Arctic clouds and their radiative effects.

  15. Fitness costs and benefits of ultraviolet radiation exposure in marine pelagic copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hylander, Samuel; Grenvald, Julie Cornelius; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that organisms should allocate energy throughout their life such that they maximize their fitness. Copepod zooplankton are known to accumulate sunscreens (so-called mycosporine-like amino acids, MAAs) and antioxidant carotenoids to mitigate negative effects of ultravi......Life-history theory predicts that organisms should allocate energy throughout their life such that they maximize their fitness. Copepod zooplankton are known to accumulate sunscreens (so-called mycosporine-like amino acids, MAAs) and antioxidant carotenoids to mitigate negative effects...... of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), but it is not well known how this affects their fitness. We followed cohorts of the marine copepod Acartia tonsa and assessed how fitness was affected by UVR exposure and a diet rich in UVR-protective sunscreens. Several fitness components including somatic growth, egg quality...... and nauplii production (larvae) were negatively affected by UVR, whereas other components such as size at maturity, survival and length of life were not. Nauplii production through low egg quality was the most influential life-history parameter that changed in response to UVR. There was interaction between...

  16. Solar radiation and energy balance in polyethylene covered greenhouse; Balancos de radiacao solar e de energia em estufa com cobertura de polietileno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisina, Valeria de Almeida; Escobedo, Joao Francisco [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Ciencias Ambientais

    1998-07-01

    The objective of this paper is describe the radiation and energy balance, during the lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L, var Veronica) crop cycle inside a polyethylene greenhouse. The radiation and energy balance was made inside of a tunnel greenhouse with polyethylene cover (100 {mu} m) and in an external area, both area with 35 m{sup 2}. Global (R{sub G}), reflected (R{sub r}) and net radiation (SR), soil heat flux and air temperature (dry and humid) were measured during crop cycle, in this two environment. In the data acquisition it was utilized a DATALOGGER, which operated at 1 Hz frequency, storing 5 minutes averages. The global and reflected radiations (MJ/m{sup 2}) allowed the verification that the average transmission of global radiation (R-G{sub in}/R{sub Gex}) was almost constant, near 79,59% while the average ratio of reflected radiation (R{sub rin}/R{sub rex}) was 69,21% with 8,47% standard-deviation. The short-wave radiation average (SRoc) was bigger in the external area. The normalized relation (SR/R{sub G}) was bigger in the external area, about 12%, when the green culture covered (SRol) was bigger outside, about 50%. The energy balance, estimated in terms of vertical fluxes, showed that, for the external area, in average, 83,07% of total net radiation was converted in latent heat evaporation; 18% in soil heat flux and 9,96% in sensible heat, while, inside of the greenhouse, 58,71% of total net radiation was converted in latent heat evaporation:; 42,68% in sensible heat and 28,79% in soil heat flux. (author)

  17. Survival benefit of adding chemotherapy to intensity modulated radiation in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Ji

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To evaluate the contribution of chemotherapy for patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC treated by intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT and to identify the optimal combination treatment strategy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 2006 and 2010, 276 patients with stage II-IVb NPC were treated by IMRT alone or IMRT plus chemotherapy. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy included neoadjuvant or concurrent, or neoadjuvant plus concurrent protocols. The IMRT alone and chemoradiotherapy groups were well-matched for prognostic factors, except N stage, with more advanced NPC in the chemoradiotherapy arm. RESULTS: With a mean follow-up of 33.8 months, the 3-year actuarial rates of overall survival (OS, metastasis-free survival (MFS, relapse-free survival (RFS, and disease-free survival (DFS were 90.3%, 84.2%, 80.3%, and 69.2% for all of the patients, respectively. Compared with the IMRT alone arm, patients treated by concurrent chemoradiotherapy had a significantly better DFS (HR = 2.64; 95% CI, 1.12-6.22; P = 0.03, patients with neoadjuvant-concurrent chemoradiotherapy had a significant improvement in RFS and DFS (HR = 4.03; 95% CI, 1.35-12.05; P = 0.01 and HR = 2.43; 95% CI, 1.09-5.44; P = 0.03, neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy provided no significant benefit in OS, MFS, RFS, and DFS. Stage group and alcohol consumption were prognostic factors for OS and N stage was a significant predictor for DFS. CONCLUSIONS: Addition of concurrent or neoadjuvant-concurrent chemotherapy to IMRT is available to prolong RFS or DFS for locoregionally advanced NPC. Such work could be helpful to guide effective individualized therapy.

  18. Component greenhouse gas fluxes and radiative balance from two deltaic marshes in Louisiana: Pairing chamber techniques and eddy covariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; Holm, Guerry O.; Perez, Brian C.; McWhorter, David E.; Cormier, Nicole; Moss, Rebecca F.; Johnson, Darren J.; Neubauer, Scott C.; Raynie, Richard C.

    2016-06-01

    Coastal marshes take up atmospheric CO2 while emitting CO2, CH4, and N2O. This ability to sequester carbon (C) is much greater for wetlands on a per area basis than from most ecosystems, facilitating scientific, political, and economic interest in their value as greenhouse gas sinks. However, the greenhouse gas balance of Gulf of Mexico wetlands is particularly understudied. We describe the net ecosystem exchange (NEEc) of CO2 and CH4 using eddy covariance (EC) in comparison with fluxes of CO2, CH4, and N2O using chambers from brackish and freshwater marshes in Louisiana, USA. From EC, we found that 182 g C m-2 yr-1 was lost through NEEc from the brackish marsh. Of this, 11 g C m-2 yr-1 resulted from net CH4 emissions and the remaining 171 g C m-2 yr-1 resulted from net CO2 emissions. In contrast, -290 g C m2 yr-1 was taken up through NEEc by the freshwater marsh, with 47 g C m-2 yr-1 emitted as CH4 and -337 g C m-2 yr-1 taken up as CO2. From chambers, we discovered that neither site had large fluxes of N2O. Sustained-flux greenhouse gas accounting metrics indicated that both marshes had a positive (warming) radiative balance, with the brackish marsh having a substantially greater warming effect than the freshwater marsh. That net respiratory emissions of CO2 and CH4 as estimated through chamber techniques were 2-4 times different from emissions estimated through EC requires additional understanding of the artifacts created by different spatial and temporal sampling footprints between techniques.

  19. Clinical benefit of radiation therapy and metallic stenting for unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroyuki Isayama; Takeshi Tsujino; Yousuke Nakai; Takashi Sasaki; Keiichi Nakagawa; Hideomi Yamashita; Taku Aoki; Kazuhiko Koike

    2012-01-01

    radiotherapy group was significantly longer than in the BSC group (P =0.0031),but did not differ significantly from those in the non-resection group.Furthermore,the median survival time of patients in the radiotherapy group who were considered for possible resection (excluding the seven patients who were not candidates for surgery due to comorbid disease or age) was 25.9 mo.Stent patency was evaluated only in the 24 patients who received a metallic stent.Stent patency was significantly longer in the radiotherapy than in the BSC group (P =0.0165).Biliary drainage was not eliminated in any patient.To determine the efficacy of ILBT,we compared survival time and stent patency in the EBRT alone and EBRT plus ILBT groups.However,we found no significant difference in survival time between groups or for stent patencies.Hemorrhagic gastroduodenal ulcers were observed in 5 patients (17.9%),three in the EBRT plus ILBT group and two in the EBRT alone group.Ulcers occurred 5 mo,7 mo,8 mo,16 mo,and 29 mo following radiotherapy.All patients required hospitalization,but blood transfusions were unnecessary.All 5 patients recovered following the administration of anti-ulcer medication.CONCLUSION:Radiotherapy improved patient prognosis and the patency of uncovered metallic stents in patients with locally advanced hilar cholangiocarcinoma,but ILBT provided no additional benefits.

  20. Assessing wildlife benefits and carbon storage from restored and natural coastal marshes in the Nisqually River Delta: Determining marsh net ecosystem carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Frank; Bergamaschi, Brian; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Woo, Isa; De La Cruz, Susan; Drexler, Judith; Byrd, Kristin; Thorne, Karen M.

    2016-06-24

    Working in partnership since 1996, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Nisqually Indian Tribe have restored 902 acres of tidally influenced coastal marsh in the Nisqually River Delta (NRD), making it the largest estuary-restoration project in the Pacific Northwest to date. Marsh restoration increases the capacity of the estuary to support a diversity of wildlife species. Restoration also increases carbon (C) production of marsh plant communities that support food webs for wildlife and can help mitigate climate change through long-term C storage in marsh soils.In 2015, an interdisciplinary team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) researchers began to study the benefits of carbon for wetland wildlife and storage in the NRD. Our primary goals are (1) to identify the relative importance of the different carbon sources that support juvenile chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) food webs and contribute to current and historic peat formation, (2) to determine the net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) in a reference marsh and a restoration marsh site, and (3) to model the sustainability of the reference and restoration marshes under projected sea-level rise conditions along with historical vegetation change. In this fact sheet, we focus on the main C sources and exchanges to determine NECB, including carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake through plant photosynthesis, the loss of CO2 through plant and soil respiration, emissions of methane (CH4), and the lateral movement or leaching loss of C in tidal waters.

  1. Benefit of Adjuvant Brachytherapy Versus External Beam Radiation for Early Breast Cancer: Impact of Patient Stratification on Breast Preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Grace L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Jiang, Jing [Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Buchholz, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Xu, Ying [Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hoffman, Karen E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Giordano, Sharon H. [Department of Breast Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hunt, Kelly K. [Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Smith, Benjamin D., E-mail: bsmith3@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Brachytherapy after lumpectomy is an increasingly popular breast cancer treatment, but data concerning its effectiveness are conflicting. Recently proposed “suitability” criteria guiding patient selection for brachytherapy have never been empirically validated. Methods: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results–Medicare linked database, we compared women aged 66 years or older with invasive breast cancer (n=28,718) or ductal carcinoma in situ (n=7229) diagnosed from 2002 to 2007, treated with lumpectomy alone, brachytherapy, or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). The likelihood of breast preservation, measured by subsequent mastectomy risk, was compared by use of multivariate proportional hazards, further stratified by American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) brachytherapy suitability groups. We compared 1-year postoperative complications using the χ{sup 2} test and 5-year local toxicities using the log-rank test. Results: For patients with invasive cancer, the 5-year subsequent mastectomy risk was 4.7% after lumpectomy alone (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.1%-5.4%), 2.8% after brachytherapy (95% CI, 1.8%-4.3%), and 1.3% after EBRT (95% CI, 1.1%-1.5%) (P<.001). Compared with lumpectomy alone, brachytherapy achieved a more modest reduction in adjusted risk (hazard ratio [HR], 0.61; 95% CI, 0.40-0.94) than achieved with EBRT (HR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.18-0.28). Relative risks did not differ when stratified by ASTRO suitability group (P=.84 for interaction), although ASTRO “suitable” patients did show a low absolute subsequent mastectomy risk, with a minimal absolute difference in risk after brachytherapy (1.6%; 95% CI, 0.7%-3.5%) versus EBRT (0.8%; 95% CI, 0.6%-1.1%). For patients with ductal carcinoma in situ, EBRT maintained a reduced risk of subsequent mastectomy (HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.28-0.55; P<.001), whereas the small number of patients treated with brachytherapy (n=179) precluded definitive comparison with lumpectomy alone

  2. Component greenhouse gas fluxes and radiative balance from two deltaic marshes in Louisiana: Pairing chamber techniques and eddy covariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; Holm, Guerry O.; Perez, Brian C.; McWhorter, David E.; Cormier, Nicole; Moss, Rebecca; Johnson, Darren; Neubauer, Scott C; Raynie, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Coastal marshes take up atmospheric CO2 while emitting CO2, CH4, and N2O. This ability to sequester carbon (C) is much greater for wetlands on a per-area basis than from most ecosystems, facilitating scientific, political, and economic interest in their value as greenhouse gas sinks. However, the greenhouse gas balance of Gulf of Mexico wetlands is particularly understudied. We describe the net ecosystem exchange (NEEc) of CO2 and CH4 using eddy covariance (EC) in comparison with fluxes of CO2, CH4, and N2O using chambers from brackish and freshwater marshes in Louisiana, USA. From EC, we found that 182 g C m-2 y-1 was lost through NEEc from the brackish marsh. Of this, 11 g C m-2 y-1 resulted from net CH4 emissions and the remaining 171 g C m-2 y-1 resulted from net CO2 emissions. In contrast, -290 g C m2 y-1 was taken up through NEEc by the freshwater marsh, with 47 g C m-2 y-1 emitted as CH4 and -337 g C m-2 y-1 taken up as CO2. From chambers, we discovered that neither site had large fluxes of N2O. Sustained-flux greenhouse gas accounting metrics indicated that both marshes had a positive (warming) radiative balance, with the brackish marsh having a substantially greater warming effect than the freshwater marsh. That net respiratory emissions of CO2 and CH4 as estimated through chamber techniques were 2-4 times different from emissions estimated through EC requires additional understanding of the artifacts created by different spatial and temporal sampling footprints between techniques.

  3. The benefit of modeled ozone data for the reconstruction of a 99-year UV radiation time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junk, J.; Feister, U.; Helbig, A.; GöRgen, K.; Rozanov, E.; KrzyśCin, J. W.; Hoffmann, L.

    2012-08-01

    Solar erythemal UV radiation (UVER) is highly relevant for numerous biological processes that affect plants, animals, and human health. Nevertheless, long-term UVER records are scarce. As significant declines in the column ozone concentration were observed in the past and a recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer is anticipated by the middle of the 21st century, there is a strong interest in the temporal variation of UVERtime series. Therefore, we combined ground-based measurements of different meteorological variables with modeled ozone data sets to reconstruct time series of daily totals of UVER at the Meteorological Observatory, Potsdam, Germany. Artificial neural networks were trained with measured UVER, sunshine duration, the day of year, measured and modeled total column ozone, as well as the minimum solar zenith angle. This allows for the reconstruction of daily totals of UVERfor the period from 1901 to 1999. Additionally, analyses of the long-term variations from 1901 until 1999 of the reconstructed, new UVER data set are presented. The time series of monthly and annual totals of UVERprovide a long-term meteorological basis for epidemiological investigations in human health and occupational medicine for the region of Potsdam and Berlin. A strong benefit of our ANN-approach is the fact that it can be easily adapted to different geographical locations, as successfully tested in the framework of the COSTAction 726.

  4. Summary of the evidence of breast cancer service screening outcomes in Europe and first estimate of the benefit and harm balance sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paci, Eugenio; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2012-01-01

    To construct a European 'balance sheet' of key outcomes of population-based mammographic breast cancer screening, to inform policy-makers, stakeholders and invited women.......To construct a European 'balance sheet' of key outcomes of population-based mammographic breast cancer screening, to inform policy-makers, stakeholders and invited women....

  5. Beneficios del Tai Chi Chuan en la osteoartritis, el equilibrio y la calidad de vida (Tai Chi Chuan benefits on osteoarthritis, balance and quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jesús Jiménez-Martín

    2013-04-01

    TCC utilizado (el estilo practicado, la dosificación, la experiencia de los instructores, la altura en las posturas, el tiempo de ejecución de cada forma, etc.AbstractAim: This paper reviews international scientific studies aimed at determining the benefits of practicing Tai Chi Chuan (TCC on knee osteoarthritis (OR, balance, fear of falling, and quality of life. Method: A bibliographic search of eight international databases was undertaken (Medline-Pubmed, Scirus, Pascal, ScienceDirect, SportDiscus, Science Citation Index, BIOSIS y PsycINFO until April 2012. Results: A total of 74 studies were analyzed, 13 of them corresponding to systematic reviews and 61 to specific studies (42 randomized controlled studies (EAC and 19 non-controlled studies (ENC. In particular, 11 studies were analyzed regarding knee osteoarthritis (7 EAC and 4 ENC, 32 regarding balance-fear of falling (26 EAC and 6 ENC, and 30 regarding quality of life (18 EAC and 12 ENC. Conclusion: The effects of TCC on knee osteoarthritis are contradictory although a positive tendency was observed regarding control of pain and the improvement of physical functionality. Regarding the effects on balance-fear of falling, a significant improvement in static and dynamic balance was observed as well as confidence in terms of fear of falling. Regarding quality of life, TCC practice improves emotional well-being, self-perception and physical well-being. The obtained results should be treated with some caution since many of the studies examined show methodological weaknesses in the design (small samples, lack of inclusion and exclusion criteria for the participants, deficiencies in the statistical analyses, lack of standardization in the measurement of results, etc., and the specific information about the conditions of the TCC program applied (style practised, dose, experience of the instructors, posture height, time spent carrying out each form.

  6. Fair Balance? An Analysis of the Functional Equivalence of Risk and Benefit Information in Prescription Drug Direct-to-Consumer Television Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird-Harris, Kay

    2009-01-01

    Prescription drug direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) has been a subject of controversy in recent years. Though government regulations require equivalent prominence of risks and benefits, there is concern about the ability of consumers with limited health literacy to fully comprehend the risks and benefits associated with drug use. Evaluating…

  7. Sensitivity of the Tropical Atmosphere Energy Balance to ENSO-Related SST Changes: How Well Can We Quantify Hydrologic and Radiative Responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; Fitzjarrald, Dan; Sohn, Byung-Ju; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The continuing debate over feedback mechanisms governing tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and tropical climate in general has highlighted the diversity of potential checks and balances within the climate system. Competing feedbacks due to changes in surface evaporation, water vapor, and cloud long- and shortwave radiative properties each may serve critical roles in stabilizing or destabilizing the climate system. It is also intriguing that even those climate variations having origins internal to the climate system-- changes in ocean heat transport for example, apparently require complementary equilibrating effects by changes in atmospheric energy fluxes. Perhaps the best observational evidence of this is the relatively invariant nature of tropically averaged net radiation exiting the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) as measured by broadband satellite sensors over the past two decades. Thus, analyzing how these feedback mechanisms are operating within the context of current interannual variability may offer considerable insight for anticipating future climate change. In this paper we focus on how fresh water and radiative fluxes over the tropical oceans change during ENSO warm and cold events and how these changes affect the tropical energy balance. At present, ENSO remains the most prominent known mode of natural variability at interannual time scales. Although great advances have been made in understanding this phenomenon and realizing prediction skill over the past decade, our ability to document the coupled water and energy changes observationally and to represent them in climate models seems far from settled (Soden, 2000 J Climate). Our analysis makes use a number of data bases, principally those derived from space-based measurements, to explore systematic changes in rainfall, evaporation, and surface and top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes, A reexamination of the Langley 8-Year Surface Radiation Budget data set reveals errors in the surface longwave

  8. Importance of the green color, absorption gradient, and spectral absorption of chloroplasts for the radiative energy balance of leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Atsushi

    2017-03-14

    Terrestrial green plants absorb photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm) but do not absorb photons evenly across the PAR waveband. The spectral absorbance of photosystems and chloroplasts is lowest for green light, which occurs within the highest irradiance waveband of direct solar radiation. We demonstrate a close relationship between this phenomenon and the safe and efficient utilization of direct solar radiation in simple biophysiological models. The effects of spectral absorptance on the photon and irradiance absorption processes are evaluated using the spectra of direct and diffuse solar radiation. The radiation absorption of a leaf arises as a consequence of the absorption of chloroplasts. The photon absorption of chloroplasts is strongly dependent on the distribution of pigment concentrations and their absorbance spectra. While chloroplast movements in response to light are important mechanisms controlling PAR absorption, they are not effective for green light because chloroplasts have the lowest spectral absorptance in the waveband. With the development of palisade tissue, the incident photons per total palisade cell surface area and the absorbed photons per chloroplast decrease. The spectral absorbance of carotenoids is effective in eliminating shortwave PAR (<520 nm), which contains much of the surplus energy that is not used for photosynthesis and is dissipated as heat. The PAR absorptance of a whole leaf shows no substantial difference based on the spectra of direct or diffuse solar radiation. However, most of the near infrared radiation is unabsorbed and heat stress is greatly reduced. The incident solar radiation is too strong to be utilized for photosynthesis under the current CO2 concentration in the terrestrial environment. Therefore, the photon absorption of a whole leaf is efficiently regulated by photosynthetic pigments with low spectral absorptance in the highest irradiance waveband and through a combination of pigment density

  9. Effect of number of stack on the thermal escape and non-radiative and radiative recombinations of photoexcited carriers in strain-balanced InGaAs/GaAsP multiple quantum-well-inserted solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihara, Taketo; Fukuyama, Atsuhiko; Ikari, Tetsuo [Faculty of Engineering, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen-Kibanadai-Nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Suzuki, Hidetoshi [Interdisciplinary Research Organization, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen-Kibanadai-Nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Fujii, Hiromasa; Nakano, Yoshiaki [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Sugiyama, Masakazu [School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan)

    2015-02-28

    Three non-destructive methodologies, namely, surface photovoltage (SPV), photoluminescence, and piezoelectric photothermal (PPT) spectroscopies, were adopted to detect the thermal carrier escape from quantum well (QW) and radiative and non-radiative carrier recombinations, respectively, in strain-balanced InGaAs/GaAsP multiple-quantum-well (MQW)-inserted GaAs p-i-n solar cell structure samples. Although the optical absorbance signal intensity was proportional to the number of QW stack, the signal intensities of the SPV and PPT methods decreased at high number of stack. To explain the temperature dependency of these signal intensities, we proposed a model that considers the three carrier dynamics: the thermal escape from the QW, and the non-radiative and radiative carrier recombinations within the QW. From the fitting procedures, it was estimated that the activation energies of the thermal escape ΔE{sub barr} and non-radiative recombination ΔE{sub NR} were 68 and 29 meV, respectively, for a 30-stacked MQW sample. The estimated ΔE{sub barr} value agreed well with the difference between the first electron subband and the top of the potential barrier in the conduction band. We found that ΔE{sub barr} remained constant at approximately 70 meV even with increasing QW stack number. However, the ΔE{sub NR} value monotonically increased with the increase in the number of stack. Since this implies that non-radiative recombination becomes improbable as the number of stack increases, we found that the radiative recombination probability for electrons photoexcited within the QW increased at a large number of QW stack. Additional processes of escaping and recapturing of carriers at neighboring QW were discussed. As a result, the combination of the three non-destructive methodologies provided us new insights for optimizing the MQW components to further improve the cell performance.

  10. Radiation risk in nuclear medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelstein, S James

    2014-05-01

    Given the central roles that anatomical and functional imaging now play in medical practice, there have been concerns about the increasing levels of radiation exposure and their potential hazards. Despite incomplete quantitative knowledge of the risks, it is prudent to think of radiation, even at low doses, as a potential, albeit weak, carcinogen. Thus, we are obliged to minimize its dose and optimize its benefits. Hopefully, time will clarify our estimates of the dangers. Until then, we should educate and assure our patients, their families, and colleagues that the risks have been taken into account and are well balanced by the benefits.

  11. Riding the Banzai Pipeline at Jupiter: Balancing Low Delta-V and Low Radiation to Reach Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElrath, Timothy P.; Campagnola, Stefano; Strange, Nathan J.

    2012-01-01

    Europa's tantalizing allure as a possible haven for life comes cloaked in a myriad of challenges for robotic spacecraft exploration. Not only are the propulsive requirements high and the solar illumination low, but the radiation environment at Jupiter administers its inexorable death sentence on any electronics dispatched to closely examine the satellite. So to the usual trades of mass, delta-V, and cost, we must add radiation dose, which tugs the trajectory solution in a contrary direction. Previous studies have concluded that adding radiation shielding mass is more efficient than using ?V to reduce the exposure time, but that position was recently challenged by a study focusing on delivering simple landers to the Europa surface. During this work, a new trajectory option was found to occupy a strategic location in the delta-V/radiation continuum - we call it the "Banzai pipeline" due to the visual similarity with the end-on view down a breaking wave, as shown in the following figures.

  12. Study on the Influence of Piloti on Mean Radiant Temperature in Residential Blocks by 3-D Unsteady State Heat Balance Radiation Calculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TianYu Xi; JianHua Ding; Hong Jin

    2014-01-01

    Piloti is commonly used in tropical and subtropical climate zones to get high wind velocity and create shadowed areas in order to optimize the living environment of residential blocks, but there are few studies to reveal the influence of piloti on the radiant environment of residential blocks systematically. Taking the city of Guangzhou as an example, using 3-D Unsteady State Heat Balance Radiation Calculation Method, this paper shows that the mean radiant temperature ( MRT) under piloti area increases with the increase of piloti ratio, and especially when piloti ratio is equal to 100%, the MRT increase trend becomes sharp. The MRT of exposed area decreases with the increase of piloti ratio, especially when piloti ratio reaches 100%, the decrease trend of MRT becomes sharp, which offers the reference for the study on piloti design in subtropical climate zones and further research on living environment by CFD simulation in residential blocks.

  13. Applying the conventional moving average filter for estimation of low radiation doses using EPR spectroscopy: Benefits and drawbacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghraby, Ahmed M., E-mail: maghrabism@yahoo.com [National Institute of Standards (NIS), Radiation Dosimetry Department, Ministry of Scientific Research, Tersa Street, P.O. Box 136, Giza, Haram 12211 (Egypt); Physics Department, Faculty of Science and Humanities, Salman Bin AbdulAziz University, Alkharj (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-02-11

    Alanine/EPR is the most common dosimetry system for high radiation doses because of its high stability and wide linear response, however, use of alanine in most of medical applications still require special sophisticated methodologies and techniques in order to extend alanine detection limit to low levels of radiation doses. One of these techniques is the use of digital processing of acquired alanine spectra for enhancing useful components in spectra while useless features are suppressed. Simple moving average filter (MA) impacts on alanine EPR spectra have been studied in terms of peak-to-peak height, peak-to-peak line width, and associated uncertainty. Three types of the used filter were investigated: upward MA, central MA, and downward MA filters, effects of each on the peak position for different values of filter width were studied. It was found that MA filter always lead to the reduction in signal intensity and the increase of line width of the central peak of alanine spectrum. Peak position also changes in cases of the upward MA and downward MA filters while no significant changes were observed in the case of central MA. Uncertainties associated to the averaging process were evaluated and plotted versus the filter width resulting in a linear relationship. Filter width value should be carefully selected in order to avoid probable distortion in processed spectra while gaining less noisy spectra with less associated uncertainties.

  14. Influence of low-power laser radiation on carbohydrate metabolism and insulin-glycemic balance in experimental animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radelli, Jolanta; Cieslar, Grzegorz; Sieron, Aleksander; Grzybek, Henryk

    1996-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the dose-dependent influence of low-power laser radiation on carbohydrate metabolism in 70 male Wistar rats. The animals were primarily divided into 2 groups: B - irradiated group and C - control one in which sham - irradiation was made. The rats from B - group were irradiated daily for 10 minutes with semiconductive laser emitting the radiation of infrared wavelength 904 nm. Within both groups the animals were divided into subgroups (B I - B VII and CI - C VII) in which the dissections were made on 1st, 3rd, 6th, 9th, and 14th day of irradiation and on 5th and 8th day after the end of cycle of irradiation respectively. In all subgroups blood samples were collected to determine the glucose and insulin levels. Parts of the liver and pancreas were taken for histological examination in light microscope and in electron microscope. The lowest, statistically significant glycaemia was observed in the subgroup B V. Significant increase of glycaemia and significantly higher insulin concentration was found only in the subgroup B VI. The I/G ratio increased significantly in the subgroup B V. Lower intensity of paS reaction was presented in subgroups B I, B III, B V, B VI and B VII. The increased amount of paS-positive substances was observed in the I and II zone of liver acinus. Electron microscopic studies of hepatocytes showed: numerous glycogen conglomerations in subgroups B I, B II, B VI and B VII, the extension of RER in B II and B III, light vacuoles in B II, Golgi apparatus and biliary canaliculus expansion in B V and structural changes of several mitochondria - slight swelling or discontinuation of their outer membranes, electron microscopic findings in pancreas cells included: lower number of typical granules in beta and alpha cells as well as Golgi apparatus results it was concluded that the influence of low power laser radiation on carbohydrate metabolism in generally insignificant. It is observed only for higher doses of

  15. Study of aerosol characteristics and aerosol effects on atmospheric radiative balance over the East Asia using observation data of SKYNET network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, P.; Takamura, T.; Nakajima, T. Y.

    2013-12-01

    SKYNET is an observation network to collect data related to aerosols, clouds, and radiation using a variety of ground-based instruments. Among data of different sites around the world, multiyear data of typical sites of East Asia, which represent aerosols of different origins and backgrounds, are analyzed. This study mainly uses data observed by PREDE sky radiometer, pyranometer, pyrheliometer, microwave radiometer, and spectroradiometer. Firstly, we will present the temporal variations of aerosol optical parameters obtained from sky radiometers of selected sites. For a limited observation period, collocated observations of sky radiometer, CIMEL sun photometer, and spectroradiometer were performed at some sites. Secondly, the algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical parameters from spectral direct and diffuse irradiances of spectroradiometer that can suffer from cosine error will be introduced, and the results of inter comparison of aerosol optical parameters obtained from data of different instruments will be discussed. Finally, the effects of aerosols on atmospheric radiative balance over the selected observation sites will be presented using both modeled as well as observed global, direct, and diffuse irradiances.

  16. Benefits and risks of fish consumption Part II. RIBEPEIX, a computer program to optimize the balance between the intake of omega-3 fatty acids and chemical contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, José L; Bocio, Ana; Martí-Cid, Roser; Llobet, Juan M

    2007-02-12

    In recent years, and based on the importance of fish as a part of a healthy diet, there has been a notable promotion of fish and seafood consumption. However, a number of recent studies have shown that fish may be a potential source of exposure to chemical pollutants, some of them with well known adverse effects on human health. Recently, we determined in 14 edible marine species the concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosohexaenoic acid (DHA), as well as those of a number of chemical contaminants: Cd, Hg, Pb, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated naphthalenes, polybrominated diphenylethers and polychlorinated diphenylethers. To quantitative establish the intake of these pollutants (risks) versus that of EPA+DHA (benefits), we designed a simple computer program, RIBEPEIX. The concentrations of EPA, DHA, and the chemical pollutants were introduced into the program. We here present how RIBEPEIX may be used as an easy tool to optimize fish consumption: most suitable species, frequency of consumption, and size of meals. RIBEPEIX can be useful not only for professionals (cardiologists, general physicians, nutritionists, toxicologists, etc.), but also for the general population. It is available at: .

  17. HPV Genotypes Predict Survival Benefits From Concurrent Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy in Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chun-Chieh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Science, Chang Gung University, School of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lai, Chyong-Huey [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yi-Ting [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chao, Angel; Chou, Hung-Hsueh [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Hong, Ji-Hong, E-mail: jihong@adm.cgmh.org.tw [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Science, Chang Gung University, School of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To study the prognostic value of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in patients with advanced cervical cancer treated with radiation therapy (RT) alone or concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT). Methods and Materials: Between August 1993 and May 2000, 327 patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage III/IVA or stage IIB with positive lymph nodes) were eligible for this study. HPV genotypes were determined using the Easychip Registered-Sign HPV genechip. Outcomes were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and the Cox proportional hazards model. Results: We detected 22 HPV genotypes in 323 (98.8%) patients. The leading 4 types were HPV16, 58, 18, and 33. The 5-year overall and disease-specific survival estimates for the entire cohort were 41.9% and 51.4%, respectively. CCRT improved the 5-year disease-specific survival by an absolute 9.8%, but this was not statistically significant (P=.089). There was a significant improvement in disease-specific survival in the CCRT group for HPV18-positive (60.9% vs 30.4%, P=.019) and HPV58-positive (69.3% vs 48.9%, P=.026) patients compared with the RT alone group. In contrast, the differences in survival with CCRT compared with RT alone in the HPV16-positive and HPV-33 positive subgroups were not statistically significant (P=.86 and P=.53, respectively). An improved disease-specific survival was observed for CCRT treated patients infected with both HPV16 and HPV18, but these differenced also were not statistically significant. Conclusions: The HPV genotype may be a useful predictive factor for the effect of CCRT in patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Verifying these results in prospective trials could have an impact on tailoring future treatment based on HPV genotype.

  18. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are having balance problems, see your doctor. Balance disorders can be signs of other health problems, such ... cases, treating the illness that is causing the disorder will help with the balance problem. Exercises, a change in diet, and some ...

  19. Transport of pollution to a remote coastal site during gap flow from California's interior: impacts on aerosol composition, clouds, and radiative balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew C.; Cornwell, Gavin C.; Atwood, Samuel A.; Moore, Kathryn A.; Rothfuss, Nicholas E.; Taylor, Hans; DeMott, Paul J.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Petters, Markus D.; Prather, Kimberly A.

    2017-01-01

    During the CalWater 2015 field campaign, ground-level observations of aerosol size, concentration, chemical composition, and cloud activity were made at Bodega Bay, CA, on the remote California coast. A strong anthropogenic influence on air quality, aerosol physicochemical properties, and cloud activity was observed at Bodega Bay during periods with special weather conditions, known as Petaluma Gap flow, in which air from California's interior is transported to the coast. This study applies a diverse set of chemical, cloud microphysical, and meteorological measurements to the Petaluma Gap flow phenomenon for the first time. It is demonstrated that the sudden and often dramatic change in aerosol properties is strongly related to regional meteorology and anthropogenically influenced chemical processes in California's Central Valley. In addition, it is demonstrated that the change in air mass properties from those typical of a remote marine environment to properties of a continental regime has the potential to impact atmospheric radiative balance and cloud formation in ways that must be accounted for in regional climate simulations.

  20. 测土平衡施肥对玉米产量与品质及效益的影响%Effects of Testing Soil Balance Fertilization on Yield, Quality and Benefit of Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘逊忠; 梁为锦; 王小鹏; 黎彩凤

    2011-01-01

    研究测土平衡施肥对玉米产量、品质及效益的影响。结果表明:测土平衡施肥可促进玉米的营养生长。增加有效穗数、穗长、穗行数、行粒数、千粒重,提高玉米籽粒蛋白质、脂肪、淀粉含量,降低可溶性糖含量,改善玉米的品质。试验条件下,测土平衡施肥玉米单产达9071.9kg/hm^2,比常规施肥单产(7385.2kg/hm^2)增产1686.7kg/hm^2,增长22.8%;平衡施肥净增效益27840.66元/hm^2,比常规施肥净增效益(21888.68元,hm^2)增加5951.98元/hm^2,增长27.2%;大田示范也获得相似的效果,重现性较好,增产增收显著。%There was significant effect oi testing soil balance iertilization on yield,quality and beneiit of corn. It displayed mainly to improve nutritional growth of corn,to increase effective panicle, panicle length, kernel rows per ear, kernels per row and 1 000-grain weight,to improve the content of grain protein ,fat and starch in corn,to decrease soluble sugar content and to improve quality of corn. Under experiment condition ,the unit yield of testing soil balance fertilization (9 071.9 kilograms per hectare)increased by 1 686.7 kilograms and 22.8 percent compared with the conventional fertilizer application (7 385.2 kilograms per hectare ).The net-increased benefit of testing soil balance fertilization (27 840.66 yuan per hectare ) increased by 5 951.98 yuan per hectare and 27.2 percent compared with the conventional fertilizer application (21 888.68 yuan per hectare ). It also get analogous effect in the field demonstration. Moreover ,this method had good reproducibility and remarkable increasing yield and revenue.

  1. SGLT2 Inhibitors: Benefit/Risk Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, André J

    2016-10-01

    Inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2) reduce hyperglycemia by increasing urinary glucose excretion. They have been evaluated in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with diet/exercise, metformin, dual oral therapy or insulin. Three agents are available in Europe and the USA (canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin) and others are commercialized in Japan or in clinical development. SGLT2 inhibitors reduce glycated hemoglobin, with a minimal risk of hypoglycemia. They exert favorable effects beyond glucose control with consistent body weight, blood pressure, and serum uric acid reductions. Empagliflozin showed remarkable reductions in cardiovascular/all-cause mortality and in hospitalization for heart failure in patients with previous cardiovascular disease. Positive renal outcomes were also shown with empagliflozin. Mostly reported adverse events are genital mycotic infections, while urinary tract infections and events linked to volume depletion are rather rare. Concern about a risk of ketoacidosis and bone fractures has been recently raised, which deserves caution and further evaluation.

  2. Content and style of radiation risk communication for pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder, Joshua S; Frush, Donald P

    2014-03-01

    The diagnostic benefits of medical imaging, including CT, must be weighed against the risks of ionizing radiation and communicated effectively to patients. Health care providers requesting and performing these examinations have a shared responsibility for this risk-benefit discussion. Effective and balanced communication of these risks requires style as well as content mastery. Fundamentals of communication are similar for all patients, but special attention is needed in the pediatric setting.

