WorldWideScience

Sample records for balances

  1. BALANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, H.

    1953-01-01

    A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.

  2. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady or as ... fall-related injuries, such as hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  3. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  4. Informational Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Henrik Høeg

    2011-01-01

    The title of my talk is “Informational balance. Understanding Romance and Germanic Compounding in a lexico-typological perspective”. What I basically mean by informational balance is that semantic content is distributed systematically differently between nouns and verbs in the Romance and Germanic languages, and that this distribution is complementary. I shall explain that in detail in a minute, but first I shall introduce you to the problem, which I believe can be explained on the basis of t...

  5. Balancing Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Theory predicts that an egg-shaped body should rest in stable equilibrium when on its side, balance vertically in metastable equilibrium on its broad end and be completely unstable on its narrow end. A homogeneous solid egg made from wood, clay or plastic behaves in this way, but a real egg will not stand on either end. It is shown that this…

  6. Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the Public / Hearing and Balance Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation Audiologic (hearing), balance, and medical diagnostic tests help indicate whether you are a candidate for vestibular (balance) rehabilitation. Vestibular rehabilitation is an individualized balance ...

  7. Balancing Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Lene; Rossen, Camilla Blach; Buus, Niels

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how eight pregnant women diagnosed with depression managed the decision whether or not to take antidepressants during pregnancy. In total, 11 interviews were conducted and analysed by means of constructivist grounded theory. The major category constructed was Balancing risk......, with two minor categories: Assessing depression and antidepressants and Evaluating the impact of significant others. The participants tried to make the safest decision, taking all aspects of their life into consideration. They described successful decision-making in the context of managing social norms...

  8. Social Balance Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Hokky Situngkir; Deni Khanafiah

    2004-01-01

    We construct a model based on social balance theory proposed by Fritz Heider to analyze the interpersonal network among social agents. The model of social balance theory provides us an interesting tool to see how a social group evolves to the possible balance state. We introduce the balance index that can be used to measure social balance in macro structure level (global balance index) or in micro structure (local balance index) to see how the local balance index influences the global balance...

  9. Balanced Scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    Kytka, Roman

    2008-01-01

    V současnosti se podniky setkávají s řadou přístupů k řízení společností a velmi častými pojícími prvky bývají zejména náklady, efektivita a výkonnost. Z nepřeberné řady nástrojů k řízení společností určených tato práce blíže seznamuje s metodikou Balanced Scorecard (BSC), koncepčním rámcem ITIL a metodikou Cobit. Jednotlivě zde jsou představeny dílčí metodiky a rámce. Míra tohoto seznámení je úměrná potřebám práce, tzn. není cílem představit ITIL či Cobit úplně detailně. Naopak zde jsou podc...

  10. Dizziness and Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    AUDIOLOGY Dizziness and Balance Inform ation Seri es Our balance system helps us walk, run, and move ... known as nystagmus) • Complaints of vertigo or dizziness Audiology Information Series © ASHA 2015 10802 • Balance dysfunction • Difficulty ...

  11. Balance in Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The review by Black and Wiliam of national systems makes clear the complexity of assessment, and identifies important issues. One of these is "balance": balance between local and central responsibilities, balance between the weights given to various purposes of schooling, balance between weights for various functions of assessment, and balance…

  12. Human Balance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rated Nonprofit! Volunteer. Donate. Review. The Human Balance System Good balance is often taken for granted. Good ... soft, slippery, or uneven). Input from the vestibular system Sensory information about motion, equilibrium, and spatial orientation ...

  13. Balanced Scorecard voor inkoop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, van der R.; Schotanus, F.

    2003-01-01

    Een Balanced Scorecard kan ontwikkeld worden voor de hele organisatie, maar ook voor onderdelen daarvan. In dit artikel wordt ingegaan op de ontwikkeling van een Balanced Scorecard voor de inkoopafdeling

  14. Polarization-balanced beamsplitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, D.E.

    1998-02-17

    A beamsplitter assembly is disclosed that includes several beamsplitter cubes arranged to define a plurality of polarization-balanced light paths. Each polarization-balanced light path contains one or more balanced pairs of light paths, where each balanced pair of light paths includes either two transmission light paths with orthogonal polarization effects or two reflection light paths with orthogonal polarization effects. The orthogonal pairing of said transmission and reflection light paths cancels polarization effects otherwise caused by beamsplitting. 10 figs.

  15. The Balanced Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    through control or trust. Human resource specialists need to make balanced decisions about how to design tasks and jobs in order to make them attractive as well as motivating. Marketers need to make balanced decisions about how to market products in the light of what is now important in consumers...... in their environments. Communication specialists need to make balanced decisions which take the different value systems and assumptions of stakeholders into consideration. Change specialists need to balance the need for continuity and change. Managers need to make balanced decisions about whether to achieve goals......' and other stakeholder's eyes. Leaders also have to acknowledge that there are times when organizations have to be taken out of balance, since it is necessary to 'unfreeze' existing relationships in organizations during change. Therefore, there are decision and organizing processes involved in both...

  16. Cyclical budget balance measurement

    OpenAIRE

    C. AUDENIS; C. PROST

    2000-01-01

    Government balances are often adjusted for changes in economic activity in order to draw a clearer picture of the underlying fiscal situation and to use this as a guide to fiscal policy analysis. International organisations estimate the cyclical component of economic activity by the current level of the output gap. Using elasticities of tax and public expenditures to GDP, they compute the cyclical part of budget balance. The structural budget balance is defined as the remainder. Our approach ...

  17. Identifying Balance in a Balanced Scorecard System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravamudhan, Suhanya; Kamalanabhan, T. J.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, strategic management concepts seem to be gaining greater attention from the academicians and the practitioner's alike. Balanced Scorecard (BSC) concept is one such management concepts that has spread in worldwide business and consulting communities. The BSC translates mission and vision statements into a comprehensive set of…

  18. Conclusion: The balanced company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm; Jensen, Inger

    2013-01-01

    This concluding chapter brings together the various research findings of the book "The balanced company - organizing for the 21st Century" and develops a general overview of their implications for our understanding of the balancing processes unfolding in companies and organizations....

  19. Leadership: A Balancing Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining balance in leadership can be difficult because balance is affected by the personality, strengths, and attitudes of the leader as well as the complicated environment within and outside the community college itself. This article explores what being a leader at the community college means, what the threats are to effective leadership, and…

  20. Balancing Trust and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    This paper focuses on the leadership challenge of balancing trust and control. The relation between trust and control has for a long time been a puzzling issue for management researchers. In the paper I first show that there has been a dramatic change in the way the relation between trust...... and control has been conceptualized in trust research. While the relation between trust and control earlier was conceptualized as a more or less stable balance between trust and control, more recent research conceptualizes the relation between trust and control more as a dynamical process that involves...... an ongoing process of balancing the relation between trust and control. Second, taking the departure in the recent conceptualization of the balance between trust and control as an interactive process I discuss the challenges for management in handling this more subtle balancing of trust and control...

  1. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  2. Chance for balance

    OpenAIRE

    Sævild, Katariina; Skov Sørensen, Katrine; Kildahl Lauritsen, Louise; Fuglsang, Sofie Olivia; Arnbjerg, Stine Høegh

    2015-01-01

    This project investigates how (im) balance between family and career influences Danish women's desire to have children. In order to answer this question, we have chosen to use qualitative method and our analysis is based on two semi-structured research interviews with two chosen women. Thus these women’s definition of balance and their view on children define the project. We have chosen to use of work-life balance theories, Thomas Hoejrup’s lifeform-analysis and Anthony Giddens’ theories ...

  3. Balance Disorders (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... usually used on infants and young children. electronystagmogram (ENG). To assess balance, electrodes are placed around the ... videonystagmography (VNG). This test is similar to an ENG, only the child has to focus on the ...

  4. Keeping Your Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or problems with balance. Sometimes your doctor or physical therapist can reposition the crystals in your ear and ... Adherence Calcium/Vitamin D Nutrition Overall Health Fractures/Fall Prevention Exercise/Safe Movement Safe Movement & Exercise Videos ...

  5. National Energy Balance - 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Energy Balance - 1984 shows energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the productions to final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1973 to 1983. (E.G.)

  6. National Energy Balance - 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Energy Balance - 1985 shows energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the production to the final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1974 to 1984 (E.G.)

  7. Detailed balance and entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study a connection between quantum detailed balance, which is a concept of importance in statistical mechanics, and entanglement. We also explore how this connection fits into thermofield dynamics. (paper)

  8. Balance costs for windpower

    OpenAIRE

    Skaflestad, Stig

    2009-01-01

    Wind power scheduling is subject to high forecast uncertainty compared to the dominant Norwegian energy source, hydro power. The regulating market, also known as the balance market, is a market solution for optimal operation of the Nordic power system, putting a price on schedule deviations. Schedules, or production/consumption plans, are collected daily, 12 hours prior to delivery by the system operator Statnett. Wind power is especially vulnerable to balance costs due to the relatively high...

  9. Selectively Balancing Unit Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Blokhuis, Aart; Chen, Hao

    2016-01-01

    A set $U$ of unit vectors is selectively balancing if one can find two disjoint subsets $U^+$ and $U^-$, not both empty, such that the Euclidean distance between the sum of $U^+$ and the sum of $U^-$ is smaller than $1$. We prove that, to guarantee a selectively balancing set, $n \\log n$ unit vectors suffice for sufficiently large $n$, but $\\tfrac{1}{23} n \\log n$ unit vectors won't be enough for infinitely many $n$.

  10. Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeh, N.

    1984-01-01

    Mass balance equation for glaciers; areal distribution and ice volumes; estimates of actual mass balance; loss by calving of icebergs; hydrological budget for Greenland; and temporal variations of Greenland mass balance are examined.

  11. Balances instruments, manufacturers, history

    CERN Document Server

    Robens, Erich; Kiefer, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The book deals mainly with direct mass determination by means of a conventional balances. It covers the history of the balance from the beginnings in Egypt earlier than 3000 BC to recent developments. All balance types are described with emphasis on scientific balances. Methods of indirect mass determination, which are applied to very light objects like molecules and the basic particles of matter and celestial bodies, are included.  As additional guidance, today’s manufacturers are listed and the profile of important companies is reviewed. Several hundred photographs, reproductions and drawings show instruments and their uses. This book includes commercial weighing instruments for merchandise and raw materials in workshops as well as symbolic weighing in the ancient Egyptian’s ceremony of ‘Weighing of the Heart’, the Greek fate balance, the Roman  Justitia, Juno Moneta and Middle Ages scenes of the Last Judgement with Jesus or St. Michael and of modern balances. The photographs are selected from the...

  12. Watt and joule balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ian A.

    2014-04-01

    The time is fast approaching when the SI unit of mass will cease to be based on a single material artefact and will instead be based upon the defined value of a fundamental constant—the Planck constant—h . This change requires that techniques exist both to determine the appropriate value to be assigned to the constant, and to measure mass in terms of the redefined unit. It is important to ensure that these techniques are accurate and reliable to allow full advantage to be taken of the stability and universality provided by the new definition and to guarantee the continuity of the world's mass measurements, which can affect the measurement of many other quantities such as energy and force. Up to now, efforts to provide the basis for such a redefinition of the kilogram were mainly concerned with resolving the discrepancies between individual implementations of the two principal techniques: the x-ray crystal density (XRCD) method [1] and the watt and joule balance methods which are the subject of this special issue. The first three papers report results from the NRC and NIST watt balance groups and the NIM joule balance group. The result from the NRC (formerly the NPL Mk II) watt balance is the first to be reported with a relative standard uncertainty below 2 × 10-8 and the NIST result has a relative standard uncertainty below 5 × 10-8. Both results are shown in figure 1 along with some previous results; the result from the NIM group is not shown on the plot but has a relative uncertainty of 8.9 × 10-6 and is consistent with all the results shown. The Consultative Committee for Mass and Related Quantities (CCM) in its meeting in 2013 produced a resolution [2] which set out the requirements for the number, type and quality of results intended to support the redefinition of the kilogram and required that there should be agreement between them. These results from NRC, NIST and the IAC may be considered to meet these requirements and are likely to be widely debated

  13. Balanced Integrated Regulatory Oversight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor safety, protecting the public health and safety, and protecting the environment must always be the nuclear regulator's top priorities. Enabling the use of nuclear power for the benefit of society, while protecting the public and the environment requires the regulator to balance many factors. In addition, the regulator is only one part of the overall government that must consider many factors as it carries out its societal responsibilities. Some of the factors that must be balanced and the practical impacts on how the regulator carries out its responsibilities will be addressed. The first International Conference on Effective Regulatory Systems, held in Moscow, Russian Federation, in 2006, focused on safety and security challenges with a goal of improving regulatory effectiveness through cooperation and sharing of information and best practices. The challenge of meeting both safety and security objectives is one example of potentially competing programmes that must be balanced. Other balances that must be evaluated include the benefits of safety improvements compared to the cost of implementation, the use of deterministic and probabilistic approaches, communication openness balanced with the protection of information that could be used for detrimental purposes, and timeliness of regulatory decision making balanced with the need to perform quality work in support of oversight responsibilities. A balanced and integrated approach to regulatory oversight is vital to ensuring that the regulatory body remains effective in its mission to enable the use of nuclear power while protecting the public and the environment. This concept is applicable to nations beginning a nuclear programme as well as established and experienced regulatory bodies. (author)

  14. The cryogenic balance design and balance calibration methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, B.; Polanski, L.; Graewe, E.

    1992-07-01

    The current status of a program aimed at the development of a cryogenic balance for the European Transonic Wind Tunnel is reviewed. In particular, attention is given to the cryogenic balance design philosophy, mechanical balance design, reliability and accuracy, cryogenic balance calibration concept, and the concept of an automatic calibration machine. It is shown that the use of the automatic calibration machine will improve the accuracy of calibration while reducing the man power and time required for balance calibration.

  15. Finding Your Balance

    CERN Document Server

    (CCL), Center for Creative Leadership; Patterson, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Balance isn't an issue of time, but an issue of choice. It's about living your values by aligning your behavior with what you believe is really important. Aligning your behavior with your values is much like any other developmental experience; the basic process involves assessment, challenge, and support. You need to determine where you are, define where you want to go, and then put into place the tools you need to get there.Balance is about more than how you spend your time. It's about how you live your life. It's about recognizing that you have control over the choices you make and aligning

  16. Aplikace Balanced Scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroměřská, Martina

    2015-01-01

    This master's thesis deals with application of the Balanced Scorecard method to Němcova selská mlékárna Radonice, spol. s.r.o. The goal is to analyse the strategic position of the company and propose a new company strategy. Further, the strategic goals defined by the strategy are converted to a strategic map to clearly show causality relationships between the goals of the four perspectives of the Balanced Scoreboard method. The strategic goals are assigned measures and target values and initi...

  17. Yin-Yang Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    The potential contribution of the Eastern frame of Yin-Yang Balancing lies in the mindset of "either/and", in contrast to Aristotle's either/or logic and Hegel's "both/or". Implications of this either/and thinking for science and management will be explored.......The potential contribution of the Eastern frame of Yin-Yang Balancing lies in the mindset of "either/and", in contrast to Aristotle's either/or logic and Hegel's "both/or". Implications of this either/and thinking for science and management will be explored....

  18. In the balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich; Pilegaard, Jess

    The present paper seeks to make sense of recent EU naval capability changes by applying neo-realist theory on the EU as an international actor in the global balance of power. The paper compares three different strands of Neo-realist theory by deducting key predictions about the expected defense...... posture of the Union and the expected changes in naval capabilities. The predictions are subsequently held up against recent data on naval military build-up in the EU. The paper argues that the observed patterns are best explained not as bandwagoning with the United States, but as a long-term balancing...

  19. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.

    1993-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for the static load balancing of scientific computations that generalizes and improves upon spectral bisection. Through a novel use of multiple eigenvectors, our new spectral algorithm can divide a computation into 4 or 8 pieces at once. These multidimensional spectral partitioning algorithms generate balanced partitions that have lower communication overhead and are less expensive to compute than those produced by spectral bisection. In addition, they automatically work to minimize message contention on a hypercube or mesh architecture. These spectral partitions are further improved by a multidimensional generalization of the Kernighan-Lin graph partitioning algorithm. Results on several computational grids are given and compared with other popular methods.

  20. A balanced team generating model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Water, Tara; van de Water, Henny; Bukman, Cock

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a general team balancing model. It first summarizes existing balancing methods. It is shown that for these methods it is difficult to meet all the conditions posed by Belbin on balanced teams. This mainly is caused by the complexity of the balancing problem. A mathematical mode

  1. National energy balance - 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The national energy balance of 1978 shows some modifications in relation to the last year. New tables were included aiming to show the brazilian energy situation, such as the hydraulic potential and the non-renewable energy resources. (E.G.)

  2. Strategic Balanced Scorecard Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Nielsen, Erland Hejn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to show how a System Dynamics Modelling approach can be integrated into the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) for a case company with special focus on the handling of causality in a dynamic perspective. The case company’s BSC model includes five perspectives and a number...

  3. Kin Selection - Mutation Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyken, J. David Van; Linksvayer, Timothy Arnold; Wade, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    selection-mutation balance, which provides an evolutionary null hypothesis for the statics and dynamics of cheating. When social interactions have linear fitness effects and Hamilton´s rule is satisfied, selection is never strong enough to eliminate recurrent cheater mutants from a population, but cheater...

  4. Frihed, anerkendelse og balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Thomas Boysen

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen argumenterer for, at selv ikke den absolut mest familievenlige arbejdsplads vil kunne løse det psykologiske problem med at skabe balance mellem familie og arbejdsliv, fordi ubalancen grundlæggende handler om en anerkendelseskonflikt, som individet ikke altid selv er interesseret i at komme...

  5. Ballet Balance Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Camilla; Erleben, Kenny; Sporring, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Animating physically realistic human characters is challenging, since human observers are highly tuned to recognize human cues such as emotion and gender from motion patterns. The main contribution of this paper is a new model firmly based on biomechanics, which is used to animate balance and basic...

  6. National Energy Balance - 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Energy Balance - 1981, shows a new metodology and information in level of several economic sectors, as well as a separation of primary and secondary energy sources, its energy fluxes, i.e. production, imports, exports, consumption, etc...(E.G.)

  7. Lives in the Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our Children, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Changes in the workplace that would provide flexibility for working parents are slowly developing and receiving government, business, and societal attention. A sidebar, "Mother, Professional, Volunteer: One Woman's Balancing Act," presents an account of how one woman rearranged her professional life to enable her to do full-time parenting. (SM)

  8. Regulation of Energy Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, George A.

    1985-01-01

    Explains relationships between energy intake and expenditure focusing on the cellular, chemical and neural mechanisms involved in regulation of energy balance. Information is referenced specifically to conditions of obesity. (Physicians may earn continuing education credit by completing an appended test). (ML)

  9. National Energy Balance - 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Energy Balance - 1986 shows energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the production to the final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1970 to 1985. The incorporation of a new brazilian information is done. (E.G.)

  10. Energy balances 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denmark's consumption of energy increased 1,6 % from 2000 to 2001, primarily due to the year 2001 being colder than the year 2000. The production of petroleum decreased from 2000 to 2001, the reason being an accident at the Gorm oil field. The production of renewable energy and natural gas, however, increased. The energy balances is an account of production, import and export, and consumption of energy. The consumption is presented for households and industry. In the energy balances the energy consumption is accounted as physical amounts as well as gross consumption. Also an account is made of the costs of energy in basis prices and in market prices, including calculation of excises on energy, CO2 and SO2. (ln)

  11. Getting the Balance Right

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the next five years China will balance economic growth and improving the living standards of its people by Liu Wei IT was widely reported that the chaos in some Middle East and North African countries were results of the inadequate efforts in improving people’s livelihood, a fundamental aspect of social stability. In early March,China held its annual sessions of the National People’s

  12. Ballet Balance Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Camilla; Erleben, Kenny; Sporring, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Animating physically realistic human characters is challenging, since human observers are highly tuned to recognize human cues such as emotion and gender from motion patterns. The main contribution of this paper is a new model firmly based on biomechanics, which is used to animate balance and basic movements of a ballet dancers. It is supported by computer simulated experiments and it is in good agreement with biomechanical measurements of real-life dancers. Our results questions the previous...

  13. Thinking About Competitive Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Allen R. Sanderson; John J. Siegfried

    2003-01-01

    Simon Rottenberg long ago noted that the nature of sports is such that competitors must be of approximately equal ability if any are to be financially successful. In recent years, sports commentators and fans, Major League Baseball itself, and even some economists have expressed growing concern about the widening disparities among team expenditures and the growing concentrations of postseason contenders and championships. In this article we compare different concepts of competitive balance, r...

  14. France's energy balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several terminological definitions of words and concepts used for the establishment of France's energy balance (i.e. the supply and utilization of energy) are presented, taken from the Energy dictionary, published in 1992 by the world Energy Council: primary, secondary, final and useful energy. Statistics concerning energy production, importation and exportation, consumption, and costs are discussed, showing the market share evolution of the different energy types; the France's energy independence ratio has increased from 22% in 1973 to 51% in 1995

  15. Balancing innovation and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Jobeth W

    2015-01-01

    Nurse educators are encouraged to use evidence to guide their teaching strategies. However, evidence is not always available. How can educators make decisions regarding strategies when data are limited or absent? Where do innovation and creativity fit? How can innovation be balanced with evidence? This article provides a discussion regarding other sources of evidence, such as extrapolations, theories and principles, and collective expertise. Readers are encouraged to review the options and then analyze how they might be applied to innovation in education.

  16. National energy balance - 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on available data from IBGE, CNP/Petrobras, Eletrobras, Nuclebras and other governmental enterprises the National Energy Balance was done. This publication covers since 1965 to 1975. In conformity to the international rules, the energy resources used for non-energy purposes were excluded. The energy production and consumption for the next ten years were forecasted, considering the actual brazilian energy policy. (E.G.)

  17. Simple Cell Balance Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven D.; Byers, Jerry W.; Martin, James A.

    2012-01-01

    A method has been developed for continuous cell voltage balancing for rechargeable batteries (e.g. lithium ion batteries). A resistor divider chain is provided that generates a set of voltages representing the ideal cell voltage (the voltage of each cell should be as if the cells were perfectly balanced). An operational amplifier circuit with an added current buffer stage generates the ideal voltage with a very high degree of accuracy, using the concept of negative feedback. The ideal voltages are each connected to the corresponding cell through a current- limiting resistance. Over time, having the cell connected to the ideal voltage provides a balancing current that moves the cell voltage very close to that ideal level. In effect, it adjusts the current of each cell during charging, discharging, and standby periods to force the cell voltages to be equal to the ideal voltages generated by the resistor divider. The device also includes solid-state switches that disconnect the circuit from the battery so that it will not discharge the battery during storage. This solution requires relatively few parts and is, therefore, of lower cost and of increased reliability due to the fewer failure modes. Additionally, this design uses very little power. A preliminary model predicts a power usage of 0.18 W for an 8-cell battery. This approach is applicable to a wide range of battery capacities and voltages.

  18. Gait and balance disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masdeu, Joseph C

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on one of the most common types of neurologic disorders: altered walking. Walking impairment often reflects disease of the neurologic structures mediating gait, balance or, most often, both. These structures are distributed along the neuraxis. For this reason, this chapter is introduced by a brief description of the neurobiologic underpinning of walking, stressing information that is critical for imaging, namely, the anatomic representation of gait and balance mechanisms. This background is essential not only in order to direct the relevant imaging tools to the regions more likely to be affected but also to interpret correctly imaging findings that may not be related to the walking deficit object of clinical study. The chapter closes with a discussion on how to image some of the most frequent etiologies causing gait or balance impairment. However, it focuses on syndromes not already discussed in other chapters of this volume, such as Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders, already discussed in Chapter 48, or cerebellar ataxia, in Chapter 23, in the previous volume. As regards vascular disease, the spastic hemiplegia most characteristic of brain disease needs little discussion, while the less well-understood effects of microvascular disease are extensively reviewed here, together with the imaging approach. PMID:27430451

  19. Balanced skills among nascent entrepreneurs

    OpenAIRE

    Stuetzer, Michael; Obschonka, Martin; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effects and origins of balanced skills among nascent entrepreneurs. In a first step we apply Lazear’s jack-of-all-trades theory to investigate performance effects of a balanced skill set. Second, we investigate potential sources of balanced skills, thereby testing the investment hypothesis against the endowment hypothesis. Analyzing data on high-potential nascent projects, we find support for the notion that balanced skills are important for making progress in the vent...

  20. Lesson "Balance in Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapanova, V.

    2012-04-01

    Lesson "Balance in Nature" This simulation game-lesson (Balance in Nature) gives an opportunity for the students to show creativity, work independently, and to create models and ideas. It creates future-oriented thought connected to their experience, allowing them to propose solutions for global problems and personal responsibility for their activities. The class is divided in two teams. Each team chooses questions. 1. Question: Pollution in the environment. 2. Question: Care for nature and climate. The teams work on the chosen tasks. They make drafts, notes and formulate their solutions on small pieces of paper, explaining the impact on nature and society. They express their points of view using many different opinions. This generates alternative thoughts and results in creative solutions. With the new knowledge and positive behaviour defined, everybody realizes that they can do something positive towards nature and climate problems and the importance of individuals for solving global problems is evident. Our main goal is to recover the ecological balance, and everybody explains his or her own well-grounded opinions. In this work process the students obtain knowledge, skills and more responsible behaviour. This process, based on his or her own experience, dialogue and teamwork, helps the participant's self-development. Making the model "human↔ nature" expresses how human activities impact the natural Earth and how these impacts in turn affect society. Taking personal responsibility, we can reduce global warming and help the Earth. By helping nature we help ourselves. Teacher: Veselina Boycheva-Chapanova " Saint Patriarch Evtimii" Scholl Str. "Ivan Vazov"-19 Plovdiv Bulgaria

  1. Watt and joule balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ian A.

    2014-04-01

    The time is fast approaching when the SI unit of mass will cease to be based on a single material artefact and will instead be based upon the defined value of a fundamental constant—the Planck constant—h . This change requires that techniques exist both to determine the appropriate value to be assigned to the constant, and to measure mass in terms of the redefined unit. It is important to ensure that these techniques are accurate and reliable to allow full advantage to be taken of the stability and universality provided by the new definition and to guarantee the continuity of the world's mass measurements, which can affect the measurement of many other quantities such as energy and force. Up to now, efforts to provide the basis for such a redefinition of the kilogram were mainly concerned with resolving the discrepancies between individual implementations of the two principal techniques: the x-ray crystal density (XRCD) method [1] and the watt and joule balance methods which are the subject of this special issue. The first three papers report results from the NRC and NIST watt balance groups and the NIM joule balance group. The result from the NRC (formerly the NPL Mk II) watt balance is the first to be reported with a relative standard uncertainty below 2 × 10-8 and the NIST result has a relative standard uncertainty below 5 × 10-8. Both results are shown in figure 1 along with some previous results; the result from the NIM group is not shown on the plot but has a relative uncertainty of 8.9 × 10-6 and is consistent with all the results shown. The Consultative Committee for Mass and Related Quantities (CCM) in its meeting in 2013 produced a resolution [2] which set out the requirements for the number, type and quality of results intended to support the redefinition of the kilogram and required that there should be agreement between them. These results from NRC, NIST and the IAC may be considered to meet these requirements and are likely to be widely debated

  2. Balancing innovation and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Jobeth W

    2015-01-01

    Nurse educators are encouraged to use evidence to guide their teaching strategies. However, evidence is not always available. How can educators make decisions regarding strategies when data are limited or absent? Where do innovation and creativity fit? How can innovation be balanced with evidence? This article provides a discussion regarding other sources of evidence, such as extrapolations, theories and principles, and collective expertise. Readers are encouraged to review the options and then analyze how they might be applied to innovation in education. PMID:25790361

  3. Production Balance of Ship Erection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ru-hong; TAN Jia-hua; LIU Cun-gen

    2008-01-01

    A network plan model of ship erection was established based on the network planning technologyand the work-package breakdown system. The load-oriented production control method was introduced to buildup a throughput diagram model thus it is possible to describe the ship erection process numerically. Based onthe digitaiized models some cases of production balance of ship erection were studied and three balance indexeswere put forward, they are the load balance rate, the input manpower balance rate and the maximum gantrycrane operating times. Such an analytic method based on the balance evaluation is the important foundationfor digitization and intelligentization of shipyard production management.

  4. Balance of multi-wavelets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Yibo

    2003-01-01

    The discrete scalar data need prefiltering when transformed by discrete multi-wavelet, but prefiltering will make some properties of multi-wavelets lost. Balanced multi-wavelets can avoid prefiltering. The sufficient and necessary condition of p-order balance for multi-wavelets in time domain, the interrelation between balance order and approximation order and the sampling property of balanced multi-wavelets are investigated. The algorithms of 1-0rder and 2-0rder balancing for multi-wavelets are obtained. The two algorithms both preserve the orthogonal relation between multi-scaling function and multi-wavelets. More importantly, balancing operation doesn't increase the length of filters, which suggests that a relatively short balanced multiwavelet can be constructed from an existing unbalanced multi-wavelet as short as possible.

  5. Negative leave balances

    CERN Document Server

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  6. Negative leave balances

    CERN Document Server

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  7. Energy balance climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, G. R.; Cahalan, R. F.; Coakley, J. A., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An introductory survey of the global energy balance climate models is presented with an emphasis on analytical results. A sequence of increasingly complicated models involving ice cap and radiative feedback processes are solved, and the solutions and parameter sensitivities are studied. The model parameterizations are examined critically in light of many current uncertainties. A simple seasonal model is used to study the effects of changes in orbital elements on the temperature field. A linear stability theorem and a complete nonlinear stability analysis for the models are developed. Analytical solutions are also obtained for the linearized models driven by stochastic forcing elements. In this context the relation between natural fluctuation statistics and climate sensitivity is stressed.

  8. A Balancing Act?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstlberger, Wolfgang; Stampe, Ian; Knudsen, Mette Præst

    the 2009 European Manufacturing Survey for the Danish sub-sample including 335 manufacturing firms. Through factor analysis, the paper confirms three main focus areas of new product development in relation to production facilities: efficiency considerations, market attention and greening of innovation....... Logistic regression analysis demonstrates that while market attention is important for new product development, green aspects of innovation and efficiency considerations for innovation are important for the energy efficiency of the production companies. Combining these models highlights that energy...... efficiency moderates the effect of market attention on new product development. The paper therefore concludes that product innovation and energy efficiency is a balancing act, focusing on one will have detrimental effects on the other! These findings point to the conclusion that researchers and practitioners...

  9. Balancing Trust and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that conceptualizing trust and control as interactively related processes, as opposed to more static conceptualizations of the two concepts and the relations between them, adds importantly towards understanding the challenges involved in balancing of trust...... and control in organizations. The paper examines recent literature on the conceptualization of the relation between trust and control in and between organizations. The literature review shows that trust and control has been conceptualized as either substituting or complementing each other. Further......, it is found that the complementary/substitution debate calls for an explicit conceptualization of the relation between trust and control as an interactive process, in contrast to earlier conceptualizations of trust and control as two relatively static and isolated concepts. While the static perspective...

  10. Variance approximation under balanced sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Deville, Jean-Claude; Tillé, Yves

    2016-01-01

    A balanced sampling design has the interesting property that Horvitz–Thompson estimators of totals for a set of balancing variables are equal to the totals we want to estimate, therefore the variance of Horvitz–Thompson estimators of variables of interest are reduced in function of their correlations with the balancing variables. Since it is hard to derive an analytic expression for the joint inclusion probabilities, we derive a general approximation of variance based on a residual technique....

  11. Radar channel balancing with commutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-02-01

    When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.

  12. When Do States Balance Power?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Wivel, Anders

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the logic of balancing in structural realist theory. Arguably, the durability of the unipolar moment is a challenge to the logic of balancing. The paper uses the tools of microeconomics to build a mathematical model of structural realism. The simple model reiterates...... the structural realist prediction that the weaker states should balance the unipole. Under a slight model extension, it is shown that efforts to balance in separate capabilities always tends to offset each other. Under this extension, the durability of the unipolar moment is in fact consistent...

  13. What is a balanced program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohl, P C

    1995-06-01

    "Balance" has become the watchword of psychiatry programs. It seems that almost all residency training programs claim to be balanced. But what do we mean by this term? This article summarizes the author's evolving thinking about what makes for a balanced program and suggests that diversity may be a better term. The author advocates that balance is not as simple as teaching both psychodynamics and biological psychiatry. Instead, it entails a considered, intellectual approach that involves long-term vs. other psychotherapies, neuro-science vs. psychopharmacology, theoretical pharmacology vs. practical pharmacology, social psychiatry vs. treating minority patients, representing all viewpoints in psychiatry vs. integrating them. PMID:24442525

  14. Balancing "we" and "me".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, Christine; Flynn, Donna; Redman, Melanie

    2014-10-01

    The open office is the dominant form of workspace design for good reason: It fosters collaboration, promotes learning, and nurtures strong culture. But what most companies fail to realize is that collaboration has a natural rhythm that requires both interaction and private contemplation. Companies have been trying for decades to find the balance between public and private workspace that best supports collaboration. In 1980 52% of U.S. employees lacked workspaces where they could concentrate without distraction. In response, high-walled cubicles took over the corporate landscape. By the late 1990s, the tide had turned, and only 23% of employees wanted more privacy, and 50% wanted more access to other people. Ever since, firms have been beefing up spaces that support collaboration and shrinking areas for individual work. But the pendulum seems to have swung too far: Once again, people feel a pressing need for privacy, not only to do heads-down work but to cope with the intensity of work today. To address these needs, according to the authors, we have to rethink our assumptions about privacy. Traditionally defined in physical terms, privacy is now about the individual's ability to control information and stimulation. In this article, the authors examine workspace design through the new lens of privacy and offer insights on how to foster teamwork and solitude. PMID:25509575

  15. Paul Collier : Balancing beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    As former head of AB Operations, Paul Collier and his group were in the ‘cockpit’ for the LHC’s maiden voyage - piloting the first beam around the ring. But now, as Head of the Beams Department, he will need his feet firmly on the ground in order to balance all the beam activities at CERN. "As Department Head, I’ll have less direct contact with the machines," Collier says with a hint of regret. "I’ll still obviously be very involved, but they won’t actually let me loose in front of the keyboard anymore!" As the new Head of the BE Department, Collier will be in charge of nearly 400 people, and will oversee all the beam activities, including the preparations for the longest period of beam operation in the history of CERN. In the new organization, the BE, TE and EN Departments have been grouped together in the Accelerator and Technology Sector. "‘Partnership’ is a key word for the three departments," says Collier. "The n...

  16. Balancing safety and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety requirements of NPPs have always aimed at limiting societal risks. This risk approach initially resulted in deterministic design criteria and concepts. In the 1980s the paradigm 'safety at all costs' arose and often led to questionable backfitting measures. Conflicts between new requirements, classical design concepts and operational demands were often ignored. The design requirements for advanced reactors ensure enhanced protection against severe accidents. Still, it is questionable whether the 'no-damage-outside-the-fence' criteria can be achieved deterministically and at competitive costs. Market deregulation and utility privatisation call for a balance between safety and costs, without jeopardising basic safety concepts. An ideal approach must be risk-based and imply modern PSAs and new methods for cost-benefit and ALARA analyses, embed nuclear risks in a wider risk spectrum, but also make benefits transparent within the context of a broader life experience. Governments should define basic requirements, minimum standards and consistent comparison criteria, and strengthen operator responsibility. Internationally sufficient and binding safety requirements must be established and nuclear technology transfer handled in a responsible way, while existing plants, with their continuous backfitting investments, should receive particular attention. (orig.)

  17. The right balance

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Over the course of her career as a physicist, Felicitas Pauss, currently responsible for CERN's External Relations, has often been the sole woman in an environment dominated by men. While she freely admits that being a woman physicist can have as many advantages as disadvantages, she thinks the best strategy is to maintain the right balance.   From a very early age, Felicitas Pauss always wanted to be involved in projects that interested and fascinated her. That's how she came to study physics. When she was a first-year university student in Austria in 1970, it was still fairly uncommon for women to go into physics research. "I grew up in Salzburg with a background in music. At that time, it was certainly considered more ‘normal’ for a woman to study music than to do research in physics. But already in high school I was interested in physics and technical instruments and wanted to know how things work and what they are made of”. At the beginning of her care...

  18. Par Pond water balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs

  19. A balanced memory network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Roudi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental problem in neuroscience is understanding how working memory--the ability to store information at intermediate timescales, like tens of seconds--is implemented in realistic neuronal networks. The most likely candidate mechanism is the attractor network, and a great deal of effort has gone toward investigating it theoretically. Yet, despite almost a quarter century of intense work, attractor networks are not fully understood. In particular, there are still two unanswered questions. First, how is it that attractor networks exhibit irregular firing, as is observed experimentally during working memory tasks? And second, how many memories can be stored under biologically realistic conditions? Here we answer both questions by studying an attractor neural network in which inhibition and excitation balance each other. Using mean-field analysis, we derive a three-variable description of attractor networks. From this description it follows that irregular firing can exist only if the number of neurons involved in a memory is large. The same mean-field analysis also shows that the number of memories that can be stored in a network scales with the number of excitatory connections, a result that has been suggested for simple models but never shown for realistic ones. Both of these predictions are verified using simulations with large networks of spiking neurons.

  20. Optimal allocation in balanced sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Tillé, Yves; Favre, Anne-Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The development of new sampling methods allows the selection of large balanced samples. In this paper we propose a method for computing optimal inclusion probabilities for balanced samples. Next, we show that the optimal Neyman allocation is a particular case of this method.

  1. H∞ Balancing for Nonlinear Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.

    1996-01-01

    In previously obtained balancing methods for nonlinear systems a past and a future energy function are used to bring the nonlinear system in balanced form. By considering a different pair of past and future energy functions that are related to the H∞ control problem for nonlinear systems we define H

  2. Nutrient balance at chain level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mu, W.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Oenema, J.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    A nutrient balance approach is often used to quantify losses of nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, that contribute to environmental problems such as eutrophication. A nutrient balance generally is computed at farm level, implying that nutrient losses related to pre-farm processes, such a

  3. Risk, Balanced Skills and Entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hsieh; S.C. Parker; M.C. van Praag

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes that risk aversion encourages individuals to invest in balanced skill profiles, making them more likely to become entrepreneurs. By not having taken this possible linkage into account, previous research has underestimated the impacts both of risk aversion and balanced skills on t

  4. Designing Multinational Electricity Balancing Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Veen, R.A.C.

    2012-01-01

    In today’s unbundled electricity markets, the balancing market is an intricate institutional arrangement that makes sure that the balance between electricity supply and demand is maintained. In the light of the development of a single electricity market in Europe, harmonization and integration of cu

  5. Social Balance Theory: Revisiting Heider’s Balance Theory for many agents

    OpenAIRE

    Hokky Situngkir; Deni Khanafiah

    2004-01-01

    We construct a model based on Heider’s social balance theory to analyze the interpersonal network among social agents. The model of social balance theory provides us an interesting tool to see how a social group evolves to the possible balance state. We introduce the balance index that can be used to measure social balance in macro structure level (global balance index) or in micro structure (local balance index) to see how the local balance index influences the global balance structure. Seve...

