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Sample records for balances examining chemical

  1. Rethinking the neurological examination II: dynamic balance assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péricles A. Maranhão-Filho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose that the neurological exam needs reevaluation with respect to the dynamic balance test (walking. Validated tests such as: preferred and maximum gait speed, dynamic gait index, five-times-sit-to-stand test, timed up & go cognitive and manual, should be part of the neurological examination routine. In the neurological exam of older patients, these same bedside tests bring the plus of evaluation the risk of occasional falling.

  2. Open complex-balanced mass action chemical reaction networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, Shodhan; van der Schaft, Arjan; Jayawardhana, Bayu

    2014-01-01

    We consider open chemical reaction networks, i.e. ones with inflows and outflows. We assume that all the inflows to the network are constant and all outflows obey the mass action kinetics rate law. We define a complex-balanced open reaction network as one that admits a complex-balanced steady state.

  3. Chemical Equilibrium as Balance of the Thermodynamic Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Zilbergleyt, B

    2004-01-01

    The article sets forth comprehensive basics of thermodynamics of chemical equilibrium as balance of the thermodynamic forces. Based on the linear equations of irreversible thermodynamics, De Donder definition of the thermodynamic force, and Le Chatelier's principle, new thermodynamics of chemical equilibrium offers an explicit account for multiple chemical interactions within the system. Basic relations between energetic characteristics of chemical transformations and reaction extents are based on the idea of chemical equilibrium as balance between internal and external thermodynamic forces, which is presented in the form of a logistic equation, containing only one new parameter. Solutions to the basic equation define the domain of states of the chemical system, from true equilibrium to true chaos. The new theory is derived exclusively from the currently recognized ideas and covers equilibrium thermodynamics as well as non-equilibrium thermodynamics in a unique concept.

  4. Complex and detailed balancing of chemical reaction networks revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schaft, Abraham; Rao, Shodhan; Jayawardhana, Bayu

    2015-01-01

    The characterization of the notions of complex and detailed balancing for mass action kinetics chemical reaction networks is revisited from the perspective of algebraic graph theory, in particular Kirchhoff’s Matrix Tree theorem for directed weighted graphs. This yields an elucidation of previously

  5. Usage of Multiple-Choice Examinations in Chemical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerfeld, Jude T.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses rationale for and use of multiple choice examinations in material balances, unit operations, reactor design, and process control courses. Describes computer scoring of student reaction to, and future plans for these examinations. (SK)

  6. Oxalate Mass Balance During Chemical Cleaning In Tank 6F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is preparing Tank 6F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning to determine whether the tank is ready for closure. SRR personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. Analysis of the anions showed the measured oxalate removed from Tank 6F to be approximately 50% of the amount added in the oxalic acid. To close the oxalate mass balance, the author collected solid samples, leached them with nitric acid, and measured the concentration of cations and anions in the leachate. Some conclusions from this work are: (1) Approximately 65% of the oxalate added as oxalic acid was removed with the decanted liquid. (2) Approximately 1% of the oxalate (added to the tank as oxalic acid) formed precipitates with compounds such as nickel, manganese, sodium, and iron (II), and was dissolved with nitric acid. (3) As much as 30% of the oxalate may have decomposed forming carbon dioxide. The balance does not fully account for all the oxalate added. The offset represents the combined uncertainty in the analyses and sampling.

  7. Oxalate Mass Balance During Chemical Cleaning in Tank 5F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is preparing Tank 5F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning to determine whether the tank is ready for closure. SRS personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. Analysis of the anions showed the measured oxalate removed from Tank 5F to be approximately 50% of the amount added in the oxalic acid. To close the oxalate mass balance, the author collected solid samples, leached them with nitric acid, and measured the concentration of cations and anions in the leachate.

  8. Democracy in the European Union: Examining Gender (Im)balance in the European Parliament

    OpenAIRE

    Arnanz, Alba Soriana; Marrades, Ana I.

    2015-01-01

    This project examines political representation in the European Union (EU) from a gender-balance perspective. A justification for gender-balance representation mechanisms will be drawn in order to set a base for explaining the different methods used in the Member States of the European Union in order to conclude what is the best stream of action to take in the road to achieving gender-balanced representation

  9. Order reduction of the chemical master equation via balanced realisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando López-Caamal

    Full Text Available We consider a Markov process in continuous time with a finite number of discrete states. The time-dependent probabilities of being in any state of the Markov chain are governed by a set of ordinary differential equations, whose dimension might be large even for trivial systems. Here, we derive a reduced ODE set that accurately approximates the probabilities of subspaces of interest with a known error bound. Our methodology is based on model reduction by balanced truncation and can be considerably more computationally efficient than solving the chemical master equation directly. We show the applicability of our method by analysing stochastic chemical reactions. First, we obtain a reduced order model for the infinitesimal generator of a Markov chain that models a reversible, monomolecular reaction. Later, we obtain a reduced order model for a catalytic conversion of substrate to a product (a so-called Michaelis-Menten mechanism, and compare its dynamics with a rapid equilibrium approximation method. For this example, we highlight the savings on the computational load obtained by means of the reduced-order model. Furthermore, we revisit the substrate catalytic conversion by obtaining a lower-order model that approximates the probability of having predefined ranges of product molecules. In such an example, we obtain an approximation of the output of a model with 5151 states by a reduced model with 16 states. Finally, we obtain a reduced-order model of the Brusselator.

  10. A New Pseudoinverse Matrix Method For Balancing Chemical Equations And Their Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risteski, Ice B. [2 Milepost Place, Ontario (Canada)

    2008-06-15

    In this work is given a new pseudoniverse matrix method for balancing chemical equations. Here offered method is founded on virtue of the solution of a Diophantine matrix equation by using of a Moore-Penrose pseudoinverse matrix. The method has been tested on several typical chemical equations and found to be very successful for the all equations in our extensive balancing research. This method, which works successfully without any limitations, also has the capability to determine the feasibility of a new chemical reaction, and if it is feasible, then it will balance the equation. Chemical equations treated here possess atoms with fractional oxidation numbers. Also, in the present work are introduced necessary and sufficient criteria for stability of chemical equations over stability of their extended matrices.

  11. A balanced scorecard approach in assessing IT value in healthcare sector: an empirical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ing-Long; Kuo, Yi-Zu

    2012-12-01

    Healthcare sector indicates human-based and knowledge-intensive property. Massive IT investments are necessary to maintain competitiveness in this sector. The justification of IT investments is the major concern of senior management. Empirical studies examining IT value have found inconclusive results with little or no improvement in productivity. Little research has been conducted in healthcare sector. The balanced scorecard (BSC) strikes a balance between financial and non-financial measure and has been applied in evaluating organization-based performance. Moreover, healthcare organizations often consider their performance goal at customer satisfaction in addition to financial performance. This research thus proposed a new hierarchical structure for the BSC with placing both finance and customer at the top, internal process at the next, and learning and growth at the bottom. Empirical examination has found the importance of the new BSC structure in assessing IT investments. Learning and growth plays the initial driver for reaching both customer and financial performance through the mediator of internal process. This can provide deep insight into effectively managing IT resources in the hospitals. PMID:22366918

  12. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF LEAVES OF MORUS INDICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pethakamsetty Lakshmi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mulberry belongs to the genus Morus of the family Moraceae. It is an economically important plant being used for sericulture. Studies have been reported on the chemical composition and nutritional potentials of some mulberry species worldwide. In the present study the chemical examination of Morus indica leaves on conventional extraction and various chromatographic methods, led to the isolation of five compounds- β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucoside, β-sitosterol, salvigenin, cirisimaritin and quercitin. All the compounds were characterized by 2D NMR, MS spectral data and comparison with the published data for the known compounds. All the compounds were reported for the first time from the leaves of this species. The work was further extended to test the crude extracts for antibacterial and antifungal activities. The results from the present study have shown that the species have considerable activity against selected bacterial and fungal strains which can be attributed to the presence of steroidal and phenolic compounds in the crude extracts of Morus indica.

  13. Detailed balance method for chemical potential determination in Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a new, nondestructive, method for determining chemical potentials in Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations. The method estimates a value for the chemical potential such that one has a balance between fictitious successful creation and destruction trials in which the Monte Carlo method is used to determine success or failure of the creation/destruction attempts; we thus call the method a detailed balance method. The method allows one to obtain estimates of the chemical potential for a given species in any closed ensemble simulation; the closed ensemble is paired with a ''natural'' open ensemble for the purpose of obtaining creation and destruction probabilities. We present results for the Lennard-Jones system and also for an embedded atom model of liquid palladium, and compare to previous results in the literature for these two systems. We are able to obtain an accurate estimate of the chemical potential for the Lennard-Jones system at higher densities than reported in the literature

  14. Balancing Work and Family in Canada - An Empirical Examination of Conceptualizations and Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Tézli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of work and family balance has been on the agenda of many governmental and nongovernmental organizations in recent years and has led to the adoption of various policies. However, combining work and family responsibilities remains a challenge for many parents. In this paper, we examine the work-family conflict experienced by Canadian working parents. For the purpose of this paper, work-family conflict is conceptualized as the time-related stress arising from the competing demands of the different roles imposed on working parents. Our objective is three-fold. First, we take a critical look at how time stress has been conceptualized and measured in previous studies. Using data from the 2005 Canadian General Social Survey on time use, we suggest an alternative multi-item scale. Second, we examine the impact of different predictors on parents’ time stress, paying special attention to the impact of work-related factors. Finally, we discuss the impact of provincial variations in family policy on parents’ time stress. Although Québec has introduced a number of familyoriented policies, we do not find evidence that these policies have resulted in less time stress for working parents in Québec.

  15. The mass balance approach: application to interpreting the chemical evolution of hydrologic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, L.N.; Back, W.

    1980-01-01

    Mass balance calculations are applied to observed chemical and isotopic data of three natural water systems involving carbonate reactions in order to define mineral stoichiometry of reactants and products, relative rates of reactions, and mass transfer. One study evaluates reactions in a lagoon on the east coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.- from Authors

  16. An Examination of Orthoptic Vision and Balance Performance of Nonhandicapped and Learning Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folsom-Meek, Sherry L.; And Others

    This study compared orthoptic vision development and balance performance of nonhandicapped and learning disabled children between the ages of 10 and 13 years of age. Each subject was individually administered two orthoptic vision screening tests (Cover Test and Biopter), a dynamic balance test using a changing consistency board, and two static…

  17. Examination of groundwater flow scales and results of water balance observation in the regional hydrogeological study project field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tono Geoscience center has been continuing water balance observation since fiscal 1998, and examining groundwater recharge into the basement rock. This report analyzes water balance at seven catchments in the regional hydrogeological study project field, and the applicability of area precipitation, an important item of water balance analysis, is examined. The result of the examination is shown below. Values of groundwater recharge in the small-scale catchments, such as upstream and downstream of the Shobagawa, are influence by the local groundwater flow system. But, those in the Shobagawa catchment are influenced by the larger groundwater flow system. The plane distribution of groundwater recharge matches the result of the distribution of groundwater flow analysis. (author)

  18. Momentum balance equation for nonelectrolytes in models of coupling between chemical reaction and diffusion in membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałdzicki, Z; Miekisz, S

    1984-04-01

    The role of viscosity in coupling between chemical reaction (complex formation) and diffusion in membranes has been investigated. The Fick law was replaced by the momentum balance equation with the viscous term. The irreversible thermodynamics admits coupling of the chemical reaction rate with the gradient of velocity. The proposed model has shown the contrary effect of viscosity and confirmed the experimental results. The chemical reaction rate increases only above the limit value of viscosity. The parameter Q (degree of complex formation) was introduced to investigate coupling. Q equals to the ratio of the chemical contribution into the flux of the complex to the total flux of the substance transported. For different values of the parameters of the model the dependence of Q upon position inside the membrane has been numerically calculated. The assumptions of the model limit it to a specific case and they only roughly model the biological situation. PMID:6537360

  19. Integrity of Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) Chemically Welded Joints Examined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Bradley A.; Thesken, John C.; Bunnell, Charles T.; Kurta, Carol E.; Sydenstricker, Mike

    2005-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center s Capillary Flow Experiments (CFE) program is developing experiment payloads to explore fluid interfaces in microgravity on the International Space Station. The information to be gained from the CFE is relevant to the design of fluid-bearing systems in which capillary forces predominate, for example in the passive positioning of liquids in spacecraft fuel tanks. To achieve the science goals of CFE, Glenn researchers constructed several types of experiment vessels. One type of vessel, known as the interior corner flow (ICF), will be used to determine important transients for low-gravity liquid management in a two-phase system. Each vessel has a cylindrical fluid reservoir connected to each end of the test chamber by internal transport tubes, each with a quarter-turn shutoff valve (see the following photograph). These multipiece vessels are made from polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) because of its excellent optical properties (i.e., the fluids can be observed easily in the vessel). Because of the complexity of certain vessels, the test chamber had to be manufactured in pieces and welded chemically. Some past experience with adhesive bonded plastic showed that the experiment fluid degraded the adhesive to the point of failure. Therefore, it was necessary to see if the fluid also degraded the chemically welded PMMA joints.

  20. Physical and bio-chemical mass-balance model around seafloor cold seepages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, T.; Takeuchi, R.; Monoe, D.; Oomi, T.; Nakata, K.; Fukushima, T.

    2007-12-01

    Natural cold seepages are characterized as rapid upward transports of methane from deeper part of geological structures to the seafloors. Prior to reach the seafloors, when methane meets downwards diffusing seawater sulfate, it is oxidized anaerobically by a consortium of microorganisms that use sulfate as an oxidant, producing sulfide. The anaerobic oxidation of methane and anaerobic sulfate reduction are clarified as a coupled biological activity. A significant portion of the bicarbonate produced after the sulfate reduction as authigenic carbonate, mainly aragonite and high-Mg calcite, near the seafloor. Where the methane fluxes are much, these anaerobic reactions occur just beneath the seafloor. There, usually sulfur oxidizing microorganisms are visible on the seafloor just above the coupled consortium of microorganisms. They are called bacterial mats. When the fluxes too much, direct methane bubbling occurs and chemosynthesis-immobilization communities such as tubeworms and clams distribute around the bubbling locations with the bacterial mats. The physical and bio-chemical mass-balance model around cold seepages on seafloor and in water column has been studied by the authors and some preliminary results were reported (Yamazaki et al., 2005 and 2006; Takeuchi et al., 2007). The approach is to analyze the existing field observation and numerical modeling studies of cold seepages and to create a new physical and bio-chemical mass-balance model in the environment. The model is separated into three parts. They are methane supply, seafloor ecosystem, and water column units. The seafloor ecosystem unit has been improved to analyze the unsteady formation processes of the ecosystem. The time dependencies of formations of the consortium of microorganisms (AOM), the chemosynthetic community, and bicarbonates examined with the improved model are introduced. After the bubbling from seafloor, the methane bubble jet blows up in the water column due to the buoyancy. Then the

  1. An Energy Balance Model to Predict Chemical Partitioning in a Photosynthetic Microbial Mat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Albert, Daniel B.; DesMarais, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Studies of biosignature formation in photosynthetic microbial mat communities offer potentially useful insights with regards to both solar and extrasolar astrobiology. Biosignature formation in such systems results from the chemical transformation of photosynthetically fixed carbon by accessory microorganisms. This fixed carbon represents a source not only of reducing power, but also energy, to these organisms, so that chemical and energy budgets should be coupled. We tested this hypothesis by applying an energy balance model to predict the fate of photosynthetic productivity under dark, anoxic conditions. Fermentation of photosynthetically fixed carbon is taken to be the only source of energy available to cyanobacteria in the absence of light and oxygen, and nitrogen fixation is the principal energy demand. The alternate fate for fixed carbon is to build cyanobacterial biomass with Redfield C:N ratio. The model predicts that, under completely nitrogen-limited conditions, growth is optimized when 78% of fixed carbon stores are directed into fermentative energy generation, with the remainder allocated to growth. These predictions were compared to measurements made on microbial mats that are known to be both nitrogen-limited and populated by actively nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria. In these mats, under dark, anoxic conditions, 82% of fixed carbon stores were diverted into fermentation. The close agreement between these independent approaches suggests that energy balance models may provide a quantitative means of predicting chemical partitioning within such systems - an important step towards understanding how biological productivity is ultimately partitioned into biosignature compounds.

  2. Tank 12H Acidic Chemical Cleaning Sample Analysis And Material Balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C. J.; Reboul, S. H.; Wiersma, B. J.; Coleman, C. J.

    2013-11-08

    A process of Bulk Oxalic Acid (BOA) chemical cleaning was performed for Tank 12H during June and July of 2013 to remove all or a portion of the approximately 4400 gallon sludge heel. Three strikes of oxalic acid (nominally 4 wt % or 2 wt %) were used at 55 �C and tank volumes of 96- to 140-thousand gallons. This report details the sample analysis of a scrape sample taken prior to BOA cleaning and dip samples taken during BOA cleaning. It also documents a rudimentary material balance for the Tank 12H cleaning results.

  3. Catchment conceptualisation for examining applicability of chloride mass balance method in an area of historical forest clearance

    OpenAIRE

    H. Guan; Love, A.; C. T. Simmons; Ding, Z; Hutson, J

    2009-01-01

    Among various approaches for estimating groundwater recharge, chloride mass balance (CMB) method is one of the most frequently used, in particular, for arid and semiarid regions. Widespread native vegetation clearance, common history in many areas globally, has changed land surface boundary condition, posing a question whether the current system has reached new chloride equilibrium for CMB application. To examine CMB applicability for catchments, conceptual catchment types of various chloride...

  4. Century-scale variability in global annual runoff examined using a water balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, G.J.; Wolock, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    A monthly water balance model (WB model) is used with CRUTS2.1 monthly temperature and precipitation data to generate time series of monthly runoff for all land areas of the globe for the period 1905 through 2002. Even though annual precipitation accounts for most of the temporal and spatial variability in annual runoff, increases in temperature have had an increasingly negative effect on annual runoff after 1980. Although the effects of increasing temperature on runoff became more apparent after 1980, the relative magnitude of these effects are small compared to the effects of precipitation on global runoff. ?? 2010 Royal Meteorological Society.

  5. Chemical modification of poly(vinyl alcohol): evaluation of hydrophilic/lipophilic balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) terpolymers have been obtained by reaction of partially hydrolized poly(vinyl alcohol) with different acid chlorides. The objective is the preparation of polymers with slight differences in their hydrophilic/lipophilic balance and in the interfacial activities of their solutions. The chemical modifications were characterized by means of 1H NMR and the polymer properties were evaluated in terms of changes in solubility and surface tension. By chemical modification, polymers with low percentage of hydrophobic group were obtained. The water-soluble polymers obtained did not have the surface tension of their solutions altered. The solubility of the modified polymers decreased markedly, even with low contents of hydrophobic groups. (author)

  6. Projected refined product balances in key Latin American countries: A preliminary examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    Over the years, the East-West Center (EWC) has developed considerable expertise in refinery modeling, especially in the area of forecasting product balances for countries, given planned capacity changes, changes in product demand, changes in crude slates, and changes in product specifications. This expertise has been applied on an ongoing basis to the major refiners in the Middle East and the Asia-Pacific region, along with the US West Coast as region in its own right. Refinery modeling in these three areas has been ongoing for nearly 15 years at the Center, and the tools and information sources are now well developed. To date, the EWC has not applied these tools to Latin America. Although research on Latin America has been an ongoing area of concern at the Center in recent years, the information gathered to date is still not of the level of detail nor quality available for other areas. The modeling efforts undertaken in this report are of a ``baseline`` nature, designed to outline the major issues, attempt a first cut at emerging product balances, and, above all, to elicit commentary from those directly involved in the oil industry in the key countries modeled. Our experience in other regions has shown that it takes a few years dialogue with refiners and government planner in individual countries to develop a reliable database, as well as the insights into operational constraints and practices that make accurate modeling possible. This report is no more than a first step down the road.

  7. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF PM 2.5 AND CARBON IN SEATTLE USING CHEMICAL MASS BALANCE AND POSITIVE MATRIX FACTORIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three years of PM2.5 speciated data were collected and chemically analyzed using the IMPROVE protocol at the Beacon Hill site in Seattle. The data were analyzed by the Chemical Mass Balance Version 8 (CMB8) and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) source apportionment models. T...

  8. Chemical mass balance source apportionment of PM 10 in an industrialized urban area of Northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, C.; Kouimtzis, Th; Tsitouridou, R.; Kanias, G.; Simeonov, V.

    Ambient PM 10 were sampled at three sites in an industrialized urban area of Northern Greece during June 1997-June 1998 and analyzed for 17 chemical elements, 5 water-soluble ions and 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In addition, chemical source profiles consisting of the same particulate components were obtained for a number of industrial activities (cement, fertilizer and asphalt production, quarry operations, metal electroplating, metal welding and tempering, steel manufacture, lead and bronze smelters, metal scrap incineration), residential oil burning, non-catalyst and catalyst-equipped passenger cars, diesel fuelled taxis and buses, as well as for geological fugitive sources (paved road dust and soil from open lands). Ambient and source data were used in a chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model for source identification and apportionment. Results of CMB modeling showed that major source of ambient PM 10 at all three sites was diesel vehicle exhaust. Significant contribution from industrial oil burning was also evidenced at the site located closest to the industrial area.

  9. Mass, energy, and exergy balance analysis of chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A CLOU reactor system using a CuO-based OC and coal as fuel is analyzed. • Possible operational regions for the chosen OC are identified. • Different heat balance scenarios are investigated. • The second-law efficiency of the system is evaluated. • Various design aspects and process modelling relationships are discussed. - Abstract: Chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) is a promising concept for efficient combustion of solid fuels with an inherent capture of the greenhouse gas CO2. This paper presents a CLOU process scheme with stoichiometric mass, energy, and exergy balances. A CLOU reactor system using medium volatile bituminous coal as fuel and silica-supported CuO as an oxygen carrier is analyzed. The analysis includes the estimation of various design and operational parameters, thermal considerations, and evaluation of the overall performance. The operation of a reactor system of two interacting circulating fluidized beds (CFBs) is greatly influenced by the hydrodynamics. For the CuO oxygen carrier, the hydrodynamic operating range appeared feasible considering the maximum solid circulation rates in current CFB boilers. Depending upon the reactor temperatures, oxygen carrier inventories of 400–680 kg/MW in the system were found necessary for stoichiometric combustion of the fuel. The temperature difference between the reactors should not exceed 50 °C, as otherwise, problems may arise with the heat balance. Exergetic efficiencies in the range of 63–70% were obtained for different combinations of relevant design parameters. It is evident that the possible operating conditions in the system are closely related to the properties of the chosen oxygen carrier. However, the calculation procedure and design criteria presented here are applicable to any oxygen carrier to be used in the process

  10. Magnetic hydrophilic-lipophilic balance sorbent for efficient extraction of chemical warfare agents from water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Varoon; Purohit, Ajay Kumar; Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Goud D, Raghavender; Tak, Vijay; Pardasani, Deepak; Shrivastava, Anchal Roy; Dubey, Devendra Kumar

    2016-02-19

    Magnetic hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (MHLB) hybrid resin was prepared by precipitation polymerization using N-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and divinylbenzene (DVB) as monomers and Fe2O3 nanoparticles as magnetic material. These resins were successfully applied for the extraction of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and their markers from water samples through magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction (MDSPE). By varying the ratios of monomers, resin with desired hydrophilic-lipophilic balance was prepared for the extraction of CWAs and related esters of varying polarities. Amongst different composites Fe2O3 nanoparticles coated with 10% PVP+90% DVB exhibited the best recoveries varying between 70.32 and 97.67%. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiencies, such as extraction time, desorption time, nature and volume of desorption solvent, amount of extraction sorbent and the effect of salts on extraction were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, linearity was obtained in the range of 0.5-500 ng mL(-1) with correlation ranging from 0.9911-0.9980. Limits of detection and limits of quantification were 0.5-1.0 and 3.0-5.0 ng mL(-1) respectively with RSDs varying from 4.88-11.32% for markers of CWAs. Finally, the developed MDSPE method was employed for extraction of analytes from water samples of various sources and the OPCW proficiency test samples. PMID:26814366

  11. Examination of lignocellulosic fibers for chemical, thermal, and separations properties: Addressing thermo-chemical stability issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Carter David

    Natural fiber-plastic composites incorporate thermoplastic resins with fibrous plant-based materials, sometimes referred to as biomass. Pine wood mill waste has been the traditional source of natural fibrous feedstock. In anticipation of a waste wood shortage other fibrous biomass materials are being investigated as potential supplements or replacements. Perennial grasses, agricultural wastes, and woody biomass are among the potential source materials. As these feedstocks share the basic chemical building blocks; cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, they are collectively called lignocellulosics. Initial investigation of a number of lignocellulosic materials, applied to fiber-plastic composite processing and material testing, resulted in varied results, particularly response to processing conditions. Less thermally stable lignocellulosic filler materials were physically changed in observable ways: darkened color and odor. The effect of biomass materials' chemical composition on thermal stability was investigated an experiment involving determination of the chemical composition of seven lignocellulosics: corn hull, corn stover, fescue, pine, soy hull, soy stover, and switchgrass. These materials were also evaluated for thermal stability by thermogravimetric analysis. The results of these determinations indicated that both chemical composition and pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials can have an effect on their thermal stability. A second study was performed to investigate what effect different pretreatment systems have on hybrid poplar, pine, and switchgrass. These materials were treated with hot water, ethanol, and a 2:1 benzene/ethanol mixture for extraction times of: 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours. This factorial experiment demonstrated that both extraction time and medium have an effect on the weight percent of extractives removed from all three material types. The extracted materials generated in the above study were then subjected to an evaluation of thermal

  12. Do High School Chemistry Examinations Inhibit Deeper Level Understanding of Dynamic Reversible Chemical Reactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeldon, R.; Atkinson, R.; Dawes, A.; Levinson, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Chemistry examinations can favour the deployment of algorithmic procedures like Le Chatelier's Principle (LCP) rather than reasoning using chemical principles. This study investigated the explanatory resources which high school students use to answer equilibrium problems and whether the marks given for examination answers…

  13. Nitrogen losses from dairy manure estimated through nitrogen mass balance and chemical markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, Alexander N.; Zaman, S.; Vander Pol, M.; Ndegwa, P.; Campbell, L.; Silva, S.

    2009-01-01

    Ammonia is an important air and water pollutant, but the spatial variation in its concentrations presents technical difficulties in accurate determination of ammonia emissions from animal feeding operations. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between ammonia volatilization and ??15N of dairy manure and the feasibility of estimating ammonia losses from a dairy facility using chemical markers. In Exp. 1, the N/P ratio in manure decreased by 30% in 14 d as cumulative ammonia losses increased exponentially. Delta 15N of manure increased throughout the course of the experiment and ??15N of emitted ammonia increased (p mass balance approach, approximately half of the N excreted by dairy cows (Bos taurus) could not be accounted for in 24 h. Using N/P and N/K ratios in fresh and 24-h manure, an estimated 0.55 and 0.34 (respectively) of the N excreted with feces and urine could not be accounted for. This study demonstrated that chemical markers (P, K) can be successfully used to estimate ammonia losses from cattle manure. The relationship between manure ??15N and cumulative ammonia loss may also be useful for estimating ammonia losses. Although promising, the latter approach needs to be further studied and verified in various experimental conditions and in the field. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  14. Catchment conceptualisation for examining applicability of chloride mass balance method in an area of historical forest clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Among various approaches for estimating groundwater recharge, chloride mass balance (CMB method is one of the most frequently used, in particular, for arid and semiarid regions. Widespread native vegetation clearance, common history in many areas globally, has changed land surface boundary condition, posing a question whether the current system has reached new chloride equilibrium for CMB application. To examine CMB applicability for catchments, conceptual catchment types of various chloride equilibrium conditions are defined. The conceptualization, combined with some local climate conditions, is demonstrated to be useful in examining whether a catchment has reached new chloride equilibrium. The six conceptual catchment types are tested with eleven selected catchments in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area in South Australia having experienced historical widespread forest clearance. The results show that six of the eleven catchments match type VI chloride balance condition (chloride non-equilibrium with a gaining stream, with the ratio of stream chloride output over atmospheric chloride input (catchment chloride O/I ranging from 2 to 4. Two catchments match type V chloride balance condition (chloride non-equilibrium with a losing stream, with catchment chloride O/I values about 0.5. For these catchments, the CMB method is not appropriate to apply. The results also suggest that neither a below-one chloride O/I value nor a low seasonal fluctuation of streamflow chloride concentration (a factor below 4 guarantees a chloride equilibrium condition in the study area. But a large chloride O/I value (above one and a large fluctuation of streamflow chloride concentration (a factor of 10 and above generally indicates either a chloride disequilibrium, or cross-catchment water transfer, or both, for which CMB is not applicable. Based on the regression between chloride O/I values and annual precipitation for type VI catchments, a catchment with

  15. Evaluation of organic markers for chemical mass balance source apportionment at the Fresno Supersite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, J. C.; Watson, J. G.; Lowenthal, D. H.; Chen, L. W. A.; Zielinska, B.; Mazzoleni, L. R.; Magliano, K. L.