  3. Which T category of nasopharyngeal carcinoma may benefit most from volumetric modulated arc therapy compared with step and shoot intensity modulated radiation therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To compare volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT with conventional step and shoot intensity modulated radiation therapy (s-IMRT in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC patients, and identify which T category patient gains the maximum benefit from VMAT. METHODS: Fifty-two patients that randomly selected from 205 patients received VMAT at a single center were retrospectively replanned with s-IMRT. For a fair comparison, the planning target volume (PTV coverage of the 2 plans was normalized to the same level. A standard planning constraint set was used; the constraints for the organs at risk (OARs were individually adapted. The calculated doses to the PTV and OARs were compared for s-IMRT and VMAT plans generated using the Monaco treatment planning system. RESULTS: VMAT and s-IMRT plans had similar PTV coverage and OAR sparing within all T categories. However, in stratified analysis, VMAT plans lead to better or similar sparing of the OARs in early T category patients; and lead to poorer sparing of the OARs in advanced T category patients (P<0.05. VMAT shows significant advantages for low dose burden (P<0.05 compared with s-IMRT. The delivery time per fraction for VMAT (424±64 s was shorter than s-IMRT (778 ± 126 s, p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: VMAT provides similar dose coverage of the PTVs and similar/better normal tissue sparing in early T category NPC, and poorer OARs sparing in advanced T category NPC. And VMAT shows significant advantages for low dose burden and delivery time.

  4. Balancing Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of balance in music production and examines the role of conceptual metaphors in reasoning about audio editing. Balance may be the most central concept in record production, however, the way we cognitively understand and respond meaningfully to a mix requiring balance...... is not thoroughly understood. In this paper I treat balance as a metaphor that we use to reason about several different actions in music production, such as adjusting levels, editing the frequency spectrum or the spatiality of the recording. This study is based on an exploration of a linguistic corpus of sound...

  5. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  6. Balancing Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... new type of balance therapy using computerized, virtual reality. UPMC associate professor Susan Whitney, Ph.D., developed ... virtual grocery store in the university's Medical Virtual Reality Center. Patients walk on a treadmill and safely ...

  7. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fall may affect an older adult's life. BPPV (Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo) There are many types of balance disorders. One of the most common is benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, or BPPV. In BPPV, you experience a brief, ...

  8. Transforming growth factor β3 attenuates the development of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice by decreasing fibrocyte recruitment and regulating IFN-γ/IL-4 balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Long; Xiong, Shanshan; Guo, Renfeng; Yang, Zhihua; Wang, Qianjun; Xiao, Fengjun; Wang, Haibao; Pan, Xiujie; Zhu, Maoxiang

    2014-11-01

    Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis is a frequently occurred complication from radiotherapy of thoracic tumors. The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily plays a key regulatory role in pulmonary fibrosis. As TGF-β3 showed the potential anti-fibrotic properties especially in scar-less wound healing as opposed to the fibrotic function of TGF-β1, we sought to explore the role of TGF-β3 in radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. A single thoracic irradiation of 20 Gy was applied in mice to establish the model of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and the mice were treated by intraperitoneal injections of recombinant TGF-β3 weekly after irradiation. We found that TGF-β3 decelerated the progress of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and hindered the recruitment of fibrocytes to lung. In addition, Th1 response was suppressed as shown by diminished IFN-γ in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) after irradiation, and enhancement of Th2 response was marked by increased IL-4 in BALF. TGF-β3 administration significantly attenuated these effects and increased the percentage of Tregs in lung during the progression of pulmonary fibrosis. Taken together, these data suggest that TGF-β3 might be involved in the regulatory mechanism for attenuation of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

  9. The potential benefits of nicaraven to protect against radiation-induced injury in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells with relative low dose exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Haytham [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Department of Medical Physiology and Cell Biology, Qena Faculty of Medicine, South Valley University (Egypt); Galal, Omima [Department of Medical Physiology and Cell Biology, Qena Faculty of Medicine, South Valley University (Egypt); Urata, Yoshishige; Goto, Shinji; Guo, Chang-Ying; Luo, Lan [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Abdelrahim, Eman [Department of Medical Histology, Qena Faculty of Medicine, South Valley University (Egypt); Ono, Yusuke [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Mostafa, Emtethal [Department of Medical Physiology and Cell Biology, Qena Faculty of Medicine, South Valley University (Egypt); Li, Tao-Sheng, E-mail: litaoshe@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan)

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • Nicaraven mitigated the radiation-induced reduction of c-kit{sup +} stem cells. • Nicaraven enhanced the function of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. • Complex mechanisms involved in the protection of nicaraven to radiation injury. - Abstract: Nicaraven, a hydroxyl radical-specific scavenger has been demonstrated to attenuate radiation injury in hematopoietic stem cells with 5 Gy γ-ray exposures. We explored the effect and related mechanisms of nicaraven for protecting radiation injury induced by sequential exposures to a relatively lower dose γ-ray. C57BL/6 mice were given nicaraven or placebo within 30 min before exposure to 50 mGy γ-ray daily for 30 days in sequences (cumulative dose of 1.5 Gy). Mice were victimized 24 h after the last radiation exposure, and the number, function and oxidative stress of hematopoietic stem cells were quantitatively estimated. We also compared the gene expression in these purified stem cells from mice received nicaraven and placebo treatment. Nicaraven increased the number of c-kit{sup +} stem/progenitor cells in bone marrow and peripheral blood, with a recovery rate around 60–90% of age-matched non-irradiated healthy mice. The potency of colony forming from hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells as indicator of function was completely protected with nicaraven treatment. Furthermore, nicaraven treatment changed the expression of many genes associated to DNA repair, inflammatory response, and immunomodulation in c-kit{sup +} stem/progenitor cells. Nicaraven effectively protected against damages of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells induced by sequential exposures to a relatively low dose radiation, via complex mechanisms.

  10. Image-producing procedures for non-medical applications. Benefits, risks, radiation protection; Bildgebende Verfahren im nicht medizinischen Bereich. Nutzen, Risiken, Strahlenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czarwinski, Renate [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany); Estier, Sybille [Bundesamt fuer Gesundheit (BAG), Liebefeld (Switzerland). Direktionsbereich Verbraucherschutz; Huhn, Walter [Ministerium fuer Arbeit, Integration und Soziales NRW, Duesseldorf (Germany); Lorenz, Bernd [Lorenz Consulting, Essen (Germany); Vahlbruch, Jan [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiooekologie und Strahlenschutz (IRS); Henning, Ulrich; Michel, Rolf

    2016-05-01

    A survey is given of image-producing procedures for non-medical applications, and this under technical, juridical and radiation protection aspects. The historical development of these procedures is also described. An example is given for today's practical application.

  11. Radiation and energy balance of lettuce culture inside a polyethylene greenhouse Balanço de radiação e energia da cultura de alface em estufa de polietileno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria de Almeida Frisina

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to describe the radiation and energy balance, during the lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L. cv. Verônica crop cycle inside a polyethylene greenhouse. The radiation and energy balance was made inside a tunnel greenhouse with polyethylene cover (100 mum and in an external area, both areas with 35 m². Global, reflected and net radiation, soil heat flux and air temperature (dry and humid were measured during the crop cycle. A Datalogger, which operated at 1 Hz frequency, storing 5 minutes averages was utilized. The global (K¯ and reflected (K­ radiations showed that the average transmission of global radiation (K¯in / K¯ex was almost constant, near to 79.59%, while the average ratio of reflected radiation (K­in / K­ex was 69.21% with 8.47% standard-deviation. The normalized curves of short-wave net radiation, in relation to the global radiation (K*/ K¯, found for both environments, were almost constant at the beginning of cycle; this relation decreased in the final stage of culture. The normalized relation (Rn/ K¯ was bigger in the external area, about 12%, when the green culture covered the soil surface. The long-wave radiation balance average (L* was bigger outside, about 50%. The energy balance, estimated in terms of vertical fluxes, showed that, for the external area, in average, 83.07% of total net radiation was converted in latent heat evaporation (LE, and 18% in soil heat flux (G, and 9.96% in sensible heat (H, while inside of the greenhouse, 58.71% of total net radiation was converted in LE, 42.68% in H, and 28.79% in G.Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, determinar os balanços de radiação e energia da cultura de alface (Lactuca sativa, L. cv. Verônica em estufa de polietileno. O experimento foi realizado em uma estufa tipo túnel alto com cobertura de polietileno (100 mim de espessura e em uma área externa, ambas com 35 m². Durante o ciclo da cultura, foram monitoradas as radiações global e refletida

  12. 银行个人理财客户识别矩阵构建及实证研究——基于感知利益与感知风险权衡的视角%Empirical Study of Identified Matrix of Bank Personal Financial Customers——Based on the Balance of Perceived Risk and Perceived Benefit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张童

    2011-01-01

    银行个人理财客户的购买决策建立在对理财产品整体评估的基础上。本文对感知价值的内涵进行理论拓展与创新,提出银行个人理财客户对理财产品的感知价值是感知利益与感知风险的权衡,并归纳了感知利益与感知风险的构成维度。根据感知利益与感知风险水平差异对个人理财客户类型进行识别,通过实证研究检验了整体及各客户类型感知利益与感知风险对感知价值及购买意愿的综合影响效应。%The purchase intentions of bank personal financial customers base on an overall assessment of financial products.This paper develops the concept of perceived value from the balance between perceived benefit and perceived loss to the balance between perceived benefit and perceived risk based on intangible service products,and explores the dimensions of perceived benefit and perceived risk.According to different levels of perceived benefit and perceived risk identifies bank personal financial customer types,and examines the effect of perceived benefit and perceived risk influence on purchase intentions.

  13. Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Public / Hearing and Balance Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation Audiologic (hearing), balance, and medical diagnostic tests help ... whether you are a candidate for vestibular (balance) rehabilitation. Vestibular rehabilitation is an individualized balance retraining exercise ...

  14. Achieving a balance between small singlet-triplet energy splitting and high fluorescence radiative rate in a quinoxaline-based orange-red thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ling; Wu, Zhongbin; Xie, Guohua; Zhong, Cheng; Zhu, Zece; Cong, Hengjiang; Ma, Dongge; Yang, Chuluo

    2016-09-21

    A new orange-red thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitter is designed and synthesized by incorporating a fluorine-substituted quinoxaline as an electron-acceptor and a phenoxazine as an electron-donor. The rational molecular design enables small singlet-triplet energy splitting (ΔEST) and high fluorescence radiative rate (k) for long-wavelength TADF emitters. The organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) employing the new TADF emitter achieve maximum external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) of 13.9% and 9.0% for the vacuum- and solution-processed OLEDs, respectively.

  15. Radiation carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1976-01-01

    The risk of iatrogenic tumors with radiation therapy is so outweighed by the benefit of cure that estimates of risk have not been considered necessary. However, with the introduction of chemotherapy, combined therapy, and particle radiation therapy, the comparative risks should be examined. In the case of radiation, total dose, fractionation, dose rate, dose distribution, and radiation quality should be considered in the estimation of risk. The biological factors that must be considered include incidence of tumors, latent period, degree of malignancy, and multiplicity of tumors. The risk of radiation induction of tumors is influenced by the genotype, sex, and age of the patient, the tissues that will be exposed, and previous therapy. With chemotherapy the number of cells at risk is usually markedly higher than with radiation therapy. Clearly the problem of the estimation of comparative risks is complex. This paper presents the current views on the comparative risks and the importance of the various factors that influence the estimation of risk.

  16. 26 CFR 1.436-1 - Limits on benefits and benefit accruals under single employer defined benefit plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Prior unpredictable contingent event. (c) Limitations on plan amendments increasing liability for... reduce funding balances. (b) Limitation on shutdown benefits and other unpredictable contingent event... regarding pre-existing plan provisions. (4) Exceptions. (5) Rule for determining when an amendment...

  17. Balancing priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønsted, Troels; Johansen, Andreas Kaas; Lauridsen, Frederik Vahr Bjarnø

    2016-01-01

    a heterogeneous ensemble of care providers. In this paper, we present findings from a field study of coordinative work in distributed elder care in Denmark. The purpose of this study is to further our understanding of the coordinative challenges of distributed elder care, and to inform design of new care......, that are needed by the healthcare system, but also the work involved in balancing priorities....

  18. Mitigation benefits of forestation greatly varies on short spatial scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakir, Dan; Rotenberg, Eyal; Rohatin, Shani; Ramati, Efrat; Asaf, David; Dicken, Uri

    2016-04-01

    Mitigation of global warming by forestation is controversial because of its linkage to increasing surface energy load and associated surface warming. Such tradeoffs between cooling associated with carbon sequestration and warming associated with radiative effects have been considered predominantly on large spatial scales, indicating benefits of forestation mainly in the tropics but not in the boreal regions. Using mobile laboratory for measuring CO2, water and energy flux in forest and non-forest ecosystem along the climatic gradient in Israel over three years, we show that the balance between cooling and warming effects of forestation can be transformed across small spatial scale. While converting shrubland to pine forest in a semi-arid site (280 mm annual precipitations) requires several decades of carbon sequestration to balance the radiative warming effects, similar land use change under moist Mediterranean conditions (780 mm annual precipitation) just ~200 km away showed reversal of this balance. Specifically, the results indicated that in the study region (semi-arid to humid Mediterranean), net absorb radiation in pine forests is always larger than in open space ecosystems, resulting in surface warming effects (the so-called albedo effect). Similarly, depression of thermal radiation emission, mainly due canopy skin surface cooling associated with the 'convector effect' in forests compared with shrubland ecosystems also appears in all sites. But both effects decrease by about 1/2 in going from the semi-arid to the humid Mediterranean sites, while enhanced productivity of forest compared to grassland increase about fourfold. The results indicate a greater potential for forestation as climate change mitigation strategy than previously assumed.

  19. DESIGN OF SEQUENTIALLY FED BALANCED AMPLIFYING ANTENNA FOR CIRCULAR POLARIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Behera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a sequentially fed balanced amplifying antenna that exhibits circularly polarized radiation. The inherent benefits of good isolation between input and output ports as well as improved matching capabilities of balanced amplifiers provide overall system gain of 8 dBi at frequency 2.36GHz. The planar arrangement of the patch antenna elements are considered to form an array. The phase of the feeding in the array increases progressively from 00 to 2700.Each element in the array is linearly polarized. Here four elements were considered and 2arranged at the four corners of a square domain. This arrangement shows that each antenna sees its adjacent ones to be radiating from an edge orthogonal to its edge of radiation. Circular polarization is achieved due to this sequential feeding. This array is designed with operating frequency 2.4 GHz. A good axial ratio of 2.4 is obtained at 2.37 GHz frequency. The noise figure is considerably reduced and which is around -19dB.

  20. Social Balance Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Hokky Situngkir; Deni Khanafiah

    2004-01-01

    We construct a model based on social balance theory proposed by Fritz Heider to analyze the interpersonal network among social agents. The model of social balance theory provides us an interesting tool to see how a social group evolves to the possible balance state. We introduce the balance index that can be used to measure social balance in macro structure level (global balance index) or in micro structure (local balance index) to see how the local balance index influences the global balance...

  1. Radiation Therapy for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make sure they are safe to use during radiation therapy. • Eat a balanced diet. If food tastes ... your fluid intake. • Treat the skin exposed to radiation with special care. Stay out of the sun, ...

  2. Load balancing by redundant decomposition and maping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ronde, J.F.; Schoneveld, A.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper a new methodology for load balancing parallel processes on parallel systems is proposed. The problem of load balancing is considered to be an NP-hard optimization task. Taking static parallel finite element applications as a case study, the benefits and losses that follow from applying

  3. Additional Survival Benefit of Involved-Lesion Radiation Therapy After R-CHOP Chemotherapy in Limited Stage Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jeanny [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Il Han, E-mail: ihkim@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byoung Hyuck [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Min; Heo, Dae Seog [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of involved-lesion radiation therapy (ILRT) after rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) chemotherapy in limited stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) by comparing outcomes of R-CHOP therapy alone with R-CHOP followed by ILRT. Methods and Materials: We identified 198 patients treated with R-CHOP (median, 6 cycles) for pathologically confirmed DLBCL of limited stage from July 2004 to December 2012. Clinical characteristics of these patients were 33% with stage I and 66.7% with stage II; 79.8% were in the low or low-intermediate risk group; 13.6% had B symptoms; 29.8% had bulky tumors (≥7 cm); and 75.3% underwent ≥6 cycles of R-CHOP therapy. RT was given to 43 patients (21.7%) using ILRT technique, which included the prechemotherapy tumor volume with a median margin of 2 cm (median RT dose: 36 Gy). Results: After a median follow-up of 40 months, 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 85.8% and 88.9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed ≥6 cycles of R-CHOP (PFS, P=.004; OS, P=.004) and ILRT (PFS, P=.021; OS, P=.014) were favorable prognosticators of PFS and OS. A bulky tumor (P=.027) and response to R-CHOP (P=.012) were also found to be independent factors of OS. In subgroup analysis, the effect of ILRT was prominent in patients with a bulky tumor (PFS, P=.014; OS, P=.030) or an elevated level of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; PFS, P=.004; OS, P=.012). Conclusions: Our results suggest that ILRT after R-CHOP therapy improves PFS and OS in patients with limited stage DLBCL, especially in those with bulky disease or an elevated serum LDH level.

  4. Impact of gamma radiation and salinity on growth and K+/Na+balance in two populations of Medicago sativa(L.)cultivar Gabès

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mokhtar Rejili; DaM Telahigue; Belgacem Lachiheb; Abdessalem Mrabet; Ali Ferchichi

    2008-01-01

    The perennial Medicago sativa cv.Gabès is widely grown on saline soils in Tunisian oases.Morphological and physiological analyses of two populations(Mareth and Gannouch)were conducted in order to study the effect of salinity and gamma radiation(350 Gy)inter-action on two populations of this species.It has been shown that the two irradiated populations of Medicago sativa are fairly tolerant to salt at growth phase compared to the non-irradiated.Exposure to gamma irradiation(350 Gy),alone or in combination with salt stress,increased significantly (p<0.00 1)shoot number,stem height and chlorophyll b pigment especially for the Gannouch population,while no change occurred for the Mareth population.The presence of salt to 9 g/1 affected significantly the root biomass and induced a reduc-tion of shoot development of both control and irradiated alfalfa populations.For all treatments,plants of two populations remained able to produce and to allocate dry matter to the different organs.The survey of Na+/K+ratio showed that the growth of the aerial organs of two non-irradiated populations was at least determined by a selectivity in favour of the K+ions r2=0.97 and r2=0.59 for Mareth and Gannouch non-irradiated populations,respectively).However,the rather weak correlation detected for the irradiated populations,par-ticularly for the irradiated Gannouch.seems to be the consequence of the effect of irradiation that improved potassium availability.essential element for growth and development.Results also showed that the two irradiated populations,especially the Mareth,accumu-lated Na+ions in its photosynthetic organs.This accumulation was associated with an improvement of foliar water content at a level of salinity around 5 g/1.Such a mechanism reflects probably an inclusive behaviour of the plants and a good aptitude to use the dominant ions(Na+)for the osmotic adjustment.However,the non-irradiated populations are unable to adjust their internal osmotic potential

  5. Impactos do avanço da soja no balanço de radiação no leste da Amazônia Impacts of soybean expansion on radiation balance in eastern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Jorge de Oliveira Ponte de Souza

    2013-06-01

    environmental impacts can be generated due to the presence of soybean monoculture in the region. This study evaluates the local impacts of the replacement of forest by soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill on radiation balance components in an area that represents the agricultural border advancement in Amazonia. A micrometeorological experiment was installed in an area of soybean cultivation in Paragominas-PA and data from forest ecosystems were collected in Caxiuanã forests located in Melgaço-PA both during 2006 and 2007. During the soybean growing season the mean impact found in net radiation represented a reduction of 17.9% of the value commonly observed in the forest. During the off-season the impact on net radiation was 15.5%. Principal mechanisms that control these impacts were associated with the high soybean albedo and high loss of long wave radiation. Although the greatest impact occurs during the crop growing season, the time of occurrence of this negative effect is restricted to only 1/3 of the year, which leads to a higher impact of the off-season on energy balance in cumulative terms.

  6. Who benefits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    2016-01-01

    Cross-border welfare rights for citizens of European Union member states are intensely contested, yet there is limited research into voter opposition to such rights, sometimes denoted ‘welfare chauvinism’. We highlight an overlooked aspect in scholarly work: the role of stereotypes about...... beneficiaries of cross-border welfare. We present results from an original large-scale survey experiment (N=2525) among Swedish voters, randomizing exposure to cues about recipients' country of origin and family size. Consistent with a model emphasizing the role of stereotypes, respondents react to cues about...... recipient identity. These effects are strongest among respondents high in ethnic prejudice and economic conservatism. The findings imply that stereotypes about who benefits from cross-border welfare rights condition public support for those rights....

  7. Water-saving Benefit Analysis Based on the Supply and Demand Balance and Water-using Efficiency Model%基于供需平衡和用水效率模型的节水效益分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永战

    2014-01-01

    Water conservation is an action that comprehensive measures of engineering, technique, economy and management are taken to ensure the rational use of water, improve the use efficiency of water and reduce invalid loss. Under the current conditions of water shortage and increasing serious water pollution, water conservation is a strategic infrastructure project for the exploitation and use of water resources. Evaluation system model is established by water supply and demand ratio (R1) and water-saving benefit ratio (R2). The two aspects of evaluation factors could get the level value of water-saving benefit, and they are both independent parameters, so this model has high reference value.%节约用水是在确保合理用水,以提高水资源利用效率、降低无效损耗为目的,所采取的工程、技术、经济和管理等各项综合措施的行为。在目前水资源短缺和水污染日趋严重的条件下,节约用水作为水资源开发利用的一项战略性基础工程,通过水资源供需比(R1)和节水效益比(R2)两方面评价因素来建立评价系统模型,可得到节水效益的水平值,而两者均为独立参数,减少关联因素的影响程度,此模型评价具有较高的参考价值。

  8. EFFECT OF SPECIFIC BALANCE STRATEGY TRAINING PROGRAMME ON BALANCE IN INSTITUTIONALIZED ELDERLY POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffar Mairaj

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Balance emerges from the interaction of multiple systems that are organized to meet functional task goals and that are constrained by environmental context, but is often compromised with advancing age. At least 30% of older people experience decline in physical activity after entry into residential care. Participation in activity is more difficult for older people because of fear, lack of motivation, depression and poor understanding of the long term benefits of physical activity. Thus our purpose was to investigate effect of specific balance strategy training programme as compared to general balance training in improving balance in institutionalized elderly population. Methods: 26 institutionalized elderly subjects participated in the study. Participants in group A were given specific balance strategy training programme and those in group B were given general balance training. Intervention was for 40 min per day, thrice a week for 4 weeks. Balance was assessed using Berg balance scale and Timed up and go test. Result: Both the interventions showed marked improvement in balance when assessed on Berg balance and Timed up and go test. The group having specific balance strategy training programme proved to be significantly better than general balance training programme. Conclusion: Specific balance strategy training programme being more effective than general regimens should be incorporated in addressing balance related problems of institutionalized elderly population.

  9. (Mis)Understanding Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, Stephen Bruce [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-10

    This set of slides discusses radiation and fears concerning it at a non-technical level. Included are some misconceptions and practical consequences resulting from these. The concept of radiation hormesis is explained. The author concludes that a number of significant societal benefits are being foregone because of overly cautious concerns about low-level radiation.

  10. WORK / LIFE BALANCE REFLECTIONS ON EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvarani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze the relationship between employee satisfaction andwork/life balance. The construct used for this research consists of career opportunity, recognition,work tasks, payments, benefits, superior subordinate relationship, employee satisfaction, andwork/life balance. The study was conducted on a total of 210 respondents working in IT organization.This study makes a contribution to join two distinct research streams, namely employee satisfaction,and work/life balance. Findings suggest that high correlation exists between work task and employeesatisfaction with a mediator variable namely work-life balance.

  11. The mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet: sensitivity to climate change as revealed by energy-balance modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1991-01-01

    The sensitivity of the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet to climate change is studied with an energy-balance model of the ice/snow surface, applied at 200 m elevation intervals for four characteristic regions of the ice sheet. Solar radiation, longwave radiation, turbulent heat fluxes and refr

  12. Mutual Benefit and Balance:Ethics, Welfare and Law of Experimental Animal%互利与平衡:实验动物的伦理、福利与法律∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任元鹏; 杨鸣; 姜柏生

    2016-01-01

    At present, the theory study of experimental animals' ethics and welfare tends to be unified and the practice tends to be standard. However, the development of the practice cannot meet the needs of the development of the theory. On the basis of the existing related theories, this article put forward two cognitions:one is recogniz-ing the reasons of giving ethical care and welfare benefits to experimental animals;the other is how to establish ef-fective specification system. Therefore, we should do as the following three points:acknowledging the basic interests priorities of human beings as the primary principle;realizing the boundary of experimental animal use that is reali-zing the limitations of human development;establishing effective and standardized system to strengthen the supervi-sion function of experimental animal ethics committee and to determine the appropriate legal responsibility.%实验动物伦理与福利的理论研究趋于统一,实践操作也趋于规范,然而实践的发展尚不能满足理论发展的需要。依据现有相关理论,提出两点认识,即要中肯的认清对实验动物予以伦理关怀和福利待遇的理由以及如何建立行之有效的规范体制。为此,应该做到以下三点:承认人类基本利益优先作为首要原则;认识到实验动物利用的边界,也就是说要认识到人类发展的有限性;建立行之有效的规范体制,加强实验动物伦理委员会的审查监督功能以及确定合适的法律责任。

  13. Infrared radiation industrial application and economic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IR heating has been accepted to be one of the important means for cooking, drying, roasting, baking, blanching and pasteurization of food and agricultural products. This chapter reviews the scientific developments in IR applications, demonstrates the status of selected industrial and pilot scale IR ...

  14. Dizziness and Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    AUDIOLOGY Dizziness and Balance Inform ation Seri es Our balance system helps us walk, run, and move without falling. ... if I have a problem with balance or dizziness? It is important to see your doctor if ...

  15. Food biotechnology: benefits and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Michael C; Chassy, Bruce M; Harlander, Susan K; Hoban, Thomas J; McGloughlin, Martina N; Akhlaghi, Amin R

    2002-06-01

    Recent advances in agricultural biotechnology have highlighted the need for experimental evidence and sound scientific judgment to assess the benefits and risks to society. Nutrition scientists and other animal biologists need a balanced understanding of the issues to participate in this assessment. To date most modifications to crop plants have benefited producers. Crops have been engineered to decrease pesticide and herbicide usage, protect against stressors, enhance yields and extend shelf life. Beyond the environmental benefits of decreased pesticide and herbicide application, consumers stand to benefit by development of food crops with increased nutritional value, medicinal properties, enhanced taste and esthetic appeal. There remains concern that these benefits come with a cost to the environment or increased risk to the consumer. Most U.S. consumers are not aware of the extent that genetically modified foods have entered the marketplace. Consumer awareness of biotechnology seems to have increased over the last decade, yet most consumers remain confused over the science. Concern over the impact on the safety of the food supply remains low in the United States, but is substantially elevated in Europe. Before a genetically engineered crop is introduced into commerce it must pass regulatory scrutiny by as many as four different federal regulatory bodies to ensure a safe food supply and minimize the risk to the environment. Key areas for more research are evaluation of the nutritional benefits of new crops, further investigation of the environmental impact, and development of better techniques to identify and track genetically engineered products.

  16. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A-Z > Exercise: Benefits of Exercise: Health Benefits In This Topic Health Benefits Benefits for Everyday Life ... Try Exercise: How to Stay Active The information in this topic was provided by the National Institute ...

  17. Implications of albedo changes following afforestation on the benefits of forests as carbon sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, M. U. F.; Whitehead, D.; Dean, S. M.; Beets, P. N.; Shepherd, J. D.; Ausseil, A.-G. E.

    2011-12-01

    Increased carbon storage with afforestation leads to a decrease in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and thus decreases radiative forcing and cools the Earth. However, afforestation also changes the reflective properties of the surface vegetation from more reflective pasture to relatively less reflective forest cover. This increase in radiation absorption by the forest constitutes an increase in radiative forcing, with a warming effect. The net effect of decreased albedo and carbon storage on radiative forcing depends on the relative magnitude of these two opposing processes. We used data from an intensively studied site in New Zealand's Central North Island that has long-term, ground-based measurements of albedo over the full short-wave spectrum from a developing Pinus radiata forest. Data from this site were supplemented with satellite-derived albedo estimates from New Zealand pastures. The albedo of a well-established forest was measured as 13 % and pasture albedo as 20 %. We used these data to calculate the direct radiative forcing effect of changing albedo as the forest grew. We calculated the radiative forcing resulting from the removal of carbon from the atmosphere as a decrease in radiative forcing of -104 GJ tC-1 yr-1. We also showed that the observed change in albedo constituted a direct radiative forcing of 2759 GJ ha-1 yr-1. Thus, following afforestation, 26.5 tC ha-1 needs to be stored in a growing forest to balance the increase in radiative forcing resulting from the observed albedo change. Measurements of tree biomass and albedo were used to estimate the net change in radiative forcing as the newly planted forest grew. Albedo and carbon-storage effects were of similar magnitude for the first four to five years after tree planting, but as the stand grew older, the carbon storage effect increasingly dominated. Averaged over the whole length of the rotation, the changes in albedo negated the benefits from increased carbon storage by 17-24 %.

  18. Balance in Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The review by Black and Wiliam of national systems makes clear the complexity of assessment, and identifies important issues. One of these is "balance": balance between local and central responsibilities, balance between the weights given to various purposes of schooling, balance between weights for various functions of assessment, and balance…

  19. Wii balance board exercise improves balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The potential health benefits of the Nintendo Wii balance board exercise have been widely investigated. However, no study has been conducted to examine the benefits of Wii exercise for overweight young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise performed on a Nintendo Wii balance board on the balance and lower limb muscle strength in overweight young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Within-subject repeated measures analysis was used. Sixteen young adults (aged 21.87±1.13 years, body mass index 24.15 ± 0.50 kg/m(2)) were recruited. All subjects performed an exercise program on a Wii balance board for 8 weeks (30 min/session, twice a week for 8 weeks). A NeuroCom Balance Master and a hand-held dynamometer were used to measure balance performance and lower limb muscle strength. [Results] According to the comparison of pre- and post-intervention measurements, the Wii balance board exercise program significantly improved the limit of stability parameters. There was also a significant increase in strength of four lower-limb muscle groups: the hip flexor, knee flexor, ankle dorsiflexor and ankle plantarflexor. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that a Wii balance board exercise program can be used to improve the balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults.

  20. Suicides in Adolescents: Benefit/Harm Balance of Antidepressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saz, Ulas Eylem; Arslan, Mehmet Tayyip; Egemen, Ayten

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Depression is an important cause of suicide in adolescents. It has been speculated that antidepressants themselves can increase the risk of suicide. Method: Cases of adolescents admitted to the Ege University Pediatric Emergency Department in Turkey due to suicide attempt were assessed. Results: Nine of 13 suicide attempts during…

  1. Prednisone and Other Corticosteroids: Balance the Risks and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... least amount of risk: Try lower doses or intermittent dosing. Newer forms of corticosteroids come in varying ... ways to minimize side effects. Eat a healthy diet and participate in activities that help you maintain ...

  2. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can ... yourself. Studies have shown that exercise provides many health benefits and that older adults can gain a ...

  3. Benefit-sharing arrangements in the Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tysyachnyouk, M.

    2016-01-01

    Can the interests of both the extractive industries and Indigenous communities in the Arctic be balanced through the implementation of benefit-sharing practices in the places of resource extraction? Most transnational corporations
    in the Arctic oil and gas sector have declared their commitment t

  4. Equilibria in Load Balancing Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Chen

    2009-01-01

    A Nash equilibrium (NE) in a multi-agent game is a strategy profile that is resilient to unilateral deviations.A strong Nash equilibrium (SE) is one that is stable against coordinated deviations of any coalition.We show that,in the load balancing games,NEs approximate SEs in the sense that the benefit of each member of any coalition from coordinated deviations is well limited.Furthermore,we show that an easily recognizable special subset of NEs exhibit even better approximation of SEs.

  5. Effectiveness of the Balanced Scorecard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichen, Alex Yu; Perera, Sujatha; Crowe, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Many of the claimed benefits of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) rely on the linkage of its performance measures to strategy and on causal relations among its measures. Using a survey research method, this study examines the extent to which adopters of BSC consider these features and whether...... they result in more effective performance measurement systems. A survey of medium and large Australian manufacturing organisations reveals that varying forms of scorecards are used in practice and that managers who perceive that their scorecard measures are linked to strategy and affect each other in a causal...

  6. Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Indrin J; Martel, Mary K; Jaffray, David A; Benedict, Stanley H; Hahn, Stephen M; Berbeco, Ross; Deye, James; Jeraj, Robert; Kavanagh, Brian; Krishnan, Sunil; Lee, Nancy; Low, Daniel A; Mankoff, David; Marks, Lawrence B; Ollendorf, Daniel; Paganetti, Harald; Ross, Brian; Siochi, Ramon Alfredo C; Timmerman, Robert D; Wong, John W

    2015-11-01

    Radiation therapy is an effective, personalized cancer treatment that has benefited from technological advances associated with the growing ability to identify and target tumors with accuracy and precision. Given that these advances have played a central role in the success of radiation therapy as a major component of comprehensive cancer care, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored a workshop entitled "Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology," which took place at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland, on June 13 and 14, 2013. The purpose of this workshop was to discuss emerging technology for the field and to recognize areas for greater research investment. Expert clinicians and scientists discussed innovative technology in radiation oncology, in particular as to how these technologies are being developed and translated to clinical practice in the face of current and future challenges and opportunities. Technologies encompassed topics in functional imaging, treatment devices, nanotechnology, and information technology. The technical, quality, and safety performance of these technologies were also considered. A major theme of the workshop was the growing importance of innovation in the domain of process automation and oncology informatics. The technologically advanced nature of radiation therapy treatments predisposes radiation oncology research teams to take on informatics research initiatives. In addition, the discussion on technology development was balanced with a parallel conversation regarding the need for evidence of efficacy and effectiveness. The linkage between the need for evidence and the efforts in informatics research was clearly identified as synergistic.

  7. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase,...

  8. Balanced Scorecard voor inkoop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, van der R.; Schotanus, F.

    2003-01-01

    Een Balanced Scorecard kan ontwikkeld worden voor de hele organisatie, maar ook voor onderdelen daarvan. In dit artikel wordt ingegaan op de ontwikkeling van een Balanced Scorecard voor de inkoopafdeling

  9. Strength and Balance Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Strength and Balance Exercises Updated:Sep 8,2016 If ... Be Safe While Being Active - Stretching & Flexibility Exercises - Strength & Balance Exercises - Problems & Solutions for Being Active - FAQs ...

  10. Liquid-circulating garment controls thermal balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetz, L. H.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental data and mathematical model of human thermoregulatory system have been used to investigate use of liquid-circulatory garment (LCG) to control thermal balance. Model proved useful as accurate simulator of such variables as sweat rate, skin temperature, core temperature, and radiative, evaporative, and LCG heat loss.

  11. Potential risk and benefit of the combination of trastuzumab to chemotherapy and radiation therapy in non-metastatic breast cancer; Benefice et risques potentiels de l'association du trastuzumab a la chimiotherapie et a la radiotherapie dans le cancer du sein non metastatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkacemi, Y. [CLCC Oscar-Lambret, Universite de Lille-2, Dept. d' Oncologie-Radiotherapie, 59 - Lille (France); Laharie-Mineur, H. [CLCC, institut Bergonie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Gligorov, J. [APHP, Hopital Tenon, Cancer-Est, 75 - Paris (France); Azria, D. [CLCC Val d' Aurelle-Paul-Lamarque, Inserm, EMI 0227, 34 - Montpellier (France)

    2007-09-15

    Trastuzumab (Herceptin) is the first humanized monoclonal antibody targeting the HER2 antigen in breast cancer. HER2 receptor has been individualised 20 years ago. During the past 10 years, trastuzumab administration has radically modified the prognosis of the patients that are treated for HER2 positive breast cancer. Its efficacy has been demonstrated in the metastatic and adjuvant settings. While, trastuzumab based-regimens became the standard of care in the treatment of HER2/neu positive breast cancer, the optimal combination (concurrently or sequentially) to chemotherapy and radiation therapy is still unknown. Indeed, while the concurrent administration of trastuzumab and anthracyclines is not recommended because of a high risk of cardiac toxicity, there is no published data on the best sequence of trastuzumab and radiation therapy administration, particularly when internal mammary chain is involved. The benefit/risk ratio of the concurrent and sequential administration of trastuzumab with chemotherapy and radiation therapy will be discussed in this review. (authors)

  12. 75 FR 20299 - Garnishment of Accounts Containing Federal Benefit Payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... payments in ] the account or to the current balance of the account, whichever is lower. DATES: Comments... payments or the balance of the account on the date of the account review (the ``protected amount''). The... Accounts Containing Federal Benefit Payments AGENCY: Department of the Treasury, Fiscal Service...