  6. Appetite and energy balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2016-10-01

    pleasure of eating it. The latter, which is similar to food reward, is determined primarily by the state of emptiness of the gut and food liking related to the food's sensory qualities and macronutrient value and the individual's dietary history. Importantly, energy density adds value because energy dense foods are less satiating kJ for kJ and satiation limits further intake. That is, energy dense foods promote energy intake by virtue (1) of being more attractive and (2) having low satiating capacity kJ for kJ, and (1) is partly a consequence of (2). Energy storage is adapted to feast and famine and that includes unevenness over time of the costs of obtaining and ingesting food compared with engaging in other activities. However, in very low-cost food environments with energy dense foods readily available, risk of obesity is high. This risk can be and is mitigated by dietary restraint, which in its simplest form could mean missing the occasional meal. Another strategy we discuss is the energy dilution achieved by replacing some sugar in the diet with low-calorie sweeteners. Perhaps as or more significant, though, is that belief in short-term energy balancing (the energy depletion model) may undermine attempts to eat less. Therefore, correcting narratives of eating to be consistent with biological reality could also assist with weight control.

  7. Cautions Concerning Electronic Analytical Balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bruce B.; Wells, John D.

    1986-01-01

    Cautions chemists to be wary of ferromagnetic samples (especially magnetized samples), stray electromagnetic radiation, dusty environments, and changing weather conditions. These and other conditions may alter readings obtained from electronic analytical balances. (JN)

  8. An Oscillating Magnet Watt Balance

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmedov, H

    2015-01-01

    We establish the principles for a new generation of simplified and accurate watt balances in which an oscillating magnet generates Faraday's voltage in a stationary coil. A force measuring system and a mechanism providing vertical movements of the magnet are completely independent in an oscillating magnet watt balance. This remarkable feature allows to establish the link between the Planck constant and a macroscopic mass by a one single experiment. Weak dependence on variations of environmental and experimental conditions, weak sensitivity to ground vibrations and temperature changes, simple force measuring procedure, small sizes and other useful features offered by the novel approach considerably reduce the complexity of the experimental setup. We formulate the oscillating magnet watt balance principle and establish the measurement procedure for the Planck constant. We discuss the nature of oscillating magnet watt balance uncertainties and give a brief description of the National Metrology Institute (UME) wa...

  9. Efficient codes and balanced networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denève, Sophie; Machens, Christian K

    2016-03-01

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in inhibitory interneurons and their circuits. A striking property of cortical inhibition is how tightly it balances excitation. Inhibitory currents not only match excitatory currents on average, but track them on a millisecond time scale, whether they are caused by external stimuli or spontaneous fluctuations. We review, together with experimental evidence, recent theoretical approaches that investigate the advantages of such tight balance for coding and computation. These studies suggest a possible revision of the dominant view that neurons represent information with firing rates corrupted by Poisson noise. Instead, tight excitatory/inhibitory balance may be a signature of a highly cooperative code, orders of magnitude more precise than a Poisson rate code. Moreover, tight balance may provide a template that allows cortical neurons to construct high-dimensional population codes and learn complex functions of their inputs.

  10. Risk, Balanced Skills and Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, C.; Parker, S.C.; Praag, van, B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes that risk aversion encourages individuals to invest in balanced skill profiles, making them more likely to become entrepreneurs. By not having taken this possible linkage into account, previous research has underestimated the impacts both of risk aversion and balanced skills on the likelihood individuals choose entrepreneurship. Data on Dutch university graduates provides evidence which supports this contention. It thereby raises the possibility that even risk-averse peopl...

  11. Balancer effects in opinion dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Cheon, Taksu

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a novel type of contrarian agent, the balancer, to Galam model of opinion dynamics, in order to account for the skepticism over one-sidedness and for the sense of fairness. We find that the inclusion of balancers along with floaters and inflexibles brings about a critical point on parametric plane of the dynamical system, which results in the new kind of stable final states of the opinion dynamics, that seem to capture several intriguing features found often in mature democracies.

  12. Internet Load and Traffic Balancing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文正; 郭巧; 郭为民

    2005-01-01

    Load and traffic balancing for the Internet are analyzed. An intelligent domain name system(DNS) policy for the control and management of content distribution networks (CDN) is presented. An CDNs network based Urtitech IntelliDNS is built, and performance of the network in realizing traffic and load balancing is measured. It is proved that CDNs provide a valuable service and the methods are feasible.

  13. Balancing local budgets in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Attila GYÖRGY

    2014-01-01

    Local budgets in Romania are balanced with revenues transferred from state budget according to the criterions laid down in the Local Public Finance Act. These criterions are focusing on the financial capacity, population and surface, each local budget getting balancing amounts inversely with the administrative unit’s wellness and directly to size. The repartition algorithm is used for more than a decade, but periodically it was revised in order to be better folded to fiscal policy and economi...

  14. Electric power balance sheet 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2012: strong seasonal contrast of power consumption, rise of the renewable energies contribution in meeting the electricity demand, slight decay of the nuclear and thermal power generation, decrease of the export balance and change in trades structure, adaptation of RTE's network to the evolutions of the energy system

  15. VALUE BALANCE IN CONSUMER PROTECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Dahsan Hasan

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to describe how the realization of ' Balance ' in the Consumer Protection Act, describes how the responsibility of the parties (consumers, businessmen and the Government) so that it can realize the value of the balance in the protection of consumer, Research conducted in the framework of the preparation of this dissertation is to type the socio-juridical, in addition to researching the secondary legal materials in the form of legal regulations, manual and electronic law lib...

  16. Hatha yoga on body balance

    OpenAIRE

    Erick Tadeu Prado; Vagner Raso; Renata Coelho Scharlach; Cristiane Akemi Kasse

    2014-01-01

    Background: A good body balance requires a proper function of vestibular, visual, and somatosensory systems which can be reach with exercise practice and/or yoga. Aim: To determine the effects of a 5-month hatha yoga training program on body balance in young adults. Materials and Methods: This study used a controlled, nonrandomized design, where the experimental group underwent a 5-month training program and were then compared with the control group that had a sedentary lifestyle. A c...

  17. Form 6 - gas balancing agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1988, a special Committee of the Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Foundation undertook a project to draft a model from gas balancing agreement. This project was initiated at the request of a number of Foundation members who felt that a model form gas balancing agreement would facilitate the negotiation of operating agreement, since gas balancing issues had become sticking points in the process. The Committee was composed of attorneys representing a wide cross-section of the oil and gas industry including both major and independent oil companies, production companies with interstate pipeline affiliates, and private practitioners. The Committee attempted to address the more controversial issues in gas balancing with optional provisions in the Form. To facilitate the negotiation process, the number of optional provisions was minimized. This form may be used as an Appendix to the new A.A.P.L. Form 610-1989 Model Form Operating Agreement. This book includes provision of this Form which are: Ownership of gas production; Balancing of production accounts; Cash balancing upon depletion; Deliverability tests; Nominations; Statements; Payment of taxes; Operating expenses; Overproducing allowable; Payment of leasehold burdens; Operator's liability; Successors and assigns; Audits; Arbitration; and Operator's fees

  18. VALUE BALANCE IN CONSUMER PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahsan Hasan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to describe how the realization of ' Balance ' in the Consumer Protection Act, describes how the responsibility of the parties (consumers, businessmen and the Government so that it can realize the value of the balance in the protection of consumer, Research conducted in the framework of the preparation of this dissertation is to type the socio-juridical, in addition to researching the secondary legal materials in the form of legal regulations, manual and electronic law library, relevant research results in the field of law of particular problems in the field of consumer protection and other written materials, as well as researching various legal facts about consumer protection which occur in the field as well as its impact on the general public. The results showed that: 1 a form of value balance in consumer protection legislation lies in the synergy between the rights and obligations the rights and obligations of consumers, businessmen, as well as the duties and responsibilities of the Government, the supporters of both public institutions and private consumers are dispute resolution Efforts, and the use of contract oversight of overall indicators are assessed if merged between the assessment of consumers and businessmen, as well as assessment of the Government then obtained 32 indicators of where the total number of indicators corresponding to the value of the balance of a total of 10 indicators, while the total number of which is not in accordance with the value of the balance as much as 21 indicators and only one indicator that his judgment balanced. So that the efforts made in the framework of the fulfilment of the rights and obligations of consumers and businessmen as well as maximize the task and responsibility of the Government is still having a lot of obstacles or not be able to realize the value of balance

  19. Balancing act: the ultimate balance nutrition consulting center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, L

    1998-11-01

    Nutritional issues often complicate health care but are very important in HIV treatment where diet can play a strong role in drug absorption and effectiveness. A Canadian company has started a for-fee nutritional counseling service called Ultimate Balance. The nutritionists at Ultimate Balance require medical disclosure and extensive telephone interviews with patients, and also review patients' cases and medications. The nutritional guidance provided is controversial, because it is funded by a company that produces nutritional supplements, and counselors sometimes recommend those supplements. A personal experience with the nutritional counseling service is described. Contact information is provided. PMID:11365979

  20. Dairy Proteins and Energy Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Line Quist

    High protein diets affect energy balance beneficially through decreased hunger, enhanced satiety and increased energy expenditure. Dairy products are a major source of protein. Dairy proteins are comprised of two classes, casein (80%) and whey proteins (20%), which are both of high quality......, but casein is absorbed slowly and whey is absorbed rapidly. The present PhD study investigated the effects of total dairy proteins, whey, and casein, on energy balance and the mechanisms behind any differences in the effects of the specific proteins. The results do not support the hypothesis that dairy...... proteins, whey or casein are more beneficial than other protein sources in the regulation of energy balance, and suggest that dairy proteins, whey or casein seem to play only a minor role, if any, in the prevention and treatment of obesity....

  1. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Matteo; Martin, Olivier C; De Martino, Andrea; Marinari, Enzo

    2016-01-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an "ensemble averaging" procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferr...

  2. Efficacy of virtual reality-based balance training versus the Biodex balance system training on the body balance of adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Manal S.; Mattar, Ayman G.; Elhafez, Salam M.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated efficacy of virtual reality (VR)-based balance training on enhancing balance and postural reactions of adults as a low-cost new modality compared to the established Biodex Balance System (BBS). [Subjects] Thirty normal adults of both genders were divided randomly into two equal-sized experimental groups of 15: BBS balance training and VR balance training. [Methods] The training programmes were conducted in 12 sessions, three 15-min sessions per week. The Nint...

  3. Heider balance in human networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawroński, P.; Kułakowski, K.

    2005-07-01

    Recently, a continuous dynamics was proposed to simulate dynamics of interpersonal relations in a society represented by a fully connected graph. The final state of such a society was found to be identical with the so-called Heider balance (HB), where the society is divided into two mutually hostile groups. In the continuous model, a polarization of opinions was found in HB. Here we demonstrate that the polarization occurs also in Barabási-Albert networks, where the Heider balance is not necessarily present. In the second part of this work we demonstrate the results of our formalism, when applied to reference examples: the Southern women and the Zachary club.

  4. Balance velocities of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joughin, I.; Fahnestock, M.; Ekholm, Simon;

    1997-01-01

    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetery data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail......, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning....

  5. The relevance of clinical balance assessment tools to differentiate balance deficits

    OpenAIRE

    Mancini, Martina; Horak, Fay B.

    2010-01-01

    Control of balance is complex and involves maintaining postures, facilitating movement, and recovering equilibrium. Balance control consists of controlling the body center of mass over its limits of stability. Clinical balance assessment can help assess fall risk and/or determine the underlying reasons for balance disorders. Most functional balance assessment scales assess fall risk and the need for balance rehabilitation but do not differentiate types of balance deficits. A system approach t...

  6. An Improved Hadoop Data Load Balancing Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Data load balancing is one of the key problems of big data technology. As a big data application, Hadoop has had many successful applications. HDFS is Hadoop Distributed File System and has the load balancing procedure which can balance the storage load on each machine. However, this method cannot balance the overload rack preferentially, and so it is likely to cause the breakdown of overload machines. In this paper, we focus on the overload machines and propose an improved algorithm for balancing the overload racks preferentially. The improved method constructs Prior Balance List list which includes overload machines, For Balance List list and NextForBalanceList list by many factors and balances among the racks selected from these lists firstly. Experiments show that the improved method can balance the overload racks in time and reduce the possibility of breakdown of these racks

  7. Balancing Covariates via Propensity Score Weighting

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Fan; Morgan, Kari Lock; Zaslavsky, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    Covariate balance is crucial for an unconfounded descriptive or causal comparison. However, lack of balance is common in observational studies. This article considers weighting strategies for balancing covariates. We define a general class of weights-the balancing weights-that balance the weighted distributions of the covariates between treatment groups. These weights incorporate the propensity score to weight each group to an analyst-selected target population. This class unifies existing we...

  8. Balance Systems and the Variational Bicomplex

    OpenAIRE

    Serge Preston

    2011-01-01

    In this work we show that the systems of balance equations (balance systems) of continuum thermodynamics occupy a natural place in the variational bicomplex formalism. We apply the vertical homotopy decomposition to get a local splitting (in a convenient domain) of a general balance system as the sum of a Lagrangian part and a complemental ''pure non-Lagrangian'' balance system. In the case when derivatives of the dynamical fields do not enter the constitutive relations of the balance system,...

  9. Energy balance invariance for interacting particle systems

    OpenAIRE

    Yavari, Arash; Marsden, Jerrold E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the principle of invariance of balance of energy and its consequences for a system of interacting particles under groups of transformations. Balance of energy and its invariance is first examined in Euclidean space. Unlike the case of continuous media, it is shown that conservation and balance laws do not follow from the assumption of invariance of balance of energy under time-dependent isometries of the ambient space. However, the postulate of invariance of balance of ener...

  10. A Balanced Higher Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This article explores what is meant by "a balanced higher education system". It argues that the Clarkian "triangle of coordination" (Clark, 1983) and the more recent model of Martinez and Richardson (2003) should be replaced by one that distinguishes between "self" and "collective" interests in both the academy and the wider society. Such a scheme…

  11. Off-Balance Sheet Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew C.

    1998-01-01

    Examines off-balance sheet financing, the facilities use of outsourcing for selected needs, as a means of saving operational costs and using facility assets efficiently. Examples of using outside sources for energy supply and food services, as well as partnering with business for facility expansion are provided. Concluding comments address tax…

  12. Learning from Balance Sheet Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanlamai, Uthai; Soongswang, Oranuj

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examines alternative visuals and their effect on the level of learning of balance sheet users. Executive and regular classes of graduate students majoring in information technology in business were asked to evaluate the extent of acceptance and enhanced capability of these alternative visuals toward their learning…

  13. Balance Scorecard in Hospital Units

    OpenAIRE

    Pu?an Alina; Ivan Oana Raluca

    2014-01-01

    Balance Scorecard (BSC) is a tool for measuring the performance, used mainly in the private sector. Social and economic changes of recent years have given rise to a number of objective needs, particularly in the management of “public money”.

  14. Dynamic balance in elite karateka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Matteo; Mapelli, Andrea; Shirai, Yuri Francesca; Ciprandi, Daniela; Lovecchio, Nicola; Galvani, Christel; Sforza, Chiarella

    2015-12-01

    In karate, balance control represents a key performance determinant. With the hypothesis that high-level athletes display advanced balance abilities, the purpose of the current study was to quantitatively investigate the motor strategies adopted by elite and non-elite karateka to maintain balance control in competition. The execution of traditional karate techniques (kihon) in two groups of elite Masters (n = 6, 31 ± 19 years) and non-elite Practitioners (n = 4, 25 ± 9 years) was compared assessing body center of mass (CoM) kinematics and other relevant parameters like step width and angular joint behavior. In the considered kihon sequence, normalized average CoM height was 8% lower (p < 0.05), while CoM displacement in the horizontal direction was significantly higher in Masters than in Practitioners (2.5 vs. 1.9 m, p < 0.05), as well as CoM average velocity and rms acceleration (p < 0.05). Step width was higher in Masters in more than half of the sequence steps (p < 0.05). Results suggest that elite karateka showed a refined dynamic balance control, obtained through the increase of the base of support and different maneuvers of lower limbs. The proposed method could be used to objectively detect talented karateka, to measure proficiency level and to assess training effectiveness.

  15. Going International: The Balanced Scorecard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Alicia M.

    2001-01-01

    Explains the balanced scorecard as a management system that provides a framework for strategic measurement which translates the vision and strategy of the organization in operational terms by four indicators: financial, process, employee and client satisfaction, and results. Also considers the importance of cultural differences in performance…

  16. Finding Balance in the Winds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describes the author's experience of and reflections concerning a group workshop facilitated by Michael Tlanusta Garrett of the Eastern Band of Cherokee. Provides information about the Native American teachings and traditions of the four winds, balance, and harmony, and discusses the use of self by group leaders as a powerful therapeutic and…

  17. Danish Balance of Payments Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Kragh, Mads Váczy

    This study is an analysis of Danish Balance for Payments Support (BOP) covering the period 1988-94. This aid instrument has not so far been used as an active tool to further Danish policy conditionalities vis-à-vis the reform process in developing countries. On the contrary, BOP has mainly been...

  18. Data needs for nutrient balances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Finn Pilgaard

    2011-01-01

    are not required to report N and P balances for agriculture as part of any international conventions. As a consequence, there is no organisation equivalent to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) or United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) who has responsibility for standardising...

  19. Balancing author and publisher rights

    OpenAIRE

    Suber, Peter

    2008-01-01

    As open access gains momentum, more and more scholarly authors are trying to retain the rights they need to authorize open access. At the same time, many publishers continue to demand transfer of copyright and resist author demands to retain key rights. This article explores the possibility of a balance which gives each side the rights it needs.

  20. Universally Balanced Combinatorial Optimization Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotie Deng

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article surveys studies on universally balanced properties of cooperative games defined in a succinct form. In particular, we focus on combinatorial optimization games in which the values to coalitions are defined through linear optimization programs, possibly combinatorial, that is subject to integer constraints. In economic settings, the integer requirement reflects some forms of indivisibility. We are interested in the classes of games that guarantee a non-empty core no matter what are the admissible values assigned to the parameters defining these programs. We call such classes universally balanced. We present characterization and complexity results on the universally balancedness property for some classes of interesting combinatorial optimization games. In particular, we focus on the algorithmic properties for identifying universally balancedness for the games under discussion.

  1. Energy balance in coronal funnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    The energy balance in magnetic flux tubes is examined semianalytically for the case in which thermal conduction balances radiation or in which enthalpy transport occurs. Different values are considered for areal constriction, shape, length, and maximum temperature. The overall energy budget of the solar corona is not significantly affected by magnetic constriction. A bowl-shaped funnel with a constriction factor of 4 describes the empirical differential-emission measure for log-T values between approximately 5.3 and 6.0. Loop-scaling relationships are derived for the full range of models to illustrate the dependence of the constant of proportionality on the properties of the magnetic constriction. Constriction can reduce the total energy requirement of the funnel by a factor of 5 and not affect the differential emission in flow-dominated models.

  2. Balancing energy flexibilities through aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2014-01-01

    in both energy production and consumption, is the key to solving these problems. Flexibilities can be expressed as flex-offers, which due to their high number need to be aggregated to reduce the complexity of energy scheduling. In this paper, we discuss balance aggregation techniques that already......One of the main goals of recent developments in the Smart Grid area is to increase the use of renewable energy sources. These sources are characterized by energy fluctuations that might lead to energy imbalances and congestions in the electricity grid. Exploiting inherent flexibilities, which exist...... during aggregation aim at balancing flexibilities in production and consumption to reduce the probability of congestions and reduce the complexity of scheduling. We present results of our extensive experiments....

  3. Balance of International Payments Matters!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ For decades, China's export-oriented economic growth pattern has been constantly criticized as the culprit that destroys the world economic balance. Especially,at a time when the most serious economic crisis ever since the Great Depression is about to end, outcries from economically developed countries that China should do more to rebalance global economy have frequently made the headlines of various media coverage.

  4. Universally Balanced Combinatorial Optimization Games

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaotie Deng; Gabrielle Demange

    2010-01-01

    This article surveys studies on universally balanced properties of cooperative games defined in a succinct form. In particular, we focus on combinatorial optimization games in which the values to coalitions are defined through linear optimization programs, possibly combinatorial, that is subject to integer constraints. In economic settings, the integer requirement reflects some forms of indivisibility. We are interested in the classes of games that guarantee a non-empty core no matter what ar...

  5. Energy balance in motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziubńiski, M.; Drozd, A.; Adamiec, M.; Siemionek, E.

    2016-09-01

    This paper present the concept of testing energy balance. The test was conducted on the test bench equipped with the alternator, battery and standard mounted current receivers. The course of measurements consisted in recording the indications of three ammeters and a tachometer. On the basis of the recorded current values, it was possible to determine: energy received from the battery, consumed by the receivers and the energy drawn from the alternator.

  6. Balanced Unemployment in Polish Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kamila Szymańska

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the problem of balanced unemployment in relation to the Polish economy. This issue with its variety considerations and economic, social and political implications is today one of the most important matter. Author analyses this problem together with its reasons and refer it to the Polish economy. In first and second part of the text there are presented basic assumptions of natural unemployment theory and Non-Accelerating Inflation Rate of Unemployment. Third part is an a...

  7. Balanced input-output assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawronski, W.; Hadaegh, F. Y.

    1989-01-01

    Actuator/sensor locations and balanced representations of linear systems are considered for a given set of controllability and observability grammians. The case of equally controlled and observed states is given special attention. The assignability of grammians is examined, and the conditions for their existence are presented, along with several algorithms for their determination. Although an arbitrary positive semidefinite matrix is not always assignable, the identity grammian is shown to be always assignable. The results are extended to the case of flexible structures.

  8. Carbon balance in Mediterranean ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Alexandra Cristina Pires

    2013-01-01

    Forests play an important role in climate change mitigation as they sequester and store carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. The aim of this thesis was to investigate forest carbon balance in its main compartments: tress, understory and soils. We present methods to estimate carbon stock in biomass of stone pine stands in south Portugal. Allometric models, as well as conversion and expansion factors were presented allowing the quantification of stand carbon stocks irrespect...

  9. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C.

    2016-01-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an “ensemble averaging” procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325

  10. Efficacy of virtual reality-based balance training versus the Biodex balance system training on the body balance of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Manal S; Mattar, Ayman G; Elhafez, Salam M

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated efficacy of virtual reality (VR)-based balance training on enhancing balance and postural reactions of adults as a low-cost new modality compared to the established Biodex Balance System (BBS). [Subjects] Thirty normal adults of both genders were divided randomly into two equal-sized experimental groups of 15: BBS balance training and VR balance training. [Methods] The training programmes were conducted in 12 sessions, three 15-min sessions per week. The Nintendo(®) Wii Fit Plus (NWFP) and its balance board were used to train of the VR group. Each participant answered a questionnaire concerning usability, enjoyment, balance improvement, and fatigue at the end of the training programs. [Results] The study found a significant increase the measure of mean overall balance (OLB) in both groups. No significant difference was found between the groups, but a significant decrease in the mean balance-test time was found for both groups, with no significant difference between the two training methods. The VR programme was rated highly enjoyable by 81.8% of the group. [Conclusion] The Wii Fit Plus system with the balance board as a new VR balance-training technique, can be considered an effective and enjoyable tool for the training of adults' body balance. PMID:26957722

  11. Fast balanced sampling for highly stratified population

    OpenAIRE

    Hasler, Caren; Tillé, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Balanced sampling is a very efficient sampling design when the variable of interest is correlated to the auxiliary variables on which the sample is balanced. A procedure to select balanced samples in a stratified population has previously been proposed. Unfortunately, this procedure becomes very slow as the number of strata increases and it even fails to select samples for some large numbers of strata. A new algorithm to select balanced samples in a stratified population is proposed. This new...

  12. IMPLEMENTASI BALANCED SCORECARD PADA ORGANISASI PUBLIK

    OpenAIRE

    Imelda R. H. N Imelda R. H. N

    2004-01-01

    At first introduced, balance scorecard is used by bussiness organization to measure performance of their activities, now balance scorecard is also used by public organization. A Public Organization is an organization intends to provide services to public, not for seeking profits. In order to used by public organization, a balance scorecard need to be modified. This essay discusses how to build a balance scorecard, which includes strategic goals, measures, targets, initiatives, and implementin...

  13. The Balanced Cube: A Concurrent Data Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Dally, William J.; Seitz, Charles L.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describee the balanced cube, a new data structure for implementing ordered seta. Conventional dats structures such as heaps, balanced trees and B-trees have root bottlenecks which limit their potential concurrency and make them unable to take advantage of the computing potential of concurrent machines. The balanced cube achieves greater concurrency by eliminating the root bottleneck; an operation in the balanced cube can be initiated from any node. The throughput of ...

  14. Flux balance analysis accounting for metabolite dilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyamini, Tomer; Folger, Ori; Ruppin, Eytan; Shlomi, Tomer

    2010-01-01

    Flux balance analysis is a common method for predicting steady-state flux distributions within metabolic networks, accounting for the growth demand for the synthesis of a predefined set of essential biomass precursors. Ignoring the growth demand for the synthesis of intermediate metabolites required for balancing their dilution leads flux balance analysis to false predictions in some cases. Here, we present metabolite dilution flux balance analysis, which addresses this problem, resulting in improved metabolic phenotype predictions.

  15. Monte Carlo methods beyond detailed balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, Raoul D.; Barkema, Gerard T.

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo algorithms are nearly always based on the concept of detailed balance and ergodicity. In this paper we focus on algorithms that do not satisfy detailed balance. We introduce a general method for designing non-detailed balance algorithms, starting from a conventional algorithm satisfying

  16. Balancing of Lossless and Passive Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, Arjan van der

    2008-01-01

    Different balancing techniques are applied to lossless nonlinear systems, with open-loop balancing applied to their scattering representation. It is shown that they all lead to the same result: the pair of to-be-balanced functions is given by two copies of the physical energy function, yielding thus

  17. Pitfalls in Using the Balanced Scorecard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørreklit, Hanne; Jakobsen, Morten; Mitchell, Falconer

    2008-01-01

    The balanced scorecard has quickly become a leading management tool. But business performance measurement is notoriously difficult, so any system, including the balanced scorecard, is likely to have unanticipated and often dysfunctional consequences. This article briefly reviews the main...... attractions of the balanced scorecard and then shows how these apparent advantages might lead to problems....

  18. Balanced binary trees in the Tamari lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Giraudo, Samuele

    2010-01-01

    We show that the set of balanced binary trees is closed by interval in the Tamari lattice. We establish that the intervals [T0, T1] where T0 and T1 are balanced trees are isomorphic as posets to a hypercube. We introduce tree patterns and synchronous grammars to get a functional equation of the generating series enumerating balanced tree intervals.

  19. Character Balance in MOBA Games

    OpenAIRE

    Teodor, Norén; Emanuel, Palm

    2015-01-01

    As live streaming of video games has become easier, electronic sports have grown quickly and they are still increasing as tournaments grow in viewers and prizes. The purpose of this paper is to examine the theory Metagame Bounds by applying it to League of Legends and Dota 2, to see if it is a valid way of looking at character balance in the Multiplayer Online Battle Arena game genre. The main mode of both games consist of matches played on a map where a team of five players is up against ano...

  20. Equilibria in Load Balancing Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Chen

    2009-01-01

    A Nash equilibrium (NE) in a multi-agent game is a strategy profile that is resilient to unilateral deviations.A strong Nash equilibrium (SE) is one that is stable against coordinated deviations of any coalition.We show that,in the load balancing games,NEs approximate SEs in the sense that the benefit of each member of any coalition from coordinated deviations is well limited.Furthermore,we show that an easily recognizable special subset of NEs exhibit even better approximation of SEs.

  1. The Balance Idea of Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Changes in the content of European balance constitute the biggest difference between the economic integration model and its predecessors. Armament, territory and resources were considered as key factors for enhanced strength and sustained power parity with other nations. Transition to economic integration has however entailed decoupling of the two. Enhanced national strength now aims instead at power parity and shared power based on common European interests and inter-dependency rather than at weakening other nations. As a result, state relations there are moving toward fusion and convergence.

  2. Effectiveness of the Balanced Scorecard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichen, Alex Yu; Perera, Sujatha; Crowe, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Many of the claimed benefits of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) rely on the linkage of its performance measures to strategy and on causal relations among its measures. Using a survey research method, this study examines the extent to which adopters of BSC consider these features and whether...... they result in more effective performance measurement systems. A survey of medium and large Australian manufacturing organisations reveals that varying forms of scorecards are used in practice and that managers who perceive that their scorecard measures are linked to strategy and affect each other in a causal...

  3. Electronic Elections: A Balancing Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Pedro A. D.

    This article aims to share some major lessons learned from the pioneering experience in Brazil with the world's first full national implementation of universal electronic voting. Differing notions of security, and their "collateral entanglements", appear to play a key role and are contrasted in Brazil's pioneering electronic voting saga. After an introduction, we puzzle through what election security may mean. We elaborate on how technological innovations may affect the underlying risks, their nature, corrections and balance. Then we describe some ways in which innovations have been deployed and validated, and how the results are being perceived, before some closing remarks.

  4. The Narrow Ridge Balance Test : A measure for one-leg lateral balance control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtze, C.; Postema, K.; Akkermans, H.W.; Otten, B.; Hof, A.L.

    2010-01-01

    The assessment of balance capacity for people with widely different balance abilities is an important issue in clinical practice. We propose the narrow ridge balance test as a sensitive tool to assess one-leg balance capacity. In this test, participants are asked to perform single-leg stance on ridg

  5. Effect of Selected Balance Exercises on the Dynamic Balance of Children with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazi, Shirin Davarpanah; Purrajabi, Fatemeh; Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Jalali, Shahin

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Maintaining balance while walking is of utmost importance for individuals with visual impairments because deficits in dynamic balance have been associated with a high risk of falling. Thus, the primary aim of the study presented here was to determine whether balance training effects the dynamic balance of children with visual…

  6. 26 CFR 1.430(f)-1 - Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance. 1.430(f)-1 Section 1.430(f)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance. (a) In general—(1) Overview....

  7. Engine balance apparatus and accessory drive device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogdon, James William (Inventor); Gill, David Keith (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A balancing mechanism for an engine that has a rotating crankshaft and reciprocating pistons such as those engines used in automobiles, aircrafts, boats, piston-driven compressors, piston-driven slider crank mechanisms, etc. The present balancing mechanism may comprise a first balance mass non-rotatably affixed to the crankshaft and a second balance mass rotatably supported on the crankshaft. A driver assembly is affixed to crankshaft to cause the second balance mass to rotate in a direction that is opposite to the direction in which the crank shaft is rotating. The driver assembly may include auxiliary gears configured to transport rotary power to auxiliary components.

  8. IMPLEMENTASI BALANCED SCORECARD PADA ORGANISASI PUBLIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imelda R. H. N Imelda R. H. N

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available At first introduced, balance scorecard is used by bussiness organization to measure performance of their activities, now balance scorecard is also used by public organization. A Public Organization is an organization intends to provide services to public, not for seeking profits. In order to used by public organization, a balance scorecard need to be modified. This essay discusses how to build a balance scorecard, which includes strategic goals, measures, targets, initiatives, and implementing balance scorecard to public organization. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Saat pertama kali diperkenalkan, balanced scorecard digunakan oleh organisasi bisnis untuk pengukuran kinerja. Dewasa ini, balanced scorecard tidak saja digunakan oleh organisasi bisnis tetapi juga organisasi publik. Organisasi publik adalah organisasi yang menyediakan jasa pada masyarakat dengan tujuan bukan untuk mencari profit. Untuk dapat digunakan oleh organisasi publik, balanced scorecard tersebut harus dimodifikasi. Tulisan ini membahas bagaimana membangun balanced scorecard, meliputi menentukan tujuan strategis, ukuran yang digunakan, target yang ingin dicapai serta inisiatif, dan mengimplementasikan balanced scorecard pada organisasi publik. Kata kunci: balanced scorecard, organisasi publik.

  9. Field balancing in the real world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracher, B.

    1997-09-05

    Field balancing can achieve significant results when other problems are present in the frequency spectrum and multiple vibrations are evident in the waveform. Many references suggest eliminating other problems before attempting to balance. That`s great - if you can do it. There are valid reasons for this approach, and it would be much easier to balance machinery when other problems have been corrected. It is the theoretical ideal in field balancing. However, in the real world of machinery maintained for years by reacting to immediate problems, the classic vibration signature for unbalance is rarely seen. Maintenance personnel make most of their decisions with limited information. The decision to balance or not to balance is usually made the same way. This paper will demonstrate significant results of field balancing in the presence of multiple problems. By examining the data available and analyzing the probabilities, a reasonable chance for success can be assured.

  10. Mass balance assessment using GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbe, Christina L.

    1993-01-01

    Mass balance is an integral part of any comprehensive glaciological investigation. Unfortunately, it is hard to determine at remote locations where there is no fixed reference. The Global Positioning System (GPS) offers a solution. Simultaneous GPS observations at a known location and the remote field site, processed differentially, will accurately position the camp site. From there, a monument planted in the firn atop the ice can also be accurately positioned. Change in the monument's vertical position is a direct indicator of ice thickness change. Because the monument is not connected to the ice, its motion is due to both mass balance change and to the settling of firn as it densifies into ice. Observations of relative position change between the monument and anchors at various depths within the firn are used to remove the settling effect. An experiment to test this method has begun at Byrd Station on the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and the first epoch of observations was made. Analysis indicates that positioning errors will be very small. It appears likely that the largest errors involved with this technique will arise from ancillary data needed to determine firn settling.

  11. Differential force balances during levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Paul

    The simplest arithmetic of inertial, buoyant, magnetic and electrokinetic levitation is explored in the context of a model living system with “acceleration-sensitive structures” in which motion, if allowed, produces a biological effect. The simple model is a finite-sized object enclosed within another finite-sized object suspended in an outer fluid (liquid or vapor) medium. The inner object has density and electrical and magnetic properties quantitatively different from those of the outer object and the medium. In inertial levitation (“weightlessness”) inertial accelerations are balanced, and the forces due to them are canceled in accordance with Newton’s third law. In the presence of inertial acceleration (gravity, centrifugal) motionlessness depends on a balance between the levitating force and the inertial force. If the inner and outer objects differ in density one or the other will be subjected to an unbalanced force when one object is levitated by any other force (buoyant, magnetic, electrokinetic). The requirements for motionlessness of the internal object in the presence of a levitating force are equality of density in the case of buoyant levitation, equality of magnetic susceptibility in the case of magnetic levitation, and equality of zeta potential and dielectric constant in the case of electrokinetic levitation. Examples of internal “acceleration-sensitive structures” are cellular organelles and the organs of advanced plants and animals. For these structures fundamental physical data are important in the interpretation of the effects of forces used for levitation.

  12. Cell phone based balance trainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Beom-Chan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In their current laboratory-based form, existing vibrotactile sensory augmentation technologies that provide cues of body motion are impractical for home-based rehabilitation use due to their size, weight, complexity, calibration procedures, cost, and fragility. Methods We have designed and developed a cell phone based vibrotactile feedback system for potential use in balance rehabilitation training in clinical and home environments. It comprises an iPhone with an embedded tri-axial linear accelerometer, custom software to estimate body tilt, a "tactor bud" accessory that plugs into the headphone jack to provide vibrotactile cues of body tilt, and a battery. Five young healthy subjects (24 ± 2.8 yrs, 3 females and 2 males and four subjects with vestibular deficits (42.25 ± 13.5 yrs, 2 females and 2 males participated in a proof-of-concept study to evaluate the effectiveness of the system. Healthy subjects used the system with eyes closed during Romberg, semi-tandem Romberg, and tandem Romberg stances. Subjects with vestibular deficits used the system with both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions during semi-tandem Romberg stance. Vibrotactile feedback was provided when the subject exceeded either an anterior-posterior (A/P or a medial-lateral (M/L body tilt threshold. Subjects were instructed to move away from the vibration. Results The system was capable of providing real-time vibrotactile cues that informed corrective postural responses. When feedback was available, both healthy subjects and those with vestibular deficits significantly reduced their A/P or M/L RMS sway (depending on the direction of feedback, had significantly smaller elliptical area fits to their sway trajectory, spent a significantly greater mean percentage time within the no feedback zone, and showed a significantly greater A/P or M/L mean power frequency. Conclusion The results suggest that the real-time feedback provided by this system can be used

  13. Single Switched Capacitor Battery Balancing System Enhancements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeri van Mierlo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Battery management systems (BMS are a key element in electric vehicle energy storage systems. The BMS performs several functions concerning to the battery system, its key task being balancing the battery cells. Battery cell unbalancing hampers electric vehicles’ performance, with differing individual cell voltages decreasing the battery pack capacity and cell lifetime, leading to the eventual failure of the total battery system. Quite a lot of cell balancing topologies have been proposed, such as shunt resistor, shuttling capacitor, inductor/transformer based and DC energy converters. The shuttling capacitor balancing systems in particular have not been subject to much research efforts however, due to their perceived low balancing speed and high cost. This paper tries to fill this gap by briefly discussing the shuttling capacitor cell balancing topologies, focusing on the single switched capacitor (SSC cell balancing and proposing a novel procedure to improve the SSC balancing system performance. This leads to a new control strategy for the SSC system that can decrease the balancing system size, cost, balancing time and that can improve the SSC balancing system efficiency.

  14. A Generalized Detailed Balance Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruelle, David

    2016-08-01

    Given a system M in a thermal bath we obtain a generalized detailed balance relation for the ratio r=π _τ (K→ J)/π _τ (J→ K) of the transition probabilities M:J→ K and M:K→ J in time τ . We assume an active bath, containing solute molecules in metastable states. These molecules may react with M and the transition J→ K occurs through different channels α involving different reactions with the bath. We find that r=sum p^α r^α , where p^α is the probability that channel α occurs, and r^α depends on the amount of heat (more precisely enthalpy) released to the bath in channel α.

  15. Energy-balance climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, G. R.; Cahalan, R. F.; Coakley, J. A., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    An introductory survey of the global energy balance climate models is presented with an emphasis on analytical results. A sequence of increasingly complicated models involving ice cap and radiative feedback processes are solved and the solutions and parameter sensitivities are studied. The model parameterizations are examined critically in light of many current uncertainties. A simple seasonal model is used to study the effects of changes in orbital elements on the temperature field. A linear stability theorem and a complete nonlinear stability analysis for the models are developed. Analytical solutions are also obtained for the linearized models driven by stochastic forcing elements. In this context the relation between natural fluctuation statistics and climate sensitivity is stressed.

  16. A generalized detailed balance relation

    CERN Document Server

    Ruelle, David

    2015-01-01

    Given a system $M$ in a thermal bath we obtain a generalized detailed balance relation for the ratio $r=\\pi_\\tau(K\\to J)/\\pi_\\tau(J\\to K)$ of the transition probabilities $M:J\\to K$ and $M:K\\to J$ in time $\\tau$. We assume an active bath, containing solute molecules in metastable states. These molecules may react with $M$ and the transition $J\\to K$ occurs through different channels $\\alpha$ involving different reactions with the bath. We find that $r=\\sum p^\\alpha r^\\alpha$, where $p^\\alpha$ is the probability that channel $\\alpha$ occurs, and $r^\\alpha$ depends on the amount of heat (more precisely enthalpy) released to the bath in channel $\\alpha$.

  17. Balanced Branching in Transcription Termination

    CERN Document Server

    Harrington, K J; Liang, S

    2000-01-01

    The theory of stochastic transcription termination based on free-energy competition requires two or more reaction rates to be delicately balanced over a wide range of physical conditions. A large body of work on glasses and large molecules suggests that this should be impossible in such a large system in the absence of a new organizing principle of matter. We review the experimental literature of termination and find no evidence for such a principle but many troubling inconsistencies, most notably anomalous memory effects. These suggest that termination has a deterministic component and may conceivably be not stochastic at all. We find that a key experiment by Wilson and von Hippel allegedly refuting deterministic termination was an incorrectly analyzed regulatory effect of Mg2+ binding.