    2007-04-01

    Sources of PM2.5 at the Fresno Supersite during high PM2.5 episodes occurring from 15 December 2000-3 February 2001 were estimated with the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model. The ability of source profiles with organic markers to distinguish motor vehicle, residential wood combustion (RWC), and cooking emissions was evaluated with simulated data. Organics improved the distinction between gasoline and diesel vehicle emissions and allowed a more precise estimate of the cooking source contribution. Sensitivity tests using average ambient concentrations showed that the gasoline vehicle contribution was not resolved without organics. Organics were not required to estimate hardwood contributions. The most important RWC marker was the water-soluble potassium ion. The estimated cooking contribution did not depend on cholesterol because its concentrations were below the detection limit in most samples. Winter time source contributions were estimated by applying the CMB model to individual and average sample concentrations. RWC was the largest source, contributing 29-31% of measured PM2.5. Hardwood and softwood combustion accounted for 16-17% and 12-15%, respectively. Secondary ammonium nitrate and motor vehicle emissions accounted for 31-33% and 9-15%, respectively. The gasoline vehicle contribution (3-10%) was comparable to the diesel vehicle contribution (5-6%). The cooking contribution was 5-19% of PM2.5. Fresno source apportionment results were consistent with those estimated in previous studies.

  16. Evaluation of organic markers for chemical mass balance source apportionment at the Fresno Supersite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Chow

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sources of PM2.5 at the Fresno Supersite during high PM2.5 episodes occurring from 15 December 2000–3 February 2001 were estimated with the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB receptor model. The ability of source profiles with organic markers to distinguish motor vehicle, residential wood combustion (RWC, and cooking emissions was evaluated with simulated data. Organics improved the distinction between gasoline and diesel vehicle emissions and allowed a more precise estimate of the cooking source contribution. Sensitivity tests using average ambient concentrations showed that the gasoline vehicle contribution was not resolved without organics. Organics were not required to estimate hardwood contributions. The most important RWC marker was the water-soluble potassium ion. The estimated cooking contribution did not depend on cholesterol because its concentrations were below the detection limit in most samples. Winter time source contributions were estimated by applying the CMB model to individual and average sample concentrations. RWC was the largest source, contributing 29–31% of measured PM2.5. Hardwood and softwood combustion accounted for 16–17% and 12–15%, respectively. Secondary ammonium nitrate and motor vehicle emissions accounted for 31–33% and 9–15%, respectively. The gasoline vehicle contribution (3–10% was comparable to the diesel vehicle contribution (5–6%. The cooking contribution was 5–19% of PM2.5. Fresno source apportionment results were consistent with those estimated in previous studies.

  17. Performance of the chemical mass balance model with simulated local-scale aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javitz, H. S.; Watson, J. G.; Robinson, N.

    A general methodology for performing simulations of the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model is developed and applied to simple and complex local scale scenarios. The simple scenario consists of crustal, coal-fired power plant, motor vehicle and vegetative burning sources; the complex scenario adds oil-fired power plant, ocean, steel mill, lead smelter, municipal incinerator and background aerosol sources. Daily receptor filter concentrations of the most commonly measured elements in the primary emissions are simulated. These simulations incorporate daily fluctuations in source strengths, daily fluctuations in source profiles (as parameterized by a coefficient of variation, or CV, of temporal source profiles) and measurement error at the receptor (as parameterized by a CV of measurement error). The CMB is applied to each daily measurement using a source library containing all sources and their long-term profiles (which, though correct on average, are incorrect on any particular day). The extent of agreement of the actual and CMBestimated primary emission source strengths is measured as an average absolute error (AAE, the absolute difference between the daily actual and estimated primary emission source strengths averaged over 100 simulated days). These moderately realistic simulations provide an encouraging picture of CMB accuracy and precision. The CMB yields acceptable accuracy and precision (an AAE of 50% or less) even when the CV of temporal source profiles is 25% and the CV of measurement error is 10%.

  18. Catchment conceptualisation for examining applicability of chloride mass balance method in an area with historical forest clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Of the various approaches for estimating groundwater recharge, the chloride mass balance (CMB method is one of the most frequently used, especially for arid and semiarid regions. Widespread native vegetation clearance, common in many areas globally, has changed the land surface boundary condition, posing the question as to whether the current system has reached new chloride equilibrium, required for a CMB application. Although a one-dimensional CMB can be applied at a point where the water and chloride fluxes are locally in steady state, the CMB method is usually applied at a catchment scale owing to significant lateral flows in mountains. The applicability of the CMB method to several conceptual catchment types of various chloride equilibrium conditions is examined. The conceptualisation, combined with some local climate conditions, is shown to be useful in assessing whether or not a catchment has reached new chloride equilibrium. The six conceptual catchment types are tested with eleven selected catchments in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area in South Australia having experienced widespread historical forest clearance. The results show that six of the eleven catchments match a type VI chloride balance condition (chloride non-equilibrium with a gaining stream, with the ratios of stream chloride output (O over atmospheric chloride input (I, or catchment chloride O/I ratios, ranging from 2 to 4. Two catchments match a type V chloride balance condition (chloride non-equilibrium with a losing stream, with catchment chloride O/I ratios about 0.5. For these type V and type VI catchments, the CMB method is not applicable. The results also suggest that neither a chloride O/I ratio less than one nor a low seasonal fluctuation of streamflow chloride concentration (a factor below 4 guarantees a chloride equilibrium condition in the study area. A large chloride O/I value (above one and a large fluctuation of streamflow chloride

  19. Examining the Transition to a Four-Day School Week and Investigating Post-Change Faculty/Staff Work-Life Balance: A Community College Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Nelly

    2013-01-01

    This single descriptive embedded case study examined the process of implementing a four-day work/school week at a community college and investigated post-change faculty/staff work-life balance. All of the students attending this college live at home. The change was implemented due to state funding shortfalls, increasing college utility expenses…

  20. Examination of the Regional Supply and Demand Balance for Renewable Electricity in the United States through 2015: Projecting from 2009 through 2015 (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Hurlbut, D.; Donohoo, P.; Cory, K.; Kreycik, C.

    2010-06-01

    This report examines the balance between the demand and supply of new renewable electricity in the United States on a regional basis through 2015. It expands on a 2007 NREL study that assessed the supply and demand balance on a national basis. As with the earlier study, this analysis relies on estimates of renewable energy supplies compared to demand for renewable energy generation needed to meet existing state renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies in 28 states, as well as demand by consumers who voluntarily purchase renewable energy. However, it does not address demand by utilities that may procure cost-effective renewables through an integrated resource planning process or otherwise.

  1. Up in the Air: An Examination of the Work-Life Balance of Fly-in-Fly-out Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jais, Juraifa; Smyrnios, Kosmas X.; Hoare, Lynnel A.

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of research on the work-life balance experiences of academics who undertake short-term international teaching assignments. Academics who teach offshore are also accountable for onshore activities including lecturing, research, supervision of higher degree students, mentoring, publishing and administrative obligations "inter…

  2. Assessing the regional impact of Indonesian biomass burning emissions based on organic molecular tracers and chemical mass balance modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Engling

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning activities commonly occur in Southeast Asia (SEA, and are particularly intense in Indonesia during dry seasons. The effect of biomass smoke emissions on air quality in the city state of Singapore was investigated during a haze episode in October 2006. Substantially increased levels of airborne particulate matter (PM and associated chemical species were observed during the haze period. Specifically, the enhancement in the concentration of molecular tracers for biomass combustion such as levoglucosan by as much as two orders of magnitude and diagnostic ratios of individual organic compounds indicated that biomass burning emissions caused a regional smoke haze episode due to their long-range transport by prevailing winds. With the aid of air mass back trajectories and chemical mass balance modeling, large-scale forest and peat fires in Sumatra and Kalimantan were identified as the sources of the smoke aerosol, exerting a significant impact on air quality in downwind areas, such as Singapore.

  3. An Innovative Approach to Balancing Chemical-Reaction Equations: A Simplified Matrix-Inversion Technique for Determining The Matrix Null Space

    CERN Document Server

    Thorne, Lawrence R

    2011-01-01

    I propose a novel approach to balancing equations that is applicable to all chemical-reaction equations; it is readily accessible to students via scientific calculators and basic computer spreadsheets that have a matrix-inversion application. The new approach utilizes the familiar matrix-inversion operation in an unfamiliar and innovative way; its purpose is not to identify undetermined coefficients as usual, but, instead, to compute a matrix null space (or matrix kernel). The null space then provides the coefficients that balance the equation. Indeed, the null space contains everything there is to know about balancing any chemical-reaction equation!

  4. Examining the Effectiveness and Robustness of Parameter Uncertainty Algorithms for Quantification of Uncertainty in Water Balance Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufford, D. L.; Samadi, S.; Carbone, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the potential challenges in US southeastern watersheds from climate variability. There may be shifts in water balance due to complexity of the flow generation processes that determine how water is partitioned in these landscapes. The main objective of this study was to capture the feedback relationships among the water balance components using the Soil & Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) watershed-scale streamflow model linked with the Sequential Uncertainty FItting (SUFI-2) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) parameter uncertainty algorithms in the Waccamaw River watershed, a low-gradient forested watershed on the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States. Streamflow water balance uncertainty analysis suggested close correspondence of the model with the physical behavior and system dynamics during different hydroclimatological periods in the 2003-2007 calibration interval. SUFI-2 water balance analysis revealed that surface runoff, ground water, and lateral flow contributed 22.2%, 3.9% and 0.4% of the total water yield during simulation period while PSO analysis indicated 16.7%, 13.2% and 0.3% of their contributions respectively. Both uncertainty methods found that 71.1% of the total rainfall was lost by evapotranspiration during the simulation interval. The total water yields using both algorithms were over predicted by up to 14.0% of the annual rainfall inputs during dry period (2007) which was related to extra contribution of shallow aquifer flow to the river system. Both algorithms also specified that surface flow and ground water runoff dominated water balance during October and December in overall prediction interval respectively. Moreover, evaluating parameter uncertainty and error indicated that the distribution of prediction uncertainty was least in the wet year (2006) and was most towards the end of dry period particularly within alluvial riparian floodplains. Water balance estimation with uncertainty quantification can

  5. Catchment conceptualisation for examining applicability of chloride mass balance method in an area with historical forest clearance

    OpenAIRE

    H. Guan; Love, A. J.; C. T. Simmons; Hutson, J; Ding, Z

    2010-01-01

    Of the various approaches for estimating groundwater recharge, the chloride mass balance (CMB) method is one of the most frequently used, especially for arid and semiarid regions. Widespread native vegetation clearance, common in many areas globally, has changed the land surface boundary condition, posing the question as to whether the current system has reached new chloride equilibrium, required for a CMB application. Although a one-dimensional CMB can be applied at a point where the water a...

  6. Balancing benefits and harm: Chemical use and bodily transformation among Indonesia's transgender waria

    OpenAIRE

    Idrus, Nurul Ilmi; Hymans, Takeo David

    2014-01-01

    Background Members of Indonesia's diverse male-to-female transgender community often describe themselves as waria. Waria do not equate being feminine with being female. They do not want to be women; they aspire to be like women. It entails cultivating mannerisms and wearing make-up and women's clothes, shaving one's legs and styling one's hair. But some go further in their practices of self-administered, chemically assisted bodily transformation. Methods Field research took place in Makassar,...

  7. On the Mathematical Structure of Balanced Chemical Reaction Networks Governed by Mass Action Kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    der Schaft, Arjan van; Rao, Shodhan; Jayawardhana, Bayu

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by recent progress on the interplay between graph theory, dynamics, and systems theory, we revisit the analysis of chemical reaction networks described by mass action kinetics. For reaction networks possessing a thermodynamic equilibrium we derive a compact formulation exhibiting at the same time the structure of the complex graph and the stoichiometry of the network, and which admits a direct thermodynamical interpretation. This formulation allows us to easily characterize the set ...

  8. 9 CFR 318.9 - Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Samples of products, water, dyes... ESTABLISHMENTS; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.9 Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination. Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals,...

  9. 3D-MRCP与Balance-FFE及常规MRI序列联合应用诊断梗阻性黄疸%3D-MRCP, Balance-FFE combined with routine MRI examination in diagnosis of obstructive jaundice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐敏; 王坤; 靳晶; 朱斌

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of 3D-MRCP, Balance-FFE combined with routine MRI examination in the diagnosis of obstructive jaundice. Methods The MRI exams of 156 patients with obstructive jaundice proved by operation were analyzed. Results The study participants were classified into 3 groups; stone disease into group Ⅰ, tumor into group Ⅱ and others into group Ⅲ. 3D-MRCP, Balance_FFE combined with routine MRI examination had 100%, 80. 3% .and 100% corresponding diagnostic rates in group Ⅰ, group Ⅱ , group Ⅲ respectively. The total corresponding diagnostic rate was 92. 9%. Conclusion By analyzing the direct signs and indirect signs, 3D-MRCP, Balance-FFE combined with routine MRI examination can improve the diagnostic accuracy of obstructive jaundice.%目的 评价3D-Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography(MRCP)与Balance fast field echo(BalanceFFE)及常规MRI序列联合应用对梗阻性黄疸的诊断价值.方法 156例梗阻性黄疸患者行包括3D-MRCP、冠状位BFFE、抽位TIWI、T2WI、T2压脂,部分行同层动态增强检查.所有影像诊断结果与最终手术病理结果进行回顾对照分析.结果 156例病人分为3组,组Ⅰ结石94例,组Ⅱ肿瘤56例,组Ⅲ其它6例.3D-MRCP、B-FFE与常规MRI联合应用,定性诊断的符合率分别为100%、80.3%和100%,总符合率为92.9%.结论 3D-MRCP、B-FFE与常规MRI扫描序列联合应用通过观察直接征象和间接征象,对梗阻性黄疸的定性诊断有较高准确性.

  10. Historical nuclear materials balance report for the former AEC-owned Weldon Spring Chemical Plant, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From June 1957 through December 1966, four types of nuclear material were processed in the AEC-owned Weldon Spring Chemical Plant. These materials were: (1) natural uranium, (2) depleted uranium, (3) slightly enriched uranium, and (4) natural thorium. The summary material balances for each material are shown in Table 1. In processing these materials, discards occurred to (a) the atmosphere through stacks, (b) area waterways through sewers, and (c) to raffinate pits still in existence at the site. These discards are summarized in Table 2. Natural uranium processing accounted for more than 97% of the nuclear materials throughput (Table 1). Total material balance closures for natural uranium, depleted uranium, slightly enriched uranium, and natural thorium were 99.94%, 100%, 99.27%, and 98.52%, respectively. Of the discards, summarized in Table 2, approximately 75% went to and remain in the existing raffinate pits. Discharges to stacks and sewers account for the remaining discards. As far as can be determined, it appears all plant processes operated efficiently and all materials were well accounted for with only minimal variances

  11. Dualistic Chemical Evolution to the Stabilization of the Energy-Balance: A Hypothesis on the Origin of Life on the Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuda, Genji

    2004-01-01

    A hypothesis of the dualistic chemical evolution to the stabilization of the energy-balance is proposed and explained in connection with the origin of life on the earth. From author's viewpoint, the existence of all things and all phenomena in the universe are closely related to the stabilization of the energy-balance and life is not an exceptional case in this matter. It is presumed that the first life on the earth was formed as the process towards the stabilization of the energy-balance by ...

  12. Chemical and sewage sludge co-incineration in a full-scale MSW incinerator: toxic trace element mass balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biganzoli, Laura; Grosso, Mario; Giugliano, Michele; Campolunghi, Manuel

    2012-10-01

    Co-incineration of sludges with MSW is a quite common practice in Europe. This paper illustrates a case of co-incineration of both sewage sludges and chemical sludges, the latter obtained from drinking water production, in a waste-to-energy (WTE) plant located in northern Italy and equipped with a grate furnace, and compares the toxic trace elements mass balance with and without the co-incineration of sludges. The results show that co-incineration of sewage and chemical sludges does not result in an increase of toxic trace elements the total release in environment, with the exception of arsenic, whose total release increases from 1 mg t(fuel) (-1) during standard operation to 3 mg t(fuel) (-1) when sludges are co-incinerated. The increase of arsenic release is, however, attributable to the sole bottom ashes, where its concentration is five times higher during sludge co-incineration. No variation is observed for arsenic release at the stack. This fact is a further guarantee that the co-incineration of sludges, when performed in a state-of-the-art WTE plant, does not have negative effects on the atmospheric environment. PMID:22584266

  13. A Delicate Balance: An Examination of Lehigh University's Athletic Culture and Athletic Extra-Curriculum, 1866-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Courtney Michelle

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the history of Lehigh University's athletic culture and extra-curriculum from 1866 to 1998 and argues that both of those institutions served as the basis for identity within the undergraduate student body. Additionally, this dissertation argues that the athletic culture and extra-curriculum established Lehigh's identity…

  14. Chemical defense balanced by sequestration and de novo biosynthesis in a lepidopteran specialist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Fürstenberg-Hägg

    Full Text Available The evolution of sequestration (uptake and accumulation relative to de novo biosynthesis of chemical defense compounds is poorly understood, as is the interplay between these two strategies. The Burnet moth Zygaena filipendulae (Lepidoptera and its food-plant Lotus corniculatus (Fabaceae poses an exemplary case study of these questions, as Z. filipendulae belongs to the only insect family known to both de novo biosynthesize and sequester the same defense compounds directly from its food-plant. Z. filipendulae and L. corniculatus both contain the two cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin, which are defense compounds that can be hydrolyzed to liberate toxic hydrogen cyanide. The overall amounts and ratios of linamarin and lotaustralin in Z. filipendulae are tightly regulated, and only to a low extent reflect the ratio in the ingested food-plant. We demonstrate that Z. filipendulae adjusts the de novo biosynthesis of CNglcs by regulation at both the transcriptional and protein level depending on food plant composition. Ultimately this ensures that the larva saves energy and nitrogen while maintaining an effective defense system to fend off predators. By using in situ PCR and immunolocalization, the biosynthetic pathway was resolved to the larval fat body and integument, which infers rapid replenishment of defense compounds following an encounter with a predator. Our study supports the hypothesis that de novo biosynthesis of CNglcs in Z. filipendulae preceded the ability to sequester, and facilitated a food-plant switch to cyanogenic plants, after which sequestration could evolve. Preservation of de novo biosynthesis allows fine-tuning of the amount and composition of CNglcs in Z. filipendulae.

  15. Glacier mass balance reconstruction by sublimation induced enrichment of chemical species on Cerro Tapado (Chilean Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ginot

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A 36 m long ice core down to bedrock from the Cerro Tapado glacier (5536 m a.s.l, 30°08' S, 69°55' W was analyzed to reconstruct past climatic conditions for Northern Chile. Because of the marked seasonality in the precipitation (short wet winter and extended dry summer periods in this region, major snow ablation and related post-depositional processes occur on the glacier surface during summer periods. They include predominantly sublimation and dry deposition. Assuming that, like measured during the field campaign, the enrichment of chloride was always related to sublimation, the chemical record along the ice core may be applied to reconstruct the history of such secondary processes linked to the past climatic conditions over northern Chile. For the time period 1962–1999, a mean annual net accumulation of 316 mm water equivalent (weq and 327 mm weq loss by sublimation was deduced by this method. This corresponds to an initial total annual accumulation of 539 mm weq. The annual variability of the accumulation and sublimation is related with the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI: higher net-accumulation during El-Niño years and more sublimation during La Niña years. The deepest part of the ice record shows a time discontinuity; with an ice body deposited under different climatic conditions: 290 mm higher precipitation but with reduced seasonal distribution (+470 mm in winter and –180 mm in summer and –3°C lower mean annual temperature. Unfortunately, its age is unknown. The comparison with regional proxy data however let us conclude that the glacier buildup did most likely occur after the dry mid-Holocene.

  16. Hydrological and chemical estimates of the water balance of a closed-basin lake in north central Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBaugh, J.W.; Winter, T.C.; Rosenberry, D.O.; Schuster, P.F.; Reddy, M.M.; Aiken, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    Chemical mass balances for sodium, magnesium, chloride, dissolved organic carbon, and oxygen 18 were used to estimate groundwater seepage to and from Williams Lake, Minnesota, over a 15-month period, from April 1991 through June 1992. Groundwater seepage to the lake and seepage from the lake to groundwater were determined independently using a flow net approach using data from water table wells installed as part of the study. Hydrogeological analysis indicated groundwater seepage to the lake accounted for 74% of annual water input to the lake; the remainder came from atmospheric precipitation, as determined from a gage in the watershed and from nearby National Weather Service gages. Seepage from the lake accounted for 69% of annual water losses from the lake; the remainder was removed by evaporation, as determined by the energy budget method. Calculated annual water loss exceeded calculated annual water gain, and this imbalance was double the value of the independently measured decrease in lake volume. Seepage to the lake determined from oxygen 18 was larger (79% of annual water input) than that determined from the flow net approach and made the difference between calculated annual water gain and loss consistent with the independently measured decrease in lake volume. Although the net difference between volume of seepage to the lake and volume of seepage from the lake was 1% of average lake volume, movement of water into and out of the lake by seepage represented an annual exchange of groundwater with the lake equal to 26-27% of lake volume. Estimates of seepage to the lake from sodium, magnesium, chloride, and dissolved organic carbon did not agree with the values determined from flow net approach or oxygen 18. These results indicated the importance of using a combination of hydrogeological and chemical approaches to define volume of seepage to and from Williams Lake and identify uncertainties in chemical fluxes.

  17. Development of a Method for Measuring Carbon Balance in Chemical Sequestration of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Zhongxian; Pan, Wei-Ping; Riley, John T.

    2006-09-09

    Anthropogenic CO2 released from fossil fuel combustion is a primary greenhouse gas which contributes to “global warming.” It is estimated that stationary power generation contributes over one-third of total CO2 emissions. Reducing CO2 in the atmosphere can be accomplished either by decreasing the rate at which CO2 is emitted into the atmosphere or by increasing the rate at which it is removed from it. Extensive research has been conducted on determining a fast and inexpensive method to sequester carbon dioxide. These methods can be classified into two categories, CO2 fixation by natural sink process for CO2, or direct CO2 sequestration by artificial processes. In direct sequestration, CO2 produced from sources such as coal-fired power plants, would be captured from the exhausted gases. CO2 from a combustion exhaust gas is absorbed with an aqueous ammonia solution through scrubbing. The captured CO2 is then used to synthesize ammonium bicarbonate (ABC or NH4HCO3), an economical source of nitrogen fertilizer. In this work, we studied the carbon distribution after fertilizer is synthesized from CO2. The synthesized fertilizer in laboratory is used as a “CO2 carrier” to “transport” CO2 from the atmosphere to crops. After biological assimilation and metabolism in crops treated with ABC, a considerable amount of the carbon source is absorbed by the plants with increased biomass production. The majority of the unused carbon source percolates into the soil as carbonates, such as calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and magnesium carbonate (MgCO3). These carbonates are environmentally benign. As insoluble salts, they are found in normal rocks and can be stored safely and permanently in soil. This investigation mainly focuses on the carbon distribution after the synthesized fertilizer is applied to soil. Quantitative examination of carbon distribution in an ecosystem is a challenging task since the carbon in the soil may come from various sources. Therefore synthesized 14C

  18. Auto-digital gain balancing: a new detection scheme for high-speed chemical species tomography of minor constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many dynamic gas-phase reaction processes, there is great interest to measure the distribution of minor constituents, i.e. −3 by volume (1000 ppm). One such case is the after-treatment of automotive gasoline engine exhaust by catalytic conversion, where a characteristic challenge is to image the distribution of 10 ppm (average) of carbon monoxide (CO) at 1000 frames per second across a 50 mm diameter exhaust pipe; this particular problem has been pursued as a case study. In this paper, we present a novel electronic scheme that achieves the required measurement of around 10−3 absorption with 10−4 precision at kHz bandwidth. This was not previously achievable with any known technology. We call the new scheme Auto-Digital Gain Balancing. It is amenable to replication for many simultaneous measurement channels, and it permits simultaneous measurement of multiple species, in some circumstances. Experimental demonstrations are presented in the near-infrared. In single scans of a tunable diode laser, measurements of both CO and CO2 have been made with 20 dB signal-to-noise ratio at peak absorption. This work paves the way for chemical species tomography of minor constituents in many dynamic gas-phase systems

  19. A holistic approach combining factor analysis, positive matrix factorization, and chemical mass balance applied to receptor modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraju, N; Pushpavanam, S; Anu, N

    2013-12-01

    Rapid urbanization and population growth resulted in severe deterioration of air quality in most of the major cities in India. Therefore, it is essential to ascertain the contribution of various sources of air pollution to enable us to determine effective control policies. The present work focuses on the holistic approach of combining factor analysis (FA), positive matrix factorization (PMF), and chemical mass balance (CMB) for receptor modeling in order to identify the sources and their contributions in air quality studies. Insight from the emission inventory was used to remove subjectivity in source identification. Each approach has its own limitations. Factor analysis can identify qualitatively a minimal set of important factors which can account for the variations in the measured data. This step uses information from emission inventory to qualitatively match source profiles with factor loadings. This signifies the identification of dominant sources through factors. PMF gives source profiles and source contributions from the entire receptor data matrix. The data from FA is applied for rank reduction in PMF. Whenever multiple solutions exist, emission inventory identifies source profiles uniquely, so that they have a physical relevance. CMB identifies the source contributions obtained from FA and PMF. The novel approach proposed here overcomes the limitations of the individual methods in a synergistic way. The adopted methodology is found valid for a synthetic data and also the data of field study. PMID:23832184

  20. Chemical mass balance estimation of arsenic in atmospheric dust fall out in an urban residential area, Raipur, Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Balakrishna

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The components and quantities of atmospheric dust fallout have been reported to be the pollution indicator of large urban areas. The multiplicity and complexity of sources of atmospheric dusts in urban regions has put forward the need of source apportionment of these sources indicating their contribution to specific environmental receptor. The study presented here is focused on investigation of source contribution estimates of Arsenic in urban dust fallout in an urban-industrial area, Raipur, India. Source-receptor based representative sampling plan using longitudinal study design has been adopted. Six sampling sites have been identified on the basis of land use for development plan of anthropogenic activities and factors related to the transportation and dispersion pattern of atmospheric dusts. Source apportionment has been done using Chemical Mass Balance (CMB 8. Good fit parameters and relative source contribution has been analyzed and documented. Dominance of coal fired industries sources on arsenic levels measured at selected ambient residential receptors compared to line sources has been observed. Road-traffic has shown highest contribution of dust at indoor houses and out door-street automobile exhaust has shows highest contribution for arsenic. The results of CMB output and regression data of source-receptor dust matrices have shown comparable pattern.

  1. Long-term efficiency of lake restoration by chemical phosphorus precipitation: Scenario analysis with a phosphorus balance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupfer, Michael; Reitzel, Kasper; Kleeberg, Andreas; Lewandowski, Jörg

    2016-06-15

    An artificial increase of phosphorus (P) retention in lakes with a long residence time and/or a large mobile sediment P pool by adding P binding chemicals can drastically shorten the time these lakes require to reach water quality targets. Suitable tools to optimize timing and extent of external and internal measures are lacking. The one-box model, a mass balance tool for predicting the P trend in the water under different management options was applied to highly eutrophic Lake Arendsee (a = 5.14 km(2), zmax = 49 m), Germany. Mass developments of blue green algae and increasing hypolimnetic oxygen deficiencies are urgent reasons for restoring Lake Arendsee. Detailed studies of P cycling and scenario analyses with the one-box model led to the following conclusions: i) immediate improvement of the trophic state is only possible by in-lake P inactivation because of the long water residence time (56 years); ii) a gradual external P load reduction, even if the effect is delayed, will assure the sustainability of the scheduled Al application beyond one decade; iii) a twofold precipitation reduces the risk of failure compared to a singular application with an overdose related to the relevant internal P pools. PMID:26188421

  2. Technical note: An improved estimate of uncertainty for source contribution from effective variance Chemical Mass Balance (EV-CMB) analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guo-Liang; Zhou, Xiao-Yu; Feng, Yin-Chang; Tian, Ying-Ze; Liu, Gui-Rong; Zheng, Mei; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Yuan-Hang

    2015-01-01

    The CMB (Chemical Mass Balance) 8.2 model released by the USEPA is a commonly used receptor model that can determine estimated source contributions and their uncertainties (called default uncertainty). In this study, we propose an improved CMB uncertainty for the modeled contributions (called EV-LS uncertainty) by adding the difference between the modeled and measured values for ambient species concentrations to the default CMB uncertainty, based on the effective variance least squares (EV-LS) solution. This correction reconciles the uncertainty estimates for EV and OLS regression. To verify the formula for the EV-LS CMB uncertainty, the same ambient datasets were analyzed using the equation we developed for EV-LS CMB uncertainty and a standard statistical package, SPSS 16.0. The same results were obtained by both ways indicate that the equation for EV-LS CMB uncertainty proposed here is acceptable. In addition, four ambient datasets were studies by CMB 8.2 and the source contributions as well as the associated uncertainties were obtained accordingly.