  13. Cooperation for direct fitness benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimar, Olof; Hammerstein, Peter

    2010-09-12

    Studies of the evolution of helping have traditionally used the explanatory frameworks of reciprocity and altruism towards relatives, but recently there has been an increasing interest in other kinds of explanations. We review the success or otherwise of work investigating alternative processes and mechanisms, most of which fall under the heading of cooperation for direct benefits. We evaluate to what extent concepts such as by-product benefits, pseudo-reciprocity, sanctions and partner choice, markets and the build-up of cross-species spatial trait correlations have contributed to the study of the evolution of cooperation. We conclude that these alternative ideas are successful and show potential to further increase our understanding of cooperation. We also bring up the origin and role of common interest in the evolution of cooperation, including the appearance of organisms. We note that there are still unresolved questions about the main processes contributing to the evolution of common interest. Commenting on the broader significance of the recent developments, we argue that they represent a justified balancing of the importance given to different major hypotheses for the evolution of cooperation. This balancing is beneficial because it widens considerably the range of phenomena addressed and, crucially, encourages empirical testing of important theoretical alternatives.

  14. Teaching Balance Training to Improve Stability and Cognition for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Andrew L.; Norman, Shannon P.; Kim, Young Ae

    2013-01-01

    There are many benefits to having young children train or practice on balance boards. The physical education setting allows educators to provide opportunities for youth to develop essential fitness skills that can be transferred into other life experiences. Balance-board activities and exercises can help in training the central and peripheral…

  15. Load-balancing algorithms for climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, I.T.; Toonen, B.R.

    1994-06-01

    Implementations of climate models on scalable parallel computer systems can suffer from load imbalances due to temporal and spatial variations in the amount of computation required for physical parameterizations such as solar radiation and convective adjustment. We have developed specialized techniques for correcting such imbalances. These techniques are incorporated in a general-purpose, programmable load-balancing library that allows the mapping of computation to processors to be specified as a series of maps generated by a programmer-supplied load-balancing module. The communication required to move from one map to another is performed automatically by the library, without programmer intervention. In this paper, we de scribe the load-balancing problem and the techniques that we have developed to solve it. We also describe specific load-balancing algorithms that we have developed for PCCM2, a scalable parallel implementation of the community Climate Model, and present experimental results that demonstrate the effectiveness of these algorithms on parallel computers.

  16. Load-balancing algorithms for climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, I. T.; Toonen, B. R.

    Implementations of climate models on scalable parallel computer systems can suffer from load imbalances due to temporal and spatial variations in the amount of computation required for physical parameterizations such as solar radiation and convective adjustment. We have developed specialized techniques for correcting such imbalances. These techniques are incorporated in a general-purpose, programmable load-balancing library that allows the mapping of computation to processors to be specified as a series of maps generated by a programmer-supplied load-balancing module. The communication required to move from one map to another is performed automatically by the library, without programmer intervention. In this paper, we describe the load-balancing problem and the techniques that we have developed to solve it. We also describe specific load-balancing algorithms that we have developed for PCCM2, a scalable parallel implementation of the community climate model, and present experimental results that demonstrate the effectiveness of these algorithms on parallel computers.

  17. Balanced Flow Meters without Moving Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R.; VanBuskirk, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Balanced flow meters are recent additions to an established class of simple, rugged flow meters that contain no moving parts in contact with flow and are based on measurement of pressure drops across objects placed in flow paths. These flow meters are highly accurate, minimally intrusive, easily manufacturable, and reliable. A balanced flow meter can be easily mounted in a flow path by bolting it between conventional pipe flanges. A balanced flow meter can be used to measure the flow of any of a variety of liquids or gases, provided that it has been properly calibrated. Relative to the standard orifice-plate flow meter, the balanced flow meter introduces less turbulence and two times less permanent pressure loss and is therefore capable of offering 10 times greater accuracy and repeatability with less dissipation of energy. A secondary benefit of the reduction of turbulence is the reduction of vibration and up to 15 times less acoustic noise generation. Both the balanced flow meter and the standard orifice-plate flow meter are basically disks that contain holes and are instrumented with pressure transducers on their upstream and downstream faces. The most obvious difference between them is that the standard orifice plate contains a single, central hole while the balanced flow meter contains multiple holes. The term 'balanced' signifies that in designing the meter, the sizes and locations of the holes are determined in an optimization procedure that involves balancing of numerous factors, including volumetric flow, mass flow, dynamic pressure, kinetic energy, all in an effort to minimize such undesired effects as turbulence, pressure loss, dissipation of kinetic energy, and non-repeatability and nonlinearity of response over the anticipated range of flow conditions. Due to proper balancing of these factors, recent testing demonstrated that the balanced flow-meter performance was similar to a Venturi tube in both accuracy and pressure recovery, but featured reduced

  18. Functional balance tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Raji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: All activities of daily living need to balance control in static and dynamic movements. In recent years, a numerous increase can be seen in the functional balance assessment tools. Functional balance tests emphasize on static and dynamic balance, balance in weight transfer, the equilibrium response to the imbalances, and functional mobility. These standardized and available tests assess performance and require minimal or no equipment and short time to run. Functional balance is prerequisite for the most static and dynamic activities in daily life and needs sufficient interaction between sensory and motor systems. According to the critical role of balance in everyday life, and wide application of functional balance tests in the diagnosis and assessment of patients, a review of the functional balance tests was performed.Methods: The Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Magiran, Iran Medex, and IranDoc databases were reviewed and the reliable and valid tests which were mostly used by Iranian researchers were assessed.Conclusion: It seems that Berg balance scale (BBS have been studied by Iranian and foreign researches more than the other tests. This test has high reliability and validity in elderly and in the most neurological disorders.

  19. 29 CFR 4044.11 - Priority category 1 benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PLAN TERMINATIONS ALLOCATION OF... participant has elected to receive an annuity in lieu of his or her account balance, the benefit assigned to priority category 1 with respect to that participant is the present value of that annuity....

  20. How Exercise Can Benefit Older Patients. A Practical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Henry C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Physical activity has preventive and therapeutic benefits for the frail elderly. Physicians must educate patients about exercise benefits. Walking, flexibility, and strength training can prevent muscle weakness and impaired gait and balance. Changes in functional capacity can create greater independence in daily living. Physical activity also…

  1. Medicare Hospice Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    CENTERS for MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES Medicare Hospice Benefits This official government booklet includes information about Medicare hospice benefits: Who’s eligible for hospice care What services are included in hospice ...

  2. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You ... activity campaign from the National Institute on Aging. Exercise or Physical Activity? Some people may wonder what ...

  3. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can Do Like most people, ... active on a regular basis is one of the healthiest things you can do for yourself. Studies ...

  4. ERRAPRI Project: estimation of radiation risk to patients in interventional radiology, initial results and proposed levels of complexity; Proyecto ERRAPRI: estimacion del riesgo radiologico a los pacientes en radiologia intervencionista. Primeros resultados y propuestas de indices de complejidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Cruces, R.; Vano, E.; Hernandez-Armas, J.; Carrera, F.; Diaz, F.; Gallego Beuther, J. F.; Ruiz Munoz-Canela, J. P.; Sanchez Casanueva, R.; Perez Martinez, M.; Fernandez Soto, J. M.; Munoz, V.; Moreno, F.; Moreno, C.; Martin-Palanca, A.

    2011-07-01

    The project ERRAPRI (2009 - 2012) will assess the most relevant aspects of the radiological risk associated with interventional radiology techniques (IR) guided by fluoroscopy in a sample of Spanish hospitals of three autonomous regions. Specific objectives include: assessing procedural protocols, especially the parameters related to radiation dose and diagnostic information obtained to establish balances cost (radiation risk) benefit to the procedures evaluated, and propose an index of complex procedures on several levels, based on the difficulty of making the same, assessing its relationship with the radiation dose values.

  5. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can Do ... can do for yourself. Studies have shown that exercise provides many health benefits and that older adults can gain a lot ...

  6. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can Do ... can do for yourself. Studies have shown that exercise provides many health benefits and that older adults can gain a lot ...

  7. Identifying Balance in a Balanced Scorecard System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravamudhan, Suhanya; Kamalanabhan, T. J.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, strategic management concepts seem to be gaining greater attention from the academicians and the practitioner's alike. Balanced Scorecard (BSC) concept is one such management concepts that has spread in worldwide business and consulting communities. The BSC translates mission and vision statements into a comprehensive set of…

  8. Applying the balanced scorecard in healthcare provider organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamdar, Noorein; Kaplan, Robert S; Bower, Marvin

    2002-01-01

    Several innovative healthcare executives have recently introduced a new business strategy implementation tool: the Balanced Scorecard. The scorecard's measurement and management system provides the following potential benefits to healthcare organizations: It aligns the organization around a more market-oriented, customer-focused strategy It facilitates, monitors, and assesses the implementation of the strategy It provides a communication and collaboration mechanism It assigns accountability for performance at all levels of the organization It provides continual feedback on the strategy and promotes adjustments to marketplace and regulatory changes. We surveyed executives in nine provider organizations that were implementing the Balanced Scorecard. We asked about the following issues relating to its implementation and effect: 1. The role of the Balanced Scorecard in relation to a well-defined vision, mission, and strategy 2. The motivation for adopting the Balanced Scorecard 3. The difference between the Balanced Scorecard and other measurement systems 4. The process followed to develop and implement the Balanced Scorecard 5. The challenges and barriers during the development and implementation process 6. The benefits gained by the organization from adoption and use. The executives reported that the Balanced Scorecard strategy implementation and performance management tool could be successfully applied in the healthcare sector, enabling organizations to improve their competitive market positioning, financial results, and customer satisfaction. This article concludes with guidelines for other healthcare provider organizations to capture the benefits of the Balanced Scorecard performance management system.

  9. Effect of different insoles on postural balance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christovão, Thaluanna Calil Lourenço; Neto, Hugo Pasini; Grecco, Luanda André Collange; Ferreira, Luiz Alfredo Braun; Franco de Moura, Renata Calhes; Eliege de Souza, Maria; Franco de Oliveira, Luis Vicente; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

    2013-10-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to perform a systematic review of the literature on the effect of different insoles on postural balance. [Subjects and Methods] A systematic review was conducted of four databases. The papers retrieved were evaluated based on the following inclusion criteria: 1) design: controlled clinical trial; 2) intervention: insole; 3) outcome: change in static postural balance; and 4) year of publication: 2005 to 2012. [Results] Twelve controlled trials were found comparing the effects of different insoles on postural balance. The papers had methodological quality scores of 3 or 4 on the PEDro scale. [Conclusion] Insoles have benefits that favor better postural balance and control.

  10. Conclusion: The balanced company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm; Jensen, Inger

    2013-01-01

    This concluding chapter brings together the various research findings of the book "The balanced company - organizing for the 21st Century" and develops a general overview of their implications for our understanding of the balancing processes unfolding in companies and organizations....

  11. Keeping Your Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News & Events Press Releases NOF in the News Osteoporosis in the News Press/Media Kit NOF Events Blog Advocacy NOF Store Shopping Cart Home › Patients › Fractures/Fall Prevention › Exercise/Safe Movement › Keeping Your Balance Keeping Your Balance ...

  12. Leadership: A Balancing Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining balance in leadership can be difficult because balance is affected by the personality, strengths, and attitudes of the leader as well as the complicated environment within and outside the community college itself. This article explores what being a leader at the community college means, what the threats are to effective leadership, and…

  13. Pesando riscos e benefícios: lições aprendidas com as intervenções terapêuticas de um caso com pré-eclâmpsia grave Balance entre beneficios y riesgos: lecciones aprendidas con las intervenciones terapéuticas de un caso con preclampsia grave Balancing the benefits and risks: lessons learned from the therapeutic interventions of a case with severe preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqin Xu

    2013-06-01

    para evitar las complicaciones cerebrales serias.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia is a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS for its typical and atypical manifestations including hypertension, proteinuria, HELLP syndrome, hypertensive encephalopathy and coagulopathy. Optimal management for such patients is determined from an assessment of the balance between benefits and risks of anesthetic and obstetric therapeutic strategies. CASE REPORT: A 35-year-old pregnant woman, with one past uncomplicated pregnancy presented at 29 weeks to our medical institute as an emergency with dizziness, chest distress, palpitation, blurred vision and vaginal bleeding. After physical examination and laboratory tests, the patient was diagnosed with severe preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome, placental abruption, and MODS. The patient also presented spinal and pelvic deformity, fixation of articulus mandibularis, and tracheal displacement because of a traffic accident 11 years ago. Therefore, urgent cesarean section was performed under general anesthesia with nasal tracheal intubation using a guide wire. The patient was discharged directly home from the obstetric intensive care unit on the 7th postoperative day with normal blood pressure and full recovery of organic function. CONCLUSIONS: This case merits further discussion on the anesthesia considerations concerning how to make a clinical decision when treating such a patient. Neuraxial block is the first choice for preeclampsia patients undergoing cesarean section when a moderate but not progressive thrombocytopenia exists. When general anesthesia is decided, adequate sedation and analgesia is needed to better control the stress response to intubation especially in patients with neurological signs, and to prevent major cerebral complications.

  14. Balancing Trust and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    This paper focuses on the leadership challenge of balancing trust and control. The relation between trust and control has for a long time been a puzzling issue for management researchers. In the paper I first show that there has been a dramatic change in the way the relation between trust...... and control has been conceptualized in trust research. While the relation between trust and control earlier was conceptualized as a more or less stable balance between trust and control, more recent research conceptualizes the relation between trust and control more as a dynamical process that involves...... an ongoing process of balancing the relation between trust and control. Second, taking the departure in the recent conceptualization of the balance between trust and control as an interactive process I discuss the challenges for management in handling this more subtle balancing of trust and control...

  15. Suburban Energy Balance Estimates for Vancouver, B.C., Using the Bowen Ratio-Energy Balance Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalanda, B. D.; Oke, T. R.; Spittlehouse, D. L.

    1980-07-01

    The energy balance of a suburban site in Vancouver, B.C. in late summer is presented. The balance is obtained from direct measurements of net radiation, parameterized heat storage and turbulent fluxes determined according to the Bowen ratio-energy balance method with reversing psychrometers. An error analysis shows the turbulent fluxes are good to within 10-20% by day. Features of the suburban energy balance are found to be intermediate between those previously reported for urban and rural surfaces. Average daytime Bowen ratios are usually in the range 0.5-1.0 with some days as high as 2.5. The daytime sensible heat flux is in-phase with the net radiation. At night this flux is sometimes positive. Evapotranspiration is always an important term in the balance. The role of urban irrigation and microscale heat advection in maintaining evapotranspiration rates is discussed.

  16. Radiation Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Radiation Protection Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Radiation Protection Document Library View and download EPA radiation ...

  17. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  18. Consideration of Dynamical Balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errico, Ronald M.

    2015-01-01

    The quasi-balance of extra-tropical tropospheric dynamics is a fundamental aspect of nature. If an atmospheric analysis does not reflect such balance sufficiently well, the subsequent forecast will exhibit unrealistic behavior associated with spurious fast-propagating gravity waves. Even if these eventually damp, they can create poor background fields for a subsequent analysis or interact with moist physics to create spurious precipitation. The nature of this problem will be described along with the reasons for atmospheric balance and techniques for mitigating imbalances. Attention will be focused on fundamental issues rather than on recipes for various techniques.

  19. Radiation sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radiation. There are two basic types of radiation: ionizing and nonionizing. Nonionizing radiation comes in the form of light, radio waves, microwaves and radar. This kind of radiation usually ...

  20. Radiation enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation enteropathy; Radiation-induced small bowel injury; Post-radiation enteritis ... Radiation therapy uses high-powered x-rays, particles, or radioactive seeds to kill cancer cells. The therapy ...

  1. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the area is stitched shut. Another treatment, called proton-beam radiation therapy , focuses the radiation on the ... after radiation treatment ends. Sore mouth and tooth decay. If you received radiation therapy to the head ...

  2. Comparison between Financial Ratios Analysis and Balanced Scorecard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalad M.S. Alrafadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial ratios have long been used as a tool to evaluate the overall financial performance of a company. However, in early 1990s, a new method called Balanced Scorecard has been introduced by Robert Kaplan and David Norton to evaluate the overall controlling of a company. Problem statement: To the best of my knowledge at present there are no letrature review comparing between Financial ratios and Balanced Scorecard. Approach: This study is a conceptual paper comparing between the financial ratios analysis and balanced scorecard method. The objective of this paper is to compare between the benefits and problems of using financial ratios analysis and Balanced Scorecard method in evaluating the overall control of the company. Results: As a result, we found that the Balanced Scorecard is more efficient than financial ratios analysis. Conclusion/Recommendations: Both the balanced scorecard and financial ratios analysis are important tools for evaluating performance. So, we cannot ignore either of them.

  3. Radiation dosimetry.

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, J

    1991-01-01

    This article summarizes the basic facts about the measurement of ionizing radiation, usually referred to as radiation dosimetry. The article defines the common radiation quantities and units; gives typical levels of natural radiation and medical exposures; and describes the most important biological effects of radiation and the methods used to measure radiation. Finally, a proposal is made for a new radiation risk unit to make radiation risks more understandable to nonspecialists.

  4. Transit Benefit Program Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This data set contains information about any US government agency participating in the transit benefits program, funding agreements, individual participating Federal...

  5. Nuclear medicine radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    McParland, Brian J

    2010-01-01

    Complexities of the requirements for accurate radiation dosimetry evaluation in both diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine (including PET) have grown over the past decade. This is due primarily to four factors: growing consideration of accurate patient-specific treatment planning for radionuclide therapy as a means of improving the therapeutic benefit, development of more realistic anthropomorphic phantoms and their use in estimating radiation transport and dosimetry in patients, design and use of advanced Monte Carlo algorithms in calculating the above-mentioned radiation transport and

  6. The Balanced Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    is to be achieved and what should be avoided? • Through what types of processes are the criteria, conditions and values that are to be realised or taken into consideration constructed and decided upon? • What characterises the content, differences and complexity of the different types of values and criteria...... that a company is respected in wider society and behaves according to ethical standards. Strategists and Leaders need to make balanced choices about long-term goals and the allocation of resources. They need to analyse, understand and adjust strategies to market, political, value and technology related changes...... in their environments. Communication specialists need to make balanced decisions which take the different value systems and assumptions of stakeholders into consideration. Change specialists need to balance the need for continuity and change. Managers need to make balanced decisions about whether to achieve goals...

  7. Energy balance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhurandhar, N V; Schoeller, D; Brown, A W;

    2014-01-01

    Energy intake (EI) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) are key modifiable determinants of energy balance, traditionally assessed by self-report despite its repeated demonstration of considerable inaccuracies. We argue here that it is time to move from the common view that self-reports...... of energy balance.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 23 December 2014; doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.199.......Energy intake (EI) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) are key modifiable determinants of energy balance, traditionally assessed by self-report despite its repeated demonstration of considerable inaccuracies. We argue here that it is time to move from the common view that self......-reports of EI and PAEE are imperfect, but nevertheless deserving of use, to a view commensurate with the evidence that self-reports of EI and PAEE are so poor that they are wholly unacceptable for scientific research on EI and PAEE. While new strategies for objectively determining energy balance...

  8. Assessment of Global Annual Atmospheric Energy Balance from Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bing; Stackhouse, Paul; Minnis, Patrick; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Hu, Yongxiang; Sun, Wenbo; Fan, Tai-Fang (Alice); Hinkelman, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Global atmospheric energy balance is one of the fundamental processes for the earth's climate system. This study uses currently available satellite data sets of radiative energy at the top of atmosphere (TOA) and surface and latent and sensible heat over oceans for the year 2000 to assess the global annual energy budget. Over land, surface radiation data are used to constrain assimilated results and to force the radiation, turbulent heat, and heat storage into balance due to a lack of observation-based turbulent heat flux estimations. Global annual means of the TOA net radiation obtained from both direct measurements and calculations are close to zero. The net radiative energy fluxes into the surface and the surface latent heat transported into the atmosphere are about 113 and 86 Watts per square meter, respectively. The estimated atmospheric and surface heat imbalances are about -8 9 Watts per square meter, values that are within the uncertainties of surface radiation and sea surface turbulent flux estimates and likely systematic biases in the analyzed observations. The potential significant additional absorption of solar radiation within the atmosphere suggested by previous studies does not appear to be required to balance the energy budget the spurious heat imbalances in the current data are much smaller (about half) than those obtained previously and debated at about a decade ago. Progress in surface radiation and oceanic turbulent heat flux estimations from satellite measurements significantly reduces the bias errors in the observed global energy budgets of the climate system.

  9. Balance Function Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Researchers at the Balance Function Laboratory and Clinic at the Minneapolis (MN) Neuroscience Institute on the Abbot Northwestern Hospital Campus are using a rotational chair (technically a "sinusoidal harmonic acceleration system") originally developed by NASA to investigate vestibular (inner ear) function in weightlessness to diagnose and treat patients with balance function disorders. Manufactured by ICS Medical Corporation, Schaumberg, IL, the chair system turns a patient and monitors his or her responses to rotational stimulation.

  10. 2013 social balance sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Pierrette Heuse

    2014-01-01

    The transposition into national law of Directive 2013/34/EU on the annual financial statements of companies, expected by no later than July 2015, could alter the statistical obligations on small firms in connection with the filing of their annual accounts. In any case, the social balance sheet can no longer form an integral part of their accounts. Nevertheless, it contains original information whose usefulness is highlighted, on the basis of the social balance sheets for 2012, by examining th...

  11. Implications of albedo changes following afforestation on the benefits of forests as carbon sinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. U. F. Kirschbaum

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Increased carbon storage with afforestation leads to a decrease in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and thus decreases radiative forcing and cools the Earth. However, land-use change also changes the reflective properties of the surface vegetation from more reflective pasture to relatively less reflective forest cover. This increase in radiation absorption by the forest constitutes an increase in radiative forcing, with a warming effect. The net effect of decreased albedo and carbon storage on radiative forcing depends on the relative magnitude of these two opposing processes.

    We used data from an intensively studied site in New Zealand's Central North Island that has long-term, ground-based measurements of albedo over the full short-wave spectrum from a developing Pinus radiata forest. Data from this site were supplemented with satellite-derived albedo estimates from New Zealand pastures. The albedo of a well-established forest was measured as 13 % and pasture albedo as 20 %. We used these data to calculate the direct radiative forcing effect of changing albedo as the forest grew.

    We calculated the radiative forcing resulting from the removal of carbon from the atmosphere as a decrease in radiative forcing of −104 GJ tC−1 yr−1. We also showed that the observed change in albedo constituted a direct radiative forcing of 2759 GJ ha−1 yr−1. Thus, following afforestation, 26.5 tC ha−1 needs to be stored in a growing forest to balance the increase in radiative forcing resulting from the observed albedo change. Measurements of tree biomass and albedo were used to estimate the net change in radiative forcing as the newly planted forest grew. Albedo and carbon-storage effects were of similar magnitude for the first four to five years after tree planting, but as the stand grew older, the carbon storage effect increasingly dominated. Averaged over the whole

  12. Implications of albedo changes following afforestation on the benefits of forests as carbon sinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. U. F. Kirschbaum

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased carbon storage with afforestation leads to a decrease in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and thus decreases radiative forcing and cools the Earth. However, afforestation also changes the reflective properties of the surface vegetation from more reflective pasture to relatively less reflective forest cover. This increase in radiation absorption by the forest constitutes an increase in radiative forcing, with a warming effect. The net effect of decreased albedo and carbon storage on radiative forcing depends on the relative magnitude of these two opposing processes.

    We used data from an intensively studied site in New Zealand's Central North Island that has long-term, ground-based measurements of albedo over the full short-wave spectrum from a developing Pinus radiata forest. Data from this site were supplemented with satellite-derived albedo estimates from New Zealand pastures. The albedo of a well-established forest was measured as 13 % and pasture albedo as 20 %. We used these data to calculate the direct radiative forcing effect of changing albedo as the forest grew.

    We calculated the radiative forcing resulting from the removal of carbon from the atmosphere as a decrease in radiative forcing of −104 GJ tC−1 yr−1. We also showed that the observed change in albedo constituted a direct radiative forcing of 2759 GJ ha−1 yr−1. Thus, following afforestation, 26.5 tC ha−1 needs to be stored in a growing forest to balance the increase in radiative forcing resulting from the observed albedo change. Measurements of tree biomass and albedo were used to estimate the net change in radiative forcing as the newly planted forest grew. Albedo and carbon-storage effects were of similar magnitude for the first four to five years after tree planting, but as the stand grew older, the carbon storage effect increasingly dominated. Averaged over the whole

  13. Balances instruments, manufacturers, history

    CERN Document Server

    Robens, Erich; Kiefer, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The book deals mainly with direct mass determination by means of a conventional balances. It covers the history of the balance from the beginnings in Egypt earlier than 3000 BC to recent developments. All balance types are described with emphasis on scientific balances. Methods of indirect mass determination, which are applied to very light objects like molecules and the basic particles of matter and celestial bodies, are included.  As additional guidance, today’s manufacturers are listed and the profile of important companies is reviewed. Several hundred photographs, reproductions and drawings show instruments and their uses. This book includes commercial weighing instruments for merchandise and raw materials in workshops as well as symbolic weighing in the ancient Egyptian’s ceremony of ‘Weighing of the Heart’, the Greek fate balance, the Roman  Justitia, Juno Moneta and Middle Ages scenes of the Last Judgement with Jesus or St. Michael and of modern balances. The photographs are selected from the...

  14. Energy Balance and Physical Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing in most parts of theworld and becoming one of the major global public health problems. Although the components of energy balance have not been adequately estimated over time, available evidence suggests that the increase in obesity is the result of reduced physical activity. Increases in physical activity have been shown to be strongly associated with improving physical fitness and body composition, with probably a positive effect on resting metabolic rate. The Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health advocates that 30 min of regular, moderate-intensity physical activity is associated with decreases in the risk of chronic diseases and may contribute to quality of life. However, the small changes that contribute 10 min for 3 times a day for aerobic training, or one set instead of three sets of repetitions on resistance training will provide individuals with health benefits. Indeed, nutrition and physical activity should be considered an integral part of fitness and good health, and should be encouraged in all age groups, particularly early in life. The question is no longer centered around the health benefit of increasing physical activity, but rather creating self awareness and behavior changes in individuals. Hence, effective intervention programs are needed that foster long term changes in physical activity. Among various interventions, the Nutrifit program was recently conducted in Thailand and found to improve health related fitness in children. The development of more effective interventions and approaches is a major challenge in this field today.

  15. Natural radiative cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.

    1979-01-01

    Natural radiative cooling at night was measured based on the surface-radiation spectrum after the heat balance of the surface exposed to the sun had been reradiated. A concept equivalent to the sky temperature and a concept useful for obtaining the net heat flux are discussed. The highest possible equilibrium temperature of the selective surface can be lowered; however, how to apply this practically is not yet known. A simple radiator, completely enclosed by a transparent screen, can produce a significant and inexpensive cooling effect. The results of experiments carried out in an area such as Padua, Italy, where the climate is not suitable for cooling purposes can still be predicted theoretically. The possibility of using the collector for heat collection during the day and as a radiator at night is indicated.

  16. Hospital benefit segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, D W; Lamb, C W

    1986-12-01

    Market segmentation is an important topic to both health care practitioners and researchers. The authors explore the relative importance that health care consumers attach to various benefits available in a major metropolitan area hospital. The purposes of the study are to test, and provide data to illustrate, the efficacy of one approach to hospital benefit segmentation analysis.

  17. Wellbeing or welfare benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Kristiansen, Maria; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2016-01-01

    This debate article debunks the myth that migrants are driven primarily by the size of the welfare benefits in the host country, when they decide where to migrate to. We show that instead of welfare benefits, migrants are driven by a desire for safety, wellbeing, social networks and opportunities...

  18. Watt and joule balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ian A.

    2014-04-01

    The time is fast approaching when the SI unit of mass will cease to be based on a single material artefact and will instead be based upon the defined value of a fundamental constant—the Planck constant—h . This change requires that techniques exist both to determine the appropriate value to be assigned to the constant, and to measure mass in terms of the redefined unit. It is important to ensure that these techniques are accurate and reliable to allow full advantage to be taken of the stability and universality provided by the new definition and to guarantee the continuity of the world's mass measurements, which can affect the measurement of many other quantities such as energy and force. Up to now, efforts to provide the basis for such a redefinition of the kilogram were mainly concerned with resolving the discrepancies between individual implementations of the two principal techniques: the x-ray crystal density (XRCD) method [1] and the watt and joule balance methods which are the subject of this special issue. The first three papers report results from the NRC and NIST watt balance groups and the NIM joule balance group. The result from the NRC (formerly the NPL Mk II) watt balance is the first to be reported with a relative standard uncertainty below 2 × 10-8 and the NIST result has a relative standard uncertainty below 5 × 10-8. Both results are shown in figure 1 along with some previous results; the result from the NIM group is not shown on the plot but has a relative uncertainty of 8.9 × 10-6 and is consistent with all the results shown. The Consultative Committee for Mass and Related Quantities (CCM) in its meeting in 2013 produced a resolution [2] which set out the requirements for the number, type and quality of results intended to support the redefinition of the kilogram and required that there should be agreement between them. These results from NRC, NIST and the IAC may be considered to meet these requirements and are likely to be widely debated

  19. Benzodiazepines: risks and benefits. A reconsideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, David S; Aitchison, Katherine; Bateson, Alan; Curran, H Valerie; Davies, Simon; Leonard, Brian; Nutt, David J; Stephens, David N; Wilson, Sue

    2013-11-01

    Over the last decade there have been further developments in our knowledge of the risks and benefits of benzodiazepines, and of the risks and benefits of alternatives to benzodiazepines. Representatives drawn from the Psychopharmacology Special Interest Group of the Royal College of Psychiatrists and the British Association for Psychopharmacology together examined these developments, and have provided this joint statement with recommendations for clinical practice. The working group was mindful of widespread concerns about benzodiazepines and related anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs. The group believes that whenever benzodiazepines are prescribed, the potential for dependence or other harmful effects must be considered. However, the group also believes that the risks of dependence associated with long-term use should be balanced against the benefits that in many cases follow from the short or intermittent use of benzodiazepines and the risk of the underlying conditions for which treatment is being provided.

  20. X-ray diagnostics - benefits and risks; Roentgendiagnostik - Nutzen und Risiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomaeus, Melanie (comp.)

    2016-10-15

    The brochure on benefits and risks of X-ray diagnostics discusses the following issues: X radiation - a pioneering discovery and medical sensation, fundamentals of X radiation, frequency of X-ray examinations in Germany in relation to CT imaging, radiation doses resulting from X-ray diagnostics, benefits of X-ray diagnostics - indication and examples, risks - measures for radiation exposure reductions, avoidance of unnecessary examinations.

  1. Controlling and monitoring exposure to radiation from medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Above a certain threshold dose, ionising radiation invariably provokes harmful effects such as burns, nausea and aplasia. Their severity increases with the dose received. There is no known threshold dose below which long-term harmful effects, such as cancer and genetic defects, do not occur. Ionising radiation comes from both natural and man-made sources. Worldwide, medical exposure accounts for 98% of the dose received from man-made sources. In France, the average dose per person received from diagnostic radiological examinations increased by more than 50% between 2002 and 2007. This increase was due to more frequent use of computed tomography (CT) and diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. The internationally defined individual dose limits for the general population do not apply to the medical uses of ionising radiation, but medical exposure must comply with the principles of radiation protection: the examination must be justified and the dose optimised. In France, shortcomings are observed in the application of these principles. In 2012, the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) received 345 reports of "significant radiation protection incidents" affecting patients: 75% involving external beam radiotherapy, 15% involving nuclear medicine, 6% involving CT scans, and 4% involving radiology. In 2011, reference levels were established for the doses received by children during CT imaging and nuclear medicine procedures. When deciding whether to order a diagnostic procedure using ionising radiation, the harm-benefit balance of both the procedure and the chosen technique must be taken into account. When two procedures have the same performance, the technique that exposes the patient to the lowest dose of radiation should be chosen.

  2. A balanced team generating model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Water, Tara; van de Water, Henny; Bukman, Cock

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a general team balancing model. It first summarizes existing balancing methods. It is shown that for these methods it is difficult to meet all the conditions posed by Belbin on balanced teams. This mainly is caused by the complexity of the balancing problem. A mathematical mode

  3. Unemployment Benefit Exhaustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Pico Geerdsen, Lars; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due

    2015-01-01

    studies for final analysis and interpretation. Twelve studies could be included in the data synthesis. Results: We found clear evidence that the prospect of exhaustion of benefits results in a significantly increased incentive for finding work. Discussion: The theoretical suggestion that the prospect......This systematic review studied the impact of exhaustion of unemployment benefits on the exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review, and ultimately located 12...... of exhaustion of benefits results in an increased incentive for finding work has been confirmed empirically by measures from seven different European countries, the United States, and Canada. The results are robust in the sense that sensitivity analyses evidenced no appreciable changes in the results. We found...

  4. Rotary and Magnus balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, G. N.

    1981-01-01

    Two wind tunnel techniques for determining part of the aerodynamic information required to describe the dynamic bahavior of various types of vehicles in flight are described. Force and moment measurements are determined with a rotary-balance apparatus in a coning motion and with a Magnus balance in a high-speed spinning motion. Coning motion is pertinent to both aircraft and missiles, and spinning is important for spin stabilized missiles. Basic principles of both techniques are described, and specific examples of each type of apparatus are presented. Typical experimental results are also discussed.

  5. Application of Balanced Scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    Langpaulová, Irena

    2011-01-01

    The concept of the Balanced Scorecard taking a part in the strategic management of a company, is a main focus of this thesis. There are the theoretical and methodological parts of the Balanced Scorecard characterized individually, as well as the development and the history of this concept. This thesis is dealing with a draft of the practical implementation of the mentioned methods. The practical part of the thesis is following the theoretical introduction where the practical part is focused o...

  6. Finding Your Balance

    CERN Document Server

    (CCL), Center for Creative Leadership; Patterson, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Balance isn't an issue of time, but an issue of choice. It's about living your values by aligning your behavior with what you believe is really important. Aligning your behavior with your values is much like any other developmental experience; the basic process involves assessment, challenge, and support. You need to determine where you are, define where you want to go, and then put into place the tools you need to get there.Balance is about more than how you spend your time. It's about how you live your life. It's about recognizing that you have control over the choices you make and aligning

  7. Fleksibilitet og balance

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Fleksibilitet og balance Dette projekt undersøger, hvordan arbejdstidsmæssig fleksibilitet påvirker medarbejderens individuelle balance mellem arbejde og privatliv, og om en ændring af dennes mindset kan forbedre balancen. Centralt i projektet er en afdækning af fordele og ulemper ved den arbejdstidsmæssige fleksibilitet. I forlængelse heraf er det interessant, hvordan disse fordele og ulemper påvirker balancen mellem arbejde og privatliv. Ydermere er det interessant om den enkelte medarb...

  8. Yin-Yang Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    The potential contribution of the Eastern frame of Yin-Yang Balancing lies in the mindset of "either/and", in contrast to Aristotle's either/or logic and Hegel's "both/or". Implications of this either/and thinking for science and management will be explored.......The potential contribution of the Eastern frame of Yin-Yang Balancing lies in the mindset of "either/and", in contrast to Aristotle's either/or logic and Hegel's "both/or". Implications of this either/and thinking for science and management will be explored....

  9. Attitude Formation of Benefits Satisfaction: Knowledge and Fit of Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Gery Markova, Foard Jones

    2011-01-01

    Using the theoretical framework of the Theory of Reasoned Action [6], we examine benefits satisfactionas an attitude formed by the beliefs about benefits (i.e., benefits knowledge) and the perceived value ofthese benefits (i.e., fit of benefits to individual needs). We use questionnaires to gather data from arandom sample of 591 employees in a large county agency in the South-eastern United States. The datasupport that knowledge of benefits is associated with enhanced benefits satisfaction an...

  10. Benefits for handicapped children

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The introduction of long-term care benefits within the CERN Health Insurance Scheme requires the coordination of the benefits foreseen for handicapped children. Measures were adopted by the Management following the recommendation made by the Standing Concertation Committee on 26 March 2003. A document clarifying these measures is available on the Web at the following address: http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/soc/Social_affairs/social_affairs.asp Social Affairs Service 74201

  11. Operational Management of Intraday and Balancing Markets - a survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeanne; K. Detlefsen, Nina

    Lately, there has been increased attention on the challenges that will appear when balancing the electricity in the future and the benefits of integrated markets between countries and regions. This is among other things due to the fact that electricity markets in the future will experience major...... changes and challenges, which may be better addressed with closer collaboration. In order to evaluate the benefits of cross-border balancing, it is essential to have an understanding of the mechanisms and operations of the European markets and how they interact. Therefore, this paper aims at describing...

  12. Energy balance comparison of sorghum and sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachidi, F.; Kirkham, M. B.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Stone, L. R.