  18. Relevance of balance measurement tools and balance training for fall prevention in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majumi M. Noohu, MPTh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Approximately one in three older people fall each year owing to gait/balance disorder/weakness, the second leading cause of falls in older adults. This review evaluates the capability of different balance measurement tools to predict falls in the elderly, which are used routinely for assessing balance impairment. Balance measurement tools reviewed are the Timed Up and Go test, Berg Balance Scale, Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment, Functional Reach Test, Clinical Test of Sensory Integration for Balance, and the postural sway measurements or center of pressure. The effect of balance training on the postural control mechanism and its efficacy in fall prevention in older adults were also reviewed. The current evidence is not conclusive enough to favor existing balance measurement tools and balance training implemented for fall prevention in older adults.

  19. Milestones in gait, balance, and falling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, John G; Horak, Fay B; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2011-05-01

    Gait, balance, and falls have become increasingly common topics of published articles in the Movement Disorders journal since its launch in 1986. This growth represents an increasing awareness of the importance of mobility to patients' quality of life. New methods have become available that allow for accurate measurement of many aspects for gait and balance. This has led to new concepts of understanding gait and balance disorders. Neuroimaging has begun to reveal the neural circuitry underlying gait and balance. The physiology and pathophysiology of balance and gait are beginning to tease out the many processes involved in mobility and how they may be disrupted by disease processes. With these advances, the old therapeutic nihilism that characterized the clinician's approach to falls and gait disorders is disappearing, as innovative physiotherapy, exercise, drugs, and deep brain stimulation are being employed for gait and balance disorders. PMID:21626560

  20. Internal strain gage balances for cryogenic windtunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufnagel, K.; Ewald, B.; Graewe, E.

    The five cryogenic wind-tunnel balances which were built and calibrated as part of the cryogenic balance program initiated in 1979 by the German Ministry of Research and Technology are described. Particular attention is given to factors affecting the calibration of cryogenic balances, such as the changes in the temperature and temperature gradients in the balance body caused by changes in the tunnel temperature. It is shown that it is possible to have a cryogenic wind-tunnel balance with the same accuracy and repeatability as a conventional balance. The effect of temperature gradients can be minimized by a new design of the axial-force element and an advanced calibration, and the zero shift can be reduced by matching procedures and calibration.

  1. Balance Systems and the Variational Bicomplex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Serge

    2011-07-01

    In this work we show that the systems of balance equations (balance systems) of continuum thermodynamics occupy a natural place in the variational bicomplex formalism. We apply the vertical homotopy decomposition to get a local splitting (in a convenient domain) of a general balance system as the sum of a Lagrangian part and a complemental ''pure non-Lagrangian'' balance system. In the case when derivatives of the dynamical fields do not enter the constitutive relations of the balance system, the ''pure non-Lagrangian'' systems coincide with the systems introduced by S. Godunov [Soviet Math. Dokl. 2 (1961), 947-948] and, later, asserted as the canonical hyperbolic form of balance systems in [Müller I., Ruggeri T., Rational extended thermodynamics, 2nd ed., Springer Tracts in Natural Philosophy, Vol. 37, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1998].

  2. Balance Systems and the Variational Bicomplex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Preston

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we show that the systems of balance equations (balance systems of continuum thermodynamics occupy a natural place in the variational bicomplex formalism. We apply the vertical homotopy decomposition to get a local splitting (in a convenient domain of a general balance system as the sum of a Lagrangian part and a complemental ''pure non-Lagrangian'' balance system. In the case when derivatives of the dynamical fields do not enter the constitutive relations of the balance system, the ''pure non-Lagrangian'' systems coincide with the systems introduced by S. Godunov [Soviet Math. Dokl. 2 (1961, 947-948] and, later, asserted as the canonical hyperbolic form of balance systems in [Müller I., Ruggeri T., Rational extended thermodynamics, 2nd ed., Springer Tracts in Natural Philosophy, Vol. 37, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1998].

  3. Reframing Our Pursuit of Life Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes, David G.; Ogden, Rachel R.; Ryan-Haddad, Ann; Strang, Aimee F.

    2015-01-01

    During our time in the 2013 Academic Leadership Fellows Program, we explored what it takes to achieve life balance through a framework presented in a Harvard Business Review article. In this Statement, we describe 5 different areas from the article that provide infrastructure for reflecting on how we have learned to approach life balance in academia. We also provide brief messages based on this reading and others to help academics’ pursuit of life balance.

  4. Reframing our pursuit of life balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, David G; Ogden, Rachel R; Ryan-Haddad, Ann; Strang, Aimee F

    2015-04-25

    During our time in the 2013 Academic Leadership Fellows Program, we explored what it takes to achieve life balance through a framework presented in a Harvard Business Review article. In this Statement, we describe 5 different areas from the article that provide infrastructure for reflecting on how we have learned to approach life balance in academia. We also provide brief messages based on this reading and others to help academics' pursuit of life balance. PMID:25995509

  5. The psychology of the nuclear balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The balance of military forces is meant to prevent war. But it is a very precarious balance, which becomes all the more dubious when the deterrent is no longer psychologically effective: when the country attacked is deterred from striking back with nuclear weapons. A unilateral disarmament above the overkill level would be possible without endangering the balance. It would improve the climate for mutual disarmament. (orig.)

  6. Controlling balance in an ensemble Kalman filter

    OpenAIRE

    G. A. Gottwald

    2014-01-01

    We present a method to control unbalanced fast dynamics in an ensemble Kalman filter by introducing a weak constraint on the imbalance in a spatially sparse observational network. We show that the balance constraint produces significantly more balanced analyses than ensemble Kalman filters without balance constraints and than filters implementing incremental analysis updates (IAU). Furthermore, our filter with the weak constraint on imbalance produces good rms error statisti...

  7. Improving fluid balance monitoring on the wards

    OpenAIRE

    Jeyapala, Sobanakumari; Gerth, Alice; Patel, Aarti; Syed, Nazia

    2015-01-01

    Clinical experience and nursing metrics have consistently identified poor documentation of fluid balance monitoring at Milton Keynes University Hospital, compromising patient safety and quality of care. This project aimed to increase the percentage of fluid balance charts correctly completed on the wards. Three areas for improvement were identified: understanding the importance of good fluid balance monitoring, correct identification of patients requiring monitoring, and ease of completion of...

  8. Reanalysing glacier mass balance measurement series

    OpenAIRE

    Zemp, M.; E. Thibert; Huss, M.; Stumm, D.; Rolstad Denby, C.; Nuth, C.; S. U. Nussbaumer; G. Moholdt; A. Mercer; Mayer, C.; Joerg, P. C.; P. Jansson; B. Hynek; Fischer, A.; Escher-Vetter, H.

    2013-01-01

    Glacier-wide mass balance has been measured for more than sixty years and is widely used as an indicator of climate change and to assess the glacier contribution to runoff and sea level rise. Until recently, comprehensive uncertainty assessments have rarely been carried out and mass balance data have often been applied using rough error estimation or without consideration of errors. In this study, we propose a framework for reanalysing glacier mass balance series that includes conceptual and ...

  9. Flux-balance modelling of plant metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Lee James Sweetlove; R. George eRatcliffe

    2011-01-01

    Flux-balance modelling of plant metabolic networks provides an important complement to 13C-based metabolic flux analysis. Flux-balance modelling is a constraints-based approach in which steady-state fluxes in a metabolic network are predicted by using optimisation algorithms within an experimentally bounded solution space. In the last two years several flux-balance models of plant metabolism have been published including genome-scale models of Arabidopsis metabolism. In this review we conside...

  10. Competing values in healthcare: balancing the (un)balanced scorecard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Angela M; St Clair, Lynda

    2007-01-01

    Facing a complex environment driven by two decades of dramatic change, healthcare organizations are adopting new strategic frameworks such as the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) to evaluate performance (Kaplan and Norton 1992). The BSC was not originally developed as a performance management tool, however. Rather, it was designed as a tool to communicate strategy and, as such, provides little guidance when actual outcomes fall short of desired outcomes. In addition, although the BSC is an improvement over exclusively financial measures, it has three conceptual limitations that are especially problematic for evaluating healthcare organizations: (1) it underemphasizes the employee perspective, (2) it is founded on a control-based management philosophy, and (3) it emphasizes making trade-offs. To address these limitations, we propose using the Competing Values Framework (CVF), a theoretically grounded, comprehensive approach to understanding and improving organizational and managerial performance by focusing on four action imperatives: competing, controlling, collaborating, and creating. The CVF pays particular attention to the employee perspective, is consistent with a commitment-based management philosophy, and emphasizes transcending apparent paradoxes to identify win-win solutions. Rather than focusing on customer satisfaction or employee satisfaction, the CVF looks for ways to satisfy customers and employees while still addressing financial constraints and growth opportunities. The CVF also can be used to assess both the culture of the organization and the competencies of individual managers, thereby providing a clear link between strategy and implementation.

  11. Competing values in healthcare: balancing the (un)balanced scorecard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Angela M; St Clair, Lynda

    2007-01-01

    Facing a complex environment driven by two decades of dramatic change, healthcare organizations are adopting new strategic frameworks such as the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) to evaluate performance (Kaplan and Norton 1992). The BSC was not originally developed as a performance management tool, however. Rather, it was designed as a tool to communicate strategy and, as such, provides little guidance when actual outcomes fall short of desired outcomes. In addition, although the BSC is an improvement over exclusively financial measures, it has three conceptual limitations that are especially problematic for evaluating healthcare organizations: (1) it underemphasizes the employee perspective, (2) it is founded on a control-based management philosophy, and (3) it emphasizes making trade-offs. To address these limitations, we propose using the Competing Values Framework (CVF), a theoretically grounded, comprehensive approach to understanding and improving organizational and managerial performance by focusing on four action imperatives: competing, controlling, collaborating, and creating. The CVF pays particular attention to the employee perspective, is consistent with a commitment-based management philosophy, and emphasizes transcending apparent paradoxes to identify win-win solutions. Rather than focusing on customer satisfaction or employee satisfaction, the CVF looks for ways to satisfy customers and employees while still addressing financial constraints and growth opportunities. The CVF also can be used to assess both the culture of the organization and the competencies of individual managers, thereby providing a clear link between strategy and implementation. PMID:17933187

  12. Let's bring balance to health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Melissa A

    2002-03-01

    Consider implementing the balanced scorecard--a performance management method that allows you to view your work from four perspectives: customer, internal business, learning and growth, and financial.

  13. Mass balance gradients and climatic change

    OpenAIRE

    Oerlemans, J.; Hoogendoorn, N.C.

    1989-01-01

    It is generally assumed that the mass-balance gradient on glaciers is more or less conserved under climatic change. In studies of the dynamic response of glaciers to climatic change, one of the following assumptions is normally made: (i) the mass-balance perturbation is independent of altitude or (ii) the mass-balance profile does not change - it simply shifts up and down. Observational evidence for such an approach is not convincing; on some glaciers the inter-annual changes in mass balance ...

  14. EXISTENCE OF OPTIMAL STRONG PARTIALLY BALANCED DESIGNS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Beiliang

    2007-01-01

    A strong partially balanced design SPBD(v, b, k; λ,0) whose b is the maximum number of blocks in all SPBD(v, b, k; λ, 0), as an optimal strong partially balanced design, briefly OSPBD(v, k, λ) is studied. In investigation of authentication codes it has been found that the strong partially balanced design can be used to construct authentication codes. This note investigates the existence of optimal strong partially balanced design OSPBD(v, k, 1) for k = 3and 4, and shows that there exists an OSPBD(v, k, 1) for any v ≥ k.

  15. Balancing guava nutrition with liming and fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Hernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Guava response to liming and fertilization can be monitored by tissue testing. Tissue nutrient signature is often diagnosed against nutrient concentration standards. However, this approach has been criticized for not considering nutrient interactions and to generate numerical biases as a result of data redundancy, scale dependency and non-normal distribution. Techniques of compositional data analysis can control those biases by balancing groups of nutrients, such as those involved in liming and fertilization. The sequentially arranged and orthonormal isometric log ratios (ilr or balances avoid numerical bias inherent to compositional data. The objectives were to relate tissue nutrient balances with the production of "Paluma" guava orchards differentially limed and fertilized, and to adjust the current patterns of nutrient balance with the range of more productive guava trees. It was conducted one experiment of 7-yr of liming and three experiments of 3-yr with N, P and K trials in 'Paluma' orchards on an Oxisol. Plant N, P, K, Ca and Mg were monitored yearly. It was selected the [N, P, K | Ca, Mg], [N, P | K], [N | P] and [Ca | Mg] balances to set apart the effects of liming (Ca-Mg and fertilizers (N-K on macronutrient balances. Liming largely influenced nutrient balances of guava in the Oxisol while fertilization was less influential. The large range of guava yields and nutrient balances allowed defining balance ranges and comparing them with the critical ranges of nutrient concentration values currently used in Brazil and combined into ilr coordinates.

  16. Application of Chybeshev Polynomials in Factorizations of Balancing and Lucas-Balancing Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanta Kumar Ray

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, with the help of orthogonal polynomial especially Chybeshev polynomials of first and second kind, number theory and linear algebra intertwined to yield factorization of the balancing and Lucas-balancing numbers.

  17. Application of Chybeshev Polynomials in Factorizations of Balancing and Lucas-Balancing Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanta Kumar Ray

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, with the help of orthogonal polynomial especially Chybeshev polynomials of first and second kind, number theory and linear algebra intertwined to yield factorization of the balancing and Lucas-balancing numbers.

  18. Aposematism: balancing salience and camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, James B; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E; Cuthill, Innes C

    2016-08-01

    Aposematic signals are often characterized by high conspicuousness. Larger and brighter signals reinforce avoidance learning, distinguish defended from palatable prey and are more easily memorized by predators. Conspicuous signalling, however, has costs: encounter rates with naive, specialized or nutritionally stressed predators are likely to increase. It has been suggested that intermediate levels of aposematic conspicuousness can evolve to balance deterrence and detectability, especially for moderately defended species. The effectiveness of such signals, however, has not yet been experimentally tested under field conditions. We used dough caterpillar-like baits to test whether reduced levels of aposematic conspicuousness can have survival benefits when predated by wild birds in natural conditions. Our results suggest that, when controlling for the number and intensity of internal contrast boundaries (stripes), a reduced-conspicuousness aposematic pattern can have a survival advantage over more conspicuous signals, as well as cryptic colours. Furthermore, we find a survival benefit from the addition of internal contrast for both high and low levels of conspicuousness. This adds ecological validity to evolutionary models of aposematic saliency and the evolution of honest signalling. PMID:27484645

  19. Energy Balance and Physical Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing in most parts of theworld and becoming one of the major global public health problems. Although the components of energy balance have not been adequately estimated over time, available evidence suggests that the increase in obesity is the result of reduced physical activity. Increases in physical activity have been shown to be strongly associated with improving physical fitness and body composition, with probably a positive effect on resting metabolic rate. The Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health advocates that 30 min of regular, moderate-intensity physical activity is associated with decreases in the risk of chronic diseases and may contribute to quality of life. However, the small changes that contribute 10 min for 3 times a day for aerobic training, or one set instead of three sets of repetitions on resistance training will provide individuals with health benefits. Indeed, nutrition and physical activity should be considered an integral part of fitness and good health, and should be encouraged in all age groups, particularly early in life. The question is no longer centered around the health benefit of increasing physical activity, but rather creating self awareness and behavior changes in individuals. Hence, effective intervention programs are needed that foster long term changes in physical activity. Among various interventions, the Nutrifit program was recently conducted in Thailand and found to improve health related fitness in children. The development of more effective interventions and approaches is a major challenge in this field today.

  20. Control Structures for Smart Grid Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juelsgaard, Morten; Totu, Luminita Cristiana; Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan;

    2013-01-01

    This work addresses the problem of maintaining the balance between consumption and production in the electricity grid when volatile resources, such as wind and sun, account for a large percentage of the power generation. We present control structures for Smart Grid balancing services on three...

  1. Newton's Third Law on a Scale Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nopparatjamjomras, Suchai; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Huntula, Jiradawan

    2009-01-01

    We propose a series of experiments involving balance readings of an object naturally floating or forced to be partially or fully immersed in water contained in a beaker sitting on an electronic scale balance. Students were asked to predict, observe and explain each case. The teacher facilitated the learning by asking probing questions, giving…

  2. Gait and balance disorders in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzman, Brooke

    2010-07-01

    Gait and balance disorders are common in older adults and are a major cause of falls in this population. They are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as reduced level of function. Common causes include arthritis and orthostatic hypotension; however, most gait and balance disorders involve multiple contributing factors. Most changes in gait are related to underlying medical conditions and should not be considered an inevitable consequence of aging. Physicians caring for older patients should ask at least annually about falls, and should ask about or examine for difficulties with gait and balance at least once. For older adults who report a fall, physicians should ask about difficulties with gait and balance, and should observe for any gait or balance dysfunctions. The Timed Up and Go test is a fast and reliable diagnostic tool. Persons who have difficulty or demonstrate unsteadiness performing the Timed Up and Go test require further assessment, usually with a physical therapist, to help elucidate gait impairments and related functional limitations. The most effective strategy for falls prevention involves a multifactorial evaluation followed by targeted interventions for identified contributing factors. Evidence on the effectiveness of interventions for gait and balance disorders is limited because of the lack of standardized outcome measures determining gait and balance abilities. However, effective options for patients with gait and balance disorders include exercise and physical therapy. PMID:20590073

  3. Decentralized Large-Scale Power Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvgaard, Rasmus; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad;

    2013-01-01

    A power balancing strategy based on Douglas-Rachford splitting is proposed as a control method for largescale integration of flexible consumers in a Smart Grid. The total power consumption is controlled through a negotiation procedure between all units and a coordinating system level. The balancing...

  4. Balancing energy in the German market design

    OpenAIRE

    Möller, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Among electricity marketplaces balancing energy takes a central role in mediating the supply and demand equilibrium. This thesis analyzes strategies employed in the balancing energy market, as well as their implications for other marketplaces in the setting of the German electricity market.

  5. Energy balance in solid state fermentation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, L.J.A.; Torres, A.; Echevarria, J.; Saura, G. (Instituto Cubano de Investigaciones de los Derivados de la Cana de Azucar (ICIDCA), La Habana (Cuba))

    1991-01-01

    It was applied a macroscopic energy balance to a solid state fermentation process and an electron balance in order to estimate the temperature and the heat evolved in the process. There were employed several equations that describe the development of the system and offer the possibility to design or control such fermentations. (orig.).

  6. Attentional Focus Effects in Balance Acrobats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    Performing and learning motor skills has been shown to be enhanced if the performer adopts an external relative to internal focus (or no focus) of attention (Wulf, 2007). The present study examined the generalizability of this effect to top-level performers (balance acrobats). Participants performed a balance task (standing on an inflated rubber…

  7. Driving Improvement with a Balanced Scorecard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowart, Scott K.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how a school district's use of a transparent tool coalesced support for systemic improvement. The author was looking for a way to push improvement in his 4,000-student school system when he discovered the balanced scorecard, a strategic tool for performance management. The author details how the balanced scorecard helped him…

  8. Kritieke Succes Factoren en de Balanced Scorecard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Veen-Dirks, P.M.G.; Wijn, M.F.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Zowel de Balanced Scorecard als de bepaling van Kritieke Succes Factoren kunnen worden beschouwd als methoden om te komen tot de tegenwoordig zo noodzakelijk geachte niet-financiele indicatoren. Over de relatie tussen Balanced Scorecard en Kritieke Succes Factoren bestaat echter veel onduidelijkheid

  9. Performance Evaluation of Balanced Pension Plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Andreu (Laura); L.A.P. Swinkels (Laurens)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the ability of balanced pension plan managers to successfully time the equity and bond market and select the appropriate assets within these markets. In order to evaluate both market timing abilities in these balanced pension plans, we extend the traditional equity ma

  10. 14 CFR 23.659 - Mass balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mass balance. 23.659 Section 23.659 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Surfaces § 23.659 Mass balance. The supporting structure and the attachment of concentrated mass...

  11. 14 CFR 29.659 - Mass balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mass balance. 29.659 Section 29.659... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.659 Mass balance. (a) The rotor... flutter at any speed up to the maximum forward speed. (b) The structural integrity of the mass...

  12. 14 CFR 27.659 - Mass balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mass balance. 27.659 Section 27.659... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.659 Mass balance. (a) The rotors... flutter at any speed up to the maximum forward speed. (b) The structural integrity of the mass...

  13. Microprocessor-Controlled Laser Balancing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    Material removed by laser action as part tested for balance. Directed by microprocessor, laser fires appropriate amount of pulses in correct locations to remove necessary amount of material. Operator and microprocessor software interact through video screen and keypad; no programing skills or unprompted system-control decisions required. System provides complete and accurate balancing in single load-and-spinup cycle.

  14. Dimensions of Balance in an Administrator's Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This article presents a new model for viewing and implementing balance in the lives of higher education administrators derived from a review of the educational, psychological, and management literature. Rejecting the traditional, two dimensional model for balancing work with the rest of life, the new model envisions four concentric circles of…

  15. On the Mass Balance of Asphaltene Precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Ivar; Lira-Galeana, C.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2001-01-01

    In the evaluation of experimental data as well as in calculation of phase equilibria the necessity of the application of mass balances is obvious. In the case of asphaltenes the colloidal nature of these compounds may highly affect the mass balance. In the present paper several experiments are pe...

  16. Balancing with the Brain in Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Smith, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author states that it's important for physical educators to understand the connection between balancing and learning. Since, balancing activities provide a link between physical education and the classroom that can enhance both academic learning and physical skill development. They need to be aware of the tremendous impact…

  17. Managing Service Quality with the Balanced Scorecard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poll, Roswitha

    In order to evaluate and utilize library data for the management process, a German project, sponsored by the German Research Council, uses the Balanced Scorecard as the concept for integrated quality management. Performance indicators across the following four perspectives are combined to produce a balanced evaluation of the library: (1) users,…

  18. Balance and Self-Efficacy of Balance in Children with CHARGE Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haibach, Pamela S.; Lieberman, Lauren J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Balance is a critical component of daily living, because it affects all movements and the ability to function independently. Children with CHARGE syndrome have sensory and motor impairments that could negatively affect their balance and postural control. The purpose of the study presented in this article was to assess the balance and…

  19. Engine balance apparatus and accessory drive device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egleston, Robert W. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A balancing mechanism for an engine that has a rotating crankshaft and reciprocating pistons. The balancing mechanism comprises a primary balance mass assembly non-rotatably and removably affixed to the crankshaft. The primary mass assembly comprises a primary mass affixed to a primary hub portion and a primary cap portion removably affixed to the primary hub portion to clamp a portion of the crankshaft therebetween. A secondary balance mass assembly may be rotatably and removably supported on the crankshaft. A driver assembly is affixed to the crankshaft to cause the secondary balance mass to rotate in a direction that is opposite to the direction in which the crank shaft is rotating. The driver assembly may include auxiliary gears configured to transport rotary power to auxiliary components. The gears are readily detachable from the apparatus to facilitate inspection and repair operations.

  20. Brazilian energy balance 2008 - year 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian energy balance - BEB - is divided into eight chapters and eleven annexes, whose contents are as follow: chapter 1 - energy analysis and aggregated data; chapter 2 - energy supply and demand by source; chapter 3 - energy consumption by sector; chapter 4 - energy imports and exports; chapter 5 - balance of transformation centers; chapter 6 - energy resources and reserves; chapter 7 - energy and socioeconomics; chapter 8 - state energy data; annex I - installed capacity; annex II - self-generation of electricity; annex III - world energy data; annex IV - world energy evolution; annex V - useful energy balance; annex VI - general structure of the BEN; annex VII - treatment of information; annex VIII - units; annex IX - conversion factors; annex X - consolidated energy balances 1970/2007; annex XI - energy balance 2007. (author)

  1. Energy Balance and Physical Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KALLAYAKIJBOONCHOO

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing in most parts of the world and becoming one of the major global public health problems.Although the components of energy balance have not been adequately estimated over time,available evidence suggests that the increase in obesity is the result of reduced physical activity.Increases in physical activity have been showen to be strongly associated with improving physical fitness and body composition,with probably a positive effect on resting metabolic rate.The Surgeon General's Report on physical Activity and Health advocates that 30 min of regular,moderate-intensity physical activity is associated with decreases in the risk of chronic diseases and may contribute to quality of life.However,the small changes that contribute 10 min for 3 times a day for 3 times a day for aerobic training,or one set instead of three sets of repetitions on resistance training will provide individuals training,or one set instead of three sets of repetitions on resistance training will provide individuals with health benefits.Indeed,nutrition and physical activity should be considered an integral part of fitness and good health,and should be encouraged in all age groups,particularly early in life,The question is no longer centerd around the health benefit of increasing physical activity,but rather creating self awareness and behavior changes in individuals,Hence,effective intervention programs are needed that foster long term changes in physical activity.Among various interventions,the Nutrifit program was recently conducted in Thailand and found to improve health related fitness in children,The development of more effective interventions and approaches is a major challege in this field today.

  2. Balancing Public and Private Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Scheltema

    2016-01-01

    an effective grievance mechanism, provide sufficient means for monitoring and enforcement and contribute to a more balanced risk attribution between producers and (ultimate buyers.

  3. Mass-balance parameters derived from a synthetic network of mass-balance glaciers

    OpenAIRE

    Machguth, Horst; Haeberli, Wilfried; Paul, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Glacier mass-balance parameters such as the equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) play an important role when working with large glacier samples. While the number of observational mass-balance series to derive such parameters is limited, more and more modeled data are becoming available. Here we explore the possibilities of analyzing such ‘synthetic’ mass-balance data with respect to mass-balance parameters. A simplified energy-balance model is driven by bias-corrected regional climate model output...

  4. Introduction To Application Server Load Balancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Pamukumar Swamy

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Now a day’s, everything is going online. And most of the work is done on internet. So, web applications plays vital role on internet to provide 24*7 services to customers. When application becomes popular, traffic to that is also in a state of growing. For availability, scalability, performances boosting more and more servers are required. Load balancing is a key issue in these types of large scale situation. Load balancing is to achieve optimal resource utilization, maximize throughput, minimize response time, and avoid overload. In many scenarios, however, it’s not simply a matter of distributing traffic equally across many servers once deploys; other factors can come into play. Here we studied different load balancing strategies, algorithms, methods and investigate the comparative behavior of load balancing with different parameters. The growing autonomy of servers’ significantly deteriorates the performance of traditional load-balancing so; idea is to implement application load balancer by using Dynamic load balancing method.

  5. Fluid balance and exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rabindarjeet

    2003-03-01

    Major sporting events in Malaysia are commonly staged in hot environments where the average daytime temperature is generally in the range of 29 to 31°C with the average relative humidity ranging from 80 to 95%. Exercise capacity and exercise performance are reduced when the ambient temperature is high and it has major implications for competitors as well as for spectators and officials. Prolonged exercise leads to progressive water and electrolyte loss from the body as sweat is secreted to promote heat loss. The rate of sweating depends on many factors and increases in proportion to work rate and environmental temperature and humidity. Sweat rates are highly variable and can exceed 2L.h-1 for prolonged periods in high heat. Since dehydration will impair exercise capacity and can pose a risk to health, the intake of fluid during exercise to offset sweat losses is important. Carbohydrate-electrolyte fluid ingestion during exercise has the dual role of providing a source of carbohydrate fuel to supplement the body's limited stores and of supplying water and electrolytes to replace the losses incurred by sweating. The composition of the drinks to be taken will be influenced by the relative importance of the need to supply fuel and water which, in turn depends on the intensity and duration of exercise activity, the ambient temperature, and humidity. Carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions appear to be more effective in improving performance than plain water. There is no advantage to fluid intake during exercise of less than 30-minute duration. Complete restoration of fluid balance after exercise is an important part of the recovery process and becomes even more important in hot, humid conditions. If a second bout of exercise has to be performed after a relatively short interval, the speed of rehydration becomes of crucial importance. Rehydration after exercise requires not only replacement of volume losses, but also replacement of some electrolytes, primarily sodium

  6. Strain gage balances and buffet gages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, A. T.

    1983-01-01

    One-piece strain gage force balances were developed for use in the National Transonic Facility (NTF). This was accomplished by studying the effects of the cryogenic environment on materials, strain gages, cements, solders, and moisture proofing agents, and selecting those that minimized strain gage output changes due to temperature. In addition, because of the higher loads that may be imposed by the NTF, these balances are designed to carry a larger load for a given diameter than conventional balances. Full cryogenic calibrations were accomplished, and wind tunnel results that were obtained from the Langley 0-3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel were used to verify laboratory test results.

  7. Introduction to energy balance of biomass production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During last years, energy crops have been envisaged as an interesting alternative to biomass residues utilization as renewable energy source. In this work, main parameters used in calculating the energy balance of an energy crop are analyzed. The approach consists of determining energy equivalents for the different inputs and outputs of the process, thus obtaining energy ratios of the system, useful to determine if the energy balance is positive, that is, if the system generates energy. Energy costs for inputs and assessment approaches for energy crop yields (output) are provided. Finally, as a way of illustration, energy balances of some representative energy crops are shown. (Author) 15 refs

  8. Point configurations that are asymmetric yet balanced

    CERN Document Server

    Cohn, Henry; Kumar, Abhinav; Schuermann, Achill

    2008-01-01

    A configuration of particles confined to a sphere is balanced if they are in equilibrium under all force laws (that act between pairs of points with strength given by a fixed function of distance). It is straightforward to show that every sufficiently symmetrical configuration is balanced, but the converse is far from obvious. In 1957 Leech completely classified the balanced configurations in R^3, and his classification is equivalent to the converse for R^3. In this paper we disprove the converse in high dimensions. We construct several counterexamples, including one with trivial symmetry group.

  9. Radiation balances and the solar constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crommelynck, D.

    1981-01-01

    The radiometric concepts are defined in order to consider various types of radiation balances and relate them to the diabetic form of the energy balance. Variability in space and time of the components of the radiation field are presented. A specific concept for sweeping which is tailored to the requirements is proposed. Finally, after establishing the truncated character of the present knowledge of the radiation balance. The results of the last observations of the solar constant are given. Ground and satellite measurement techniques are discussed.

  10. EFFECT OF WOBBLE BOARD BALANCE TRAINING PROGRAM ON STATIC BALANCE, DYNAMIC BALANCE & TRIPLE HOP DISTANCE IN MALE COLLEGIATE BASKETBALL ATHLETE

    OpenAIRE

    Neeraj Panwar, MPT (Sports); Gaurav Kadyan, MPT (Sports); Aseem Gupta, MPT (Sports); Ravinder Narwal, MPT (Ortho,Cardiopulmonary)

    2014-01-01

    Aim & Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of wobble board balance training program on static & dynamic balance & on triple hop distance in male collegiate basketball athletes. Methodology: Fifty healthy basketball players within a age group of 18-22 yrs. were randomly selected with a baseline BESS score between 6 to 14 & modified SEBT score equal to or greater than 94 (till 100) and they randomly divided into control (n-25) & training group (n-25).The training grou...

  11. Surface Mass Balance of the Columbia Glacier, Alaska, 1978 and 2010 Balance Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neel, Shad

    2012-01-01

    Although Columbia Glacier is one of the largest sources of glacier mass loss in Alaska, surface mass balance measurements are sparse, with only a single data set available from 1978. The dearth of surface mass-balance data prohibits partitioning of the total mass losses between dynamics and surface forcing; however, the accurate inclusion of calving glaciers into predictive models requires both dynamic and climatic forcing of total mass balance. During 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey collected surface balance data at several locations distributed over the surface of Columbia Glacier to estimate the glacier-wide annual balance for balance year 2010 using the 2007 area-altitude distribution. This report also summarizes data collected in 1978, calculates the 1978 annual surface balance, and uses these observations to constrain the 2010 values, particularly the shape of the balance profile. Both years exhibit balances indicative of near-equilibrium surface mass-balance conditions, and demonstrate the importance of dynamic processes during the rapid retreat.

  12. Microwave balanced oscillators and frequency doublers

    CERN Document Server

    Siripon, N

    2002-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis is on the application of the injection-locked oscillator technique to microwave balanced oscillators. The balanced oscillator design is primarily analysed using the extended resonance technique. A transmission line is connected between the two active devices, so that the active device resonate each other. The electrical length of the transmission line is also analysed for the balanced oscillation condition. The balanced oscillator can be viewed with the negative resistance model and the feedback model. The former model is characterised at a circuit plane where the feedback network is cut. By using both the negative-resistance oscillator model and the feedback model, the locking range of the oscillator is analysed by extending Kurokawa's theory. This analysis demonstrates the locking range of the injection phenomenon, where the injection frequency is either close to the free-running frequency, close to (1/n) x free-running frequency or close to n x the free-running frequen...

  13. Strategic management by balanced development: meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevtushenko Natalya Olexandrivna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on analyzes of references it was found out the meaning of «management», «strategic management», «development of enterprise», «balanced development» and were proved their connections. It was described authorial interpretation of definition “strategic management by balanced development”. The next descriptions were separated: presence of quantitative and quality changes, adaptation to influence of internal and external environment factors. It was set that a human capital is the main source of the balanced development. On the basis of generalization and systematization of existent interpretations was offered authorial determination of essence of concept «strategic management by balanced development of enterprise».

  14. Jet Exit Rig Six Component Force Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Raymond; Wolter, John; Woike, Mark; Booth, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    A new six axis air balance was delivered to the NASA Glenn Research Center. This air balance has an axial force capability of 800 pounds, primary airflow of 10 pounds per second, and a secondary airflow of 3 pounds per second. Its primary use was for the NASA Glenn Jet Exit Rig, a wind tunnel model used to test both low-speed, and high-speed nozzle concepts in a wind tunnel. This report outlines the installation of the balance in the Jet Exit Rig, and the results from an ASME calibration nozzle with an exit area of 8 square-inches. The results demonstrated the stability of the force balance for axial measurements and the repeatability of measurements better than 0.20 percent.

  15. Surface melt dominates Alaska glacier mass balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen Chris F; Burgess, E; Arendt, A.A.; O'Neel, Shad; Johnson, A.J.; Kienholz, C.

    2015-01-01

    Mountain glaciers comprise a small and widely distributed fraction of the world's terrestrial ice, yet their rapid losses presently drive a large percentage of the cryosphere's contribution to sea level rise. Regional mass balance assessments are challenging over large glacier populations due to remote and rugged geography, variable response of individual glaciers to climate change, and episodic calving losses from tidewater glaciers. In Alaska, we use airborne altimetry from 116 glaciers to estimate a regional mass balance of −75 ± 11 Gt yr−1 (1994–2013). Our glacier sample is spatially well distributed, yet pervasive variability in mass balances obscures geospatial and climatic relationships. However, for the first time, these data allow the partitioning of regional mass balance by glacier type. We find that tidewater glaciers are losing mass at substantially slower rates than other glaciers in Alaska and collectively contribute to only 6% of the regional mass loss.

  16. Balancing the books accounting for librarians

    CERN Document Server

    Kirk, Rachel A

    2012-01-01

    Balancing the Books: Accounting for Librarians fills the gap that exists in literature on library acquisitions accounting. By covering essential accounting concepts, budgeting, government regulations that pertain to libraries, as well as accounting measur

  17. Load Balancing Algorithm for Cache Cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘美华; 古志民; 曹元大

    2003-01-01

    By the load definition of cluster, the request is regarded as granularity to compute load and implement the load balancing in cache cluster. First, the processing power of cache-node is studied from four aspects: network bandwidth, memory capacity, disk access rate and CPU usage. Then, the weighted load of cache-node is customized. Based on this, a load-balancing algorithm that can be applied to the cache cluster is proposed. Finally, Polygraph is used as a benchmarking tool to test the cache cluster possessing the load-balancing algorithm and the cache cluster with cache array routing protocol respectively. The results show the load-balancing algorithm can improve the performance of the cache cluster.

  18. Walking (Gait), Balance, and Coordination Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and include: poor balance and slowed walking reduced proprioception (the sensation of where your body parts are ... MS Connection Visit MSConnection.org symptoms of ms proprioception" the 6th sense of ms..please learn!! general ...

  19. Water and sodium balance in space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drummer, C; Norsk, P; Heer, M

    2001-01-01

    We have previously shown that fluid balances and body fluid regulation in microgravity (microG) differ from those on Earth (Drummer et al, Eur J Physiol 441:R66-R72, 2000). Arriving in microG leads to a redistribution of body fluid-composed of a shift of fluid to the upper part of the body...... and an exaggerated extravasation very early in-flight. The mechanisms for the increased vascular permeability are not known. Evaporation, oral hydration, and urinary fluid excretion, the major components of water balance, are generally diminished during space flight compared with conditions on Earth. Nevertheless......, cumulative water balance and total body water content are stable during flight if hydration, nutritional energy supply, and protection of muscle mass are at an acceptable level. Recent water balance data disclose that the phenomenon of an absolute water loss during space flight, which has often been reported...

  20. Improving Current Balance In Parallel MOSFET's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedra, Janis M.

    1992-01-01

    Simple circuit makes currents more nearly equal. Addition of diodes and adjustable-tap resistor increases operating range over which drain currents in two unmatched power MOSFET's brought more nearly into balance.

  1. TOWARDS AN ISLAMIC APPROACH FOR ENVIRONMENTAL BALANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Akhtar, Muhammad Ramzan

    1996-01-01

    The paper studies the Islamic viewpoint about the environment and presents the notion of environmental balance in an Islamic economy. It asserts that this balance can be maintained with the help of Islamic ethics and institutions. The paper demonstrates the positive role of the private sector in terms of environment-friendly behavior, fellow-feeling, and simple living of the people. Similarly, it discusses the legislature, monitoring and resource development roles of the Islamic state to prot...

  2. BALANCED SCORECARD AND THE MANAGEMENT INTRUMENTS COMPLEMENTARITY

    OpenAIRE

    Sunhilde CUC

    2009-01-01

    The Balanced Scorecard (BSC) presents the quantitative goals selected from multiple perspectives for implementing the organizational strategy and vision. This article considers how Total Quality Management, Activity Based Management (ABM), Customer Value Analysis, EVA and Budgets approaches may complement a balanced scorecard effort. It briefly outlines how this tools are defined, considers their strengths and weaknesses. The paper concludes that when other tools used in conjunction with BSC ...

  3. Effect of Aquatic Immersion on Static Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Louder, Talin J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To quantitatively assess measures of static balance and limits of stability (LOS) in an aquatic environment compared to on land. Methods Fifteen healthy, young adults (23 + or - 2 years) performed 90 s static balance trials on land and aquatic immersion at two different depths (greater trochanter, xiphoid process). Measures of 95% ellipse area and center of pressure (CoP) mean velocity were computed from the force data. Additionally, participants completed a visual analog scale (VAS...

  4. Why work-life balance now?

    OpenAIRE

    Fleetwood, Steve

    2006-01-01

    In the vast literature on work-life balance one question remains seriously under-elaborated: Why now? The paper opens by recognising that flexible working practices can be employee friendly or employer friendly, and that current employer friendly practices tend to constrain, rather than enable, possibilities for work-life balance. Part two introduces neoliberalism, interpreting it as a new class strategy: the iron fist of a renewed ruling class offensive is wrapped in the velvet glove of free...

  5. Hydraulic Calibrator for Strain-Gauge Balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelly, Kenneth; Ballard, John

    1987-01-01

    Instrument for calibrating strain-gauge balances uses hydraulic actuators and load cells. Eliminates effects of nonparallelism, nonperpendicularity, and changes of cable directions upon vector sums of applied forces. Errors due to cable stretching, pulley friction, and weight inaccuracy also eliminated. New instrument rugged and transportable. Set up quickly. Developed to apply known loads to wind-tunnel models with encapsulated strain-gauge balances, also adapted for use in calibrating dynamometers, load sensors on machinery and laboratory instruments.