  3. Chemically-Tailored Surfaces of Silica Gel and Alumina Examined Using Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taralp, Alpay; Buyukbayram, Gulen; Armagan, Onsel; Yalcin, Ender

    2004-01-01

    Color is used for studying the chemically-tailored surfaces of silica gel and alumina. When this technique of using color was applied by the students, they were able to grasp the principles of surface engineering and acquire an appreciation of its merits and at the same time they were able to learn the fundamentals of aldehyde chemistry,…

  4. Chemical mass balance source apportionment for combined PM 2.5 measurements from U.S. non-urban and urban long-term networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony Chen, L.-W.; Watson, John G.; Chow, Judith C.; DuBois, David W.; Herschberger, Lisa

    2010-12-01

    The Minnesota Particulate Matter 2.5 (PM 2.5) Source Apportionment Study was undertaken to explore the utility of PM 2.5 mass, element, ion, and carbon measurements from long-term speciation networks for pollution source attribution. Ambient monitoring data at eight sites across the state were retrieved from the archives of the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) and the Speciation Trends Network (STN; part of the Chemical Speciation Network [CSN]) and analyzed by an Effective Variance - Chemical Mass Balance (EV-CMB) receptor model with region-specific geological source profiles developed in this study. PM 2.5 was apportioned into contributions of fugitive soil dust, calcium-rich dust, taconite (low grade iron ore) dust, road salt, motor vehicle exhaust, biomass burning, coal-fired utility, and secondary aerosol. Secondary sulfate and nitrate contributed strongly (49-71% of PM 2.5) across all sites and was dominant (≥60%) at IMPROVE sites. Vehicle exhausts accounted for 20-70% of the primary PM 2.5 contribution, largely exceeding the proportion in the primary PM 2.5 emission inventory. The diesel exhaust contribution was separable from the gasoline engine exhaust contribution at the STN sites. Higher detection limits for several marker elements in the STN resulted in non-detectable coal-fired boiler contributions which were detected in the IMPROVE data. Despite the different measured variables, analytical methods, and detection limits, EV-CMB results from a nearby IMPROVE-STN non-urban/urban sites showed similar contributions from regional sources - including fugitive dust and secondary aerosol. Seasonal variations of source contributions were examined and extreme PM 2.5 episodes were explained by both local and regional pollution events.

  5. In-situ examination of diffusion and precipitation processes during the evolution of chemical garden systems

    OpenAIRE

    Glaab, Fabian

    2012-01-01

    “Chemical” or “silicate gardens” are a well known example for the spontaneous formation of a complex and structured system from ordinary educts. Simply by addition of soluble metal salt crystals to alkaline silica sols, dissolution of the metal salt and subsequent solidification initiate a self-organization process, which not only produces two separated compartments with drastically different chemical conditions by precipitation of a closed and tubular membrane but also produces a variety of ...

  6. Determination of PAH sources in dated sediments from Green Bay, Wisconsin, by a chemical mass balance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, M C; Christensen, E R; Karls, J F

    1998-01-01

    Six sediment cores were collected from Green Bay, Wisconsin, in order to identify possible sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by a chemical mass balance (CMB) model. The cores which were obtained in 1995 had total PAH concentrations between 8.04 and 0.460 ppm. 210Pb and 137Cs dating was used to determine historical trends of PAH inputs, and elemental carbon particle analysis was done to characterize particles from combustion of coal, wood and petroleum. The results show that coke burning, highway dust, and wood burning are likely sources of PAHs to Green Bay. The contribution of coke oven emissions (CB) for the Green Bay cores is in the range of 5 to 90%. The overall highway dust (HWY) contribution is between 5 and 70%. There is a maximum (approximately 67%) contribution of HWY around 1988 which is in agreement with the historical US petroleum consumption. The wood burning (WB) contribution is between 1 to 30%, except in core GB-A where a maximum (approximately 50%) is found around 1994. The average relative errors of measurement for x2 equal to the number of degrees of freedom, are 52.5, 56.2, 36.2, 52.3, and 42.8 (df = 3) for the Green Bay cores A, B, C, E, and F, respectively. The sums of the contribution factors are less than one, indicating gain of inert biological or other bulk material between source and receptor. The results of carbon particles for Green Bay core D show that coal, oil, and wood burning are consistent with the CMB modeling results. PMID:15093306

  7. Apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon sources in lower Fox River, USA, sediments by a chemical mass balance model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four sediment cores were collected from the lower Fox River, Wisconsin, USA, to identify possible sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using a chemical mass balance model. The cores, which were obtained in 1995 from areas close to Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA, had total PAH concentrations between 19.3 and 0.34 ppm. To determine historical trends of PAH inputs, 210Pb and 137Cs dating was used, and elemental carbon particle analysis was done to characterize particles from the combustion of coal, wood, and petroleum. Source fingerprints were taken from the literature. Their results indicate that coke oven emissions, highway dust, coal gasification, and wood burning are likely sources of PAHs in the lower Fox River. Coke oven emissions are in the range of 40 to 90% of total PAHs, and this fraction decreases from 1930 to 1990, except in core Fox River-A (FR-A). The overall highway dust (HWY) contribution is between 10 and 75%, and this fraction increases from 1930 to present, except in core FR-A. The wood burning (WB) contribution is less than 7% in cores FR-B, FR-C, and FR-D. In core FR-A, a maximum (∼23%) is found around 1960. The contribution of wood burning has changed from less than 6% in 1950 to between 3 and 10% in 1995. Evidence of aerobic biodegradation or photolysis in the sediment of phenanthrene, with a half-life of approximately 0.5 years has been found at the site of core FR-D, which is the shallowest (1.1 m) of the four core sites

  8. Source Apportionment of Elemental Carbon Across the San Francisco Bay Area Using Combined Radiocarbon and Chemical Mass Balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, S.; Fairley, D.; Sheesley, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    The San Francisco Bay Area is impacted by ambient particulate matter (PM) from a variety of sources including motor vehicles, biomass burning, off-road vehicles, industry, and meat cooking. Ambient PM, especially fine PM (diameter less than 2.5μm, PM2.5), is known to negatively impact health. Elemental Carbon (EC) is one of the major constituents of PM2.5. It not only negatively affects health but is also a powerful short-lived climate forcer. The State of California and Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD) have made efforts in regulating contribution of EC from diesel trucks and wood burning, respectively. These and other efforts have assisted in significantly reducing the annual average PM2.5 concentrations approximately 30% since 2005 and 70% since 1990. Despite these improvements, to better determine the relative contribution of contemporary vs. fossil carbon, radiocarbon source apportionment of EC was conducted on PM2.5 collected in the Bay Area. Measurements of the abundance of 14C in the EC fractions are used to quantify the relative contributions of fossil carbon (fossil fuel combustion, including motor vehicle exhaust) and contemporary carbon (biomass combustion and meat cooking). This comprehensive study included seven sites in the Bay Area and 12 months of sampling starting November 2011 through October 2012. The samples were composited to represent winter (November-February) and non-winter (March-October). In addition to radiocarbon analysis, Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) analysis using bulk PM2.5 composition and selected trace gases was used to understand the split among gasoline, natural gas, and diesel exhaust. Preliminary apportionment of the seven sites shows roughly equal contributions of fossil fuel and biomass burning/cooking for both winter and non-winter samples. There is evidence that the diesel contribution to EC, in particular, has decreased substantially over the last decade.

  9. Experience in examination of coal in chemical laboratory of Suvodol Mines - TPP Bitola (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking into consideration the many years experience with the coal laboratory testings at the mine 'Suvodol' - Macedonia, we found out that there are various ways of testing and presenting the results. The above conclusion gives the necessity of showing the results made so far in our laboratory through the chemical analysis , and approved in our production, as well as through making many other applicative documents made daily for the needs of the Thermal Power Plant 'Bitola'. The obtained results show that the homogenization process gives a good coal quality. (Author)

  10. Physical-chemical and mineralogical-petrographic examinations of diatomite from deposit near village of Rozhden, Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the characterization of the natural amorphous SiO2 found in a new deposit in Republic of Macedonia, the following examinations were performed: physical-mechanical, chemical, mineralogical, SEM, IR and thermal examinations. Physical-mechanical analyses show that it is a white to grey colored rock, of low hardness, with a low volumetric mass and high porosity. Chemical analyses show that the material dominantly contains SiO2 . Mineralogical and XRD analyses show high percentage of isotropic amorphous mass content, with minimal contents of submicroscopic cryptocrystalline mass. Thermal analyses show high thermal stability. Based on the conducted research of the raw material from the new deposit, it can be concluded that it represents SiO2 -diatomite of high quality, useful for various purposes. (Author)

  11. Growth and yield responses of crops and macronutrient balance influenced by commercial organic manure used as a partial substitute for chemical fertilizers in an intensive vegetable cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H. J.; Ye, Z. Q.; Zhang, X. L.; Lin, X. Y.; Ni, W. Z.

    A long-term field experiment was conducted with an annual rotation of tomato-radish-pakchoi to assess the effects of a commercial organic manure (COM) used as a partial substitute for chemical fertilizers on crop yield and nutrient balance in an intensive vegetable cropping system. Four treatments as chemical fertilizers (T1), chemical fertilizers + lower rate of COM (T2), chemical fertilizers + medium rate of COM (T3), and chemical fertilizers + high rate of COM (T4) were designed in the present experiment. The supplied doses of N, P, and K were equal for all treatments. Results showed that there were no significant differences in shoot biomass and market yields of tomato, radish and pakchoi among treatments ( P > 0.05). It was found that positive P and K balance existed in the tomato-radish-pakchoi cropping system of all treatments. Compared with no manure treatment (T1), application of medium rate of COM (T3) decreased N, P runoff losses, increased N, P, K contents in crop tissues except N, P in pakchoi shoot, and lessened P, K accumulation in soils, accordingly, improved the efficiency of macronutrient. It was concluded that appropriate COM used as a partial substitute for chemical fertilizers could not only meet the crops’ nutrient requirement, but also improved the efficiency of macronutrient and remained positive balance of P and K in the intensive tomato-radish-pakchoi cropping system, which can be regarded as an effective measure for a contribution towards sustainable agriculture and a control pathway for reducing the potential risk of castoff to water environment.

  12. Metallographic examination of TD-nickel base alloys. [thermal and chemical etching technique evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, R. D.; Petrovic, J. J.; Ebert, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques are evaluated for chemical, electrochemical, and thermal etching of thoria dispersed (TD) nickel alloys. An electrochemical etch is described which yielded good results only for large grain sizes of TD-nickel. Two types of thermal etches are assessed for TD-nickel: an oxidation etch and vacuum annealing of a polished specimen to produce an etch. It is shown that the first etch was somewhat dependent on sample orientation with respect to the processing direction, the second technique was not sensitive to specimen orientation or grain size, and neither method appear to alter the innate grain structure when the materials were fully annealed prior to etching. An electrochemical etch is described which was used to observe the microstructures in TD-NiCr, and a thermal-oxidation etch is shown to produce better detail of grain boundaries and to have excellent etching behavior over the entire range of grain sizes of the sample.

  13. A relationship between ion balance and the chemical compounds of salt inclusions found in the Greenland Ice Core Project and Dome Fuji ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Sigfus Johann; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Steffensen, Jørgen Peder;

    2008-01-01

    on individual salt inclusions. The abundances in the ice cores are shown to reflect differences in climatic periods (the acidic environment of the Holocene versus the reductive environment of the last glacial maximum) and regional conditions (the marine environment of Antarctica versus the continental....... The dominant compounds depend only on the ion balance and the sequence of chemical reactions. In priority order, the principle salts are calcium sulfate, other sulfates, nitrate, chloride, and carbonate. The chemical abundances deduced by this method agree well with the results of Raman spectroscopy...

  14. Quantitative bacterial examination and chemical evaluation of Diet, Club, and Ice-cream Sodas, Soft Drinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diet, club, and ice cream sodas are flavored soft drinks consumed throughout the world, especially in summer seasons. This study has been undertaken to monitor the bacterial and chemical contamination of these national and international branded drinks procured from local markets. The isolated coliforms and microbes were E. coli Salmonella spp, Klebsiella spp, Enterobacter spp, Shigella spp, and Bacillus cereus. Diet and club sodas were less contaminated with microorganisms than were ice-cream sodas. Fifteen trace and toxic elements were identified with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer following the improved ash digestion method. The values of Nickel (Ni), (0.15 mg/L), (Pb) (0.28mg/L), Cadmium (Cd) (0.13mg/L) and Aluminum (Al) (0.76 mg/L) were higher than the (WHO) recommended limits. The concentrations of (Na, Fe, Pb) and Chromium (Cr) were higher in club sodas than diet and ice-cream sodas and the concentrations of Calcium (Ca), (Mn) in ice-cream sodas were also higher than diet and club sodas. Overall, the ice-cream sodas did not conform to the (WHO) standards allowed for safe ingestion of micro- and macro-metals in various drinks. (author)

  15. Application of mass balance models and the chemical activity concept to facilitate the use of in vitro toxicity data for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, James M; Wania, Frank; Arnot, Jon A

    2014-08-19

    Practical, financial, and ethical considerations related to conducting extensive animal testing have resulted in various initiatives to promote and expand the use of in vitro testing data for chemical evaluations. Nominal concentrations in the aqueous phase corresponding to an effect (or biological activity) are commonly reported and used to characterize toxicity (or biological response). However, the true concentration in the aqueous phase can be substantially different from the nominal. To support in vitro test design and aid the interpretation of in vitro toxicity data, we developed a mass balance model that can be parametrized and applied to represent typical in vitro test systems. The model calculates the mass distribution, freely dissolved concentrations, and cell/tissue concentrations corresponding to the initial nominal concentration and experimental conditions specified by the user. Chemical activity, a metric which can be used to assess the potential for baseline toxicity to occur, is also calculated. The model is first applied to a set of hypothetical chemicals to illustrate the degree to which test conditions (e.g., presence or absence of serum) influence the distribution of the chemical in the test system. The model is then applied to set of 1194 real substances (predominantly from the ToxCast chemical database) to calculate the potential range of concentrations and chemical activities under assumed test conditions. The model demonstrates how both concentrations and chemical activities can vary by orders of magnitude for the same nominal concentration. PMID:25014875

  16. Radiation chemical and biological examinations on sensitizers: mitomycin C, folic acid, procarbazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiochemical and radiobiological examinations of the sensitizers Mitomycin C (MMC), Folic acid (FA) and Procarbazine (PC) were performed. In the radiochemical part, absorption spectroscopy and HPLC analysis were used to follow the radiolysis of MMC, FA and PC in aqueous solutions, in presence of air, Argon and N2O. The G initial value for the substrate decomposition was found. Possible reaction mechanisms for the reaction: sensitizers with OH- radicals and solvated electrons are given. Pulse radiolysis investigations to study the kinetic of OH- attack on FA yielded K (OH + FA)=1,3.1010 dm3 mol-1 S-1. For the radical disappearance, a reaction mechanism 2nd order with 2k=3,1.108 dm3 mol-1 S-1 (short-lived radical) and 2k=6,5.107 dm3 mol-1 S-1 (long-lived radical) was found. Pulse radiolysis investigations to study the kinetic of the OH- attack on PC yielded values for the velocity constant of the radical formation as well as one short-lived and one long-lived radical disappearance. Quantum chemistry calculations through VAMP6.1 (computer program) produced electron densities from PC, enthalpy formation and total energies of possible radicals resulted from the OH attack. In the radiobiological part, the bacteria EcAB1157 was used. Toxicity tests in air and Argon, depending on pH , sensitizers concentrations and exposition time were performed. The determination of the surviving curves in presence of air, Ar and N2O with different concentrations, dose rates and two pH values (6,2 and 7,4) with MMC, FA and PC allowed to prove their efficiency and action as sensitizers. (nevyjel)

  17. Introduction of a Population Balance Based Design Problem in a Particle Science and Technology Course for Chemical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrman, Sheryl H.; Castellanos, Patricia; Dwivedi, Vivek; Diemer, R. Bertrum

    2007-01-01

    A particle technology design problem incorporating population balance modeling was developed and assigned to senior and first-year graduate students in a Particle Science and Technology course. The problem focused on particle collection, with a pipeline agglomerator, Cyclone, and baghouse comprising the collection system. The problem was developed…

  18. Estimation of Apple Intake for the Exposure Assessment of Residual Chemicals Using Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop strategies and algorithms of calculating food commodity intake suitable for exposure assessment of residual chemicals by using the food intake database of Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). In this study, apples and their processed food products were chosen as a model food for accurate calculation of food commodity intakes uthrough the recently developed Korea food commodity intake calculation (KFCIC) software. The average daily intakes of total apples in Korea Health Statistics were 29.60 g in 2008, 32.40 g in 2009, 34.30 g in 2010, 28.10 g in 2011, and 24.60 g in 2012. The average daily intakes of apples by KFCIC software was 2.65 g higher than that by Korea Health Statistics. The food intake data in Korea Health Statistics might have less reflected the intake of apples from mixed and processed foods than KFCIC software has. These results can affect outcome of risk assessment for residual chemicals in foods. Therefore, the accurate estimation of the average daily intake of food commodities is very important, and more data for food intakes and recipes have to be applied to improve the quality of data. Nevertheless, this study can contribute to the predictive estimation of exposure to possible residual chemicals and subsequent analysis for their potential risks. PMID:27152299

  19. Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeh, N.

    1984-01-01

    Mass balance equation for glaciers; areal distribution and ice volumes; estimates of actual mass balance; loss by calving of icebergs; hydrological budget for Greenland; and temporal variations of Greenland mass balance are examined.

  20. Bath Breakfast Project (BBP - Examining the role of extended daily fasting in human energy balance and associated health outcomes: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN31521726

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeans Matthew

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current guidance regarding the role of daily breakfast in human health is largely grounded in cross-sectional observations. However, the causal nature of these relationships has not been fully explored and what limited information is emerging from controlled laboratory-based experiments appears inconsistent with much existing data. Further progress in our understanding therefore requires a direct examination of how daily breakfast impacts human health under free-living conditions. Methods/Design The Bath Breakfast Project (BBP is a randomised controlled trial comparing the effects of daily breakfast consumption relative to extended fasting on energy balance and human health. Approximately 70 men and women will undergo extensive laboratory-based assessments of their acute metabolic responses under fasted and post-prandial conditions, to include: resting metabolic rate, substrate oxidation, dietary-induced thermogenesis and systemic concentrations of key metabolites/hormones. Physiological and psychological indices of appetite will also be monitored both over the first few hours of the day (i.e. whether fed or fasted and also following a standardised test lunch used to assess voluntary energy intake under controlled conditions. Baseline measurements of participants' anthropometric characteristics (e.g. DEXA will be recorded prior to intervention, along with an oral glucose tolerance test and acquisition of adipose tissue samples to determine expression of key genes and estimates of tissue-specific insulin action. Participants will then be randomly assigned either to a group prescribed an energy intake of ≥3000 kJ before 1100 each day or a group to extend their overnight fast by abstaining from ingestion of energy-providing nutrients until 1200 each day, with all laboratory-based measurements followed-up 6 weeks later. Free-living assessments of energy intake (via direct weighed food diaries and energy expenditure (via

  1. Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance of a 10-Item Decisional Balance Scale: Longitudinal and Subgroup Examination within an Adult Diabetic Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Michael A.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the longitudinal and subgroup measurement properties of a 10-item, physical activity decisional balance scale, previously published by Plotnikoff, Blanchard, Hotz, and Rhodes (2001), within a diabetic sample of Canadian adults. Results indicated that a three-factor measurement model consistently improved model fit compared to…

  2. Bioaccumulation Potential Of Air Contaminants: Combining Biological Allometry, Chemical Equilibrium And Mass-Balances To Predict Accumulation Of Air Pollutants In Various Mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veltman, Karin; McKone, Thomas E.; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; Hendriks, A. Jan

    2009-03-01

    In the present study we develop and test a uniform model intended for single compartment analysis in the context of human and environmental risk assessment of airborne contaminants. The new aspects of the model are the integration of biological allometry with fugacity-based mass-balance theory to describe exchange of contaminants with air. The developed model is applicable to various mammalian species and a range of chemicals, while requiring few and typically well-known input parameters, such as the adult mass and composition of the species, and the octanol-water and air-water partition coefficient of the chemical. Accumulation of organic chemicals is typically considered to be a function of the chemical affinity forlipid components in tissues. Here, we use a generic description of chemical affinity for neutral and polar lipids and proteins to estimate blood-air partition coefficients (Kba) and tissue-air partition coefficients (Kta) for various mammals. This provides a more accurate prediction of blood-air partition coefficients, as proteins make up a large fraction of total blood components. The results show that 75percent of the modeled inhalation and exhalation rate constants are within a factor of 2 from independent empirical values for humans, rats and mice, and 87percent of the predicted blood-air partition coefficients are within a factor of 5 from empirical data. At steady-state, the bioaccumulation potential of air pollutants is shown to be mainly a function of the tissue-air partition coefficient and the biotransformation capacity of the species and depends weakly on the ventilation rate and the cardiac output of mammals.

  3. Examining the effect of binge eating and disinhibition on compensatory changes in energy balance following exercise among overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Rebecca L; Levine, Michele D; Jakicic, John M

    2016-08-01

    Some women behaviorally compensate for the energy expended during exercise by increasing their energy intake or becoming more sedentary, thereby decreasing their energy expenditure. Although behavioral compensation can attenuate or even reverse the energy deficit generated by exercise, few data are available on predictors of compensatory responses to exercise. The present study aimed to identify eating-related predictors of compensatory changes in energy balance following exercise. Overweight and obese, physically inactive women (N=48) completed self-report measures of disinhibition and binge eating and participated in two experimental conditions, exercise and rest, in counterbalanced order. Energy intake and expenditure were measured for 24-hours following each experimental condition to estimate energy balance. On average, women were 21.33±2.09years old and 63% were white. Of the sample, 63% compensated for the energy expended during exercise by increasing their energy intake or decreasing their energy expenditure. Linear mixed effects modeling with repeated measurement showed that disinhibition was not predictive of behavioral compensation. However, there was a significant difference between the negative energy balance observed following the rest condition and the positive energy balance observed following the exercise condition among women who reported binge eating, which was driven by a tendency to spend less time being physically active and more time being sedentary following exercise. These findings indicate that women who binge eat may be at greatest risk of compensating for exercise. Future research is needed to better understand psychosocial predictors and common mechanisms through which behavioral compensation is promoted. PMID:27064752

  4. Nutrients and Chemical Pollutants in Fish and Shellfish. Balancing Health Benefits and Risks of Regular Fish Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, José L

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns and lifestyle factors are clearly associated with at least five of the ten leading causes of death, including coronary heart disease, certain types of cancer, stroke, non-insulin insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and atherosclerosis. Concerning specifically fish and seafood consumption, its beneficial health effects in humans are clearly supported by an important number of studies performed in the last 30 years. These studies have repeatedly linked fish consumption, especially those species whose contents in omega-3 fatty acids are high, with healthier hearts in the aging population. The nutritional benefits of fish and seafood are also due to the content of high-quality protein, vitamins, as well as other essential nutrients. However, a number of studies, particularly investigations performed in recent years, have shown that the unavoidable presence of environmental contaminants in fish and shellfish can also mean a certain risk for the health of some consumers. While prestigious international associations as the American Heart Association have recommended eating fish at least two times (two servings a week), based on our own experimental results, as well as in results from other laboratories, we cannot be in total agreement with that recommendation. Although a regular consumption of most fish and shellfish species should not mean adverse health effects for the consumers, the specific fish and shellfish species consumed, the frequency of consumption, as well as the meal size, are essential issues for adequately balancing the health benefits and risks of regular fish consumption. PMID:25486051

  5. The chemical evolution of Kurnub Group palcowater in the Sinai-Negev province - A mass balance approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, E.; Jones, B.F.; Weinberger, G.

    1998-01-01

    The chemical evolution of the Kurnub Group paleowater was studied starting from rainwater in recharge areas of the Sinai and along groundwater flowpaths leading to the natural outlets of this regional aquifer. This was achieved by investigating the chemical composition of groundwater, ionic ratios, degrees of saturation with common mineral species, normative analysis of dissolved salts and by modeling of rock/water interaction and mixing processes occurring along groundwater flow paths. The initial groundwater composition used is from the Nakhel well in Sinai. It evolves from desert rainwater percolating through typical Kurnub Group lithology in Sinai. This rainwater dissolves mainly gypsum, halite and dolomite together with smaller amounts of marine aerosol and K-feldspar. At the same time it precipitates calcite, SiO2, smectite and degasses CO2. Between the area of Nakhel and the northern Negev the chemistry of Kurnub Group waters is influenced by dissolution of halite and lesser amounts of gypsum of surficial origin in recharge areas, small amounts of feldspars and of dolomite cement in sandstones eroded from the Arabo-Nubian igneous massif of Sinai and organic degradation-derived CO2. Concomitantly, there is precipitation of calcite, smectite, SiO2 and probably analcime characteristic of sediments in continental closed basins. North of the Negev, the Kurnub Group fluids are diluted and altered by mixing with Judea Group aquifer groundwaters. On the E there is mixing with residual brines from the water body ancestral to the Dead Sea, prior to discharge into the Arava valley. Rock/water interaction indicated by NETPATH and PHREEQC modeling is in agreement with lithology and facies changes previously observed in the Kurnub Group sequence.

  6. The chemical evolution of Kurnub Group paleowater in the Sinai-Negev province-a mass balance approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical evolution of the Kurnub Group paleowater was studied starting from rainwater in recharge areas of the Sinai and along groundwater flowpaths leading to the natural outlets of this regional aquifer. This was achieved by investigating the chemical composition of groundwater, ionic ratios, degrees of saturation with common mineral species, normative analysis of dissolved salts and by modeling of rock/water interaction and mixing processes occurring along groundwater flow paths. The initial groundwater composition used is from the Nakhel well in Sinai. It evolves from desert rainwater percolating through typical Kurnub Group lithology in Sinai. This rainwater dissolves mainly gypsum, halite and dolomite together with smaller amounts of marine aerosol and K-feldspar. At the same time it precipitates calcite, SiO2, smectite and degasses CO2. Between the area of Nakhel and the northern Negev the chemistry of Kurnub Group waters is influenced by dissolution of halite and lesser amounts of gypsum of surficial origin in recharge areas, small amounts of feldspars and of dolomite cement in sandstones eroded from the Arabo-Nubian igneous massif of Sinai and organic degradation-derived CO2. Concomitantly, there is precipitation of calcite, smectite, SiO2 and probably analcime characteristic of sediments in continental closed basins. North of the Negev, the Kurnub Group fluids are diluted and altered by mixing with Judea Group aquifer groundwaters. On the E there is mixing with residual brines from the water body ancestral to the Dead Sea, prior to discharge into the Arava valley. Rock/water interaction indicated by NETPATH and PHREEQC modeling is in agreement with lithology and facies changes previously observed in the Kurnub Group sequence. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  7. Chemical inhibition of autophagy: Examining its potential to increase the specific productivity of recombinant CHO cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Eric; Kim, Che Lin; Kim, Mi Gyeom; Lee, Jae Seong; Lee, Gyun Min

    2016-09-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells activate and undergo apoptosis and autophagy for various environmental stresses. Unlike apoptosis, studies on increasing the production of therapeutic proteins in CHO cells by targeting the autophagy pathway are limited. In order to identify the effects of chemical autophagy inhibitors on the specific productivity (qp ), nine chemical inhibitors that had been reported to target three different phases of autophagy (metformin, dorsomorphin, resveratrol, and SP600125 against initiation and nucleation; 3-MA, wortmannin, and LY294002 against elongation, and chloroquine and bafilomycin A1 against autophagosome fusion) were used to treat three recombinant CHO (rCHO) cell lines: the Fc-fusion protein-producing DG44 (DG44-Fc) and DUKX-B11 (DUKX-Fc) and antibody-producing DG44 (DG44-Ab) cell lines. Among the nine chemical inhibitors tested, 3-MA, dorsomorphin, and SP600125 significantly increased the qp of DG44-Fc and DUKX-Fc. In contrast, for DG44-Ab, only 3-MA significantly increased the qp . The autophagy-inhibiting activity of the nine chemical inhibitors on the rCHO cell lines was evaluated through Western blot analysis and flow cytometry. Unexpectedly, some chemical inhibitors did not exhibit any apparent inhibition activity on autophagy. The chemical inhibitors that enhanced the qp , 3-MA, dorsomorphin, and SP600125, exhibited instead an increased autophagic flux. Taken all together, the chemical inhibition of autophagy was not effective in increasing the qp in rCHO cell lines and the positive effect of 3-MA, dorsomorphin, and SP600125 on the qp was not due to the inhibition of autophagy. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1953-1961. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26914152

  8. Performance measurement systems : an examination of the influence of the contextual factors and their impact on performance with a specific emphasis on the balanced scorecard approach

    OpenAIRE

    Zuriekat, Majdy Issa Khalil

    2005-01-01

    In an attempt to understand the performance measurement systems, this study utilises the contingency theory theoretical framework to examine the contingent relationships between several contextual factors and the usage of financial and non-financial performance measures for performance measurements and evaluation purposes. The contextual factors consist of business strategy, organisational structure, perceived environmental uncertainty, intensity of competition, organisation si...