    1993-03-01

    An understanding of the energy exchange processes at the surface of the earth is necessary for studies of global climate change. If the climate becomes drier, as is predicted for northern mid-latitudes, it is important to know how major agricultural crops will play a role in the budget of heat and moisture. Thus, the energy balance components of sorghum [ Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] and sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.), two drought-resistant crops grown in the areas where summertime drying is forecasted, were compared. Soil water content and evapotranspiration ( ET) rates also were determined. Net radiation was measured with net radiometers. Soil heat flux was analyzed with heat flux plates and thermocouples. The Bowen ratio method was used to determine sensible and latent heat fluxes. Sunflower had a higher evapotranspiration rate and depleted more water from the soil than sorghum. Soil heat flux into the soil during the daytime was greater for sorghum than sunflower, which was probably the result of the more erect leaves of sorghum. Nocturnal net radiation loss from the sorghum crop was greater than that from the sunflower crop, perhaps because more heat was stored in the soil under the sorghum crop. But daytime net radiation values were similar for the two crops. The data indicated that models of climate change must differentiate nighttime net radiation of agricultural crops. Sensible heat flux was not always less (or greater) for sorghum compared to sunflower. Sunflower had greater daytime values for latent heat flux, reflecting its greater depletion of water from the soil. Evapotranspiration rates determined by the energy balance method agreed relatively well with those found by the water balance method. For example, on 8 July (43 days after planting), the ET rates found by the energy-balance and water-balance methods were 4.6 vs. 5.5 mm/day for sunflower, respectively; for sorghum, these values were 4.0 vs. 3.5 mm/day, respectively. If the climate does

  13. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment. It uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and stop them from ... half of all cancer patients receive it. The radiation may be external, from special machines, or internal, ...

  14. Radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hine, Gerald J; Hine, Gerald J

    1956-01-01

    Radiation Dosimetry focuses on the advancements, processes, technologies, techniques, and principles involved in radiation dosimetry, including counters and calibration and standardization techniques. The selection first offers information on radiation units and the theory of ionization dosimetry and interaction of radiation with matter. Topics include quantities derivable from roentgens, determination of dose in roentgens, ionization dosimetry of high-energy photons and corpuscular radiations, and heavy charged particles. The text then examines the biological and medical effects of radiation,

  15. Frihed, anerkendelse og balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Thomas Boysen

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen argumenterer for, at selv ikke den absolut mest familievenlige arbejdsplads vil kunne løse det psykologiske problem med at skabe balance mellem familie og arbejdsliv, fordi ubalancen grundlæggende handler om en anerkendelseskonflikt, som individet ikke altid selv er interesseret i at komme...

  16. Ballet Balance Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Camilla; Erleben, Kenny; Sporring, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Animating physically realistic human characters is challenging, since human observers are highly tuned to recognize human cues such as emotion and gender from motion patterns. The main contribution of this paper is a new model firmly based on biomechanics, which is used to animate balance and basic...

  17. Strategic Balanced Scorecard Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Nielsen, Erland Hejn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to show how a System Dynamics Modelling approach can be integrated into the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) for a case company with special focus on the handling of causality in a dynamic perspective. The case company’s BSC model includes five perspectives and a number...

  18. Balancing beyond the horizon?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich; Pilegaard, Jess

    2011-01-01

    The present article seeks to make sense of recent European Union (EU) naval capability changes by applying neo-realist theory to the EU as a collective actor in the global balance of power. The paper compares two different strands of neorealist theory by deducing key predictions about the expecte...

  19. Balancing with vibration: a prelude for "drift and act" balance control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G Milton

    Full Text Available Stick balancing at the fingertip is a powerful paradigm for the study of the control of human balance. Here we show that the mean stick balancing time is increased by about two-fold when a subject stands on a vibrating platform that produces vertical vibrations at the fingertip (0.001 m, 15-50 Hz. High speed motion capture measurements in three dimensions demonstrate that vibration does not shorten the neural latency for stick balancing or change the distribution of the changes in speed made by the fingertip during stick balancing, but does decrease the amplitude of the fluctuations in the relative positions of the fingertip and the tip of the stick in the horizontal plane, A(x,y. The findings are interpreted in terms of a time-delayed "drift and act" control mechanism in which controlling movements are made only when controlled variables exceed a threshold, i.e. the stick survival time measures the time to cross a threshold. The amplitude of the oscillations produced by this mechanism can be decreased by parametric excitation. It is shown that a plot of the logarithm of the vibration-induced increase in stick balancing skill, a measure of the mean first passage time, versus the standard deviation of the A(x,y fluctuations, a measure of the distance to the threshold, is linear as expected for the times to cross a threshold in a stochastic dynamical system. These observations suggest that the balanced state represents a complex time-dependent state which is situated in a basin of attraction that is of the same order of size. The fact that vibration amplitude can benefit balance control raises the possibility of minimizing risk of falling through appropriate changes in the design of footwear and roughness of the walking surfaces.

  20. The benefits of playing video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granic, Isabela; Lobel, Adam; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-01-01

    Video games are a ubiquitous part of almost all children's and adolescents' lives, with 97% playing for at least one hour per day in the United States. The vast majority of research by psychologists on the effects of "gaming" has been on its negative impact: the potential harm related to violence, addiction, and depression. We recognize the value of that research; however, we argue that a more balanced perspective is needed, one that considers not only the possible negative effects but also the benefits of playing these games. Considering these potential benefits is important, in part, because the nature of these games has changed dramatically in the last decade, becoming increasingly complex, diverse, realistic, and social in nature. A small but significant body of research has begun to emerge, mostly in the last five years, documenting these benefits. In this article, we summarize the research on the positive effects of playing video games, focusing on four main domains: cognitive, motivational, emotional, and social. By integrating insights from developmental, positive, and social psychology, as well as media psychology, we propose some candidate mechanisms by which playing video games may foster real-world psychosocial benefits. Our aim is to provide strong enough evidence and a theoretical rationale to inspire new programs of research on the largely unexplored mental health benefits of gaming. Finally, we end with a call to intervention researchers and practitioners to test the positive uses of video games, and we suggest several promising directions for doing so.

  1. Balancing cost and precision in hospital accountability sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perla, Rocco J; Allen, Bradford D

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the relationship between sample size and cost using a benefit to cost ratio in the context of hospital accountability measures. We argue that the decision to use larger samples should include an assessment of the marginal benefit in terms of the cost to obtain the samples. Our main conclusion is that without recognizing and balancing the cost of different sampling schemes and developing reasonable cost limits we lose an opportunity at efficiency.

  2. Energy Balance and Physical Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KALLAYAKIJBOONCHOO

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing in most parts of the world and becoming one of the major global public health problems.Although the components of energy balance have not been adequately estimated over time,available evidence suggests that the increase in obesity is the result of reduced physical activity.Increases in physical activity have been showen to be strongly associated with improving physical fitness and body composition,with probably a positive effect on resting metabolic rate.The Surgeon General's Report on physical Activity and Health advocates that 30 min of regular,moderate-intensity physical activity is associated with decreases in the risk of chronic diseases and may contribute to quality of life.However,the small changes that contribute 10 min for 3 times a day for 3 times a day for aerobic training,or one set instead of three sets of repetitions on resistance training will provide individuals training,or one set instead of three sets of repetitions on resistance training will provide individuals with health benefits.Indeed,nutrition and physical activity should be considered an integral part of fitness and good health,and should be encouraged in all age groups,particularly early in life,The question is no longer centerd around the health benefit of increasing physical activity,but rather creating self awareness and behavior changes in individuals,Hence,effective intervention programs are needed that foster long term changes in physical activity.Among various interventions,the Nutrifit program was recently conducted in Thailand and found to improve health related fitness in children,The development of more effective interventions and approaches is a major challege in this field today.

  3. Evaluation of late radiation-induced changes of the superficial microcirculation. I. clinical benefit of the cutaneous Doppler laser; Evaluation des modifications radio-induites tardives de la microcirculation superficielle. I. apport clinique du laser doppler cutane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delanian, S. [Hopital Saint-Louis, Service d' Oncologie-Radiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France); Lefaix, J.L. [CEA/DAM-Ile de France, DSV-DRR, 91 - Bruyeres-Le-Chatel (France)

    2000-12-01

    Objective. - The changes that occur in the tissular microcirculation after therapeutic irradiation (RT) account for some of the late effects of irradiation, especially on the cutaneous level. As a rule, the methods of exploring the superficial microcirculation only measure blood flow indirectly. Only the Doppler laser can provide direct measurements of blood parameters in vivo in man. Methods. -Thirty women who had been irradiated with 45 + 20 Gy of locoregional fractionated adjuvant RT for breast cancer developed local radiation-induced fibrosis six years later ({+-}5). The local microcirculation was measured in the resting state and during thermal stimulation at 42 deg. C, using a Periflux cutaneous Doppler laser with p413 probes. Three periods of six minutes each were continuously recorded: period 1 (P1) represented basal resting cutaneous perfusion, with the slope p corresponding to the increase in perfusion when two minutes of thermal stimulation at 42 deg. C began; P2 to plateau perfusion during this stimulation; and P3 to perfusion on the return to equilibrium. Each individual was its own control. Results. - In the women treated by RT, the resting microcirculation in the skin underlying an area of late fibrosis rose by a factor of 2 during P1 (p < 0.001), and the P2/P1 ratio decreased by a factor of 2 (p < 0.001), compared to the control area. After thermal stimulation, there was no change in p, P2 or P3. Conclusion. -Although a hypo-vascularization is frequently found in late sequelae of RT, we observed an increase of the cutaneous microcirculation associated with a maladjustment of the endothelial response to a thermal stimulation. These observations seem to reflect the presence of dilated new capillaries of the telangiectatic type, which are macroscopically undetectable. (authors)

  4. The benefits of prone SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging in reducing both artifact defects and patient radiation exposure; Beneficio da aquisicao de imagem na posicao Prona em perfusao miocardica com SPECT para reducao de artefatos e exposicao do paciente a radiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stathaki, Maria; Koukouraki, Sophia; Papadaki, Emmanouela; Tsaroucha, Angeliki; Karkavitsas, Nikolaos, E-mail: mariast_cha@yahoo.gr [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2015-10-15

    Background: Prone imaging has been demonstrated to minimize diaphragmatic and breast tissue attenuation. Objectives: To determine the role of prone imaging on the reduction of unnecessary rest perfusion studies and coronary angiographies performed, thus decreasing investigation time and radiation exposure. Methods: We examined 139 patients, 120 with an inferior wall and 19 with an anterior wall perfusion defect that might represented attenuation artifact. Post-stress images were acquired in both the supine and prone position. Coronary angiography was used as the 'gold standard' for evaluating coronary artery patency. The study was terminated and rest imaging was obviated in the presence of complete improvement of the defect in the prone position. Quantitative interpretation was performed. Results were compared with clinical data and coronary angiographic findings. Results: Prone acquisition correctly revealed defect improvement in 89 patients (89/120) with inferior wall and 12 patients (12/19) with anterior wall attenuation artifact. Quantitative analysis demonstrated statistically significant difference in the mean summed stress scores (SSS) of supine and mean SSS of prone studies in patients with disappearing inferior wall defect in the prone position and patent right coronary artery (true negative results). The mean difference between SSS in supine and in prone position was higher with disappearing than with remaining defects. Conclusion: Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion imaging with the patient in the prone position overcomes soft tissue attenuation; moreover it provides an inexpensive, accurate approach to limit the number of unnecessary rest perfusion studies and coronary angiographies performed. (author)

  5. 20 CFR 30.713 - If OWCP reduces a fee, may a provider bill the employee for the balance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false If OWCP reduces a fee, may a provider bill the employee for the balance? 30.713 Section 30.713 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS... fee, may a provider bill the employee for the balance? A provider whose fee for service is...

  6. 20 CFR 10.813 - If OWCP reduces a fee, may a provider bill the claimant for the balance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false If OWCP reduces a fee, may a provider bill the claimant for the balance? 10.813 Section 10.813 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS... Schedule § 10.813 If OWCP reduces a fee, may a provider bill the claimant for the balance? A provider...

  7. Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) has been installed collocated with each deployed Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System (ECOR) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site, first ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1), second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2), and third ARM Mobile Facility (AMF3) at Oliktok Point (OLI). A SEBS was also deployed with the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) site, before it was decommissioned. Data from these sites, including the retired TWP, are available in the ARM Data Archive. The SEBS consists of upwelling and downwelling solar and infrared radiometers within one net radiometer, a wetness sensor, and soil measurements. The SEBS measurements allow the comparison of ECOR sensible and latent heat fluxes with the energy balance determined from the SEBS and provide information on wetting of the sensors for data quality purposes.

  8. Cardiac imaging: does radiation matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Andrew J.; Knuuti, Juhani

    2012-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation in cardiovascular imaging has generated considerable discussion. Radiation should not be considered in isolation, but rather in the context of a careful examination of the benefits, risks, and costs of cardiovascular imaging. Such consideration requires an understanding of some fundamental aspects of the biology, physics, epidemiology, and terminology germane to radiation, as well as principles of radiological protection. This paper offers a concise, contemporary perspective on these areas by addressing pertinent questions relating to radiation and its application to cardiac imaging. PMID:21828062

  9. Ethical problems in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrader-Frechette, K.; Persson, Lars

    2001-05-01

    In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards.

  10. In the balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich; Pilegaard, Jess

    The present paper seeks to make sense of recent EU naval capability changes by applying neo-realist theory on the EU as an international actor in the global balance of power. The paper compares three different strands of Neo-realist theory by deducting key predictions about the expected defense...... posture of the Union and the expected changes in naval capabilities. The predictions are subsequently held up against recent data on naval military build-up in the EU. The paper argues that the observed patterns are best explained not as bandwagoning with the United States, but as a long-term balancing...... strategy aimed at bolstering the autonomy and international influence of the Union, vis-à-vis other major powers, including the United States....

  11. Lunar Balance and Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloski, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Balance control and locomotor patterns were altered in Apollo crewmembers on the lunar surface, owing, presumably, to a combination of sensory-motor adaptation during transit and lunar surface operations, decreased environmental affordances associated with the reduced gravity, and restricted joint mobility as well as altered center-of-gravity caused by the EVA pressure suits. Dr. Paloski will discuss these factors, as well as the potential human and mission impacts of falls and malcoordination during planned lunar sortie and outpost missions. Learning objectives: What are the potential impacts of postural instabilities on the lunar surface? CME question: What factors affect balance control and gait stability on the moon? Answer: Sensory-motor adaptation to the lunar environment, reduced mechanical and visual affordances, and altered biomechanics caused by the EVA suit.

  12. Beneficial uses of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, M.R.

    1991-10-01

    An overall decline in technical literacy within the American public has come at a time when technological advances are accelerating in the United States and around the world. This had led to a large communication gulf between the general public and the technologists. Nowhere is this more evident then with the topic of radiation. Regrettably, too few people know about sources of radiation, the pervasiveness, amounts, and variabilities, and do not have a true understanding of the environment in which we live. Nor do many people know that radiation has been used in beneficial ways for decades around the world. While the general public does not know of the scientific applications to which radiation has been deployed, it nevertheless had benefited tremendously from these efforts. Thanks to the well know properties of radiation, scientific ingenuity has found many uses of radiation in chemical and agricultural research, biomedical research, in the diagnoses and treatment of hundreds of types of diseases, in industrial applications, food irradiation, and many others. This paper provides a sample of the types of uses to which radiation has been used to help advance the betterment of humankind.

  13. Getting the Balance Right

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the next five years China will balance economic growth and improving the living standards of its people by Liu Wei IT was widely reported that the chaos in some Middle East and North African countries were results of the inadequate efforts in improving people’s livelihood, a fundamental aspect of social stability. In early March,China held its annual sessions of the National People’s

  14. Balancing innovation and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Jobeth W

    2015-01-01

    Nurse educators are encouraged to use evidence to guide their teaching strategies. However, evidence is not always available. How can educators make decisions regarding strategies when data are limited or absent? Where do innovation and creativity fit? How can innovation be balanced with evidence? This article provides a discussion regarding other sources of evidence, such as extrapolations, theories and principles, and collective expertise. Readers are encouraged to review the options and then analyze how they might be applied to innovation in education.

  15. On output measurements via radiation pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeman, S.; Healey, A.J.; Forsberg, F.;

    1990-01-01

    It is shown, by simple physical argument, that measurements of intensity with a radiation pressure balance should not agree with those based on calorimetric techniques. The conclusion is ultimately a consequence of the circumstance that radiation pressure measurements relate to wave momentum, whi...

  16. Social Security and Medicare Benefits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Annual cash benefits and rehabilitation benefits paid in each year from the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance, and Disability Insurance Trust Funds, and benefits paid...

  17. Implementace metody Balanced Scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    Neuwirth, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Diplomová práce je zaměřena na hodnocení výkonnosti společnosti pomocí metody Balanced Scorecard. Teoretická část práce popisuje východiska měření výkonnosti, metody Balanced Scorecard a postup při její implementaci. Analytická část vychází z teoretických poznatků z první části a hodnotí situaci společnosti finanční analýzou poměrových ukazatelů, strategickou analýzou a následným sestavením návrhu implementace metody Balanced Scorecard v konkrétní společnosti. Thesis is focused on evaluati...

  18. Phase balancing optimization for radial feeder systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinxiang

    In the power distribution systems, unbalanced feeder causes deteriorating power quality and increases investment and operating costs. There are two approaches to balance a feeder system. One approach is feeder reconfiguration, the other is phase swapping. Feeder reconfiguration is an on-line operation of sectionalizing switches. However, feeder reconfiguration is difficult to find the phase balancing solution for a unbalanced feeder system. On the other hand, phase swapping is a direct and effective approach for phase balancing. Phase swapping is an off-line operation of re-tapping loads/laterals to the phase lines during maintenance and restoration periods. Unfortunately, phase balancing problem has not received its deserved importance. Deregulation in power industry has arisen phase balancing issue because it can improve power quality, improve service reliability, and reduce total costs. Thus, phase balancing can enhance utility competitive capability. This research provides utilities the optimization tools to maximize the benefits of phase balancing and minimize the costs. This dissertation proposed several mathematical formulations, including Mixed-integer programming (MIP), Dynamic programming (DP), Simulated annealing (SA), and Fuzzy logic (FL), to perform phase swapping to balance phase in a radial feeder. Due to the discrete nature of phase swapping, a MIP model is proposed to find the optimal phase swapping scheme for small-sized feeder. Candidate sets and monitored branches are then introduced to solve the large-scale feeder systems. Possibilistic integer programming (PIP) is proposed to incorporate load uncertainties in phase swapping problems. The tests show that the load uncertainties may change the optimal phase swapping. DP computation is significant reduced by introducing the tighter upper/lower bounds. The upper bound can be quickly obtained by assignment algorithm. Even though SA is a time-consuming heuristic method, it can provide better solution

  19. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... show that people with arthritis, heart disease, or diabetes benefit from regular exercise. Exercise also helps people ... or difficulty walking. To learn about exercise and diabetes, see "Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes" from Go4Life®, ...

  20. PENSION FUND BENEFITS SERVICE

    CERN Document Server

    Benefits Service

    2002-01-01

    Please note that from now on, our offices will be opened to members and beneficiaries on Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday from 10 to 12 a.m. and from 3 to 5 p.m. We are otherwise available but by appointment only. Benefits Service 5-1-030 tel. 79194 / 72738

  1. PENSION FUND BENEFITS SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Benefits Service

    2002-01-01

    Please note that from now on, our offices (5-1-030) will be opened to members and beneficiaries on Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday from 10 to 12 a.m. and from 3 to 5 p.m. We are otherwise available but by appointment only. Benefits Service (tel. 79194 / 72738)

  2. Benefits at risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper; Sandøe, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Herbicide resistant GM plants have been promoted as a tool in the development of more environment-friendly agriculture. The environmental benefits here, however, depend not only on farmer's acceptance of GM crops as such, but also on their willingness to use herbicides in accordance with altered...

  3. More Benefits of Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Malcolm

    1988-01-01

    Describes a study that measured the benefits of an automated catalog and automated circulation system from the library user's point of view in terms of the value of time saved. Topics discussed include patterns of use, access time, availability of information, search behaviors, and the effectiveness of the measures used. (seven references)…

  4. Public services, personal benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bob Kuhry; Evert Pommer; Jedid-Jah Jonker; John Stevens

    2006-01-01

    Original title: Publieke productie & persoonlijk profijt. This report looks in detail at the costs of public services (such as care, education, public administration and safety) and the benefits that citizens derive from the government expenditure involved in delivering those services. In 2003,

  5. The Benefits of Latin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Lisa R.

    2012-01-01

    Classicists have long claimed that the study of Latin has benefits that exceed knowledge of the language itself, and in the current economic times, these claims are made with urgency. Indeed, many contend that Latin improves English grammar and writing skills, cognitive abilities, and develops transferable skills necessary for success in the…

  6. Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-minute estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity (RH). Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

  7. Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station (EBBR) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, DR

    2011-02-23

    The energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-minute estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity (RH). Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

  8. Supporting the Public Benefits of Public Higher Education. Policy Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Alice

    This policy statement from the American Association of State Colleges and Universities addresses the benefits of public higher education. Along with introductory and concluding sections, the statement addresses access, academic quality, research and public service, accountability, public financial support, and balanced governance. The statement…

  9. Informed choice requires information about both benefits and harms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, K J; Brodersen, J; Hartling, O J

    2009-01-01

    the autonomy of the women. Screening invitations must present both benefits and harms in a balanced fashion, and should offer, not encourage, participation. It should be stated clearly that the choice not to participate is as sensible as the choice to do so. To allow this to happen, the responsibility...

  10. WHEAT GRASS HEALTH BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nutraceutical is a food or food product that provides health and medical benefits, including the preventionand treatment of disease. Nutraceuticals are the products typically claim to prevent chronic diseases, improve health,delay the aging process, and increase life expectancy.Let us know something about one such nutraceutical.Wheatgrass is a commonly found herb in India contains enzymes like protease, cytrochrome, amylase, lipase,transhydrogenase and SOD (super oxide dismutase. Besides these enzymes, it also contains all the essential aminoacids especially alanine, asparatic acid, glutamic acid, arginine and serine, which are helpful in providing good amountof protein in body which builds and repair tissues. Wheatgrass contains chlorophyll and flavonoids in good amount.It also contains vitamins like vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E and minerals like iron, calcium and magnesium.Chlorophyll has been shown to build red blood cells quickly,cures anemia, normalise blood pressure by dilating theblood vessels. Chlorophyll has been shown to produce an unfavourable environment for bacterial growth in the bodyand therefore effective in increasing the body's resistance to illness. Probably the most important benefit ofwheatgrass is, it is a cancer fighting agent. Many people strongly believe that the benefits of wheatgrass on cancerare real and that consuming wheat grass can help in the treatment and even in the prevention of cancer. Wheatgrassproduces an immunization effect against many dietary carcinogens..Additional benefits of wheatgrass are bettercomplexion and a healthy glow. The slowing of graying hair is also a benefit believed to come from wheatgrass. Wecan grow wheat grass in small cups, pots and trays very conveniently in our homes, so that we will have fresh juiceand powder with minimum cost.

  11. Design and diffusion of systems for human benefit

    CERN Document Server

    Venable, John R; Bunker, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Information systems have the potential to provide human benefit in a number of areas including: improvement of education, provision of social and other services to the public, health and well-being, work-life balance, environmental sustainability, democracy and self-determination, freedom, emancipation, poverty reduction, and social equity. However, most studies within Information Systems relate to a business context rather than directly to human benefit. When dealing with human benefit, system stakeholders may have different objectives regarding a system's use, its distribution, and the way r

  12. Carotid revascularization: risks and benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Brien M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Marlene O'Brien, Ankur Chandra Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA Abstract: Despite a decline during the recent decades in stroke-related death, the incidence of stroke has remained unchanged or slightly increased, and extracranial carotid artery stenosis is implicated in 20%–30% of all strokes. Medical therapy and risk factor modification are first-line therapies for all patients with carotid occlusive disease. Evidence for the treatment of patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis greater than 70% with either carotid artery stenting (CAS or carotid endarterectomy (CEA is compelling, and several trials have demonstrated a benefit to carotid revascularization in the symptomatic patient population. Asymptomatic carotid stenosis is more controversial, with the largest trials only demonstrating a 1% per year risk stroke reduction with CEA. Although there are sufficient data to advocate for aggressive medical therapy as the primary mode of treatment for asymptomatic carotid stenosis, there are also data to suggest that certain patient populations will benefit from a stroke risk reduction with carotid revascularization. In the United States, consensus and practice guidelines dictate that CEA is reasonable in patients with high-grade asymptomatic stenosis, a reasonable life expectancy, and perioperative risk of less than 3%. Regarding CAS versus CEA, the best-available evidence demonstrates no difference between the two procedures in early perioperative stroke, myocardial infarction, or death, and no difference in 4-year ipsilateral stroke risk. However, because of the higher perioperative risks of stroke in patients undergoing CAS, particularly in symptomatic, female, or elderly patients, it is difficult to recommend CAS over CEA except in populations with prohibitive cardiac risk, previous carotid surgery, or prior neck radiation. Current treatment

  13. Exploring antecedents of experimentation and implementation of the balanced scorecard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, G.J.M.; Nijssen, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Adoption of management innovations like the balanced scorecard is generally a complex process. Many subdecisions are involved and customization is often required before firms can enjoy the benefits of these innovations. Consequently, firms tend to experiment before finally implementing such complex

  14. Strategy Revitalization in Academe: A Balanced Scorecard Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Roselie; Giapponi, Catherine; Solomon, Norman

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a unique version of the balanced scorecard developed and applied by the faculty of a university division. Design/methodology/approach: The paper uses a case study approach and uses the experiences of the faculty of a business school to describe the process and benefits of developing a custom…

  15. Water, ice, and meteorological measurements at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, 1994 balance year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimmel, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Winter snow accumulation and summer snow, firn, and ice melt were measured at South Cascade Glacier, Washington to determine the winter and net balances for the 1994 balance year. The 1994 winter balance, averaged over the glacier, was 2.39 meters, and the net balance was -1.60 meters. The winter balance was approximately that of the 1977-94 average winter balance. The net balance was more negative than the 1977-94 average net balance of -1.02 meters. Runoff was measured from the glacier and an adjacent non- glacierized basin. Air temperature, precipitation, barometric pressure, solar radiation, and wind speed were measured nearby. This report makes these data available to the glaciological and climatological community.

  16. Water, ice, and meteorological measurements at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, 1995 balance year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimmel, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Winter snow accumulation and summer snow, firn, and ice melt were measured at South Cascade Glacier, Washington to determine the winter and net balances for the 1995 balance year. The 1995 winter balance, averaged over the glacier, was 2.86 meters, and the net balance was -0.69 meter. The winter balance was approximately 0.5 meter greater than the 1977-94 average winter balance. The net balance was approximately 0.3 meter less negative than the 1977-94 average net balance. Runoff was measured from the glacier and an adjacent non-glacierized basin. Air temperature, precipitation, barometric pressure, solar radiation, and wind speed were measured adjacent to the glacier. This report makes these data available to the glaciological and climatological community.

  17. University Benefits Survey. Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1984 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: questions on general benefits, such as insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, and maternity leave policy;…

  18. Lesson "Balance in Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapanova, V.

    2012-04-01

    Lesson "Balance in Nature" This simulation game-lesson (Balance in Nature) gives an opportunity for the students to show creativity, work independently, and to create models and ideas. It creates future-oriented thought connected to their experience, allowing them to propose solutions for global problems and personal responsibility for their activities. The class is divided in two teams. Each team chooses questions. 1. Question: Pollution in the environment. 2. Question: Care for nature and climate. The teams work on the chosen tasks. They make drafts, notes and formulate their solutions on small pieces of paper, explaining the impact on nature and society. They express their points of view using many different opinions. This generates alternative thoughts and results in creative solutions. With the new knowledge and positive behaviour defined, everybody realizes that they can do something positive towards nature and climate problems and the importance of individuals for solving global problems is evident. Our main goal is to recover the ecological balance, and everybody explains his or her own well-grounded opinions. In this work process the students obtain knowledge, skills and more responsible behaviour. This process, based on his or her own experience, dialogue and teamwork, helps the participant's self-development. Making the model "human↔ nature" expresses how human activities impact the natural Earth and how these impacts in turn affect society. Taking personal responsibility, we can reduce global warming and help the Earth. By helping nature we help ourselves. Teacher: Veselina Boycheva-Chapanova " Saint Patriarch Evtimii" Scholl Str. "Ivan Vazov"-19 Plovdiv Bulgaria

  19. THE BENEFITS OF NEUROECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Krawczyk

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper serves as a brief introduction into the methods, results and problems of the new interdisciplinary field of neuroecomics (and its relatives. The focus is on the practical benefits that may result from it for the economic profession. These primarily involve the possibility of setting new promising research directions and providing novel tools raising hopes of enabling direct observation of human preference. The author also discusses methodological and ethical challenges that neuroeconomics is or will soon be facing

  20. WHEAT GRASS HEALTH BENEFITS

    OpenAIRE

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-01-01

    Nutraceutical is a food or food product that provides health and medical benefits, including the preventionand treatment of disease. Nutraceuticals are the products typically claim to prevent chronic diseases, improve health,delay the aging process, and increase life expectancy.Let us know something about one such nutraceutical.Wheatgrass is a commonly found herb in India contains enzymes like protease, cytrochrome, amylase, lipase,transhydrogenase and SOD (super oxide dismutase). Besides the...

  1. Virtual Acts of Balance!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Koed

    2013-01-01

    improve 'knowledge-democracy' in different ways. The paper denotes such portals 'virtual technologies of knowledge management' and it uses the documental data as a window to analyze and discuss the infrastructural choices of such portals. The analysis is grounded in theories related to 'Social....... It is especially emphasized how technical web-ontologies implicitly carries with them deeper philosophical ontologies about phanomena such as 'politic', 'scientific intentionality' and 'freedom'. The compromise between these technical influences and the social intentions is described as a 'virtual act of balance...

  2. Balanced Topological Field Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, R.; Moore, G.

    We describe a class of topological field theories called ``balanced topological field theories''. These theories are associated to moduli problems with vanishing virtual dimension and calculate the Euler character of various moduli spaces. We show that these theories are closely related to the geometry and equivariant cohomology of ``iterated superspaces'' that carry two differentials. We find the most general action for these theories, which turns out to define Morse theory on field space. We illustrate the constructions with numerous examples. Finally, we relate these theories to topological sigma-models twisted using an isometry of the target space.

  3. Balanced Topological Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkgraaf, R

    1997-01-01

    We describe a class of topological field theories called ``balanced topological field theories.'' These theories are associated to moduli problems with vanishing virtual dimension and calculate the Euler character of various moduli spaces. We show that these theories are closely related to the geometry and equivariant cohomology of ``iterated superspaces'' that carry two differentials. We find the most general action for these theories, which turns out to define Morse theory on field space. We illustrate the constructions with numerous examples. Finally, we relate these theories to topological sigma-models twisted using an isometry of the target space.

  4. Kin Selection - Mutation Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyken, J. David Van; Linksvayer, Timothy Arnold; Wade, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    selection-mutation balance, which provides an evolutionary null hypothesis for the statics and dynamics of cheating. When social interactions have linear fitness effects and Hamilton´s rule is satisfied, selection is never strong enough to eliminate recurrent cheater mutants from a population, but cheater...... lineages are transient and do not invade. Instead, cheating lineages are eliminated by kin selection but are constantly reintroduced by mutation, maintaining a stable equilibrium frequency of cheaters. The presence of cheaters at equilibrium creates a "cheater load" that selects for mechanisms of cheater...

  5. Present status of radiation education in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, Sana [Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    1999-09-01

    Radioisotopes and Radiation are being widely used in the fields of agriculture, medicine, industry for the benefit of people throughout the world. At the same time the use of radiation sources can do harm to man and environment. In order to ensure the satiety against radiation hazards and safe use of radiation, proper education, training, knowledge and awareness are essential. Like other achieve economic development through application f count rues Bangladesh is flying to in agriculture, food, industry, power; health or medi of isotopes and radiation technology cine. Basic education about radiation is incorporated in the school curriculum. Courses on radiation are also given in college and university education. Research organizations, universities carry out research and development works on different disciplines using radiation and radioisotopes. Seminars, workshops, conferences, takings on isotopes and radiation are also being organized. In 1993 Government of Bangladesh passed the Nuclear Satiety and Radiation Control Act 1993 for see use of radiation. The present paper win cover the radiation education, research and development works on radiation, applications of radiation in agriculture, medicine and industry, personal safety and radiation protection against radiation hazard and rules and regulations of the nuclear safety and radiation control act practised in Bangladesh. (author)

  6. Production Balance of Ship Erection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ru-hong; TAN Jia-hua; LIU Cun-gen

    2008-01-01

    A network plan model of ship erection was established based on the network planning technologyand the work-package breakdown system. The load-oriented production control method was introduced to buildup a throughput diagram model thus it is possible to describe the ship erection process numerically. Based onthe digitaiized models some cases of production balance of ship erection were studied and three balance indexeswere put forward, they are the load balance rate, the input manpower balance rate and the maximum gantrycrane operating times. Such an analytic method based on the balance evaluation is the important foundationfor digitization and intelligentization of shipyard production management.

  7. Radiation Therapy: Professions in Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Professions in Radiation Therapy Radiation Oncologist Therapeutic Medical Physicist Radiation Therapist Dosimetrist Radiation Oncology Nurse Social Worker Dietitian Radiation Oncologist Radiation oncologists are physicians who oversee the ...

  8. Heat-balance Thermal Protection with Heat Pipes for Hypersonic Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Yisheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat-balance thermal protection is non-ablating thermal protection for leading edge of hypersonic vehicle. Heat will be quickly transferred from high aerodynamic heating area to low aerodynamic heating area, where the energy will be released by radiation. The temperature of high aerodynamic heating area could be reduced to protect the designed structure from being burned down. Heat-balance thermal protection is summarized. The research on heat-pipe for heat-balance thermal protection is introduced.

  9. Heat-balance Thermal Protection with Heat Pipes for Hypersonic Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Yisheng; Wei Yuechuan; Duan Dongli; Zhan Renjun

    2016-01-01

    Heat-balance thermal protection is non-ablating thermal protection for leading edge of hypersonic vehicle. Heat will be quickly transferred from high aerodynamic heating area to low aerodynamic heating area, where the energy will be released by radiation. The temperature of high aerodynamic heating area could be reduced to protect the designed structure from being burned down. Heat-balance thermal protection is summarized. The research on heat-pipe for heat-balance thermal protection is intro...

  10. 5 CFR 843.202 - Eligibility for payment of the unexpended balance to a separated employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS One-time Payments § 843.202 Eligibility for payment of the unexpended balance... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility for payment of the unexpended balance to a separated employee. 843.202 Section 843.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF...

  11. Balancing Act: Bridging the Traditional and Technological Aspects of Culture through Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Pamela Harris

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the benefits of connecting and balancing education in the visual arts and in technology through discussion of actual examples. This balanced connection accomplishes three goals: to further advance and enhance quality of life, to cultivate humane and ethical behaviors, and to initiate global dialogue on issues that matter among…

  12. Balance of multi-wavelets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Yibo

    2003-01-01

    The discrete scalar data need prefiltering when transformed by discrete multi-wavelet, but prefiltering will make some properties of multi-wavelets lost. Balanced multi-wavelets can avoid prefiltering. The sufficient and necessary condition of p-order balance for multi-wavelets in time domain, the interrelation between balance order and approximation order and the sampling property of balanced multi-wavelets are investigated. The algorithms of 1-0rder and 2-0rder balancing for multi-wavelets are obtained. The two algorithms both preserve the orthogonal relation between multi-scaling function and multi-wavelets. More importantly, balancing operation doesn't increase the length of filters, which suggests that a relatively short balanced multiwavelet can be constructed from an existing unbalanced multi-wavelet as short as possible.

  13. Jacks-of-All-Trades? The Effect of Balanced Skills on Team Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Rosendahl Huber, Laura; Sloof, Randolph; Van Praag, Mirjam

    2014-01-01

    Previous empirical studies have shown that solo entrepreneurs benefit from having balanced skills: Jacks-of-All-Trades (JATs) are better entrepreneurs than specialists are. Nowadays however, the majority of entrepreneurs start up and run ventures together in teams. In this paper we test whether the effect of more balanced skills is also positive in a team of entrepreneurs. We also explore whether (a lack of) individual balanced skills can be substituted by combining the skills of various spec...

  14. An integrated model of soil-canopy spectral radiance observations, photosynthesis, fluorescence, temperature and energy balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. van der Tol

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the model SCOPE (Soil Canopy Observation, Photochemistry and Energy fluxes, which is a vertical (1-D integrated radiative transfer and energy balance model. It calculates the radiation and the energy balance of a vegetated land surface at the level of single leaves as well as at canopy level, and the spectrum of the outgoing radiation in the viewing direction, at a high spectral resolution over the range from 0.4 to 50 μm, thus including the visible, near and shortwave infrared, as well as the thermal domain. A special routine is dedicated to the calculation of chlorophyll fluorescence. The calculation of radiative transfer and the energy balance is fully integrated, allowing for feedback between surface temperatures, leaf chlorophyll fluorescence and radiative fluxes. Model simulations were evaluated against observations reported in the literature. The model may serve as a theoretical ground truth to derive relationships between observed spectra and physical processes at the land surface.