  6. Default, Reputation and Balanced-Budget Rules

    OpenAIRE

    David R. Stockman

    2004-01-01

    Is a balanced-budget rule compatible with a government honoring its debt obligations? According to the conventional explanation, governments honor their debt obligations to maintain a good reputation for future borrowing. The ability of borrowing is desirable because it allows for greater tax smoothing. However, a balanced-budget rule limits the ability to smooth taxes, rendering a large class of competititve equilibria not compatible with a government honoring its debt obligations. The reput...

  7. Fault Attack on the Balanced Shrinking Generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Juntao; LI Xuelian; HU Yupu

    2006-01-01

    Fault analysis, belonging to indirect attack, is a cryptanalysis technique for the physical implementation of cryptosystem. In this paper, we propose a fault attack on the Balanced Shrinking Generator. The results show that the attacker can obtain the secret key by analyzing faulty output sequences which is produced by changing control clock of one of Linear Feedback Shift Registers (LFSR). Therefore, the balanced shrinking generator has a trouble in hardware implementation.

  8. Umsetzung der Unternehmensstrategie mit der Balanced Scorecard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Isabel; Bergmann, Lars; Portmann, Stefan; Lacker, Thomas; Lacker, Michael; Fleischmann, Jürgen; Kozó, Hans

    Die Balanced Scorecard (BSC) ist ein Ansatz zum strategischen Management, der neben der Ausrichtung des Unternehmens auf finanzielle Zielwerte ebenso großes Gewicht auf so genannte weiche Faktoren legt, die den wirtschaftlichen Erfolg eines Unternehmens erst ermöglichen. Das entscheidende Merkmal der Balanced Scorecard ist dabei, dass sie ein ausgewogenes System strategischer Ziele herstellt, welches das Unternehmen hinsichtlich der vier Perspektiven Finanzen, Kunden, interne Prozesse und Mitarbeiter und Potenziale strategisch ausrichtet (Kaplan u. Norton 1997).

  9. Age effects on mediolateral balance control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Eduardo Cofré Lizama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Age-related balance impairments, particularly in mediolateral direction (ML may cause falls. Sufficiently sensitive and reliable ML balance tests are, however, lacking. This study is aimed to determine (1 the effect of age on and (2 the reliability of ML balance performance using Center of Mass (CoM tracking. METHODS: Balance performance of 19 young (26±3 years and 19 older (72±5 years adults on ML-CoM tracking tasks was compared. Subjects tracked predictable and unpredictable target displacements at increasing frequencies with their CoM by shifting their weight sideward. Phase-shift (response delay and gain (amplitude difference between the CoM and target in the frequency domain were used to quantify performance. Thirteen older and all young adults were reassessed to determine reliability of balance performance measures. In addition, all older adults performed a series of clinical balance tests and conventional posturography was done in a sub-sample. RESULTS: Phase-shift and gain dropped below pre-determined thresholds (-90 degrees and 0.5 at lower frequencies in the older adults and were even lower below these frequencies than in young adults. Performance measures showed good to excellent reliability in both groups. All clinical scores were close to the maximum and no age effect was found using posturography. ML balance performance measures exhibited small but systematic between-session differences indicative of learning. CONCLUSIONS: The ability to accurately perform ML-CoM tracking deteriorates with age. ML-CoM tracking tasks form a reliable tool to assess ML balance in young and older adults and are more sensitive to age-related impairment than posturography and clinical tests.

  10. Comparison of energy balances in public buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Avguštin, Nejc

    2015-01-01

    The thesis deals with a comparative analysis of energy balance of public buildings before and after energy renovation. Most of the energy renovations of public buildings in Slovenia between 2010 and 2015 was co-financed by the Cohesion Fund of the European Union. The analysis is based on the calculations of energy balances of the buildings before and after renovation. The calculations were carried out by designers prior to submitting the project application for subsidy. We had ...

  11. Climate change and balance of trade

    OpenAIRE

    Hochman, Gal; Zilberman, David

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of a global climate agreement, countries employ local policies to curb pollution and introduce clean energy. These policies limit domestic consumption of a traded energy source but increase exports thus improving a country’s energy balance and its balance of trade. While focusing on US energy policy, we show this phenomenon for both petroleum products and for coal.

  12. Energy balance of algal biogas production

    OpenAIRE

    Milledge, J.J.; Heaven, S.

    2014-01-01

    A mechanistic energy balance model was successfully developed for the production of biogas from the anaerobic digestion of micro-algal biomass from raceways. The energy balance model was used to consider the energetic viability of a number of production scenarios, and to identify the most critical parameters affecting net energy production. The output of the model demonstrated that no single method of harvesting studied (centrifugation, settlement or flocculation), produced a sufficiently gr...

  13. Optimal Signal Recovery for Pulsed Balanced Detection

    OpenAIRE

    de Icaza Astiz, Yannick A.; Lucivero, Vito Giovanni; León-Montiel, R. de J.; Mitchell, Morgan W.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a new tool for filtering technical and electronic noises from pulses of light, especially relevant for signal processing methods in quantum optics experiments as a means to achieve the shot-noise level and reduce strong technical noise by means of a pattern function. We provide the theory of this pattern-function filtering based on balance detection. Moreover, we implement an experimental demonstration where 10 dB of technical noise is filtered after balance detection. Such fil...

  14. Effect of Somatosensory Impairments on Balance Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Hassanpour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The somatosensory system is one of the most effective systems in balance control. It consists of peripheral and central components. Knowing the role of these components in balance control assists the developing of effective rehabilitation protocols. In some diseases peripheral components and in others central components are impaired. This paper reviews the effect of impairment of peripheral and central components of the somatosensory system on balance control.Methods: In this study publication about somatosensory impairments from 1983 through 2011 in PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, Google Scholar, Iran Medex, Iran Doc and Magiran were reviewed. Medical subject headings terms and keywords related to balance, somatosensory, somatosensory loss, and sensory integration/processing were used to perform the searches.Conclusion: Somatosensory impairments either with peripheral or central origin, can cause problems in balance control. However, these problems are not considered in some patients. In these impairments, balance training is recommended to be used alongside other routine treatments in the patients' rehabilitation programs.

  15. Development of a Common Nordic Balance Settlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    NordREG finds it essential for the customers that a common integrated end-user electricity market is developed and that all end-users are able to take part in the Nordic market. A common Nordic balance settlement is one important part of such a change. However, attention has to be paid to the comments that a badly designed common system is worse than well-designed national systems. It is thus important that the change to a common balance settlement is so thoroughly investigated that the common system gives a basis for a well-functioning market. An important basis for such a change is an agreed vision for the process: The present different systems for balance settlement shall by the year 2010 be replaced by a common Nordic balance settlement. This means that: It will be possible for a supplier to sell to the whole Nordic market from one legal entity and using only one system for customer management and reporting. The common Nordic balance settlement will be designed in such a way that it contributes to a well functioning market. This means for example that it will be attractive even for small suppliers and some end-users to be balance responsible parties. It is feasible that the first phase is focused on those present differences that are most decisive for fulfilment of the vision. NordREG recommends that the following issues shall be discussed and agreed in co-operation between NordREG, Nordel and relevant stakeholders in the first phase: The definition shall include how the common Nordic balance settlement shall interact with the balance control and the balance regulation of the interconnected power system and the balance settlement between countries performed by the TSOs. The definition should include the cost-base for common Nordic balance settlement in relation to other system responsibility costs. The core activities of system responsibility have also been analyzed by NordREG. It is important to find a balance between inter alia the need for simplicity and the

  16. Mass balance, meteorological, and runoff measurements at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, 1992 balance year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimmel, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Values of winter snow accumulation and summer snow, firn, and ice ablation were measured at South Cascade Glacier, WA, to determine the winter and net balance for the 1992 balance year. The 1992 winter balance, averaged over the glacier, was 1.91 m, and the net balance was -2.01 m. This extremely negative balance continued a trend of negative balance years beginning in 1977. Air temperature (at 1,615 m and 1,867 m), barometric pressure, precipitation, and runoff from this glacier basin and an adjacent non-glacierized basin were also continuously measured. This report makes all these data, in tabular, graphical, and machine-readable forms, available to users.

  17. Romania's road to Euro zone. From structural balance to structural balance corrected for absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura-Gabriela SOCOL

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The sovereign-debt crisis in the European Union has determined the necessity to reform the signal indicators for the analysis of the public finances' sustainability. In this context, many of the developing/emerging countries consider that the informational value provided by the structural budget balance indicator is insufficient, especially during the periods characterized by absorption. The present study suggests the transition from classical structural budget balance (CAB in the structural balance corrected for absorption (CAAB and supports the use of an improved indicator of the structural budget balance with a superior informational relevance for the macro-economic policies decision makers. Based on the economic literature we will demonstrate that the structural budget balance indicator should be improved, in order to also take into consideration the deviation of the current account balance from its sustainable level, particularly in the stage of the economic cycle characterized by high absorption.

  18. Wii balance board exercise improves balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The potential health benefits of the Nintendo Wii balance board exercise have been widely investigated. However, no study has been conducted to examine the benefits of Wii exercise for overweight young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise performed on a Nintendo Wii balance board on the balance and lower limb muscle strength in overweight young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Within-subject repeated measures analysis was used. Sixteen young adults (...

  19. Medical Devices Assess, Treat Balance Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    You may have heard the phrase as difficult as walking and chewing gum as a joking way of referring to something that is not difficult at all. Just walking, however, is not all that simple physiologically speaking. Even standing upright is an undertaking requiring the complex cooperation of multiple motor and sensory systems including vision, the inner ear, somatosensation (sensation from the skin), and proprioception (the sense of the body s parts in relation to each other). The compromised performance of any of these elements can lead to a balance disorder, which in some form affects nearly half of Americans at least once in their lifetimes, from the elderly, to those with neurological or vestibular (inner ear) dysfunction, to athletes with musculoskeletal injuries, to astronauts returning from space. Readjusting to Earth s gravity has a significant impact on an astronaut s ability to balance, a result of the brain switching to a different "model" for interpreting sensory input in normal gravity versus weightlessness. While acclimating, astronauts can experience headaches, motion sickness, and problems with perception. To help ease the transition and study the effects of weightlessness on the body, NASA has conducted many investigations into post-flight balance control, realizing this research can help treat patients with balance disorders on Earth as well. In the 1960s, the NASA-sponsored Man Vehicle Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) studied the effects of prolonged space flight on astronauts. The lab s work intrigued MIT doctoral candidate Lewis Nashner, who began conducting NASA-funded research on human movement and balance under the supervision of Dr. Larry Young in the MIT Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics. In 1982, Nashner s work resulted in a noninvasive clinical technique for assessing the cooperative systems that allow the body to balance, commonly referred to as computerized dynamic posturography (CDP). CDP employs a

  20. Wii balance board exercise improves balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The potential health benefits of the Nintendo Wii balance board exercise have been widely investigated. However, no study has been conducted to examine the benefits of Wii exercise for overweight young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise performed on a Nintendo Wii balance board on the balance and lower limb muscle strength in overweight young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Within-subject repeated measures analysis was used. Sixteen young adults (aged 21.87±1.13 years, body mass index 24.15 ± 0.50 kg/m(2)) were recruited. All subjects performed an exercise program on a Wii balance board for 8 weeks (30 min/session, twice a week for 8 weeks). A NeuroCom Balance Master and a hand-held dynamometer were used to measure balance performance and lower limb muscle strength. [Results] According to the comparison of pre- and post-intervention measurements, the Wii balance board exercise program significantly improved the limit of stability parameters. There was also a significant increase in strength of four lower-limb muscle groups: the hip flexor, knee flexor, ankle dorsiflexor and ankle plantarflexor. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that a Wii balance board exercise program can be used to improve the balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults.

  1. Wii balance board exercise improves balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The potential health benefits of the Nintendo Wii balance board exercise have been widely investigated. However, no study has been conducted to examine the benefits of Wii exercise for overweight young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise performed on a Nintendo Wii balance board on the balance and lower limb muscle strength in overweight young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Within-subject repeated measures analysis was used. Sixteen young adults (aged 21.87±1.13 years, body mass index 24.15 ± 0.50 kg/m(2)) were recruited. All subjects performed an exercise program on a Wii balance board for 8 weeks (30 min/session, twice a week for 8 weeks). A NeuroCom Balance Master and a hand-held dynamometer were used to measure balance performance and lower limb muscle strength. [Results] According to the comparison of pre- and post-intervention measurements, the Wii balance board exercise program significantly improved the limit of stability parameters. There was also a significant increase in strength of four lower-limb muscle groups: the hip flexor, knee flexor, ankle dorsiflexor and ankle plantarflexor. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that a Wii balance board exercise program can be used to improve the balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults. PMID:25642034

  2. Loss of balance during balance beam walking elicits a multifocal theta band electrocortical response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipp, Amy R; Gwin, Joseph T; Makeig, Scott; Ferris, Daniel P

    2013-11-01

    Determining the neural correlates of loss of balance during walking could lead to improved clinical assessment and treatment for individuals predisposed to falls. We used high-density electroencephalography (EEG) combined with independent component analysis (ICA) to study loss of balance during human walking. We examined 26 healthy young subjects performing heel-to-toe walking on a treadmill-mounted balance beam as well as walking on the treadmill belt (both at 0.22 m/s). ICA identified clusters of electrocortical EEG sources located in or near anterior cingulate, anterior parietal, superior dorsolateral-prefrontal, and medial sensorimotor cortex that exhibited significantly larger mean spectral power in the theta band (4-7 Hz) during walking on the balance beam compared with treadmill walking. Left and right sensorimotor cortex clusters produced significantly less power in the beta band (12-30 Hz) during walking on the balance beam compared with treadmill walking. For each source cluster, we also computed a normalized mean time/frequency spectrogram time locked to the gait cycle during loss of balance (i.e., when subjects stepped off the balance beam). All clusters except the medial sensorimotor cluster exhibited a transient increase in theta band power during loss of balance. Cluster spectrograms demonstrated that the first electrocortical indication of impending loss of balance occurred in the left sensorimotor cortex at the transition from single support to double support prior to stepping off the beam. These findings provide new insight into the neural correlates of walking balance control and could aid future studies on elderly individuals and others with balance impairments.

  3. Active dynamic balancing unit for controlled shaking force and shaking moment balancing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van der Volkert; Herder, Just L.

    2010-01-01

    For a mechanism with many elements that needs to be shaking-force and shaking-moment balanced with a low addition of mass, a low addition of inertia, and a low addition of complexity, the use of actively computer-controlled balancing elements is promising. With these actively controlled elements the

  4. Work-Life Balance: Strategies for Attaining and Maintaining Work-Life Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Josette Chinchiolo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: It was the purpose of this study (a) to identify and describe the elements of balance that elementary principals perceive as most important to their personal and professional lives; (b) to identify the strategies elementary principals perceive as most important to maintain balance in their personal and professional lives; (c) to determine…

  5. The Energy Balance Experiment EBEX-2000. Part I: Overview and energy balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oncley, S.P.; Foken, T.; Vogt, R.; Kohsiek, W.; Debruin, H.A.R.; Bernhofer, C.; Christen, A.; Gorsel, van E.; Grantz, D.; Feigenwinter, C.; Lehner, I.; Liebethal, C.; Liu, H.; Mauder, M.; Pitacco, A.; Ribeiro, L.; Weidinger, T.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the Energy Balance Experiment (EBEX-2000) is given. This experiment studied the ability of state-of-the-art measurements to close the surface energy balance over a surface (a vegetative canopy with large evapotranspiration) where closure has been difficult to obtain. A flood-irrigated

  6. Comprehensive Energy Balance Measurements in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moir, Lee; Bentley, Liz; Cox, Roger D

    2016-09-01

    In mice with altered body composition, establishing whether it is food intake or energy expenditure, or both, that is the major determinant resulting in changed energy balance is important. In order to ascertain where the imbalance is, the acquisition of reproducible data is critical. Therefore, here we provide detailed descriptions of how to determine energy balance in mice. This encompasses protocols for establishing energy intake from home cage measurement of food intake, determining energy lost in feces using bomb calorimetry, and using equations to calculate parameters such as energy intake (EI), digested energy intake (DEI), and metabolisable energy intake (MEI) to determine overall energy balance. We also discuss considerations that should be taken into account when planning these experiments, including diet and sample sizes. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. Review of Potential Wind Tunnel Balance Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Devin E.; Williams, Quincy L.; Phillips, Ben D.; Commo, Sean A.; Ponder, Jonathon D.

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript reviews design, manufacture, materials, sensors, and data acquisition technologies that may benefit wind tunnel balances for the aerospace research community. Current state-of-the-art practices are used as the benchmark to consider advancements driven by researcher and facility needs. Additive manufacturing is highlighted as a promising alternative technology to conventional fabrication and has the potential to reduce both the cost and time required to manufacture force balances. Material alternatives to maraging steels are reviewed. Sensor technologies including piezoresistive, piezoelectric, surface acoustic wave, and fiber optic are compared to traditional foil based gages to highlight unique opportunities and shared challenges for implementation in wind tunnel environments. Finally, data acquisition systems that could be integrated into force balances are highlighted as a way to simplify the user experience and improve data quality. In summary, a rank ordering is provided to support strategic investment in exploring the technologies reviewed in this manuscript.

  8. The Heider balance and social distance

    CERN Document Server

    Gawronski, P; Kulakowski, K

    2005-01-01

    The Heider balance is a state of a group of people with established mutual relations between them. These relations, friendly or hostile, can be measured in the Bogardus scale of the social distance. In previous works on the Heider balance, these relations have been described with integers 0 and $\\pm1$. Recently we have proposed real numbers instead. Also, differential equations have been used to simulate the time evolution of the relations, which were allowed to vary within a given range. In this work, we investigate an influence of this allowed range on the system dynamics. As a result, we have found that a narrowing of the range of relations leads to a large delay in achieving the Heider balance. Another point is that a slight shift of the initial distribution of the social distance towards friendship can lead to a total elimination of hostility.

  9. Magnetic suspension and balance systems (MSBSs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britcher, Colin P.; Kilgore, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    The problems of wind tunnel testing are outlined, with attention given to the problems caused by mechanical support systems, such as support interference, dynamic-testing restrictions, and low productivity. The basic principles of magnetic suspension are highlighted, along with the history of magnetic suspension and balance systems. Roll control, size limitations, high angle of attack, reliability, position sensing, and calibration are discussed among the problems and limitations of the existing magnetic suspension and balance systems. Examples of the existing systems are presented, and design studies for future systems are outlined. Problems specific to large-scale magnetic suspension and balance systems, such as high model loads, requirements for high-power electromagnets, high-capacity power supplies, highly sophisticated control systems and position sensors, and high costs are assessed.

  10. Regimes of validity for balanced models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, Peter R.; McWilliams, James C.

    1983-07-01

    Scaling analyses are presented which delineate the atmospheric and oceanic regimes of validity for the family of balanced models described in Gent and McWilliams (1983a). The analyses follow and extend the classical work of Charney (1948) and others. The analyses use three non-dimensional parameters which represent the flow scale relative to the Earth's radius, the dominance of turbulent or wave-like processes, and the dominant component of the potential vorticity. For each regime, the models that are accurate both at leading order and through at least one higher order of accuracy in the appropriate small parameter are then identified. In particular, it is found that members of the balanced family are the appropriate models of higher-order accuracy over a broad range of parameter regimes. Examples are also given of particular atmospheric and oceanic phenomena which are in the regimes of validity for the different balanced models.

  11. Postural balance in low back pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo, Thomas; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Jensen, Lone Donbæk;

    2011-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) patients have poorer postural control compared to healthy controls, and the importance of assessing and addressing balance is a matter of debate. In the clinic, balance is often tested by means of the one leg stand test (OLST) while research often employs center of pressure (Co......P) on a force platform. Portable force platforms might be of clinical relevance, but their reliability for LBP patients in a clinical setting has not been demonstrated. As LBP patients are more dependent on vision compared to healthy controls, the ratio of tests performed with eyes open and eyes closed (Romberg...... Ratio) might be of clinical interest. This study aimed to assess postural balance in LBP patients by analyzing intra-session reliability of CoP parameters on a portable force platform, the Romberg Ratio, and the OLST. Furthermore, we aimed to determine whether CoP parameters and OLST measure identical...

  12. Trends and balances: 1985-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the seventh edition of Trends and Balances to be presented to the staff of Oak Ridge National (ORNL) and other interested parties. Each year at the end of the planning cycle the Laboratory publishes its official planning document, the Institutional Plan. Trends and Balances is brought out as a condensation of that more formal document and is intended to provide a reference to the kinds of plans that have occupied senior laboratory management over the past year. An institution as large as ORNL changes slowly, so some of the information in this document overlaps that contained in the previous edition of Trends and Balances. Much, however, is different. A new section, for example, describes what senior Laboratory management feels are five new directions for science and technology at ORNL. This document is intended to provide new insights into the programs and structure of the Laboratory

  13. Improving the Load Balancing Performance of Vlasiator

    CERN Document Server

    Turk, Ata; Demirci, G Vehbi; von Alfthan, Sebastian; Honkonen, Ilja

    2011-01-01

    This whitepaper describes the load-balancing performance issues that are observed and tackled during the petascaling of the Vlasiator codes. Vlasiator is a Vlasov-hybrid simulation code developed in Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). Vlasiator models the communications associated with the spatial grid operated on as a hypergraph and partitions the grid using the parallel hypergraph partitioning scheme (PHG) of the Zoltan partitioning framework. The result of partitioning determines the distribution of grid cells to processors. It is observed that the partitioning phase takes a substantial percentage of the overall computation time. Alternative (graph-partitioning-based) schemes that perform almost as well as the hypergraph partitioning scheme and that require less preprocessing overhead and better balance are proposed and investigated. A comparison in terms of effect on running time, preprocessing overhead and load-balancing quality of Zoltan's PHG, ParMeTiS, and PT-SCOTCH are presented. Test results on ...

  14. Comparison of two balance training programs on balance in community dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shefali Walia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Impaired balance has been associated with an increased risk for falls and a resulting increase in the mortality rate of elder people. Thus, balance-training interventions have an important place in fall prevention. This study was designed with the purpose of identifying the appropriate balance-training program for community dwelling elderly adults with an active lifestyle. A sample of 70 elderly adults were randomly allocated into two groups: group 1 (n=35 received general balance and mobility exercise; group 2 (n=35 received specific balance strategy training. The intervention consisted of 5 sessions/week for 4 weeks. The outcome measures were Timed up and go test (TUGT and Berg balance scale (BBS. An inter-group (2-way mixed model analysis of co-variance and intra-group (repeated measures analysis was done to find the change in balance scores. After the intervention, the TUGT scores in group 1 were, mean=10.38 s, standard deviation (SD=1.59 s and in group 2 were, mean=9.27 s, SD=1.13 s. Post training, BBS scores for group 1 were, mean=54.69, SD=1.13, and for group 2 were, mean=55.57, SD =0.56. There was a significant group × time effect for TUGT and BBS score. All the subjects showed significant changes in balance scores after balance training interventions. The subjects who participated in the specific balance-strategy training significantly improved their functional mobility, as shown on the TUGT, compared to the general training group.

  15. Approximately-Balanced Drilling in Daqing Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Bairu; Zheng Xiuhua; Li Guoqing; Tian Tuo

    2004-01-01

    The Daqing oilfield is a multilayered heterogeneous oil field where the pressure are different in the same vertical profile causing many troubles to the adjustment well drillings. The approximately-balanced drilling technique has been developed and proved to be efficient and successful in Daqing oilfield. This paper discusses the application of approximately-balanced drilling technique under the condition of multilayered pressure in Daqing oilfield, including the prediction of formation pressure, the pressure discharge technique for the drilling well and the control of the density of drilling fluid.

  16. Balance training programs for soccer injuries prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Gioftsidou, Asimenia; Malliou, Paraskevi; Pafis, Georgios; Beneka, Anastasia; Tsapralis, Kyriakos; Sofokleous, Polina; Kouli, Olga; Rokka, Stella; Godolias, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare 2 different balance training programs, based on distinct exercise frequencies, with the aim of improving proprioceptive ability. Thirty eight professional soccer players, were randomly assigned into 3 groups: the A group, exercised with a frequency of 6 times per week, for 3 weeks, the B group exercised with a frequency of 3 times per week, for 6 weeks and the C group (control) did not follow a highly specific balance training, but only a standard socce...

  17. Pressure balance at the magnetopause: Experimental studies

    OpenAIRE

    Suvorova, A. V.; Dmitriev, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    The pressure balance at the magnetopause is formed by magnetic field and plasma in the magnetosheath, on one side, and inside the magnetosphere, on the other side. In the approach of dipole earth's magnetic field configuration and gas-dynamics solar wind flowing around the magnetosphere, the pressure balance predicts that the magnetopause distance R depends on solar wind dynamic pressure Pd as a power low R ~ Pd^alpha, where the exponent alpha=-1/6. In the real magnetosphere the magnetic file...

  18. On Balanced Separators, Treewidth, and Cycle Rank

    CERN Document Server

    Gruber, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    We investigate relations between different width parameters of graphs, in particular balanced separator number, treewidth, and cycle rank. Our main result states that a graph with balanced separator number k has treewidth at least k but cycle rank at most k(1 + log (n/k)), thus refining the previously known bounds, as stated by Robertson and Seymour (1986) and by Bodlaender et al. (1995). Furthermore, we show that the improved bounds are best possible. Among other results, we also determine the cycle rank of powers of path graphs, thus answering a question recently raised by Novotny et al. (2009).

  19. Miniature Piezoelectric Macro-Mass Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Bonitz, Robert G.; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-01-01

    Mass balances usually use a strain gauge that requires an impedance measurement and is susceptible to noise and thermal drift. A piezoelectric balance can be used to measure mass directly by monitoring the voltage developed across the piezoelectric balance, which is linear with weight or it can be used in resonance to produce a frequency change proportional to the mass change (see figure). The piezoelectric actuator/balance is swept in frequency through its fundamental resonance. If a small mass is added to the balance, the resonance frequency shifts down in proportion to the mass. By monitoring the frequency shift, the mass can be determined. This design allows for two independent measurements of mass. Additionally, more than one sample can be verified because this invention allows for each sample to be transported away from the measuring device upon completion of the measurement, if required. A piezoelectric actuator, or many piezoelectric actuators, was placed between the collection plate of the sampling system and the support structure. As the sample mass is added to the plate, the piezoelectrics are stressed, causing them to produce a voltage that is proportional to the mass and acceleration. In addition, a change in mass delta m produces a change in the resonance frequency with delta f proportional to delta m. In a microgravity environment, the spacecraft could be accelerated to produce a force on the piezoelectric actuator that would produce a voltage proportional to the mass and acceleration. Alternatively, the acceleration could be used to force the mass on the plate, and the inertial effects of the mass on the plate would produce a shift in the resonance frequency with the change in frequency related to the mass change. Three prototypes of the mass balance mechanism were developed. These macro-mass balances each consist of a solid base and an APA 60 Cedrat flextensional piezoelectric actuator supporting a measuring plate. A similar structure with 3 APA

  20. French electric power balance sheet 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2006: key figures of the electricity balance sheet, RTE's public utility commitments, efficient market mechanisms and free flow of trades, lessons learnt from the power breakdown of November 4, 2006. The evolution of RTE's infrastructures and production means, the contract with Gaz de France for the improvement of Brittany's security of supply, and the results of RTE's 2006 satisfaction survey are presented in appendixes

  1. The balanced academic curriculum problem revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiarandini, Marco; Di Gaspero, Luca; Gualandi, Stefano;

    2012-01-01

    The Balanced Academic Curriculum Problem (BACP) consists in assigning courses to teaching terms satisfying prerequisites and balancing the credit course load within each term. The BACP is part of the CSPLib with three benchmark instances, but its formulation is simpler than the problem solved...... challenging and still intractable for ILP solvers. Therefore, we have designed, implemented, and analyzed heuristics based on local search. We have collected computational results on all the new instances with the proposed approaches and assessed the quality of solutions with respect to the lower bounds found...

  2. Strategic management by balanced development: meaning

    OpenAIRE

    Yevtushenko Natalya Olexandrivna

    2016-01-01

    Based on analyzes of references it was found out the meaning of «management», «strategic management», «development of enterprise», «balanced development» and were proved their connections. It was described authorial interpretation of definition “strategic management by balanced development”. The next descriptions were separated: presence of quantitative and quality changes, adaptation to influence of internal and external environment factors. It was set that a human capital is the main source...

  3. Design of a three-component wall-mounted balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Allen E.; Gonzalez, Hugo A.

    1990-01-01

    The design and evaluation of a three-component, wall-mounted pyramidal balance for a small wind tunnel is discussed. The balance was designed to measure lift, drag, pitching moment, and angle of attack. The specific design of each component and mathematical models used to design the balance are covered. Balance evaluation consisted of calibration, tare, and interaction analysis.

  4. Balanced and Coordinated Development of Chemistry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Tianping; Wang Fei; Ding Hong; Xing Jiangping

    2007-01-01

    @@ Balanced and coordinated development of Chemistry has narrow sense and generalized comprehension. The former only refers to the balanced layout and coordinated development among "every discipline and specialty in chemistry", and the latter taking the balanced layout of discipline as core and synthetically balancing the talent troop, the region distribution, the national strategy demand as well as the social affect and so on.

  5. Improving Balance in Subacute Stroke Patients: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goljar, Nika; Burger, Helena; Rudolf, Marko; Stanonik, Irena

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of balance training in a balance trainer, a newly developed mechanical device for training balance, with conventional balance training in subacute stroke patients. This was a randomized controlled study. Fifty participants met the inclusion criteria and 39 finished the study. The participants were…

  6. Balance Responsibility and Imbalance Settlement in Northern Europe: An Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Veen, R.A.C.; Hakvoort, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    In liberalized power markets, balance responsibility and imbalance settlement are two closely related elements that constitute the heart of a balancing market (which is actually an institutional arrangement establishing market-based balancing). This paper aims to compare balance responsibility and i

  7. Feldenkrais Method Balance Classes Improve Balance in Older Adults: A Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol A. Connors

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Feldenkrais Method balance classes on balance and mobility in older adults. This was a prospective non-randomized controlled study with pre/post measures. The setting for this study was the general community. A convenience sample of 26 community-dwelling older adults (median age 75 years attending Feldenkrais Method balance classes formed the Intervention group. Thirty-seven volunteers were recruited for the Control group (median age 76.5 years. A series of Feldenkrais Method balance classes (the 33312Getting Grounded Gracefully33313 series, two classes per week for 10 weeks, were conducted. Main outcome measures were Activities-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC questionnaire, Four Square Step Test (FSST, self-selected gait speed (using GAITRite instrumented gait mat. At re-testing, the Intervention group showed significant improvement on all of the measures (ABC, P = .016, FSST, P = .001, gait speed, P < .001. The Control group improved significantly on one measure (FSST, P < .001. Compared to the Control group, the Intervention group made a significant improvement in their ABC score (P = .005, gait speed (P = .017 and FSST time (P = .022. These findings suggest that Feldenkrais Method balance classes may improve mobility and balance in older adults.

  8. Strain-gage balance calibration of a magnetic suspension and balance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Paul W.; Tcheng, Ping

    1987-01-01

    A load calibration of the NASA 13-in magnetic suspension and balance system (MSBS) is described. The calibration procedure was originally intended to establish the empirical relationship between the coil currents and the external loads (forces and moments) applied to a magnetically suspended calibrator. However, it was discovered that the performance of a strain-gage balance is not affected when subjected to the magnetic environment of the MSBS. The use of strain-gage balances greatly reduces the effort required to perform a current-vs.-load calibration as external loads can be directly inferred from the balance outputs while a calibrator is suspended in MSBS. It is conceivable that in the future such a calibration could become unnecessary, since an even more important application for the use of a strain-gage balance in MSBS environment is the acquisition of precision aerodynamic force and moment data by telemetering the balance outputs from a suspended model/core/balance during wind tunnel tests.

  9. Strain-gage balance calibration of a magnetic suspension and balance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Paul W.; Tcheng, Ping

    A load calibration of the NASA 13-in magnetic suspension and balance system (MSBS) is described. The calibration procedure was originally intended to establish the empirical relationship between the coil currents and the external loads (forces and moments) applied to a magnetically suspended calibrator. However, it was discovered that the performance of a strain-gage balance is not affected when subjected to the magnetic environment of the MSBS. The use of strain-gage balances greatly reduces the effort required to perform a current-vs.-load calibration as external loads can be directly inferred from the balance outputs while a calibrator is suspended in MSBS. It is conceivable that in the future such a calibration could become unnecessary, since an even more important application for the use of a strain-gage balance in MSBS environment is the acquisition of precision aerodynamic force and moment data by telemetering the balance outputs from a suspended model/core/balance during wind tunnel tests.

  10. Capacity of adolescents with cerebral palsy on paediatric balance scale and Berg balance scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantakat, Chanada; Ramrit, Sirinun; Emasithi, Alongkot; Siritaratiwat, Wantana

    2014-10-15

    The Berg balance scale (BBS) and the paediatric balance scale (PBS) are reliable tools for measuring balance ability. However, reports of BBS and PBS scores in adolescent cerebral palsy have been limited. The objectives of this study were to investigate functional balance capacities, as tested with the BBS and PBS in adolescents with cerebral palsy, to compare the total PBS and BBS scores between Gross Motor Function Classification System-Expanded and Revised (GMFCS-E&R) levels and to compare the static balance PBS and BBS scores within each GMFCS-E&R level. Fifty-eight school-aged adolescents with cerebral palsy between the ages of 12 and 18 years with GMFCS-E&R levels of I to IV were recruited. The Kruskal-Wallis test was utilized to compare the median scores for the PBS and BBS between the different GMFCS-E&R levels. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were performed to examine the differences in the static balance scores between the PBS and the BBS within the same GMFCS-E&R levels. The results reveal that there were differences in the BBS and PBS scores among the four GMFCS-E&R levels. A significant difference was found between the BBS and PBS scores only among the patients with cerebral palsy and level III GMFCS-E&R. The BBS and PBS are valid and reliable tools for clinical examination and for distinguishing between levels of functional balance in adolescents with cerebral palsy.

  11. Computerized Techniques for Calibrating Pressure Balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, D. I.

    1994-01-01

    Pressure balances are generally calibrated by the cross-floating technique, where the forces acting on two similar devices in hydrostatic equilibrium are compared. It is a skilled and time-consuming process which has not previously lent itself to significant automation; computers have mostly been used only to calculate results after measurements have been taken. The objective of the present work was to develop real-time computerized measurement techniques to ease the calibration task, which would fully integrate into a single package with versatile software for calculating and displaying results. The calibration process is now conducted by studying graphical computer displays which derive their inputs from differential-pressure transducers and capacitance or optical displacement sensors. The mass imbalance between oil-operated pressure balances is calculated by interpolating between changes in piston rate-of-fall. Differential-pressure transducers are used to estimate mass imbalances between gas-operated balances, and a quick in situ method for determining their sensitivity has been developed. The new techniques have been successfully applied to a variety of pressure balance designs and substantial reductions in calibration times have been achieved. Reduced levels of scatter have revealed small systematic differences between gauge and absolute modes of operation.

  12. Lateral balance control for robotic gait training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, B.; Meuleman, J.H.; Asseldonk, van E.H.F.; Kooij, van der H.

    2013-01-01

    For the rehabilitation of neurological patients robot-aided gait training is increasingly being used. Lack of balance training in these robotic gait trainers might contribute to the fact that they do not live up to the expectations. Therefore, in this study we developed and evaluated an algorithm to

  13. A power balance model for handcycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Wim G.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; De Koning, Jos J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To demonstrate the applicability of the power balance model to elite handcycling and to obtain values for gross efficiency (GE). Methods. Four members of the Dutch Paralympic team performed trials on a 250-m indoor track. Velocity (v) and power output (PO) were measured in conjunction with

  14. Approximating the Balanced Minimum Evolution Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Fiorini, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    We prove a strong inapproximability result for the Balanced Minimum Evolution Problem. Our proof also implies that the problem remains NP-hard even when restricted to metric instances. Furthermore, we give a MST-based 2-approximation algorithm for the problem for such instances.

  15. Angra-1: Balance of an experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of experience got during the construction of Angra-1 nuclear power plant which had built by FURNAS CENTRAIS ELETRICAS S.A. is done. It is analyzed the problems in level of management, including technology transfer. A balance of the real costs and benefits from the definition of the specifications to energy generation is done. (M.C.K.)

  16. Queuing delays in randomized load balanced networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, S.C.; et al, not CWI

    2007-01-01

    Valiant’s concept of Randomized Load Balancing (RLB), also promoted under the name ‘two-phase routing’, has previously been shown to provide a cost-effective way of implementing overlay networks that are robust to dynamically changing demand patterns. RLB is accomplished in two steps; in the first s

  17. Wechsler Discrepancies and the Rorschach Experience Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michael; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Tested for a link between Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale scores and personality style by comparing WAIS scores with Rorschach Experience Balance scores in two studies using 47 children and 188 psychiatric patients. Statistical analyses showed no significant relationships, indicating lack of a common factor underlying the measures. (WAS)

  18. Achieve balance from your scorecard strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    The Balanced Scorecard concept, which aims to translate an organization's mission and strategy into a set of concrete performance measures, may have been developed for use in other industries, but a growing number of hospital quality directors and administrators have begun to make the concept their own.

  19. Effects of insoles contact on static balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ju Yong; Ryu, Young Uk; Yi, Chae Woo

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effect of the degree of the contact area between the insoles and soles on static balance. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen healthy male and female adults voluntarily participated. All of the subjects wore three different types of insoles (no orthotic insole, partial contact, full contact) in the present experiment. The subjects were instructed to place both feet parallel to each other and maintain static balance for 30 seconds. Center of pressure parameters (range, total distance, and mean velocity) were analyzed. [Results] The results show that the anteroposterior range and mediolateral (ML) total distance and velocity decreased when orthotic insoles with partial contact or full contact were used in comparison to when a flat insole (no orthotic insole) was used. Also, the ML range and total distance were lower with full contact than in the other two conditions. These results indicate that static balance improves as the degree of contact between the soles and insoles increases. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggests that using insoles with increased sole contact area would improve static balance ability.

  20. Response variability in balanced cortical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerchner, Alexander; Ursta, C.; Hertz, J.;

    2006-01-01

    We study the spike statistics of neurons in a network with dynamically balanced excitation and inhibition. Our model, intended to represent a generic cortical column, comprises randomly connected excitatory and inhibitory leaky integrate-and-fire neurons, driven by excitatory input from an external...

  1. World energy balance 2000-2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The booklet presents in tabular and graphic form the main conclusions of the 11th World Energy Conference concerning 'demand, supply, conservation and energy balances' relating to forecasts for the early years of the 21st century.

  2. Constructivism: a matter of adaptation and balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Prado Morales

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article the educational trend of Constructivism is presented as a process which should take into account the assimilation, accommodation and balance raised per the Geneva scientist Jean Piaget. Furthermore, it is thought-provoking about the real meaning of the term as used today in the field of education.

  3. Load balancing in integrated optical wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars; Wong, S-W.;

    2010-01-01

    with the integrated control scheme so as to maximize overall network throughput in the integrated network architecture. To the best of our knowledge no load balancing mechanisms, especially based on the Multi-Point Control Protocol (MPCP) defined in the IEEE 802.3ah, have been proposed so far. The major research...

  4. Balanced mechanical resonator for powder handling device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, Philippe C. (Inventor); Brunner, Will M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A system incorporating a balanced mechanical resonator and a method for vibration of a sample composed of granular material to generate motion of a powder sample inside the sample holder for obtaining improved analysis statistics, without imparting vibration to the sample holder support.

  5. Greenland ice sheet mass balance: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Aschwanden, Andy; Bjørk, Anders A.;

    2015-01-01

    Over the past quarter of a century the Arctic has warmed more than any other region on Earth, causing a profound impact on the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and its contribution to the rise in global sea level. The loss of ice can be partitioned into processes related to surface mass balance...