  9. Analysis and Thinking about Chemical History Items in College Entrance Examination%对高考中化学史试题的分析与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单旭峰

    2015-01-01

    化学史教育对学生培养知识能力、启迪科学思维以及提升科学素养等方面具有非常重要的促进作用。归纳往年的高考中涉及化学史的考查形式,总结优缺点,有利于推动中学化学史教育和评价。%The education of chemical history can play a very important role to cultivate knowledge and ability, illuminate scientific thinking and boost scientific literacy. It can promote the evaluation and education of chemical history to summarize the forms of test and conclude the advantages and shortcomings about chemical history in chemical papers of college entrance examination.

  10. Bath Breakfast Project (BBP) - Examining the role of extended daily fasting in human energy balance and associated health outcomes: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN31521726

    OpenAIRE

    Jeans Matthew; Chowdhury Enhad A; Richardson Judith D; Thompson Dylan; Betts James A; Holman Geoffrey D; Tsintzas Kostas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Current guidance regarding the role of daily breakfast in human health is largely grounded in cross-sectional observations. However, the causal nature of these relationships has not been fully explored and what limited information is emerging from controlled laboratory-based experiments appears inconsistent with much existing data. Further progress in our understanding therefore requires a direct examination of how daily breakfast impacts human health under free-living con...

  11. Source apportionment of air pollution in China: Extending the usefulness of receptor modeling by combining multivariate and chemical mass balance models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research explores the possibility of using a two step method of identifying and quantifying air pollution emissions in an urban environment. The procedures uses a mathematical model called Target Transformation Factor Analysis (TTFA) to estimate source profiles using ambient trace element air concentration data. A source profile is analogous to a fingerprint since it is unique to each source of air pollution. The profiles estimated by TTFA are then employed in a Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) source apportionment analysis for the air shed. Other known sources are estimated using source signatures from the literature. Applying the TTFA and CMB models in this fashion is called receptor modeling. Generically, a receptor model is the combination of measured air pollution concentration data with a numerical technique which apportions the measured air pollution among distinct source types. The results show that TTFA can be used to provide quantitative estimates of air pollution source profiles for an urban center in China. The number of profiles for unique source types was limited for the data set since emissions from certain types of sources co-varied during each sampling day. Consequently, the CMB analyses that applied the TTFA source profiles needed to be supplemented with standard U.S. EPA source profiles

  12. Source Apportionment of Ambient PM10 in the Urban Area of Longyan City, China: a Comparative Study Based on Chemical Mass Balance Model and Factor Analysis Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Li-min; LIU Miao; WANG Ju; ZHANG Sheng-nan; FANG Chun-sheng

    2012-01-01

    In order to identify the day and night pollution sources of PM10 in ambient air in Longyan City,the authors analyzed the elemental composition of respirable particulate matters in the day and night ambient air samples and various pollution sources which were collected in January 2010 in Longyan with inductivity coupled plasma-mass spectrometry(ICP-MS).Then chemical mass balance(CMB)model and factor analysis(FA)method were applied to comparatively study the inorganic components in the sources and receptor samples.The results of factor analysis show that the major sources were road dust,waste incineration and mixed sources which contained automobile exhaust,soil dust/secondary dust and coal dust during the daytime in Longyan City,China.There are two major sources of pollution which are soil dust and mixture sources of automobile exhaust and secondary dust during the night in Longyan.The results of CMB show that the major sources are secondary dust,automobile exhaust and road dust during the daytime in Longyan.The major sources are secondary dust,soil dust and automobile exhaust during the night in Longyan.The results of the two methods are similar to each other and the results will guide us to plan to control the PM10 pollution sources in Longyan.

  13. Chemical mass balance modeling for air quality analysis near a waste-to-energy facility in a complex urban area: Program design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design and implementation of an ambient monitoring and receptor modeling study to evaluate air quality impacts from a state-of-the-art municipal waste management facility in a major urban area. The Robbins Resource Recovery Facility (RRRF), located in the Chicago metropolitan area, processes municipal solid waste (MSW) to recover recyclables, process the residual waste to create refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and burns the RDF to reduce the residual waste volume and recover energy. The RRRF is cooperating with the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) and the Illinois Office of the Attorney General (OAG) to analyze air quality and facility impacts in the plant vicinity. An ambient monitoring program began one year before plant operation and will continue for five years after startup. Because the impacts of the RRRF are projected to be very low, and because the Chicago area includes a complex mix of existing industrial, commercial, and residential activity, the ambient data will be analyzed using Version 7.0 of the USEPA s Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model to estimate the extent of the RRRF's impact on air quality in the area. The first year of pre-operational ambient data is currently under analysis. This paper describes the study design considerations, ambient monitoring program, emission data acquisition, background source data needs, and data analysis procedures developed to conduct CMB modeling in a complex industrialized area

  14. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  15. Balancing the daylighting and energy performance of solar screens in residential desert buildings: Examination of screen axial rotation and opening aspect ratio

    KAUST Repository

    Sabry, Hanan

    2014-05-01

    Solar screens are typically used to control solar access into building spaces. They proved their usefulness in improving the daylighting and energy performance of buildings in the hot arid desert environments which are endowed with abundance of clear skies.The daylighting and energy performance of solar screens is affected by many parameters. These include screen perforation, depth, reflectivity and color, aspect ratio of openings, shape, tilt angle and rotation. Changing some of these parameters can improve the daylighting performance drastically. However, this can result in increased energy consumption. A balanced solution must be sought, where acceptable daylighting performance would be achieved at minimum energy consumption.This paper aims at defining solar screen designs that achieve visual comfort and at the same time minimum energy consumption in residential desert settings. The study focused on the effect of changing the solar screen axial rotation and the aspect ratio of its openings under the desert clear-sky. The individual and combined effects of changing these parameters were studied.Results of this study demonstrated that a non-rotated solar screen that has wide horizontal openings (aspect ratio of 18:1) proved to be successful in the north and south orientations. Its performance in the east/west orientations was also superior. In contrast, the screen that was rotated along its vertical axis while having small size openings (aspect ratio of 1:1) proved to be more successful in the east/west orientations. Its performance in the north orientation was also good. These solutions enhanced daylighting performance, while maintaining the energy consumption at a minimum.Moreover, it was observed that combining two screen parameters which proved useful in previous studies on daylighting or thermal performance does not add up to better solutions. The combined solutions that were tested in this study did not prove successful in satisfying daylighting and thermal

  16. Balanced Scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    Ahonen, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    Tasapainotetun tuloskortin eli Balanced Scorecardin avulla organisaatiolla on mahdollisuus saada toiminnasta perinteisiä taloudellisia raportteja parempi kuva. Balanced Scorecard huomioi taloudellisten tunnuslukujen lisäksi myös asiakkaiden, sisäisten prosessien sekä oppimisen ja kasvun näkökulman. Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli suunnitella suoritusmittaristo pk-yritykselle. Tutkimuksella haettiin Balance Scorecardin kautta vahvistusta ja tukea kohdeyrityksen sisäiseen laskentaan ja ...

  17. Examination of chemical and physical effects on sump screen clogging of containment materials used in Korean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Chemical and physical effect on sump screen clogging mechanism was investigated. • Firstly, sump screen was sparsely covered with needle-shaped silicon fiber debris. • It was finally clogged by filling the gap between fibers with metal hydroxide precipitate. - Abstract: In this study, we have investigated the chemical and physical effects on the mechanism of sump screen clogging of containment materials that are used in most Korean nuclear power plants, such as N-102, N-108 as coating materials, NUKON as insulating materials, and CLP and SSLP as pipe materials. The experimental conditions for dissolution were pH = 8.0 at 88 °C, and those for precipitation were pH = 8.5 at 60 °C. The concentration of both dissolved and precipitated species were evaluated by using an ICP-AES and a particle size analyzer, respectively. From the obtained dissolution/precipitation data, we derived a unique two-step mechanism for the sump screen clogging process. In the first step, the screen was sparsely covered with needle-shaped silicon fiber debris that formed from the insulating materials; in the second step, it was finally clogged with a few micrometer-sized metal hydroxide precipitate particles (predominantly calcium hydroxide) that were generated from the dissolved metal ions. Hence, it can be concluded that the silicon fibers deployed for the insulating materials should be replaced with alternative materials that generate no needle-shaped debris after breakage, and the gypsum component in the coating should be reduced as much as possible

  18. Balanced skills among nascent entrepreneurs

    OpenAIRE

    Stuetzer, Michael; Obschonka, Martin; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effects and origins of balanced skills among nascent entrepreneurs. In a first step we apply Lazear’s jack-of-all-trades theory to investigate performance effects of a balanced skill set. Second, we investigate potential sources of balanced skills, thereby testing the investment hypothesis against the endowment hypothesis. Analyzing data on high-potential nascent projects, we find support for the notion that balanced skills are important for making progress in the vent...

  19. ESCA [electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis] examination of metal oxides and electronic ceramic materials: The effect of a low-energy argon-ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electronic ceramic materials are increasingly of interest to chemists because there is a growing interest in preparing high purity ceramics by chemical means and because the properties of the ceramics often depend on the chemical state of the elements in the ceramic. The chemical species, e.g. the oxidation state, of a metal in a ceramic can be identified by the analytical technique known as ESCA (electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis). In this work, the application of ESCA to ceramic materials begins with studies of metal oxide powders and examines the effect of a low energy argon ion beam. Two problems that occur with oxide powders and ceramics are surface charging and the formation of carbonates on the surface. Surface charging is generally compensated for by referencing to the carbon contaminant or by flooding the surface with electrons. Referencing to the contaminant peak meets with limited success when compared to the literature. Flooding the surface of oxide powders and ceramics causes peak distortion. Surface carbonates are identified in the carbon region by their separation of -4.5 eV from the contaminant carbon. To examine the effect of a low energy ion beam on metal oxide powders and ceramic powders, both the X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and X-ray induced Auger electron spectra (XAES) of SC2O3, V2O5, Cu2 O, ZnO and SnO2 are examined before and after ion beam exposure. Limited reduction of the metal is noted in the XPS spectra of V2O5. XAES indicates the Sc2O3, Cu2O and SnO2 are also reduced. XAES is especially useful for determining that reduction by the ion beam has occurred. A comparison of ion beam exposed oxide powders and heavily oxidized metal foils (Ti, Zr and Nb) shows that while the powders undergo limited reduction, the oxidized foils are reduced much more significantly with the same sputtering parameters

  20. Development of multi components and multi phase numerical method with chemical reaction. Examination of multi phase numerical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the steam generator using liquid sodium, Water intensely reacts with sodium when it leaked out from a heat tube. It is important to evaluate an influence of the sodium-water reaction to, such as, heat tubes surrounding a leakage and the generator. In the past, evaluations of this phenomenon have been carried out by experiments. However it is difficult to extrapolate an effect by configuration of a heat tube or change of operating condition, etc. and experiments using sodium need incredible cost. Then quantification by a numerical method is desirable. To develop a multi component and multi phase numerical method with chemical reaction, fundamental models of a multi phase numerical method are selected with organizing previous works in this paper, as follows. Fluid model : multi fluid model, Pressure model : one pressure model, Solving method : HSMAC (Highly Simplified Maker And Cell) method. Two-dimensional two-phase flow analysis technique is developed to evaluate a validity of these models. And verification analyses are carried out shown in the following. Two-dimensional square cavity flow. Two-dimensional natural convection in a square cavity. Air blow down from a pressure vessel. Dam break-down problem. Edwards pipe blow down problem. In each verification analysis, good agreements are obtained and the validity of the models to a multi phase numerical method is confirmed. (author)

  1. Estimating ground-water exchange with lakes using water-budget and chemical mass-balance approaches for ten lakes in ridge areas of Polk and Highlands counties, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, L.A.; Swancar, Amy; Lee, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    Water budget and chemical mass-balance approaches were used to estimate ground-water exchange with 10 lakes in ridge areas of Polk and Highlands Counties, Florida. At each lake, heads were monitored in the surficial aquifer system and deeper Upper Floridan aquifer, lake stage and rainfall were measured continuously, and lakes and wells were sampled three times between October 1995 and December 1996. The water-budget approach computes net ground-water flow (ground-water inflow minus outflow) as the residual of the monthly waterbudget equation. Net ground-water flow varied seasonally at each of the 10 lakes, and was notably different between lakes, illustrating short-term differences in ground-water fluxes. Monthly patterns in net ground-water flow were related to monthly patterns of other hydrologic variables such as rainfall, ground-water flow patterns, and head differences between the lake and the Upper Floridan aquifer. The chemical mass-balance approach combines the water budget and solute or isotope mass-balance equations, and assumes steady-state conditions. Naturally occurring tracers that were analyzed for include calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and bromide, the isotopes deuterium and oxygen-18. Chloride and sodium were the most successful solute tracers; however, their concentrations in ground water typically varied spatially, and in places were similar to that in lake water, limiting their sensitivity as tracers. In contrast, the isotopes were more robust tracers because the isotopic composition of ground water was relatively uniform and was distinctly different from the lake water. Groundwater inflow computed using the chemical massbalance method varied significantly between lakes, and ranged from less than 10 to more than 150 inches per year. Both water-budget and chemical mass-balance approaches had limitations, but the multiple lines of evidence gained using both approaches improved the understanding of the role of ground water in the

  2. Regulation of Energy Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, George A.

    1985-01-01

    Explains relationships between energy intake and expenditure focusing on the cellular, chemical and neural mechanisms involved in regulation of energy balance. Information is referenced specifically to conditions of obesity. (Physicians may earn continuing education credit by completing an appended test). (ML)

  3. Examination of zinc oxide, copper chromium oxide, and copper scandium oxide properties for use in transparent electronics and chemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadik, Patrick

    Greater progress in the field of TCO (transparent oxide semiconductor) research has been hampered by a lack of availability of p-type candidates. Though the n-type TCO's are well documented and easily produced only one well documented oxide has spurred continued efforts at producing robust, p-type behavior, namely ZnO. Though p-ZnO has been produced, a coterminous research effort into improving the film qualities of lesser known naturally p-type TCO's could prove fruitful. Thus, this research has examined the thin film properties of two delafossites, CuCr1-xMgxO 2 and CuSc1-xMgxO2 as well as the surface properties of ZnO. The delafossites, CuCr1-xMgxO2 and CuSc 1-xMgxO2 have been shown to have the superlative properties of high conductivities (220 S cm-1 and 70 S cm-1) and high transparencies in 400 nm thick films of ˜40% and ˜80% throughout the visible spectrum. We have also been the first to describe a near band edge photo-luminescence in CuSc1-x MgxO2 for 0.00spinel interface. We have found that a strategy of using a CuCr1-xMgxO 2/CuSc1-xMgxO2/ZnO on c-Al2O 3 in two ways may allow the growth of either a buffer/p/n or a p/i/n structure. Specifically, growing CuCrO2 at 700°C as a 100 nm nucleation layer followed by a 750°C growth of CuSc1-xMg xO2 and a 400°C growth of ZnO secures an epitaxial growth for the entire structure despite large lattice mismatches between c-Al2O3/CuCrO2 (8.7%) and CuCrO 2/CuScO2 (7.7%). This combined research takes the first steps in making robust pn-heterojunctions possible. Also, in an effort to progress an understanding of the surface chemistry of ZnO we provide results showing marked difference in the chemisorptions of dodecane thiol upon Zn- and O-terminated faces of ZnO.

  4. Balance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    TherEx Inc.'s AT-1 Computerized Ataxiameter precisely evaluates posture and balance disturbances that commonly accompany neurological and musculoskeletal disorders. Complete system includes two-strain gauged footplates, signal conditioning circuitry, a computer monitor, printer and a stand-alone tiltable balance platform. AT-1 serves as assessment tool, treatment monitor, and rehabilitation training device. It allows clinician to document quantitatively the outcome of treatment and analyze data over time to develop outcome standards for several classifications of patients. It can evaluate specifically the effects of surgery, drug treatment, physical therapy or prosthetic devices.

  5. A Methodological Approach to Assessing the Health Impact of Environmental Chemical Mixtures: PCBs and Hypertension in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul White

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe an approach to examine the association between exposure to chemical mixtures and a health outcome, using as our case study polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and hypertension. The association between serum PCB and hypertension among participants in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was examined. First, unconditional multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and associated 95% confidence intervals. Next, correlation and multicollinearity among PCB congeners was evaluated, and clustering analyses performed to determine groups of related congeners. Finally, a weighted sum was constructed to represent the relative importance of each congener in relation to hypertension risk. PCB serum concentrations varied by demographic characteristics, and were on average higher among those with hypertension. Logistic regression results showed mixed findings by congener and class. Further analyses identified groupings of correlated PCBs. Using a weighted sum approach to equalize different ranges and potencies, PCBs 66, 101, 118, 128 and 187 were significantly associated with increased risk of hypertension. Epidemiologic data were used to demonstrate an approach to evaluating the association between a complex environmental exposure and health outcome. The complexity of analyzing a large number of related exposures, where each may have different potency and range, are addressed in the context of the association between hypertension risk and exposure to PCBs.

  6. Energy balance invariance for interacting particle systems

    OpenAIRE

    Yavari, Arash; Marsden, Jerrold E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the principle of invariance of balance of energy and its consequences for a system of interacting particles under groups of transformations. Balance of energy and its invariance is first examined in Euclidean space. Unlike the case of continuous media, it is shown that conservation and balance laws do not follow from the assumption of invariance of balance of energy under time-dependent isometries of the ambient space. However, the postulate of invariance of balance of ener...

  7. Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the Public / Hearing and Balance Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation Audiologic (hearing), balance, and medical diagnostic tests help indicate whether you are a candidate for vestibular (balance) rehabilitation. Vestibular rehabilitation is an individualized balance ...

  8. Effects of Climate on Long-term Rates of Physical Erosion and Chemical Weathering: Evidence from Cosmogenic Nuclides and Geochemical Mass Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, J. W.; Riebe, C. S.; Ferrier, K. L.; Finkel, R. C.

    2004-12-01

    Cosmogenic nuclides such as 10Be and 26Al have recently become important tools for measuring long-term denudation rates. We have recently shown how cosmogenic nuclide measurements of denudation fluxes can be partitioned into their physical and chemical components, using the enrichment of insoluble tracers in regolith relative to its parent rock. We used these methods to measure long-term rates of physical erosion and chemical weathering for 42 sites, encompassing widely varying climates and denudation rates. Across these sites, mean annual temperatures vary from 2 to 25 ° C, average annual precipitation spans a 20-fold range (from 22 to 420 cm/yr), and denudation rates vary by 32-fold (from 23 to 755 t km-2 yr-2). Our measurements show that chemical weathering rates are tightly coupled with physical erosion rates, such that the relationship between climate and chemical weathering rates may be obscured by site-to-site differences in the rate that minerals are supplied to soil by physical erosion of rock. The relative importance of chemical weathering can be quantified using the "Weathering Intensity Factor" (WIF), the ratio of the chemical weathering rate to the physical erosion rate. Over 60 percent of the variance in WIF's can be explained by a simple Arrhenius-like relationship based on mean annual temperature and average annual precipitation. The temperature-dependence of WIF is roughly half of what one would expect from laboratory measurements of activation energies for feldspar weathering and previous inter-comparisons of short-term average weathering rates from the field. Our results imply that the strength of climate change feedbacks between temperature and silicate weathering rates may be weaker than previously thought, at least in actively eroding, unglaciated granitic terrain similar to our study sites.

  9. Balancing Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Lene; Rossen, Camilla Blach; Buus, Niels

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how eight pregnant women diagnosed with depression managed the decision whether or not to take antidepressants during pregnancy. In total, 11 interviews were conducted and analysed by means of constructivist grounded theory. The major category constructed was Balancing risk......, with two minor categories: Assessing depression and antidepressants and Evaluating the impact of significant others. The participants tried to make the safest decision, taking all aspects of their life into consideration. They described successful decision-making in the context of managing social norms...

  10. Social Balance Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Hokky Situngkir; Deni Khanafiah

    2004-01-01

    We construct a model based on social balance theory proposed by Fritz Heider to analyze the interpersonal network among social agents. The model of social balance theory provides us an interesting tool to see how a social group evolves to the possible balance state. We introduce the balance index that can be used to measure social balance in macro structure level (global balance index) or in micro structure (local balance index) to see how the local balance index influences the global balance...

  11. A detailed examination of the chemical, hydrological, and geological properties influencing the mobility of 222radon and parent radionuclides in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines hydrological, geological and geochemical controls on 222Rn variability in groundwater in the Front Range of Colorado. Specific objectives of the study are: (1) to determine if there are any correlations or spatial relationships between 222Rn and the geological, geochemical and hydrogeological data; and (2) to determine whether it is geochemically reasonable for observed 222Rn levels to be the result of U and 226Ra accumulation by fracture filling minerals. Domestic-water wells were sampled and tested to determine the local aquifer characteristics and aqueous geochemistry. A multivariate and staged approach was used in the data analyses. Analysis of variance tests were used to test for relationships between 222Rn and the lithology of the study wells. The effects of rock-type were then removed from the chemical and hydrological variables by subtracting the mean value for each rock-type from each of the measured values within that rock-type (a residual transformation). Linear and linear multiple regression techniques were used to test for expected relationships between residual 222Rn levels and these variables, and stepwise linear regressions were used to test for any unforeseen multivariate relationships in the data. Correlograms, distance-weighted average and inverse-distance-weighted average predictions were used to look for spatial relationships in the data

  12. A detailed examination of the chemical, hydrological, and geological properties influencing the mobility of {sup 222}radon and parent radionuclides in groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sexsmith, K.S.

    1996-12-31

    This study examines hydrological, geological and geochemical controls on {sup 222}Rn variability in groundwater in the Front Range of Colorado. Specific objectives of the study are: (1) to determine if there are any correlations or spatial relationships between {sup 222}Rn and the geological, geochemical and hydrogeological data; and (2) to determine whether it is geochemically reasonable for observed {sup 222}Rn levels to be the result of U and {sup 226}Ra accumulation by fracture filling minerals. Domestic-water wells were sampled and tested to determine the local aquifer characteristics and aqueous geochemistry. A multivariate and staged approach was used in the data analyses. Analysis of variance tests were used to test for relationships between {sup 222}Rn and the lithology of the study wells. The effects of rock-type were then removed from the chemical and hydrological variables by subtracting the mean value for each rock-type from each of the measured values within that rock-type (a residual transformation). Linear and linear multiple regression techniques were used to test for expected relationships between residual {sup 222}Rn levels and these variables, and stepwise linear regressions were used to test for any unforeseen multivariate relationships in the data. Correlograms, distance-weighted average and inverse-distance-weighted average predictions were used to look for spatial relationships in the data.

  13. An in vitro systematic spectroscopic examination of the photostabilities of a random set of commercial sunscreen lotions and their chemical UVB/UVA active agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpone, Nick; Salinaro, Angela; Emeline, Alexei V; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Hidaka, Hisao; Zhao, Jincai

    2002-12-01

    The photostabilities of a random set of commercially available sunscreen lotions and their active ingredients are examined spectroscopically subsequent to simulated sunlight UV exposure. Loss of filtering efficacy can occur because of possible photochemical modifications of the sunscreen active agents. Changes in absorption of UVA/ UVB sunlight by agents in sunscreen lotions also leads to a reduction of the expected photoprotection of human skin and DNA against the harmful UV radiation. The active ingredients were investigated in aqueous media and in organic solvents of various polarities (methanol, acetonitrile, and n-hexane) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions The UV absorption features are affected by the nature of the solvents with properties closely related to oil-in-water (o/w) or water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions actually used in sunscreen formulations, and by the presence of molecular oxygen. The photostabilities of two combined chemical ingredients (oxybenzone and octyl methoxycinnamate) and the combination oxybenzone/titanium dioxide were also explored. In the latter case, oxybenzone undergoes significant photodegradation in the presence of the physical filter TiO2. PMID:12661594

  14. An ideal balance?

    OpenAIRE

    Mair, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Considers the intersection between employment policy and family law, and the changes in work and family regarding traditional gender roles. Examines UK and EU policy initiatives aimed at achieving a better work/life balance for employees with children. Argues that many of the policy aspirations are predicated on an equal opportunities employment model that may not exist in practice and also fail to reflect the realities of family life.

  15. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature on Physico-Chemical Properties of Corn Stover (Zea mays L.) Biochar and Feasibility for Carbon Capture and Energy Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Rafiq, Muhammad Khalid; Bachmann, Robert Thomas; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; Shang, Zhanhuan; Joseph, Stephen; Long, Ruijun

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of pyrolysis temperature on biochar characteristics and evaluated its suitability for carbon capture and energy production. Biochar was produced from corn stover using slow pyrolysis at 300, 400 and 500°C and 2 hrs holding time. The experimental biochars were characterized by elemental analysis, BET, FTIR, TGA/DTA, NMR (C-13). Higher heating value (HHV) of feedstock and biochars was measured using bomb calorimeter. Results show that carbon content of corn sto...

  16. Balanced Scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    Kytka, Roman

    2008-01-01

    V současnosti se podniky setkávají s řadou přístupů k řízení společností a velmi častými pojícími prvky bývají zejména náklady, efektivita a výkonnost. Z nepřeberné řady nástrojů k řízení společností určených tato práce blíže seznamuje s metodikou Balanced Scorecard (BSC), koncepčním rámcem ITIL a metodikou Cobit. Jednotlivě zde jsou představeny dílčí metodiky a rámce. Míra tohoto seznámení je úměrná potřebám práce, tzn. není cílem představit ITIL či Cobit úplně detailně. Naopak zde jsou podc...

  17. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature on Physico-Chemical Properties of Corn Stover (Zea mays L.) Biochar and Feasibility for Carbon Capture and Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Khalid; Bachmann, Robert Thomas; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; Shang, Zhanhuan; Joseph, Stephen; Long, Ruijun

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of pyrolysis temperature on biochar characteristics and evaluated its suitability for carbon capture and energy production. Biochar was produced from corn stover using slow pyrolysis at 300, 400 and 500°C and 2 hrs holding time. The experimental biochars were characterized by elemental analysis, BET, FTIR, TGA/DTA, NMR (C-13). Higher heating value (HHV) of feedstock and biochars was measured using bomb calorimeter. Results show that carbon content of corn stover biochar increased from 45.5% to 64.5%, with increasing pyrolysis temperatures. A decrease in H:C and O:C ratios as well as volatile matter, coupled with increase in the concentration of aromatic carbon in the biochar as determined by FTIR and NMR (C-13) demonstrates a higher biochar carbon stability at 500°C. It was estimated that corn stover pyrolysed at 500°C could provide of 10.12 MJ/kg thermal energy. Pyrolysis is therefore a potential technology with its carbon-negative, energy positive and soil amendment benefits thus creating win- win scenario. PMID:27327870

  18. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature on Physico-Chemical Properties of Corn Stover (Zea mays L. Biochar and Feasibility for Carbon Capture and Energy Balance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khalid Rafiq

    Full Text Available This study examined the influence of pyrolysis temperature on biochar characteristics and evaluated its suitability for carbon capture and energy production. Biochar was produced from corn stover using slow pyrolysis at 300, 400 and 500°C and 2 hrs holding time. The experimental biochars were characterized by elemental analysis, BET, FTIR, TGA/DTA, NMR (C-13. Higher heating value (HHV of feedstock and biochars was measured using bomb calorimeter. Results show that carbon content of corn stover biochar increased from 45.5% to 64.5%, with increasing pyrolysis temperatures. A decrease in H:C and O:C ratios as well as volatile matter, coupled with increase in the concentration of aromatic carbon in the biochar as determined by FTIR and NMR (C-13 demonstrates a higher biochar carbon stability at 500°C. It was estimated that corn stover pyrolysed at 500°C could provide of 10.12 MJ/kg thermal energy. Pyrolysis is therefore a potential technology with its carbon-negative, energy positive and soil amendment benefits thus creating win- win scenario.