  15. Negative leave balances

    CERN Document Server

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  16. Negative leave balances

    CERN Document Server

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  17. The energy balance of plasmoids in the solar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargill, P. J.; Pneuman, G. W.

    1986-01-01

    The properties of an isolated magnetized plasmoid in a nonuniform magnetic field such as arises in stellar atmospheres are studied. The work of Pneuman and Cargill (1985) on the so-called melon-seed effect is extended to include an equation describing the energy balance, so giving a unified picture of the shape, motion, and energetics of the plasmoid. Three treatments of plasmoid energy balance are considered: (1) a polytropic law, (P = about N to the gamma); (2) one in which the plasmoid cools radiatively; and (3) one in which a heating function proportional to the local density balances the radiation. For a gamma = 4/3 polytrope the evolution is self-similar, so that the plasmoid maintains its shape as it moves out from the stellar surface. If gamma is less than 4/3, the final shape is a long thin cigar-shaped body, whereas if gamma is greater than or equal to 4/3, it ultimately becomes self-similar. In cases with radiation and also with heating, the ultimate shape of the plasmoid is determined by whether its gas or magnetic pressure dominate. The former is equivalent to the gamma-less-than-4/3 polytrope, and the latter to the gamma-greater-than-4/3 one. If radiation alone is present, the plasmoid cools rapidly and subsequently evolves self-similarly. If heating balances radiation initially, then the plasmoid heats up as it moves out, but, if the ratio of the transit of time of Alfven waves across it is much less than the radiative cooling time, it ultimately evolves as a gamma = 5/3 polytrope. In each case the plasmoid can be ejected to large distances (several radii) in a stellar atmosphere, for a reasonable choice of surface parameters.

  18. Radiation therapy in pseudotumour haemarthrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lal, P.; Biswal, B.M.; Thulkar, S.; Patel, A.K.; Venkatesh, R.; Julka, P.K. [Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi (India). Departments of Radiation Oncology, Radiodiagnosis and Haematology

    1998-11-01

    Total or partial deficiency of factor VIII and IX in the coagulation cascade leads to haemophilia. Haemophilia affecting weight-bearing joints gives a `pseudotumour` or haemarthrosis-like condition. Surgery and cryoprecipitate infusions have been the treatment for this condition. Radiocolloids and radiation therapy have been used with some benefit. One case of ankle pseudotumour which was treated by low-dose external beam radiation is presented here. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 14 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Auditoria e balanço social: o potencial intrínseco do controle social na promoção do desenvolvimento (Audit and social balance: the intrinsic potential of social control in benefiting from the development Doi: 10.5212/Emancipacao.v.14i2.0002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airton Carlos Patzlaff

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Resumo: O presente artigo busca elucidar a importância do controle social na promoção do desenvolvimento, discorrendo acerca de ferramentas como auditoria e Balanço Social no mister de promover um controle social efetivo. Conceitos como transparência e confiança são utilizados no artigo sob o viés do desenvolvimento, buscando alternativas e instrumentos que alavanquem a boa governança. Com efeito, nota-se que o Balanço Social surge como ferramenta essencial na captação e análise de indicadores de sustentabilidade (dimensões econômicas, sociais e ambientais, sendo possível aperfeiçoar os processos de auditoria e controle social a partir dos demonstrativos produzidos por meio deste importante instrumento de accountability. Para desenvolver a pesquisa em questão, empregou-se o método dedutivo, tendo como principais procedimentos metodológicos a pesquisa bibliográfica e documental, as quais permitiram demonstrar - ao final do estudo - como os instrumentos de controle podem contribuir para o desenvolvimento, notadamente na seara da Administração Pública.Palavras-chave: Desenvolvimento, Sustentabilidade, Transparência, Balanço Social. Abstract: This article reveals the importance of social control in the pursuit of development, highlighting tools such as Audit and Social Balance in promoting a social control effective. Concepts like transparency and trust are used in the article, seeking instruments that stimulate the good governance and the development. Finally, it is clear that the Social Balance appears as an essential tool in achieving sustainability indicators (economic, social and environmental, and can improve audit processes and social control from the demonstratives produced through this important instrument of accountability. To achieve these objectives we used the deductive method, through a bibliographic and documentary research, which demonstrated as instruments of control

  20. Developing benefits management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Markus

    if they do realize the value of their IT investments (Bradley, 2010; Hunter & Westerman, 2009; Legris & Collerette, 2006), although the relationship between IT and business performance has been known for many years (Melville et al., 2004; Kohli & Grover, 2008). A starting point for any organization is thus......An old quote goes “Rome wasn’t built in a day” which is similar to the practices comprehended by benefits management (BM) in today’s organizations; they mature as organizations improve practices (Ward & Daniel, 2012). The implication is that many organizations are still not realizing or are unsure...

  1. Walking the HMO balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, S M

    2001-03-01

    Fidelity is the ethical obligation to act in good faith to keep promises, fulfill agreements, and maintain relationships and fiduciary responsibilities. Consumers are increasingly interested in the balance between the fiscal viability of our current healthcare delivery system and the system's reason for existence--that is, to serve the health needs of clients. Escalating healthcare costs have driven many institutions and third party payors to examine service and payment practices. Some consumers and consumer rights groups contend that these evolving practices threaten the very essence of health and healthcare. The ethical obligation of fidelity, especially as it relates to the business model of healthcare, is examined. Threats to fidelity are reviewed, and the response to these threats by one consumer rights group is presented. A case study is included.

  2. Balancing Trust and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that conceptualizing trust and control as interactively related processes, as opposed to more static conceptualizations of the two concepts and the relations between them, adds importantly towards understanding the challenges involved in balancing of trust...... and control in organizations. The paper examines recent literature on the conceptualization of the relation between trust and control in and between organizations. The literature review shows that trust and control has been conceptualized as either substituting or complementing each other. Further......, it is found that the complementary/substitution debate calls for an explicit conceptualization of the relation between trust and control as an interactive process, in contrast to earlier conceptualizations of trust and control as two relatively static and isolated concepts. While the static perspective...

  3. Balance Toward Language Mastery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia R. Heslinga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems in attaining language mastery with students from diverse language backgrounds and levels of ability confront educators around the world. Experiments, research, and experience see positive effects of adding sign language in communication methods to pre-school and K-12 education. Augmentative, alternative, interactive, accommodating, and enriching strategies using sign language aid learners in balancing the skills needed to mastery of one language or multiple languages. Theories of learning that embrace play, drama, motion, repetition, socializing, and self-efficacy connect to the options for using sign language with learners in inclusive and mainstream classes. The methodical use of sign language by this researcher-educator over two and a half decades showed signing does build thinking skills, add enjoyment, stimulate communication, expand comprehension, increase vocabulary acquisition, encourage collaboration, and helps build appreciation for cultural diversity.

  4. Quasirandom Load Balancing

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, Tobias; Sauerwald, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We propose a simple distributed algorithm for balancing indivisible tokens on graphs. The algorithm is completely deterministic, though it tries to imitate (and enhance) a random algorithm by keeping the accumulated rounding errors as small as possible. Our new algorithm surprisingly closely approximates the idealized process (where the tokens are divisible) on important network topologies. On d-dimensional torus graphs with n nodes it deviates from the idealized process only by an additive constant. In contrast to that, the randomized rounding approach of Friedrich and Sauerwald (2009) can deviate up to Omega(polylog(n)) and the deterministic algorithm of Rabani, Sinclair and Wanka (1998) has a deviation of Omega(n^{1/d}). This makes our quasirandom algorithm the first known algorithm for this setting which is optimal both in time and achieved smoothness. We further show that also on the hypercube our algorithm has a smaller deviation from the idealized process than the previous algorithms.

  5. A Balancing Act?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstlberger, Wolfgang; Stampe, Ian; Knudsen, Mette Præst

    the 2009 European Manufacturing Survey for the Danish sub-sample including 335 manufacturing firms. Through factor analysis, the paper confirms three main focus areas of new product development in relation to production facilities: efficiency considerations, market attention and greening of innovation....... Logistic regression analysis demonstrates that while market attention is important for new product development, green aspects of innovation and efficiency considerations for innovation are important for the energy efficiency of the production companies. Combining these models highlights that energy...... efficiency moderates the effect of market attention on new product development. The paper therefore concludes that product innovation and energy efficiency is a balancing act, focusing on one will have detrimental effects on the other! These findings point to the conclusion that researchers and practitioners...

  6. Energy balance in peridynamics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehoucq, Richard B.; Silling, Stewart Andrew

    2010-09-01

    The peridynamic model of solid mechanics treats internal forces within a continuum through interactions across finite distances. These forces are determined through a constitutive model that, in the case of an elastic material, permits the strain energy density at a point to depend on the collective deformation of all the material within some finite distance of it. The forces between points are evaluated from the Frechet derivative of this strain energy density with respect to the deformation map. The resulting equation of motion is an integro-differential equation written in terms of these interparticle forces, rather than the traditional stress tensor field. Recent work on peridynamics has elucidated the energy balance in the presence of these long-range forces. We have derived the appropriate analogue of stress power, called absorbed power, that leads to a satisfactory definition of internal energy. This internal energy is additive, allowing us to meaningfully define an internal energy density field in the body. An expression for the local first law of thermodynamics within peridynamics combines this mechanical component, the absorbed power, with heat transport. The global statement of the energy balance over a subregion can be expressed in a form in which the mechanical and thermal terms contain only interactions between the interior of the subregion and the exterior, in a form anticipated by Noll in 1955. The local form of this first law within peridynamics, coupled with the second law as expressed in the Clausius-Duhem inequality, is amenable to the Coleman-Noll procedure for deriving restrictions on the constitutive model for thermomechanical response. Using an idea suggested by Fried in the context of systems of discrete particles, this procedure leads to a dissipation inequality for peridynamics that has a surprising form. It also leads to a thermodynamically consistent way to treat damage within the theory, shedding light on how damage, including the

  7. Social Security's special minimum benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, K A; Hoffmeyer, D

    Social Security's special minimum primary insurance amount (PIA) provision was enacted in 1972 to increase the adequacy of benefits for regular long-term, low-earning covered workers and their dependents or survivors. At the time, Social Security also had a regular minimum benefit provision for persons with low lifetime average earnings and their families. Concerns were rising that the low lifetime average earnings of many regular minimum beneficiaries resulted from sporadic attachment to the covered workforce rather than from low wages. The special minimum benefit was seen as a way to reward regular, low-earning workers without providing the windfalls that would have resulted from raising the regular minimum benefit to a much higher level. The regular minimum benefit was subsequently eliminated for workers reaching age 62, becoming disabled, or dying after 1981. Under current law, the special minimum benefit will phase out over time, although it is not clear from the legislative history that this was Congress's explicit intent. The phaseout results from two factors: (1) special minimum benefits are paid only if they are higher than benefits payable under the regular PIA formula, and (2) the value of the regular PIA formula, which is indexed to wages before benefit eligibility, has increased faster than that of the special minimum PIA, which is indexed to inflation. Under the Social Security Trustees' 2000 intermediate assumptions, the special minimum benefit will cease to be payable to retired workers attaining eligibility in 2013 and later. Their benefits will always be larger under the regular benefit formula. As policymakers consider Social Security solvency initiatives--particularly proposals that would reduce benefits or introduce investment risk--interest may increase in restoring some type of special minimum benefit as a targeted protection for long-term low earners. Two of the three reform proposals offered by the President's Commission to Strengthen

  8. Radar channel balancing with commutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-02-01

    When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.

  9. University Benefits Survey. Part 1 (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1983 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self-administers insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, maternity leave policy,…

  10. Avocado: characteristics, health benefits and uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Fonseca Duarte

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to present a literature review about the characteristics, applications, and potential of avocado (Persea americana. Avocado is considered one of the main tropical fruits, as it contains fat-soluble vitamins which are less common in other fruits, besides high levels of protein, potassium and unsaturated fatty acids. Avocado pulp contains variable oil content, and is widely used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry, and in the production of commercial oils similar to olive oil. This fruit has been recognized for its health benefits, especially due to the compounds present in the lipidic fraction, such as omega fatty acids, phytosterols, tocopherols and squalene. Studies have shown the benefits of avocado associated to a balanced diet, especially in reducing cholesterol and preventing cardiovascular diseases. The processed avocado pulp is an alternative to utilize fruits, which can be used in various value-added food products. Fluid extract of the avocado leaves is widely used in pharmaceutical products, mainly due to the diuretic characteristic of the present compounds in plant leaves. With the increasing research supporting the nutritional characteristics and benefits of avocado, the tendency is to increase the production and exploitation of this raw material in Brazil, as also observed in other countries.

  11. 创伤合并γ射线照射后大鼠脾脏Treg/Th17平衡的变化及其意义%Characteristics and significance of change in Treg/Th17 balance in rats with combined trauma and γ-radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡金玲; 杜丽; 马琼; 潘秀颉; 杨晓云; 肖凤君; 崔玉芳

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察创伤大鼠经SGy γ射线全身照射后伤口愈合情况及脾脏Treg/Th17平衡变化的特点,探讨两者之间的关系及意义.方法 清洁级雌性Wistar大鼠65只,按体重随机分为正常对照组(正常组)、单纯创伤组(单伤组)和创伤+5Gy γ射线全身照射组(伤照组).分别于伤照后1、3、7、14、21、28d,检测各组大鼠伤口残留面积及外周血白细胞和淋巴细胞计数,并采用流式细胞仪测定脾脏Treg细胞和Th17细胞亚群的变化.结果 伤照后7~21d伤照组伤口残留面积持续大于单伤组(P<0.01),21d时单伤组伤口已基本愈合,而伤照组延迟至28d才基本愈合.单伤组伤照后1~ 7d外周血白细胞及淋巴细胞计数均明显低于正常组(P<0.05,P<0.01).伤照组1~14d时外周血白细胞及淋巴细胞计数均显著低于正常组和单伤组,21~28d时白细胞计数仍显著低于正常组和单伤组(P<0.05,P<0.01).伤照组大鼠脾脏Treg细胞仅在伤照后3d和7d高于正常组和单伤组(P<0.01),而Th17细胞于伤照后1d即显著增高(P<0.01),3d时升至最高,至28d时才恢复至正常组和单伤组水平.伤照组1~21d时Treg/Th17比值均显著低于正常组和单伤组(P<0.01),至28d时恢复至正常组和单伤组水平.结论 5Gy γ射线全身照射可导致大鼠创伤愈合延迟,Treg/Th17平衡失调在其中可能发挥了重要作用.%Objective To observe the process of wound healing and investigate the characteristics of Treg/Th17 balance in rats with combined wound and 5 Gy whole-body γ-radiation (CWR) for exploring the interrelationship between wound healing and the immune balance of Treg/Thl7. Methods Sixty-five female Wistar rats (clean grade) were randomly divided, depending on weight, into normal control group (normal), wound only group (MW) and wound plus 5 Gy whole body γ-radiation group (RW). The wound area was measured with image analyzer, the peripheral white blood cells (WBC) and

  12. Teaching Balance with Tai Chi: Strategies for College and Secondary School Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, David D.; Sherman, Clay P.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the benefits of incorporating Tai Chi into the secondary and college curriculum to teach balance, discussing: the history and philosophical underpinnings of Tai Chi, principles of Tai Chi movement, health benefits, and teaching Tai Chi in public schools. Tips for instructors include: follow the principles of progression, follow a…

  13. When Do States Balance Power?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Wivel, Anders

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the logic of balancing in structural realist theory. Arguably, the durability of the unipolar moment is a challenge to the logic of balancing. The paper uses the tools of microeconomics to build a mathematical model of structural realism. The simple model reiterates...... the structural realist prediction that the weaker states should balance the unipole. Under a slight model extension, it is shown that efforts to balance in separate capabilities always tends to offset each other. Under this extension, the durability of the unipolar moment is in fact consistent...

  14. Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, James E

    2007-01-01

    Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection offers professionals and advanced students a comprehensive coverage of the major concepts that underlie the origins and transport of ionizing radiation in matter. Understanding atomic structure and the physical mechanisms of radiation interactions is the foundation on which much of the current practice of radiological health protection is based. The work covers the detection and measurement of radiation and the statistical interpretation of the data. The procedures that are used to protect man and the environment from the potential harmful effects of

  15. NASA Benefits Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews several ways in which NASA research has benefited Earth and made life on Earth better. These innovations include: solar panels, recycled pavement, thermometer pill, invisible braces for straightening teeth, LASIK, aerodynamic helmets and tires for bicycles, cataract detection, technology that was used to remove Anthrax spores from mail handling facilities, study of atomic oxygen erosion of materials has informed the restoration of artwork, macroencapsulation (a potential mechanism to deliver anti cancer drugs to specific sites), and research on a salmonella vaccine. With research on the International Space Station just beginning, there will be opportunities for entrepreneurs and other government agencies to access space for their research and development. As well as NASA continuing its own research on human health and technology development.

  16. Making benefit transfers work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bateman, I.J.; Brouwer, R.; Ferrini, S.

    We develop and test guidance principles for benefits transfers. These argue that when transferring across relatively similar sites, simple mean value transfers are to be preferred but that when sites are relatively dissimilar then value function transfers will yield lower errors. The paper also...... provides guidance on the appropriate specification of transferable value functions arguing that these should be developed from theoretical rather than ad-hoc statistical principles. These principles are tested via a common format valuation study of water quality improvements across five countries. Results...... support our various hypotheses providing a set of principles for future transfer studies. The application also considers new ways of incorporating distance decay, substitution and framing effects within transfers and presents a novel water quality ladder....

  17. Making benefit transfers work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bateman, I. J.; Brouwer, R.; Ferrini, S.

    2011-01-01

    We develop and test guidance principles for benefits transfers. These argue that when transferring across relatively similar sites, simple mean value transfers are to be preferred but that when sites are relatively dissimilar then value function transfers will yield lower errors. The paper also...... provides guidance on the appropriate specification of transferable value functions arguing that these should be developed from theoretical rather than ad-hoc statistical principles. These principles are tested via a common format valuation study of water quality improvements across five countries. Results...... support our various hypotheses providing a set of principles for future transfer studies. The application also considers new ways of incorporating distance decay, substitution and framing effects within transfers and presents a novel water quality ladder....

  18. Predicting Anthracycline Benefit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartlett, John M S; McConkey, Christopher C; Munro, Alison F

    2015-01-01

    as measured with a centromere enumeration probe (CEP17) predicted sensitivity to anthracyclines, we report here an individual patient-level pooled analysis of data from five trials comparing anthracycline-based chemotherapy with CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil) as adjuvant chemotherapy.......6% (TOP2A) of 3,846 patient cases with available tissue. Both CEP17and TOP2A treatment-by-marker interactions remained significant in adjusted analyses for recurrence-free and overall survival, whereas HER2 did not. A combined CEP17 and TOP2A-adjusted model predicted anthracycline benefit across all five...... trials for both recurrence-free (hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.82; P = .001) and overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.85; P = .005). CONCLUSION: This prospectively planned individual-patient pooled analysis of patient cases from five adjuvant trials confirms that patients whose...

  19. China Benefits from FDI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华民

    2007-01-01

    While China’s opening up policy has brought about rapid economic growth,it has also resulted in a certain loss of welfare.Many scholars have debated this issue extensively from different perspectives.An article entitled"An Open Economy Calls for New Development Theories"by Zhang Youwen (published in the Sept.2006 issue of China Economist) proposed a"new approach to opening up"-a reflection of the views held by some Chinese scholars. Disagreeing with these views,the author of this article believes that China should give more consideration to her resource endowment and economic growth stages and evaluate scientifically the benefits of"opening up".

  20. Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit Manual

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Part D Prescription Drug Benefit Manual (PDBM) is user guide to Part D Prescription Drug Program. It includes information on general provisions, benefits,...

  1. Novel load balancing DHT scheme for the heterogeneous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yujun; Lu Xianliang; Hou Mengshu

    2008-01-01

    The capacities of the nodes in the peer-to-peer system are strongly heterogeneous,hence one can benefit from distributing the load.based on the capacity of the nodes.At first a model is discussed to evaluate the load balancing of the heterogeneous system,and then a novel load balancing scheme is proposed based on the concept of logical servers and the randomized binary tree,and theoretical guarantees are given.Finally,the feasibility of the scheme using extensive simulations is proven.

  2. Proposed Radiation Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davey, C. S.

    2004-07-01

    Current scientific evidence is that radiation at low levels is not harmful, but beneficial. This is borne out by both radiobiology and epidemiology. The ICRP 26 recommended limits of 50 mSv and 5 mSv per annum are comparable with the average natural background levels in Iran and Norway, respectively, and levels five times higher than that quoted for Iran are to be found in some populated parts of this world. The new limits proposed for ionising radiation are generated by comparison to existing recommended limits for essential minerals. There is a range of acceptable exposures to radiation, just as there is for minerals. The replacement for the ICRP 60 recommendations (20 mSv and 1 mSv for radiation workers and public respectively) should be higher limits of 200 mSv and 50 mSv. There should also be minimum recommended annual levels of 10 mSv, for both radiation workers and the public. The consequences of not proposing this change are continuing huge negative impacts to society. In cancer therapy, even the older guidelines caused unnecessary expense and delays. The cost to Canada is astronomical, when one considers the effect of the existing limits on the use of nuclear power, and the resulting use of hydrocarbons and the consequent increase in acid rain, etc. Of course, the same thing can be said of the entire world limited funds are diverted from areas where they would be better applied, and alternative solutions to societal needs are implemented, solutions which increase pollution and cause injury and death. It is time to reverse the current, expensive trend into misapplied ALARA, based on the paranoia about all things nuclear, which has developed since the linear no-threshold hypothesis was first proposed.propose the transition to a realistic and balanced approach to ionising radiation. (Author)

  3. Haemostatic balance in cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccouche, Héla; Labidi, Asma; Fekih, Monia; Mahjoub, Sonia; Kaabi, Houda; Hmida, Slama; Filali, Azza; Romdhane, Neila B

    2017-03-01

    Despite the prolongation of coagulation tests, recent studies reported an increased frequency of thromboembolic events in patients with cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the haemostatic balance in cirrhotic patients through assessing the variation of pro- and anticoagulant factors and evaluating the in-vitro thrombin generation in patients with cirrhosis and in healthy patients. Fifty-one cirrhotic patients with or without thromboembolic events and 50 controls matched by age and sex were enrolled. Procoagulant (factors VII, II, V, VIII, and XII) and inhibitor (protein C, protein S and antithrombin) factor activities were determined. Thrombin generation was measured as endogenous thrombin potential (ETP). Haemostatic balance was assessed by means of both procoagulant to inhibitor coagulation factor ratios and ETP with to without protein C activation ratios. There were 24 males and 27 females. The mean age was 57.8 years [16-91 years]. Pro and anticoagulant factors were significantly lower in patients than in controls (P < 0.001) except for factor VIII and protein S. In fact factor VIII level was significantly higher in patients than in controls and protein S levels were not significantly different between patients and controls. Almost all the pro to anticoagulant factor ratios were higher in cirrhotics than in controls, especially the factor VIII to protein C ratios which increased significantly from Child Pugh A to C (P < 0.001), the ratio of ETP with to without protein C activator was higher in patients than in controls, but did not reach a significant level (0.8 vs. 0.52) There was no statistically significant difference between Child classes. When comparing patients with history of thrombosis (n = 7) to those matched by age and sex and without history of thrombosis (n = 14), the ratios were not statistically different between the two groups. Haemostatic changes in cirrhosis tend to rebalance the haemostatic system. This state often

  4. Benefit / Cost priorities : achieving commensurability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedley, W.C.; Choo, E.U.; Wijnmalen, D.J.D.

    2003-01-01

    Traditional Benefit/Cost analysis requires benefits and costs to be expressed in a common currency, usually dollars. More recently, benefits and costs have been expressed and compared as relative priorities. This process has been criticized because there is no guarantee that the two sources of prior

  5. Recommendations for benefit-risk assessment methodologies and visual representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, Diana; Waddingham, Ed; Mt-Isa, Shahrul

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to draw on the practical experience from the PROTECT BR case studies and make recommendations regarding the application of a number of methodologies and visual representations for benefit-risk assessment. METHODS: Eight case studies based on the benefit......-risk balance of real medicines were used to test various methodologies that had been identified from the literature as having potential applications in benefit-risk assessment. Recommendations were drawn up based on the results of the case studies. RESULTS: A general pathway through the case studies...... preparation, (iii) Analysis, (iv) Exploration and (v) Conclusion and dissemination. CONCLUSIONS: Adopting formal, structured approaches to benefit-risk assessment was feasible in real-world problems and facilitated clear, transparent decision-making. Prior to this work, no extensive practical application...

  6. Radiation acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Lyamshev, Leonid M

    2004-01-01

    Radiation acoustics is a developing field lying at the intersection of acoustics, high-energy physics, nuclear physics, and condensed matter physics. Radiation Acoustics is among the first books to address this promising field of study, and the first to collect all of the most significant results achieved since research in this area began in earnest in the 1970s.The book begins by reviewing the data on elementary particles, absorption of penetrating radiation in a substance, and the mechanisms of acoustic radiation excitation. The next seven chapters present a theoretical treatment of thermoradiation sound generation in condensed media under the action of modulated penetrating radiation and radiation pulses. The author explores particular features of the acoustic fields of moving thermoradiation sound sources, sound excitation by single high-energy particles, and the efficiency and optimal conditions of thermoradiation sound generation. Experimental results follow the theoretical discussions, and these clearl...

  7. A balanced memory network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Roudi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental problem in neuroscience is understanding how working memory--the ability to store information at intermediate timescales, like tens of seconds--is implemented in realistic neuronal networks. The most likely candidate mechanism is the attractor network, and a great deal of effort has gone toward investigating it theoretically. Yet, despite almost a quarter century of intense work, attractor networks are not fully understood. In particular, there are still two unanswered questions. First, how is it that attractor networks exhibit irregular firing, as is observed experimentally during working memory tasks? And second, how many memories can be stored under biologically realistic conditions? Here we answer both questions by studying an attractor neural network in which inhibition and excitation balance each other. Using mean-field analysis, we derive a three-variable description of attractor networks. From this description it follows that irregular firing can exist only if the number of neurons involved in a memory is large. The same mean-field analysis also shows that the number of memories that can be stored in a network scales with the number of excitatory connections, a result that has been suggested for simple models but never shown for realistic ones. Both of these predictions are verified using simulations with large networks of spiking neurons.

  8. Paul Collier : Balancing beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    As former head of AB Operations, Paul Collier and his group were in the ‘cockpit’ for the LHC’s maiden voyage - piloting the first beam around the ring. But now, as Head of the Beams Department, he will need his feet firmly on the ground in order to balance all the beam activities at CERN. "As Department Head, I’ll have less direct contact with the machines," Collier says with a hint of regret. "I’ll still obviously be very involved, but they won’t actually let me loose in front of the keyboard anymore!" As the new Head of the BE Department, Collier will be in charge of nearly 400 people, and will oversee all the beam activities, including the preparations for the longest period of beam operation in the history of CERN. In the new organization, the BE, TE and EN Departments have been grouped together in the Accelerator and Technology Sector. "‘Partnership’ is a key word for the three departments," says Collier. "The n...

  9. The right balance

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Over the course of her career as a physicist, Felicitas Pauss, currently responsible for CERN's External Relations, has often been the sole woman in an environment dominated by men. While she freely admits that being a woman physicist can have as many advantages as disadvantages, she thinks the best strategy is to maintain the right balance.   From a very early age, Felicitas Pauss always wanted to be involved in projects that interested and fascinated her. That's how she came to study physics. When she was a first-year university student in Austria in 1970, it was still fairly uncommon for women to go into physics research. "I grew up in Salzburg with a background in music. At that time, it was certainly considered more ‘normal’ for a woman to study music than to do research in physics. But already in high school I was interested in physics and technical instruments and wanted to know how things work and what they are made of”. At the beginning of her care...

  10. Fair balance in direct-to-consumer antidepressant print and television advertising, 1995-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Rosemary J; Eisenberg, Matthew; Simon, Kosali I

    2012-01-01

    The authors evaluated fair balance in the presentation of risks and benefits in a large sample of direct-to-consumer advertising for prescription antidepressant medications appearing in magazines (1995-2006) and television (1999-2007) to assess how well they meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidelines. Using content analysis to capture relevant dimensions of the ads, results indicated that (a) considerably less attention is given to risks relative to benefits and (b) implicit ad content favors communication of drug benefits over risks, but that fair balance in direct-to-consumer ads has improved over time. The authors discuss policy implications and explore future research directions.

  11. Hawking radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parentani, Renaud; Spindel, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    Hawking radiation is the thermal radiation predicted to be spontaneously emitted by black holes. It arises from the steady conversion of quantum vacuum fluctuations into pairs of particles, one of which escaping at infinity while the other is trapped inside the black hole horizon. It is named after the physicist Stephen Hawking who derived its existence in 1974. This radiation reduces the mass of black holes and is therefore also known as black hole evaporation.

  12. Energy Balance of Irrigated Intercropping Field in the Middle Reaches of Heihe River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jinkui; DING Yongjian; WANG Genxu; SHEN Yongping; Yusuke YAMAZAKI; Jumpei KUBOTA

    2006-01-01

    Based on the experiments conducted in an irrigated intercropping field in Zhangye Oasis in the middle reaches of Heihe River basin in 2004, the characteristics of radiation budget are analyzed. Furthermore, energy balance is calculated by using Bowen-Ratio Energy Balance (BREB) method. The results show that the ratio of the absorbed radiation to the incoming short radiation in intercropping crop canopy-soil system is increasing with growing stages, from 0.81 in the initial growing stage (IGS) to 0.86 in the late growing stage (LGS). The net radiation, which is smaller in IGS, increases rapidly in the first period of the middle growing stage (MGS) and reaches the maximum value in the second period of MGS. It then somewhat decreases in LGS. The ratio of net radiation to total radiation has a similar trend with the net radiation. In the whole growing stages, latent heat flux, which takes up 70% or so of the net radiation, is the dominant item in energy balance. Sensible heat flux shares 20% of the net radiation and soil heat flux has a percentage of 10%. The characteristics of heat balance vary distinctly in different growing stages. In IGS, the ratios of latent heat flux,sensible heat flux and soil heat flux to net radiation are 44.5%, 23.8% and 31.7% respectively. In MGS, with the increasing of latent heat flux and the decreasing of sensible heat flux and soil heat flux, the ratios turn into 84.4%, 6.3% and 9.3%. In LGS, the soil heat flux maintains 0W/m2 or so, and latent heat flux and sensible heat flux take up 61.4% and 38.6% respectively. The energy balance also shows an obvious daily variation characteristic.

  13. Balancing for unstable nonlinear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpen, J.M.A.

    1993-01-01

    A previously obtained method of balancing for stable nonlinear systems is extended to unstable nonlinear systems. The similarity invariants obtained by the concept of LQG balancing for an unstable linear system can also be obtained by considering a past and future energy function of the system. By c

  14. Risk, Balanced Skills and Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsieh, Chihmao; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes that risk aversionencourages individuals to invest in balanced skillprofiles, making them more likely to become entrepreneurs.By not taking this possible linkage intoaccount, previous research has underestimated theimpacts of both risk aversion and balanced skills onthe likeli...

  15. Risk, Balanced Skills and Entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hsieh; S.C. Parker; M.C. van Praag

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes that risk aversion encourages individuals to invest in balanced skill profiles, making them more likely to become entrepreneurs. By not having taken this possible linkage into account, previous research has underestimated the impacts both of risk aversion and balanced skills on t

  16. Designing Multinational Electricity Balancing Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Veen, R.A.C.

    2012-01-01

    In today’s unbundled electricity markets, the balancing market is an intricate institutional arrangement that makes sure that the balance between electricity supply and demand is maintained. In the light of the development of a single electricity market in Europe, harmonization and integration of cu

  17. Mentoring practices benefiting pediatric nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weese, Meghan M; Jakubik, Louise D; Eliades, Aris B; Huth, Jennifer J

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies examining predictors of pediatric nurse protégé mentoring benefits demonstrated that protégé perception of quality was the single best predictor of mentoring benefits. The ability to identify the mentoring practices that predict specific benefits for individual nurses provides a better understanding of how mentoring relationships can be leveraged within health care organizations promoting mutual mentoring benefits. This descriptive correlational, non-experimental study of nurses at a northeast Ohio, Magnet® recognized, free-standing pediatric hospital advances nursing science by demonstrating how mentoring practices benefit pediatric nurse protégés.

  18. Ivabradine: Do the Benefits Outweigh the Risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshammari, Thamir M

    2016-10-02

    Ivabradine is a selective I: f current inhibitor that is used to lower the heart rate (HR) of patients with angina and/or heart failure. It is approved for use in several countries, including the United Kingdom, Australia, Saudi Arabia, and the United States. The drug was studied in several clinical trials, and it exhibited beneficial effects on the approved indicators. However, there are some concerns with the safety profile of this drug, especially its effect in reducing HR and causing severe bradycardia. Therefore, the current review assessed the benefit-risk balance of ivabradine. A literature review of the major published studies that assessed the efficacy and safety of ivabradine was performed. The online VigiBase adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting system was also accessed to investigate reports associated with this drug. A full benefit-risk assessment was performed using the collected data from the above-mentioned resources. Most of the reviewed studies concluded that ivabradine exerted beneficial effects with a tolerable safety profile. Specifically, a favorable benefit-risk profile was found when ivabradine was used for patients with an HR ≥70 beats per minute. Reports revealed that the most common ADR was bradycardia, which was expected. Other safety risks or ADRs were comparable to other prescribed drugs. This review presents an up-to-date analysis of ivabradine from the latest literature and reports. These studies suggest that ivabradine exhibits an acceptable and favorable benefit-risk profile, and this drug should be considered as a viable option in patients with angina pectoris and chronic heart failure.

  19. ANALYSIS OF THE RADIATIVE BALANCE IN QUEIROZ FILHO AVENUE – SAO PAULO, BRAZIL UNDER CLEAR SKY CONDITION DURING THE DRY SEASON ANÁLISE DO BALANÇO RADIATIVO NA AVENIDA QUEIROZ FILHO – SÃO PAULO/SP SOB CONDIÇÃO DE CÉU CLARO NA ESTAÇÃO SECA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Jaschke Machado

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The radiative balance and the wall temperatures of an urban canyon in the city of São Paulo is remotely observed through the use of radiometers and precision infrared thermometers (IRTs. These instruments are set up on a mobile platform, which moves through the bottom of the canyon. The radiative and thermal patterns are verified, along a traverse, through the different kinds of soil coverage and occupation, during the early hours of a diurnal period and also during a nocturnal period in the dry season. Air temperature measurements are also taken as well as estimates of the spatial temperature distribution, between the atmosphere and urban buildings. The presence of an atmospheric urban temperature gradient is well identified around the area without vegetation coverage, with a maximum magnitude between 6°C and 12ºC. Under the vegetated area it appears that this phenomenon is not pronounced, although a negative net long-wave radiation flux of around 60 Wm-2 between the bottom analyzed surface and the atmosphere is identified. Key-words: mobile transect, wall temperature, urban climate.O balanço radiativo e a temperatura das paredes de um canyon urbano na cidade de São Paulo são observados remotamente com a utilização de radiômetros e termômetros infravermelhos de precisão. Estes instrumentos são posicionados sobre uma plataforma móvel, a qual desloca-se na base do canyon. Os padrões radiativo e térmico são verificados, ao longo da trajetória, através de diferentes tipos de cobertura e ocupação do solo, durante as primeiras horas de um período diurno e também durante um período noturno na estação seca. Também foram realizadas medições da temperatura do ar, bem como, estimativas da distribuição espacial da temperatura, entre a atmosfera e as edificações urbanas. A presença de um gradiente de temperatura atmosférico urbano é bem definida através da área desprovida de vegetação arbórea, com uma magnitude m

  20. Active video gaming to improve balance in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoth, Claudine J C; Caljouw, Simone R; Postema, Klaas

    2011-01-01

    The combination of active video gaming and exercise (exergaming) is suggested to improve elderly people's balance, thereby decreasing fall risk. Exergaming has been shown to increase motivation during exercise therapy, due to the enjoyable and challenging nature, which could support long-term adherence for exercising balance. However, scarce evidence is available of the direct effects of exergaming on postural control. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the effect of a six-week videogame-based exercise program aimed at improving balance in elderly people. Task performance and postural control were examined using an interrupted time series design. Results of multilevel analyses showed that performance on the dot task improved within the first two weeks of training. Postural control improved during the intervention. After the intervention period task performance and balance were better than before the intervention. Results of this study show that healthy elderly can benefit from a videogame-based exercise program to improve balance and that all subjects were highly motivated to exercise balance because they found gaming challenging and enjoyable.