  6. Composting: Mass Balances and Product Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Körner, I.;

    2011-01-01

    While the basic processes involved in composting of waste are described in Chapter 9.1 and the main composting technologies are presented in Chapter 9.2, this chapter focuses on mass balances, environmental emissions, unit process inventories and the quality of the compost produced. Understanding...

  7. Anaerobic Digestion: Mass Balances and Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Jansen, Jes la Cour

    2011-01-01

    While the basic processes involved in anaerobic digestion of waste are described in Chapter 9.4 and the main digestion technologies are presented in Chapter 9.5, this chapter focuses on mass balances, gas production and energy aspects, environmental emissions and unit process inventories...

  8. The Balanced Scorecard: Beyond Reports and Rankings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alice C.; Carpenter-Hubin, Julie

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the use of performance indicators by higher education institutions for internal assessment as well as external reporting. Describes the balanced scorecard developed by Robert S. Kaplan and David P. Norton in 1992, a set of measures that allow for a holistic, integrated view of business performance. Explores how to create and use the…

  9. Teaching the Balanced Scorecard through Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelo, Carlos; Lopes, Ana Isabel; Mata, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Kaplan and Norton introduced the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) which is based on a systems perspective of the business strategy and performance measurement. Many organizations around the world are using the BSC to define, implement and manage strategy. Nevertheless there exist studies that identify problems and limitations associated with the…

  10. Applying the Balanced Scorecard to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karathanos, Demetrius; Karathanos, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Although the application of the balanced scorecard (BSC) in the business sector is well documented, very little research has been reported regarding the adaptation or application of the BSC in the education sector. In this article, the authors (a) describe how the Baldrige Education Criteria for Performance Excellence has adapted the concept of…

  11. SUSTAINABILITY AS A PART OF BALANCED SCORECARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIE SARA ZAVODNA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a trend, which is more seriously discussed on the international and national level. But also companies in the local level are pushed to have strategies and visions, which enable better future for society, our planet and local economy. Sustainability is one of the conditions – it allows companies to implicate social, economic and environmental pillars to the company´s strategy and management. The question, which remains today is, how to measure social, economic and environmental impact on society? And more – how to enable future generations to have the same conditions as we have today? The paper provides format for a possible bridge between current strategic Balanced Scorecard system and future trend of sustainability. One of the special tools, which can be used for measuring sustainability, is Balanced Scorecard (by Kaplan and Norton in 1990s with the complement of sustainable metrics. The paper introduces three possible methods, which can be used by implementing sustainability into the Balanced Scorecard. One of these methods is described in detail. There is a focus on the sustainable indicators included as the fifth area in Balanced Scorecard model.

  12. Transcribing the balanced scorecard into system dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Nielsen, Erland Hejn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how a System Dynamics Modelling approach can be integrated into the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) for a case company with special focus on the handling of causality in a dynamic perspective. The BSC model includes five perspectives and a number of financial and non...

  13. Balanced Neural Architecture and the Idling Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent eDoiron

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A signature feature of cortical spike trains is their trial-to-trial variability. This variability is large in spontaneous conditions and is reduced when cortex is driven by a stimulus or task. Models of recurrent cortical networks with unstructured, yet balanced, excitation and inhibition generate variability consistent with evoked conditions. However, these models lack the long timescale fluctuations and large variability present in spontaneous conditions. We propose that global network architectures which support a large number of stable states (attractor networks allow balanced networks to capture key features of neural variability in both spontaneous and evoked conditions. We illustrate this using balanced spiking networks with clustered assembly, feedforward chain, and ring structures. By assuming that global network structure is related to stimulus preference, we show that signal correlations are related to the magnitude of correlations in the spontaneous state. In our models, the dynamics of spontaneous activity encompasses much of the possible evoked states, consistent with many experimental reports. Finally, we contrast the impact of stimulation on the trial-to-trial variability in attractor networks with that of strongly coupled spiking networks with chaotic firing rate instabilities, recently investigated by Ostojic (2014. We find that only attractor networks replicate an experimentally observed stimulus-induced quenching of trial-to-trial variability. In total, the comparison of the trial-variable dynamics of single neurons or neuron pairs during spontaneous and evoked activity can be a window into the global structure of balanced cortical networks.

  14. DYNAMICAL BALANCE STUDY OF RING REDUCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The basic structure of epicyclical gear transmission with inner teeth of single-ring, double-ring, three-ring and four-ring reducer are analyzed. The force analysis model of ring reducer is built. Following this, it is concluded that the present ring reducers have the problem that the inertia force or the inertia moment is lopsided. On the base of analysis and calculation the balanced ring reducer which can realize the balance of inertia force and inertia moment is brought forward, and so is its concrete realizing step. The specimen of the balanced ring reducer is designed and manufactured; the experiment is carried out on the gear transmission test bench. Compared with other ring reducer of the same power, the balanced ring reducer has many advantages, such as low vibration noise, low cost and less production difficulty and less heat. It is the substitute of other ring reducer of the same kind. Therefore, it has important theoretic significance and highly practical engineering value.

  15. CONTENTS AND FUNCTIONS OF BALANCED INDICATIVE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muratova L. I.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the questions of balanced indicative management essence are discussed, on basis of economic literature generalization its functions are dedicated, the system of indicators at the regional economy and economic agents level is formed, the structural elements and instruments of indicative management are analyzed

  16. Balancing feedstock economics and ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this analysis is to examine the economic balance between production of cellulosic biofuel feedstocks and ecosystem services at the farm level. A literature review of the economics of ecosystem services, ecosystem service impacts of biofuel production, and economic factors influencing ...

  17. Balance in competition in Dutch soccer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Ruud H.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we estimate an ordered probit model for soccer results in The Netherlands. The result of a game is assumed to be determined by home advantage and quality differences of the opposing teams. The parameters of the model are used to assess whether competitive balance in Dutch professional

  18. Global Leadership is a Balancing Act

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guthey, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Global leadership is not a "state of being" or achievement, but rather a continuous process of achieving balance between control and empowerment on the one hand, and between global and local priorities on the other - all in the face of an increasing number of complexities, constituencies...

  19. Robust balance shift control with posture optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavafoglu, Z.; Kavafoglu, Ersan; Egges, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a control framework which creates robust and natural balance shifting behaviours during standing. Given high-level features such as the position of the center of mass projection and the foot configurations, a kinematic posture satisfying these features is synthesized using o

  20. 2007:Coal Supply & Demand to Balance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Yi

    2007-01-01

    @@ The National Development and Reform Commission of China (NDRC)released on August 27 a report on the first-half operation and the second-half expectation of the coal industry.The coal industry is predicted to have a consecutive balance of supply and demand this year with a less strained supply in the second half.

  1. A Balanced Approach to Early Childhood Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Based on 30 years' experience, the author advocates a balanced approach that accommodates extremes in four important areas: curriculum, teaching, structure, and classroom management. Using a whole-language approach to reading should not mean that phonics, spelling, or punctuation skills can't be taught. Authoritarian and open classroom structures…

  2. On balanced minimal repeated measurements designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmad Mir

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated Measurements designs are concerned with scientific experiments in which each experimental unit is assigned more than once to a treatment either different or identical. This class of designs has the property that the unbiased estimators for elementary contrasts among direct and residual effects are obtainable. Afsarinejad (1983 provided a method of constructing balanced Minimal Repeated Measurements designs p < t , when t is an odd or prime power, one or more than one treatment may occur more than once in some sequences and  designs so constructed no longer remain uniform in periods. In this paper an attempt has been made to provide a new method to overcome this drawback. Specifically, two cases have been considered                RM[t,n=t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=1 for balanced minimal repeated measurements designs and  RM[t,n=2t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=2 for balanced  repeated measurements designs. In addition , a method has been provided for constructing              extra-balanced minimal designs for special case RM[t,n=t2/(p-1,p], λ2=1.

  3. OPTIMIZING LOCAL BUDGET BALANCING IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyorgy Adina Crsitina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the local public finance is growing in accordance with the increasing proportion of the decentralization process. The mechanism of resource allocation, and especially the allocation criteria used, constitutes subjects of debate. Our objective pursued is to assess whether the avoidance of the first step for balancing the allocation of funds can provide enhanced fairness in balancing the local budgets across the country. Local budgets in Romania receive significant resources from the state budget in the form of amounts and quotas distributed from certain taxes, which are revenues for the state budget. Some of these amounts are designed to balance the local budgets. The distribution of funds from the state budget to the local budgets requires two steps. Firstly, the amounts are divided by county, secondly, these amounts are directed within the county especially towards localities which have a lower financial standing. Given the significant disparities between counties, we believe that this mechanism does not ensure fairness in the allocation because the funds distributed according to the first step may not use fair criteria to meet the requirements for balanced local budgets. Therefore, we intend to simulate a balanced allocation of national funds for eliminating the first step that produces the most significant inequities. Direct application of the second step of allocation, with its two phases, will provide more funds serving those local administrative units for the income tax per capita is lower than the national average. Comparing the values allocated for the year 2011 with those obtained in the simulation we will examine changes that occur after the application of this method which seems to be more equitable and appropriate. This work was supported by CNCSISUEFISCSU, project number PNII-IDEI 1780/2008

  4. Rotating Balances Used for Fluid Pump Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelley, Stephen; Mulder, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center has developed and demonstrated two direct read force and moment balances for sensing and resolving the hydrodynamic loads on rotating fluid machinery. These rotating balances consist of a series of stainless steel flexures instrumented with semiconductor type, unidirectional strain gauges arranged into six bridges, then sealed and waterproofed, for use fully submerged in degassed water at rotational speeds up to six thousand revolutions per minute. The balances are used to measure the forces and moments due to the onset and presence of cavitation or other hydrodynamic phenomena on subscale replicas of rocket engine turbomachinery, principally axial pumps (inducers) designed specifically to operate in a cavitating environment. The balances are inserted into the drive assembly with power to and signal from the sensors routed through the drive shaft and out through an air-cooled twenty-channel slip ring. High frequency data - balance forces and moments as well as extensive, flush-mounted pressures around the rotating component periphery - are acquired via a high-speed analog to digital data acquisition system while the test rig conditions are varied continuously. The data acquisition and correction process is described, including the in-situ verifications that are performed to quantify and correct for known system effects such as mechanical imbalance, "added mass," buoyancy, mechanical resonance, and electrical bias. Examples of four types of cavitation oscillations for two typical inducers are described in the laboratory (pressure) and rotating (force) frames: 1) attached, symmetric cavitation, 2) rotating cavitation, 3) attached, asymmetric cavitation, and 4) cavitation surge. Rotating and asymmetric cavitation generate a corresponding unbalanced radial force on the rotating assembly while cavitation surge generates an axial force. Attached, symmetric cavitation induces no measurable force. The frequency of the forces can be determined a

  5. Effects of mental practice on normal adult balance ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyun-Gyu; Kim, Myoung-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of mental practice on the balance abilities of normal individuals. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group (n=15 each). Participants in both groups performed balance training in a seated position on a gym ball for 20 minutes per session, five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. Members of the experimental group also performed mental practice for 10 minutes before the balance training. After the intervention, balance measuring equipment (Good Balance, Metitur, Finland) was used to quantitatively measure balance ability. [Results] Significant post-training gains were observed in the mediolateral, index of balance function, and time variables of participants of the experimental group. [Conclusion] The application of mental practice with balance training positively affected balance ability. PMID:27512260

  6. Effects of mental practice on normal adult balance ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyun-Gyu; Kim, Myoung-Kwon

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of mental practice on the balance abilities of normal individuals. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group (n=15 each). Participants in both groups performed balance training in a seated position on a gym ball for 20 minutes per session, five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. Members of the experimental group also performed mental practice for 10 minutes before the balance training. After the intervention, balance measuring equipment (Good Balance, Metitur, Finland) was used to quantitatively measure balance ability. [Results] Significant post-training gains were observed in the mediolateral, index of balance function, and time variables of participants of the experimental group. [Conclusion] The application of mental practice with balance training positively affected balance ability.

  7. Walk-based measure of balance in signed networks: detecting lack of balance in social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Ernesto; Benzi, Michele

    2014-10-01

    There is a longstanding belief that in social networks with simultaneous friendly and hostile interactions (signed networks) there is a general tendency to a global balance. Balance represents a state of the network with a lack of contentious situations. Here we introduce a method to quantify the degree of balance of any signed (social) network. It accounts for the contribution of all signed cycles in the network and gives, in agreement with empirical evidence, more weight to the shorter cycles than to the longer ones. We found that, contrary to what is generally believed, many signed social networks, in particular very large directed online social networks, are in general very poorly balanced. We also show that unbalanced states can be changed by tuning the weights of the social interactions among the agents in the network.

  8. Nexus of poverty, energy balance and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C P Mishra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the inception of planning process in India, health planning was an integral component of socio-economic planning. Recommendations of several committees, policy documents and Millennium development goals were instrumental in development of impressive health infrastructure. Several anti-poverty and employment generation programmes were instituted to remove poverty. Spectacular achievements took place in terms of maternal and child health indicators and expectancy of life at birth. However, communicable diseases and undernutrition remain cause of serious concern and non-communicable diseases are imposing unprecedented challenge to planners and policy makers. Estimates of poverty based on different criteria point that it has remained a sustained problem in the country and emphasizes on revisiting anti-poverty programmes, economic policies and social reforms. Poverty affects purchasing power and thereby, food consumption. Energy intake data has inherent limitations. It must be assessed in terms of energy expenditure. Energy balance has been least explored area of research. The studies conducted in three different representative population group of Eastern Uttar Pradesh revealed that 69.63% rural adolescent girls (10-19 years, 79.9% rural reproductive age group females and 62.3% rural geriatric subjects were in negative energy balance. Negative energy balance was significantly less in adolescent girls belonging to high SES (51.37%, having main occupation of family as business (55.3%, and highest per capita income group (57.1% with respect to their corresponding sub-categories. In case of rural reproductive age groups, this was maximum (93.0% in SC/ST category and least (65.7% in upper caste group. In case of geriatric group, higher adjusted Odd′s Ratio for negative energy balance for subjects not cared by family members (AOR 23.43, CI 3.93-139.56, not kept money (AOR 5.27, CI 1.58-17.56, belonging to lower and upper middle SES by Udai Pareekh

  9. Balancing with vibration: a prelude for "drift and act" balance control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G Milton

    Full Text Available Stick balancing at the fingertip is a powerful paradigm for the study of the control of human balance. Here we show that the mean stick balancing time is increased by about two-fold when a subject stands on a vibrating platform that produces vertical vibrations at the fingertip (0.001 m, 15-50 Hz. High speed motion capture measurements in three dimensions demonstrate that vibration does not shorten the neural latency for stick balancing or change the distribution of the changes in speed made by the fingertip during stick balancing, but does decrease the amplitude of the fluctuations in the relative positions of the fingertip and the tip of the stick in the horizontal plane, A(x,y. The findings are interpreted in terms of a time-delayed "drift and act" control mechanism in which controlling movements are made only when controlled variables exceed a threshold, i.e. the stick survival time measures the time to cross a threshold. The amplitude of the oscillations produced by this mechanism can be decreased by parametric excitation. It is shown that a plot of the logarithm of the vibration-induced increase in stick balancing skill, a measure of the mean first passage time, versus the standard deviation of the A(x,y fluctuations, a measure of the distance to the threshold, is linear as expected for the times to cross a threshold in a stochastic dynamical system. These observations suggest that the balanced state represents a complex time-dependent state which is situated in a basin of attraction that is of the same order of size. The fact that vibration amplitude can benefit balance control raises the possibility of minimizing risk of falling through appropriate changes in the design of footwear and roughness of the walking surfaces.

  10. Improving Balance Function Using Low Levels of Electrical Stimulation of the Balance Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob; Reschke, Millard; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Wood, Scott; Serrador, Jorge; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian T.; Cohen, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Crewmembers returning from long-duration space flight face significant challenges due to the microgravity-induced inappropriate adaptations in balance/ sensorimotor function. The Neuroscience Laboratory at JSC is developing a method based on stochastic resonance to enhance the brain s ability to detect signals from the balance organs of the inner ear and use them for rapid improvement in balance skill, especially when combined with balance training exercises. This method involves a stimulus delivery system that is wearable/portable providing imperceptible electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the human body. Stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon whereby the response of a nonlinear system to a weak periodic input signal is optimized by the presence of a particular non-zero level of noise. This phenomenon of SR is based on the concept of maximizing the flow of information through a system by a non-zero level of noise. Application of imperceptible SR noise coupled with sensory input in humans has been shown to improve motor, cardiovascular, visual, hearing, and balance functions. SR increases contrast sensitivity and luminance detection; lowers the absolute threshold for tone detection in normal hearing individuals; improves homeostatic function in the human blood pressure regulatory system; improves noise-enhanced muscle spindle function; and improves detection of weak tactile stimuli using mechanical or electrical stimulation. SR noise has been shown to improve postural control when applied as mechanical noise to the soles of the feet, or when applied as electrical noise at the knee and to the back muscles.

  11. Balance Exercises Circuit improves muscle strength, balance, and functional performance in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelar, Bruna Pereira; Costa, Juliana Nunes de Almeida; Safons, Marisete Peralta; Dutra, Maurílio Tiradentes; Bottaro, Martim; Gobbi, Sebastião; Tiedemann, Anne; de David, Ana Cristina; Lima, Ricardo Moreno

    2016-02-01

    This study introduces the Balance Exercises Circuit (BEC) and examines its effects on muscle strength and power, balance, and functional performance in older women. Thirty-five women aged 60+ (mean age = 69.31, SD = 7.35) were assigned to either a balance exercises group (BG, n = 14) that underwent 50-min sessions twice weekly, of a 12-week BEC program, or a wait-list control group (CG, n = 21). Outcome measures were knee extensor peak torque (PT), rate of force development (RFD), balance, Timed Up & Go (TUG), 30-s chair stand, and 6-min walk tests, assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Twenty-three participants completed follow-up assessments. Mixed analysis of variance models examined differences in outcomes. The BG displayed improvements in all measures at follow-up and significantly improved compared with CG on, isokinetic PT60, PT180 (p = 0.02), RFD (p balance with eyes closed (p values range .02 to balance, and functionality in older women. The BEC warrants further investigation as a fall prevention intervention.

  12. A comparative analysis of three self-balancing wheelchair balancing mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Zachery L; Van Moorhem, William K; Roemer, Robert B

    2006-12-01

    In the last 20 years, three different basic, dynamic balancing designs have been proposed for a self-balancing wheelchair (SBW) that allows the wheelchair user to transition from driving on all four wheels to driving while balanced on the two large rear wheels. The dynamic performance of these three SBW designs, the hanging pendulum counterweight (HPC), the single inverted pendulum (SIP), and the double inverted pendulum (DIP), are compared when controlled by a common state space controller. The four dynamic performance considerations of stability, driver dynamic stress, maneuverability and technical requirements were used to compare these designs while performing the following five tests: 1) transition from four-wheel to two-wheel, balancing mode; 2) stationary, self-balancing stability when subjected to an impact disturbance; 3) movement initiation, and stopping while balancing; 4) response to impact disturbances while moving; and 5) stability on low traction surfaces. In addition, the movement initiation and stopping test was repeated with increased chair mass and inertia to investigate the sensitivity of model performance to changes in model parameters. After comparing the three models it was determined that the HPC mechanism is the best choice for further development based on the criteria of stability, driver dynamic stress, maneuverability, and technical requirements. The HPC ranked equal or better compared to the SIP and DIP on 15 of 29 stability and performance factors. It was also the only design that was stable for all normally expected driving conditions.

  13. Hydrodynamics of charge fluctuations and balance functions

    CERN Document Server

    Ling, B; Stephanov, M

    2013-01-01

    We apply stochastic hydrodynamics to the study of charge density fluctuations in QCD matter undergoing Bjorken expansion. We find that the charge density correlations are given by a time integral over the history of the system, with the dominant contribution coming from the QCD crossover region where the change of susceptibility per entropy, chi T/s, is most significant. We study the rapidity and azimuthal angle dependence of the resulting charge balance function using a simple analytic model of heavy-ion collision evolution. Our results are in agreement with experimental measurements, indicating that hydrodynamic fluctuations contribute significantly to the measured charge correlations in high energy heavy-ion collisions. The sensitivity of the balance function to the value of the charge diffusion coefficient D allows us to estimate the typical value of this coefficient in the crossover region to be rather small, of the order of 1/(2pi T), characteristic of a strongly coupled plasma.

  14. Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) has been installed collocated with each deployed Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System (ECOR) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site, first ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1), second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2), and third ARM Mobile Facility (AMF3) at Oliktok Point (OLI). A SEBS was also deployed with the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) site, before it was decommissioned. Data from these sites, including the retired TWP, are available in the ARM Data Archive. The SEBS consists of upwelling and downwelling solar and infrared radiometers within one net radiometer, a wetness sensor, and soil measurements. The SEBS measurements allow the comparison of ECOR sensible and latent heat fluxes with the energy balance determined from the SEBS and provide information on wetting of the sensors for data quality purposes.

  15. An Assembly Line Balancing Problem Automotive Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triki Hager

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an Assembly Line Balancing Problem (ALBP is presented in a real-world automotive cables manufacturer company. This company found it necessary to balance its line, since it needs to increase the production rate. In this ALBP, the number of stations is known and the objective is to minimize cycle time where both precedence and zoning constrains must be satisfied. This problem is formulated as a binary linear program (BLP. Since this problem is NP-hard, an innovative Genetic Algorithm (GA is implemented. The full factorial design is used to obtain the better combination GA parameters and a simple convergence experimental study is performed on the stopping criteria to reduce computational time. Comparison of the proposed GA results with CPLEX software shows that, in a reasonable time, the GA generates consistent solutions that are very close to their optimal ones. Therefore, the proposed GA approach is very effective and competitive.

  16. Gender balance on boards: Stakeholders identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar de Luis Carnicer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent Spanish law and regulations have turned gender balance on Boards of Directors into a necessary element to manage in companies. The aim of this paper is to identify the stakeholders demanding such gender balance to companies, according to the Methodology of Mitchell et al. (1997 and Agle et al. (1999. The results sugest the shareholders are the most important group, so it seems that the financial goals continue being a priority. But we also observe that the Government is perceived as a very important stakeholder. Despite managers acknowledge the Government has a lot of power, its importance is explained by urgency and legitimacy attributes. This fact makes us doubting about the effectiveness of any development of a compulsory law, beyond the current one.

  17. Heider balance, asymmetric ties, and gender segregation

    CERN Document Server

    Krawczyk, Małgorzata J; Hernández-Ramirez, Eric; Naumis, Gerardo G; Kułakowski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    To remove a cognitive dissonance in interpersonal relations, people tend to divide our acquaintances into friendly and hostile parts, both groups internally friendly and mutually hostile. This process is modeled as an evolution towards the Heider balance. A set of differential equations have been proposed and validated (Kulakowski {\\it et al}, IJMPC 16 (2005) 707) to model the Heider dynamics of this social and psychological process. Here we generalize the model by including the initial asymmetry of the interprersonal relations and the direct reciprocity effect which removes this asymmetry. Our model is applied to the data on enmity and friendship in 37 school classes and 4 groups of teachers in M\\'exico. For each class, a stable balanced partition is obtained into two groups. The gender structure of the groups reveals stronger gender segregation in younger classes, i.e. of age below 12 years, a fact consistent with other general empirical results.

  18. The entropy balance for boiling flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado, Francisco-Javier E-mail: fjk@posta.unizar.es

    2001-10-01

    Subcooled forced convection boiling of water is recognized as one of the best means of accommodating the very high heat fluxes that plasma facing components of fusion reactors have to withstand. The boiling curve, giving the wall temperature in function of the applied flux and flow conditions, is essential for the design of such cooling configurations. In this paper, a new entropy balance for subcooled boiling flow, which allows the wall temperature to be obtained, is presented and successfully compared with experimental data from the Joint US-EURATOM R and D Program. The derivation of this entropy balance is based on a new strict application of the Reynolds theorem to multiphase flows recently proposed by the author.

  19. Balanced truncation for linear switched systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petreczky, Mihaly; Wisniewski, Rafal; Leth, John-Josef

    2013-01-01

    in this paper, we provide a bound on the approximation error in the L2L2 norm for continuous-time and the l2l2 norm for discrete-time linear switched systems. We provide a system theoretic interpretation of grammians and their singular values. Furthermore, we show that the performance of balanced truncation......In this paper, we present a theoretical analysis of the model reduction algorithm for linear switched systems from Shaker and Wisniewski (2011, 2009) and . This algorithm is a reminiscence of the balanced truncation method for linear parameter varying systems (Wood et al., 1996) [3]. Specifically...... depends only on the input–output map and not on the choice of the state-space representation. For a class of stable discrete-time linear switched systems (so called strongly stable systems), we define nice controllability and nice observability grammians, which are genuinely related to reachability...

  20. Properties of Cross-Impact Balance Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Weimer-Jehle, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    CIB matrices are N x N hypermatrices, the elements of which are m x n matrices. They are used in Cross-Impact Balance Analysis, a concept applied in social sciences, management sciences, scenario analysis and technology foresight to identify plausible configurations of qualitatively defined impact networks. Cross-Impact Balance Analysis (CIB) offers an opportunity for qualitative systems analysis without complex mathematics. Although CIB doesn't confront its user with too much mathematics, the background of the method and its algorithm can be scrutinized by mathematical means, thus revealing an extensive set of useful properties which are described and proved in this article. Among them are four laws of invariance, a treatise on several special cases of CIB matrices, and the proof that CIB analysis is equivalent to a universal computer (a Turing machine).

  1. On static equilibrium and balance puzzler

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Samrat; Saikia, Dipankar; Kalita, Deepjyoti; Debbarma, Anamika; Wahab, Shaheen Akhtar; Sarma, Saurabh

    2012-01-01

    The principles of static equilibrium are of special interest to civil engineers. For a rigid body to be in static equilibrium the condition is that net force and net torque acting on the body should be zero. That clearly signifies that if equal weights are placed on either sides of a balance, the balance should be in equilibrium, even if its beam is not horizontal (we have considered the beam to be straight and have no thickness, an ideal case). Thus, although the weights are equal, they will appear different which is puzzling. This also shows that the concept of equilibrium is confusing, especially neutral equilibrium is confused to be stable equilibrium. The study not only throws more light on the concept of static equilibrium, but also clarifies that a structure need not be firm and steady even if it is in static equilibrium.

  2. New experiments on the Langmuir film balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and construction of a wide-range, automated film balance and a set of experiments on a well-documented material to test the instrument during its development are described. The balance can be operated in the temperature range 5-500C. It can measure surface tension differences up to 50 mN m-1 with an imprecision of +/- 0.01 mN m-1. The measurements of the liquid-expanded (LE)-liquid-compressed (LC) and the liquid-vapor transitions in pentadecanoic acid monolayers on water to confirm recent suggestions that long-standing ideas about these two transitions might be in error and that a thorough reexamination of many classic measurements will be necessary

  3. Energetic Particle Diffusion In Critically Balanced Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Laitinen, T; Kelly, J; Marsh, M; 10.1088/0004-637X/764/2/168

    2013-01-01

    Observations and modelling suggest that the fluctuations in magnetised plasmas exhibit scale-dependent anisotropy, with more energy in the fluctuations perpendicular to the mean magnetic field than in the parallel fluctuations and the anisotropy increasing at smaller scales. The scale-dependence of the anisotropy has not been studied in full-orbit simulations of particle transport in turbulent plasmas so far. In this paper, we construct a model of critically balanced turbulence, as suggested by \\cite{GoSr1995}, and calculate energetic particle spatial diffusion coefficients using full-orbit simulations. The model uses an enveloped turbulence approach, where each 2-dimensional wave mode with wavenumber $k_\\perp$ is packed into envelopes of length $L$ following the critical balance condition, $L\\propto k_\\perp^{-2/3}$, with the wave mode parameters changing between envelopes. Using full-orbit particle simulations, we find that both the parallel and perpendicular diffusion coefficients increase by a factor 2, co...

  4. Deterioration of gait and balance over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreisel, Stefan H; Blahak, Christian; Bäzner, Hansjörg;

    2013-01-01

    investigates if the degree of prevalent ARWMC has a differential effect on lower body motor function as it changes over time, hypothesizing that individuals with more severe baseline white matter pathology experience greater clinical deterioration independent of potential confounders. This is of clinical......Cross-sectional studies have shown an association between the severity of age-related white matter change (ARWMC) and lower body motor function. However, the association between prevalent ARWMC and incident deterioration of balance and gait remains insufficiently investigated. This study...... relevance: given the increasing use of neuroimaging, incidental white matter pathology is common; being able to delineate natural trajectories of balance and gait function given ARWMC may improve patient advice and help optimize allocation of care....

  5. Heider balance, asymmetric ties, and gender segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Małgorzata J.; del Castillo-Mussot, Marcelo; Hernández-Ramírez, Eric; Naumis, Gerardo G.; Kułakowski, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    To remove a cognitive dissonance in interpersonal relations, people tend to divide their acquaintances into friendly and hostile parts, both groups internally friendly and mutually hostile. This process is modeled as an evolution toward the Heider balance. A set of differential equations have been proposed and validated (Kułakowski et al., 2005) to model the Heider dynamics of this social and psychological process. Here we generalize the model by including the initial asymmetry of the interpersonal relations and the direct reciprocity effect which removes this asymmetry. Our model is applied to the data on enmity and friendship in 37 school classes and 4 groups of teachers in México. For each class, a stable balanced partition is obtained into two groups. The gender structure of the groups reveals stronger gender segregation in younger classes, i.e. of age below 12 years, a fact consistent with other general empirical results.

  6. Renal aquaporins and water balance disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortenoeven, Marleen; Fenton, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of proteins that can act as water channels. Regulation of AQPs is critical to osmoregulation and the maintenance of body water homeostasis. Eight AQPs are expressed in the kidney of which five have been shown to play a role in body water balance; AQP1, AQP......2, AQP3, AQP4 and AQP7. AQP2 in particular is regulated by vasopressin. SCOPE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes our current knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of various water balance disorders and their treatment strategies. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: Dysfunctions of AQPs are involved in disorders...... associated with disturbed water homeostasis. Hyponatremia with increased AQP levels can be caused by diseases with low effective circulating blood volume, such as congestive heart failure, or osmoregulation disorders such as the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. Treatment consists...

  7. Assessment and balancing of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1981 nuclear energy had a share of ca. 17% in the electric power supply of the F.R. of Germany. The amount of nuclear fuels required is equal to ca. 15 million tce. In public technical discussions the economic importance which must be assigned to nuclear energy, e.g. with regard to curbing the energy price development or relieving our balance of payments, is discussed in detail. On the other hand, a number of industrial aspects of nuclear energy utilization - problems of commercial or fiscal law - have been little considered in the technical literature. The following contribution is to present the principles of commercial and fiscal law which have taken shape in connection with the assessment and balancing of the single stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. (orig./UA)

  8. Langevin dynamics neglecting detailed balance condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohzeki, Masayuki; Ichiki, Akihisa

    2015-07-01

    An improved method for driving a system into a desired distribution, for example, the Gibbs-Boltzmann distribution, is proposed, which makes use of an artificial relaxation process. The standard techniques for achieving the Gibbs-Boltzmann distribution involve numerical simulations under the detailed balance condition. In contrast, in the present study we formulate the Langevin dynamics, for which the corresponding Fokker-Planck operator includes an asymmetric component violating the detailed balance condition. This leads to shifts in the eigenvalues and results in the acceleration of the relaxation toward the steady state. The numerical implementation demonstrates faster convergence and shorter correlation time, and the technique of biased event sampling, Nemoto-Sasa theory, further highlights the efficacy of our method. PMID:26274123

  9. Sodium Balance During Extra Corporeal Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Locatelli Francesco

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce intradialytic and interdialytic morbidity, it is important to obtain a zero sodium balance at the end of each dialysis session. This can be achieved by matching exactly the interdialytic sodium and water intake with the intradialytic sodium and water removal. A positive sodium balance can be obtained by using hypernatric dialysis or "sodium ramping" or convective techniques. While reducing the intradialytic side effects (hypotension, cramps, nausea, vomiting, these methods may increase the interdialytic side effects (thirst, weight gain, hypertension and pulmonary edema. Given the highly variable amounts of sodium introduced during the interdialytic periods, the use of sodium-conductivity kinetic models allows removing exactly the amount of sodium accumulated in the interdialytic period. This strategy may be advantageous towards cardiovascular stability in patients prone to dialysis hypotension.

  10. LEACH Algorithm Based on Load Balancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangang Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses advantages of LEACH Algorithm and the existing improved model which takes the famous hierarchy clustering routing protocol LEACH Algorithm as researching object. Then the paper indicates the problem that in the algorithm capacity factor of cluster head node is not taken into account leading the structure of clusters to be not so reasonable. This research discusses an energy-uniform cluster and cluster head selecting mechanism in which “Pseudo cluster head” concept is introduced in order to coordinate with “Load Monitor” Mechanism and “Load Leisure” Mechanism to maintain load balancing of cluster head character and stability of network topology. On the basis of LEACH Protocol improving algorithm of LEACH-C, CEFL and DCHS. NS2 simulation instrument is applied to do simulation analysis on the improved algorithm. Simulation result shows that LEACH-P Protocol effectively increase energy utilization efficiency, lengthens network lifetime and balances network load.  

  11. Conceptual Foundations of the Balanced Scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    Robert S. Kaplan

    2010-01-01

    David Norton and I introduced the Balanced Scorecard in a 1992 Harvard Business Review article (Kaplan & Norton, 1992). The article was based on a multi-company research project to study performance measurement in companies whose intangible assets played a central role in value creation (Nolan Norton Institute, 1991). Norton and I believed that if companies were to improve the management of their intangible assets, they had to integrate the measurement of intangible assets into their manageme...

  12. Off-Balance-Sheet Federal Liabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Much attention has been given to the recent growth of the U.S. federal debt. This paper examines the growth of federal liabilities that are not included in the officially reported numbers. These take the form of implicit or explicit government guarantees and commitments. The five major categories surveyed include support for housing, other loan guarantees, deposit insurance, actions taken by the Federal Reserve, and government trust funds. The total dollar value of notional off-balance-sheet ...

  13. Internet Governance - Balancing Freedom & Security Online

    OpenAIRE

    Groth, Ida Ørum; Kjeldtoft, Sebastian Stryhn; Lykke, Sebastian Møller; Nielsen, Toke Andersson Dalsgaard

    2012-01-01

    As the Internet is permeating every layer of society in western democratic states, governments are beginning to realize not only the vast opportunities of the Net, but also its destructive capabilities. This project examines how states are struggling to balance freedom and security, while upholding their Social Contract in cyberspace, as the Internet’s borderless structure is challenging the geographical nature of the state. Using theories from Barry Buzan and Jan Aart Scholte as a framework ...

  14. Accounting balance sheet as a system

    OpenAIRE

    Lukin Vladimir; Moskalenko Elena

    2016-01-01

    The article actualizes the need to study the systematic approach and accountants’ systematical thinking based on the analysis of the systems theory basic provisions, the applicability of the system properties to the "balance sheet" category and to explore the basic tenets of the existing schools of accounting. It is proved that the accounting is a complex socio-technical system; justified that the study of accounting from the perspective of a systematic approach will enable a better understan...

  15. Balanced $k$-nearest neighbor imputation

    OpenAIRE

    Hasler, Caren; Tillé, Yves

    2015-01-01

    In order to overcome the problem of item nonresponse, random imputation methods are often used because they tend to preserve the distribution of the imputed variable. Among the random imputation methods, the random hot-deck has the interesting property of imputing observed values. A new random hot-deck imputation method is proposed. The key innovation of this method is that the selection of donors is viewed as a sampling problem and uses calibration and balanced sampling. This approach makes ...

  16. 3-D Force-balanced Magnetospheric Configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The knowledge of plasma pressure is essential for many physics applications in the magnetosphere, such as computing magnetospheric currents and deriving magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. A thorough knowledge of the 3-D pressure distribution has however eluded the community, as most in-situ pressure observations are either in the ionosphere or the equatorial region of the magnetosphere. With the assumption of pressure isotropy there have been attempts to obtain the pressure at different locations by either (a) mapping observed data (e.g., in the ionosphere) along the field lines of an empirical magnetospheric field model or (b) computing a pressure profile in the equatorial plane (in 2-D) or along the Sun-Earth axis (in 1-D) that is in force balance with the magnetic stresses of an empirical model. However, the pressure distributions obtained through these methods are not in force balance with the empirical magnetic field at all locations. In order to find a global 3-D plasma pressure distribution in force balance with the magnetospheric magnetic field, we have developed the MAG-3D code, that solves the 3-D force balance equation J x B = (upside-down delta) P computationally. Our calculation is performed in a flux coordinate system in which the magnetic field is expressed in terms of Euler potentials as B = (upside-down delta) psi x (upside-down delta) alpha. The pressure distribution, P = P(psi,alpha), is prescribed in the equatorial plane and is based on satellite measurements. In addition, computational boundary conditions for y surfaces are imposed using empirical field models. Our results provide 3-D distributions of magnetic field and plasma pressure as well as parallel and transverse currents for both quiet-time and disturbed magnetospheric conditions

  17. Compositional amalgamations and balances: a critical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mateu i Figueras, Glòria; Daunis i Estadella, Josep

    2008-01-01

    The amalgamation operation is frequently used to reduce the number of parts of compositional data but it is a non-linear operation in the simplex with the usual geometry, the Aitchison geometry. The concept of balances between groups, a particular coordinate system designed over binary partitions of the parts, could be an alternative to the amalgamation in some cases. In this work we discuss the proper application of both concepts using a real data set corresponding to behavioral mea...

  18. BALANCE-SHEET vs. ARBITRAGE CDOs

    OpenAIRE

    SILVIU EDUARD DINCA

    2016-01-01

    During the past few years, in the recent post-crisis aftermath, global asset managers are constantly searching new ways to optimize their investment portfolios while financial and banking institutions around the world are exploring new alternatives to better secure their financing and refinancing demands altogether with the enhancement of their risk management capabilities. We will exhibit herewith a comparison between the balance-sheet and arbitrage CDO securitizations as financi...

  19. Balance Sheet Recession and Debt Financing

    OpenAIRE

    István Dedák

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses some macroeconomic aspects of the debt crisis and debt financing. The paper concludes that, in a recession, it is not possible for all economic agents to deleverage at the same time. For that reason, in order to break out of balance sheet recession, developed countries hit by the crisis should retain low interest rates while adopting fiscal policies which, allowing for national differences, should be overall expansive. An economic policy focussing on general fiscal auster...

  20. Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyamoto S.T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to translate and adapt the Berg balance scale, an instrument for functional balance assessment, to Brazilian-Portuguese and to determine the reliability of scores obtained with the Brazilian adaptation. Two persons proficient in English independently translated the original scale into Brazilian-Portuguese and a consensus version was generated. Two translators performed a back translation. Discrepancies were discussed and solved by a panel. Forty patients older than 65 years and 40 therapists were included in the cultural adaptation phase. If more than 15% of therapists or patients reported difficulty in understanding an item, that item was reformulated and reapplied. The final Brazilian version was then tested on 36 elderly patients (over age 65. The average age was 72 years. Reliability of the measure was assessed twice by one physical therapist (1-week interval between assessments and once by one independent physical therapist. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize the patients. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and Pearson's correlation coefficient were computed to assess intra- and interobserver reliability. Six questions were modified during the translation stage and cultural adaptation phase. The ICC for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.99 (P < 0.001 and 0.98 (P < 0.001, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.98 (P < 0.001 and 0.97 (P < 0.001, respectively. We conclude that the Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale is a reliable instrument to be used in balance assessment of elderly Brazilian patients.