  19. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature on Physico-Chemical Properties of Corn Stover (Zea mays L.) Biochar and Feasibility for Carbon Capture and Energy Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Khalid; Bachmann, Robert Thomas; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; Shang, Zhanhuan; Joseph, Stephen; Long, Ruijun

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of pyrolysis temperature on biochar characteristics and evaluated its suitability for carbon capture and energy production. Biochar was produced from corn stover using slow pyrolysis at 300, 400 and 500°C and 2 hrs holding time. The experimental biochars were characterized by elemental analysis, BET, FTIR, TGA/DTA, NMR (C-13). Higher heating value (HHV) of feedstock and biochars was measured using bomb calorimeter. Results show that carbon content of corn stover biochar increased from 45.5% to 64.5%, with increasing pyrolysis temperatures. A decrease in H:C and O:C ratios as well as volatile matter, coupled with increase in the concentration of aromatic carbon in the biochar as determined by FTIR and NMR (C-13) demonstrates a higher biochar carbon stability at 500°C. It was estimated that corn stover pyrolysed at 500°C could provide of 10.12 MJ/kg thermal energy. Pyrolysis is therefore a potential technology with its carbon-negative, energy positive and soil amendment benefits thus creating win- win scenario. PMID:27327870

  20. Balanced Permutation Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrys, Ryan; Milenkovic, Olgica

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by charge balancing constraints for rank modulation schemes, we introduce the notion of balanced permutations and derive the capacity of balanced permutation codes. We also describe simple interleaving methods for permutation code constructions and show that they approach capacity

  1. Dizziness and Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    AUDIOLOGY Dizziness and Balance Inform ation Seri es Our balance system helps us walk, run, and move ... known as nystagmus) • Complaints of vertigo or dizziness Audiology Information Series © ASHA 2015 10802 • Balance dysfunction • Difficulty ...

  2. Examination of chemical elements partitioning between the γ and γ′ phases in CMSX-4 superalloy using EDS microanalysis and electron tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruk Adam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the partition of chemical elements between γ and γ′ phases in CMSX-4 was investigated using EDS microanalysis and electron tomography (FIB-SEM and STEM-EDS methods. The investigation has been performed for the superalloy after standard heat treatment and the ex-service CMSX-4 turbine blade after operation for 12 700 hours and 200 starts in industrial gas turbine. The results have shown that Co, Cr and Re partition to the γ matrix, Ni and W are present in both γ and γ′ phases, while Al, Ti and Ta strongly partition to the γ′ phase. The results show the abilities of new analytical electron microscopy and electron tomography methods to characterize the microstructure and chemical composition of single crystal superalloys at the nanoscale.

  3. Assessment of chemical coexposure patterns based upon phthalate biomonitoring data within the 2007/2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Hua; Chen, Min; Kransler, Kevin M; Zaleski, Rosemary T

    2014-01-01

    As regulatory initiatives increasingly call for an understanding of the cumulative risks from chemical mixtures, evaluating exposure data from large biomonitoring programs, which may inform these cumulative risk assessments, will improve the understanding of occurrence and patterns of coexposures. Here we have analyzed the urinary metabolite data for six phthalates (di-butyl phthalate; di-isobutyl phthalate; butyl-benzyl phthalate; bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate; di-isononyl phthalate; and di-is...

  4. CHEMICAL PROFILES OF HONEYS ORIGINATING FROM DIFFERENT FLORAL SOURCES AND GEOGRAPHIC LOCATIONS EXAMINED BY A COMBINATION OF THREE EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    D. M. Meloncelli,; S. A. M. Windsor; Brooks, P.

    2015-01-01

    The chemical profiles of Tasmanian Leatherwood and Manuka honeys from Tasmania and New Zealand have been compared by a combination of GC-MS analysis of volatiles and semi-volatiles, RP-HPLC-DAD analysis of phenolics and flavonoids and HPLC-DAD analysis of derivatised dihydroxyacetone, hydroxymethylfurfural and methylglyoxal. This study found that Tasmanian and New Zealand Manuka honeys have high concentrations of methylglyoxal. However, syringic acid was only detected in Manuka honeys grown i...

  5. Field balancing in the real world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracher, B.

    1997-09-05

    Field balancing can achieve significant results when other problems are present in the frequency spectrum and multiple vibrations are evident in the waveform. Many references suggest eliminating other problems before attempting to balance. That`s great - if you can do it. There are valid reasons for this approach, and it would be much easier to balance machinery when other problems have been corrected. It is the theoretical ideal in field balancing. However, in the real world of machinery maintained for years by reacting to immediate problems, the classic vibration signature for unbalance is rarely seen. Maintenance personnel make most of their decisions with limited information. The decision to balance or not to balance is usually made the same way. This paper will demonstrate significant results of field balancing in the presence of multiple problems. By examining the data available and analyzing the probabilities, a reasonable chance for success can be assured.

  6. Learning from Balance Sheet Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanlamai, Uthai; Soongswang, Oranuj

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examines alternative visuals and their effect on the level of learning of balance sheet users. Executive and regular classes of graduate students majoring in information technology in business were asked to evaluate the extent of acceptance and enhanced capability of these alternative visuals toward their learning…

  7. CHEMICAL PROFILES OF HONEYS ORIGINATING FROM DIFFERENT FLORAL SOURCES AND GEOGRAPHIC LOCATIONS EXAMINED BY A COMBINATION OF THREE EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Meloncelli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical profiles of Tasmanian Leatherwood and Manuka honeys from Tasmania and New Zealand have been compared by a combination of GC-MS analysis of volatiles and semi-volatiles, RP-HPLC-DAD analysis of phenolics and flavonoids and HPLC-DAD analysis of derivatised dihydroxyacetone, hydroxymethylfurfural and methylglyoxal. This study found that Tasmanian and New Zealand Manuka honeys have high concentrations of methylglyoxal. However, syringic acid was only detected in Manuka honeys grown in New Zealand. The Tasmanian honeys can be distinguished by the higher concentration of 3-phenyllactic acid in Manuka compared to Leatherwood floral sources.

  8. CHEMICAL PROFILES OF HONEYS ORIGINATING FROM DIFFERENT FLORAL SOURCES AND GEOGRAPHIC LOCATIONS EXAMINED BY A COMBINATION OF THREE EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Meloncelli,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The chemical profiles of Tasmanian Leatherwood and Manuka honeys from Tasmania and New Zealand have been compared by a combination of GC-MS analysis of volatiles and semi-volatiles, RP-HPLC-DAD analysis of phenolics and flavonoids and HPLC-DAD analysis of derivatised dihydroxyacetone, hydroxymethylfurfural and methylglyoxal. This study found that Tasmanian and New Zealand Manuka honeys have high concentrations of methylglyoxal. However, syringic acid was only detected in Manuka honeys grown in New Zealand. The Tasmanian honeys can be distinguished by the higher concentration of 3-phenyllactic acid in Manuka compared to Leatherwood floral sources.

  9. Common muscle synergies for balance and walking

    OpenAIRE

    Chvatal, Stacie A.; Ting, Lena H.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the integration of neural mechanisms for balance and locomotion. Muscle synergies have been studied independently in standing balance and walking, but not compared. Here, we hypothesized that reactive balance and walking are mediated by a common set of lower-limb muscle synergies. In humans, we examined muscle activity during multidirectional support-surface perturbations during standing and walking, as well as unperturbed walking at two speeds. We show that most muscle ...

  10. 理化检验在动物种属鉴定中的应用概况%Review on the Application of Physical and Chemical Examination in the Species and Genus Identification of Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周用武

    2011-01-01

    阐述了理化检验确定动物种属的原理、分析的方法及其在实践中的应用概况,并对理化检验用于动物种属鉴定的优缺点进行了评价。提出了理化检验用于动物种属鉴定还需要大量的试验工作,鉴定方法的方便与快捷、鉴定成本的低廉、多学科的交叉以及与计算机技术的联合是动物物种鉴定的发展方向。%The principles, analysis method of identifying the species and genus of animals by using the physical and chemical examination and its application situations in the practice were introduced. The advantages and disadvantages of identifying the species and genus of animals by using physical and chemical examination were appraised. It was proposed that a lot of experimental works should be done in the species and genus identification of animals by using physical and chemical examination. And the convenience of the identification method, low identification cost, multi-knowledge amalgamation and union with computer technology were the development direction of animal species identification.

  11. The social balance sheet 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Ph. Delhez; P. Heuse

    2006-01-01

    Each year, the National Bank examines the provisional results of the social balance sheets of Belgian enterprises. As the social balance sheets are not yet all available for 2005, the study is based on a limited population of enterprises, compiled according to the principle of a constant sample. This population is made up of 48,976 enterprises employing around 4,441,000 workers in 2005. The main results of the analysis are as follows. As an average, employment increased by 0.5 p.c. between 20...

  12. Ear examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003340.htm Ear examination To use the sharing features on this page, ... ear References King EF, Couch ME. History, physical examination, and the preoperative evaluation. In: Flint PW, Haughey ...

  13. Energy balance climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, G. R.; Cahalan, R. F.; Coakley, J. A., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An introductory survey of the global energy balance climate models is presented with an emphasis on analytical results. A sequence of increasingly complicated models involving ice cap and radiative feedback processes are solved, and the solutions and parameter sensitivities are studied. The model parameterizations are examined critically in light of many current uncertainties. A simple seasonal model is used to study the effects of changes in orbital elements on the temperature field. A linear stability theorem and a complete nonlinear stability analysis for the models are developed. Analytical solutions are also obtained for the linearized models driven by stochastic forcing elements. In this context the relation between natural fluctuation statistics and climate sensitivity is stressed.

  14. Balancing Trust and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that conceptualizing trust and control as interactively related processes, as opposed to more static conceptualizations of the two concepts and the relations between them, adds importantly towards understanding the challenges involved in balancing of trust and...... control in organizations. The paper examines recent literature on the conceptualization of the relation between trust and control in and between organizations. The literature review shows that trust and control has been conceptualized as either substituting or complementing each other. Further, it is...... found that the complementary/substitution debate calls for an explicit conceptualization of the relation between trust and control as an interactive process, in contrast to earlier conceptualizations of trust and control as two relatively static and isolated concepts. While the static perspective on...

  15. Human Balance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rated Nonprofit! Volunteer. Donate. Review. The Human Balance System Good balance is often taken for granted. Good ... soft, slippery, or uneven). Input from the vestibular system Sensory information about motion, equilibrium, and spatial orientation ...

  16. Random walk and balancing

    CERN Document Server

    Borg, F G

    2004-01-01

    Presents a minireview of topics concerned with balancing in quiet (bipedal) standing, and balancing of a stick. In the focus is the apparent stochastic nature of the swaying of the human inverted pendulum.

  17. Skylab water balance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    The water balance of the Skylab crew was analyzed. Evaporative water loss using a whole body input/output balance equation, water, body tissue, and energy balance was analyzed. The approach utilizes the results of several major Skylab medical experiments. Subsystems were designed for the use of the software necessary for the analysis. A partitional water balance that graphically depicts the changes due to water intake is presented. The energy balance analysis determines the net available energy to the individual crewman during any period. The balances produce a visual description of the total change of a particular body component during the course of the mission. The information is salvaged from metabolic balance data if certain techniques are used to reduce errors inherent in the balance method.

  18. Polarization-balanced beamsplitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, D.E.

    1998-02-17

    A beamsplitter assembly is disclosed that includes several beamsplitter cubes arranged to define a plurality of polarization-balanced light paths. Each polarization-balanced light path contains one or more balanced pairs of light paths, where each balanced pair of light paths includes either two transmission light paths with orthogonal polarization effects or two reflection light paths with orthogonal polarization effects. The orthogonal pairing of said transmission and reflection light paths cancels polarization effects otherwise caused by beamsplitting. 10 figs.

  19. Coaching for Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Bonnie

    2001-01-01

    Discusses coaching for balance the integration of the whole self: physical (body), intellectual (mind), spiritual (soul), and emotional (heart). Offers four ways to identify problems and tell whether someone is out of balance and four coaching techniques for creating balance. (Contains 11 references.) (JOW)

  20. [Oral balanced synthetic diet (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartig, W

    1976-01-01

    Oral balanced synthetic diet is a ballast-free, complete nutrition and is composed of chemical pure substances. It contains amino acids, mono- and oligosaccharids, essentiell fat acids, minerals, vitamines and tracer elements and is absorbed in jejunum. Oral balanced diet will be used with success to prepare diagnostic procedures and operations, for treatment of bowel-diseases, for patients with short-bowel-syndrom, with chronic hepatic diseases, metabolic diseases, maldigestion and malabsorption. PMID:827146

  1. DYMAC digital electronic balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dynamic Materials Accountability (DYMAC) System at LASL integrates nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments with interactive data-processing equipment to provide near-real-time accountability of the nuclear material in the LASL Plutonium Processing Facility. The most widely used NDA instrument in the system is the DYMAC digital electronic balance. The DYMAC balance is a commercial instrument that has been modified at LASL for weighing material in gloveboxes and for transmitting the weight data directly to a central computer. This manual describes the balance components, details the LASL modifications, reviews a DYMAC measurement control program that monitors balance performance, and provides instructions for balance operation and maintenance

  2. Chemical machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yardimeden

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nontraditional machining processes are widely used to manufacture geometrically complex and precision parts for aerospace, electronics and automotive industries. There are different geometrically designed parts, such as deep internal cavities, miniaturized microelectronics and fine quality components may only be produced by nontraditional machining processes. This paper is aiming to give details of chemical machining process, industrial applications, applied chemical etchants and machined materials. Advantages and disadvantages of the chemical machining are mentioned.Design/methodology/approach: In this study, chemical machining process was described its importance as nontraditional machining process. The steps of process were discussed in detail. The tolerances of machined parts were examined.Findings: Paper describes the chemical machining process, industrial applications, applied chemical etchants and machined materials.Practical implications: The machining operation should be carried out carefully to produce a desired geometry. Environmental laws have important effects when chemical machining is used.Originality/value: The importance of nontraditional machining processes is very high.

  3. Mathematical Modeling of Chemical Stoichiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Joshua; Fox, William P.; Varazo, Kristofoland

    2007-01-01

    In beginning chemistry classes, students are taught a variety of techniques for balancing chemical equations. The most common method is inspection. This paper addresses using a system of linear mathematical equations to solve for the stoichiometric coefficients. Many linear algebra books carry the standard balancing of chemical equations as an…

  4. The Balanced Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    involved in both the creation and recreation of balanced relationships. Chapters in The Balanced Company ask and provide answers to questions about corporately responsible and ethically driven balanced decision making, such as: • How can a company and its stakeholders identify what should be taken into...... changes in their environments. Communication specialists need to make balanced decisions which take the different value systems and assumptions of stakeholders into consideration. Change specialists need to balance the need for continuity and change. Managers need to make balanced decisions about whether...... in consumers' and other stakeholder's eyes. Leaders also have to acknowledge that there are times when organizations have to be taken out of balance, since it is necessary to 'unfreeze' existing relationships in organizations during change. Therefore, there are decision and organizing processes...

  5. Loss of balance during balance beam walking elicits a multifocal theta band electrocortical response

    OpenAIRE

    Sipp, Amy R.; Gwin, Joseph T; Makeig, Scott; Ferris, Daniel P

    2013-01-01

    Determining the neural correlates of loss of balance during walking could lead to improved clinical assessment and treatment for individuals predisposed to falls. We used high-density electroencephalography (EEG) combined with independent component analysis (ICA) to study loss of balance during human walking. We examined 26 healthy young subjects performing heel-to-toe walking on a treadmill-mounted balance beam as well as walking on the treadmill belt (both at 0.22 m/s). ICA identified clust...

  6. Wii balance board exercise improves balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The potential health benefits of the Nintendo Wii balance board exercise have been widely investigated. However, no study has been conducted to examine the benefits of Wii exercise for overweight young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise performed on a Nintendo Wii balance board on the balance and lower limb muscle strength in overweight young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Within-subject repeated measures analysis was used. Sixteen young adults (...

  7. Balanced input-output assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawronski, W.; Hadaegh, F. Y.

    1989-01-01

    Actuator/sensor locations and balanced representations of linear systems are considered for a given set of controllability and observability grammians. The case of equally controlled and observed states is given special attention. The assignability of grammians is examined, and the conditions for their existence are presented, along with several algorithms for their determination. Although an arbitrary positive semidefinite matrix is not always assignable, the identity grammian is shown to be always assignable. The results are extended to the case of flexible structures.

  8. Ear examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    King EF, Couch ME. History, physical examination, and the preoperative evaluation. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  9. Examining the relationship between organizational culture and performance:The perspectives of consistency and balance%企业文化与企业绩效的关系研究——一致性和均衡性的观点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勉; 李海; 魏钧

    2008-01-01

    在竞争价值观框架的基础上,研究企业文化与企业绩效关系,发现:首先,企业文化与内外部环境之间一致性越好,即现状文化和目标文化一致性越好,企业的人力资源开发水平和财务绩效都会越好;其次,对于成立时间较长的企业来说,企业文化越是均衡发展,即现状文化在四种类型的分布上越趋于均匀一致,企业的人力资源开发水平会越好.%Building on the Competing Values Framework(CVF),we investigated the relationship between organizational culture and performance.The perspective of consistency and that of balance were applied to examine the relationship.We tested our hypotheses on a sample of 270 companies in China,which resulted in two major findings.First,the consistency between organizational culture and external environment was found positively associated with organizational performance.Consistency was operationalized as a match between an organization's current culture and its preferred future culture.Second,balance of organizational culture was found positively correlate with organizational performance.A balanced culture was defined as one in which values of each of the CVF culture types are equally held.

  10. Cyclical budget balance measurement

    OpenAIRE

    C. AUDENIS; C. PROST

    2000-01-01

    Government balances are often adjusted for changes in economic activity in order to draw a clearer picture of the underlying fiscal situation and to use this as a guide to fiscal policy analysis. International organisations estimate the cyclical component of economic activity by the current level of the output gap. Using elasticities of tax and public expenditures to GDP, they compute the cyclical part of budget balance. The structural budget balance is defined as the remainder. Our approach ...

  11. Inevitability of Balance Restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Man S.

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged imbalance between input and output of any element in a living organism is incompatible with life. The duration of imbalance varies, but eventually balance is achieved. This rule applies to any quantifiable element in a compartment of finite capacity. Transient discrepancies occur regularly, but given sufficient time, balance is always achieved, because permanent imbalance is impossible, and the mechanism for eventual restoration of balance is foolproof. The kidney is a central playe...

  12. Effects of mental practice on normal adult balance ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyun-Gyu; Kim, Myoung-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of mental practice on the balance abilities of normal individuals. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group (n=15 each). Participants in both groups performed balance training in a seated position on a gym ball for 20 minutes per session, five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. Members of the experimental group also performed mental practice for 10 minutes before the balance training. After the intervention, balance measuring equipment (Good Balance, Metitur, Finland) was used to quantitatively measure balance ability. [Results] Significant post-training gains were observed in the mediolateral, index of balance function, and time variables of participants of the experimental group. [Conclusion] The application of mental practice with balance training positively affected balance ability. PMID:27512260

  13. Balancing "we" and "me".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, Christine; Flynn, Donna; Redman, Melanie

    2014-10-01

    The open office is the dominant form of workspace design for good reason: It fosters collaboration, promotes learning, and nurtures strong culture. But what most companies fail to realize is that collaboration has a natural rhythm that requires both interaction and private contemplation. Companies have been trying for decades to find the balance between public and private workspace that best supports collaboration. In 1980 52% of U.S. employees lacked workspaces where they could concentrate without distraction. In response, high-walled cubicles took over the corporate landscape. By the late 1990s, the tide had turned, and only 23% of employees wanted more privacy, and 50% wanted more access to other people. Ever since, firms have been beefing up spaces that support collaboration and shrinking areas for individual work. But the pendulum seems to have swung too far: Once again, people feel a pressing need for privacy, not only to do heads-down work but to cope with the intensity of work today. To address these needs, according to the authors, we have to rethink our assumptions about privacy. Traditionally defined in physical terms, privacy is now about the individual's ability to control information and stimulation. In this article, the authors examine workspace design through the new lens of privacy and offer insights on how to foster teamwork and solitude. PMID:25509575

  14. Identifying Balance in a Balanced Scorecard System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravamudhan, Suhanya; Kamalanabhan, T. J.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, strategic management concepts seem to be gaining greater attention from the academicians and the practitioner's alike. Balanced Scorecard (BSC) concept is one such management concepts that has spread in worldwide business and consulting communities. The BSC translates mission and vision statements into a comprehensive set of…

  15. Examining experience

    OpenAIRE

    Lakeman, G. J. T.

    2012-01-01

    I think visual experiences are intentional. And I think that different philosophical views about visual experience may be understood in terms of what they say about the intentionality of visual experience. In this thesis, I evaluate different views of experience and experiential intentionality by examining connections between experiential intentionality and further phenomenological, doxastic, epistemic and content-fixing features present in cases of perception and hallucinat...

  16. Conclusion: The balanced company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm; Jensen, Inger

    2013-01-01

    This concluding chapter brings together the various research findings of the book "The balanced company - organizing for the 21st Century" and develops a general overview of their implications for our understanding of the balancing processes unfolding in companies and organizations....

  17. Gait and balance disorders in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzman, Brooke

    2010-07-01

    Gait and balance disorders are common in older adults and are a major cause of falls in this population. They are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as reduced level of function. Common causes include arthritis and orthostatic hypotension; however, most gait and balance disorders involve multiple contributing factors. Most changes in gait are related to underlying medical conditions and should not be considered an inevitable consequence of aging. Physicians caring for older patients should ask at least annually about falls, and should ask about or examine for difficulties with gait and balance at least once. For older adults who report a fall, physicians should ask about difficulties with gait and balance, and should observe for any gait or balance dysfunctions. The Timed Up and Go test is a fast and reliable diagnostic tool. Persons who have difficulty or demonstrate unsteadiness performing the Timed Up and Go test require further assessment, usually with a physical therapist, to help elucidate gait impairments and related functional limitations. The most effective strategy for falls prevention involves a multifactorial evaluation followed by targeted interventions for identified contributing factors. Evidence on the effectiveness of interventions for gait and balance disorders is limited because of the lack of standardized outcome measures determining gait and balance abilities. However, effective options for patients with gait and balance disorders include exercise and physical therapy. PMID:20590073

  18. Energy balance in coronal funnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    The energy balance in magnetic flux tubes is examined semianalytically for the case in which thermal conduction balances radiation or in which enthalpy transport occurs. Different values are considered for areal constriction, shape, length, and maximum temperature. The overall energy budget of the solar corona is not significantly affected by magnetic constriction. A bowl-shaped funnel with a constriction factor of 4 describes the empirical differential-emission measure for log-T values between approximately 5.3 and 6.0. Loop-scaling relationships are derived for the full range of models to illustrate the dependence of the constant of proportionality on the properties of the magnetic constriction. Constriction can reduce the total energy requirement of the funnel by a factor of 5 and not affect the differential emission in flow-dominated models.

  19. Balancing Trust and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    This paper focuses on the leadership challenge of balancing trust and control. The relation between trust and control has for a long time been a puzzling issue for management researchers. In the paper I first show that there has been a dramatic change in the way the relation between trust and...... control has been conceptualized in trust research. While the relation between trust and control earlier was conceptualized as a more or less stable balance between trust and control, more recent research conceptualizes the relation between trust and control more as a dynamical process that involves an...... ongoing process of balancing the relation between trust and control. Second, taking the departure in the recent conceptualization of the balance between trust and control as an interactive process I discuss the challenges for management in handling this more subtle balancing of trust and control. The...

  20. Mass balance myths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the event of an oil spill at sea, remediation technologies rely on oil spill monitoring and mass balance calculations. The types of oil spills that require knowledge of mass-balance include weathering studies, dispersant-effectiveness testing, measurement of response effectiveness and damage assessment. Non-destructive and non-interfering measuring methods are needed to find components of the mass balance equation such as temporal and spatial distribution of the oil thickness, and the temporal and spatial distribution of oil concentration in the sub-surface plume. The main challenge is the variation in the size scale of laboratory and open ocean measurements. Most large scale oil-spill experiments do not have scientific credibility because there are few situations in which all the oil in the system is accounted for. While some components are accurately accounted for, others ignore mass balance, or the range of measurements is not sufficient to allow for computation of mass balance. 48 refs

  1. Active balance system and vibration balanced machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Songgang (Inventor); Augenblick, John E. (Inventor); Peterson, Allen A. (Inventor); White, Maurice A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An active balance system is provided for counterbalancing vibrations of an axially reciprocating machine. The balance system includes a support member, a flexure assembly, a counterbalance mass, and a linear motor or an actuator. The support member is configured for attachment to the machine. The flexure assembly includes at least one flat spring having connections along a central portion and an outer peripheral portion. One of the central portion and the outer peripheral portion is fixedly mounted to the support member. The counterbalance mass is fixedly carried by the flexure assembly along another of the central portion and the outer peripheral portion. The linear motor has one of a stator and a mover fixedly mounted to the support member and another of the stator and the mover fixedly mounted to the counterbalance mass. The linear motor is operative to axially reciprocate the counterbalance mass.

  2. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  3. Energy balance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhurandhar, N V; Schoeller, D; Brown, A W;

    2015-01-01

    Energy intake (EI) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) are key modifiable determinants of energy balance, traditionally assessed by self-report despite its repeated demonstration of considerable inaccuracies. We argue here that it is time to move from the common view that self......-reports of EI and PAEE are imperfect, but nevertheless deserving of use, to a view commensurate with the evidence that self-reports of EI and PAEE are so poor that they are wholly unacceptable for scientific research on EI and PAEE. While new strategies for objectively determining energy balance are in their...... of energy balance....

  4. Wii balance board exercise improves balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The potential health benefits of the Nintendo Wii balance board exercise have been widely investigated. However, no study has been conducted to examine the benefits of Wii exercise for overweight young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise performed on a Nintendo Wii balance board on the balance and lower limb muscle strength in overweight young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Within-subject repeated measures analysis was used. Sixteen young adults (aged 21.87±1.13 years, body mass index 24.15 ± 0.50 kg/m(2)) were recruited. All subjects performed an exercise program on a Wii balance board for 8 weeks (30 min/session, twice a week for 8 weeks). A NeuroCom Balance Master and a hand-held dynamometer were used to measure balance performance and lower limb muscle strength. [Results] According to the comparison of pre- and post-intervention measurements, the Wii balance board exercise program significantly improved the limit of stability parameters. There was also a significant increase in strength of four lower-limb muscle groups: the hip flexor, knee flexor, ankle dorsiflexor and ankle plantarflexor. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that a Wii balance board exercise program can be used to improve the balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults. PMID:25642034

  5. Effectiveness of the Balanced Scorecard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichen, Alex Yu; Perera, Sujatha; Crowe, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Many of the claimed benefits of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) rely on the linkage of its performance measures to strategy and on causal relations among its measures. Using a survey research method, this study examines the extent to which adopters of BSC consider these features and whether they...... result in more effective performance measurement systems. A survey of medium and large Australian manufacturing organisations reveals that varying forms of scorecards are used in practice and that managers who perceive that their scorecard measures are linked to strategy and affect each other in a causal...

  6. Character Balance in MOBA Games

    OpenAIRE

    Teodor, Norén; Emanuel, Palm

    2015-01-01

    As live streaming of video games has become easier, electronic sports have grown quickly and they are still increasing as tournaments grow in viewers and prizes. The purpose of this paper is to examine the theory Metagame Bounds by applying it to League of Legends and Dota 2, to see if it is a valid way of looking at character balance in the Multiplayer Online Battle Arena game genre. The main mode of both games consist of matches played on a map where a team of five players is up against ano...

  7. Keeping Your Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or problems with balance. Sometimes your doctor or physical therapist can reposition the crystals in your ear and ... Adherence Calcium/Vitamin D Nutrition Overall Health Fractures/Fall Prevention Exercise/Safe Movement Safe Movement & Exercise Videos ...

  8. National Energy Balance - 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Energy Balance - 1984 shows energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the productions to final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1973 to 1983. (E.G.)

  9. National Energy Balance - 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Energy Balance - 1985 shows energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the production to the final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1974 to 1984 (E.G.)

  10. National Energy Balance-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Energy Balance - 1987 showns energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the production to final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1971 to 1986. (E.G.)

  11. Detailed balance and entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study a connection between quantum detailed balance, which is a concept of importance in statistical mechanics, and entanglement. We also explore how this connection fits into thermofield dynamics. (paper)

  12. Balance Disorders (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... usually used on infants and young children. electronystagmogram (ENG). To assess balance, electrodes are placed around the ... videonystagmography (VNG). This test is similar to an ENG, only the child has to focus on the ...

  13. Balance costs for windpower

    OpenAIRE

    Skaflestad, Stig

    2009-01-01

    Wind power scheduling is subject to high forecast uncertainty compared to the dominant Norwegian energy source, hydro power. The regulating market, also known as the balance market, is a market solution for optimal operation of the Nordic power system, putting a price on schedule deviations. Schedules, or production/consumption plans, are collected daily, 12 hours prior to delivery by the system operator Statnett. Wind power is especially vulnerable to balance costs due to the relatively high...