  1. HEALTH BENEFITS OF AMLA OR INDIAN GOOSEBERRY FRUIT (PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Foods can be effectively used as medicine to treat and prevent disease. Ayurveda, the 5,000 year old ancient Indian health science, have mentioned benefits of food for therapeutic purpose. According to Ayurveda, amla balances all three doshas. In Ayurvedic polyherbal formulations, Indian gooseberry is a common constituent .It may be used as a rejuvenative to promote longevity, to enhance digestion , treat constipation , reduce fever , purify the blood , reduce cough , alleviate asthma , strengthen the heart , benefit the eyes , stimulate hair growth and enhance intellect.

  2. Cardiovascular benefits of exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal SK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shashi K AgarwalMedical Director, Agarwal Health Center, NJ, USAAbstract: Regular physical activity during leisure time has been shown to be associated with better health outcomes. The American Heart Association, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine all recommend regular physical activity of moderate intensity for the prevention and complementary treatment of several diseases. The therapeutic role of exercise in maintaining good health and treating diseases is not new. The benefits of physical activity date back to Susruta, a 600 BC physician in India, who prescribed exercise to patients. Hippocrates (460–377 BC wrote “in order to remain healthy, the entire day should be devoted exclusively to ways and means of increasing one's strength and staying healthy, and the best way to do so is through physical exercise.” Plato (427–347 BC referred to medicine as a sister art to physical exercise while the noted ancient Greek physician Galen (129–217 AD penned several essays on aerobic fitness and strengthening muscles. This article briefly reviews the beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular diseases.Keywords: exercise, cardiovascular disease, lifestyle changes, physical activity, good health

  3. HEALTH BENEFITS OF BARLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of lifestyle diseases is increasing day by day. Mostly the younger generation do not have much awareness about healthy nutritional supplements. One such important cereal grain not used mostly by youngsters is barley It is a good old grain with so many health benefits like weight reduction, decreasing blood pressure, blood cholesterol, blood glucose in Type 2 diabetes and preventing colon cancer. It is easily available and cheap grain. It contains both soluble and insoluble fiber, protein, vitamins B and E, minerals selenium, magnesium and iron, copper, flavonoids and anthocynins. Barley contains soluble fiber, beta glucan binds to bile acids in the intestines and thereby decreasing plasma cholesterol levels. Absorbed soluble fiber decreases cholesterol synthesis by liver and cleansing blood vessels. Insoluble fiber provides bulkiness in the intestines, thereby satiety. decreased appetite. It promotes intestinal movements relieving constipation, cleansing colonic harmful bacteria and reduced incidence of colonic cancer. It is a good source of niacin ,reducing LDL levels and increasing HDL levels. Selenium and vitamin E providing beneficial antioxidant effects. Magnesium, a cofactor for many carbohydrate metabolism enzymes and high fiber content contributes for its blood glucose reducing effect in Type 2 diabetes. It is having good diuretic activity and is useful in urinary tract infections. Barley contains gluten, contraindicated in celiac disease.

  4. Social Balance Theory: Revisiting Heider’s Balance Theory for many agents

    OpenAIRE

    Hokky Situngkir; Deni Khanafiah

    2004-01-01

    We construct a model based on Heider’s social balance theory to analyze the interpersonal network among social agents. The model of social balance theory provides us an interesting tool to see how a social group evolves to the possible balance state. We introduce the balance index that can be used to measure social balance in macro structure level (global balance index) or in micro structure (local balance index) to see how the local balance index influences the global balance structure. Seve...

  5. Benefits of explosive cutting for nuclear-facility applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazelton, R.F.; Lundgren, R.A.; Allen, R.P.

    1981-06-01

    The study discussed in this report was a cost/benefit analysis to determine: (1) whether explosive cutting is cost effective in comparison with alternative metal sectioning methods and (2) whether explosive cutting would reduce radiation exposure or provide other benefits. Two separate approaches were pursued. The first was to qualitatively assess cutting methods and factors involved in typical sectioning cases and then compare the results for the cutting methods. The second was to prepare estimates of work schedules and potential radiation exposures for candidate sectioning methods for two hypothetical, but typical, sectioning tasks. The analysis shows that explosive cutting would be cost effective and would also reduce radiation exposure when used for typical nuclear facility sectioning tasks. These results indicate that explosive cutting should be one of the principal cutting methods considered whenever steel or similar metal structures or equipment in a nuclear facility are to be sectioned for repair or decommissioning. 13 figures, 7 tables. (DLC)

  6. Benefits of Exercise Training in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W; Sandroff, Brian M

    2015-09-01

    Exercise training represents a behavioral approach for safely managing many of the functional, symptomatic, and quality of life consequences of multiple sclerosis (MS). This topical review paper summarizes evidence from literature reviews and meta-analyses, supplemented by recent individual studies, indicating that exercise training can yield small but important improvements in walking, balance, cognition, fatigue, depression, and quality of life in MS. The paper highlights limitations of research on exercise training and its consequences and future research directions and provides an overview for promotion of exercise training in MS based on recent prescriptive guidelines. Collectively, the evidence for the benefits of exercise training in MS suggests that the time is ripe for the promotion of exercise by healthcare providers, particularly neurologists as a central part of the clinical care and management of MS patients.

  7. Potential benefits of distributed PCM thermal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeper, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    This report examines the benefits of passive thermal storage by means of phase change material (PCM) distributed throughout the wall and ceiling surfaces of a building, as would occur if the wallboard were impregnated with PCM. Surface heat transfer is expected to be adequate for thermal storage capacity up to 40-Btu/ft/sup 2/ of surface area. Sums of daily energy balances during the heating season indicate that use of PCM-impregnated wallboard with a 40-Btu/ft/sup 2/ capacity would provide adequate storage for direct gain systems with the largest practical window area in Denver, Boston, and Fort Worth. It is shown that distributed PCM thermal storage offers the opportunity to obtain several ton-hours of ventilative cooling per night throughout much of the US during July. 17 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Using the balanced scorecard in the development of community partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsasis, Peter; Owen, Susan M

    2009-02-01

    The benefits of community partnerships have been well established in the health service literature. However, measuring these benefits and associated outcomes is relatively new. This paper presents an innovative initiative in the application of a balanced scorecard framework for measuring and monitoring partnership activity at the community level, while adopting principles of evidence-based practice to the partnership process. In addition, it serves as an excellent example of how organizations can apply scorecard methodology to move away from relationship-based partnerships and into new collaborations of which they can select - using a formal skill and competency assessment for partnership success.

  9. Improving Balance Function Using Low Levels of Electrical Stimulation of the Balance Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob; Reschke, Millard; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Wood, Scott; Serrador, Jorge; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian T.; Cohen, Helen

    2012-01-01

    hours improves the long-term heart-rate dynamics and motor responsiveness as indicated by daytime trunk activity measurements in patients with multi-system atrophy, Parkinson s disease, or both, including patients who were unresponsive to standard therapy for Parkinson s disease. Recent studies conducted at the NASA JSC Neurosciences Laboratories showed that imperceptible SVS, when applied to normal young healthy subjects, leads to significantly improved balance performance during postural disturbances on unstable compliant surfaces. These studies have shown the benefit of SR noise characteristic optimization with imperceptible SVS in the frequency range of 0-30 Hz, and amplitudes of stimulation have ranged from 100 to 400 microamperes.

  10. Estimation of Social Benefits in Cost-benefit Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Beáta Fodor

    2012-01-01

    While examining the cost-benefit analysis related to public policy decisions in the Hungarian and international literature, this paper is looking for the answer to the question of what the methodological principles are according to which the benefit impacts can be determined. The processed Hungarian and English-language studies indicate that the theoretical-methodological questions of the determination of benefit impacts are not clear cut. The author has constructed a model that contains the ...

  11. A world in balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westing, A H

    1981-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to define the scope of global population growth within the uncompromising everyday realities of technology, economies, and politics and to demonstrate the intimate between the human population problem and the increasing problem of Nature's destruction. It is hoped that the human species will come to its sense in time to create an adequate standard of living of all of its members in peace and environmental balance. The number of people the world can support is considered in terms of 1) the provision for a standard of living adequate for everyone's health and wellbeing, 2) consideration for wildlife and nature, and 3) reliance on existing levels of technology and politics. Standards of living are suggested for the affluent and the austere. The focus on the discussion is on standards of living, global carrying capacity, the imperatives of population control and respect for nature, humans versus wildlife, and the need for a universal declaration of respect for nature. Carrying capacity is determined by total land area, cultivated land area, forest land area, cereals (grain), and wood. Use per capita of each of the 5 essentials is determined for the affluent or austere standard of living. An affluent standard means that world population would be limited to 2 billion, which is 50% of the current population. An austere standard of living means a limit of 3 billion, or 33% less than the existing population. The unfortunate reality is that today's total population of 4.5 billion is increasing at an annual rate of 1.9% and is not expected to level off until it has increased 3 times. This population growth occurs at the expense of wildlife. Of the total terrestrial animal biomass, humans constitute 4% and domestic livestock 15%, which, in 40 years, will reach a combined 40% and lead to more species extinction. One species of bird or mammal will become extinct for each increase of 220 million people, which happens every 3 years. The solution is

  12. Balancing Training Techniques for Flight Controller Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Training of ground control teams has been a difficult task in space operations. There are several intangible skills that must be learned to become the steely eyed men and women of mission control who respond to spacecraft failures that can lead to loss of vehicle or crew if handled improperly. And as difficult as training is, it can also be costly. Every day, month or year an operator is in training, is a day that not only they are being trained without direct benefit to the organization, but potentially an instructor or mentor is also being paid for hours spent assisting them. Therefore, optimization of the training flow is highly desired. Recently the Expedition Division (DI) at Johnson Space Flight Center has recreated their training flows for the purpose of both moving to an operator/specialist/instructor hierarchy and to address past inefficiencies in the training flow. This paper will discuss the types of training DI is utilizing in their new flows, and the balance that has been struck between the ideal learning environments and realistic constraints. Specifically, the past training flow for the ISS Attitude Determination and Control Officer will be presented, including drawbacks that were encountered. Then the new training flow will be discussed and how a new approach utilizes more training methods and teaching techniques. We will look at how DI has integrated classes, workshops, checkouts, module reviews, scenarios, OJT, paper sims, Mini Sims, and finally Integrated Sims to balance the cost and timing of training a new flight controller.

  13. A comparative experiment in distributed load balancing

    KAUST Repository

    Randles, Martin

    2009-12-01

    The anticipated uptake of Cloud computing, built on the well-established research fields of web services, networks, utility computing, distributed computing and virtualisation, will bring many advantages in cost, flexibility and availability for service users. These benefits are expected to further drive the demand for cloud services, increasing both the cloud customer base and the scale of cloud installations. This has implications for many technical issues in such Service Oriented Architectures and Internet of Services (IoS) type applications; fault tolerance, high availability and scalability for examples. Central to these issues is the establishment of effective load balancing techniques. It is clear that the scale and complexity of these systems makes centralized individual assignment of jobs to specific servers infeasible; leading to the need for an effective distributed solution. This paper investigates three possible distributed solutions, which have been proposed for load balancing: An approach inspired by the foraging behaviour of the Honeybee, Biased Random Sampling and Active Clustering. © 2009 IEEE.

  14. State of the art in benefit-risk analysis: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, H; Tijhuis, M J; Gunnlaugsdóttir, H; Kalogeras, N; Leino, O; Luteijn, J M; Magnússon, S H; Odekerken, G; Pohjola, M V; Tuomisto, J T; Ueland, Ø; White, B C; Holm, F

    2012-01-01

    Risk-taking is normal in everyday life if there are associated (perceived) benefits. Benefit-Risk Analysis (BRA) compares the risk of a situation to its related benefits and addresses the acceptability of the risk. Over the past years BRA in relation to food and food ingredients has gained attention. Food, and even the same food ingredient, may confer both beneficial and adverse effects. Measures directed at food safety may lead to suboptimal or insufficient levels of ingredients from a benefit perspective. In BRA, benefits and risks of food (ingredients) are assessed in one go and may conditionally be expressed into one currency. This allows the comparison of adverse and beneficial effects to be qualitative and quantitative. A BRA should help policy-makers to make more informed and balanced benefit-risk management decisions. Not allowing food benefits to occur in order to guarantee food safety is a risk management decision much the same as accepting some risk in order to achieve more benefits. BRA in food and nutrition is making progress, but difficulties remain. The field may benefit from looking across its borders to learn from other research areas. The BEPRARIBEAN project (Best Practices for Risk-Benefit Analysis: experience from out of food into food; http://en.opasnet.org/w/Bepraribean) aims to do so, by working together with Medicines, Food Microbiology, Environmental Health, Economics & Marketing-Finance and Consumer Perception. All perspectives are reviewed and subsequently integrated to identify opportunities for further development of BRA for food and food ingredients. Interesting issues that emerge are the varying degrees of risk that are deemed acceptable within the areas and the trend towards more open and participatory BRA processes. A set of 6 'state of the art' papers covering the above areas and a paper integrating the separate (re)views are published in this volume.

  15. 25 CFR 292.17 - How must an application describe the benefits and impacts of the proposed gaming establishment to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Projections of class II and class III gaming income statements, balance sheets, fixed assets accounting, and..., and career development; (c) Projected benefits to the tribe and its members from tourism;...

  16. Who Benefits from Volunteering? Variations in Perceived Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Hong, Song-Iee; Tang, Fengyan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to document the benefits of volunteering perceived by older adults and to explain variation in these self-perceived benefits. Design and Methods: This is a quantitative study of 13 volunteer programs and 401 older adults serving in those programs. Program directors completed telephone interviews, and older…

  17. What is flux balance analysis?

    OpenAIRE

    Orth, Jeffrey D.; Thiele, Ines; Palsson, Bernhard Ø

    2010-01-01

    Flux balance analysis is a mathematical approach for analyzing the flow of metabolites through a metabolic network. This primer covers the theoretical basis of the approach, several practical examples and a software toolbox for performing the calculations.

  18. Efficient codes and balanced networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denève, Sophie; Machens, Christian K

    2016-03-01

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in inhibitory interneurons and their circuits. A striking property of cortical inhibition is how tightly it balances excitation. Inhibitory currents not only match excitatory currents on average, but track them on a millisecond time scale, whether they are caused by external stimuli or spontaneous fluctuations. We review, together with experimental evidence, recent theoretical approaches that investigate the advantages of such tight balance for coding and computation. These studies suggest a possible revision of the dominant view that neurons represent information with firing rates corrupted by Poisson noise. Instead, tight excitatory/inhibitory balance may be a signature of a highly cooperative code, orders of magnitude more precise than a Poisson rate code. Moreover, tight balance may provide a template that allows cortical neurons to construct high-dimensional population codes and learn complex functions of their inputs.

  19. Appetite and energy balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2016-10-01

    pleasure of eating it. The latter, which is similar to food reward, is determined primarily by the state of emptiness of the gut and food liking related to the food's sensory qualities and macronutrient value and the individual's dietary history. Importantly, energy density adds value because energy dense foods are less satiating kJ for kJ and satiation limits further intake. That is, energy dense foods promote energy intake by virtue (1) of being more attractive and (2) having low satiating capacity kJ for kJ, and (1) is partly a consequence of (2). Energy storage is adapted to feast and famine and that includes unevenness over time of the costs of obtaining and ingesting food compared with engaging in other activities. However, in very low-cost food environments with energy dense foods readily available, risk of obesity is high. This risk can be and is mitigated by dietary restraint, which in its simplest form could mean missing the occasional meal. Another strategy we discuss is the energy dilution achieved by replacing some sugar in the diet with low-calorie sweeteners. Perhaps as or more significant, though, is that belief in short-term energy balancing (the energy depletion model) may undermine attempts to eat less. Therefore, correcting narratives of eating to be consistent with biological reality could also assist with weight control.

  20. Radiation Hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castor, J I

    2003-10-16

    The discipline of radiation hydrodynamics is the branch of hydrodynamics in which the moving fluid absorbs and emits electromagnetic radiation, and in so doing modifies its dynamical behavior. That is, the net gain or loss of energy by parcels of the fluid material through absorption or emission of radiation are sufficient to change the pressure of the material, and therefore change its motion; alternatively, the net momentum exchange between radiation and matter may alter the motion of the matter directly. Ignoring the radiation contributions to energy and momentum will give a wrong prediction of the hydrodynamic motion when the correct description is radiation hydrodynamics. Of course, there are circumstances when a large quantity of radiation is present, yet can be ignored without causing the model to be in error. This happens when radiation from an exterior source streams through the problem, but the latter is so transparent that the energy and momentum coupling is negligible. Everything we say about radiation hydrodynamics applies equally well to neutrinos and photons (apart from the Einstein relations, specific to bosons), but in almost every area of astrophysics neutrino hydrodynamics is ignored, simply because the systems are exceedingly transparent to neutrinos, even though the energy flux in neutrinos may be substantial. Another place where we can do ''radiation hydrodynamics'' without using any sophisticated theory is deep within stars or other bodies, where the material is so opaque to the radiation that the mean free path of photons is entirely negligible compared with the size of the system, the distance over which any fluid quantity varies, and so on. In this case we can suppose that the radiation is in equilibrium with the matter locally, and its energy, pressure and momentum can be lumped in with those of the rest of the fluid. That is, it is no more necessary to distinguish photons from atoms, nuclei and electrons, than it is

  1. Balancer effects in opinion dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Cheon, Taksu

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a novel type of contrarian agent, the balancer, to Galam model of opinion dynamics, in order to account for the skepticism over one-sidedness and for the sense of fairness. We find that the inclusion of balancers along with floaters and inflexibles brings about a critical point on parametric plane of the dynamical system, which results in the new kind of stable final states of the opinion dynamics, that seem to capture several intriguing features found often in mature democracies.

  2. The 2013 social balance sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Pierrette Heuse

    2014-01-01

    The transposition into national law of Directive 2013/34/EU on the annual financial statements of companies, expected by no later than July 2015, could alter the statistical obligations on small firms in connection with the filing of their annual accounts. In any case, the social balance sheet can no longer form an integral part of their accounts. Nevertheless, it contains original information whose usefulness is highlighted, on the basis of the social balance sheets for 2012, by examining th...

  3. Internet Load and Traffic Balancing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文正; 郭巧; 郭为民

    2005-01-01

    Load and traffic balancing for the Internet are analyzed. An intelligent domain name system(DNS) policy for the control and management of content distribution networks (CDN) is presented. An CDNs network based Urtitech IntelliDNS is built, and performance of the network in realizing traffic and load balancing is measured. It is proved that CDNs provide a valuable service and the methods are feasible.

  4. Hatha yoga on body balance

    OpenAIRE

    Erick Tadeu Prado; Vagner Raso; Renata Coelho Scharlach; Cristiane Akemi Kasse

    2014-01-01

    Background: A good body balance requires a proper function of vestibular, visual, and somatosensory systems which can be reach with exercise practice and/or yoga. Aim: To determine the effects of a 5-month hatha yoga training program on body balance in young adults. Materials and Methods: This study used a controlled, nonrandomized design, where the experimental group underwent a 5-month training program and were then compared with the control group that had a sedentary lifestyle. A c...

  5. Classroom Racial Balance and Students' Interracial Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslin, Sandra; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Relationships between classroom racial balance and third graders' interracial attitudes were analyzed. Interracial attitudes were more favorable in balanced than in unbalanced classes. Results suggest that classroom racial balance is strongly related to students' interracial attitudes. (Author)

  6. Fischverzehr in der Schwangerschaft: Risiko oder Benefit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundacker C

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fisch ist ein hochqualitatives Nahrungsmittel. Es enthält große Mengen an essenziellen Nährstoffen wie hochwertige Proteine, Vitamine, Jod, Selen und Omega-3-Fettsäuren, deren gesundheitsfördernde Wirkungen auf Gehirnentwicklung, intrauterines Wachstum und Gestationsdauer gut beschrieben sind. Gleichzeitig kann Fisch erhebliche Mengen an Schadstoffen beinhalten, insbesondere auch die organische Quecksilberverbindung Methyl-Quecksilber (Methyl-Hg. Das fetale Nervensystem ist besonders empfindlich gegenüber Belastung mit neurotoxischen Substanzen wie Methyl-Hg. Eine signifikante Beeinträchtigung der neurologischen Entwicklung von Kindern durch erhöhte pränatale Belastung ist belegt. Ergebnisse anderer Studien legen nahe, dass die mit dem Fischverzehr aufgenommenen essenziellen Nährstoffe solche Schadwirkungen kompensieren könnten. Insgesamt lässt die rezente Literatur keine eindeutige Aussage zu, ob der Fischverzehr in der Schwangerschaft ein Risiko oder einen Benefit für die fetale Entwicklung darstellt. Dies liegt daran, dass bislang nur wenige Studien die mit dem Fischverzehr einhergehende Aufnahme von essenziellen Nährstoffen und Schadstoffen in Relation zur Entwicklung von Kindern untersucht haben. Die Risiko-Benefit-Balance hängt zudem maßgeblich von individuellen Fischverzehrsgewohnheiten und damit von der jeweiligen Nährstoff-/Schadstoff-Zusammensetzung des konsumierten Fisches ab. Während der Schwangerschaft sollte nicht auf das hochwertige Nahrungsmittel Fisch verzichtet werden. Empfohlen wird ein Verzehr solcher Fische und Meeresfrüchte, die einen hohen Omega-3-Fettsäuregehalt und minimale Quecksilberbelastung aufweisen. Schwangere Frauen sollten über Risiken und Benefits des Fischverzehrs im Sinne der Gesundheitsförderung aufgeklärt werden.

  7. Fischverzehr in der Schwangerschaft: Risiko oder Benefit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundacker C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fisch ist ein hochqualitatives Nahrungsmittel. Es enthält große Mengen an essenziellen Nährstoffen wie hochwertige Proteine, Vitamine, Jod, Selen und Omega-3-Fettsäuren, deren gesundheitsfördernde Wirkungen auf Gehirnentwicklung, intrauterines Wachstum und Gestationsdauer gut beschrieben sind. Gleichzeitig kann Fisch erhebliche Mengen an Schadstoffen beinhalten, insbesondere auch die organische Quecksilberverbindung Methyl-Quecksilber (Methyl-Hg. Das fetale Nervensystem ist besonders empfindlich gegenüber Belastung mit neurotoxischen Substanzen wie Methyl-Hg. Eine signifikante Beeinträchtigung der neurologischen Entwicklung von Kindern durch erhöhte pränatale Belastung ist belegt. Ergebnisse anderer Studien legen nahe, dass die mit dem Fischverzehr aufgenommenen essenziellen Nährstoffe solche Schadwirkungen kompensieren könnten. Insgesamt lässt die rezente Literatur keine eindeutige Aussage zu, ob der Fischverzehr in der Schwangerschaft ein Risiko oder ein Benefit für die fetale Entwicklung darstellt. Dies liegt daran, dass bislang nur wenige Studien die mit dem Fischverzehr einhergehende Aufnahme von essenziellen Nähr- und Schadstoffen in Relation zur Entwicklung von Kindern untersucht haben. Die Risiko-Benefit-Balance hängt zudem maßgeblich von individuellen Fischverzehrsgewohnheiten, damit von der jeweiligen Nährstoff-/Schadstoff-Zusammensetzung des konsumierten Fisches ab. Während der Schwangerschaft sollte nicht auf das hochwertige Nahrungsmittel Fisch verzichtet werden. Empfohlen wird ein Verzehr solcher Fische und Meeresfrüchte, die einen hohen Omega-3-Fettsäuregehalt und minimale Quecksilberbelastung aufweisen. Schwangere Frauen sollten über Risiken und Benefits des Fischverzehrs im Sinne der Gesundheitsförderung aufgeklärt werden.

  8. Radiation damage

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, Erik H M; CERN. Geneva

    1998-01-01

    a) Radiation damage in organic materials. This series of lectures will give an overview of radiation effects on materials and components frequently used in accelerator engineering and experiments. Basic degradation phenomena will be presented for organic materials with comprehensive damage threshold doses for commonly used rubbers, thermoplastics, thermosets and composite materials. Some indications will be given for glass, scintillators and optical fibres. b) Radiation effects in semiconductor materials and devices. The major part of the time will be devoted to treat radiation effects in semiconductor sensors and the associated electronics, in particular displacement damage, interface and single event phenomena. Evaluation methods and practical aspects will be shown. Strategies will be developed for the survival of the materials under the expected environmental conditions of the LHC machine and detectors. I will describe profound revolution in our understanding of black holes and their relation to quantum me...

  9. Inter-comparisons of thermodynamic sea-ice modeling results using various parameterizations of radiative flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Radiative fluxes are of primary importance in the energy and mass balance of the sea-ice cover. Various parameterizations of the radiative fluxes are studied in a thermodynamic sea-ice model. Model outputs of the surface radiative and heat fluxes and mass balance are compared with observations. The contribution of short-wave radiation is limited to a long part of winter. Therefore, simple schemes are often sufficient. Errors in estimations of the short-wave radiation are due mainly to cloud effects and occasionally to multi-reflection between surface and ice crystals in the air. The long-wave radiation plays an important role in the ice surface heat and mass balance during most part of a winter. The effect of clouds on the accuracy of the simple radiative schemes is critical, which needs further attention. In general, the accuracy of an ice model depends on that of the radiative fluxes.

  10. Radiation Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  11. Radiation Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, M

    2001-04-01

    Major achievements of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection Department in 2000 are described. The main areas for R and D of the department remain neutron dosimetry and neutron activation analysis, safeguards information handling and non-destructive assay techniques. Further activities include low-level radioactivity measurements in environmental and biological samples and radiation protection research. Finally, achievements in decision strategy research and social sciences in nuclear research are reported.

  12. Benefits for People with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about whether or not you meet Social Security's definition of disability . Use the Benefits Eligibility Screening Tool to find out which programs may be able to pay you benefits. If your application has recently been denied, the Internet Appeal is a starting point to request a ...

  13. Increasing Enrollment through Benefit Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnow, Betty

    1982-01-01

    The applicability of benefit segmentation, a market research technique which groups people according to benefits expected from a program offering, was tested at the College of DuPage. Preferences and demographic characteristics were analyzed and program improvements adopted, increasing enrollment by 20 percent. (Author/SK)

  14. Taxability of Educational Benefits Trusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple Law Quarterly, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Corporations have found the promise of providing a college education to the children of employees--without the recognition of income to the parent-employee--to be a popular fringe benefit. The Internal Revenue Service has attacked educational benefit trusts in Revenue Ruling 75-448. Implications are discussed. (LBH)

  15. Load-balancing algorithms for the parallel community climate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, I.T.; Toonen, B.R.

    1995-01-01

    Implementations of climate models on scalable parallel computer systems can suffer from load imbalances resulting from temporal and spatial variations in the amount of computation required for physical parameterizations such as solar radiation and convective adjustment. We have developed specialized techniques for correcting such imbalances. These techniques are incorporated in a general-purpose, programmable load-balancing library that allows the mapping of computation to processors to be specified as a series of maps generated by a programmer-supplied load-balancing module. The communication required to move from one map to another is performed automatically by the library, without programmer intervention. In this paper, we describe the load-balancing problem and the techniques that we have developed to solve it. We also describe specific load-balancing algorithms that we have developed for PCCM2, a scalable parallel implementation of the Community Climate Model, and present experimental results that demonstrate the effectiveness of these algorithms on parallel computers. The load-balancing library developed in this work is available for use in other climate models.

  16. Energy balance closure at ChinaFLUX sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhengquan; YU Guirui; WEN Xuefa; ZHANG Leiming; REN Chuanyou; FU Yuling

    2005-01-01

    Network of eddy covariance observation is measuring long-term carbon and water fluxes in contrasting ecosystems and climates. As one important reference of independently evaluating scalar flux estimates from eddy covariance, energy balance closure is used widely in study of carbon and water fluxes. Energy balance closure in ChinaFLUX was evaluated by statistical regression of turbulent energy fluxes (sensible and latent heat) against available energy (net radiation, soil heat flux, canopy heat storage) and the energy balance ratio (EBR) and the frequency distribution of relative errors of energy balance (δ). The trends of diurnal and seasonal variation of energy balance in ChinaFLUX were analyzed. The results indicated that the imbalance was prevalent in all observation sites, but there were little differences among sites because of the properties variation of sites. The imbalance was greater during nocturnal periods than daytime and closure was improved with friction velocity intensifying. Generally the results suggested that estimates of the scalar turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat were underestimated and/or that available energy was overestimated. Finally, we discussed certain factors that are contributed to the imbalance of energy, such as systematic errors associated with the sampling mismatch, systematic instrument bias, neglected energy sinks, low and high frequency loss of turbulent fluxes and advection of heat and water vapor.

  17. Field Balancing of Magnetically Levitated Rotors without Trial Weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Fang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Unbalance in magnetically levitated rotor (MLR can cause undesirable synchronous vibrations and lead to the saturation of the magnetic actuator. Dynamic balancing is an important way to solve these problems. However, the traditional balancing methods, using rotor displacement to estimate a rotor’s unbalance, requiring several trial-runs, are neither precise nor efficient. This paper presents a new balancing method for an MLR without trial weights. In this method, the rotor is forced to rotate around its geometric axis. The coil currents of magnetic bearing, rather than rotor displacement, are employed to calculate the correction masses. This method provides two benefits when the MLR’s rotation axis coincides with the geometric axis: one is that unbalanced centrifugal force/torque equals the synchronous magnetic force/torque, and the other is that the magnetic force is proportional to the control current. These make calculation of the correction masses by measuring coil current with only a single start-up precise. An unbalance compensation control (UCC method, using a general band-pass filter (GPF to make the MLR spin around its geometric axis is also discussed. Experimental results show that the novel balancing method can remove more than 92.7% of the rotor unbalance and a balancing accuracy of 0.024 g mm kg−1 is achieved.

  18. [Costs and benefits of smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polder, J J; van Gils, P F; Kok, L; Talhout, R; Feenstra, T L

    2017-01-01

    - Two recent societal cost-benefit analyses have documented the costs of smoking and the cost-effectiveness of preventing smoking.- Smoking costs the Netherlands society EUR 33 billion per year.- The majority of this is the monetary value of health loss; these are "soft" euros that cannot be re-spent.- There is not a great deal of difference between costs and benefits when expressed in "hard" euros, which means that there is no clear business case for anti-smoking policy.- The greatest benefit of discouraging smoking is improved health for the individual and increased productivity for the business sector; however, the benefits cannot be easily realised, because even in the most favourable scenario the number of smokers will decrease slowly.- Excise duties seem to offer the most promising avenue for combating smoking. The benefits of anti-smoking policy, therefore, consist mainly of tax revenues for the government.- Stringent policy is required to transform tax revenues into health gains.

  19. Benefits and challenges of electrical demand response: A critical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    Advances in IT, control and forecasting capabilities have made demand response a viable, and potentially attractive, option to increase power system flexibility. This paper presents a critical review of the literature in the field of demand response, providing an overview of the benefits and chal......Advances in IT, control and forecasting capabilities have made demand response a viable, and potentially attractive, option to increase power system flexibility. This paper presents a critical review of the literature in the field of demand response, providing an overview of the benefits...... and challenges of demand response. These benefits include the ability to balance fluctuations in renewable generation and consequently facilitate higher penetrations of renewable resources on the power system, an increase in economic efficiency through the implementation of real-time pricing, and a reduction...

  20. Decisional Balance and Collegiate Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgen, Keith; Gunneson, Lauren

    2008-01-01

    The study examined the perceived benefits and costs of alcohol use among undergraduates (N=462) perceiving their drinking as normal or abnormal as well as those undergraduates who met or did not meet the DSM-IV-TR criteria for an alcohol disorder. A 2x2 MANOVA and univariate analyses on the benefits (pros) and costs (cons) scales of the Alcohol…

  1. Advancing Biofuels: Balancing for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    As with most technologies, use of biofuels has both benefits and risks, which vary by feedstock. Expected benefits include increased energy independence, reduced consumption of fossil fuels, reduced emission of greenhouse gases and invigorated rural economies. Anticipated risks include potential com...

  2. Savings on natural gas consumption by doubling thermal efficiencies of balanced-flue space heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juanico, Luis E. [Conicet, and Centro Atomico Bariloche e Instituto Balseiro, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Gonzalez, Alejandro D. [Grupo de Estudios Ambientales, Instituto de Investigaciones en Biodiversidad y Medio Ambiente (Inibioma-Conicet), 8400 Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina)

    2008-07-01

    Natural gas is a relatively clean fossil fuel for space heating. However, when it is not used efficiently high consumption can become an environmental problem. In Argentina, individual balanced-flue space heaters are the most extensively used in temperate and cold regions. This furnace is a simple device with a burner set into a metal chamber, separated from the indoor ambient by an enclosing cabinet, and both inlet and outgas chimneys are connected to the outdoor ambient. In previous studies, we measured the performance of these commercial devices, and found very low thermal efficiency (in the range of 39-63% depending on the chimney configuration). The extensive use of these devices is possible due to the availability of unlimited amount of subsidised natural gas to households and businesses. In the present work, we developed a prototype with simple and low cost modifications made on commercial models, and measured the improvements on the thermal efficiency. Findings showed better infrared radiation, enhanced indoor air convection, and passive chimney flow regulation leading to thermal efficiency in the range of 75-85%. These values represent an improvement of 100% when compared to marketed models, and hence, the specific cost of the heater per unit of useful heating power delivered was actually reduced. Considering the large market presence of these furnaces in both residential and business sectors in Argentina, the potential benefits related to gas consumption and environmental emissions are very significant. (author)

  3. Synchrotron radiation with radiation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Robert W.; Wasserman, Ira

    1991-04-01

    A rigorous discussion is presented of the classical motion of a relativistic electron in a magnetic field and the resulting electromagnetic radiation when radiation reaction is important. In particular, for an electron injected with initial energy gamma(0), a systematic perturbative solution to the Lorentz-Dirac equation of motion is developed for field strengths satisfying gamma(0) B much less than 6 x 10 to the 15th G. A particularly accurate solution to the electron orbital motion in this regime is found and it is demonstrated how lowest-order corrections can be calculated. It is shown that the total energy-loss rate corresponds to what would be found using the exact Larmor power formula without including radiation reaction. Provided that the particle energy and field strength satisfy the same contraint, it is explicitly demonstrated that the intuitive prescription for calculating the time-integrated radiation spectrum described above is correct.

  4. Do conditional benefits reduce equilibrium unemployment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, F.

    2006-01-01

    Although unconditional unemployment benefits destroy jobs in competitive and noncompetitive labor markets, conditional benefits can spur job growth in noncompetitive labor markets. Unconditional benefits reduce the penalty of shirking and misconduct, while conditional benefits increase this penalty.

  5. Radiation Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Radiation Therapy KidsHealth > For Parents > Radiation Therapy Print A ... have many questions and concerns about it. About Radiation Therapy In radiation therapy, high-energy radiation from ...

  6. Abdominal radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - abdomen - discharge; Cancer - abdominal radiation; Lymphoma - abdominal radiation ... When you have radiation treatment for cancer, your body goes through changes. About 2 weeks after radiation treatment starts, you might notice changes ...

  7. Brain radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer-brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  8. Imprisonment dynamics of resonance radiation in gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosarev, N I; Shaparev, N Y, E-mail: kosarev_nikolai@mail.ru [Institute of Computational Modeling, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 (Russian Federation)

    2011-05-28

    Imprisonment of resonant radiation in gases on the basis of the numerical solution of the rate balance equation for the excited atoms and the transfer resonant radiation equation is investigated. Calculations of the escape factor for the slab, cylinder and sphere at Doppler and Lorentz forms of absorption and scattering profiles are executed. Calculation results of the escape factor for the cylinder and slab are compared with Holsten's asymptotical solutions. The numerical data for time dependence of a spectrum, the intensity of resonant radiation and the spatial distribution of the excited atomic concentration in a regime of afterglow are also considered.