  1. Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.T. Miyamoto

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to translate and adapt the Berg balance scale, an instrument for functional balance assessment, to Brazilian-Portuguese and to determine the reliability of scores obtained with the Brazilian adaptation. Two persons proficient in English independently translated the original scale into Brazilian-Portuguese and a consensus version was generated. Two translators performed a back translation. Discrepancies were discussed and solved by a panel. Forty patients older than 65 years and 40 therapists were included in the cultural adaptation phase. If more than 15% of therapists or patients reported difficulty in understanding an item, that item was reformulated and reapplied. The final Brazilian version was then tested on 36 elderly patients (over age 65. The average age was 72 years. Reliability of the measure was assessed twice by one physical therapist (1-week interval between assessments and once by one independent physical therapist. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize the patients. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and Pearson's correlation coefficient were computed to assess intra- and interobserver reliability. Six questions were modified during the translation stage and cultural adaptation phase. The ICC for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.99 (P < 0.001 and 0.98 (P < 0.001, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.98 (P < 0.001 and 0.97 (P < 0.001, respectively. We conclude that the Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale is a reliable instrument to be used in balance assessment of elderly Brazilian patients.

  2. Balanced Growth, Travel Demand, and Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Cervero, Robert; Duncan, Michael

    2006-01-01

    All smart growth initiatives involve some degree of mixed land uses. Which mixed-use strategies – e.g., jobs-housing balance, adding retail to residential districts -- offer the greatest traffic-reducing benefits? This paper addresses this question by examining the degree to which job accessibility is associated with reduced work travel and how closely retail-service accessibility is correlated with miles and hours logged getting to shopping destinations. Based on data from the San Francisc...

  3. Hotel Section Management by Using Balanced Scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Lysy; Małgorzata Sztorc

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents some problems in using Balanced Scorecard (BSC) in a hotel section. Fundamental element, which marks out BSC conception, is consolidation around vision and strategy appointed by the hotel management. Well compiled strategy should join all the targets and indexes, which compose four perspectives in BSC. Hotel section is the main gaining centre in the hotel, because the service quality is the main target of management strategy. BSC is a tool, which should not only measure eff...

  4. Mandatory gender balance and board independence

    OpenAIRE

    Bøhren, Øyvind; Staubo, Siv

    2016-01-01

    We find that forcing radical gender balance on corporate boards is associated with increased board independence and reduced firm value. A mandatory 40-percent gender quota shifts the average fraction of independent directors from 46 to 67 percent because female directors are much more often independent directors than males are. This shock to board independence via gender quotas is strongest in small, young, profitable, non-listed firms with powerful stockholders and few female directors. Such...

  5. Battery Cell Balancing System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A battery cell balancing system is operable to utilize a relatively small number of transformers interconnected with a battery having a plurality of battery cells to selectively charge the battery cells. Windings of the transformers are simultaneously driven with a plurality of waveforms whereupon selected battery cells or groups of cells are selected and charged. A transformer drive circuit is operable to selectively vary the waveforms to thereby vary a weighted voltage associated with each of the battery cells.

  6. Balanced Scorecard – Sustainable Development Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Leontina Beţianu; Sorin Briciu

    2011-01-01

    The sustainable management of a business requires the consideration of all the business compo- nents, both the economic activity and the aspects related to its impact on the environment and its social implications. The Balanced Scorecard (BSC) is a management tool supporting the successful implementation of corporative strategies. This helps connecting operational and non-financial activi- ties that have a significant impact on the economic success of a business. BSC is therefore a promising ...

  7. The vestibular control of balance after stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Marsden, J. F.; Playford, E. D.; Day, B. L.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To examine vestibular control of balance in those who recovered the ability to stand after middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke.Methods: Sixteen patients with MCA stroke were compared with 10 age matched controls. Two additional patients were studied with isolated corticospinal tract lesions, one each at the level of the pons and medulla. Vestibular evoked postural responses were obtained using galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) while patients stood with their eyes closed and he...

  8. Neuropeptides controlling energy balance: orexins and neuromedins

    OpenAIRE

    Nixon, Joshua P.; Kotz, Catherine M.; Novak, Colleen M.; Billington, Charles J.; Teske, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    In this section we review the feeding and energy expenditure effects of orexin (also known as hypocretin) and neuromedin. Orexins are multifunctional neuropeptides that affect energy balance by participating in regulation of appetite, arousal, and spontaneous physical activity. Central orexin signaling for all functions originates in the lateral hypothalamus–perifornical area, and is likely functionally differentiated based on site of action and on interacting neural influences. The effect of...

  9. HORIZONTAL ANALYSIS OF FUNCTIONAL BALANCE OF FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vintilescu Marian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a functional design aspects of the economic agent is an economic entity, which aims at producing goods and services, for which exercise economic functions of consumption, distribution, investment and divestiture and financing.Main indicators of functional balance are functional working capital or net working capital globally, need working capital for exploration and exploitation and outside the Treasury functional. Also, to achieve financial equilibrium phases are rendered functional.

  10. Dynamic balancing with rotating radial electromagnetic force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 陆永平

    2004-01-01

    A method of producing rotating radial electromagnetic force with a separable structure is proposed,and an experimental model was designed on which open loop vibration control experiments were carried out. Experimental results prove that the electromagnetic force designed has a constant magnitude and an uniform speed,and the idea of using an electromagnetic force as an active control in automatic balancing is correct in principle,and practicable in engineering.

  11. AHP IN IMPLEMENTATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Jovanovic; Zdravko Krivokapić

    2015-01-01

    BSC as a matrix of balanced indicators gives a review of organization activities within four or more perspectives (fields) (finance, users, business processes, learning and development) where by necessary conditions for development and continual improvement are created. As BSC is essentially a frame for realization of defined strategy in the organization, its implementation asks for an adequate choice of measures-indicators and therefore this paper is oriented towards importance and methodolo...

  12. Energy Balance of Rural Ecosystems In India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, A.; Madhava Rao, V.; Hermon, R. R.; Garg, A.; Nag, T.; Bhaskara Rao, N.; Sharma, A.; Parihar, J. S.

    2014-11-01

    India is predominantly an agricultural and rural country. Across the country, the villages vary in geographical location, area, human and livestock population, availability of resources, agricultural practices, livelihood patterns etc. This study presents an estimation of net energy balance resulting from primary production vis-a-vis energy consumption through various components in a "Rural Ecosystem". Seven sites located in different agroclimatic regions of India were studied. An end use energy accounting "Rural Energy Balance Model" is developed for input-output analysis of various energy flows of production, consumption, import and export through various components of crop, trees outside forest plantations, livestock, rural households, industry or trade within the village system boundary. An integrated approach using field, ancillary, GIS and high resolution IRS-P6 Resourcesat-2 LISS IV data is adopted for generation of various model inputs. The primary and secondary field data collection of various energy uses at household and village level were carried out using structured schedules and questionnaires. High resolution multi-temporal Resourcesat-2 LISS IV data (2013-14) was used for generating landuse/landcover maps and estimation of above-ground Trees Outside Forests phytomass. The model inputs were converted to energy equivalents using country-specific energy conversion factors. A comprehensive geotagged database of sampled households and available resources at each study site was also developed in ArcGIS framework. Across the study sites, the estimated net energy balance ranged from -18.8 Terra Joules (TJ) in a high energy consuming Hodka village, Gujarat to 224.7 TJ in an agriculture, aquaculture and plantation intensive Kollaparru village, Andhra Pradesh. The results indicate that the net energy balance of a Rural Ecosystem is largely driven by primary production through crops and natural vegetation. This study provides a significant insight to policy

  13. Scientists Meet to Discuss Nitrogen Balance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Third International Nitrogen Conference opened on Oct. 12 in Nanjing, capital of east China's Jiangsu Province, attracting more than 400 experts from some 40 countries across the world.The theme of the five-day meeting is to explore a balanced and flexible strategy to increase food and energy production while decreasing detrimental effects on the environment. A Nanjing Declaration on Nitrogen Management was announced at the conference.

  14. Balance Function in High-Energy Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Tawfik, A.; Shalaby, Asmaa G.

    2015-01-01

    Aspects and implications of the balance functions (BF) in high-energy physics are reviewed. The various calculations and measurements depending on different quantities, for example, system size, collisions centrality, and beam energy, are discussed. First, the different definitions including advantages and even short-comings are highlighted. It is found that BF, which are mainly presented in terms of relative rapidity, and relative azimuthal and invariant relative momentum, are se...

  15. Balancing Energy Processes in Turbine Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balicki Włodzimierz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issue of balancing energy processes in turbine engines in operation in aeronautic and marine propulsion systems with the aim to analyse and evaluate basic operating parameters. The first part presents the problem of enormous amounts of energy needed for driving fans and compressors of the largest contemporary turbofan engines commonly used in long-distance aviation. The amounts of the transmitted power and the effect of flow parameters and constructional properties of the engines on their performance and real efficiency are evaluated. The second part of the article, devoted to marine applications of turbine engines, presents the energy balance of the kinetic system of torque transmission from main engine turbines to screw propellers in the combined system of COGAG type. The physical model of energy conversion processes executed in this system is presented, along with the physical model of gasodynamic processes taking place in a separate driving turbine of a reversing engine. These models have made the basis for formulating balance equations, which then were used for analysing static and dynamic properties of the analysed type of propulsion, in particular in the aspect of mechanical loss evaluation in its kinematic system.

  16. Mechanisms of protein balance in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, T G

    2016-07-01

    Increased global demand for adequate protein nutrition against a backdrop of climate change and concern for animal agriculture sustainability necessitates new and more efficient approaches to livestock growth and production. Anabolic growth is achieved when rates of new synthesis exceed turnover, producing a positive net protein balance. Conversely, deterioration or atrophy of lean mass is a consequence of a net negative protein balance. During early life and periods of growth, muscle mass is driven by increases in protein synthesis at the level of mRNA translation. Throughout life, muscle mass is further influenced by degradative processes such as autophagy and the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. Multiple signal transduction networks guide and coordinate these processes alongside quality control mechanisms to maintain protein homeostasis (proteostasis). Genetics, hormones, and environmental stimuli each influence proteostasis control, altering capacity and/or efficiency of muscle growth. An overview of recent findings and current methods to assess muscle protein balance and proteostasis is presented. Current efforts to identify novel control points have the potential through selective breeding design or development of hormetic strategies to better promote growth and health span during environmental stress. PMID:27345321

  17. Population and water resources: a delicate balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenmark, M; Widstrand, C

    1992-11-01

    Various avenues exist to minimize the effects of the current water crisis in some regions of the world and the more widespread problems that will threaten the world in the future. Active management of existing water resources and a reduction in population growth in water-scarce areas are needed to minimize the effects of the water crisis. National boundaries do not effect water systems. Cooperation and commitment of local, national, and international governments, institutions, and other organizations are needed to manage water systems. Development in each country must entail conscientious and effective balancing of unavoidable manipulations of the land and the unavoidable environmental impacts of those manipulations. The conditions of environmental sustainability must include protection of land productivity, ground water potability, and biodiversity. Humans must deal with these factors either by adopting methods to protect natural systems or by correcting existing damage and reducing future problems. They need to understand the demographic forces in each country so they can balance society's rising needs for clean water with the finite amount of water available. Factors affecting future needs at all levels include rapid rural-urban migration, high fertility, and changing patterns of international population movement. Given an increased awareness of global water systems, demographic trends, and active management of resources, the fragile balance between population and water can be maintained. PMID:12344702

  18. Radiation balance of soybeans grown in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an experimental study of the radiation balance over a growing soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) crop at a tropical agricultural experimental station, Jaboticabal (22°15′S 48°18′W), São Paulo, Brazil. Incoming shortwave radiation, S, net radiation, R, and the shortwave reflection coefficient, α, were measured over this crop from November 1976 to April 1977, and net longwave radiation, L, was deduced from the radiation balance equation. Hourly variation of the radiation components, S, αS, R and L, are presented for 4 nearly clear sky-days during the different growing crop periods. The diurnal variation of α is also presented for these 4 days. The mean daily albedo values for this vegetative surface were between 0.12 and 0.26, and inversely related to the vegetation height. A regression analysis of the radiation balance equation has been made, and the heating coefficient, β, and the longwave exchange coefficient, λ, obtained. The results of the study indicate that both β and λ are found to be descriptively helpful parameters in agricultural meteorology. Predicted regression equations for net radiation from shortwave radiation are presented for the different periods

  19. Virtual reality training improves balance function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yurong; Chen, Peiming; Li, Le; Huang, Dongfeng

    2014-09-01

    Virtual reality is a new technology that simulates a three-dimensional virtual world on a computer and enables the generation of visual, audio, and haptic feedback for the full immersion of users. Users can interact with and observe objects in three-dimensional visual space without limitation. At present, virtual reality training has been widely used in rehabilitation therapy for balance dysfunction. This paper summarizes related articles and other articles suggesting that virtual reality training can improve balance dysfunction in patients after neurological diseases. When patients perform virtual reality training, the prefrontal, parietal cortical areas and other motor cortical networks are activated. These activations may be involved in the reconstruction of neurons in the cerebral cortex. Growing evidence from clinical studies reveals that virtual reality training improves the neurological function of patients with spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy and other neurological impairments. These findings suggest that virtual reality training can activate the cerebral cortex and improve the spatial orientation capacity of patients, thus facilitating the cortex to control balance and increase motion function.

  20. Radiation force and balance of electromagnetic momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, I.; Jiménez, J. L.; Roa-Neri, J. A. E.

    2016-07-01

    Some force densities can be expressed as a divergence of a stress tensor, as is the case with the electromagnetic force density. We have shown elsewhere that from the Maxwell equations several balance equations of electromagnetic momentum can be derived, depending on the form these equations are expressed in terms of fields E, D, B, H, and polarisations P and M. These balance equations imply different force densities and different stress tensors, providing a great flexibility to solve particular problems. Among these force densities we have found some proposed in the past with plausibility arguments, like the Einstein-Laub force density, while other proposed force densities appear as particular or limit cases of these general force densities, like the Helmholtz force density. We calculate the radiation force of an electromagnetic wave incident on a semi-infinite negligibly absorbing material using these balance equations, corroborating in this way that the surface integration of the stress tensor gives the same result that the calculation made through a volume integration of the force density, as done by Bohren. As is usual in applications of Gauss’s theorem, the surface on which the surface integral is to be performed must be chosen judiciously, and due care of discontinuities on the boundary conditions must be taken. Advanced undergraduates and graduate students will find a different approach to new aspects of the interaction of radiation with matter.

  1. Virtual reality training improves balance function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yurong Mao; Peiming Chen; Le Li; Dongfeng Huang

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality is a new technology that simulates a three-dimensional virtual world on a com-puter and enables the generation of visual, audio, and haptic feedback for the full immersion of users. Users can interact with and observe objects in three-dimensional visual space without limitation. At present, virtual reality training has been widely used in rehabilitation therapy for balance dysfunction. This paper summarizes related articles and other articles suggesting that virtual reality training can improve balance dysfunction in patients after neurological diseases. When patients perform virtual reality training, the prefrontal, parietal cortical areas and other motor cortical networks are activated. These activations may be involved in the reconstruction of neurons in the cerebral cortex. Growing evidence from clinical studies reveals that virtual reality training improves the neurological function of patients with spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy and other neurological impairments. These ifndings suggest that virtual reality training can acti-vate the cerebral cortex and improve the spatial orientation capacity of patients, thus facilitating the cortex to control balance and increase motion function.

  2. Estimate of Amino Acid Balance in Nutrition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunWenzhi

    1995-01-01

    A new chemical index-imbalance degree(IBD),was proposed on the basis of cluster analysis in multivariate statistical analysis to estimate the extent of amino acid balance in protein.The range of IBD is between 0 and 1,successively corresponding to complete baance and entire imbalance for the amino acid profile of a sample.The amino acid increment model of IBD belongs to an asymmetrical maximum-type,and there is a high correlation between IBD and coefficient of variation(CV),The nutritional Value of individual feed can be ranked and clustered according to its IBD;and by calculating the IBD of amixed sample with two or more feedstuffs,it is possible theoretically to predict whether a synergetic phenomenon exists and when an optimal mutual complement can happen.If the conceptive frame of IBD extended,it can be used to study the balance of plement can happen.If the conceptive frame of IBD extended,it can be used to study the balance of nutrients besides amino acids,and is helpful to realize the automatic distinction and selection in diet formulating.

  3. The Dynamic Balancer electrical safety systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konkel, H.

    1997-12-01

    The Pantex Plant Dynamic Balancer is used to identify physical imbalance in some weapon systems. This study was conducted at the request of the US Department of Energy/Albuquerque Operations Office (USDOE/AL) Dynamic Balancer Project Team to identify the electrical conditions required for motor over-speed to occur and to discuss the functions of the various electrical protective features associated with the Dynamic Balancer (DB). As is shown through the development of a fault tree, numerous electrical and human failures are required for over-speed conditions to occur. As directed by the Project Team, no effort was made to develop detailed fault trees for all electrical systems, to quantify basic events in the fault tree, or to develop accident scenarios leading to or resulting from over-speed. The Pantex Building 12-60, Bay 2, facility electrical circuits and grounding are described, and potential hazards are discussed. DB motor over-speed is a safety concern, and therefore, the controls that limit this condition are described and discussed in detail. Other safety-significant electrical circuits are discussed as well. These safety systems also are described in the facility Basis for Interim Operation. A potential for a motor over-speed that is not sensed by the standard safety protective systems does exist. This fault pathway is discussed, and recommendations to mitigate its effect are made.

  4. Effects of hypothalamic neurodegeneration on energy balance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Wanting Xu

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal aging in humans and rodents is accompanied by a progressive increase in adiposity. To investigate the role of hypothalamic neuronal circuits in this process, we used a Cre-lox strategy to create mice with specific and progressive degeneration of hypothalamic neurons that express agouti-related protein (Agrp or proopiomelanocortin (Pomc, neuropeptides that promote positive or negative energy balance, respectively, through their opposing effects on melanocortin receptor signaling. In previous studies, Pomc mutant mice became obese, but Agrp mutant mice were surprisingly normal, suggesting potential compensation by neuronal circuits or genetic redundancy. Here we find that Pomc-ablation mice develop obesity similar to that described for Pomc knockout mice, but also exhibit defects in compensatory hyperphagia similar to what occurs during normal aging. Agrp-ablation female mice exhibit reduced adiposity with normal compensatory hyperphagia, while animals ablated for both Pomc and Agrp neurons exhibit an additive interaction phenotype. These findings provide new insight into the roles of hypothalamic neurons in energy balance regulation, and provide a model for understanding defects in human energy balance associated with neurodegeneration and aging.

  5. Nutrient balance on Nebraska livestock confinement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, R; Lesoing, G

    1999-01-01

    Managing the environmental risk associated with livestock production is a significant challenge. Nitrogen and phosphorus are commonly implicated as the sources of ground and surface water quality problems associated with livestock production. The degree of imbalance between these nutrient inputs and the managed nutrient outputs for a livestock operation defines the magnitude of potential environmental risk and provides insight as to the underlying causes of these challenges. A nitrogen and phosphorus balance was constructed for 33 Nebraska confinement livestock operations. Twenty-five and 17 of these operations experienced significant nitrogen and phosphorus imbalances, respectively (50% more nutrient inputs than outputs). Nutrient inputs on many livestock operations were observed to be two to four times greater than nutrient outputs as managed crop and livestock products. Size of the livestock operation and the degree of integration of livestock with a cropping operation provided only limited explanation of the variation in nutrient balance observed among the individual operations. Management options that contribute to a more favorable nutrient balance were also identified. Management decisions related to feeding program and exporting of manure nutrients to off-farm users were observed to have a substantial impact on the nutrient imbalance. For modern livestock production systems to successfully respond to nutrient-related environmental problems, management strategies must be implemented that address the commonly experienced imbalances of nitrogen and phosphorus. PMID:15526781

  6. Brazilian energy balance 2009 - year 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian energy balance - BEB - is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow: Chapter 1 - Energy Analysis and Aggregated Data - presents energy highlights per source in 2008 and analyses the evolution of the internal offer of energy and its relationship with economic growth in 2008; Chapter 2 - Energy Supply and Demand by Source - has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments, disaggregated total per socioeconomic sector in the country; Chapter 3 - Energy Consumption by Sector - presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy; Chapter 4 - Energy Imports and Exports - presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy; Chapter 5 - Balance of Transformation Centers - presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses; Chapter 6 - Energy Resources and Reserves - has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources, with the evolution of the data from 1974 to 2008, through graphs and tables; Chapter 7 - Energy and Socioeconomics - contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports; Chapter 8 - State Energy Data - presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential. (author)

  7. Manet Load Balancing Parallel Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Arafat Ali

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, multi-path routing protocols have attained more attention in mobile ad hoc networks as compared to other routing schemes due to their abilities and efficiency in improving bandwidth of communication, increasing delivery reliability, responding to congestion and heavy traffic. Several protocols have been developed to address multi path routing, but it always has a problem that the discovered paths may be not 100% disjoint and sending data is done in only one path until it's broken; the discovery of multiple paths also generates more overhead on the network. Load Balancing Parallel Routing Protocol [LBPRP] tried to solve previous multi path problems, distributing traffic among multiple paths sending data in parallel form as it uses all paths in the same time. We employed a simple test scenario to be sure of proposed model efficiency and to validate the proposed Load Balancing Parallel Routing Protocol. [LBPRP] will achieve load balancing in sending data, decreasing the end-to-end delay and increasing the packet delivery ratio and throughput, thus the performance of multi-path routing protocols can be improved consequently.

  8. Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruch, Russell [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Ludwig, Peter [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Maurer, Tessa [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution, and controls. The imbalance leads to tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity, and inefficient building operation. This research, conducted by Building America team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61°F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1°F to 15.5°F.

  9. Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruch, R.; Ludwig, P.; Maurer, T.

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution and controls. The effects of imbalance include tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity and inefficient building operation. This paper explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The research was conducted by The Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) in conjunction with Elevate Energy. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61 degrees F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1 degrees F to 15.5 degrees F.

  10. Analytic fields on compact balanced Hermitian manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Ganchev, G; Ganchev, George; Ivanov, Stefan

    1996-01-01

    On a Hermitian manifold we construct a symmetric $(1,1)$- tensor $H$ using the torsion and the curvature of the Chern connection. On a compact balanced Hermitian manifold we find necessary and sufficient conditions in terms of the tensor $H$ for a harmonic $1$-form to be analytic and for an analytic $1$-form to be harmonic. We prove that if $H$ is positive definite then the first Betti number $b_1 = 0$ and the Hodge number $h^{1,0} = 0$. We obtain an obstruction to the existence of Killing vector fields in terms of the Ricci tensor of the Chern connection: if the Chern form of the Chern connection on a compact balanced Hermitian manifold is non- positive definite then every Killing vector field is analytic; if moreover the Chern form is negative definite then there are no Killing vector fields. It is proved that on a compact balanced Hermitian manifold every affine with respect to the Chern connection vector field is an analytic vector field.

  11. A Magnetic Balance with Hall Effect Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Hideo; Kunimasu, Tetsuya; Suda, Shinichi; Mizoguti, Yasushi; Okada, Takumi

    Magnetic force acting on a model fixed at the center of the JAXA 60cm MSBS was measured with an industry manufactured balance system when MSBS control coil currents were varied. At the same time, magnetic field intensity was also measured with 11 Hall sensors, which were arranged around the MSBS test section. From relations between coil currents and its corresponding controlled magnetic forces, regressive curves were given and maximum deviation from the curves was evaluated. From relations between Hall sensor outputs and the magnetic forces, regressive curves and deviation were also obtained. Obtained results show Hall sensor outputs are much better indexes of balance than the coil currents. The maximum deviations were reduced to a half or one-third times as much as those evaluated using the control coil currents. However, when couples acting on the model are controlled, they are not effective to reduce hysteresis phenomenon in the relation. The deviation can be reduced by decreasing the range of calibration. Then, the error of the balance of the MSBS was reduced to about 1% of the calibration range.

  12. Brazilian energy balance 2010 - year 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian energy balance - BEB - is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow: chapter 1 - energy analysis and aggregated data - presents energy highlights per source in 2009 and analyses the evolution of the internal offer of energy and its relationship with economic growth in 2009; chapter 2 - energy supply and demand by source - has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments, disaggregated total per socioeconomic sector in the country; chapter 3 - energy consumption by sector - presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy; chapter 4 - energy imports and exports - presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy; chapter 5 - balance of transformation centers - presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses; chapter 6 - energy resources and reserves - has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources, with the evolution of the data from 1974 to 2009, through graphs and tables; chapter 7 - energy and socioeconomics - contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports; Chapter 8 - state energy data - presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential. (author)

  13. Wind farm balance of plant costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study consisted of a detailed investigation of the infrastructure required for the construction and operation of a windfarm in the UK. Costing of the equipment and installation was carried out for three UK sites, with different physical characteristics. A literature survey was carried out to determine current practice in the siting of turbines within windfarms in Europe and the USA. Wind turbines were then laid out on the sites selected for study. Requirements and costs for roads, foundations and site buildings, site electrical system and grid connection, the supervisory control and data acquisition system were discussed and evaluated. A comparison between the balance of plant costs for the 33-metre MS-3 400 kW wind turbine and the 50-metre LS-2 1 MW wind turbine was made for each area of study. Overall balance of plant costs was reviewed, with an investigation of the cost components which are most sensitive to variations. The balance of plant costs averaged over the three sites were 13.0 p/kWh/annum for the MS3 windfarms and 10.6 p/kWh/annum for the LS-2 windfarms. Maps of the sites under investigation, design drawings and tables of costs are included to give supporting information to the text. (author)

  14. Territorial Balancing of Poles of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA POPESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is part of the study "Specific problems of the development of the settlement network in south-eastern Romania. Regions of development 3 (South, 4 (South-West and 8 (Bucharest-Ilfov" elaborated during 2004 – 2006, within the AMTRANS programme funded by the Ministry of Education and Research, coordinated by INCD – URBANPROIECT in partnership with the Institute of Geography of the Romanian Academy and the Qualification in Statistics National Centre. The general objective of the project was sustainable and balanced spatial development of the settlement network and promotion of new relationships between urban and rural. Concretely, the study has produced a model of a polycentric and balanced settlement network according to the European principles. The case study testing and validating this model took place in southern Romania, territory exhibiting acutely the entire range of problems related to the state of the settlement network: profoundly large rural areas, accentuated dynamics of declaring new cities without sufficient evidence, excessive polarization exercised by Bucharest, etc. The paper presents the intervention directions needed to balance in the territory urban poles within the studied area, focusing on the establishment of orientation policies to consolidate the role of each settlement based on the hierarchical level of importance: European, national, regional, and local. The paper also identifies possible functional urban areas: the metropolitan area of Bucharest, areas of potential strategic integration, areas of cooperation between the small and medium-sized cities and the rural regions. Within each of these areas, the paper proposes to establish new relationships between urban and rural based on partnership, involving cooperation and coordination in achieving common goals.The study considers that the poles of development are the key element of proposed model, and their identification, formation, and balanced distribution

  15. Normal distribution of standing balance for healthy Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line Kjeldgaard; Ghasemi, Habib; Rahbek, Ole;

    2013-01-01

    Title: Normal distribution of standing balance for healthy Danish children – Reproducibility of parameters of balance. Authors Line Kjeldgaard Pedersen Habib Ghasemi Ole Rahbek Bjarne Møller-Madsen 1800 characters incl. spaces Background Pedobarographic measurements are increasingly used in...

  16. Modeling Load Balancing in Heterogeneous Unstructured P2P Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi J. Li

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Load balancing is a generally concerned problem in peer-to-peer (P2P systems. Many researches on load balancing in the structured P2P systems have been launched currently, such as Chord or other DHTs. Although the researches on load balancing in unstructured P2P systems are emerged nowadays, the simple mechanisms achieved can only perform effectively in uniform environment. In this study, the influence on load balancing of the heterogeneity existed universally in unstructured P2P systems are analyzed, the unstructured P2P systems and their load balancing and the heterogeneity are modeled. Based on the formal model, the load balancing is analyzed quantitatively under static and dynamic environment and the typical load balancing algorithms are also analyzed. Some important conclusions are drawn which can be used in new models of load balancing in unstructured P2P systems.

  17. SOME ASPECTS REGARDING MEANING OF INTERMEDIATE MANAGEMENT BALANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILIE RĂSCOLEAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some aspects regarding intermediate management balances as a pay instrument of production factors and financing future activities. Paper debate intermediate management balances determination and interpretation.

  18. Strain-gage applications in wind tunnel balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mole, P. J.

    1990-10-01

    Six-component balances used in wind tunnels for precision measurements of air loads on scale models of aircraft and missiles are reviewed. A beam moment-type balance, two-shell balance consisting of an outer shell and inner rod, and air-flow balances used in STOL aircraft configurations are described. The design process, fabrication, gaging, single-gage procedure, and calibration of balances are outlined, and emphasis is placed on computer stress programs and data-reduction computer programs. It is pointed out that these wind-tunnel balances are used in applications for full-scale flight vehicles. Attention is given to a standard two-shell booster balance and an adaptation of a wind-tunnel balance employed to measure the simulated distributed launch loads of a payload in the Space Shuttle.

  19. Balanced Networks of Spiking Neurons with Spatially Dependent Recurrent Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Robert; Doiron, Brent

    2014-04-01

    Networks of model neurons with balanced recurrent excitation and inhibition capture the irregular and asynchronous spiking activity reported in cortex. While mean-field theories of spatially homogeneous balanced networks are well understood, a mean-field analysis of spatially heterogeneous balanced networks has not been fully developed. We extend the analysis of balanced networks to include a connection probability that depends on the spatial separation between neurons. In the continuum limit, we derive that stable, balanced firing rate solutions require that the spatial spread of external inputs be broader than that of recurrent excitation, which in turn must be broader than or equal to that of recurrent inhibition. Notably, this implies that network models with broad recurrent inhibition are inconsistent with the balanced state. For finite size networks, we investigate the pattern-forming dynamics arising when balanced conditions are not satisfied. Our study highlights the new challenges that balanced networks pose for the spatiotemporal dynamics of complex systems.

  20. TRANSFORMER FOR JOINING UNBALANCED TO BALANCED TRANSMISSION MEANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, B.J.; Opperman, R.H.

    1960-06-28

    An improved transformer is invented for joining an unbalanced transmission means to a balanced transmission means and is useful, for example, in transmitting an electromagnetic signal from a coaxial cable to a balanced dipole antenna.

  1. Global dynamic load-balancing for decentralised distributed simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Bragard, Quentin; Ventresque, Anthony; Murphy, Liam

    2014-01-01

    Distributed simulations require partitioning mechanisms to operate, and the best partitioning algorithms try to load-balance the partitions. Dynamic load-balancing, i.e. re-partitioning simulation environments at run-time, becomes essential when the load in the partitions change. In decentralised distributed simulation the information needed to dynamically load-balance seems difficult to collect and to our knowledge, all solutions apply a local dynamic load balancing: partitions exchange load...

  2. Sensory mechanisms of balance control in cerebellar disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bunn, L. M.

    2011-01-01

    A wealth of evidence exists to suggest that the cerebellum has an important role in the integration of vestibular, proprioceptive and visual sensory signals. Human bipedal balance depends on sensory integration and balance impairment is a common feature of cerebellar disease. I test the hypothesis that disrupted sensori-motor processing is responsible for balance impairment in cerebellar disease. Balance control in subjects with pure cerebellar disease (SCA6) was compared with matched healthy...

  3. Reliability model of a wind tunnel balance system

    OpenAIRE

    AHANGAR, M. R. Hassani; KANGAVARI, M. R.; VAHEDI, Khodadad

    2011-01-01

    Balance is one of the most significant and commonly used measurement instruments in wind tunnels. It is thus critical that this instrument is fault-tolerant and reliable. To help in the design of dependable balance systems, one must model and analyze the system from this perspective. We achieved this by considering the structure of a typical balance system and the types of errors it may encounter during operation. We estimated the failure rates of the components of the balance syst...

  4. 12 CFR 226.11 - Treatment of credit balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treatment of credit balances. 226.11 Section... SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Open-End Credit § 226.11 Treatment of credit balances. When a credit balance in excess of $1 is created on a credit account (through transmittal of funds to a...

  5. 12 CFR 226.21 - Treatment of credit balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treatment of credit balances. 226.21 Section... SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Closed-End Credit § 226.21 Treatment of credit balances. When a credit balance in excess of $1 is created in connection with a transaction (through transmittal of...

  6. Work-Life Balance and the Canadian Teaching Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese-Germain, Bernie

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades Canada has experienced sweeping demographic, social, economic and technological changes. These changes have had, and continue to have, a major impact on the work-life balance of Canadians--that is, on their ability to balance work and personal demands. Some of these factors also impact the work-life balance of the…

  7. Researching and Experiencing Motivation: A Plea for "Balanced Research"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na

    2006-01-01

    Intrigued by van Lier's call for "balanced teaching", I come up with a proposal of "balanced research". In this paper, I describe my personal involvement in a four-month teaching/data-gathering experience (as a part of my doctoral research project on task motivation) which shows that it both necessitates and ends up involving such a "balanced"…

  8. 30 CFR 816.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 816...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation... the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures shall be designed according to standard...

  9. 30 CFR 817.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 817...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation... the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures shall be designed according to standard...

  10. 49 CFR 1243.2 - Condensed balance sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condensed balance sheet. 1243.2 Section 1243.2... § 1243.2 Condensed balance sheet. Commencing with reports for the 3 months beginning January 1, 1972, and... hereby, required to compile and file quarterly reports of balance sheet items in accordance...

  11. Validation of the Juhnke-Balkin Life Balance Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R. J.; Balkin, Richard S.; Juhnke, Gerald A.

    2014-01-01

    Life balance is an important construct within the counseling profession. A validation study utilizing exploratory factor analysis and multiple regression was conducted on the Juhnke-Balkin Life Balance Inventory. Results from the study serve as evidence of validity for an assessment instrument designed to measure life balance.

  12. 45 CFR 1628.5 - Fund balance deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... prior year shall be identified as questioned costs under 45 CFR part 1630. (d) The recipient's request... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fund balance deficits. 1628.5 Section 1628.5... FUND BALANCES § 1628.5 Fund balance deficits. (a) Sound financial management practices such as...

  13. 46 CFR 232.4 - Balance sheet accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Administration's Dividend Policy for Operators Receiving ODS (46 CFR part 283), accounting information for... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts. 232.4 Section 232.4 Shipping... ACTIVITIES UNIFORM FINANCIAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Balance Sheet § 232.4 Balance sheet accounts....

  14. 30 CFR 817.41 - Hydrologic-balance protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrologic-balance protection. 817.41 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.41 Hydrologic-balance protection. (a) General. All underground mining and reclamation activities shall be conducted to minimize disturbance of the hydrologic balance within the permit...

  15. 30 CFR 816.41 - Hydrologic-balance protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrologic-balance protection. 816.41 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.41 Hydrologic-balance protection. (a) General. All surface mining and reclamation activities shall be conducted to minimize disturbance of the hydrologic balance within the permit and...

  16. 30 CFR 819.15 - Auger mining: Hydrologic balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining: Hydrologic balance. 819.15... MINING § 819.15 Auger mining: Hydrologic balance. (a) Auger mining shall be planned and conducted to minimize disturbances of the prevailing hydrologic balance in accordance with the requirements of §§...

  17. Fun and Efficiency of the Wii Balance Interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkert, Wim; Hoeijmakers, Niek; Vet, van der Paul; Nijholt, Anton; Nijholt, A.; Reidsma, D.

    2010-01-01

    Balance input in human-computer interfaces can be beneficial, enjoyable and entertaining. Users can navigate a virtual (game) world or an (empirical) dataset while having their hands free to issue other commands. A new low-cost balance interface, the Nintendo balance board, offers more widespread us

  18. Circuit-Adaptive Challenge Balancing in Racing Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Rietveld; S. Bakkes; D. Roijers

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach to challenge balancing in racing games: circuit-adaptive challenge balancing. We propose to automatically adapt the actual racing circuit - while it is being played - such that the performed circuit adaptations intelligently balance the challenge for all pl

  19. Sustainable Urban Regeneration Based on Energy Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha Silvester

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, results are reported of a technology assessment of the use and integration of decentralized energy systems and storage devices in an urban renewal area. First the general context of a different approach based on 'rethinking' and the incorporation of ongoing integration of coming economical and environmental interests on infrastructure, in relation to the sustainable urban development and regeneration from the perspective of the tripod people, technology and design is elaborated. However, this is at different scales, starting mainly from the perspective of the urban dynamics. This approach includes a renewed look at the ‘urban metabolism’ and the role of environmental technology, urban ecology and environment behavior focus. Second, the potential benefits of strategic and balanced introduction and use of decentralized devices and electric vehicles (EVs, and attached generation based on renewables are investigated in more detail in the case study of the ‘Merwe-Vierhaven’ area (MW4 in the Rotterdam city port in the Netherlands. In order to optimize the energy balance of this urban renewal area, it is found to be impossible to do this by tuning the energy consumption. It is more effective to change the energy mix and related infrastructures. However, the problem in existing urban areas is that often these areas are restricted to a few energy sources due to lack of available space for integration. Besides this, energy consumption in most cases is relatively concentrated in (existing urban areas. This limits the potential of sustainable urban regeneration based on decentralized systems, because there is no balanced choice regarding the energy mix based on renewables and system optimization. Possible solutions to obtain a balanced energy profile can come from either the choice to not provide all energy locally, or by adding different types of storage devices to the systems. The use of energy balance based on renewables as a

  20. Range-balancing the Large Binocular Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakich, A.; Thompson, D.; Kuhn, O. P.

    2011-10-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) consists of two 8.4 m telescopes mounted on a common alt-az gimbal. The telescope has various modes of operation, including prime-focus, bent- and direct-Gregorian modes. The telescopes can feed independent instruments or their light can be combined in one of two interferometric instruments, giving an interferometric baseline of over 22 m. With all large telescopes, including the LBT, collimation models or modeled values for hexapod positions, are required to maintain reasonable optical alignment over the working range of temperatures and telescope elevations. Unlike other telescopes, the LBT has a highly asymmetric mechanical structure, and as a result the collimation models are required to do a lot more "work", than on an equivalent aperture monocular telescope that are usually designed to incorporate a Serurrier truss arrangement. LBT has been phasing in science operations over the last 5 years, with first light on the prime-focus cameras in 2006, and first light in Gregorian mode in 2008. In this time the generation of collimation models for LBT has proven to be problematic, with large departures from a given model, and large changes in pointing, being the norm. A refined approach to generating collimation models, "range balancing", has greatly improved this situation. The range-balancing approach to generating collimation models has delivered reliable collimation and pointing in both prime focus and Gregorian modes which has led to greatly increased operational efficiency. The details of the range-balancing approach, involving the removal of pointing "contamination" from collimation data, are given in this paper.