  14. Selectively Balancing Unit Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Blokhuis, Aart; Chen, Hao

    2016-01-01

    A set $U$ of unit vectors is selectively balancing if one can find two disjoint subsets $U^+$ and $U^-$, not both empty, such that the Euclidean distance between the sum of $U^+$ and the sum of $U^-$ is smaller than $1$. We prove that, to guarantee a selectively balancing set, $n \\log n$ unit vectors suffice for sufficiently large $n$, but $\\tfrac{1}{23} n \\log n$ unit vectors won't be enough for infinitely many $n$.

  15. Cost reduction potentials in the German market for balancing power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article examines potential cost reductions in the market for balancing power by pooling all four German control areas. In a united control area both the procurement and the production of balancing power may be more efficient than in four separated control areas. Our data contain bids on energy procurement as well as balancing power flows in the period from December 2007 to November 2008. A reference scenario simulates the market results for secondary and tertiary balancing power. Subsequently, we simulate a united control area. We show that in the period under review the total costs of balancing power are reduced by 17%.

  16. Balances instruments, manufacturers, history

    CERN Document Server

    Robens, Erich; Kiefer, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The book deals mainly with direct mass determination by means of a conventional balances. It covers the history of the balance from the beginnings in Egypt earlier than 3000 BC to recent developments. All balance types are described with emphasis on scientific balances. Methods of indirect mass determination, which are applied to very light objects like molecules and the basic particles of matter and celestial bodies, are included.  As additional guidance, today’s manufacturers are listed and the profile of important companies is reviewed. Several hundred photographs, reproductions and drawings show instruments and their uses. This book includes commercial weighing instruments for merchandise and raw materials in workshops as well as symbolic weighing in the ancient Egyptian’s ceremony of ‘Weighing of the Heart’, the Greek fate balance, the Roman  Justitia, Juno Moneta and Middle Ages scenes of the Last Judgement with Jesus or St. Michael and of modern balances. The photographs are selected from the...

  17. Watt and joule balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ian A.

    2014-04-01

    The time is fast approaching when the SI unit of mass will cease to be based on a single material artefact and will instead be based upon the defined value of a fundamental constant—the Planck constant—h . This change requires that techniques exist both to determine the appropriate value to be assigned to the constant, and to measure mass in terms of the redefined unit. It is important to ensure that these techniques are accurate and reliable to allow full advantage to be taken of the stability and universality provided by the new definition and to guarantee the continuity of the world's mass measurements, which can affect the measurement of many other quantities such as energy and force. Up to now, efforts to provide the basis for such a redefinition of the kilogram were mainly concerned with resolving the discrepancies between individual implementations of the two principal techniques: the x-ray crystal density (XRCD) method [1] and the watt and joule balance methods which are the subject of this special issue. The first three papers report results from the NRC and NIST watt balance groups and the NIM joule balance group. The result from the NRC (formerly the NPL Mk II) watt balance is the first to be reported with a relative standard uncertainty below 2 × 10-8 and the NIST result has a relative standard uncertainty below 5 × 10-8. Both results are shown in figure 1 along with some previous results; the result from the NIM group is not shown on the plot but has a relative uncertainty of 8.9 × 10-6 and is consistent with all the results shown. The Consultative Committee for Mass and Related Quantities (CCM) in its meeting in 2013 produced a resolution [2] which set out the requirements for the number, type and quality of results intended to support the redefinition of the kilogram and required that there should be agreement between them. These results from NRC, NIST and the IAC may be considered to meet these requirements and are likely to be widely debated

  18. Balanced Integrated Regulatory Oversight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor safety, protecting the public health and safety, and protecting the environment must always be the nuclear regulator's top priorities. Enabling the use of nuclear power for the benefit of society, while protecting the public and the environment requires the regulator to balance many factors. In addition, the regulator is only one part of the overall government that must consider many factors as it carries out its societal responsibilities. Some of the factors that must be balanced and the practical impacts on how the regulator carries out its responsibilities will be addressed. The first International Conference on Effective Regulatory Systems, held in Moscow, Russian Federation, in 2006, focused on safety and security challenges with a goal of improving regulatory effectiveness through cooperation and sharing of information and best practices. The challenge of meeting both safety and security objectives is one example of potentially competing programmes that must be balanced. Other balances that must be evaluated include the benefits of safety improvements compared to the cost of implementation, the use of deterministic and probabilistic approaches, communication openness balanced with the protection of information that could be used for detrimental purposes, and timeliness of regulatory decision making balanced with the need to perform quality work in support of oversight responsibilities. A balanced and integrated approach to regulatory oversight is vital to ensuring that the regulatory body remains effective in its mission to enable the use of nuclear power while protecting the public and the environment. This concept is applicable to nations beginning a nuclear programme as well as established and experienced regulatory bodies. (author)

  19. Automatic force balance calibration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Alice T.

    1995-05-01

    A system for automatically calibrating force balances is provided. The invention uses a reference balance aligned with the balance being calibrated to provide superior accuracy while minimizing the time required to complete the calibration. The reference balance and the test balance are rigidly attached together with closely aligned moment centers. Loads placed on the system equally effect each balance, and the differences in the readings of the two balances can be used to generate the calibration matrix for the test balance. Since the accuracy of the test calibration is determined by the accuracy of the reference balance and current technology allows for reference balances to be calibrated to within +/-0.05% the entire system has an accuracy of +/-0.2%. The entire apparatus is relatively small and can be mounted on a movable base for easy transport between test locations. The system can also accept a wide variety of reference balances, thus allowing calibration under diverse load and size requirements.

  20. Quality control of chemical and isotopic analyses of geothermal water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Marshall J.; Mariner, Robert H.

    1991-01-01

    Chemical and isotopic analyses of geothermal water samples must meet certain levels of accuracy and reliability to be useful for identifying geochemical processes in hydrothermal systems. Quality control is largely a concern for the analytical laboratory, but the geochemist or reservoir engineer using the chemical data must also be concerned with analytical quality. To test accuracy and reliability of analyses available from laboratories, splits of seven water samples were sent to four stable-isotope laboratories, and splits of five water samples were sent to four chemical laboratories. The analyses of each sample were compared among laboratories, and the differences in analyses were evaluated using criteria developed for this comparison. Isotopic compositions were considered reliable if they deviated from mean values by less than 2{per_thousand}, for hydrogen and by less than 0.15{per_thousand}, for oxygen. Concentrations of each chemical component were considered reliable if they differed from mean values by less than 10%. Chemical analyses were examined for internal consistency by calculating the error in ionic charge balance and the error between ionic charge and electrical conductivity. To be considered internally consistent, chemical analyses must have less than 5% error in charge balance and less than 10% error in conductivity balance. Three isotope laboratories gave consistent compositions of all samples. No chemical laboratory gave consistent analyses of all samples. Recommendations are made that provide the user of isotopic and chemical data with the ability to better evaluate the quality of analyses.

  1. Towards balanced development in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatt, G

    1992-01-01

    Pakistan is a country whose economic growth is surprising in light of its social indicators. The aim of this article is to examine why conditions are such and to develop a framework for understanding the issues as an aid to redesigning policies. 5 sections are devoted to a summary of the main findings, the diagnosis of development and the impact on social sectors, a proposal for balanced development, and implications for policy changes. A sound macro economic context is needed with reforms economically in price and incentive systems, institutionally, and in the law and order sector. Public administration needs to be improved and individual opportunities need to be expanded. Internal security needs to be secured, so that law and order are restored. Economic growth has been high between 1960 and 1988, due to exploitation of natural resources and cheap unskilled labor, expansion of irrigated land, and growth of the unregulated informal sector. The major constraints on economic growth will come from a lack of fiscal discipline. 40% of government revenues are consumed by the military and 20% for servicing debt. Other constraints are the population growth rate in excess of 3%/year, an urban bias in allocation of resources, neglected primary education, and gender bias in education. There has been little incentive for provincial governments to balance budgets, and civil service has become disorganized. Balanced development entails recognizing human capital, natural resources, and infrastructure; accepting the status quo; and creating and maintaining an institutional framework to correct market failures and promote individual opportunities. The environmental polluter must pay. Income must be increased through higher wages, increasing the demand for labor, and transfers to households in the form of food rations, schooling, and medical care. Investment in women will increase household earnings, and improve living conditions and the health of themselves and their children

  2. The cryogenic balance design and balance calibration methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, B.; Polanski, L.; Graewe, E.

    1992-07-01

    The current status of a program aimed at the development of a cryogenic balance for the European Transonic Wind Tunnel is reviewed. In particular, attention is given to the cryogenic balance design philosophy, mechanical balance design, reliability and accuracy, cryogenic balance calibration concept, and the concept of an automatic calibration machine. It is shown that the use of the automatic calibration machine will improve the accuracy of calibration while reducing the man power and time required for balance calibration.

  3. Finding Your Balance

    CERN Document Server

    (CCL), Center for Creative Leadership; Patterson, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Balance isn't an issue of time, but an issue of choice. It's about living your values by aligning your behavior with what you believe is really important. Aligning your behavior with your values is much like any other developmental experience; the basic process involves assessment, challenge, and support. You need to determine where you are, define where you want to go, and then put into place the tools you need to get there.Balance is about more than how you spend your time. It's about how you live your life. It's about recognizing that you have control over the choices you make and aligning

  4. Getting the balance right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 8 page leaflet is published by the Nuclear Electricity Information Group (NEIG) which is made up of eight different bodies working within the nuclear industry. It aims to present a balanced outline of the facts needed to form an opinion about energy policy in the UK. It looks at the price of electricity, other sources of electricity, (oil and coal, solar power, wind power, water power), safety in the nuclear industry, nuclear waste disposal and risks from radiation. The NEIG is in favour of a balanced energy programme with nuclear energy being only a part of the overall scheme. (U.K.)

  5. Aplikace Balanced Scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroměřská, Martina

    2015-01-01

    This master's thesis deals with application of the Balanced Scorecard method to Němcova selská mlékárna Radonice, spol. s.r.o. The goal is to analyse the strategic position of the company and propose a new company strategy. Further, the strategic goals defined by the strategy are converted to a strategic map to clearly show causality relationships between the goals of the four perspectives of the Balanced Scoreboard method. The strategic goals are assigned measures and target values and initi...

  6. A balanced team generating model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Water, Tara; van de Water, Henny; Bukman, Cock

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a general team balancing model. It first summarizes existing balancing methods. It is shown that for these methods it is difficult to meet all the conditions posed by Belbin on balanced teams. This mainly is caused by the complexity of the balancing problem. A mathematical mode

  7. Balancing feedstock economics and ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this analysis is to examine the economic balance between production of cellulosic biofuel feedstocks and ecosystem services at the farm level. A literature review of the economics of ecosystem services, ecosystem service impacts of biofuel production, and economic factors influencing ...

  8. User-calibration of Mettler AT200 analytical balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this technical implementing procedure (TIP) is to describe the calibration of the Mettler AT200 analytical balance or similar type balance (henceforth called the balance). This balance is used for activities of the Scientific Investigation Plan (SIP) ''Metal Barrier Selection and Testing'' (SIP-CM-01, WBS nr. 1.2.2.5.1). In particular, it will be used for Activity E-20-50, ''Long-Term Corrosion Studies.'' The balance will be used for weighing test specimens and reagent chemicals. However, it is not limited to these uses. The calibration procedures consist of activating the internal (self) calibration of the apparatus, and weighing and recording of traceable standards. The balance is equipped with self (internal) calibration and linearization capabilities. It has an internal (built in) set of weights which are used for self calibration. The standard weights are traceable to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

  9. Toward Balance in Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Nancy A.

    A study compared translations of biblical passages into different languages in Papua New Guinea. The study looked for evidence of balance between literal and free interpretation in translation style in the gospel of Mark, which is narrative and didactic material, in 12 languages, and the mainly hortatory genre in translations of 4 epistles:…

  10. National energy balance - 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The national energy balance of the 1976 shows several modifications in relation to the last year. The historical serie is based in more confiable information, from several energy companies. The most greater modifications are on energy source of hard control, such as lignite and charcoal for non-siderurgic uses. (E.G.)

  11. Yin-Yang Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    The potential contribution of the Eastern frame of Yin-Yang Balancing lies in the mindset of "either/and", in contrast to Aristotle's either/or logic and Hegel's "both/or". Implications of this either/and thinking for science and management will be explored....

  12. National energy balance - 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The national energy balance of 1978 shows some modifications in relation to the last year. New tables were included aiming to show the brazilian energy situation, such as the hydraulic potential and the non-renewable energy resources. (E.G.)

  13. National Energy Balance - 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Energy Balance - 1986 shows energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the production to the final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1970 to 1985. The incorporation of a new brazilian information is done. (E.G.)

  14. National Energy Balance - 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Energy Balance - 1981, shows a new metodology and information in level of several economic sectors, as well as a separation of primary and secondary energy sources, its energy fluxes, i.e. production, imports, exports, consumption, etc...(E.G.)

  15. Lives in the Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our Children, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Changes in the workplace that would provide flexibility for working parents are slowly developing and receiving government, business, and societal attention. A sidebar, "Mother, Professional, Volunteer: One Woman's Balancing Act," presents an account of how one woman rearranged her professional life to enable her to do full-time parenting. (SM)

  16. Fund Balances: What Flavors and How Many Scoops Are Appropriate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Craig L.

    1986-01-01

    Just as ice cream comes in many flavors for different tastes, fund balances need to be reserved and designated to meet school district plans and commitments. This article examines accounting principles and other issues determining the segregation and size of a school district's fund balance, a legally restricted reserve that can affect the…

  17. Applications of Balance Theory to Faculty Effectiveness: An Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robin T.; Limbu, Yam B.; Xu, Bing; Fischbach, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a critical examination of the potential role of balance theory and student liking (affect) of instructors as tools for marketing professors in assisting student learning. The nature of balance theory and evidence of the learning impact of affect toward instructors are discussed. An empirical test of the theory is provided, and…

  18. Balance of trade and government intervention — Japan as a role model?

    OpenAIRE

    Schnabl, Gunther

    1996-01-01

    Japan's industrial and trade policies are often seen as the reason for high Japanese balance of trade surpluses. Does this theory stand up to a close examination of the relationships between balance of trade, trade policy and structural change?

  19. Using balance program for energy balance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belong with development of the economy, the energy consumption will be increased very high in the future. Vietnam has a broad range of mineral resources. There is considerable energy potential on form of coal, oil and gas, hydropower and fuel wood, Recently, Vietnam is an exporter of energy. But in next two decades, the energy sources will be enough to meet requirement? The model BALANCE was used to solve energy planning problem. The objective of this model is analyzing energy system and built an energy development strategy in long term. After using model, the results are: total coal consumption will be 17.440 Mtoe in 2020 and 32 Mtoe in 2030. the biggest coal consumer is electricity sector. Total oil production consumption will be more than 30 Mtoe in 2020 and more than 50 Mtoe in 2030. If we have 4 refinery factories from now to 2030, total oil products import will be 11 Mtoe in 2020 and 25 Mtoe in 2030. The amount of gas supply in 2030 will be 20 billions m3 (18 Mtoe). Vietnam needs to import 8.3 Mtoe more, Vietnam will become an energy importer in next 15 years. In previous years, the economy of Vietnam was mainly based on agricultural production. But Vietnam is moving rapidly from an agricultural to an industrial economy. Belong with the development of the economy, energy consumption increases very fast. So which energy sources should be used first and when it will be use...are questions need to be answered. Vietnam has a broad range of mineral resources. There is considerable energy potential on form of coal, oil and gas, hydropower and fuel wood. Recently, Vietnam is energy exporter, but in near future Vietnam has enough energy to meet demand or we need to import from outside? It should be studied carefully to answer. (author)

  20. Energy-balance climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, G. R.; Cahalan, R. F.; Coakley, J. A., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    An introductory survey of the global energy balance climate models is presented with an emphasis on analytical results. A sequence of increasingly complicated models involving ice cap and radiative feedback processes are solved and the solutions and parameter sensitivities are studied. The model parameterizations are examined critically in light of many current uncertainties. A simple seasonal model is used to study the effects of changes in orbital elements on the temperature field. A linear stability theorem and a complete nonlinear stability analysis for the models are developed. Analytical solutions are also obtained for the linearized models driven by stochastic forcing elements. In this context the relation between natural fluctuation statistics and climate sensitivity is stressed.

  1. Energy balances 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denmark's consumption of energy increased 1,6 % from 2000 to 2001, primarily due to the year 2001 being colder than the year 2000. The production of petroleum decreased from 2000 to 2001, the reason being an accident at the Gorm oil field. The production of renewable energy and natural gas, however, increased. The energy balances is an account of production, import and export, and consumption of energy. The consumption is presented for households and industry. In the energy balances the energy consumption is accounted as physical amounts as well as gross consumption. Also an account is made of the costs of energy in basis prices and in market prices, including calculation of excises on energy, CO2 and SO2. (ln)

  2. France's energy balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several terminological definitions of words and concepts used for the establishment of France's energy balance (i.e. the supply and utilization of energy) are presented, taken from the Energy dictionary, published in 1992 by the world Energy Council: primary, secondary, final and useful energy. Statistics concerning energy production, importation and exportation, consumption, and costs are discussed, showing the market share evolution of the different energy types; the France's energy independence ratio has increased from 22% in 1973 to 51% in 1995

  3. Balance-bot

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Victor Vicente

    2009-01-01

    Research on inverted pendulum has gained momentum over the last decade on a number of robotic laboratories over the world; due to its unstable proprieties is a good example for control engineers to verify a control theory. To verify that the pendulum can balance we can make some simulations using a closed-loop controller method such as the linear quadratic regulator or the proportional–integral–derivative method. Also the idea of robotic teleoperation is gaining ground. Control...

  4. Ballet Balance Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Camilla; Erleben, Kenny; Sporring, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Animating physically realistic human characters is challenging, since human observers are highly tuned to recognize human cues such as emotion and gender from motion patterns. The main contribution of this paper is a new model firmly based on biomechanics, which is used to animate balance and basic movements of a ballet dancers. It is supported by computer simulated experiments and it is in good agreement with biomechanical measurements of real-life dancers. Our results questions the previous...

  5. National energy balance - 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on available data from IBGE, CNP/Petrobras, Eletrobras, Nuclebras and other governmental enterprises the National Energy Balance was done. This publication covers since 1965 to 1975. In conformity to the international rules, the energy resources used for non-energy purposes were excluded. The energy production and consumption for the next ten years were forecasted, considering the actual brazilian energy policy. (E.G.)

  6. Finance and Balanced Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Trew, Alex

    2010-01-01

    We study the relationships between various concepts of financial development and balanced economic growth. A model of endogenous growth that incorporates roles for both financial efficiency and access to financial services permits a better understanding of the relationship between the size of the financial sector (value added) and growth. Higher financial value added results from some, but not all, kinds of finance-driven growth. If greater access rather than greater efficiency generates high...

  7. In the balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich; Pilegaard, Jess

    The present paper seeks to make sense of recent EU naval capability changes by applying neo-realist theory on the EU as an international actor in the global balance of power. The paper compares three different strands of Neo-realist theory by deducting key predictions about the expected defense...... strategy aimed at bolstering the autonomy and international influence of the Union, vis-à-vis other major powers, including the United States....

  8. Thinking About Competitive Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Allen R. Sanderson; John J. Siegfried

    2003-01-01

    Simon Rottenberg long ago noted that the nature of sports is such that competitors must be of approximately equal ability if any are to be financially successful. In recent years, sports commentators and fans, Major League Baseball itself, and even some economists have expressed growing concern about the widening disparities among team expenditures and the growing concentrations of postseason contenders and championships. In this article we compare different concepts of competitive balance, r...

  9. Simple Cell Balance Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven D.; Byers, Jerry W.; Martin, James A.

    2012-01-01

    A method has been developed for continuous cell voltage balancing for rechargeable batteries (e.g. lithium ion batteries). A resistor divider chain is provided that generates a set of voltages representing the ideal cell voltage (the voltage of each cell should be as if the cells were perfectly balanced). An operational amplifier circuit with an added current buffer stage generates the ideal voltage with a very high degree of accuracy, using the concept of negative feedback. The ideal voltages are each connected to the corresponding cell through a current- limiting resistance. Over time, having the cell connected to the ideal voltage provides a balancing current that moves the cell voltage very close to that ideal level. In effect, it adjusts the current of each cell during charging, discharging, and standby periods to force the cell voltages to be equal to the ideal voltages generated by the resistor divider. The device also includes solid-state switches that disconnect the circuit from the battery so that it will not discharge the battery during storage. This solution requires relatively few parts and is, therefore, of lower cost and of increased reliability due to the fewer failure modes. Additionally, this design uses very little power. A preliminary model predicts a power usage of 0.18 W for an 8-cell battery. This approach is applicable to a wide range of battery capacities and voltages.

  10. Gait and balance disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masdeu, Joseph C

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on one of the most common types of neurologic disorders: altered walking. Walking impairment often reflects disease of the neurologic structures mediating gait, balance or, most often, both. These structures are distributed along the neuraxis. For this reason, this chapter is introduced by a brief description of the neurobiologic underpinning of walking, stressing information that is critical for imaging, namely, the anatomic representation of gait and balance mechanisms. This background is essential not only in order to direct the relevant imaging tools to the regions more likely to be affected but also to interpret correctly imaging findings that may not be related to the walking deficit object of clinical study. The chapter closes with a discussion on how to image some of the most frequent etiologies causing gait or balance impairment. However, it focuses on syndromes not already discussed in other chapters of this volume, such as Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders, already discussed in Chapter 48, or cerebellar ataxia, in Chapter 23, in the previous volume. As regards vascular disease, the spastic hemiplegia most characteristic of brain disease needs little discussion, while the less well-understood effects of microvascular disease are extensively reviewed here, together with the imaging approach. PMID:27430451

  11. Medical Devices Assess, Treat Balance Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    series of dynamic protocols to isolate and assess balance function deficiencies. The technology was based on Nashner s novel, engineering-inspired concept of balance as an adaptable collaboration between multiple sensory and motor systems. CDP proved useful not only for examining astronauts, but for anyone suffering from balance problems. Today, CDP is the standard medical tool for objectively evaluating balance control.

  12. Chemical Modeling of Cometary Anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordiner, Martin; Charnley, S. B.

    2009-09-01

    The presence of negative ions (anions) in cometary comae is known from Giotto mass spectrometry of 1P/Halley. The anions O-, OH-, C-, CH- and CN- have been detected, as well as unidentified anions with masses 22-65 and 85-110 amu (Chaizy et al. 1991). Organic molecular anions are known to have a significant impact on the charge balance of interstellar clouds and circumstellar envelopes and have been shown to act as catalysts for the gas-phase synthesis of larger hydrocarbon molecules in the ISM, but their importance in cometary comae has not previously been explored. We present details of the first attempt to model the chemistry of anions in cometary comae. Based on the combined chemical and hydrodynamical model of Rodgers & Charnley (2002), we investigate the role of the hydrocarbon and nitrile anions Cn-, CnH- and CnN- in the coma. We calculate the effects of these anions on the charge balance and examine their impact on cometary coma chemistry. References: Chaizy, P. et al. 1991, Nature, 349, 393 Rodgers, S.D. & Charnley, S.B. 2002, MNRAS, 330, 660

  13. Broken detailed balance at mesoscopic scales in active biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Christopher; Broedersz, Chase P; Fakhri, Nikta; Geyer, Veikko F; Howard, Jonathon; Schmidt, Christoph F; MacKintosh, Fred C

    2016-04-29

    Systems in thermodynamic equilibrium are not only characterized by time-independent macroscopic properties, but also satisfy the principle of detailed balance in the transitions between microscopic configurations. Living systems function out of equilibrium and are characterized by directed fluxes through chemical states, which violate detailed balance at the molecular scale. Here we introduce a method to probe for broken detailed balance and demonstrate how such nonequilibrium dynamics are manifest at the mesosopic scale. The periodic beating of an isolated flagellum from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exhibits probability flux in the phase space of shapes. With a model, we show how the breaking of detailed balance can also be quantified in stationary, nonequilibrium stochastic systems in the absence of periodic motion. We further demonstrate such broken detailed balance in the nonperiodic fluctuations of primary cilia of epithelial cells. Our analysis provides a general tool to identify nonequilibrium dynamics in cells and tissues. PMID:27126047

  14. Effectiveness of taping and bracing in balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkoukis, Vassilis; Sykaras, Evaggelos; Costa, Frosoula; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos

    2002-04-01

    Taping and bracing are thought to be effective methods in restricting the ankle's joint motion and assisting prevention of injuries. Research evidence suggests that taping and bracing enhance both the mechanical support and the proprioception of the ankle. However, there is little research concerning the influence of taping and bracing on sport performance. Research has mainly examined tasks with demands on the frontal plane. Therefore, the present study examined the effect of taping and bracing on the performance of a task with demands on the frontal plane. A sample of 30 physical education students (Mage=21.9 yr.) performed a balance task requiring estimation of balance and both right and left deviations. The subjects performed the balance task on four different conditions, with tape, with Swede-O (a lace-up, boot style stabilizer), with Aircast (an inflatable cast), and without any stabilizer. There were no significant differences among the conditions. These findings indicate that taping and bracing do not have negative effects on balance in the frontal plane. This study created concerns regarding the appropriate stabilizer for different tasks, bilateral coordination after the application of a stabilizer, and the influence of psychological factors on prevention of injury. PMID:12027354

  15. Testing Postural Stability: Are the Star Excursion Balance Test and Biodex Balance System Limits of Stability Tests Consistent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glave, A Page; Didier, Jennifer J; Weatherwax, Jacqueline; Browning, Sarah J; Fiaud, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    There are a variety of options to test postural stability; however many physical tests lack validity information. Two tests of postural stability - the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) and Biodex Balance System Limits of Stability Test (LOS) - were examined to determine if similar components of balance were measured. Healthy adults (n=31) completed the LOS (levels 6 and 12) and SEBT (both legs). SEBT directions were offset by 180° to approximate LOS direction. Correlations and partial correlations controlling for height were analyzed. Correlations were significant for SEBT 45° and LOS back-left (6: r=-0.41; 12: r=-0.42; ptests seem to assess different components of balance. Research is needed to determine and define what specific components of balance are being assessed. Care must be taken when choosing balance tests to best match the test to the purpose of testing (fall risk, athletic performance, etc.). PMID:26514832

  16. Lesson "Balance in Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapanova, V.

    2012-04-01

    Lesson "Balance in Nature" This simulation game-lesson (Balance in Nature) gives an opportunity for the students to show creativity, work independently, and to create models and ideas. It creates future-oriented thought connected to their experience, allowing them to propose solutions for global problems and personal responsibility for their activities. The class is divided in two teams. Each team chooses questions. 1. Question: Pollution in the environment. 2. Question: Care for nature and climate. The teams work on the chosen tasks. They make drafts, notes and formulate their solutions on small pieces of paper, explaining the impact on nature and society. They express their points of view using many different opinions. This generates alternative thoughts and results in creative solutions. With the new knowledge and positive behaviour defined, everybody realizes that they can do something positive towards nature and climate problems and the importance of individuals for solving global problems is evident. Our main goal is to recover the ecological balance, and everybody explains his or her own well-grounded opinions. In this work process the students obtain knowledge, skills and more responsible behaviour. This process, based on his or her own experience, dialogue and teamwork, helps the participant's self-development. Making the model "human↔ nature" expresses how human activities impact the natural Earth and how these impacts in turn affect society. Taking personal responsibility, we can reduce global warming and help the Earth. By helping nature we help ourselves. Teacher: Veselina Boycheva-Chapanova " Saint Patriarch Evtimii" Scholl Str. "Ivan Vazov"-19 Plovdiv Bulgaria

  17. Balancing innovation and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Jobeth W

    2015-01-01

    Nurse educators are encouraged to use evidence to guide their teaching strategies. However, evidence is not always available. How can educators make decisions regarding strategies when data are limited or absent? Where do innovation and creativity fit? How can innovation be balanced with evidence? This article provides a discussion regarding other sources of evidence, such as extrapolations, theories and principles, and collective expertise. Readers are encouraged to review the options and then analyze how they might be applied to innovation in education. PMID:25790361

  18. Watt and joule balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ian A.

    2014-04-01

    The time is fast approaching when the SI unit of mass will cease to be based on a single material artefact and will instead be based upon the defined value of a fundamental constant—the Planck constant—h . This change requires that techniques exist both to determine the appropriate value to be assigned to the constant, and to measure mass in terms of the redefined unit. It is important to ensure that these techniques are accurate and reliable to allow full advantage to be taken of the stability and universality provided by the new definition and to guarantee the continuity of the world's mass measurements, which can affect the measurement of many other quantities such as energy and force. Up to now, efforts to provide the basis for such a redefinition of the kilogram were mainly concerned with resolving the discrepancies between individual implementations of the two principal techniques: the x-ray crystal density (XRCD) method [1] and the watt and joule balance methods which are the subject of this special issue. The first three papers report results from the NRC and NIST watt balance groups and the NIM joule balance group. The result from the NRC (formerly the NPL Mk II) watt balance is the first to be reported with a relative standard uncertainty below 2 × 10-8 and the NIST result has a relative standard uncertainty below 5 × 10-8. Both results are shown in figure 1 along with some previous results; the result from the NIM group is not shown on the plot but has a relative uncertainty of 8.9 × 10-6 and is consistent with all the results shown. The Consultative Committee for Mass and Related Quantities (CCM) in its meeting in 2013 produced a resolution [2] which set out the requirements for the number, type and quality of results intended to support the redefinition of the kilogram and required that there should be agreement between them. These results from NRC, NIST and the IAC may be considered to meet these requirements and are likely to be widely debated

  19. Die Balance der Verantwortung

    OpenAIRE

    Abt, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Die Balance der Verantwortung Ein Modell der Pädagogik zur Entwicklung von Verantwortungsfähigkeit Diese Arbeit befasst sich mit dem Begriff der Verantwortung, der in der Gesellschaft häufig verwendet wird und dort in der Regel positiv belegt ist. Neben der Vorstellung einer modernen Begriffsinterpretation lege ich die Bedeutung des Themas Verantwortung für die menschliche Existenz und damit auch für die Themen Erziehung und Bildung dar. Ausgehend von der Frage, warum Menschen in der d...