  9. Sustainable Urban Regeneration Based on Energy Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha Silvester

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, results are reported of a technology assessment of the use and integration of decentralized energy systems and storage devices in an urban renewal area. First the general context of a different approach based on 'rethinking' and the incorporation of ongoing integration of coming economical and environmental interests on infrastructure, in relation to the sustainable urban development and regeneration from the perspective of the tripod people, technology and design is elaborated. However, this is at different scales, starting mainly from the perspective of the urban dynamics. This approach includes a renewed look at the ‘urban metabolism’ and the role of environmental technology, urban ecology and environment behavior focus. Second, the potential benefits of strategic and balanced introduction and use of decentralized devices and electric vehicles (EVs, and attached generation based on renewables are investigated in more detail in the case study of the ‘Merwe-Vierhaven’ area (MW4 in the Rotterdam city port in the Netherlands. In order to optimize the energy balance of this urban renewal area, it is found to be impossible to do this by tuning the energy consumption. It is more effective to change the energy mix and related infrastructures. However, the problem in existing urban areas is that often these areas are restricted to a few energy sources due to lack of available space for integration. Besides this, energy consumption in most cases is relatively concentrated in (existing urban areas. This limits the potential of sustainable urban regeneration based on decentralized systems, because there is no balanced choice regarding the energy mix based on renewables and system optimization. Possible solutions to obtain a balanced energy profile can come from either the choice to not provide all energy locally, or by adding different types of storage devices to the systems. The use of energy balance based on renewables as a

  10. Balancing the presentation of information and options in patient decision aids: an updated review

    OpenAIRE

    Abhyankar, P.; Volk, R.J.; Blumenthal-Barby, J.; Bravo, P.; A. Buchholz; Ozanne, E.; Vidal, D.C.; Col, N; Stalmeier, P F M

    2013-01-01

    Background Standards for patient decision aids require that information and options be presented in a balanced manner; this requirement is based on the argument that balanced presentation is essential to foster informed decision making. If information is presented in an incomplete/non-neutral manner, it can stimulate cognitive biases that can unduly affect individuals’ knowledge, perceptions of risks and benefits, and, ultimately, preferences. However, there is little clarity about what const...

  11. Quantitative analysis of gait and balance response to deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mera, Thomas O.; Filipkowski, Danielle E.; Riley, David E.; Whitney, Christina M.; Walter, Benjamin L.; Gunzler, Steven A; Giuffrida, Joseph P

    2012-01-01

    Gait and balance disturbances in Parkinson’s disease (PD) can be debilitating and may lead to increased fall risk. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a treatment option once therapeutic benefits from medication are limited due to motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. Optimizing DBS parameters for gait and balance can be significantly more challenging than for other PD motor symptoms. Furthermore, inter-rater reliability of the standard clinical PD assessment scale, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Ratin...

  12. A Balanced Scorecard With Strategy Map: Measuring the Value of a Nursing Sabbatical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embree, Jennifer L; Swenty, Constance F; Schaar, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Seasoned nurses frequently resign from their positions due to burnout. An innovative idea that could support nurse retention is nurse sabbaticals. Balanced scorecards with strategy maps can display financial benefit, positive customer experience, and operational and human capital development required to initiate and sustain a professional nurse sabbatical. A balanced scorecard with strategy map is an effective tool that demonstrates connection between the organizational mission and the outcomes of a nurse sabbatical program.

  13. Dairy Proteins and Energy Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Line Quist

    High protein diets affect energy balance beneficially through decreased hunger, enhanced satiety and increased energy expenditure. Dairy products are a major source of protein. Dairy proteins are comprised of two classes, casein (80%) and whey proteins (20%), which are both of high quality......, but casein is absorbed slowly and whey is absorbed rapidly. The present PhD study investigated the effects of total dairy proteins, whey, and casein, on energy balance and the mechanisms behind any differences in the effects of the specific proteins. The results do not support the hypothesis that dairy...... proteins, whey or casein are more beneficial than other protein sources in the regulation of energy balance, and suggest that dairy proteins, whey or casein seem to play only a minor role, if any, in the prevention and treatment of obesity....

  14. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Matteo; Martin, Olivier C; De Martino, Andrea; Marinari, Enzo

    2016-01-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an "ensemble averaging" procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferr...

  15. Efficacy of virtual reality-based balance training versus the Biodex balance system training on the body balance of adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Manal S.; Mattar, Ayman G.; Elhafez, Salam M.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated efficacy of virtual reality (VR)-based balance training on enhancing balance and postural reactions of adults as a low-cost new modality compared to the established Biodex Balance System (BBS). [Subjects] Thirty normal adults of both genders were divided randomly into two equal-sized experimental groups of 15: BBS balance training and VR balance training. [Methods] The training programmes were conducted in 12 sessions, three 15-min sessions per week. The Nint...

  16. On the socioeconomic benefits of family planning work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D

    1991-01-01

    The focus of this article is on 1) the intended socioeconomic benefit of Chinese family planning (FP) versus the benefit of the maternal production sector, 2) the estimated costs of FP work, 3) and the principal ways to lower FP costs. Marxian population theory, which is ascribed to in socialist China, states that population and socioeconomic development are interconnected and must adapt to each other and that an excessively large or small population will upset the balance and retard development. Malthusians believe that large populations reduce income, and Adam Smith believed that more people meant a larger market and more income. It is believed that FP will bring socioeconomic benefits to China. The socioeconomic benefit of material production is the linkage between labor consumption and the amount of labor usage with the fruits and benefits of labor. FP invests in human, material, and financial resources to reduce the birth rate and the absolute number of births. The investment is recouped in population. The increased national income generated from a small outlay to produce an ideal population would be used to improve material and cultural lives. FP brings economic benefits and accelerates social development (ecological balances women's emancipation and improvement in the physical and mental health of women and children, improvement in cultural learning and employment, cultivation of socialist morality and new practices, and stability). In computing FP cost, consideration is given to total cost and unit cost. Cost is dependent on the state budget allocation, which was 445.76 million yuan in 1982 and was doubled by 1989. World Bank figures for 1984 affixed the FP budget in China at 979.6 million US dollars, of which 80% was provided by China. Per person, this means 21 cents for central, provincial, prefecture, and country spending, 34 cents for rural collective set-ups, 25 cents for child awards, and various subsidies, 15 cents for sterilization, and 5 cents for

  17. Mission Benefits Analysis of Logistics Reduction Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Future space exploration missions will need to use less logistical supplies if humans are to live for longer periods away from our home planet. Anything that can be done to reduce initial mass and volume of supplies or reuse or recycle items that have been launched will be very valuable. Reuse and recycling also reduce the trash burden and associated nuisances, such as smell, but require good systems engineering and operations integration to reap the greatest benefits. A systems analysis was conducted to quantify the mass and volume savings of four different technologies currently under development by NASA s Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing project. Advanced clothing systems lead to savings by direct mass reduction and increased wear duration. Reuse of logistical items, such as packaging, for a second purpose allows fewer items to be launched. A device known as a heat melt compactor drastically reduces the volume of trash, recovers water and produces a stable tile that can be used instead of launching additional radiation protection. The fourth technology, called trash-to-gas, can benefit a mission by supplying fuel such as methane to the propulsion system. This systems engineering work will help improve logistics planning and overall mission architectures by determining the most effective use, and reuse, of all resources.

  18. Balance velocities of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joughin, I.; Fahnestock, M.; Ekholm, Simon;

    1997-01-01

    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetery data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail......, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning....

  19. Do recommender systems benefit users?

    CERN Document Server

    Yeung, Chi Ho

    2015-01-01

    Recommender systems are present in many web applications to guide our choices. They increase sales and benefit sellers, but whether they benefit customers by providing relevant products is questionable. Here we introduce a model to examine the benefit of recommender systems for users, and found that recommendations from the system can be equivalent to random draws if one relies too strongly on the system. Nevertheless, with sufficient information about user preferences, recommendations become accurate and an abrupt transition to this accurate regime is observed for some algorithms. On the other hand, we found that a high accuracy evaluated by common accuracy metrics does not necessarily correspond to a high real accuracy nor a benefit for users, which serves as an alarm for operators and researchers of recommender systems. We tested our model with a real dataset and observed similar behaviors. Finally, a recommendation approach with improved accuracy is suggested. These results imply that recommender systems ...

  20. Medicare Benefits and Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe to eNews Close Donate Medicare Benefits & Your Eyes Eye Health is Important! As you age, your risk ... that you need. Ask about eye exams! Routine Eye Exams Medicare does not generally cover the costs ...

  1. Employees' motivation and emloyees' benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Nedzelská, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this bachelor thesis is analysing methods how to stimulate and motivate employees. The theoretical part of the thesis deals with the concept of motivation, concepts close to motivation and selected existing theories of motivation. It also deals with employee benefits, function, division and benefits which are frequently offered to employees. The practical part of the thesis, mainly based on written and online questionnaires, concentrates on motivation of employees at Nedcon Boh...

  2. An Improved Hadoop Data Load Balancing Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Data load balancing is one of the key problems of big data technology. As a big data application, Hadoop has had many successful applications. HDFS is Hadoop Distributed File System and has the load balancing procedure which can balance the storage load on each machine. However, this method cannot balance the overload rack preferentially, and so it is likely to cause the breakdown of overload machines. In this paper, we focus on the overload machines and propose an improved algorithm for balancing the overload racks preferentially. The improved method constructs Prior Balance List list which includes overload machines, For Balance List list and NextForBalanceList list by many factors and balances among the racks selected from these lists firstly. Experiments show that the improved method can balance the overload racks in time and reduce the possibility of breakdown of these racks

  3. Surface energy balance in the ablation zone of Langfjordjøkelen, an arctic, maritime glacier in northern Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesen, Rianne H.; Andreassen, Liss M.; Oerlemans, Johannes; van den Broeke, Michiel R.

    2014-01-01

    Glaciers in northern and southern Norway are subject to different daily and seasonal cycles of incoming solar radiation, which is presumably reflected in the importance of net solar radiation in their surface energy balance. We present a 3 year continuous record from an automatic weather station in

  4. Optimal allocation of diversification benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years within Insurance companies measures like RAROC (Risk Adjusted Return on Capital) have become more popular for Balance Sheet Management purposes. RAROC is a performance measure that quantifies the amount of return per unit of risk that can be obtained by a certain entity.

  5. Optimal allocation of diversification benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years within Insurance companies measures like RAROC (Risk Adjusted Return on Capital) have become more popular for Balance Sheet Management purposes. RAROC is a performance measure that quantifies the amount of return per unit of risk that can be obtained by a certain entity. Measures lik

  6. Radiation-Hydrodynamics of Hot Jupiter Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Menou, Kristen

    2009-01-01

    Radiative transfer in planetary atmospheres is usually treated in the static limit, i.e., neglecting atmospheric motions. We argue that hot Jupiter atmospheres, with possibly fast (sonic) wind speeds, may require a more strongly coupled treatment, formally in the regime of radiation-hydrodynamics. To lowest order in v/c, relativistic Doppler shifts distort line profiles along optical paths with finite wind velocity gradients. This leads to flow-dependent deviations in the effective emission and absorption properties of the atmospheric medium. Evaluating the overall impact of these distortions on the radiative structure of a dynamic atmosphere is non-trivial. We present transmissivity and systematic equivalent width excess calculations which suggest possibly important consequences for radiation transport in hot Jupiter atmospheres. If winds are fast and bulk Doppler shifts are indeed important for the global radiative balance, accurate modeling and reliable data interpretation for hot Jupiter atmospheres may p...

  7. Benefits of Microalgae for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrecchia, Angelique; Bebout, Brad M.; Murphy, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Algae have long been known to offer a number of benefits to support long duration human space exploration. Algae contain proteins, essential amino acids, vitamins, and lipids needed for human consumption, and can be produced using waste streams, while consuming carbon dioxide, and producing oxygen. In comparison with higher plants, algae have higher growth rates, fewer environmental requirements, produce far less "waste" tissue, and are resistant to digestion and/or biodegradation. As an additional benefit, algae produce many components (fatty acids, H2, etc.) which are useful as biofuels. On Earth, micro-algae survive in many harsh environments including low humidity, extremes in temperature, pH, and as well as high salinity and solar radiation. Algae have been shown to survive inmicro-gravity, and can adapt to high and low light intensity while retaining their ability to perform nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis. Studies have demonstrated that some algae are resistant to the space radiation environment, including solar ultraviolet radiation. It remains to be experimentally demonstrated, however, that an algal-based system could fulfil the requirements for a space-based Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS) under comparable spaceflight power, mass, and environmental constraints. Two specific challenges facing algae cultivation in space are that (i) conventional growth platforms require large masses of water, which in turn require a large amount of propulsion fuel, and (ii) most nutrient delivery mechanisms (predominantly bubbling) are dependent on gravity. To address these challenges, we have constructed a low water biofilm based bioreactor whose operation is enabled by capillary forces. Preliminary characterization of this Surface Adhering BioReactor (SABR) suggests that it can serve as a platform for cultivating algae in space which requires about 10 times less mass than conventional reactors without sacrificing growth rate. Further work is necessary to

  8. Radiation protection policies to protect public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muckerheide, J. [Commonwealth Massachusetts, Needham, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Scientific data from plant, animal, and human populations more strongly find radiation essential to life, i.e., suppressing background radiation is debilitating and that moderately enhanced radiation doses have positive effects, than that low-moderate radiation dose has adverse effects. {close_quote} Federal radiation protection policy will be in the public interest and save hundreds of billions of dollars at no public health cost when known dose effects to exposed populations are applied to ensure no adverse health effects, with safety margins, and when appropriate research is funded (and public benefits from new radiation and nuclear science and technology applications are enabled) at the sole cost of reduced federal power and influence.

  9. Aerosol influence on energy balance of the middle atmosphere of Jupiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; West, Robert A; Irwin, Patrick G J; Nixon, Conor A; Yung, Yuk L

    2015-12-22

    Aerosols are ubiquitous in planetary atmospheres in the Solar System. However, radiative forcing on Jupiter has traditionally been attributed to solar heating and infrared cooling of gaseous constituents only, while the significance of aerosol radiative effects has been a long-standing controversy. Here we show, based on observations from the NASA spacecraft Voyager and Cassini, that gases alone cannot maintain the global energy balance in the middle atmosphere of Jupiter. Instead, a thick aerosol layer consisting of fluffy, fractal aggregate particles produced by photochemistry and auroral chemistry dominates the stratospheric radiative heating at middle and high latitudes, exceeding the local gas heating rate by a factor of 5-10. On a global average, aerosol heating is comparable to the gas contribution and aerosol cooling is more important than previously thought. We argue that fractal aggregate particles may also have a significant role in controlling the atmospheric radiative energy balance on other planets, as on Jupiter.

  10. Antihistamine provides sex-specific radiation protection. [Ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickley, G.A.

    1981-04-01

    Rats suffer an early transient performance decrement immediately after a sufficiently large dose of ionizing radiation. However, it has been shown that males experience a more severe incapacitation than females. This sex difference has been attributed to the low estrogen levels in the male. In support of this notion, supplemental estrogens in castrated male rats have produced less-severe performance decrements post-irradiation. Antihistamines have also previously been shown to alleviate radiation's effect on behavior. The present study revealed that antihistamines are only effective in altering the behavioral incapacitation of sexually intact male subjects. This contrasts with previous work which indicates that estrogens can only benefit gonadectomized rats. These findings suggest that different mechanisms may underlie antihistamine and estrogen radiation protection.

  11. Cherenkov radiation; La radiation Cerenkov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    When the radioactivity has been discovered, it was observed by researchers that different materials as mineral salts or solutions were emitting a weak light when submitted to radioactivity beams. At the beginning it has been thought that it was fluorescent light. In 1934, Cherenkov, a russian physicist, worked on the luminescence of uranyl salts solutions caused by gamma radiation and observed a very weak light was emitted by pure liquid. After further studies, he concluded that this phenomena was different from fluorescence. Since then, it has been called Cherenkov effect. This blue light emission is produced when charged particles are going through a transparent medium with an upper velocity than light velocity. This can happen only in medium with large refractive index as water or glass. It also presents its different properties discovered afterwards. The different applications of the Cherenkov radiation are discussed as counting techniques for radiation detectors or comic ray detectors. (M.P.)

  12. Going International: The Balanced Scorecard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Alicia M.

    2001-01-01

    Explains the balanced scorecard as a management system that provides a framework for strategic measurement which translates the vision and strategy of the organization in operational terms by four indicators: financial, process, employee and client satisfaction, and results. Also considers the importance of cultural differences in performance…

  13. Data needs for nutrient balances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Finn Pilgaard

    2011-01-01

    One of the tools for evaluating the results of environmental action plans or EU directives related to nutrients in the agricultural sector is to follow the development of annually estimated nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) balances and surplus. Unlike greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions, countrie...

  14. Dynamic balance in elite karateka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Matteo; Mapelli, Andrea; Shirai, Yuri Francesca; Ciprandi, Daniela; Lovecchio, Nicola; Galvani, Christel; Sforza, Chiarella

    2015-12-01

    In karate, balance control represents a key performance determinant. With the hypothesis that high-level athletes display advanced balance abilities, the purpose of the current study was to quantitatively investigate the motor strategies adopted by elite and non-elite karateka to maintain balance control in competition. The execution of traditional karate techniques (kihon) in two groups of elite Masters (n = 6, 31 ± 19 years) and non-elite Practitioners (n = 4, 25 ± 9 years) was compared assessing body center of mass (CoM) kinematics and other relevant parameters like step width and angular joint behavior. In the considered kihon sequence, normalized average CoM height was 8% lower (p < 0.05), while CoM displacement in the horizontal direction was significantly higher in Masters than in Practitioners (2.5 vs. 1.9 m, p < 0.05), as well as CoM average velocity and rms acceleration (p < 0.05). Step width was higher in Masters in more than half of the sequence steps (p < 0.05). Results suggest that elite karateka showed a refined dynamic balance control, obtained through the increase of the base of support and different maneuvers of lower limbs. The proposed method could be used to objectively detect talented karateka, to measure proficiency level and to assess training effectiveness.

  15. Learning from Balance Sheet Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanlamai, Uthai; Soongswang, Oranuj

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examines alternative visuals and their effect on the level of learning of balance sheet users. Executive and regular classes of graduate students majoring in information technology in business were asked to evaluate the extent of acceptance and enhanced capability of these alternative visuals toward their learning…

  16. Off-Balance Sheet Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew C.

    1998-01-01

    Examines off-balance sheet financing, the facilities use of outsourcing for selected needs, as a means of saving operational costs and using facility assets efficiently. Examples of using outside sources for energy supply and food services, as well as partnering with business for facility expansion are provided. Concluding comments address tax…

  17. Reflections on the juridical implications of the medical use of radiations and radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Ana Celia P.P. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Direito]. E-mails: anaceu2000@yahoo.com.br; Cuperschmid, Ethel Mizrahy [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Centro de Memoria da Medicina - CEMMOR]. E-mail: ethel.mizrahy@yahoo.com; Campos, Tarcisio P. Ribeiro de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares]. E-mail: campos@nuclear.ufmg.br

    2007-07-01

    The pacific use of radiation and radioisotopes for the society presents radiological risks, due its capacity to produce damage to environmental and human being, contrasting with its high economic and social benefits. In the face of the risk, juridical system leans over to reach the required regulations that implies in the balance between human and environmental security and the expected improvements of the medical nuclear techniques. The Brazilian Constitution of 1988 tries to provide the normalization for the application of the nuclear energy and its radioisotopes. However, target as a strategically technology and due to its expansion, its regulations still deserves analyses and reflections. The present paper starts from the Constitution presenting the references about the theme and analyzing it. It is addressed the principle of the objective civil responsibility making analyses on the use of radiations and radioisotope on the medicine. It addresses the role of federal autonomy related to the 'MCT - Ministerio de Ciencia e Tecnologia' with its accumulative functions in society, such as scientific and technologic development, education, and its own focalization. The recent opening of the monopoly for the production of radioisotopes for very short half-lives is also discussed. It makes a comparison between juridical aspects of Brazil with international system. The present article contributes to open same topics of discussions on the Brazilian juridical aspects involving radiations and radioisotopes application on medicine. (author)

  18. Impact of rapeseed cropping on the soil carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, Antje Maria; Herbst, Mathias; Huth, Vytas; Andres, Monique; Augustin, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Winter oilseed rape is the dominant biofuel crop in the young moraine landscape in Northern Germany. Since the cultivation of biofuel crops requires sustainability compared to fossil fuels by law, detailed knowledge about their green house gas (GHG) balance is necessary. The soil carbon balance is one of the key contributors to the total GHG balance and also very important for the assessment of soil fertility. However, the knowledge about the impact of different management practices on the soil carbon balance is very limited up to now. Therefore, we investigated the carbon fluxes of winter oilseed rape at field plots near Dedelow/Uckermark in NE Germany with different treatments of fertilization (mineral versus organic) and tillage (no-till and mulch-till versus ploughing). The dynamics of the carbon fluxes are mainly driven by the current climatic conditions but the overall response depends strongly on the ecosystem state (with its physiological and microbiological properties) which is affected by management. To get the full carbon flux dynamics but also the impact of the different management practices, two different approaches were used: The eddy covariance technique to get continuous fluxes throughout the year and the manual chamber technique to detect flux differences between specific management practices. The manual chamber measurements were conducted four-weekly as all-day campaigns using a flow-through non-steady-state closed chamber system. The fluxes in-between campaigns were gap-filled based on functional relationships with soil and air temperature (for the ecosystem respiration) and photosynthetic active radiation (for the gross primary production). All results presented refer to the cropping season 2012-2013. The combination of the two measurement techniques allows the evaluation of chamber fluxes including an independent estimate of the error on the overall balances. Despite the considerable errors, there are significant differences in the soil carbon

  19. Radiation Technology Against Bioterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-25

    application of radiation processing: radiation crosslinking of polymers and radiation sterilization of health care products have developed into substantial...municipal waste water, • radiation inactivation of bioterrorism agents, • electron beam processing of flue gases, • radiation crosslinking , • radiation...Electron beam processing of flue gases 6. Radiation crosslinking 7. Radiation curing 3 Radiation Technology Against Bioterrorism L.G. Gazsó and G

  20. The Optimal Capital Structure of Banks: Balancing Deposit Insurance, Capital Requirements and Tax-Advantaged Debt

    OpenAIRE

    John P. Harding; Xiaozhing Liang; Stephen L. Ross

    2007-01-01

    The capital structure and regulation of financial intermediaries is an important topic for practitioners, regulators and academic researchers. In general, theory predicts that firms choose their capital structures by balancing the benefits of debt (e.g., tax and agency benefits) against its costs (e.g., bankruptcy costs). However, when traditional corporate finance models have been applied to insured financial institutions, the results have generally predicted corner solutions (all equity or ...

  1. Marketing residential grid-connected PV systems using a balanced scorecard as a marketing tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, N. [University of Giessen (Germany). Dept. of Organisation and Management; Calais, P. [Murdoch University, Perth (Australia). School of Environmental Science; Calais, M. [Curtin University, Perth (Australia). Centre for Renewable Systems Technology

    2001-03-01

    A strategic analysis of the electricity market in Western Australia yields a market potential for renewable energy in Western Australia. However, from a purely financial viewpoint the installation of grid-connected pv-systems still is not economically viable. In this paper a balanced scorecard (BSC) is developed to capture and visualize other than financial benefits. Therefore, the BSC can be used as a marketing tool to communicate the benefits of a privately owned GCPV system to potential customers. (author)

  2. Balancing health benefits and chemical risks associated to dietary habits: RIBEFOOD, a new Internet resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Cid, Roser; Bocio, Ana; Llobet, Juan M; Domingo, José L

    2008-02-28

    In recent years, a notable number of studies have shown that some foodstuffs might be a potential source of exposure to chemical pollutants, some of them with a well-known toxicity in humans. Based on the importance of a healthy diet, we have designed the software RIBEFOOD, a new Internet resource that allows the quantitative determination of the human intake of a long series of micro- and macronutrients contained in widely consumed foodstuffs, and with an important nutritional value. RIBEFOOD is also able to determine the dietary intake of a number of chemical contaminants (i.e., metals, dioxins and furans, PCBs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, etc.). In this paper, we introduce RIBEFOOD, and how it may be used as an easy Internet tool in order to optimize the dietary habits of any subject by increasing the intake of beneficial nutrients and by reducing that of toxic pollutants. RIBEFOOD can be useful not only for professionals (general physicians, nutritionists, endocrinologists, toxicologists, etc.), but also for the general population. It is available at: http://www.fmcs.urv.cat/ribefood/.

  3. Exercise and sports in cardiac patients and athletes at risk: Balance between benefit and harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisch, B

    2015-05-01

    Physical training has a well-established role in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. Moderate exercise has been shown to be beneficial in chronic stable heart failure. Competitive sports, however, is contraindicated in most forms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), in myocarditis, in pericarditis, and in right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia. In most European countries, the recommendations of medical societies or public bodies state that these diseases have to be ruled out by prescreening before an individual can take up competitive sports. But the intensity and quality of this health check vary considerably from country to country, from the type of sports activity, and from the individuals who want to participate in sports. Prescreening on an individual basis should also be considered for leisure sports, particularly in people who decide to start training in middle age after years of physical inactivity to regain physical fitness. In leisure sports the initiative for a medical check-up lies primarily in the hands of the "healthy" individual. If she or he plans to participate in extreme forms of endurance sports with excessive training periods such as a marathon or ultramarathon and competitive cycling or rowing, they should be aware that high-intensity endurance sports can lead to structural alterations of the heart muscle even in healthy individuals. Physical exercise in patients with heart disease should be accompanied by regular medical check-ups. Most rehabilitation programs in Europe perform physical activity and training schedules according to current guidelines. Little is known about athletes who are physically handicapped and participate in competitive sports or the Paralympics, and even less is known about individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) who participate in local, regional, international competitions or the Special Olympics or just in leisure sport activities.

  4. Practical guidance for using rivaroxaban in patients with atrial fibrillation: balancing benefit and risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haas S

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sylvia Haas,1 Christoph Bode,2 Bo Norrving,3 Alexander GG Turpie4 1Technical University Munich, Munich, Germany; 2Department of Cardiology and Angiology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany; 3Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden; 4Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada Abstract: Rivaroxaban is a direct factor Xa inhibitor that is widely available to reduce the risk of stroke or systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and one or more risk factors for stroke. Rivaroxaban provides practical advantages compared with warfarin and other vitamin K antagonists, including a rapid onset of action, few drug interactions, no dietary interactions, a predictable anticoagulant effect, and no requirement for routine coagulation monitoring. However, questions have emerged relating to the responsible use of rivaroxaban in day-to-day clinical practice, including patient selection, dosing, treatment of patients with renal impairment, conversion from use of vitamin K antagonists to rivaroxaban and vice versa, coagulation tests, and management of patients requiring invasive procedures or experiencing bleeding or an ischemic event. This article provides practical recommendations relating to the use of rivaroxaban in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, based on clinical trial evidence, relevant guidelines, prescribing information, and the authors' clinical experience. Keywords: novel oral anticoagulants, direct factor Xa inhibitor, peri-interventional management, practical guidance, rivaroxaban, stroke prevention

  5. Balancing the health benefits and environmental risks of pharmaceuticals: Diclofenac as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, V; Ginebreda, A; Mor, J R; Petrovic, M; Sabater, S; Sumpter, J; Barceló, D

    2015-12-01

    Pharmaceuticals are designed to improve human and animal health, but even the most beneficial pharmaceuticals might raise some questions concerning the consequences of exposure to non-target organisms. To illustrate this situation and using diclofenac as a case-study, we analyze global consumption and occurrence data to identify hot spots of consumption without occurrence data, review the scientific literature on the harmful environmental effects to determine whether the observed concentrations in freshwater are of environmental concern, summarize the current pharmaceutical and environmental policies to highlight policy gaps, and suggest a series of research and policy recommendations, which can be summarized as follows: we need to improve the current knowledge on occurrence in freshwaters to properly implement environmental policies (i), diclofenac might pose a risk to non-target organisms in freshwater (ii); the harmful effects that some pharmaceuticals may have on the environment are not always addressed by environmental policies (iii).

  6. Will the Unemployment Rate Fall with a Robust Forecast for the U.S. Current Account Balance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hojjat,Ph.D.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between the U.S. current account balance and the U.S. rate of unemployment. Would the improvement in the current account balance cause a fall in the unemployment rate? Although previous researchers argued that U.S. current account balance does not influence U.S. unemployment rate, this article shows that these two are statistically correlated. This article also suggests policy recommendations that benefit both the employment level and the U.S. current account balance.

  7. Cloud Task Scheduling for Load Balancing based on Intelligent Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arabi E. keshk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a type of parallel and distributed system consisting of a collection of interconnected and virtual computers. With the increasing demand and benefits of cloud computing infrastructure, different computing can be performed on cloud environment. One of the fundamental issues in this environment is related to task scheduling. Cloud task scheduling is an NP-hard optimization problem, and many meta-heuristic algorithms have been proposed to solve it. A good task scheduler should adapt its scheduling strategy to the changing environment and the types of tasks. In this paper a cloud task scheduling policy based on ant colony optimization algorithm for load balancing compared with different scheduling algorithms has been proposed. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO is random optimization search approach that will be used for allocating the incoming jobs to the virtual machines. The main contribution of our work is to balance the system load while trying to minimizing the make span of a given tasks set. The load balancing factor, related to the job finishing rate, is proposed to make the job finishing rate at different resource being similar and the ability of the load balancing will be improved. The proposed scheduling strategy was simulated using Cloudsim toolkit package. Experimental results showed that, the proposed algorithm outperformed scheduling algorithms that are based on the basic ACO or Modified Ant Colony Optimization (MACO.

  8. Achieving excellence in veterans healthcare--a balanced scorecard approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Lawrence A; Moreland, Michael E; Cowgill, David E

    2003-01-01

    This article provides healthcare administrators and managers with a framework and model for developing a balanced scorecard and demonstrates the remarkable success of this process, which brings focus to leadership decisions about the allocation of resources. This scorecard was developed as a top management tool designed to structure multiple priorities of a large, complex, integrated healthcare system and to establish benchmarks to measure success in achieving targets for performance in identified areas. Significant benefits and positive results were derived from the implementation of the balanced scorecard, based upon benchmarks considered to be critical success factors. The network's chief executive officer and top leadership team set and articulated the network's primary operating principles: quality and efficiency in the provision of comprehensive healthcare and support services. Under the weighted benchmarks of the balanced scorecard, the facilities in the network were mandated to adhere to one non-negotiable tenet: providing care that is second to none. The balanced scorecard approach to leadership continuously ensures that this is the primary goal and focal point for all activity within the network. To that end, systems are always in place to ensure that the network is fully successful on all performance measures relating to quality.

  9. FUNCTIONAL DISABILITY, SAGITTAL ALIGNMENT AND PELVIC BALANCE IN LUMBAR SPONDYLOLISTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Muñiz Luna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: To demonstrate the recovery of lumbar sagittal pelvic alignment and sagittal pelvic balance after surgical reduction of lumbar spondylolisthesis and establish the benefits of the surgery for reduction and fixation of the lumbar spondylolisthesis with 360o circumferential arthrodesis for 2 surgical approaches by clinical and functional evaluation. Method: Eight patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis treated with surgical reduction and fixation of listhesis and segmental circumferential fusion with two surgical approaches were reviewed. They were evaluated before and after treatment with Oswestry, Visual Analogue for pain and Odom scales, performing radiographic measurement of lumbar sagittal alignment and pelvic sagittal balance with the technique of pelvic radius. Results: Oswestry scales and EVA reported improvement of symptoms after treatment in 8 cases; the Odom scale had six outstanding cases reported. The lumbar sagittal alignment presented a lumbosacral lordosis angle and a lumbopelvic lordosis angle reduced in 4 cases and increased in 4 other cases; pelvic sagittal balance increased the pelvic angle in 4 cases and decreased in 3 cases and the sacral translation of the hip axis to the promontory increased in 6 cases. Conclusion: The surgical procedure evaluated proved to be useful by modifying the lumbar sagittal alignment and the pelvic balance, besides reducing the symptoms, enabling the patient to have mobility and movement and the consequent satisfaction with the surgery.

  10. Seasonal Water Balance Forecasts for Drought Early Warning in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirig, Christoph; Bhend, Jonas; Liniger, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Droughts severely impact Ethiopian agricultural production. Successful early warning for drought conditions in the upcoming harvest season therefore contributes to better managing food shortages arising from adverse climatic conditions. So far, however, meteorological seasonal forecasts have not been used in Ethiopia's national food security early warning system (i.e. the LEAP platform). Here we analyse the forecast quality of seasonal forecasts of total rainfall and of the meteorological water balance as a proxy for plant available water. We analyse forecast skill of June to September rainfall and water balance from dynamical seasonal forecast systems, the ECMWF System4 and EC-EARTH global forecasting systems. Rainfall forecasts outperform forecasts assuming a stationary climate mainly in north-eastern Ethiopia - an area that is particularly vulnerable to droughts. Forecasts of the water balance index seem to be even more skilful and thus more useful than pure rainfall forecasts. The results vary though for different lead times and skill measures employed. We further explore the potential added value of dynamically downscaling the forecasts through several dynamical regional climate models made available through the EU FP7 project EUPORIAS. Preliminary results suggest that dynamically downscaled seasonal forecasts are not significantly better compared with seasonal forecasts from the global models. We conclude that seasonal forecasts of a simple climate index such as the water balance have the potential to benefit drought early warning in Ethiopia, both due to its positive predictive skill and higher usefulness than seasonal mean quantities.

  11. The energy balance of the solar transition region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, C.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown how the observed distribution of the emission measure with temperature can be used to limit the range of energy deposition functions suitable for heating the solar transition region and inner corona. The minimum energy loss solution is considered in view of the work by Hearn (1975) in order to establish further scaling laws between the transition region pressure, the maximum coronal temperature and the parameter giving the absolute value of the emission measure. Also discussed is the absence of a static energy balance at the base of the transition region in terms of measurable atmospheric parameters, and the condition for a static energy balance is given. In addition, the possible role of the emission from He II in stabilizing the atmosphere by providing enhanced radiation loss is considered.

  12. Benefits of exercise during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Heidi; Spitznagle, Tracy; Hunt, Devyani

    2012-11-01

    There is a direct link between healthy mothers and healthy infants. Exercise and appropriate nutrition are important contributors to maternal physical and psychological health. The benefits and potential risks of exercise during pregnancy have gained even more attention, with a number of studies having been published after the 2002 American College of Obstetrics and Gynecologists guidelines. A review of the literature was conducted by using PubMed, Scopus, and Embase to assess the literature regarding the benefits of exercise during pregnancy. The search revealed 219 publications, which the authors then narrowed to 125 publications. The purpose of this review is to briefly summarize the known benefits of exercise to the mother, fetus, and newborn.

  13. Health benefits of Moringa oleifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal; Ibrahim, Muhammad Din; Kntayya, Saie Brindha

    2014-01-01

    Phytomedicines are believed to have benefits over conventional drugs and are regaining interest in current research. Moringa oleifera is a multi-purpose herbal plant used as human food and an alternative for medicinal purposes worldwide. It has been identified by researchers as a plant with numerous health benefits including nutritional and medicinal advantages. Moringa oleifera contains essential amino acids, carotenoids in leaves, and components with nutraceutical properties, supporting the idea of using this plant as a nutritional supplement or constituent in food preparation. Some nutritional evaluation has been carried out in leaves and stem. An important factor that accounts for the medicinal uses of Moringa oleifera is its very wide range of vital antioxidants, antibiotics and nutrients including vitamins and minerals. Almost all parts from Moringa can be used as a source for nutrition with other useful values. This mini-review elaborate on details its health benefits.

  14. 31 CFR 29.344 - Survivor benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Survivor benefits. 29.344 Section 29... Benefit Payments § 29.344 Survivor benefits. (a) The general rule that Federal Benefit Payments are... months of total service at retirement (for elected survivor benefits) or death (for...

  15. Teleworking in South Africa: Employee benefits and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Baard

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Virtual working arrangements present possible benefits to organisations and their employees. However, in South Africa, few organisations have implemented teleworking as a specific form of virtual work. The benefits and challenges to teleworkers are therefore largely unknown.Research purpose: The present study aimed to identify employee perceptions of personal benefits and challenges of teleworking.Motivation for the study: The study sought to contribute insights for South African business practice in this under-researched field.Research design, approach and method: This exploratory study collected primary data through the distribution of an electronic questionnaire to 94 employees at three South African organisations, with a 67% response rate. The survey included both closed and open-ended questions that were analysed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques.Main findings: Most of the internationally identified benefits of teleworking were supported by participants, such as improved productivity, increased job satisfaction and organisational loyalty, decreased stress and improved work-life balance. Challenges identified included an increase in working hours and the lack of availability of training opportunities.Practical/managerial implications: The possible employee benefits and challenges of teleworking may assist organisations in devising teleworking practices and procedures that leverage benefits and address challenges inherent in this form of work practice.Contribution/value add: The study aims to supplement the dearth of knowledge about teleworking, specifically in the South African context, to assist organisations practically in their development of this form of virtual work arrangement for the benefit of organisations and their employees.

  16. Work and Family Balance Among Icelandic Employees with Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnardottir, Audur Arna; Hreinsson, Sturla; Sigurjonsson, Olaf

    Work-family balance is one of the major organizational challenges of the 21st century. Extensive research has been conducted that assesses wf-balance from the conflict standpoint, but in recent years, benefits, resulting from simultaneous participation in the work and family role, have gained...... increased interest. This research literature is much less developed and scholars have called for more international studies that simultaneously look at the positive and negative sides of the work-family interface. This study answers to that call and assesses work and family conflict and enrichment from...... the standpoint of Icelandic working fathers and mothers, who had taken parental leave in previous 6 years. Total of 1300 participants, 53% male, mean age 35 years (4.9 SD), 98% were married/cohabiting, and 79% worked full time. Multiple hierarchical regression showed that Icelandic fathers experience more...