  1. The balanced survivor average causal effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Tom; Joffe, Marshall; Hu, Bo; Li, Liang; Boucher, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Statistical analysis of longitudinal outcomes is often complicated by the absence of observable values in patients who die prior to their scheduled measurement. In such cases, the longitudinal data are said to be "truncated by death" to emphasize that the longitudinal measurements are not simply missing, but are undefined after death. Recently, the truncation by death problem has been investigated using the framework of principal stratification to define the target estimand as the survivor average causal effect (SACE), which in the context of a two-group randomized clinical trial is the mean difference in the longitudinal outcome between the treatment and control groups for the principal stratum of always-survivors. The SACE is not identified without untestable assumptions. These assumptions have often been formulated in terms of a monotonicity constraint requiring that the treatment does not reduce survival in any patient, in conjunction with assumed values for mean differences in the longitudinal outcome between certain principal strata. In this paper, we introduce an alternative estimand, the balanced-SACE, which is defined as the average causal effect on the longitudinal outcome in a particular subset of the always-survivors that is balanced with respect to the potential survival times under the treatment and control. We propose a simple estimator of the balanced-SACE that compares the longitudinal outcomes between equivalent fractions of the longest surviving patients between the treatment and control groups and does not require a monotonicity assumption. We provide expressions for the large sample bias of the estimator, along with sensitivity analyses and strategies to minimize this bias. We consider statistical inference under a bootstrap resampling procedure. PMID:23658214

  2. Balancing wobbles in the body sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titze, Jens; Rakova, Natalia; Kopp, Christoph; Dahlmann, Anke; Jantsch, Jonathan; Luft, Friedrich C

    2016-07-01

    Sodium balance is achieved within a matter of days and everything that enters should come out; sodium stores are of questionable relevance and sodium accumulation is accompanied by weight gain. Careful balance studies oftentimes conflicted with this view, and long-term studies suggested that total body sodium (TBNa) fluctuates independent of intake or body weight. We recently performed the opposite experiment in that we fixed sodium intake for weeks at three levels of sodium intake and collected all urine made. We found weekly (circaseptan) patterns in sodium excretion that were inversely related to aldosterone and directly related to cortisol. TBNa was not dependent on sodium intake, but instead exhibited far longer (greater than or equal to monthly) infradian rhythms independent of extracellular water, body weight or blood pressure. To discern the mechanisms further, we delved into sodium magnetic resonance imaging (Na-MRI) to identify sodium storage clinically. We found that sodium stores are greater in men than in women, increase with age and are higher in hypertensive than normotensive persons. We have suggestive evidence that these sodium stores can be mobilized, also in dialysis patients. The observations are in accordance with our findings that immune cells regulate a hypertonic interface in the skin interstitium that could serve as a protective barrier. Returning to our balance studies, we found that due to biological variability in 24-h sodium excretion, collecting urine for a day could not separate 12, 9 or 6 g/day sodium intakes with the precision of tossing a coin. Every other daily urine sampling correctly classified a 3-g difference in salt intake less than half the time, making the gold standard 24-h urine collection of little value in predicting salt intake. We suggest that wobbles in expected outcomes can lead to novel clinical insights even with respect to banal salt questions. PMID:26410883

  3. Comments on "Towards Balanced Development in Pakistan".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, E V

    1992-01-01

    Critical comment on the proposal of Professor Pyatt for balanced development in Pakistan focused on broad methodological issues. Professor Pyatt's approach proposes to balance efficiency criteria with longterm objectives of sustainable economic and human development: changing asset distribution through new investment and shifting investment returns in the social sector to households. I is a systematic attempt to compensate for deficits in human development. Policies would include "tariffisation of quota allocation of goods such as water, differential pricing to protect the poor; national conservation and polluter penalties; foreign aid shift to human maintenance expenditure; and reform of fiscal policy on income and expenditure to allow for support of social objectives." Patterns of property and institutional privilege can be effectively altered through market practices, such that wage goods could be subsidized in order to increase productivity. Constructive rethinking of assumptions underlying the balanced development argument is suggested, because of Pyatt model is contrary to the Dornbusch assumptions behind structural adjustment of the standard World Bank model. The assumption in question is that nontraditional expenditure on health, education, and the environment reduces unit labor costs. Concern is also raised about the approach to "efficiency wages" and the inputs of health and education, and food and housing, which are required to supply labor. Real wages might be conceptualized as affecting labor productivity in a more dynamic way than Professor Pyatt recognized. Use of human capital would be maximized and would be equivalent to the formation of new human capital. Wages may be construed to act like internal trade, where prices and markets are effectively interchanged so that farmers receive not only agricultural products, but also essential and nonessential consumer goods. Professor Pyatt's article is relevant to any country's development planning and

  4. Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-minute estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity (RH). Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

  5. The Energy Landscape of Social Balance

    CERN Document Server

    Marvel, Seth A; Kleinberg, Jon M

    2009-01-01

    We model a close-knit community of friends and enemies as a fully connected network with positive and negative signs on its edges. Theories from social psychology suggest that certain sign patterns are more stable than others. This notion of social "balance" allows us to define an energy landscape for such networks. Its structure is complex: numerical experiments reveal a landscape dimpled with local minima of widely varying depths. We derive rigorous bounds on the energies of these local minima and prove that they have a modular structure that can be used to classify them.

  6. Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station (EBBR) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, DR

    2011-02-23

    The energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-minute estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity (RH). Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

  7. Balanced scorecard evolution corporate responsibility perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Pilão, Pedro Miguel Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Master of Science in Business Administration / Classificação JEL M10 - General ; M14 - Corporate Culture; Social Responsibility O conceito de Balanced Scorecard tem focado a atenção e o entusiasmo de muitos investigadores e responsáveis organizativos, reunindo uma crescente popularidade e reconhecimento entre os sistemas de gestão estratégica e de avaliação de desempenho organizacional, demarcando-se dos restantes modelos devido à integração de indicadores não financeiros bem como ao se...

  8. Competing Effects of Social Balance and Influence

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, P; Szymanski, B K; Korniss, G

    2015-01-01

    We study a three-state (leftist, rightist, centrist) model that couples the dynamics of social balance with an external deradicalizing field. The mean-field analysis shows that there exists a critical value of the external field $p_c$ such that for a weak external field ($p$$$$p_c$), there is only one (stable) fixed point which corresponds to an all-centrist consensus state (absorbing state). In the weak-field regime, the convergence time to the absorbing state is evaluated using the quasi-stationary distribution and is found to be in agreement with the results obtained by numerical simulations.

  9. Competing effects of social balance and influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P; Sreenivasan, S; Szymanski, B K; Korniss, G

    2016-04-01

    We study a three-state (leftist, rightist, centrist) model that couples the dynamics of social balance with an external deradicalizing field. The mean-field analysis shows that there exists a critical value of the external field p_{c} such that for a weak external field (pp_{c}), there is only one (stable) fixed point, which corresponds to an all-centrist consensus state (absorbing state). In the weak-field regime, the convergence time to the absorbing state is evaluated using the quasistationary distribution and is found to be in agreement with the results obtained by numerical simulations.

  10. Time-Weighted Balanced Stochastic Model Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahavori, Maryamsadat; Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2011-01-01

    A new relative error model reduction technique for linear time invariant (LTI) systems is proposed in this paper. Both continuous and discrete time systems can be reduced within this framework. The proposed model reduction method is mainly based upon time-weighted balanced truncation and a recently...... developed inner-outer factorization technique. Compared to the other analogous counterparts, the proposed method shows to provide more accurate results in terms of time weighted norms, when applied to different practical examples. The results are further illustrated by a numerical example....

  11. Balanced Contracting in the Ambidextrous Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Litz, Stefan A.; Klimecki, Rüdiger

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenge for Human Resource Management (HRM) to contribute to ensure »flexibility« and »stability« simultaneously by generating a portfolio of employees holding different career aspirations. It will be argued that »balanced contracting« is a key factor for »unlocking« the organization and fostering change and adaptation. At the same time it is ensuring necessary »stability« in the organization. As organizations become »ambidextrous« seeking »stability« and »flexibili...

  12. Automatic balancing of 3D models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Schmidt, Ryan; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2014-01-01

    3D printing technologies allow for more diverse shapes than are possible with molds and the cost of making just one single object is negligible compared to traditional production methods. However, not all shapes are suitable for 3D print. One of the remaining costs is therefore human time spent......, in these cases, we will apply a rotation of the object which only deforms the shape a little near the base. No user input is required but it is possible to specify manufacturing constraints related to specific 3D print technologies. Several models have successfully been balanced and printed using both polyjet...

  13. 3-D force-balanced magnetospheric configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zaharia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of plasma pressure is essential for many physics applications in the magnetosphere, such as computing magnetospheric currents and deriving mag-netosphere-ionosphere coupling. A thorough knowledge of the 3-D pressure distribution has, however, eluded the community, as most in situ pressure observations are either in the ionosphere or the equatorial region of the magnetosphere. With the assumption of pressure isotropy there have been attempts to obtain the pressure at different locations,by either (a mapping observed data (e.g. in the ionosphere along the field lines of an empirical magnetospheric field model, or (b computing a pressure profile in the equatorial plane (in 2-D or along the Sun-Earth axis (in 1-D that is in force balance with the magnetic stresses of an empirical model. However, the pressure distributions obtained through these methods are not in force balance with the empirical magnetic field at all locations. In order to find a global 3-D plasma pressure distribution in force balance with the magnetospheric magnetic field, we have developed the MAG-3-D code that solves the 3-D force balance equation ${vec J} times {vec B} = nabla P$ computationally. Our calculation is performed in a flux coordinate system in which the magnetic field is expressed in terms of Euler potentials as ${vec B} = nabla psi times nabla alpha$. The pressure distribution, $P = P(psi, alpha$, is prescribed in the equatorial plane and is based on satellite measurements. In addition, computational boundary conditions for ψ surfaces are imposed using empirical field models

  14. Economic Integration vs European Balance of Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Xiaoqing

    2004-01-01

    @@ The fifth round of the EU enlargement on May 1, 2004 turns the long-cherished "utopia" of a unified Europe into reality through a peaceful, economic approach.① This paper attempts to make some explorations on the following issues: Why the option for an economic approach? What changes have taken place in the nature and behavior of the relevant nations? What impact will the event have on European stability and balance?② How will the EU keep equilibrium through systemic mechanisms in case of inter-state disputes so as to lay the political groundwork for a peaceful unification.

  15. Balanced {C_4, C_5}-Quatrefoil Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ushio, Kazuhiko

    2004-01-01

    In graph theory, the decomposition problems of graphs are very important topics. Various types of decompositions of many graphs can be seen in the literature of gaph theory. We give the necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a balanced {C_4, C_5}-quatrefoil decomposition of K_n for each of (C_4, C_4, C_4, C_4)-quatrefoil, (C_4, C_4, C_4, C_5)-quatrefoil, (C_4, C_4, C_5, C_5)-quatrefoil, (C_4, C_5, C_5, C_5)-quatrefoil, and (C_5, C_5, C_5, C_5)-quatrefoil. These decompositions...

  16. Pressure-Balance Consistency in Magnetospheric Modelling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖永登; 陈出新

    2003-01-01

    There have been many magnetic field models for geophysical and astrophysical bodies.These theoretical or empirical models represent the reality very well in some cases,but in other cases they may be far from reality.We argue that these models will become more reasonable if they are modified by some coordinate transformations.In order to demonstrate the transformation,we use this method to resolve the "pressure-balance inconsistency"problem that occurs when plasma transports from the outer plasma sheet of the Earth into the inner plasma sheet.

  17. Recent progress on the BIPM watt balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Hao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the recent progress on the BIPM (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures watt balance. The existing apparatus was transferred to the dedicated new laboratory with better thermal and vibrational conditions. The apparatus is fully operational in air. An improvement by a factor of three was achieved on the S/N ratio of both the voltage-to-velocity and force-to-current ratios. The fabrication of the parts of the new magnet is completed and its assembly is finished.

  18. Finance theory and hospital cash balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivenson, Howard L; Smith, Dean G

    2013-01-01

    Competing financial theories have been offered to understand hospitals' cash holding with scant recent evidence. Using data from a national sample of 608 not-for-profit hospitals, we find support for the trade-off theory which posits targeted cash balances. We do not find support for the financial hierarchy theory which posits a preference for use of cash to pay for capital investments. Findings apply to holdings of cash and marketable securities, but not board-designated funds where no model provided meaningful explanatory power.

  19. BALANCE-SHEET vs. ARBITRAGE CDOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIU EDUARD DINCA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, in the recent post-crisis aftermath, global asset managers are constantly searching new ways to optimize their investment portfolios while financial and banking institutions around the world are exploring new alternatives to better secure their financing and refinancing demands altogether with the enhancement of their risk management capabilities. We will exhibit herewith a comparison between the balance-sheet and arbitrage CDO securitizations as financial markets-based funding, investment and risks mitigation techniques, highlighting certain key structuring and implementation specifics on each of them.

  20. Balancing the Energy-Water Nexus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dell, Jan

    2010-09-15

    Optimizing the complex tradeoffs in the Energy-Water Nexus requires quantification of energy use, carbon emitted and water consumed. Water is consumed in energy production and is often a constraint to operations. More global attention and investment has been made on reducing carbon emissions than on water management. Review of public reporting by the largest 107 global power producers and 50 companies in the oil/gas industry shows broad accounting on carbon emissions but only partial reporting on water consumption metrics. If the Energy-Water Nexus is to be balanced, then water must also be measured to be optimally managed with carbon emissions.

  1. STABILITY - CHANGE BALANCE IN SUSTAINABLE ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel CORNESCU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable organization represents an added value generating entity, integrated in the economic, social and ecologic environment, which constantly creates competitive advantages relative to competitors. The paper proposes an analysis of sustainability at an organization level, both from the perspective of cultivating and developing good practices promoted in the organization, and from the perspective of designing and implementing organization change programs. Modalities by which the management can create and maintain a balance between stability and change are also proposed, as a support of organization sustainability.

  2. Prevention of postoperative pain by balanced analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, J B; Rosenberg, J; Dirkes, W E;

    1990-01-01

    Fourteen patients undergoing colorectal surgery received an intraoperative afferent neural block with combined intrathecal and extradural local anaesthetics plus a balanced postoperative low-dose regimen of extradural bupivacaine 10 mg h-1-morphine 0.2 mg h-1 and systemic piroxicam 20 mg/24 h. Po....... Postoperative pain, assessed repeatedly during the initial 48 h, was prevented during rest, mobilization from the supine to the sitting position and during walking, in all but one patient; slight pain was observed intermittently during coughing in four patients....

  3. Accounting balance sheet as a system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukin Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article actualizes the need to study the systematic approach and accountants’ systematical thinking based on the analysis of the systems theory basic provisions, the applicability of the system properties to the "balance sheet" category and to explore the basic tenets of the existing schools of accounting. It is proved that the accounting is a complex socio-technical system; justified that the study of accounting from the perspective of a systematic approach will enable a better understanding of its structure, principles of functioning and the role of an accountant in its practical implementation.

  4. WORK LIFE BALANCE OF WOMEN AND LEADERSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Sangita Deota

    2014-01-01

    For the past years the conversation about women and leadership has revolved around challenges of Work-Life-Balance which most of the time actually means “Work-Family-Balance”. Woman hardly make it to the top of the companies not because of their personal choice but because of the fact that lots of ambitious women make them off the path of leadership. Women are also gently but firmly avoided while deciding about future leaders, this is mainly because their work and family invariably clash. By ...

  5. Physiological aspects of fluid and electrolyte balance

    OpenAIRE

    Lobo, Dileep N.

    2003-01-01

    The intake of water and electrolytes is inseparable from feeding by natural or artificial means and careful attention to salt and water balance is a vital component of perioperative care and of nutritional support. Nutritional support with water and sodium restriction in post-intensive care patients with oedema, dilutional hypoalbuminaemia and fluid excess of 10 L, cleared oedema over 7-10 days, with a 1 g/L rise in serum albumin for every kg loss in weight. Return of gastrointestinal func...

  6. Finance theory and hospital cash balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivenson, Howard L; Smith, Dean G

    2013-01-01

    Competing financial theories have been offered to understand hospitals' cash holding with scant recent evidence. Using data from a national sample of 608 not-for-profit hospitals, we find support for the trade-off theory which posits targeted cash balances. We do not find support for the financial hierarchy theory which posits a preference for use of cash to pay for capital investments. Findings apply to holdings of cash and marketable securities, but not board-designated funds where no model provided meaningful explanatory power. PMID:23614264

  7. AHP IN IMPLEMENTATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Jovanovic

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BSC as a matrix of balanced indicators gives a review of organization activities within four or more perspectives (fields (finance, users, business processes, learning and development where by necessary conditions for development and continual improvement are created. As BSC is essentially a frame for realization of defined strategy in the organization, its implementation asks for an adequate choice of measures-indicators and therefore this paper is oriented towards importance and methodology of the choice of indicators. This paper particularly emphasizes a possibility of implementation of AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process and ANP (Analytic Network Process as methods of multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM inmplementation of BSC.

  8. The energy balance of the Tolmin Municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Tuma, Matija; Sekavčnik, Mihael; Drole, Miran

    2015-01-01

    The energy balance of the Tolmin municipality Tolmin is presented in this paper. All types of energy coming from renewable and nonrenewable sources, which are within or crossing the borders of the municipality, are precisely analyzed. The energy supply is studied in terms of the type of energy source and consumer. A comparison is made with the data that applies to the whole Slovenia. V članku je obravnavana energijska bilanca v občini Tolmin. Podrobneje so raziskane vse vrste energij, obno...

  9. Optimal signal recovery for pulsed balanced detection

    OpenAIRE

    Icaza Astiz, Yannik Alan de

    2015-01-01

    To measure quantum features in a classical world constrains us to extend the classical technology to the limit, inventing and discovering new schemes to use the classical devices, while reducing and filtering the sources of noise. Balanced detectors, e.g. when measuring a low- noise laser, have become an exceptional tool to attain the shot-noise level, i.e., the standard quantum limit for measuring light. To detect light pulses at this level requires to decreasing and also to filtering all ot...

  10. A Conceptual Framework for the Progression of Balance Exercises in Persons with Balance and Vestibular Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, BN; Carender, WJ; Lin, CC; Alsubaie, SF; Kinnaird, CR; Sienko, KH; Whitney, SL

    2016-01-01

    There is little information in peer-reviewed literature to specifically guide the choice of exercise for persons with balance and vestibular disorders. The purpose of this study is to provide a rationale for the establishment of a progression framework and propose a logical sequence in progressing balance exercises for persons with vestibular disorders. Our preliminary conceptual framework was developed by a multidisciplinary team of physical therapists and engineers with extensive experience with people with vestibular disorders. Balance exercises are grouped into six different categories: static standing, compliant surface, weight shifting, modified center of gravity, gait, and vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). Through a systematized literature review, interviews and focus group discussions with physical therapists and postural control experts, and pilot studies involving repeated trials of each exercise, exercise progressions for each category were developed and ranked in order of degree of difficulty. Clinical expertise and experience guided decision making for the exercise progressions. Hundreds of exercise combinations were discussed and research is ongoing to validate the hypothesized rankings. The six exercise categories can be incorporated into a balance training program and the framework for exercise progression can be used to guide less experienced practitioners in the development of a balance program. It may also assist clinicians and researchers to design, develop, and progress interventions within a treatment plan of care, or within clinical trials. A structured exercise framework has the potential to maximize postural control, decrease symptoms of dizziness/visual vertigo, and provide “rules” for exercise progression for persons with vestibular disorders. The conceptual framework may also be applicable to persons with other balance-related issues.

  11. Human stick balancing: Tuning Lèvy flights to improve balance control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Juan Luis; Milton, John G.

    2004-09-01

    State-dependent, or parametric, noise is an essential component of the neural control mechanism for stick balancing at the fingertip. High-speed motion analysis in three dimensions demonstrates that the controlling movements made by the fingertip during stick balancing can be described by a Lévy flight. The Lévy index, α, is approximately 0.9; a value close to optimal for a random search. With increased skill, the index α does not change. However, the tails of the Lévy distribution become broader. These observations suggest a Lévy flight that is truncated by the properties of the nervous and musculoskeletal system; the truncation decreasing as skill level increases. Measurements of the cross-correlation between the position of the tip of the stick and the fingertip demonstrate that the role of closed-loop feedback changes with increased skill. Moreover, estimation of the neural latencies for stick balancing show that for a given stick length, the latency increases with skill level. It is suggested that the neural control for stick balancing involves a mechanism in which brief intervals of consciously generated, corrective movements alternate with longer intervals of prediction-free control. With learning the truncation of the Lévy flight becomes better optimized for balance control and hence the time between successive conscious corrections increases. These observations provide the first evidence that changes in a Lévy flight may have functional significance for the nervous system. This work has implications for the control of balancing problems ranging from falling in the elderly to the design of two-legged robots and earthquake proof buildings.

  12. "K"-Balance Partitioning: An Exact Method with Applications to Generalized Structural Balance and Other Psychological Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusco, Michael; Steinley, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Structural balance theory (SBT) has maintained a venerable status in the psychological literature for more than 5 decades. One important problem pertaining to SBT is the approximation of structural or generalized balance via the partitioning of the vertices of a signed graph into "K" clusters. This "K"-balance partitioning problem also has more…

  13. Highly connected neurons spike less frequently in balanced networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Ryan; Rosenbaum, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Biological neuronal networks exhibit highly variable spiking activity. Balanced networks offer a parsimonious model of this variability in which strong excitatory synaptic inputs are canceled by strong inhibitory inputs on average, and irregular spiking activity is driven by fluctuating synaptic currents. Most previous studies of balanced networks assume a homogeneous or distance-dependent connectivity structure, but connectivity in biological cortical networks is more intricate. We use a heterogeneous mean-field theory of balanced networks to show that heterogeneous in-degrees can break balance. Moreover, heterogeneous architectures that achieve balance promote lower firing rates in neurons with larger in-degrees, consistent with some recent experimental observations.

  14. Dynamic balance of unsymmetrical rotor-bearing system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄森林; 刘占生; 苏杰先

    2003-01-01

    The formula is derived for calculating correction weights from motion equations of unsymmetrical ro-tor-bearing system. Two trial weights are required in two trial operations for ea ch balancing plane, and forwardprecession of trial responses are used to calculate the correction weights. Comparative experiments between thismethod and the conventional method are carried out on the test bench. Moreover, this method was used to bal-ance a 600 MW generator-bearing system, it decreased the balancing time and improved the balance accuracy.This method has been proved valid for balancing unsymmetrical rotor-bearing system.

  15. Dental Occlusion Influences the Standing Balance on an Unstable Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julià-Sánchez, Sonia; Álvarez-Herms, Jesús; Gatterer, Hannes; Burtscher, Martin; Pagès, Teresa; Viscor, Ginés

    2015-10-01

    Contradictory results are still reported on the influence of dental occlusion on the balance control. We attempted to determine whether there are differences in balance between opposed dental occlusion (Intercuspal position (ICP)/"Cotton rolls" mandibular position [CR]) for two extreme levels of stability (stable/ unstable). Twenty-five subjects were monitored under both dental occlusion and level of stability conditions using an unstable platform Balance System SD. The resulting stability index suggests that body balance is significantly better when dental occlusion is set in CR (p crowding (p = .006), midline deviation (p dental occlusion for the balance control comes strongly into effect in unstable conditions. PMID:25674772

  16. Measurement of balance function and community participation in stroke survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sinae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the relationship between balance function and community participation in stroke survivors. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-three patients diagnosed with hemiparetic stroke participated in this study (36 males, 27 females, aged 58.6 ± 15.2 years). The participants were assessed for balance function and their level of participation in the community, using activity card sorting and the Berg Balance Scale. A regression analysis was used to identify the influence of balance function on instrumental activities of daily living and leisure and social activities. [Results] The results of the regression analysis indicated that balance function measured by using the Berg Balance Scale affected community participation of patients with hemiparetic stroke. Participation in instrumental activities of daily living and leisure and social activities was affected by balance function. [Conclusion] This study provides useful information for designing efficient programs and identifying their effectiveness for enhancement of community participation in stroke survivors.

  17. Quantifying mass balance processes on the Southern Patagonia Icefield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaefer, M.; Machguth, Horst; Falvey, M.;

    2014-01-01

    We present surface mass balance simulations of the Southern Patagonia Icefield driven by downscaled reanalysis data. The simulations were validated and interpreted using geodetic mass balances, measured point balances and a complete velocity field of 5 the Icefield from spring 2004. The high...... measured accumulation of snow as well as the high measured ablation is reproduced by the model. The overall modeled surface mass balance was positive and increasing during 1975–2011. Subtracting the surface mass balance from geodetic balances, calving fluxes were inferred. Mass losses of the SPI due to...... spatially distributed accumulation measurements can help to reduce the uncertainties of the different terms in the mass balance of the Southern Patagonia Icefield....

  18. Measurement of balance function and community participation in stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sinae

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the relationship between balance function and community participation in stroke survivors. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-three patients diagnosed with hemiparetic stroke participated in this study (36 males, 27 females, aged 58.6 ± 15.2 years). The participants were assessed for balance function and their level of participation in the community, using activity card sorting and the Berg Balance Scale. A regression analysis was used to identify the influence of balance function on instrumental activities of daily living and leisure and social activities. [Results] The results of the regression analysis indicated that balance function measured by using the Berg Balance Scale affected community participation of patients with hemiparetic stroke. Participation in instrumental activities of daily living and leisure and social activities was affected by balance function. [Conclusion] This study provides useful information for designing efficient programs and identifying their effectiveness for enhancement of community participation in stroke survivors. PMID:27630411

  19. Measurement of balance function and community participation in stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sinae

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the relationship between balance function and community participation in stroke survivors. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-three patients diagnosed with hemiparetic stroke participated in this study (36 males, 27 females, aged 58.6 ± 15.2 years). The participants were assessed for balance function and their level of participation in the community, using activity card sorting and the Berg Balance Scale. A regression analysis was used to identify the influence of balance function on instrumental activities of daily living and leisure and social activities. [Results] The results of the regression analysis indicated that balance function measured by using the Berg Balance Scale affected community participation of patients with hemiparetic stroke. Participation in instrumental activities of daily living and leisure and social activities was affected by balance function. [Conclusion] This study provides useful information for designing efficient programs and identifying their effectiveness for enhancement of community participation in stroke survivors.

  20. A comparative experiment in distributed load balancing

    KAUST Repository

    Randles, Martin

    2009-12-01

    The anticipated uptake of Cloud computing, built on the well-established research fields of web services, networks, utility computing, distributed computing and virtualisation, will bring many advantages in cost, flexibility and availability for service users. These benefits are expected to further drive the demand for cloud services, increasing both the cloud customer base and the scale of cloud installations. This has implications for many technical issues in such Service Oriented Architectures and Internet of Services (IoS) type applications; fault tolerance, high availability and scalability for examples. Central to these issues is the establishment of effective load balancing techniques. It is clear that the scale and complexity of these systems makes centralized individual assignment of jobs to specific servers infeasible; leading to the need for an effective distributed solution. This paper investigates three possible distributed solutions, which have been proposed for load balancing: An approach inspired by the foraging behaviour of the Honeybee, Biased Random Sampling and Active Clustering. © 2009 IEEE.

  1. Biometrics of hoof balance in equids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Souza

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Differences in hoof balance between horses, mules and donkeys were identified in order to form more specific considerations for proper management of the animals. Measurements of the natural dimensions of hooves in sixty animals were used: 20 horses from the Crioulo breed, 20 mules and 20 donkeys from the Pêga breed. Liveweight was estimated using the correlation equations in each species by heart girth. Using a caliper rule, tape measure and hoof gauge, measurements of the length and width of the frog, hoof height, angle of heel, medial and lateral dorsal length, angle of the toe and crown circumference of the hooves of forelimbs and hindlimb were taken. Within each group the hooves of the hindlimbs exhibited narrower measurements than the hooves of the forelimbs and no difference was observed between the hoof angle of both members of groups. The conformation of the hooves of donkeys is shown to be substantially different from that observed in horses, the mules being in an intermediate condition, being smaller, angled and robust frog and proportionally more developed. Similarly, the hooves of donkeys provide greater support area compared to mules and horses, in descending order, even being dimensionally smaller. We conclude that the hooves of horses, mules and donkeys, have specific patterns of geometric balance that must be taken into consideration at the time of trimming and imbalance inferences.

  2. LINE BALANCING ANALYSIS OF TUNER PRODUCT MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAERYIP SIHOMBING,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The processing time and the number of operators have strong relationship with the productivity of production lines. In the tuner production line, three significant factors related to productivity through using of line balancing method are the number of operator, production tools/equipment, and production process. This studyperformed the line balancing method through simulation model in order to reduce the line unbalancing causes and relocate the workforce associated to idle time, eliminating the bottleneck, and at the same time maintaining/ improving the productivity. To analyze the production line, we use a develop simulation tool, called Fact-Model, to modeling the production line (with the graph of critical path network and working time and the works estimated (related to the cycle time, takt time, non-value added activities, quantity, and cost. Fact-Model is facilitated with the features that enable the user to depict the real production flows by using their owned realpictures/photos taken into their simulation model.

  3. Static balancing behaviour of the mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Daniel; Brüstle, Fabian; Terebesi, Sophia; Giannakopoulos, Nikolaos N; Eberhard, Lydia; Rammelsberg, Peter; Schindler, Hans J

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of physiological control of the craniomandibular system during force-controlled biting: in intercuspation, restricted by predetermined anatomic-geometrical conditions [i.e. biting in intercuspation (BIC)]; and on a hydrostatic system [i.e. auto-balanced static equilibrium of the mandible (BAL)], in which the mandible is balanced under unrestricted occlusal conditions. For 20 healthy subjects, the spatial positions of the condyles, the lower molars, and the incisal point were measured, and the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the musculus masseter and musculus temporalis anterior were recorded bilaterally, during force-controlled biting (50, 75, 100 N) on a hydrostatic device. The results were compared with those obtained during BIC. During BAL, the neuromuscular system stabilizes one condyle, so it behaves as a virtual fulcrum, and all available biomechanical degrees of freedom of the opposite side are used to achieve a bilaterally equal vertical distance between the upper and lower dental arches. The variability of the positions of the molars was significantly smaller than for the condyles. The EMG co-contraction ratios calculated for homonymous muscle regions revealed significant differences between BIC and BAL, specifically, greater symmetry during BAL with substantial asymmetry of approximately 25% remaining. In conclusion, the results revealed precise neuromuscular control of the position of the lower dental arch; this information might form the basis for interference-free tracking of the mandible in intercuspation under different conditions. PMID:26446049

  4. Nitrogen balance in soil under eucalyptus plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Anjos Bittencourt Barreto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the role of organic nitrogen (N pools in the N supply of eucalyptus plantations is essential for the development of strategies that maximize the efficient use of N for this crop. This study aimed to evaluate the distribution of organic N pools in different compartments of the soil-plant system and their contributions to the N supply in eucalyptus plantations at different ages (1, 3, 5, and 13 years. Three models were used to estimate the contributions of organic pools: Model I considered N pools contained in the litterfall, N pools in the soil microbial biomass and available soil N (mineral N; Model II considered the N pools in the soil, potentially mineralizable N and the export of N through wood harvesting; and Model III (N balance was defined as the difference between the initial soil N pool (0-10 cm and the export of N, taking the application of N fertilizer into account. Model I showed that N pools could supply 27 - 70 % of the N demands of eucalyptus trees at different ages. Model II suggested that the soil N pool may be sufficient for 4 - 5 rotations of 5 years. According to the N balance, these N pools would be sufficient to meet the N demands of eucalyptus for more than 15 rotations of 5 years. The organic pools contribute with different levels of N and together are sufficient to meet the N demands of eucalyptus for several rotations.

  5. Static load balancing for CFD distributed simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chronopoulos, A T; Grosu, D; Wissink, A; Benche, M

    2001-01-26

    The cost/performance ratio of networks of workstations has been constantly improving. This trend is expected to continue in the near future. The aggregate peak rate of such systems often matches or exceeds the peak rate offered by the fastest parallel computers. This has motivated research towards using a network of computers, interconnected via a fast network (cluster system) or a simple Local Area Network (LAN) (distributed system), for high performance concurrent computations. Some of the important research issues arise such as (1) Optimal problem partitioning and virtual interconnection topology mapping; (2) Optimal execution scheduling and load balancing. CFD codes have been efficiently implemented on homogeneous parallel systems in the past. In particular, the helicopter aerodynamics CFD code TURNS has been implemented with MPI on the IBM SP with parallel relaxation and Krylov iterative methods used in place of more traditional recursive algorithms to enhance performance. In this implementation the space domain is divided into equal subdomain which are mapped to the processors. We consider the implementation of TURNS on a LAN of heterogeneous workstations. In order to deal with the problem of load balancing due to the different processor speeds we propose a suboptimal algorithm of dividing the space domain into unequal subdomains and assign them to the different computers. The algorithm can apply to other CFD applications. We used our algorithm to schedule TURNS on a network of workstations and obtained significantly better results.

  6. Energy-balanced algorithm for RFID estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jumin; Wang, Fangyuan; Li, Dengao; Yan, Lijuan

    2016-10-01

    RFID has been widely used in various commercial applications, ranging from inventory control, supply chain management to object tracking. It is necessary for us to estimate the number of RFID tags deployed in a large area periodically and automatically. Most of the prior works use passive tags to estimate and focus on designing time-efficient algorithms that can estimate tens of thousands of tags in seconds. But for a RFID reader to access tags in a large area, active tags are likely to be used due to their longer operational ranges. But these tags use their own battery as energy supplier. Hence, conserving energy for active tags becomes critical. Some prior works have studied how to reduce energy expenditure of a RFID reader when it reads tags IDs. In this paper, we study how to reduce the amount of energy consumed by active tags during the process of estimating the number of tags in a system and make the energy every tag consumed balanced approximately. We design energy-balanced estimation algorithm that can achieve our goal we mentioned above.

  7. High-Intensity Sweeteners and Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swithers, Susan E.; Martin, Ashley A.; Davidson, Terry L.

    2010-01-01

    Recent epidemiological evidence points to a link between a variety of negative health outcomes (e.g. metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular disease) and the consumption of both calorically sweetened beverages and beverages sweetened with high-intensity, non-caloric sweeteners. Research on the possibility that non-nutritive sweeteners promote food intake, body weight gain, and metabolic disorders has been hindered by the lack of a physiologically-relevant model that describes the mechanistic basis for these outcomes. We have suggested that based on Pavlovian conditioning principles, consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners could result in sweet tastes no longer serving as consistent predictors of nutritive postingestive consequences. This dissociation between the sweet taste cues and the caloric consequences could lead to a decrease in the ability of sweet tastes to evoke physiological responses that serve to regulate energy balance. Using a rodent model, we have found that intake of foods or fluids containing non-nutritive sweeteners was accompanied by increased food intake, body weight gain, accumulation of body fat, and weaker caloric compensation, compared to consumption of foods and fluids containing glucose. Our research also provided evidence consistent with the hypothesis that these effects of consuming saccharin may be associated with a decrement in the ability of sweet taste to evoke thermic responses, and perhaps other physiological, cephalic phase, reflexes that are thought to help maintain energy balance. PMID:20060008

  8. Robot-Crawler: Statically Balanced Gaits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Parasuraman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new statically balanced walking technique for a robot‐crawler. The gait design and the control of the robot crawler aim to achieve stability while walking. This statically balanced gait has to be designed in a different fashion to a wheeled robot, as there are discrete changes in the support of the robot when its legs are lifted or placed on the ground. The stability of the robot depends on how the legs are positioned relative to the body and also on the sequence and timing with which the legs are lifted and placed. In order to reduce the risk of stability loss while walking, a measure for the robot stability (so‐called stability margin is typically used in the gait and motion planning. In this paper different biological behaviours of four‐legged animals are studied and mapped on a quad-legrobot‐crawler. Experiments were carried out on the forward walking gaits of lizards and horses. Based on these results, the stability margins of different gaits are discussed and compared.

  9. Balance perturbation system to improve balance compensatory responses during walking in old persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melzer Itshak

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ageing commonly disrupts the balance control and compensatory postural responses that contribute to maintaining balance and preventing falls during perturbation of posture. This can lead to increased risk of falling in old adults (65 years old and over. Therefore, improving compensatory postural responses during walking is one of the goals in fall prevention programs. Training is often used to achieve this goal. Most fall prevention programs are usually directed towards improving voluntary postural control. Since compensatory postural responses triggered by a slip or a trip are not under direct volitional control these exercises are less expected to improve compensatory postural responses due to lack of training specificity. Thus, there is a need to investigate the use balance perturbations during walking to train more effectively compensatory postural reactions during walking. This paper describes the Balance Measure & Perturbation System (BaMPer System a system that provides small, controlled and unpredictable perturbations during treadmill walking providing valuable perturbation, which allows training compensatory postural responses during walking which thus hypothesize to improve compensatory postural responses in older adults.

  10. The Improvement of Joule Balance NIM-1 and the Design of New Joule Balance NIM-2

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhengkun; He, Qing; Han, Bing; Lu, Yunfeng; Xu, Jinxin; Li, Shisong; Li, Chen; Wnag, Gang; Zeng, Tao; Bai, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The development of the joule balance method to measure the Planck constant, in support of the redefinition of the kilogram, has been going on at the National Institute of Metrology of China (NIM) since 2007. The first prototype has been built to check the feasibility of the principle. In 2011, the relative uncertainty of the Planck constant measurement at NIM is $7.7\\times10^{-5}$. Self-heating of the coils, swing of the coil, are the main uncertainty contributions. Since 2012, some improvements have been made to reduce these uncertainties. The relative uncertainty of the joule balance is reduced to $7.2\\times10^{-6}$ at present. The Planck constant measured with the joule balance is $h=6.6261041(470)\\times10^{-34}$Js. The relative difference between the determined h and the CODATA2010 recommendation value is $5\\times10^{-6}$. Further improvements are still being carried out on the NIM-1 apparatus. At the same time, the design and construction of a brand new and compact joule balance NIM-2 are also in progres...

  11. The Energy Balance Study: The Design and Baseline Results for a Longitudinal Study of Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Gregory A.; Shook, Robin P.; Paluch, Amanda E.; Baruth, Meghan; Crowley, E. Patrick; Jaggers, Jason R.; Prasad, Vivek K.; Hurley, Thomas G.; Hebert, James R.; O'Connor, Daniel P.; Archer, Edward; Burgess, Stephanie; Blair, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The Energy Balance Study (EBS) was a comprehensive study designed to determine over a period of 12 months the associations of caloric intake and energy expenditure on changes in body weight and composition in a population of healthy men and women. Method: EBS recruited men and women aged 21 to 35 years with a body mass index between 20…

  12. Use of the Microsoft Kinect system to characterize balance ability during balance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim DH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dohyung Lim,1 ChoongYeon Kim,2 HoHyun Jung,1 Dukyoung Jung,3 Keyoung Jin Chun21Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Advanced Biomedical Engineering Lab, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Cheonan, Republic of Korea; 3R&D Team, Senior Products Industrial Center, Busan, Republic of KoreaAbstract: The risk of falling increases significantly in the elderly because of deterioration of the neural musculature regulatory mechanisms. Several studies have investigated methods of preventing falling using real-time systems to evaluate balance; however, it is difficult to monitor the results of such characterizations in real time. Herein, we describe the use of Microsoft’s Kinect depth sensor system to evaluate balance in real time. Six healthy male adults (25.5±1.8 years, 173.9±6.4 cm, 71.4±6.5 kg, and 23.6±2.4 kg/m2, with normal balance abilities and with no musculoskeletal disorders, were selected to participate in the experiment. Movements of the participants were induced by controlling the base plane of the balance training equipment in various directions. The dynamic motion of the subjects was measured using two Kinect depth sensor systems and a three-dimensional motion capture system with eight infrared cameras. The two systems yielded similar results for changes in the center of body mass (P>0.05 with a large Pearson’s correlation coefficient of γ>0.60. The results for the two systems showed similarity in the mean lower-limb joint angle with flexion–extension movements, and these values were highly correlated (hip joint: within approximately 4.6°; knee joint: within approximately 8.4° (0.40<γ<0.74 (P>0.05. Large differences with a low correlation were, however, observed for the lower-limb joint angle in relation to abduction–adduction and internal–external rotation motion (γ<0.40 (P<0.05. These findings show that clinical and dynamic accuracy can be achieved using the Kinect

  13. Improving Balance Function Using Low Levels of Electrical Stimulation of the Balance Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob; Reschke, Millard; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Wood, Scott; Serrador, Jorge; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian T.; Cohen, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Crewmembers returning from long-duration space flight face significant challenges due to the microgravity-induced inappropriate adaptations in balance/sensorimotor function. The Neuroscience Laboratory at JSC is developing a method based on stochastic resonance to enhance the brain's ability to detect signals from the balance organs of the inner ear and use them for rapid improvement in balance skill, especially when combined with balance training exercises. This method involves a stimulus delivery system that is wearable/portable and provides imperceptible electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the human body. Stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon whereby the response of a nonlinear system to a weak periodic input signal is optimized by the presence of a particular non-zero level of noise. This phenomenon of SR is based on the concept of maximizing the flow of information through a system by a non-zero level of noise. Application of imperceptible SR noise coupled with sensory input in humans has been shown to improve motor, cardiovascular, visual, hearing, and balance functions. SR increases contrast sensitivity and luminance detection; lowers the absolute threshold for tone detection in normal hearing individuals; improves homeostatic function in the human blood pressure regulatory system; improves noise-enhanced muscle spindle function; and improves detection of weak tactile stimuli using mechanical or electrical stimulation. SR noise has been shown to improve postural control when applied as mechanical noise to the soles of the feet, or when applied as electrical noise at the knee and to the back muscles. SR using imperceptible stochastic electrical stimulation of the vestibular system (stochastic vestibular stimulation, SVS) applied to normal subjects has shown to improve the degree of association between the weak input periodic signals introduced via venous blood pressure receptors and the heart-rate responses. Also, application of SVS over 24

  14. Carbon balance of Russian agricultural land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepaschenko, D.; Shvidenko, A.; Schepaschenko, M.