  20. Balance of multi-wavelets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Yibo

    2003-01-01

    The discrete scalar data need prefiltering when transformed by discrete multi-wavelet, but prefiltering will make some properties of multi-wavelets lost. Balanced multi-wavelets can avoid prefiltering. The sufficient and necessary condition of p-order balance for multi-wavelets in time domain, the interrelation between balance order and approximation order and the sampling property of balanced multi-wavelets are investigated. The algorithms of 1-0rder and 2-0rder balancing for multi-wavelets are obtained. The two algorithms both preserve the orthogonal relation between multi-scaling function and multi-wavelets. More importantly, balancing operation doesn't increase the length of filters, which suggests that a relatively short balanced multiwavelet can be constructed from an existing unbalanced multi-wavelet as short as possible.

  1. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  2. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  3. Internet Governance - Balancing Freedom & Security Online

    OpenAIRE

    Groth, Ida Ørum; Kjeldtoft, Sebastian Stryhn; Lykke, Sebastian Møller; Nielsen, Toke Andersson Dalsgaard

    2012-01-01

    As the Internet is permeating every layer of society in western democratic states, governments are beginning to realize not only the vast opportunities of the Net, but also its destructive capabilities. This project examines how states are struggling to balance freedom and security, while upholding their Social Contract in cyberspace, as the Internet’s borderless structure is challenging the geographical nature of the state. Using theories from Barry Buzan and Jan Aart Scholte as a framework ...

  4. The vestibular control of balance after stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Marsden, J. F.; Playford, E. D.; Day, B. L.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To examine vestibular control of balance in those who recovered the ability to stand after middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke.Methods: Sixteen patients with MCA stroke were compared with 10 age matched controls. Two additional patients were studied with isolated corticospinal tract lesions, one each at the level of the pons and medulla. Vestibular evoked postural responses were obtained using galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) while patients stood with their eyes closed and he...

  5. Towards a general water balance model

    OpenAIRE

    Σαπουντζής, Κωνσταντίνος Ι.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper a general stochastic model is developed for the description of the water balance in an area. Both the water intake and output are considered as stochastic variables. The model, which naturally accommodates the basic features of the phenomenon, helps in evaluating quantities such as the distributuon of the wet period following some time instant. The application of the model in a specific case is examined.

  6. Balanced Growth, Travel Demand, and Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Cervero, Robert; Duncan, Michael

    2006-01-01

    All smart growth initiatives involve some degree of mixed land uses. Which mixed-use strategies – e.g., jobs-housing balance, adding retail to residential districts -- offer the greatest traffic-reducing benefits? This paper addresses this question by examining the degree to which job accessibility is associated with reduced work travel and how closely retail-service accessibility is correlated with miles and hours logged getting to shopping destinations. Based on data from the San Francisc...

  7. Off-Balance-Sheet Federal Liabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Much attention has been given to the recent growth of the U.S. federal debt. This paper examines the growth of federal liabilities that are not included in the officially reported numbers. These take the form of implicit or explicit government guarantees and commitments. The five major categories surveyed include support for housing, other loan guarantees, deposit insurance, actions taken by the Federal Reserve, and government trust funds. The total dollar value of notional off-balance-sheet ...

  8. Validity and reliability of the Nintendo Wii Balance Board for assessment of standing balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ross A; Bryant, Adam L; Pua, Yonghao; McCrory, Paul; Bennell, Kim; Hunt, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Impaired standing balance has a detrimental effect on a person's functional ability and increases their risk of falling. There is currently no validated system which can precisely quantify center of pressure (COP), an important component of standing balance, while being inexpensive, portable and widely available. The Wii Balance Board (WBB) fits these criteria, and we examined its validity in comparison with the 'gold standard'-a laboratory-grade force platform (FP). Thirty subjects without lower limb pathology performed a combination of single and double leg standing balance tests with eyes open or closed on two separate occasions. Data from the WBB were acquired using a laptop computer. The test-retest reliability for COP path length for each of the testing devices, including a comparison of the WBB and FP data, was examined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Bland-Altman plots (BAP) and minimum detectable change (MDC). Both devices exhibited good to excellent COP path length test-retest reliability within-device (ICC=0.66-0.94) and between-device (ICC=0.77-0.89) on all testing protocols. Examination of the BAP revealed no relationship between the difference and the mean in any test, however the MDC values for the WBB did exceed those of the FP in three of the four tests. These findings suggest that the WBB is a valid tool for assessing standing balance. Given that the WBB is portable, widely available and a fraction of the cost of a FP, it could provide the average clinician with a standing balance assessment tool suitable for the clinical setting. PMID:20005112

  9. Modeling of Ecologically Equalized Gross Domestic Product Based on Modified Intersectoral Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Soshnikava, L. A.

    2007-01-01

    The work examines possible directions of update of intersectoral balance traditional model in order to estimate ecologically equalized gross domestic product considering actions performed to eliminate pollution.

  10. Kin Selection - Mutation Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyken, J. David Van; Linksvayer, Timothy Arnold; Wade, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Social conflict, in the form of intraspecific selfish "cheating" has been observed in a number of natural systems. However, a formal, evolutionary genetic theory of social cheating that provides an explanatory, predictive framework for these observations is lacking. Here we derive the kin...... selection-mutation balance, which provides an evolutionary null hypothesis for the statics and dynamics of cheating. When social interactions have linear fitness effects and Hamilton´s rule is satisfied, selection is never strong enough to eliminate recurrent cheater mutants from a population, but cheater...... lineages are transient and do not invade. Instead, cheating lineages are eliminated by kin selection but are constantly reintroduced by mutation, maintaining a stable equilibrium frequency of cheaters. The presence of cheaters at equilibrium creates a "cheater load" that selects for mechanisms of cheater...

  11. A Balancing Act?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstlberger, Wolfgang; Knudsen, Mette Præst; Stampe, Ian

    efficiency moderates the effect of market attention on new product development. The paper therefore concludes that product innovation and energy efficiency is a balancing act, focusing on one will have detrimental effects on the other! These findings point to the conclusion that researchers and practitioners......With an undifferentiated catchword ‘eco-innovation’ is a largely understudied area, but of high relevance to the society and companies given the strong focus especially by governments on grand challenges like climate change, green technologies and environmental challenges. The paper utilizes the...... 2009 European Manufacturing Survey for the Danish sub-sample including 335 manufacturing firms. Through factor analysis, the paper confirms three main focus areas of new product development in relation to production facilities: efficiency considerations, market attention and greening of innovation...

  12. The balanced mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allen, Micah; Smallwood, Jonathan; Christensen, Joanna;

    2013-01-01

    Self-generated thoughts unrelated to ongoing activities, also known as "mind-wandering," make up a substantial portion of our daily lives. Reports of such task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs) predict both poor performance on demanding cognitive tasks and blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) activity in......-wandering on response inhibition and monitoring, using the Error Awareness Task (EAT). We expected to replicate links between TUT and reduced inhibition, and explored whether variance in TUT would predict improved error monitoring, reflecting a capacity to balance between internal and external cognition. By...... during error awareness, supporting a link between monitoring and TUTs. Altogether our results suggest that although TUT is detrimental to task performance, fluctuations in attention between self-generated and external task-related thought is a characteristic of individuals with greater metacognitive...

  13. Gravity in the balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although Einstein's theories of relativity showed that Newton's ideas about gravity, space and time were approximations, general relativity still predicts that the gravitational force between two point objects will obey an inverse-square law in the limit of low velocities and weak gravitational fields. Of course, we know that general relativity is probably an approximation as well and that some grander theory - possibly involving extra dimensions of space - will unify gravity with the other fundamental forces. Many of these theories predict that the inverse-square law will break down at distances that are becoming accessible to (relatively small) experiments with torsion balances. As researchers from the Eoet-Wash group in Seattle report 'Testing the gravitational inverse-square law', the inverse-square law has survived all tests so far, but its days are surely numbered. (U.K.)

  14. A Balancing Act?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstlberger, Wolfgang; Stampe, Ian; Knudsen, Mette Præst

    efficiency moderates the effect of market attention on new product development. The paper therefore concludes that product innovation and energy efficiency is a balancing act, focusing on one will have detrimental effects on the other! These findings point to the conclusion that researchers and practitioners....... Logistic regression analysis demonstrates that while market attention is important for new product development, green aspects of innovation and efficiency considerations for innovation are important for the energy efficiency of the production companies. Combining these models highlights that energy...... in innovation management have to take the specificities and interactions of different types of eco-innovation more carefully in consideration than so far and to formulate new managerial practices combining energy efficiency and product innovation....

  15. Influence of chemical surfactants on the biodegradation of crude oil by a mixed bacterial culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted in which the effects of surfactant physicochemical properties on crude oil biodegradation by a mixed-bacterial culture were examined. The effects of hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) and molecular structure on the biodegradation of Bow River crude oil were determined. It was shown that chemical surfactants have the potential to improve crude oil biodegradation in complex microbial systems. Surfactant selection should consider factors such as molecular structure, HLB and surfactant concentration. 26 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  16. Effects of insoles contact on static balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ju Yong; Ryu, Young Uk; Yi, Chae Woo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effect of the degree of the contact area between the insoles and soles on static balance. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen healthy male and female adults voluntarily participated. All of the subjects wore three different types of insoles (no orthotic insole, partial contact, full contact) in the present experiment. The subjects were instructed to place both feet parallel to each other and maintain static balance for 30 seconds. Center of pressure parameters (range, total distance, and mean velocity) were analyzed. [Results] The results show that the anteroposterior range and mediolateral (ML) total distance and velocity decreased when orthotic insoles with partial contact or full contact were used in comparison to when a flat insole (no orthotic insole) was used. Also, the ML range and total distance were lower with full contact than in the other two conditions. These results indicate that static balance improves as the degree of contact between the soles and insoles increases. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggests that using insoles with increased sole contact area would improve static balance ability.

  17. Islamic State and Chemical Weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Rafay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with topic of Islamic State and chemical weapons. The issue is analysed in three dimensions: origin of used chemical weapons and possibility of independent production; known chemical attacks and tactical regularities in their execution; and traits of future chemical terrorist attacks. By providing a thorough examination of the problem, the article aims at predicting the future development of the group’s chemical program as well as describing any prospective chemical terrorist attacks in Europe

  18. Variance approximation under balanced sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Deville, Jean-Claude; Tillé, Yves

    2016-01-01

    A balanced sampling design has the interesting property that Horvitz–Thompson estimators of totals for a set of balancing variables are equal to the totals we want to estimate, therefore the variance of Horvitz–Thompson estimators of variables of interest are reduced in function of their correlations with the balancing variables. Since it is hard to derive an analytic expression for the joint inclusion probabilities, we derive a general approximation of variance based on a residual technique....

  19. Designing Multinational Electricity Balancing Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Veen, R.A.C.

    2012-01-01

    In today’s unbundled electricity markets, the balancing market is an intricate institutional arrangement that makes sure that the balance between electricity supply and demand is maintained. In the light of the development of a single electricity market in Europe, harmonization and integration of currently national balancing markets have received an increasing attention from governments, system operators, and regulators. This dissertation provides a systematic overview of the possibilities an...

  20. Psychology of the nuclear balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonntag, P.

    1981-10-01

    The balance of military forces is meant to prevent war. But it is a very precarious balance, which becomes all the more dubious when the deterrent is no longer psychologically effective: when the country attacked is deterred from striking back with nuclear weapons. A unilateral disarmament above the overkill level would be possible without endangering the balance. It would improve the climate for mutual disarmament.

  1. Radar channel balancing with commutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-02-01

    When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.

  2. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  3. The consequences of balanced harvesting of fish communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Nis Sand; Gislason, Henrik; Andersen, Ken Haste

    2014-01-01

    community structure and yield. We use a size- and trait-based model that resolves individual interactions through competition and predation to compare balanced harvesting with traditional selective harvesting, which protects juvenile fish from fishing. Four different exploitation patterns, generated by......Balanced harvesting, where species or individuals are exploited in accordance with their productivity, has been proposed as a way to minimize the effects of fishing on marine fish communities and ecosystems. This calls for a thorough examination of the consequences balanced harvesting has on fish...... combining selective or unselective harvesting with balanced or unbalanced fishing, are compared. We find that unselective balanced fishing, where individuals are exploited in proportion to their productivity, produces a slightly larger total maximum sustainable yield than the other exploitation patterns and...

  4. Diverse animal models to examine potential role(s) and mechanism of endocrine disrupting chemicals on the tumor progression and prevention: Do they have tumorigenic or anti-tumorigenic property?

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Min-Ah; Hwang, Kyung-A; CHOI, KYUNG-CHUL

    2011-01-01

    Acting as hormone mimics or antagonists in the interaction with hormone receptors, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have the potentials of disturbing the endocrine system in sex steroid hormone-controlled organs and tissues. These effects may lead to the disruption of major regulatory mechanisms, the onset of developmental disorders, and carcinogenesis. Especially, among diverse EDCs, xenoestrogens such as bisphenol A, dioxins, and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, have been shown to activate e...

  5. Costs of defense and a test of the carbon-nutrient balance and growth-differentiation balance hypotheses for two co-occurring classes of plant defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Joy Massad

    Full Text Available One of the goals of chemical ecology is to assess costs of plant defenses. Intraspecific trade-offs between growth and defense are traditionally viewed in the context of the carbon-nutrient balance hypothesis (CNBH and the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis (GDBH. Broadly, these hypotheses suggest that growth is limited by deficiencies in carbon or nitrogen while rates of photosynthesis remain unchanged, and the subsequent reduced growth results in the more abundant resource being invested in increased defense (mass-balance based allocation. The GDBH further predicts trade-offs in growth and defense should only be observed when resources are abundant. Most support for these hypotheses comes from work with phenolics. We examined trade-offs related to production of two classes of defenses, saponins (triterpenoids and flavans (phenolics, in Pentaclethra macroloba (Fabaceae, an abundant tree in Costa Rican wet forests. We quantified physiological costs of plant defenses by measuring photosynthetic parameters (which are often assumed to be stable in addition to biomass. Pentaclethra macroloba were grown in full sunlight or shade under three levels of nitrogen alone or with conspecific neighbors that could potentially alter nutrient availability via competition or facilitation. Biomass and photosynthesis were not affected by nitrogen or competition for seedlings in full sunlight, but they responded positively to nitrogen in shade-grown plants. The trade-off predicted by the GDBH between growth and metabolite production was only present between flavans and biomass in sun-grown plants (abundant resource conditions. Support was also only partial for the CNBH as flavans declined with nitrogen but saponins increased. This suggests saponin production should be considered in terms of detailed biosynthetic pathway models while phenolic production fits mass-balance based allocation models (such as the CNBH. Contrary to expectations based on the two

  6. Costs of defense and a test of the carbon-nutrient balance and growth-differentiation balance hypotheses for two co-occurring classes of plant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, Tara Joy; Dyer, Lee A; Vega C, Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    One of the goals of chemical ecology is to assess costs of plant defenses. Intraspecific trade-offs between growth and defense are traditionally viewed in the context of the carbon-nutrient balance hypothesis (CNBH) and the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis (GDBH). Broadly, these hypotheses suggest that growth is limited by deficiencies in carbon or nitrogen while rates of photosynthesis remain unchanged, and the subsequent reduced growth results in the more abundant resource being invested in increased defense (mass-balance based allocation). The GDBH further predicts trade-offs in growth and defense should only be observed when resources are abundant. Most support for these hypotheses comes from work with phenolics. We examined trade-offs related to production of two classes of defenses, saponins (triterpenoids) and flavans (phenolics), in Pentaclethra macroloba (Fabaceae), an abundant tree in Costa Rican wet forests. We quantified physiological costs of plant defenses by measuring photosynthetic parameters (which are often assumed to be stable) in addition to biomass. Pentaclethra macroloba were grown in full sunlight or shade under three levels of nitrogen alone or with conspecific neighbors that could potentially alter nutrient availability via competition or facilitation. Biomass and photosynthesis were not affected by nitrogen or competition for seedlings in full sunlight, but they responded positively to nitrogen in shade-grown plants. The trade-off predicted by the GDBH between growth and metabolite production was only present between flavans and biomass in sun-grown plants (abundant resource conditions). Support was also only partial for the CNBH as flavans declined with nitrogen but saponins increased. This suggests saponin production should be considered in terms of detailed biosynthetic pathway models while phenolic production fits mass-balance based allocation models (such as the CNBH). Contrary to expectations based on the two defense

  7. Paul Collier : Balancing beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    As former head of AB Operations, Paul Collier and his group were in the ‘cockpit’ for the LHC’s maiden voyage - piloting the first beam around the ring. But now, as Head of the Beams Department, he will need his feet firmly on the ground in order to balance all the beam activities at CERN. "As Department Head, I’ll have less direct contact with the machines," Collier says with a hint of regret. "I’ll still obviously be very involved, but they won’t actually let me loose in front of the keyboard anymore!" As the new Head of the BE Department, Collier will be in charge of nearly 400 people, and will oversee all the beam activities, including the preparations for the longest period of beam operation in the history of CERN. In the new organization, the BE, TE and EN Departments have been grouped together in the Accelerator and Technology Sector. "‘Partnership’ is a key word for the three departments," says Collier. "The n...

  8. Interim balance: Ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subjects: The ecology problem - world wide. Sectoral balances: The examples of energy, transportation, chemistry, agriculture and food industry, water supply. Destruction of nature and human discord. Conservatives in our political parties and their views on environmental protection. Alliance between reds and 'greens', integration between reds and greens. The Rhine initiative. Lead respects no borders, experiences of citizens' action groups in Lothringia and the Saar district. International airport Munich-II/comments by a protestant. 'Give priority to life'/A hearing on environmental protection. 4:96 - 'greens' in the Bremen Senate. Policy in a hard-hearing world/psychology of citizens' action groups. Critical ecological research and scientific establishment. Full productivity and ecology. The deluge to follow/Hints on how to build an ark. Symbiosis is more than coexistence/Ecologists' social theory. Throwing in two hundred elementary particles/on the way to an ecological concept of science. Scientific journals. Alternative literature. Teaching model for a teaching subject 'ecology'. (orig.)

  9. Balancing safety and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety requirements of NPPs have always aimed at limiting societal risks. This risk approach initially resulted in deterministic design criteria and concepts. In the 1980s the paradigm 'safety at all costs' arose and often led to questionable backfitting measures. Conflicts between new requirements, classical design concepts and operational demands were often ignored. The design requirements for advanced reactors ensure enhanced protection against severe accidents. Still, it is questionable whether the 'no-damage-outside-the-fence' criteria can be achieved deterministically and at competitive costs. Market deregulation and utility privatisation call for a balance between safety and costs, without jeopardising basic safety concepts. An ideal approach must be risk-based and imply modern PSAs and new methods for cost-benefit and ALARA analyses, embed nuclear risks in a wider risk spectrum, but also make benefits transparent within the context of a broader life experience. Governments should define basic requirements, minimum standards and consistent comparison criteria, and strengthen operator responsibility. Internationally sufficient and binding safety requirements must be established and nuclear technology transfer handled in a responsible way, while existing plants, with their continuous backfitting investments, should receive particular attention. (orig.)

  10. Par Pond water balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs

  11. The right balance

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Over the course of her career as a physicist, Felicitas Pauss, currently responsible for CERN's External Relations, has often been the sole woman in an environment dominated by men. While she freely admits that being a woman physicist can have as many advantages as disadvantages, she thinks the best strategy is to maintain the right balance.   From a very early age, Felicitas Pauss always wanted to be involved in projects that interested and fascinated her. That's how she came to study physics. When she was a first-year university student in Austria in 1970, it was still fairly uncommon for women to go into physics research. "I grew up in Salzburg with a background in music. At that time, it was certainly considered more ‘normal’ for a woman to study music than to do research in physics. But already in high school I was interested in physics and technical instruments and wanted to know how things work and what they are made of”. At the beginning of her care...

  12. Estimate of Amino Acid Balance in Nutrition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunWenzhi

    1995-01-01

    A new chemical index-imbalance degree(IBD),was proposed on the basis of cluster analysis in multivariate statistical analysis to estimate the extent of amino acid balance in protein.The range of IBD is between 0 and 1,successively corresponding to complete baance and entire imbalance for the amino acid profile of a sample.The amino acid increment model of IBD belongs to an asymmetrical maximum-type,and there is a high correlation between IBD and coefficient of variation(CV),The nutritional Value of individual feed can be ranked and clustered according to its IBD;and by calculating the IBD of amixed sample with two or more feedstuffs,it is possible theoretically to predict whether a synergetic phenomenon exists and when an optimal mutual complement can happen.If the conceptive frame of IBD extended,it can be used to study the balance of plement can happen.If the conceptive frame of IBD extended,it can be used to study the balance of nutrients besides amino acids,and is helpful to realize the automatic distinction and selection in diet formulating.

  13. Golfers have better balance control and confidence than healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kelly L; Hui-Chan, Christina W Y; Tsang, William W N

    2011-11-01

    In a well-executed golf swing, golfers must maintain good balance and precise control of posture. Golfing also requires prolonged walking over uneven ground such as a hilly course. Therefore, repeated golf practice may enhance balance control and confidence in the golfers. The objective is to investigate whether older golfers had better balance control and confidence than non-golfing older, healthy adults. This is a cross-sectional study, conducted at a University-based rehabilitation center. Eleven golfers and 12 control subjects (all male; mean age: 66.2 ± 6.8 and 71.3 ± 6.6 years, respectively) were recruited. Two balance control tests were administered: (1) functional reach test which measured subjects' maximum forward distance in standing; (2) sensory organization test (SOT) which examined subjects' abilities to use somatosensory, visual, and vestibular inputs to control body sway during stance. The modified Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) determined subject's balance confidence in daily activities. The golfers were found to achieve significantly longer distance in the functional reach test than controls. They manifested significantly better balance than controls in the visual ratio and vestibular ratio, but not the somatosensory ratio of the SOT. The golfers also reported significantly higher balance confidence score ratios. Furthermore, older adults' modified ABC score ratios showed positive correlations with functional reach, visual and vestibular ratios, but not with somatosensory ratio. Golfing is an activity which may enhance both the physical and psychological aspects of balance control. Significant correlations between these measures reveal the importance of the balance control under reduced or conflicting sensory conditions in older adults' balance confidence in their daily activities. Since cause-and-effect could not be established in the present cross-sectional study, further prospective intervention design is warranted. PMID

  14. Optimal allocation in balanced sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Tillé, Yves; Favre, Anne-Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The development of new sampling methods allows the selection of large balanced samples. In this paper we propose a method for computing optimal inclusion probabilities for balanced samples. Next, we show that the optimal Neyman allocation is a particular case of this method.

  15. A balancing act for renewables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, David

    2016-01-01

    Energy storage will play a key role in increasing the use of variable energy sources. Nonetheless, storage is not the only balancing option and the overall design of power systems will incorporate a range of flexible generation, storage and grid-balancing options of different types and scales.

  16. H∞ Balancing for Nonlinear Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.

    1996-01-01

    In previously obtained balancing methods for nonlinear systems a past and a future energy function are used to bring the nonlinear system in balanced form. By considering a different pair of past and future energy functions that are related to the H∞ control problem for nonlinear systems we define H

  17. When Do States Balance Power?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Wivel, Anders

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the logic of balancing in structural realist theory. Arguably, the durability of the unipolar moment is a challenge to the logic of balancing. The paper uses the tools of microeconomics to build a mathematical model of structural realism. The simple model reiterates the...

  18. System chemical biology studies of endocrine disruptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Oprea, Tudor I.

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) alter hormonal balance and other physiological systems through inappropriate developmental or adult exposure, perturbing the reproductive function of further generations. While disruption of key receptors (e.g., estrogen, androgen, and thyroid) at the ligand...

  19. Power balance in highly loaded fluorescent lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lister, G G [Osram Sylvania, 71 Cherry Hill Drive, Beverly, MA 01915 (United States); Curry, J J [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8422 (United States); Lawler, J E [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2004-11-21

    Discrepancies reported in the literature between numerical predictions and experimental measurements in low-pressure Hg discharges at high current densities are considered. Elements of a one-dimensional fluid model and recent spectroscopic and Langmuir probe measurements are combined in a semi-empirical way to individually examine components of the positive column power balance and the discharge conductivity. At a Hg vapour pressure of 0.81 Pa (6.1 mTorr) and a current density of 300 mA cm{sup -2}, previous discrepancies in the power balance and discharge conductivity are simultaneously resolved by assuming a higher electron density than that obtained from the Langmuir probe measurements. This conclusion is supported by independent measurements of ion density reported in a companion paper. The importance of radial cataphoresis under these conditions, particularly with regard to radiation transport, is highlighted. This work is of particular interest for the design of fluorescent lamps operating at high current densities.

  20. Effect of augmenting cholinergic function on gait and balance

    OpenAIRE

    Mancini, Martina; Fling, Brett W.; Gendreau, Anne; Lapidus, Jodi; Fay B. Horak; Chung, Kathy; Nutt, John G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Impaired mobility and falls are clinically important complications of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and a major detractor from quality of life for which there are limited therapies. Pathological, neuroimaging and clinical evidence suggest that degeneration of cholinergic systems may contribute to impairments of balance and gait in PD. The proposed trial will examine the effects of augmentation of the cholinergic system on balance and gait. Design The study is a single-site, proof of con...

  1. CSR BALANCED SCORECARD SYSTEMS AND BUSINESS PERFORMANCES: SMEs CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Edward Sek Khin Wong; Rusnah Muhamad; Lau Wee Yeap

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the performance measurement using the CSR Balanced Scorecard system in SMEs firms in Malaysia. It investigates the relationships of the four perspectives of CSR Balanced Scorecard system toward performance measurement. The purpose of this paper is to in- vestigate whether or not the improvement of the non-financial CSR measures will lead to the im- provement of performance measures. To test these relationships, data were collected using the four perspectives approac...

  2. Early Deprivation Impairs the Development of Balance and Bilateral Coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Roeber, Barbara J.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined balance and bilateral coordination skills in a sample of internationally adopted, post-institutionalized (PI) children. We compared the performance of these PI children to two age-matched groups. One was a group of children who were internationally adopted from foster care (FC). The second group consisted of non-adopted children being raised in their birth families, who served as controls (Control). Both PI and FC children scored lower than control children on balance, whi...

  3. The ionic balance of the sugar-beet plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond, van F.

    1975-01-01

    The ionic balance of the sugar-beet plant was studied by measuring dry weight and chemical composition of every leaf, the crown and the root during the growing season.The sugar-beet plant has an almost neutral uptake. The nitrate and sulphate reduction determines the amount of carboxylates in the pl

  4. Data needs for nutrient balances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Finn Pilgaard

    One of the tools for evaluating the results of environmental action plans or EU directives related to nutrients in the agricultural sector is to follow the development of annually estimated nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) balances and surplus. Unlike greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions, countries...... are not required to report N and P balances for agriculture as part of any international conventions. As a consequence, there is no organisation equivalent to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) or United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) who has responsibility for...... standardising and improving the methodology to calculate such balances. However, Eurostat and OECD have jointly established a standard for using a gross N balances, and the soil N balance calculated by the CAPRI model has gained acceptance in European policymaking. It can be mentioned that the Task Force on...