  17. Sesquiterpenoids Lactones: Benefits to Plants and People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Wagstaff

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sesquiterpenoids, and specifically sesquiterpene lactones from Asteraceae, may play a highly significant role in human health, both as part of a balanced diet and as pharmaceutical agents, due to their potential for the treatment of cardiovascular disease and cancer. This review highlights the role of sesquiterpene lactones endogenously in the plants that produce them, and explores mechanisms by which they interact in animal and human consumers of these plants. Several mechanisms are proposed for the reduction of inflammation and tumorigenesis at potentially achievable levels in humans. Plants can be classified by their specific array of produced sesquiterpene lactones, showing high levels of translational control. Studies of folk medicines implicate sesquiterpene lactones as the active ingredient in many treatments for other ailments such as diarrhea, burns, influenza, and neurodegradation. In addition to the anti-inflammatory response, sesquiterpene lactones have been found to sensitize tumor cells to conventional drug treatments. This review explores the varied ecological roles of sesquiterpenes in the plant producer, depending upon the plant and the compound. These include allelopathy with other plants, insects, and microbes, thereby causing behavioural or developmental modification to these secondary organisms to the benefit of the sesquiterpenoid producer. Some sesquiterpenoid lactones are antimicrobial, disrupting the cell wall of fungi and invasive bacteria, whereas others protect the plant from environmental stresses that would otherwise cause oxidative damage. Many of the compounds are effective due to their bitter flavor, which has obvious implications for human consumers. The implications of sesquiterpenoid lactone qualities for future crop production are discussed.

  18. Processes governing the mass balance of Chhota Shigri Glacier (Western Himalaya, India assessed by point-scale surface energy balance measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Azam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies revealed that Himalayan glaciers have been shrinking at an accelerated rate since the beginning of the 21st century. However the climatic causes for this shrinkage remain unclear given that surface energy balance studies are almost nonexistent in this region. In this study, a point-scale surface energy balance analysis was performed using in-situ meteorological data from the ablation zone of Chhota Shigri Glacier over two separate periods (August 2012 to February 2013 and July to October 2013 in order to understand the response of mass balance to climate change. Energy balance numerical modeling provides quantification of the surface energy fluxes and identification of the factors affecting glacier mass balance. The computed ablation was validated by stake observations. During summer-monsoon period, net radiation was the primary component of the surface energy balance with 82% of the total heat flux which was complimented with turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes with a share of 13% and 5%, respectively. A striking feature of energy balance is the positive turbulent latent heat flux, thus condensation or re-sublimation of moist air at the glacier surface takes place, during summer-monsoon period which is characterized by relatively high air temperature, high relative humidity and almost permanent melting surface. The impact of Indian summer monsoon on Chhota Shigri Glacier mass balance has also been assessed. This analysis demonstrates that the intensity of snowfall events during the summer-monsoon season plays a key role on surface albedo, in turn on melting, and thus is among the most important drivers controlling the annual mass balance of the glacier. Summer-monsoon air temperature, controlling the precipitation phase (rain vs. snow and thus albedo, counts, indirectly, also among the most important drivers for the glacier mass balance.

  19. Small Benefit from Country Size

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuto Masuda

    2010-01-01

    Furceri and Karras(2007, 2008) insisted that smaller countries are subject to more volatile business cycles than larger countries and country size really matters using international data from 1960 to 2000. They measure country size with population size. In this paper, we calculate welfare benefit from the less volatile busine! ss cycle, that is the positive effect of country size in Japan, US and OECD average. For calculating welfare benefit, we use “Welfare Cost of Business Cycle†approac...

  20. Information Portal Costs and Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena BATAGAN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available All transformations of our society are the product of the large use of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT and Internet. ICT are technologies which facilitate communication, processing, and transmission of information by electronic means. It is very important to use the new technologies to the correct value because this determinate an increase of global benefits. Portal provides a consistent way to select, evaluate, prioritize and plan the right information. In research we point the important costs and benefits for an informational portal. The portal for local administrative determinate for citizens the access to information of interest and on the other hand make easier for employer to manage the documents.

  1. Radiation protection

    CERN Multimedia

    Radioactive Shipping Service

    2005-01-01

    The section of the radiation protection group in charge of shipping radioactive material would like to remind users that all radioactive material leaving CERN must be checked for radioactivity and must be shipped according to the procedure given at http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Do not hesitate to contact us for any question or control. Radioactive Shipping Service: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Tél. 73171

  2. Radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    The section of the Radiation Protection Group in charge of shipping radioactive material would like to remind users that all radioactive material leaving CERN must be checked for radioactivity and must be shipped according to the procedure given at http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Do not hesitate to contact us for any question or control. Radioactive Shipping Service: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Tel. 73171

  3. Radiation protection

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The section of the Radiation Protection Group in charge of shipping radioactive material would like to remind users that all radioactive material leaving CERN must be checked for radioactivity and must be shipped according to the procedure given at http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Do not hesitate to contact us for any question or control. Radioactive Shipping Service: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Tél. 73171

  4. Radiatively Generated $\

    CERN Document Server

    Joshipura, A S; Joshipura, Anjan S.; Rindani, Saurabh D.

    2003-01-01

    We study the consequences of assuming that the mass scale $\\Delta_{odot}$ corresponding to the solar neutrino oscillations and mixing angle $U_{e3}$ corresponding to the electron neutrino oscillation at CHOOZ are radiatively generated through the standard electroweak gauge interactions. All the leptonic mass matrices having zero $\\Delta_{odot}$ and $U_{e3}$ at a high scale lead to a unique low energy value for the $\\Delta_{odot}$ which is determined by the (known) size of the radiative corrections, solar and the atmospheric mixing angle and the Majorana mass of the neutrino observed in neutrinoless double beta decay. This prediction leads to the following consequences: ($i$) The MSSM radiative corrections generate only the dark side of the solar neutrino solutions. ($ii$) The inverted mass hierarchy ($m,-m,0$) at the high scale fails in generating the LMA solution but it can lead to the LOW or vacuum solutions. ($iii$) The $\\Delta_{odot}$ generated in models with maximal solar mixing at a high scale is zero t...

  5. Universally Balanced Combinatorial Optimization Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotie Deng

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article surveys studies on universally balanced properties of cooperative games defined in a succinct form. In particular, we focus on combinatorial optimization games in which the values to coalitions are defined through linear optimization programs, possibly combinatorial, that is subject to integer constraints. In economic settings, the integer requirement reflects some forms of indivisibility. We are interested in the classes of games that guarantee a non-empty core no matter what are the admissible values assigned to the parameters defining these programs. We call such classes universally balanced. We present characterization and complexity results on the universally balancedness property for some classes of interesting combinatorial optimization games. In particular, we focus on the algorithmic properties for identifying universally balancedness for the games under discussion.

  6. Chest radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - chest - discharge; Cancer - chest radiation; Lymphoma - chest radiation ... When you have radiation treatment for cancer, your body goes through changes. About 2 weeks after your first treatment: It may be hard ...

  7. Risk Factors: Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation of certain wavelengths, called ionizing radiation, has enough energy to damage DNA and cause cancer. Ionizing radiation includes radon, x-rays, gamma rays, and other forms of high-energy radiation.

  8. Acute Radiation Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Matters Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS): A Fact Sheet for the Public ... is called the radiation dose. People exposed to radiation will get ARS only if: The radiation dose ...

  9. Radiation Engineering for Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    This tutorial provides an overview of the natural space radiation environment, an introduction to radiation effect types, an overview of EEE parts selection, scrubbing, and radiation mitigation, and an introduction to radiation testing.

  10. Thermostatic Radiator Valve Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, J. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Ansanelli, E. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A large stock of multifamily buildings in the Northeast and Midwest are heated by steam distribution systems. Losses from these systems are typically high and a significant number of apartments are overheated much of the time. Thermostatically controlled radiator valves (TRVs) are one potential strategy to combat this problem, but have not been widely accepted by the residential retrofit market. In this project, the ARIES team sought to better understand the current usage of TRVs by key market players in steam and hot water heating and to conduct limited experiments on the effectiveness of new and old TRVs as a means of controlling space temperatures and reducing heating fuel consumption. The project included a survey of industry professionals, a field experiment comparing old and new TRVs, and cost-benefit modeling analysis using BEopt™ (Building Energy Optimization software).

  11. Balance of International Payments Matters!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ For decades, China's export-oriented economic growth pattern has been constantly criticized as the culprit that destroys the world economic balance. Especially,at a time when the most serious economic crisis ever since the Great Depression is about to end, outcries from economically developed countries that China should do more to rebalance global economy have frequently made the headlines of various media coverage.

  12. Energy balance in motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziubńiski, M.; Drozd, A.; Adamiec, M.; Siemionek, E.

    2016-09-01

    This paper present the concept of testing energy balance. The test was conducted on the test bench equipped with the alternator, battery and standard mounted current receivers. The course of measurements consisted in recording the indications of three ammeters and a tachometer. On the basis of the recorded current values, it was possible to determine: energy received from the battery, consumed by the receivers and the energy drawn from the alternator.

  13. Balanced metrics on Hartogs domains

    CERN Document Server

    Loi, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    An n-dimensional strictly pseudoconvex Hartogs domain $D_F$ can be equipped with a natural Kaehler metric g_F. In this paper we prove that if m_0g_F is balanced for a given positive integer m_0 then m_0>n and (D_F, g_F) is holomorphically isometric to an open subset of the n-dimensional complex hyperbolic space.

  14. Balanced input-output assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawronski, W.; Hadaegh, F. Y.

    1989-01-01

    Actuator/sensor locations and balanced representations of linear systems are considered for a given set of controllability and observability grammians. The case of equally controlled and observed states is given special attention. The assignability of grammians is examined, and the conditions for their existence are presented, along with several algorithms for their determination. Although an arbitrary positive semidefinite matrix is not always assignable, the identity grammian is shown to be always assignable. The results are extended to the case of flexible structures.

  15. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C.

    2016-01-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an “ensemble averaging” procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325

  16. Radiation reaction and energy-momentum conservation

    CERN Document Server

    Gal'tsov, Dmitri

    2011-01-01

    We discuss subtle points of the momentum balance for radiating particles in flat and curved space-time. An instantaneous balance is obscured by the presence of the Schott term which is a finite part of the bound field momentum. To establish the balance one has to take into account the initial and final conditions for acceleration, or to apply averaging. In curved space-time an additional contribution arises from the tidal deformation of the bound field. This force is shown to be the finite remnant from the mass renormalization and it is different both form the radiation recoil force and the Schott force. For radiation of non-gravitational nature from point particles in curved space-time the reaction force can be computed substituting the retarded field directly to the equations of motion. Similar procedure is applicable to gravitational radiation in vacuum space-time, but fails in the non-vacuum case. The existence of the gravitational quasilocal reaction force in this general case seems implausible, though i...

  17. Work Disability Benefits? Depends on the Doc

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163275.html Work Disability Benefits? Depends on the Doc International study found ... widely varying opinions about whether claimants for work disability benefits should get those benefits, researchers report. After ...

  18. Operational Safety Performance Indicators and Balanced Scorecard in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jong-Sup; Jung, Hoan-Sung; Ahn, Guk-Hoon; Lee, Kye-Hong; Lim, In-Cheol; Kim, Hark-Rho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Research reactors need an extensive basis for ensuring their safety. The importance of a safety management in nuclear facilities and activities has been emphasized. The safety activities in HANARO have been continuously conducted to enhance its safe operation. Last year, HANARO prepared two indicator sets to measure and assess the safety status of the reactor's operation and utilization. One is Safety Performance Indicators (SPI) and the other is Balanced Scorecard (BSC). Through reviewing these indicators, we can obtain the following information; - Plant safety status - Safety parameter trends - Safety information, for example, reactor operation status and radiation safety HANARO will continuously pursue the trends of SPI and BSC.

  19. Thermal balance of the jet in the microquasar SS433

    CERN Document Server

    Bisnovatyi-Kogan, Gennady S

    2012-01-01

    Thermal balance of the jet in the source SS433 is considered with account of radiative and adiabatic cooling, and different heating mechanisms. We consider jet heating by the inverse Compton effect of coronal hard X-ray quanta on jet electrons, the influence of shock wave propagation along the jet, and jet kinetic energy transformation into heat via Coulomb collisions of jet and corona protons. The most important heating mechanism for the source SS433 turns out to be Coulomb collisions of jet particles with the surrounding medium.

  20. Global application of a surface mass balance model using gridded climate data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Giesen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Global applications of surface mass balance models have large uncertainties, as a result of poor climate input data and limited availability of mass balance measurements. This study addresses several possible consequences of these limitations for the modelled mass balance. This is done by applying a simple surface mass balance model that only requires air temperature and precipitation as input data, to glaciers in different regions. In contrast to other models used in global applications, this model separately calculates the contributions of net solar radiation and the temperature-dependent fluxes to the energy balance. We derive a relation for these temperature-dependent fluxes using automatic weather station (AWS measurements from glaciers in different climates. With local, hourly input data, the model is well able to simulate the observed seasonal variations in the surface energy and mass balance at the AWS sites. Replacing the hourly local data by monthly gridded climate data removes summer snowfall and winter melt events and hence influences the modelled mass balance most on locations with a small seasonal temperature cycle. Representative values for the multiplication factor and vertical gradient of precipitation are determined by fitting modelled winter mass balance profiles to observations on 80 glaciers in different regions. For 72 of the 80 glaciers, the precipitation provided by the climate data set has to be multiplied with a factor above unity; the median factor is 2.55. The vertical precipitation gradient ranges from negative to positive values, with more positive values for maritime glaciers and a median value of 1.5 mm a−1 m. With calibrated precipitation, the modelled annual mass balance gradient closely resembles the observations on the 80 glaciers, the absolute values are matched by adjusting either the incoming solar radiation, the temperature-dependent flux or the air temperature. The mass balance sensitivity to

  1. Efficacy of virtual reality-based balance training versus the Biodex balance system training on the body balance of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Manal S; Mattar, Ayman G; Elhafez, Salam M

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated efficacy of virtual reality (VR)-based balance training on enhancing balance and postural reactions of adults as a low-cost new modality compared to the established Biodex Balance System (BBS). [Subjects] Thirty normal adults of both genders were divided randomly into two equal-sized experimental groups of 15: BBS balance training and VR balance training. [Methods] The training programmes were conducted in 12 sessions, three 15-min sessions per week. The Nintendo(®) Wii Fit Plus (NWFP) and its balance board were used to train of the VR group. Each participant answered a questionnaire concerning usability, enjoyment, balance improvement, and fatigue at the end of the training programs. [Results] The study found a significant increase the measure of mean overall balance (OLB) in both groups. No significant difference was found between the groups, but a significant decrease in the mean balance-test time was found for both groups, with no significant difference between the two training methods. The VR programme was rated highly enjoyable by 81.8% of the group. [Conclusion] The Wii Fit Plus system with the balance board as a new VR balance-training technique, can be considered an effective and enjoyable tool for the training of adults' body balance.

  2. The Benefits of Watching Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Paul

    The unfounded and sometimes absurd attacks on television have tended to obscure many of the medium's obvious personal, social, and aesthetic benefits. It is easy to watch, and if its content does not always provide viewers with much to think about, television does not ask much of them either: they may eat, sleep, and unwind in front of it,…

  3. Perceived benefits from enterprise architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plessius, Henk; Steenbergen, Marlies van; Slot, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Enterprise Architecture has been developed in order to optimize the alignment between business needs and the (rapidly changing) possibilities of information technology. But do organizations indeed benefit from the application of Enterprise Architecture according to those who are in any way involved

  4. Cost Benefit Studies. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Arthur; Marson, Arthur A.

    This document applies Dr. Mehar Aurora's method for conducting cost benefit studies to the Food Manufacturing Technology-Dairy and the Food Manufacturing Technology-Canning and Freezing programs offered by the Moraine Park Technical Institute. Costs to individual students enrolled in the programs include tuition, fees, housing, travel, books,…

  5. Benefits of ecological engineering practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brüll, A.; Van Bohemen, H.; Costanza, R.; Mitsch, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    With the intention to further promote the field of ecological engineering and the solutions it provides, a workshop on “Benefits of Ecological Engineering Practices” was held 3 Dec 2009. It was conducted by the International Ecological Engineering Society in Paris at the conference “Ecological Engin

  6. Benefits Realization from Information Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ashurst, Dr Colin

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on the author's recent and ongoing research this book explores how to build the organizational capability to realise the strategic potential of information technology. It tackles the gap between theory and practice and how to gain wider adoption of successful socio-technical and benefits-driven approaches to investments in IT.

  7. Nuclear Energy: Benefits Versus Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Walter H.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the benefits as well as the risks of nuclear-power plants. Suggests that critics who dwell on the risks to the public from nuclear-power plants should compare these risks with the present hazards that would be eliminated. Bibliography. (LC)

  8. Cultural cognition of the risks and benefits of nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Dan M.; Braman, Donald; Slovic, Paul; Gastil, John; Cohen, Geoffrey

    2009-02-01

    How is public opinion towards nanotechnology likely to evolve? The `familiarity hypothesis' holds that support for nanotechnology will likely grow as awareness of it expands. The basis of this conjecture is opinion polling, which finds that few members of the public claim to know much about nanotechnology, but that those who say they do are substantially more likely to believe its benefits outweigh its risks. Some researchers, however, have avoided endorsing the familiarity hypothesis, stressing that cognitive heuristics and biases could create anxiety as the public learns more about this novel science. We conducted an experimental study aimed at determining how members of the public would react to balanced information about nanotechnology risks and benefits. Finding no support for the familiarity hypothesis, the study instead yielded strong evidence that public attitudes are likely to be shaped by psychological dynamics associated with cultural cognition.

  9. 76 FR 65769 - Airport Improvement Program: Modifications to Benefit Cost Analysis (BCA) Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... still applies. In reevaluating this balance, the FAA compared current construction costs with costs from... make it difficult to assess changes in costs per work unit. The FAA lacks the resources to compile and... planning processes to sufficiently study and analyze the capacity benefits of a project instead...

  10. Towards balanced development in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatt, G

    1992-01-01

    Pakistan is a country whose economic growth is surprising in light of its social indicators. The aim of this article is to examine why conditions are such and to develop a framework for understanding the issues as an aid to redesigning policies. 5 sections are devoted to a summary of the main findings, the diagnosis of development and the impact on social sectors, a proposal for balanced development, and implications for policy changes. A sound macro economic context is needed with reforms economically in price and incentive systems, institutionally, and in the law and order sector. Public administration needs to be improved and individual opportunities need to be expanded. Internal security needs to be secured, so that law and order are restored. Economic growth has been high between 1960 and 1988, due to exploitation of natural resources and cheap unskilled labor, expansion of irrigated land, and growth of the unregulated informal sector. The major constraints on economic growth will come from a lack of fiscal discipline. 40% of government revenues are consumed by the military and 20% for servicing debt. Other constraints are the population growth rate in excess of 3%/year, an urban bias in allocation of resources, neglected primary education, and gender bias in education. There has been little incentive for provincial governments to balance budgets, and civil service has become disorganized. Balanced development entails recognizing human capital, natural resources, and infrastructure; accepting the status quo; and creating and maintaining an institutional framework to correct market failures and promote individual opportunities. The environmental polluter must pay. Income must be increased through higher wages, increasing the demand for labor, and transfers to households in the form of food rations, schooling, and medical care. Investment in women will increase household earnings, and improve living conditions and the health of themselves and their children

  11. Time-asymmetric fluctuations of light and the breakdown of detailed balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, A; Castro-Beltran, H M; Carmichael, H J

    2002-06-17

    Temporal fluctuations of the light radiated by a photoemissive source are studied through the cross correlation of output fields. Whereas microscopic reversibility guarantees time-symmetric fluctuations in thermal equilibrium--where detailed balance holds--away from equilibrium time asymmetry is permitted. Examples of time asymmetry in cavity QED are reported.

  12. Surface energy balance, melt and sublimation at Neumayer Station, East Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broeke, M.R.; König-Langlo, G.; Picard, G.; Kuipers Munneke, P.; Lenaerts, J.T.M.

    2009-01-01

    A surface energy balance model is forced by 13 years of high-quality hourly observations from the Antarctic coastal station Neumayer. The model accurately reproduces observed surface temperatures. Surface sublimation is significant in summer, when absorbed solar radiation heats the surface. Includin

  13. Balancing competition for resources with multiple pest regulation in diversified agroecosystems: a process-based approach to reconcile diversification and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeydebat, Charlotte; Carval, Dominique; de Lapeyre de Bellaire, Luc; Tixier, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    Agroecosystem plant diversification can enhance pest biological regulation and is a promising alternative to pesticide application. However, the costs of competition for resources between plants may exceed the benefits gained by pest regulation. To disentangle the interactions between pest regulation and competition, we developed a generic process-based approach that accounts for the effects of an associated plant and leaf and root pests on biomass production. We considered three crop-plant associations that differ in competition profiles, and we simulated biomass production under wide ranges of both pest regulation rates and resources' availability. We analyzed outputs to quantify the pest regulation service level that would be required to attain monoculture yield and other production goals. Results showed that pest regulation requirements were highly dependent on the profile of resource interception of the associated plant and on resources' availability. Pest regulation and the magnitude of competition between plants interacted in determining the balance between nitrogen and radiation uptake by the crop. Our findings suggest that productivity of diversified agroecosystems relative to monoculture should be optimized by assembling plants whose characteristics balance crops' resource acquisition. The theoretical insights from our study draw generic rules for vegetation assemblage to optimize trade-offs between pest regulation and production. Our findings and approach may have implications in understanding, theorizing and implementing agroecosystem diversification. By its generic and adaptable structure, our approach should be useful for studying the effects of diversification in many agroecosystems.

  14. Usability and Effects of an Exergame-Based Balance Training Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wüest, S.; Borghese, N.A.; Pirovano, M.; Mainetti, R.; van de Langenberg, R.; de Bruin, E.D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Post-stroke recovery benefits from structured, intense, challenging, and repetitive therapy. Exergames have emerged as promising to achieve sustained therapy practice and patient motivation. This study assessed the usability and effects of exergames on balance and gait. Subjects and Meth

  15. 5 CFR 843.211 - Determining when children prevent payment of the unexpended balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining when children prevent payment of the unexpended balance. 843.211 Section 843.211 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS One-time Payments § 843.211 Determining when children prevent payment of...

  16. Jacks-of-all-trades? The effect of balanced skills on team performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosendahl Huber, L.; Sloof, R.; van Praag, M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous empirical studies have shown that solo entrepreneurs benefit from having balanced skills: Jacks-of-All-Trades (JATs) are better entrepreneurs than specialists are. Nowadays however, the majority of entrepreneurs start up and run ventures together in teams. In this paper we test whether the

  17. Ecological economic benefit in sustainable development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Xuemin; Ren Long

    2006-01-01

    From the concept of ecological economic benefit, I put forward the general formula for the benefit of ecological economy and the appraisal methods of the ecological economy, Theory on ecological benefit and economic benefit is the base of the benefits of ecological economy To some extent, the development of ecological economy, theory and practice on eco-agriculture are both the production made from opposition and unify of ecological benefit and economic benefit. This paper discusses the "T" type structure, which will give the theoretical bases for enhancing the ecological and economical benefits.

  18. An evaluation of early countermeasures to reduce the risk of internal radiation exposure after the Fukushima nuclear incident in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shuhei; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Gilmour, Stuart; Hayano, Ryugo S; Watanabe, Yuni N; Kami, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Yukio; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi

    2016-05-01

    After a radiation-release incident, intake of radionuclides in the initial stage immediately following the incident may be the major contributor to total internal radiation exposure for individuals in affected areas. However, evaluation of early internal contamination risk is greatly lacking. This study assessed the relationship between initial stage evacuation/indoor sheltering and internal radiation contamination levels 4 months after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear incident in Japan and estimated potential pathways of the contamination. The study population comprised 525 participants in the internal radiation screening program at Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital, 23 km north of the Fukushima nuclear plant. The analysed dataset included the results of a screening performed in July 2011, 4 months after the incident, and of a questionnaire on early-incident response behaviours, such as sheltering indoors and evacuations, completed by participants. Association between such early countermeasures and internal contamination levels of cesium-134 were assessed using Tobit multiple regression analyses. Our study shows that individuals who evacuated to areas outside Fukushima Prefecture had similar contamination levels of cesium-134 to individuals who stayed in Fukushima (relative risk: 0.86; 95% confidence interval: 0.74-0.99). Time spent outdoors had no significant relationship with contamination levels. The effects of inhalation from radiological plumes released from the nuclear plant on total internal radiation contamination might be so low as to be undetectable by the whole-body counting unit used to examine participants. Given the apparent limited effectiveness of evacuation and indoor sheltering on internal contamination, the decision to implement such early responses to a radiation-release incident should be made by carefully balancing their potential benefits and health risks.

  19. Leadership and Work-Life Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattock, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Simply stated, work-life balance is something that is both difficult to define and difficult to achieve. Leaders, throughout the continuum of trauma care, need to have a sound understanding of what work-life balance means and set an example of a healthy work-life balance for those they lead. This article offers strategies for enhancing work-life balance and challenges individuals to use self-reflection as a means to furthering their personal and professional growth.

  20. Accounting the Events after the Balance Date

    OpenAIRE

    Ilincuţă Lucian-Dorel; Mareş Marius-Daniel; Mareş Valerica

    2014-01-01

    The events after the balance date are those events, favorable and unfavorable, that occur between the balance date (the end of the reporting period) and the date at which the annual financial statements are authorized for issue by the executive management of the entity (e.g. Board of Directors). We identify two types of events: events after the balance date, which lead to financial statements adjusting and events after the balance date, which do not lead to financ...

  1. Flux balance analysis accounting for metabolite dilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyamini, Tomer; Folger, Ori; Ruppin, Eytan; Shlomi, Tomer

    2010-01-01

    Flux balance analysis is a common method for predicting steady-state flux distributions within metabolic networks, accounting for the growth demand for the synthesis of a predefined set of essential biomass precursors. Ignoring the growth demand for the synthesis of intermediate metabolites required for balancing their dilution leads flux balance analysis to false predictions in some cases. Here, we present metabolite dilution flux balance analysis, which addresses this problem, resulting in improved metabolic phenotype predictions.

  2. Thermal effects in radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1984-10-21

    The balance of ionizing radiation energy incident on an object being processed is discussed in terms of energy losses, influencing the amount really absorbed. To obtain the amount of heat produced, the absorbed energy is corrected for the change in internal energy of the system and for the heat effect of secondary reactions developing after the initiation. The temperature of a processed object results from the heat evolved and from the specific heat of the material comprising the object. The specific heat of most materials is usually much lower than that of aqueous systems and therefore temperatures after irradiation are higher. The role of low specific heat in radiation processing at cryogenic conditions is stressed. Adiabatic conditions of accelerator irradiation are contrasted with the steady state thermal conditions prevailing in large gamma sources. Among specific questions discussed in the last part of the paper are: intermediate and final temperature of composite materials, measurement of real thermal effects in situ, neutralization of undesired warming experienced during radiation processing, processing at temperatures other than ambient and administration of very high doses of radiation.

  3. [Diurnal and seasonal variations of energy balance over Horqin meadow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-dong; Guan, De-Xin; Yuan, Feng-Hui; Ren, Yan; Wang, An-Zhi; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wu, Jia-Bing

    2014-01-01

    Based on the measurements of eddy flux and micrometeorological factors, this paper analyzed the diurnal and seasonal variations of energy balance over Horqin meadow. The results showed that annual energy balance ratio (EBR) of the eddy covariance system was 0.77, and EBR was biggest in growing season, middle in bare soil period and smallest in snow-covered period. Diurnal variations of energy components all presented bell-shaped curves. The peak of net radiation appeared around 12:00 and peaks of other components slightly lagged. Seasonal variation of net radiation presented a single-peak curve, and the annual average was 5.71 MJ x m(-2) x d(-1). Seasonal variation of latent heat flux was similar to that of net radiation, and the annual average was 2.84 MJ x m(-2) x d(-1). Seasonal variation of sensible heat flux presented a double-peak curve, and the peaks appeared in April and September, respectively. Annual averaged sensible heat flux was 1.87 MJ x m(-2) x d(-1). Maximum soil heat flux (3.47 MJ x m(-2) x d(-1)) appeared in April, and the soil heat flux became negative after September. Annual budget ratios of energy components presented a decreasing order of latent heat flux, sensible heat flux and soil heat flux, which accounted for 49.8%, 35.8% and 3.1% of net radiation, respectively. Seasonal variation of Bowen ratio (beta) presented a 'U' shape, and the annual average was 1.61. beta was small (0.18) and relatively stable in growing season, while it was large (2.39) and fluctuated severely in non-growing season.

  4. Balancing of Lossless and Passive Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, Arjan van der

    2008-01-01

    Different balancing techniques are applied to lossless nonlinear systems, with open-loop balancing applied to their scattering representation. It is shown that they all lead to the same result: the pair of to-be-balanced functions is given by two copies of the physical energy function, yielding thus

  5. Static balance and developmental coordination disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuze, RH

    2003-01-01

    The development of static balance is a basic characteristic of normal motor development. Most of the developmental motor tests include a measure of static balance. Children with a developmental coordination disorder (DCD) often fail this item. Twenty-four children at risk for DCD with balance proble

  6. Monte Carlo methods beyond detailed balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, Raoul D.; Barkema, Gerard T.

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo algorithms are nearly always based on the concept of detailed balance and ergodicity. In this paper we focus on algorithms that do not satisfy detailed balance. We introduce a general method for designing non-detailed balance algorithms, starting from a conventional algorithm satisfying

  7. Systematic approach to balanced control technology management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Vorobjev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Articulated understanding of important systemic controls that exist in the modern world. Identify and describe the key success factors of a balanced management of organizational change. Proposed register of compliance balanced scorecard target values and objectives of balanced management of industrial organizations.

  8. Balanced binary trees in the Tamari lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Giraudo, Samuele

    2010-01-01

    We show that the set of balanced binary trees is closed by interval in the Tamari lattice. We establish that the intervals [T0, T1] where T0 and T1 are balanced trees are isomorphic as posets to a hypercube. We introduce tree patterns and synchronous grammars to get a functional equation of the generating series enumerating balanced tree intervals.

  9. Late effects of ionizing radiation on testis; Effets tardifs des radiations ionisantes sur le testicules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardet, E. [Centre Regional de Lutte Contre le Cancer Rene-Gauducheau, 44 - Nantes (France)

    1997-12-01

    Most of the basic data regarding the effect of radiation on the testis are issued from animal studies. They demonstrate the extreme radiosensitivity on the germ cell lineage but little is known about the reversible or definitive aspects of these radiation induced effects. In man, the late non stochastic effects of radiation to the testicle are mainly related to persisting spermatogenesis disturbances or/and hormone related problems. Morphological, physiological, radiobiological specificities of the human testis along with numerous parameters depending on radiation conditions make it difficult to evaluate the late effects and radiation tolerance doses. Evaluation of such effects based on a common scale for therapeutic radiation schedules would improve the present understanding and possibility prevent the occurrence of these delayed effects, for the benefit of patients. (author)

  10. 29 CFR 1625.10 - Costs and benefits under employee benefit plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... term life insurance coverage for older workers, on the basis of age. However, a benefit-by-benefit... unreduced group term life insurance benefits until age 60, benefits for employees who are between 60 and 65... not be justified under a benefit-by-benefit analysis. However, it is not unlawful for life......

  11. Radiation Hardness Assurance (RHA) for Small Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campola, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Varied mission life and complexity is growing for small spacecraft. Small missions benefit from detailed hazard definition and evaluation as done in the past. Requirements need to flow from the system down to the parts level and aid system level radiation tolerance. RHA is highlighted with increasing COTS usage.

  12. Classification and treatment of radiation maculopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horgan, Noel

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Radiation maculopathy is a sight-limiting consequence of radiotherapy in the management of uveal melanoma and other intraocular tumors. In this review, we consider clinical, fluorescein angiographic and optical coherence tomographic findings, propose a classification for radiation maculopathy and discuss the management of this condition. RECENT FINDINGS: Radiation macular edema (RME) can be classified by optical coherence tomography into noncystoid or cystoid edema, with foveolar or extrafoveolar involvement. Optical coherence tomographic grading of RME has been found to correlate with visual acuity. Focal argon laser might have some limited benefit in the treatment of RME. Intravitreal triamcinolone and intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor agents can be of short-term benefit in the treatment of RME. In a randomized controlled trial, periocular triamcinolone significantly reduced rates of RME and vision loss up to 18 months following plaque radiotherapy for uveal melanoma. SUMMARY: Currently, there is no proven treatment for established RME, though periocular triamcinolone has been shown to have a preventive benefit. An accepted classification system for radiation maculopathy would be of benefit in planning and comparing future treatment trials.

  13. Environmental benefits from reusing clothes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrant, Laura; Olsen, Stig Irving; Wangel, Arne

    2010-01-01

    clothes actually results in a decrease of the environmental burden of the life cycle of clothing. The environmental burden of clothing has been studied in several studies. However, most of these studies focus solely on the energy consumption aspects and pay little attention to the potential benefits...... of diverting used clothing from the waste stream. The aim of the study was to assess the net environmental benefits brought by the disposal of used clothing through charities who return them for second-hand sales assuming that second hand clothes (SHC) to some extent replace the purchase of new clothes...... and reliability of the results obtained in the current study. Such a further work could include the possible difference in the lifetime of second-hand clothes compared to new clothes....

  14. The paradox of cooperation benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, A; Takács, K

    2010-05-21

    It seems obvious that as the benefits of cooperation increase, the share of cooperators in the population should also increase. It is well known that positive assortment between cooperative types, for instance in spatially structured populations, provide better conditions for the evolution of cooperation than complete mixing. This study demonstrates that, assuming positive assortment, under most conditions higher cooperation benefits also increase the share of cooperators. On the other hand, under a specified range of payoff values, when at least two payoff parameters are modified, the reverse is true. The conditions for this paradox are determined for two-person social dilemmas: the Prisoner's Dilemma, the Hawks and Doves game, and the Stag Hunt game, assuming global selection and positive assortment.

  15. When Measurement Benefits the Measured

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-23

    5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Carnegie Mellon University ,Software Engineering Institute,Pittsburgh,PA...15213 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR...versionone.com/assets/ img /files/CHAOSManifesto2013.pdf 4 When Measurement Benefits the Measured Kasunic & Nichols, April 23, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon

  16. RFID solution benefits Cambridge hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    Keeping track of thousands of pieces of equipment in a busy hospital environment is a considerable challenge, but, according to RFID tagging and asset tracking specialist, Harland Simon, RFID technology can make the task considerably simpler. Here Andrew James, the company's RFID sales manager, describes the positive benefits the technology has brought the Medical Equipment Library (MEL) at Addenbrooke's Hospital, one of the world's most famous teaching hospitals.

  17. Benefits of ecological engineering practices

    OpenAIRE

    Brüll, A.; Van Bohemen, H.; Costanza, R.; Mitsch, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    With the intention to further promote the field of ecological engineering and the solutions it provides, a workshop on “Benefits of Ecological Engineering Practices” was held 3 Dec 2009. It was conducted by the International Ecological Engineering Society in Paris at the conference “Ecological Engineering: from Concepts to Application” organized by the Ecological Engineering Applications Group GAIE. This paper presents the results of the workshop related to three key questions: (1) what are t...

  18. Soybean Consumption And Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Neela Bolla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract soy foods are rich source of dietary protein. soy based foods are rich in a class of compounds called isoflavones. Isoflavones have chemical structure that is similar to the hormone estrogen receptors commonly called phytoestrogens. the consumption of soy isoflavones appears to result in health benefits for cancer heart disease menopausal symptoms and osteoporosis. so as a result soy protein have become major components of food.

  19. Soybean Consumption And Health Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Kusuma Neela Bolla

    2015-01-01

    Abstract soy foods are rich source of dietary protein. soy based foods are rich in a class of compounds called isoflavones. Isoflavones have chemical structure that is similar to the hormone estrogen receptors commonly called phytoestrogens. the consumption of soy isoflavones appears to result in health benefits for cancer heart disease menopausal symptoms and osteoporosis. so as a result soy protein have become major components of food.

  20. Synchronization in random balanced networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    García del Molino, Luis Carlos; Pakdaman, Khashayar; Touboul, Jonathan; Wainrib, Gilles

    2013-10-01

    Characterizing the influence of network properties on the global emerging behavior of interacting elements constitutes a central question in many areas, from physical to social sciences. In this article we study a primary model of disordered neuronal networks with excitatory-inhibitory structure and balance constraints. We show how the interplay between structure and disorder in the connectivity leads to a universal transition from trivial to synchronized stationary or periodic states. This transition cannot be explained only through the analysis of the spectral density of the connectivity matrix. We provide a low-dimensional approximation that shows the role of both the structure and disorder in the dynamics.