    2012-04-01

    Russia managed 218.7 mln ha agricultural land (2009) in accordance with national statistics (FSSS, 2011: http://www.gks.ru/dbscripts/Cbsd/DBInet.cgi#1). Among that, 91.75 mln ha is arable land; 92.05 mln ha - hayfield and pasture; 34.9 mln ha - abandoned arable and fallow. Abandoned arable area is not indicated directly in the statistics, but can be calculated as a difference between "arable" and "cultivated" area. We estimated carbon balance of agricultural land by accounting carbon fluxes. Carbon sink includes: net primary productivity (NPP), applying fertilizes and liming. Carbon losses include soil respiration (SR), harvest and lateral flux. The initial data (cultivated area and harvest distribution by regions and crop) was derived from national agriculture statistics (FSSS, 2011). NPP was estimated via harvest and set of regression models. Average NPP for agricultural land was estimated at 435 g C m-2 (530 g C m-2 for crops). Soil respiration was calculated by a model (Mukhortova et. al., 1011: http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/FOR/forest_cdrom/Articles/Mukhortova_2011_IBFRA_SR.pdf) developed for Russia which is based on all available empirical data and accounted for climatic parameters, soil type and management practice. Average SR of agricultural land is 344 g C m-2 (372 g C m-2 for the cropland). We applied the IPCC method (National inventory, 2010; IPCC, 2006) for fertilizer and lateral fluxes assessment. The total carbon balance of agricultural land is almost in equilibrium (-0.04 t C ha-1) in spite of arable land is a carbon source (-0.84 t C ha-1). The highest sink (1.21 t C ha-1) is provided by abandoned land. Carbon fluxes vary substantially depending on seasonal weather conditions. For example grains' NPP in 2010 (dry and hot summer in major agricultural regions of European Russia) was estimated at 32% less compare to 2009 and the total carbon balance of this land category decreased by order of magnitude. We used Russian land cover (Schepaschenko et al

  15. Virtual water balance estimation in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambouli, Talel; Benalaya, Abdallah; Ghezal, Lamia; Ali, Chebil; Hammami, Rifka; Souissi, Asma

    2015-04-01

    The water in Tunisia is limited and unevenly distributed in the different regions, especially in arid zones. In fact, the annual rainfall average varies from less than 100 mm in the extreme South to over 1500 mm in the extreme North of the country. Currently, the conventional potential of water resources of the country is estimated about 4.84 billion m³ / year of which 2.7 billion cubic meters / year of surface water and 2.14 billion cubic meters / year of groundwater, characterizing a structural shortage for water safety in Tunisia (under 500m3/inhabitant/year). With over than 80% of water volumes have been mobilized for agriculture. The virtual water concept, defined by Allan (1997), as the amount of water needed to generate a product of both natural and artificial origin, this concept establish a similarity between product marketing and water trade. Given the influence of water in food production, virtual water studies focus generally on food products. At a global scale, the influence of these product's markets with water management was not seen. Influence has appreciated only by analyzing water-scarce countries, but at the detail level, should be increased, as most studies consider a country as a single geographical point, leading to considerable inaccuracies. The main objective of this work is the virtual water balance estimation of strategic crops in Tunisia (both irrigated and dry crops) to determine their influence on the water resources management and to establish patterns for improving it. The virtual water balance was performed basing on farmer's surveys, crop and meteorological data, irrigation management and regional statistics. Results show that the majority of farmers realize a waste of the irrigation water especially at the vegetable crops and fruit trees. Thus, a good control of the cultural package may result in lower quantities of water used by crops while ensuring good production with a suitable economic profitability. Then, the virtual water

  16. Biasable, Balanced, Fundamental Submillimeter Monolithic Membrane Mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Peter; Schlecht, Erich; Mehdi, Imran; Gill, John; Velebir, James; Tsang, Raymond; Dengler, Robert; Lin, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This device is a biasable, submillimeter-wave, balanced mixer fabricated using JPL s monolithic membrane process a simplified version of planar membrane technology. The primary target application is instrumentation used for analysis of atmospheric constituents, pressure, temperature, winds, and other physical and chemical properties of the atmospheres of planets and comets. Other applications include high-sensitivity gas detection and analysis. This innovation uses a balanced configuration of two diodes allowing the radio frequency (RF) signal and local oscillator (LO) inputs to be separated. This removes the need for external diplexers that are inherently narrowband, bulky, and require mechanical tuning to change frequency. Additionally, this mixer uses DC bias-ability to improve its performance and versatility. In order to solve problems relating to circuit size, the GaAs membrane process was created. As much of the circuitry as possible is fabricated on-chip, making the circuit monolithic. The remainder of the circuitry is precision-machined into a waveguide block that holds the GaAs circuit. The most critical alignments are performed using micron-scale semiconductor technology, enabling wide bandwidth and high operating frequencies. The balanced mixer gets superior performance with less than 2 mW of LO power. This can be provided by a simple two-stage multiplier chain following an amplifier at around 90 GHz. Further, the diodes are arranged so that they can be biased. Biasing pushes the diodes closer to their switching voltage, so that less LO power is required to switch the diodes on and off. In the photo, the diodes are at the right end of the circuit. The LO comes from the waveguide at the right into a reduced-height section containing the diodes. Because the diodes are in series to the LO signal, they are both turned on and off simultaneously once per LO cycle. Conversely, the RF signal is picked up from the RF waveguide by the probe at the left, and flows

  17. A computer vision based candidate for functional balance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalci, Alican; Khodamoradi, Alireza; Balkan, Ozgur; Nahab, Fatta; Garudadri, Harinath

    2015-08-01

    Balance in humans is a motor skill based on complex multimodal sensing, processing and control. Ability to maintain balance in activities of daily living (ADL) is compromised due to aging, diseases, injuries and environmental factors. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate of the costs of falls among older adults was $34 billion in 2013 and is expected to reach $54.9 billion in 2020. In this paper, we present a brief review of balance impairments followed by subjective and objective tools currently used in clinical settings for human balance assessment. We propose a novel computer vision (CV) based approach as a candidate for functional balance test. The test will take less than a minute to administer and expected to be objective, repeatable and highly discriminative in quantifying ability to maintain posture and balance. We present an informal study with preliminary data from 10 healthy volunteers, and compare performance with a balance assessment system called BTrackS Balance Assessment Board. Our results show high degree of correlation with BTrackS. The proposed system promises to be a good candidate for objective functional balance tests and warrants further investigations to assess validity in clinical settings, including acute care, long term care and assisted living care facilities. Our long term goals include non-intrusive approaches to assess balance competence during ADL in independent living environments.

  18. Refusing The Choice: Balancing Life and Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Choice The intellect of man is forced to choose perfection of the life, or of the work, And if it take the second must refuse A heavenly mansion, raging in the dark. When all that story's finished, what's the news? In luck or out the toil has left its mark: That old perplexity an empty purse, Or the day's vanity, the night's remorse. William Butler Yeats William Yeats put forward The Choice that I feel too many scientists feel they must make. Too often, many choose to leave science. How do we refuse this choice and find balance between life and our careers? While I don't know the answer, I will share choices that have lead to not perfection but satisfaction in science careers and lives. The role of mentors, supportive spouses, the luck of the job, and flexibility in research directions have all contributed to being able to refuse to choose.

  19. Partitioning of unstructured meshes for load balancing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many large-scale engineering and scientific calculations involve repeated updating of variables on an unstructured mesh. To do these types of computations on distributed memory parallel computers, it is necessary to partition the mesh among the processors so that the load balance is maximized and inter-processor communication time is minimized. This can be approximated by the problem, of partitioning a graph so as to obtain a minimum cut, a well-studied combinatorial optimization problem. Graph partitioning algorithms are discussed that give good but not necessarily optimum solutions. These algorithms include local search methods recursive spectral bisection, and more general purpose methods such as simulated annealing. It is shown that a general procedure enables to combine simulated annealing with Kernighan-Lin. The resulting algorithm is both very fast and extremely effective. (authors) 23 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  20. Oil Price Fluctuation Reflects International Power Balance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇燕; 管清友

    2008-01-01

    Due to the uncertainty of the oil economy,economists have yet to build a perfect analytical framework for the oil market.Over a period of time,oil price fluctuates according to the supply and demand of the international market.In the long run,however,given the political nature of oil,oil price fluctuation is also dependent on the power balance between oil consumer and producer countries.History has proven that the world energy landscape is constantly in a process of change and evolution,which underlies the increasing oil price uncertainty in the long run.From the perspective of the world energy landscape and its evolution,this article applies international political-economic methodology in addressing the energy security issues facing China,with the purpose of offering recommendations for further areas of energy research.

  1. Recycling under a material balance constraint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittel, Karen [ETH Zurich, CER-ETH - Center of Economic Research, ZUE F14, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Amigues, Jean-Pierre [INRA/University of Toulouse, Universite des Sciences Sociales, INRA (IDEI and LERNA), 21 Allee de Brienne, 31000 Toulouse (France); Kuhn, Thomas [Chemnitz University of Technology, Department of Economics, TU Chemnitz, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    In this paper we analyze the dynamic implications of recycling for resource use, the level of economic activity and the long-run development of the economy. In contrast to former approaches, we take explicit account of the circulation of matter in the economy. We consider virgin resources and recycled wastes as essential inputs to production. These material inputs either end up as waste after consumption or are bound in the capital stock - depending on the utilization of the produced output. As accumulating wastes can be recycled and again be employed in production, the waste stock serves as a source of valuable inputs in our model. We focus on the implications of recycling-related market failures and the integration of material balances on the dynamics of the economy. It is shown that a market for waste and subsidies to resource extractors and recycling firms can restore optimality in the decentralized economy. (author)

  2. Balanced random Toeplitz and Hankel Matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Basak, Anirban

    2010-01-01

    Except the Toeplitz and Hankel matrices, the common patterned matrices for which the limiting spectral distribution (LSD) are known to exist, share a common property--the number of times each random variable appears in the matrix is (more or less) same across the variables. Thus it seems natural to ask what happens to the spectrum of the Toeplitz and Hankel matrices when each entry is scaled by the square root of the number of times that entry appears in the matrix instead of the uniform scaling by $n^{-1/2}$. We show that the LSD of these balanced matrices exist and derive integral formulae for the moments of the limit distribution. Curiously, it is not clear if these moments define a unique distribution.

  3. A meaningful expansion around detailed balance

    CERN Document Server

    Colangeli, Matteo; Wynants, Bram

    2011-01-01

    We consider Markovian dynamics modeling open mesoscopic systems which are driven away from detailed balance by a nonconservative force. A systematic expansion is obtained of the stationary distribution around an equilibrium reference, in orders of the nonequilibrium forcing. The first order around equilibrium has been known since the work of McLennan (1959), and involves the transient irreversible entropy flux. The expansion generalizes the McLennan formula to higher orders, complementing the entropy flux with the dynamical activity. The latter is more kinetic than thermodynamic and is a possible realization of Landauer's insight (1975) that, for nonequilibrium, the relative occupation of states also depends on the noise along possible escape routes. In that way nonlinear response around equilibrium can be meaningfully discussed in terms of two main quantities only, the entropy flux and the dynamical activity. The expansion makes mathematical sense as shown in the simplest cases from exponential ergodicity.

  4. Th Subset Balance in Lupus Nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhisa Miyake

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lupus nephritis, which has various histological patterns and variable clinical outcomes, is one of the most important complications of systemic lupus nephritis (SLE. This pathogenetic mechanism in each histologically different type of lupus nephritis (LN remains unclear. Although SLE is suggested to be a Th2-driven disease, elevation of both Th1 and Th2 cytokines occurs in both humans and mice, suggesting that SLE is a complex disease driven by different lymphocyte subsets with high heterogeneity of clinical manifestations and organ involvement. Recent findings in LN elucidate an essential role for the Th1, IL-17 producing T cells and Th17 cells in the development of diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis (DPLN, and Th2 cytokine in that of membranous lupus nephritis (MLN. These data support the hypothesis that individual Th1/Th2 balance is one of the critical determinants for histopathology of LN.

  5. Balancing the Demands of Education and Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Sørensen, Jan Kahr

    Balancing the Demands of Education and Training – A Qualitative Study on Young Male Football Talents’ Dual Careers. M. K. Christensena and J. K. Sørensenb a Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark b Department of Public Health – Sport Science, Aarhus...... of education and of elite sport. At the same time elite sportspeople in the top international sports are being placed under increasing pressure as a result of the performance optimization approaches that are now a fundamental part of competing at the national elite level, and which have resulted...... in a significant rise in the time such sporting assets spend on sport. Yet, attempting a professional career in football involves great mental and physical strains that profoundly affect the future lives of the young talents. The study presented in this paper explores how 15- to 19-year-old Danish football talents...

  6. Pengukuran Kinerja Perpustakaan Dengan Pendekatan Balanced Scorecard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Devani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate, identify and describe the performance level and the factor which impacts to the performance of the Perpustakaan Tun Seri Lanang (PTSL using Balanced Scorecard approach. The descriptive analysis was used to proceed data on 4 perspectives, were financial, customer, internal business process and learning and growth, respestively. The questionnaires were distributed to 24 employees and 120 questionnaires were distributed to customers. The finding shosw that performance level of PTSL is in good category by the total score 41.75. Performance level of another perspective shows financial performance is very good by the total score 9, customer performance is good by the total score 3.62, internal business process performance is very good by the total score 8.79 and learning and growth performance is good by the total score the 19.34. Based on findings recommendation is formulated in order that PTSL should focus on employee productivity and customer satisfaction.

  7. Postural balance in low back pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo, Thomas; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit; Jensen, Lone Donbæk;

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Altered postural control has been observed in low back pain (LBP) patients. They seem to be more dependent on vision when standing. The objective of the study was to determine concurrent and predictive validity of measures of postural stability in LBP patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS....... CONCLUSION: This first study of concurrent and predictive validity of postural balance in LBP patients revealed no association between CoP measures and pain, fear of pain, and physical function.......: Centre of Pressure (CoP) measurements were tested against pain, fear of pain, and physical function. Velocity, anterior-posterior displacement, and the Romberg Ratio obtained on a portable force platform were used as measures of postural stability. RESULTS: Baseline and 12-week follow-up results of 97...

  8. Research on Modified Shifting Balance Genetic Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Hong-mei; GONG Dun-wei

    2007-01-01

    The increasing overlap of core and colony populations during the anaphase of evolution may limit the performance of shifting balance genetic algorithms. To decrease such overlapping, so as to increase the local search capability of the core population, the sub-space method was used to generate uniformly distributed initial colony populations over the decision variable space. The core population was also dynamically divided, making simultaneous searching in several local spaces possible. The algorithm proposed in this paper was compared to the original one by searching for the optimum of a complicated multi-modal function. The results indicate that the solutions obtained by the modified algorithm are better than those of the original algorithm.

  9. Balanced Scorecard: Organizational performance management instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta CONSTANDACHE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to have a successful strategy, a company must set clear strategic objectives, such as: the desired financial performances, a description of its customers, of the internal processes within the company, and of the employees’ abilities, knowledge and competences. To outline a general image of the organizational performance evaluation, we proposed the implementation of the Balanced Scorecard model, which includes five development directions. By implementing this management model within one organization, we can test the effect of some decisions before their implementation by managing some performance and risk key indicators. All these indicators categories pursue the integrated feature through the insurance the companies’ long-term success, both at global and individual level, which supposes both the vertical and horizontal integration.

  10. Balancing former opposites as mutual preconditions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmström, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    theoretical optics applied is Niklas Luhmann’s theories on the dynamics of social processes (Luhmann 1995, 1997), the evolution and constitution of society (Luhmann 1997, 1998), of organisations as constituted by decision (Bakken & Hernes 2003, Luhmann 2000), and of social systems as our epistemological...... published 1986) Luhmann, N. (1993). Risk: A sociological theory. New York: de Gruyter. (Original work published 1991) Luhmann, N. (1995). Social systems. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press. (Original work published 1984) Luhmann, N. (1997a). Die Gesellschaft der Gesellschaft. [Society’s Society...... rationality in solid modernity to a discursive rationality in today’s fluid modernity contributes to provoke the need for trust, and consequently for decision processes to bal-ance authenticity and responsiveness, consistent identity and continuous change (Javala 2006, Luhmann 1982). Second, as society...

  11. Magnetic suspension and balance system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boom, R. W.; Eyssa, Y. M.; Mcintosh, G. E.; Abdelsalam, M. K.

    1984-01-01

    A compact design for a superconducting magnetic suspension and balance system is developed for a 8 ft. x 8 ft. transonic wind tunnel. The main features of the design are: a compact superconducting solenoid in the suspended airplane model; permanent magnet wings; one common liquid helium dewar for all superconducting coils; efficient new race track coils for roll torques; use of established 11 kA cryostable AC conductor; acceptable AC losses during 10 Hz control even with all steel structure; and a 560 liter/hour helium liquefier. Considerable design simplicity, reduced magnet weights, and reduced heat leak results from using one common dewar which eliminates most heavy steel structure between coils and the suspended model. Operational availability is thought to approach 100% for such magnet systems. The weight and cost of the magnet system is approximately one-third that of previous less compact designs.

  12. Global helium particle balance in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global helium particle balance in long-pulse discharges is analyzed for the first time in the Large Helical Device (LHD) with the plasma-facing components of the first wall and the divertor tiles composed of stainless steel and carbon, respectively. During the 2-min discharge sustained by ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) and electron cyclotron heating (ECH), helium is observed to be highly retained in the wall (regarded as both the first wall and the divertor tiles). Almost all (about 96%) puffed helium particles (1.3 × 1022 He) are absorbed in the wall near the end of the discharge. Even though a dynamic retention is eliminated, 56% is still absorbed. The analysis is also applied to longer pulse discharges over 40 min by ICRH and ECH, indicating that the helium wall retention is dynamically changed in time. At the initial phase of the discharge, a mechanism for adsorbing helium other than dynamical retention is invoked

  13. Cell Load Balancing in Heterogeneous Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eduardo, Simao; Rodrigues, Antonio; Mihovska, Albena D.;

    2013-01-01

    Cell load imbalances in wireless networks degrade performance. Macro and small cell collocated deployments (heterogeneous scenario) constitutes a new problem for load balancing. This paper proposes a novel admission control algorithm for an optimal solution to the assignment of traffic flows....... It jointly performs congestion control and inter-cell interference avoidance by means of a utility describing the cell's channel. Centralized and uncoordinated schemes are studied. The first is defined as an integer linear program, while the second builds on the best channel utility developed for the first...... and combines it with a stochastic admission process. Based on simulation evaluation, it is shown that uncoordinated is near-optimal, while providing a viable solution for uncoordinated small cell deployments. Finally, the best utility developed proved better than the traditional power allocation....

  14. Policy Recommendations for Balancing Income Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪同三; 蔡跃洲

    2007-01-01

    Currently,the economic growth of China is mainly driven by investment and net export.The reason behind this is the distortion of our income distribution mechanism.The expansion of income gap and the uncertainty of expectation lead to a high savings rate,while the high savings rate should be balanced by investment and high export.As a matter of fact,the situation of high profit and tow wage in first the distribution induce the fast growth of investment and export.This will definitely bring excess capacity,an adverse selection of industries and affect the sustainable development of economy.To support the above argument,quantitative analysis is made with macro-economy indices.and suggestions to improve economy are provided.

  15. Hotel Section Management by Using Balanced Scorecard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lysy

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some problems in using Balanced Scorecard (BSC in a hotel section. Fundamental element, which marks out BSC conception, is consolidation around vision and strategy appointed by the hotel management. Well compiled strategy should join all the targets and indexes, which compose four perspectives in BSC. Hotel section is the main gaining centre in the hotel, because the service quality is the main target of management strategy. BSC is a tool, which should not only measure effectiveness, but also implement changes, as soon as possible, so that the effects and expected results will be quick achieved. Most of the companies, which have used this conception, have treated it as a basic management system that joins strategy and operational activity. Therefore it is necessary to improve, modernize and create new sub perspectives in compiled BSC.

  16. Globalization and the Brazilian balance accounts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The globalization of the world economy calls for a country specialization with new structures for the product sectors and an increase in the competitiveness in areas of specialization. This process requires the amplification of markets and the adoption of technological innovations which increase the volume of economic trade, but also change trade relations. This process is made possible because of price stabilization and the stability and transparency of the exchange rate policy of various countries. In this work it is shown the opportunity to place nuclear energy as one of the sectors in which Brazil may have competitive advantages and enhance its external balance accounts, by the competitive substitution of imports by producing internally goods and services which technology is known by Brazilian firms and because of the increase in exports. (author)

  17. Energy balance in the WTC collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kaiqi; Xu, Kang; Ansourian, Peter; Tahmasebinia, Faham; Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando

    2016-08-01

    The main aim of this report is to provide an analysis of Twin Towers of the New York City's World Trade Centre collapsed after attacked by two jet aircrafts. The approach mainly focused on the effect of temperature on mechanical properties of the building, by modelling heat energy in the south tower. Energy balance during the collapse between the energy inputs by aircraft petrol and the transient heat to the towers was conducted. Both the overall structure between 80 to 83 stories and individual elements was modelled. The main elements contributed to the heat transition includes external and internal columns. Heat applied in 2D and 3D models for single elements was through convection and conduction. Analysis of transient heat was done using Strand7.

  18. Balancing Design Project Supervision and Learning Facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Møller

    2012-01-01

    ’s balance between the roles: 1) Design Project Supervisor – and 2) Learning Facilitator – with the aim to understand when to apply the different roles, and what to be aware of when doing so. This paper represents the first pilot-study of a larger research effort. It is based on a Lego Serious Play workshop...... set of demands to the design lecturer. On one hand she is the facilitator of the learning process, where the students are in charge of their own projects, and where learning happens through the students’ own experiences, successes and mistakes and on the other hand she is a supervisor, who uses her......, where both design lecturers and design students participated. The study implies in short that: design project supervision is most requested in the early semesters whereas learning facilitation is requested in the later semesters. Further the study implied a number of focus point for the supervisor...

  19. An Integrated Dashboard and Balanced Scorecard Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianina MIHAI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Access to information has always been a stringent necessity for any organization. This necessity has become more stringent in the actual economic context, as decisions must be taken in the shortest time. That is why since, the early sixties, the Decision Support Systems appeared. These have evolved together with the client-server technology, during the eighties, towards the today’s Executive Support Systems. Nowadays, these systems tend to be replaced by Dashboards and Balanced Scorecards (BSC, which fulfill the more and more sophisticated and growing information needs of the decision factors. In this article, we shall present an integrated solution for creating dashboards and scorecards using an enterprise portal. In the same time, we will analyze the advantages and disadvantages of a such integrated solution vs. independent solution.

  20. Energy Balance in Clusters of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, P. M.; Burns, J. M.

    2005-04-01

    We review different physical mechanisms that are likely to play a significant role in determining the detailed thermal state of gas in clusters of galaxies. Mergers are the dominant process impacting clusters and these collisions significantly perturb the cluster state. The continual loss of energy from the gas to radiation must also be accounted for and cooling gas can drive several positive feedback mechanisms. From simple energy arguments, AGN are likely to make a significant contribution to balance the energy lost from cluster cores. We also explore additional positive feedback mechanisms including supernovae feedback and thermal conduction. If AGN are the sole feedback mechanism, what are to be made of clusters that lack evidence for AGN activity yet have canonical cool cores? As cluster samples with high-resolution X-ray data grow larger, it is likely to be the properties of relaxed, cool-core clusters that will be the best guides to numerical simulations.

  1. Topological regulation of lipid balance in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drin, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Lipids are unevenly distributed within and between cell membranes, thus defining organelle identity. Such distribution relies on local metabolic branches and mechanisms that move lipids. These processes are regulated by feedback mechanisms that decipher topographical information in organelle membranes and then regulate lipid levels or flows. In the endoplasmic reticulum, the major lipid source, transcriptional regulators and enzymes sense changes in membrane features to modulate lipid production. At the Golgi apparatus, lipid-synthesizing, lipid-flippase, and lipid-transport proteins (LTPs) collaborate to control lipid balance and distribution within the membrane to guarantee remodeling processes crucial for vesicular trafficking. Open questions exist regarding LTPs, which are thought to be lipid sensors that regulate lipid synthesis or carriers that transfer lipids between organelles across long distances or in contact sites. A novel model is that LTPs, by exchanging two different lipids, exploit one lipid gradient between two distinct membranes to build a second lipid gradient. PMID:24606148

  2. THE ROLE OF MEAT IN BALANCED NUTRITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Salobir

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Meat is a rich source of nutrients which human nutrition often lacks. It is a rich and important source of essential amino acids, vitamins, minerals and also long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Moderate intake of lean meat enables easier composition of balanced diet. On the other hand, excessive meat intake supersedes from the diet foodstuffs which supply dietary fibers, vitamins, and also non-vitamin antioxidant active substances and minerals. Not meat itself but imbalanced nutrition with too much fat and saturated fatty acids and deficient intake of ω-3 fatty acids, antioxidant vitamins and phytochemicals, minerals and dietary fiber present a risk for the development of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Because of its distinct and high nutritional value meat preserves its role in a rational human nutrition

  3. Historical Changes In The Balance Of Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Tămaș

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Humanity crosses a period of historical discontinuity on the socio-politic and economic plan. The major changing vector is represented by the emerging economies, whose development high rates made them become the main contributor to the global growth. One of the principal consequences of this transition is the remodeling of the world’s order, the change in the global balance of powers, through the transition from the uni-polar world dominated by the United States of America to the multi-polar world in which emerging powers’ position is, more and more, taken into account. The progress registered by those emerging economies requires the reviewing of some theories, concepts and principles that orientate the economic and political contemporary practice.

  4. Energy Balance Models and Planetary Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    We know that planetary dynamics can have a significant affect on the climate of planets. Planetary dynamics dominate the glacial-interglacial periods on Earth, leaving a significant imprint on the geological record. They have also been demonstrated to have a driving influence on the climates of other planets in our solar system. We should therefore expect th.ere to be similar relationships on extrasolar planets. Here we describe a simple energy balance model that can predict the growth and thickness of glaciers, and their feedbacks on climate. We will also describe model changes that we have made to include planetary dynamics effects. This is the model we will use at the start of our collaboration to handle the influence of dynamics on climate.

  5. Balancing and energetic evaluation of waste treatment procedures; Bilanzierung und energetische Bewertung von Verfahren zur Abfallbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, Michael; Pohl, Martin [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Professur fuer Verbrennung, Waerme- und Stoffuebertragung; Scholz, Reinhard [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Energie- und Verfahrenstechnik

    2012-11-01

    The authors of the contribution under consideration report on the balancing and energetic evaluation of waste treatment procedures. Especially, this contribution consists of three main chapters: (1) System limits; (2) Mass balances, material balances and energy balances; (3) Characteristic values.

  6. Improving load balance with flexibly assignable tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinar, Ali; Hendrickson, Bruce

    2003-09-09

    In many applications of parallel computing, distribution ofthe data unambiguously implies distribution of work among processors. Butthere are exceptions where some tasks can be assigned to one of severalprocessors without altering the total volume of communication. In thispaper, we study the problem of exploiting this flexibility in assignmentof tasks to improve load balance. We first model the problem in terms ofnetwork flow and use combinatorial techniques for its solution. Ourparametric search algorithms use maximum flow algorithms for probing on acandidate optimal solution value. We describe two algorithms to solve theassignment problem with \\logW_T and vbar P vbar probe calls, w here W_Tand vbar P vbar, respectively, denote the total workload and number ofproce ssors. We also define augmenting paths and cuts for this problem,and show that anyalgorithm based on augmenting paths can be used to findan optimal solution for the task assignment problem. We then consideracontinuous version of the problem, and formulate it as a linearlyconstrained optimization problem, i.e., \\min\\|Ax\\|_\\infty,\\; {\\rms.t.}\\;Bx=d. To avoid solving an intractable \\infty-norm optimization problem,we show that in this case minimizing the 2-norm is sufficient to minimizethe \\infty-norm, which reduces the problem to the well-studiedlinearly-constrained least squares problem. The continuous version of theproblem has the advantage of being easily amenable to parallelization.Our experiments with molecular dynamics and overlapped domaindecomposition applications proved the effectiveness of our methods withsignificant improvements in load balance. We also discuss how ourtechniques can be enhanced for heterogeneous systems.

  7. Dorsomedial hypothalamic NPY and energy balance control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Sheng; Kim, Yonwook J; Zheng, Fenping

    2012-12-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a potent hypothalamic orexigenic peptide. Within the hypothalamus, Npy is primarily expressed in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH). While the actions of ARC NPY in energy balance control have been well studied, a role for DMH NPY is still being unraveled. In contrast to ARC NPY that serves as one of downstream mediators of actions of leptin in maintaining energy homeostasis, DMH NPY is not under the control of leptin. Npy gene expression in the DMH is regulated by brain cholecystokinin (CCK) and other yet to be identified molecules. The findings of DMH NPY overexpression or induction in animals with increased energy demands and in certain rodent models of obesity implicate a role for DMH NPY in maintaining energy homeostasis. In support of this view, adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated overexpression of NPY in the DMH causes increases in food intake and body weight and exacerbates high-fat diet-induced hyperphagia and obesity. Knockdown of NPY in the DMH via AAV-mediated RNAi ameliorates hyperphagia, obesity and glucose intolerance of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats in which DMH NPY overexpression has been proposed to play a causal role. NPY knockdown in the DMH also prevents high-fat diet-induced hyperphagia, obesity and impaired glucose homeostasis. A detailed examination of actions of DMH NPY reveals that DMH NPY specifically affects nocturnal meal size and produces an inhibitory action on within meal satiety signals. In addition, DMH NPY modulates energy expenditure likely through affecting brown adipocyte formation and thermogenic activity. Overall, the recent findings provide clear evidence demonstrating critical roles for DMH NPY in energy balance control, and also imply a potential role for DMH NPY in maintaining glucose homeostasis.

  8. Procedure for Balancing an Air Distribution System with Decentralised Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunner, Amalie; Hultmark, Göran; Vorre, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents results from an on-going project concerning new design procedures for mechanical ventilation systems with low energy use. Conventional constant air volume (CAV) systems are usually balanced using flat plate dampers. The purpose of using balancing dampers is to intentionally...... flawed. This paper presents a new procedure for balancing of CAV systems in combination with decentralised fans. The new system was based on replacing the balancing dampers with decentralised fans. By replacing the balancing dampers with decentralised fans, airflows can be balanced by adjusting the speed...... of the fans. In conventional air distribution systems the fan provides the necessary pressure to overcome the resistance in the branch with the highest pressure resistance. This gives an unnecessary overpressure in the remaining branches that does not provide any useful purpose. In order to decrease the fan...

  9. Quantifying mass balance processes on the Southern Patagonia Icefield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaefer, M.; Machguth, Horst; Falvey, M.;

    2015-01-01

    We present surface mass balance simulations of the Southern Patagonia Icefield (SPI) driven by downscaled reanalysis data. The simulations were evaluated and interpreted using geodetic mass balances, measured point balances and a complete velocity field of the icefield for spring 2004. The high...... measured accumulation of snow of up to 15.4m w.e. yr(-1) (meters water equivalent per year) as well as the high measured ablation of up to 11m w.e. yr(-1) is reproduced by the model. The overall modeled surface mass balance was positive and increasing during 1975-2011. Subtracting the surface mass balance...... from geodetic balances, calving fluxes were inferred. Mass losses of the SPI due to calving were strongly increasing from 1975-2000 to 2000-2011 and higher than losses due to surface melt. Calving fluxes were inferred for the individual glacier catchments and compared to fluxes estimated from velocity...

  10. Comparison between Financial Ratios Analysis and Balanced Scorecard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalad M.S. Alrafadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial ratios have long been used as a tool to evaluate the overall financial performance of a company. However, in early 1990s, a new method called Balanced Scorecard has been introduced by Robert Kaplan and David Norton to evaluate the overall controlling of a company. Problem statement: To the best of my knowledge at present there are no letrature review comparing between Financial ratios and Balanced Scorecard. Approach: This study is a conceptual paper comparing between the financial ratios analysis and balanced scorecard method. The objective of this paper is to compare between the benefits and problems of using financial ratios analysis and Balanced Scorecard method in evaluating the overall control of the company. Results: As a result, we found that the Balanced Scorecard is more efficient than financial ratios analysis. Conclusion/Recommendations: Both the balanced scorecard and financial ratios analysis are important tools for evaluating performance. So, we cannot ignore either of them.

  11. DEVELOPMENT FOR HIGH PRECISION SIX COMPONENT STRAIN GAUGE BALANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGZhao-ming; HANBu-zhang

    2004-01-01

    The measurement accuracy of a wind tunnel balance is the key factor to improve the measurement accuracy for a test model in the wind tunnel. In order to improve the measurement accuracy of the wind tunnel balance, a great deal of investigation is carried out in China. This paper summarizes a program to improve the measurement accuracy of wind tunnel balances. In the program, the investigation is carried out in three aspects (1) designing a drag component of the balance in low interactions (2) choosing high quality foil strain gauges with temperature self-compensation (3) choosing the excellent gauges and mounting them meticulously. As an example, these research achievements are applied in a φ18 six component balance. The measurement accuracy of a GB-04 standard model in a transonic wind tunnel with the φ18 six component balance comes up to the advanced world standard.

  12. Balance in Visual Impairment Before and After Intervention Based Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Moraes Frade

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article’s objective was to evaluate the balance in low vision deficients before and after 16 game therapy sessions. It was approved by the Research Ethics Committee with protocol 2349/2012, and developed at the Institute of the Blind of Central Brazil in Uberaba, Minas Gerais. The sample was made with 10 individuals with low vision in the age group of 12-23 years. Initially, participants were assessed with the Berg Balance Scale, underwent a session of game therapy with Nintendo Wii Fit and then reassessed. After that, 4 of the 10 participants were chosen to conduct 16 sessions of therapy for 2 months. In the end, the balance was reassessed. The results showed significant improvement in balance. The virtual rehabilitation can be used in several kinds of treatments, as it improves motor function, decreases perception of pain and improves balance. We conclude that the game therapy showed balance improvements in the subjects.

  13. Dynamical Models Explaining Social Balance and Evolution of Cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Traag, V A; De Leenheer, P

    2013-01-01

    In social networks with positive and negative links the dominant theory of explaining its structure is that of social balance. The theory states that a network is balanced if its triads are balanced. Such a balanced network can be split into (at most) two opposing factions with positive links within a faction and negative links between them. Although inherently dynamical, the theory has long remained static, with a focus on finding such partitions. Recently however, a dynamical model was introduced which was shown to converge to a socially balanced state for certain symmetric initial conditions. Here we show this does not hold for general (non-symmetric) initial conditions. We propose an alternative model and show that it does converge to a socially balanced state generically. Moreover, in a basic model of evolution of cooperation of indirect reciprocity, the alternative model has an evolutionary advantage compared to the earlier model. The principal difference between the two models can be understood in term...

  14. Ways to improve conceptual aspects of balancing the budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodon Svetlana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to analyze the various concepts, techniques and procedures applied in different periods by different countries in order to balance state budget. There are analyzed positive parts and deficiencies at legislative level of different concepts concerning budgetary balance and as a result are developed a series of measures that aim to balance the budget of Moldova

  15. Localization of New Balance brand marketing strategy for Chinese markets

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ting

    2015-01-01

    As a major international sport brand, New Balance Athletic Shoes Company was standstill after accessing to Chinese markets. The deviation in brand positioning and range selection has resulted in low sell-thru rate; the neglect on channel building and store image investment has resulted in a slow expansion. This thesis researched how New Balance Company can get success and how they find adopted strategy for the development of New Balance in China. This thesis described the current situatio...

  16. Dietary energy balance modulates ovarian cancer progression and metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Wahab, Zaid; Tebbe, Calvin; Chhina, Jasdeep; Dar, Sajad A.; Morris, Robert T.; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Giri, Shailendra; Munkarah, Adnan R.; Rattan, Ramandeep

    2014-01-01

    A high energy balance, or caloric excess, accounts as a tumor promoting factor, while a negative energy balance via caloric restriction, has been shown to delay cancer progression. The effect of energy balance on ovarian cancer progression was investigated in an isogeneic immunocompetent mouse model of epithelial ovarian cancer kept on a regimen of regular diet, high energy diet (HED) and calorie restricted diet (CRD), prior to inoculating the animals intraperitoneally with the mouse ovarian ...

  17. A Modified Homogeneous Balance Method and Its Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春平

    2011-01-01

    A modified homogeneous balance method is proposed by improving some key steps in the homogeneous balance method. Bilinear equations of some nonlinear evolution equations are derived by using the modified homogeneous balance method. Generalized Boussinesq equation, KP equation, and mKdV equation are chosen as examples to illustrate our method. This approach is also applicable to a large variety of nonlinear evolution equations.

  18. Trends and Challenges of India’s Balance of Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Dr Jomon

    2013-01-01

    Balance of Payments (BoP), being a record of the monetary transactions over a period with the rest of the world, reflects all payments and liabilities to foreigners and all payments and obligations received from foreigners. In this sense, the balance of payments is one of the major indicators of a country's status in international trade. BoP accounting serves to highlight a country's competitive strengths and weaknesses and helps in achieving balanced economic-growth. It can significantly af...

  19. Recent developments in a wind tunnel magnetic balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, T.; Covert, E. E.; Vlajinac, M.; Gilliam, G. D.

    1972-01-01

    A functional description of a prototype six component magnetic balance system for wind tunnel application is presented. The relationship of forces and moments on a ferromagnetic body to applied magnetic fields and gradients is shown. The method of producing the required fields in the prototype balance, its magnet arrangement and its performance are discussed. Aerodynamic data obtained with this balance on several model geometries are presented and compared with wind tunnel and ballistic range results.

  20. Work-Life Balance and Work Satisfaction in Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Soo, Chin Hock

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether the workplace environment in an ICT organizations are conducive for the employees to use work-life balance and secondary investigation will involving whether the ability to have work-life balance will increase the happiness and this job satisfaction and leads to higher productivity. A questionnaire which consisted of all the work-life balance activities in the ICT organization were sent out and a total of 94 respondents whom worked in ICT organizations h...