  5. Diverse animal models to examine potential role(s) and mechanism of endocrine disrupting chemicals on the tumor progression and prevention: Do they have tumorigenic or anti-tumorigenic property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min-Ah; Hwang, Kyung-A; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2011-12-01

    Acting as hormone mimics or antagonists in the interaction with hormone receptors, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have the potentials of disturbing the endocrine system in sex steroid hormone-controlled organs and tissues. These effects may lead to the disruption of major regulatory mechanisms, the onset of developmental disorders, and carcinogenesis. Especially, among diverse EDCs, xenoestrogens such as bisphenol A, dioxins, and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, have been shown to activate estrogen receptors (ERs) and to modulate cellular functions induced by ERs. Furthermore, they appear to be closely related with carcinogenicity in estrogen-dependant cancers, including breast, ovary, and prostate cancers. In in vivo animal models, prenatal exposure to xenoestrogens changed the development of the mouse reproductive organs and increased the susceptibility to further carcinogenic exposure and tumor occurence in adults. Unlike EDCs, which are chemically synthesized, several phytoestrogens such as genistein and resveratrol showed chemopreventive effects on specific cancers by contending with ER binding and regulating normal ER action in target tissues of mice. These results support the notion that a diet containing high levels of phytoestrogens can have protective effects on estrogen-related diseases. In spite of the diverse evidences of EDCs and phytoestrogens on causation and prevention of estrogen-dependant cancers provided in this article, there are still disputable questions about the dose-response effect of EDCs or chemopreventive potentials of phytoestrogens. As a wide range of EDCs including phytoestrogens have been remarkably increasing in the environment with the rapid growth in our industrial society and more closely affecting human and wildlife, the potential risks of EDCs in endocrine disruption and carcinogenesis are important issues and needed to be verified in detail. PMID:22232634

  6. Examination Management and Examination Malpractice: The Nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunji, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Examination malpractice or cheating has become a global phenomenon. In different countries of the world today, developed and developing, academic dishonesty especially cheating in examinations has heightened and taken frightening dimension. In many countries of the world this phenomenon has become a serious matter of concern that has left many…

  7. Phytohormone balance in healthy and diseased conifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christmann, A.; Frenzel, B.

    1987-07-11

    The symptoms of the forest decline point to disturbances in the balance of different hormones. It was to be examined, to which extent the most important phytohormones are affected by the disease in the course of time. Up to the present, ethylene metabolism and partly abscisic acid have been examined. Healthy fir needles show great differences in the ethylene and abscisic acid (AbA) contents, which depend on the season, the age of the needle, the age of the branch, the age of the tree, the exposition and the site. In addition to this behaviour, there are considerable changes caused by the disease. In this case, the examined hormones on sites with a strong respectively negligible SO/sub 2/-impact react differently from each other.

  8. Marriage and family therapy faculty members' balance of work and personal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Jennifer L; Rosen, Karen H

    2012-04-01

    A sense of imbalance is common among both professors and therapists, though few studies have been published examining the work and personal life balance of those who work in both professions simultaneously. Using in-depth telephone interviews, this study examined the work and personal life balance of 16 marriage and family therapy (MFT) faculty members. Results showed that six were satisfied with their balance, six were dissatisfied, and four were "middle of the road." Men, older participants, and those who were in their career longer were more likely to report feeling satisfied with their balance. Internal indicators of their balance included family and workplace messages, health indicators, feelings of contentment, and congruence with personal values. Child and relationship status, tenure status, and gender issues also impacted their sense of balance. Specific balance enhancers and reducers were highlighted, and participants discussed coping strategies and recommendations for other MFT faculty members. Clinical, training, and career implications are discussed. PMID:22512300

  9. Chemical Equilibrium in Supramolecular Systems as Studied by NMR Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gaitano, Gustavo; Tardajos, Gloria

    2004-01-01

    Undergraduate students are required to study the chemical balance in supramolecular assemblies constituting two or more interacting species, by using proton NMR spectrometry. A good knowledge of physical chemistry, fundamentals of chemical balance, and NMR are pre-requisites for conducting this study.

  10. Exit Presentation -- Maintaining Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Erin

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the projects which the author engaged in during an internship at Johnson Space Center. Project 1 was involved with Stochastic Resonance (SR). Stochastic resonance is a phenomenon in which the response of a non-linear system to a weak input signal is optimized by the presence of a particular non-zero level of noise. The goal of this project was to develop a countermeasure for sensorimotor disturbances that are experienced after long duration space flight. The second project was a pilot study that was to examine how adaptation to a novel functional task was affected by postural disturbance.

  11. Population Balance Models: A useful complementary modelling framework for future WWTP modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nopens, Ingmar; Torfs, Elena; Ducoste, Joel;

    2014-01-01

    Population Balance Models (PBMs) represent a powerful modelling framework for the description of the dynamics of properties that are characterised by statistical distributions. This has been demonstrated in many chemical engineering applications. Modelling efforts of several current and future un...

  12. Population balance models: a useful complementary modelling framework for future WWTP modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nopens, Ingmar; Torfs, Elena; Ducoste, Joel;

    2015-01-01

    Population balance models (PBMs) represent a powerful modelling framework for the description of the dynamics of properties that are characterised by distributions. This distribution of properties under transient conditions has been demonstrated in many chemical engineering applications. Modellin...

  13. How Our Balance System Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from your eyes, the inner ear, and the sensory systems of the body (such as the skin, muscles, ... function? How are vision, the inner ear, and sensory systems impacting functional balance? Some of the tests of ...

  14. Cautions Concerning Electronic Analytical Balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bruce B.; Wells, John D.

    1986-01-01

    Cautions chemists to be wary of ferromagnetic samples (especially magnetized samples), stray electromagnetic radiation, dusty environments, and changing weather conditions. These and other conditions may alter readings obtained from electronic analytical balances. (JN)

  15. Skylab water balance error analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    Estimates of the precision of the net water balance were obtained for the entire Skylab preflight and inflight phases as well as for the first two weeks of flight. Quantitative estimates of both total sampling errors and instrumentation errors were obtained. It was shown that measurement error is minimal in comparison to biological variability and little can be gained from improvement in analytical accuracy. In addition, a propagation of error analysis demonstrated that total water balance error could be accounted for almost entirely by the errors associated with body mass changes. Errors due to interaction between terms in the water balance equation (covariances) represented less than 10% of the total error. Overall, the analysis provides evidence that daily measurements of body water changes obtained from the indirect balance technique are reasonable, precise, and relaible. The method is not biased toward net retention or loss.

  16. An Oscillating Magnet Watt Balance

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmedov, H

    2015-01-01

    We establish the principles for a new generation of simplified and accurate watt balances in which an oscillating magnet generates Faraday's voltage in a stationary coil. A force measuring system and a mechanism providing vertical movements of the magnet are completely independent in an oscillating magnet watt balance. This remarkable feature allows to establish the link between the Planck constant and a macroscopic mass by a one single experiment. Weak dependence on variations of environmental and experimental conditions, weak sensitivity to ground vibrations and temperature changes, simple force measuring procedure, small sizes and other useful features offered by the novel approach considerably reduce the complexity of the experimental setup. We formulate the oscillating magnet watt balance principle and establish the measurement procedure for the Planck constant. We discuss the nature of oscillating magnet watt balance uncertainties and give a brief description of the National Metrology Institute (UME) wa...

  17. Laboratory Workhorse: The Analytical Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Douglas W.

    1979-01-01

    This report explains the importance of various analytical balances in the water or wastewater laboratory. Stressed is the proper procedure for utilizing the equipment as well as the mechanics involved in its operation. (CS)

  18. Nanotechnology for chemical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Salaheldeen Elnashaie, Said; Hashemipour Rafsanjani, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The book describes the basic principles of transforming nano-technology into nano-engineering with a particular focus on chemical engineering fundamentals. This book provides vital information about differences between descriptive technology and quantitative engineering for students as well as working professionals in various fields of nanotechnology. Besides chemical engineering principles, the fundamentals of nanotechnology are also covered along with detailed explanation of several specific nanoscale processes from chemical engineering point of view. This information is presented in form of practical examples and case studies that help the engineers and researchers to integrate the processes which can meet the commercial production. It is worth mentioning here that, the main challenge in nanostructure and nanodevices production is nowadays related to the economic point of view. The uniqueness of this book is a balance between important insights into the synthetic methods of nano-structures and nanomaterial...

  19. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining and licensing of applicants for NRC operator licenses pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). They are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to understand the examination process better and to provide for equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants by NRC examiners. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator examination licensing policy changes

  20. Hatha yoga on body balance

    OpenAIRE

    Erick Tadeu Prado; Vagner Raso; Renata Coelho Scharlach; Cristiane Akemi Kasse

    2014-01-01

    Background: A good body balance requires a proper function of vestibular, visual, and somatosensory systems which can be reach with exercise practice and/or yoga. Aim: To determine the effects of a 5-month hatha yoga training program on body balance in young adults. Materials and Methods: This study used a controlled, nonrandomized design, where the experimental group underwent a 5-month training program and were then compared with the control group that had a sedentary lifestyle. A c...

  1. Risk, Balanced Skills and Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, C.; Parker, S.C.; Praag, van, B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes that risk aversion encourages individuals to invest in balanced skill profiles, making them more likely to become entrepreneurs. By not having taken this possible linkage into account, previous research has underestimated the impacts both of risk aversion and balanced skills on the likelihood individuals choose entrepreneurship. Data on Dutch university graduates provides evidence which supports this contention. It thereby raises the possibility that even risk-averse peopl...

  2. Balancing local budgets in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Attila GYÖRGY

    2014-01-01

    Local budgets in Romania are balanced with revenues transferred from state budget according to the criterions laid down in the Local Public Finance Act. These criterions are focusing on the financial capacity, population and surface, each local budget getting balancing amounts inversely with the administrative unit’s wellness and directly to size. The repartition algorithm is used for more than a decade, but periodically it was revised in order to be better folded to fiscal policy and economi...

  3. Electric power balance sheet 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2012: strong seasonal contrast of power consumption, rise of the renewable energies contribution in meeting the electricity demand, slight decay of the nuclear and thermal power generation, decrease of the export balance and change in trades structure, adaptation of RTE's network to the evolutions of the energy system

  4. Financial intermediary balance sheet management

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian,Tobias; Shin, Hyun Song

    2011-01-01

    Conventional discussions of balance sheet management by nonfinancial firms take the set of positive net present value (NPV) projects as given, which in turn determines the size of the assets of the firm. The focus is on the composition of equity and debt in funding such assets. In contrast, the balance sheet management of financial intermediaries reveals that it is equity that behaves like the predetermined variable, and the asset size of the bank or financial intermediary is determined by th...

  5. VALUE BALANCE IN CONSUMER PROTECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Dahsan Hasan

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to describe how the realization of ' Balance ' in the Consumer Protection Act, describes how the responsibility of the parties (consumers, businessmen and the Government) so that it can realize the value of the balance in the protection of consumer, Research conducted in the framework of the preparation of this dissertation is to type the socio-juridical, in addition to researching the secondary legal materials in the form of legal regulations, manual and electronic law lib...

  6. Balancer effects in opinion dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Cheon, Taksu

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a novel type of contrarian agent, the balancer, to Galam model of opinion dynamics, in order to account for the skepticism over one-sidedness and for the sense of fairness. We find that the inclusion of balancers along with floaters and inflexibles brings about a critical point on parametric plane of the dynamical system, which results in the new kind of stable final states of the opinion dynamics, that seem to capture several intriguing features found often in mature democracies.

  7. Assessment of perioperative fluid balance

    OpenAIRE

    Bumbaširević V.; Marković D.; Vlajković G.; Sinđelić R.

    2009-01-01

    Careful assessment of the fluid balance is required in the perioperative period since appropriate fluid therapy is essential for successful patient's outcome. Haemodynamic monitoring allows understanding the physiology of the circulation and changes of fluid balance in the perioperative period. This is diagnostic aid and guide for fluid replacement therapy. Patient's volume status is frequently assessed by different haemodynamic variables that could be targeted as the endpoints for fluid ther...

  8. Form 6 - gas balancing agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1988, a special Committee of the Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Foundation undertook a project to draft a model from gas balancing agreement. This project was initiated at the request of a number of Foundation members who felt that a model form gas balancing agreement would facilitate the negotiation of operating agreement, since gas balancing issues had become sticking points in the process. The Committee was composed of attorneys representing a wide cross-section of the oil and gas industry including both major and independent oil companies, production companies with interstate pipeline affiliates, and private practitioners. The Committee attempted to address the more controversial issues in gas balancing with optional provisions in the Form. To facilitate the negotiation process, the number of optional provisions was minimized. This form may be used as an Appendix to the new A.A.P.L. Form 610-1989 Model Form Operating Agreement. This book includes provision of this Form which are: Ownership of gas production; Balancing of production accounts; Cash balancing upon depletion; Deliverability tests; Nominations; Statements; Payment of taxes; Operating expenses; Overproducing allowable; Payment of leasehold burdens; Operator's liability; Successors and assigns; Audits; Arbitration; and Operator's fees

  9. Poli(Álcool Vinílico Modificado com Cadeias Hidrocarbônicas: Avaliação do Balanço Hidrófilo/Lipófilo Chemical Modification of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol: Evaluation of Hydrophilic/Lipophilic Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabele B. Aranha

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Terpolímeros de poli(álcool vinílico foram sintetizados por meio de reação de esterificação do PVA parcialmente hidrolisado com cloretos de ácidos graxos de comprimento de cadeia diferentes. O objetivo da síntese foi obter polímeros à base de PVA com pequenas variações no balanço hidrófilo/lipófilo e nas propriedades interfaciais de suas soluções. A modificação foi acompanhada por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio e as propriedades foram avaliadas pela variação na solubilidade e na tensão superficial. Foram obtidos polímeros modificados com baixos teores de grupamento hidrófobo. Testes de tensão superficial, realizados com os produtos solúveis em água, não mostraram variação dessa propriedade. A solubilidade dos produtos diminuiu sensivelmente mesmo para pequenas incorporações de grupamento hidrófobo. Foi observado que, para uma mesma massa, segmentos hidrófobos menores, distribuídos ao longo da cadeia, promovem maior modificação na solubilidade.Poly(vinyl alcohol terpolymers have been obtained by reaction of partially hydrolized poly(vinyl alcohol with different acid chlorides. The objective is the preparation of polymers with slight differences in their hydrophilic/lipophilic balance and in the interfacial activities of their solutions. The chemical modifications were characterized by means of ¹H NMR and the polymer properties were evaluated in terms of changes in solubility and surface tension. By chemical modification, polymers with low percentage of hydrophobic group were obtained. The water-soluble polymers obtained did not have the surface tension of their solutions altered. The solubility of the modified polymers decreased markedly, even with low contents of hydrophobic groups.

  10. Devaluation and trade balance in Latin American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahraman Kalyoncu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine effectiveness of devaluation on the trade balance in four countries: Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Peru. We use the Johansen-Juselius cointegration test and impulse response function to estimate the long-run and shortrun effects of devaluation on the trade balance. The estimated results suggest that depreciation improve the trade balance in the long run for the case of Argentina and Peru, and in the short-run there has been J-curve in Argentina and Peru. In addition, the cointegration is found among the four variables (trade balance, domestic income, foreign incomes and real exchange rate in the case of Argentina and Peru. The results also indicate that there is no cointegration relationship between these variables for Brazil and Mexico. The conclusion of the paper is that the evidence of the J-curve pattern was found for Argentina and Peru only.

  11. Resolving conflicts among principles: ranking, balancing, and specifying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veatch, Robert M

    1995-09-01

    While much attention has been given to the use of principles in biomedical ethics and increasing attention is given to alternative theoretical approaches, relatively little attention has been devoted to the critical task of how one resolves conflicts among competing principles. After summarizing the system of principles and some problems in conceptualizing the principles, several strategies for reconciling conflicts among principles are examined including the use of single-principle theories (pure libertarianism, pure utilitarianism, and pure Hippocratism), balancing theories, conflicting appeals theories, and lexical ordering. Then a mixed strategy is proposed in which consequentialist principles are balanced between themselves as are nonconsequentialist principles, after which the result of balancing the nonconsequentialist principles is lexically ranked over the result of balancing the consequentialist ones. Finally, strategies involving specifying and rule generation are discussed concluding that most current specification and rule-generating theories must involve some degree of lexical ordering of principles. PMID:11645306

  12. Is work-family balance more than conflict and enrichment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Dawn S; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Zivnuska, Suzanne

    2009-10-01

    This study deepens our theoretical and practical understanding of work-family balance, defined as the 'accomplishment of role-related expectations that are negotiated and shared between an individual and his/her role-related partners in the work and family domains' (Grzywacz & Carlson, 2007: 458). We develop a new measure of work-family balance and establish discriminant validity between it, work-family conflict, and work-family enrichment. Further, we examine the relationship of work-family balance with six key work and family outcomes. Results suggest that balance explains variance beyond that explained by traditional measures of conflict and enrichment for five of six outcomes tested: job satisfaction, organizational commitment, family satisfaction, family performance, and family functioning. We conclude with a discussion of the applications of our work. PMID:20148121

  13. The balanced scorecard: an integrative approach to performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J

    2001-05-01

    In addition to strict financial outcomes, healthcare financial managers should assess intangible assets that affect the organization's bottom line, such as clinical processes, staff skills, and patient satisfaction and loyalty. The balanced scorecard, coupled with data-warehousing capabilities, offers a way to measure an organization's performance against its strategic objectives while focusing on building capabilities to achieve these objectives. The balanced scorecard examines performance related to finance, human resources, internal processes, and customers. Because the balanced scorecard requires substantial amounts of data, it is a necessity to establish an organizational data warehouse of clinical, operational, and financial data that can be used in decision support. Because it presents indicators that managers and staff can influence directly by their actions, the balanced-scorecard approach to performance measurement encourages behavioral changes aimed at achieving corporate strategies. PMID:11351809

  14. Health Examination by PET. (1) Cancer Examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer examination by positron emission tomography (PET) started in Japan in 1994 and has been rapidly popularized. This paper describes author's experience of the examination in his hospital along the recent Japanese guideline for the PET cancer examination. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is intravenously injected at 3.7 (or 4.6, for diabetic patients) MBq/kg after 4-5 hr fasting and 40 min later, imaging is conducted with additional delayed scan at 2 hr to reduce the possible false positive. Image is taken by the equipment with PET-specific camera, of which quality assurance (QA) is maintained according to the guideline, and 3D image is constructed by the ordered subset expectation maximization method. Number of examinees during 4.5 years are 18,210 (M/F=9,735/8,475), and 236 (1.3%), together with use of other test measures like ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), biochemical marker and occult blood as well, are found to have cancer of thyroid, large bowel, lung, breast and others. The false negative rate by PET alone is 78/236 (33%) for cancer. PET examination has problems of image reading and specificity of organs, and tasks of informed consent, test cost, increased exchange of information and radiation exposure. However, PET cancer examination will be established as a routine diagnostic tool when the accumulated evidence of early cancer detection is shown useful for improving the survival rate and for reducing the medicare cost. (T.I.)

  15. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining licensees and applicants for reactor operator and senior reactor operator licenses at power reactor facilities pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). The Examiner Standards are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to better understand the initial and requalification examination processes and to ensure the equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator licensing policy changes

  16. Chemical denitration of aqueous nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Plant for Active Waste Liquids (PAWL) at CRNL will immobilize in glass the fission products in waste from Mo-99 production. The nitrate ions in the waste can be destroyed by heating, but also by chemical reaction with formic acid (HCOOH). Since chemical denitration has several advantages over thermal denitration it was studied in the course of vitrification process development. Two free radical mechanisms are examined here to explain kinetic data on chemical denitration of nitric acid solutions with formic acid. One mechanism is applicable at > 1 mol/L HNO3 and involves the formate radical (HCOO.). The second mechanism holds at 3 and involves the hyponitrous radical (HNO.). Mass balances for various species were written based on the law of mass action applied to the equations describing the reaction mechanism. Analytical and numerical solutions were obtained and compared. Literature data on batch denitration were used to determine some of the rate constants while others were set arbitrarily. Observed stoichiometry and trends in reactant concentrations are predicted accurately for batch data. There are no literature data to compare with the prediction of negligible induction time

  17. Metallographic examination in irradiated materials examination facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Yong Sun; Lee, Key Soon; Park, Dae Gyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Yoo, Byoung Ok

    1998-01-01

    It is very important to have equipment of metallographic examination in hot-cell to observe the micro-structure of nuclear fuels and materials irradiated at nuclear power and/or research reactor. Those equipment should be operated by master-slave manipulators, so they are designed, manufactured and modified to make exercise easy and no trouble. The metallographic examination equipment and techniques as well as its operation procedure are described, so an operator can practice the metallography in hot-cell. (author). 5 refs., 7 tabs., 21 figs.

  18. VALUE BALANCE IN CONSUMER PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahsan Hasan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to describe how the realization of ' Balance ' in the Consumer Protection Act, describes how the responsibility of the parties (consumers, businessmen and the Government so that it can realize the value of the balance in the protection of consumer, Research conducted in the framework of the preparation of this dissertation is to type the socio-juridical, in addition to researching the secondary legal materials in the form of legal regulations, manual and electronic law library, relevant research results in the field of law of particular problems in the field of consumer protection and other written materials, as well as researching various legal facts about consumer protection which occur in the field as well as its impact on the general public. The results showed that: 1 a form of value balance in consumer protection legislation lies in the synergy between the rights and obligations the rights and obligations of consumers, businessmen, as well as the duties and responsibilities of the Government, the supporters of both public institutions and private consumers are dispute resolution Efforts, and the use of contract oversight of overall indicators are assessed if merged between the assessment of consumers and businessmen, as well as assessment of the Government then obtained 32 indicators of where the total number of indicators corresponding to the value of the balance of a total of 10 indicators, while the total number of which is not in accordance with the value of the balance as much as 21 indicators and only one indicator that his judgment balanced. So that the efforts made in the framework of the fulfilment of the rights and obligations of consumers and businessmen as well as maximize the task and responsibility of the Government is still having a lot of obstacles or not be able to realize the value of balance

  19. The use of tracer techniques in pesticide balance and metabolism studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioisotope tracing technique has been a useful tool in obtaining extensive information on the fate of pesticides in the soil-plant systems, including their uptake, transport and metabolism by plants; their photochemical, chemical and microbial degradation; their adsorption, desorption and translocation in soil; and their bioavailability to untreated crops. A pesticide balance study under practical field conditions using radio labelling can examine a number of factors affecting the fate of a compound at the same time and assess the magnitude of the major processes involved. On the basis of these results, more detailed studies are then formulated to be conducted under an exactly defined environment of a growth chamber or a laboratory. The use of tracer techniques in such studies is reported. (author)

  20. Balancing act: the ultimate balance nutrition consulting center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, L

    1998-11-01

    Nutritional issues often complicate health care but are very important in HIV treatment where diet can play a strong role in drug absorption and effectiveness. A Canadian company has started a for-fee nutritional counseling service called Ultimate Balance. The nutritionists at Ultimate Balance require medical disclosure and extensive telephone interviews with patients, and also review patients' cases and medications. The nutritional guidance provided is controversial, because it is funded by a company that produces nutritional supplements, and counselors sometimes recommend those supplements. A personal experience with the nutritional counseling service is described. Contact information is provided. PMID:11365979

  1. Interactions between chemical and climate stressors: A role for mechanistic toxicology in assessing climate change risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Michael J.; Ankley, Gerald T.; Cristol, Daniel A.; Maryoung, Lindley A.; Noyes, Pamela D.; Pinkerton, Kent E.

    2013-01-01

    Incorporation of global climate change (GCC) effects into assessments of chemical risk and injury requires integrated examinations of chemical and nonchemical stressors. Environmental variables altered by GCC (temperature, precipitation, salinity, pH) can influence the toxicokinetics of chemical absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion as well as toxicodynamic interactions between chemicals and target molecules. In addition, GCC challenges processes critical for coping with the external environment (water balance, thermoregulation, nutrition, and the immune, endocrine, and neurological systems), leaving organisms sensitive to even slight perturbations by chemicals when pushed to the limits of their physiological tolerance range. In simplest terms, GCC can make organisms more sensitive to chemical stressors, while alternatively, exposure to chemicals can make organisms more sensitive to GCC stressors. One challenge is to identify potential interactions between nonchemical and chemical stressors affecting key physiological processes in an organism. We employed adverse outcome pathways, constructs depicting linkages between mechanism-based molecular initiating events and impacts on individuals or populations, to assess how chemical- and climate-specific variables interact to lead to adverse outcomes. Case examples are presented for prospective scenarios, hypothesizing potential chemical–GCC interactions, and retrospective scenarios, proposing mechanisms for demonstrated chemical–climate interactions in natural populations. Understanding GCC interactions along adverse outcome pathways facilitates extrapolation between species or other levels of organization, development of hypotheses and focal areas for further research, and improved inputs for risk and resource injury assessments.

  2. Chemical substructure analysis in toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary examination of chemical-substructure analysis (CSA) demonstrates the effective use of the Chemical Abstracts compound connectivity file in conjunction with the bibliographic file for relating chemical structures to biological activity. The importance of considering the role of metabolic intermediates under a variety of conditions is illustrated, suggesting structures that should be examined that may exhibit potential activity. This CSA technique, which utilizes existing large files accessible with online personal computers, is recommended for use as another tool in examining chemicals in drugs. 2 refs., 4 figs

  3. Chemical substructure analysis in toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauchamp, R.O. Jr. [Center for Information on Toxicology and Environment, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    A preliminary examination of chemical-substructure analysis (CSA) demonstrates the effective use of the Chemical Abstracts compound connectivity file in conjunction with the bibliographic file for relating chemical structures to biological activity. The importance of considering the role of metabolic intermediates under a variety of conditions is illustrated, suggesting structures that should be examined that may exhibit potential activity. This CSA technique, which utilizes existing large files accessible with online personal computers, is recommended for use as another tool in examining chemicals in drugs. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Dairy Proteins and Energy Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Line Quist

    High protein diets affect energy balance beneficially through decreased hunger, enhanced satiety and increased energy expenditure. Dairy products are a major source of protein. Dairy proteins are comprised of two classes, casein (80%) and whey proteins (20%), which are both of high quality, but...... casein is absorbed slowly and whey is absorbed rapidly. The present PhD study investigated the effects of total dairy proteins, whey, and casein, on energy balance and the mechanisms behind any differences in the effects of the specific proteins. The results do not support the hypothesis that dairy...... proteins, whey or casein are more beneficial than other protein sources in the regulation of energy balance, and suggest that dairy proteins, whey or casein seem to play only a minor role, if any, in the prevention and treatment of obesity....

  5. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Matteo; Martin, Olivier C; De Martino, Andrea; Marinari, Enzo

    2016-01-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an "ensemble averaging" procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferr...

  6. Integrated chemical plants at the pulp mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehtonen, P.; Hurme, M.; Jaervelaeinen, M.

    1995-12-31

    The goal of this paper is to present how the chemical plants can be integrated to the pulp mill. The integration renders possible to balance the chemical consumptions. The total mass balance of a pulp mill with the incoming fuel material and the outgoing waste and flue gases are discussed. The balance figures are presented for the chemicals of the modern fibre line, which will produce fully bleached softwood pulp with an improved effluent quality. The main benefits are lower chemical and transportation costs. The principal over-all plant process block diagrams and process descriptions are presented. The presented info system provides real time information on process and production status at overall mill and department levels. (author)

  7. Efficacy of virtual reality-based balance training versus the Biodex balance system training on the body balance of adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Manal S.; Mattar, Ayman G.; Elhafez, Salam M.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated efficacy of virtual reality (VR)-based balance training on enhancing balance and postural reactions of adults as a low-cost new modality compared to the established Biodex Balance System (BBS). [Subjects] Thirty normal adults of both genders were divided randomly into two equal-sized experimental groups of 15: BBS balance training and VR balance training. [Methods] The training programmes were conducted in 12 sessions, three 15-min sessions per week. The Nint...

  8. Examine Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video below and in only two minutes, you can learn to examine your skin. A special thanks to Dr. Martin Weinstock, MD, ...

  9. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma ...

  10. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining and licensing of applicants for NRC operator licenses pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). They are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to understand the examination process better and to provide for equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants by NRC examiners. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator examination licensing policy changes. As appropriate, these standards will be revised periodically to accommodate comments and reflect new information or experience

  11. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video below and in only two minutes, you can learn to examine your skin. A special thanks to Dr. Martin Weinstock, MD, ...

  12. Balanced dynamics in the Tropics

    OpenAIRE

    Verkley, W.T.M.; Velde, van der, G.

    2010-01-01

    For the shallow-water equations on an equatorial beta plane, the properties of low-frequency Rossby waves and (mixed) Rossby-gravity waves are investigated. It is shown that in the low-frequency limit the horizontal divergence of these solutions is zero and their geopotential satisfies = f, where f = y is the Coriolis parameter and is the stream function of the non-divergent velocity field. This type of balance is rather different from the geostrophic balance satisfied by Kelvin waves. It can...

  13. Heider balance in human networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawroński, P.; Kułakowski, K.

    2005-07-01

    Recently, a continuous dynamics was proposed to simulate dynamics of interpersonal relations in a society represented by a fully connected graph. The final state of such a society was found to be identical with the so-called Heider balance (HB), where the society is divided into two mutually hostile groups. In the continuous model, a polarization of opinions was found in HB. Here we demonstrate that the polarization occurs also in Barabási-Albert networks, where the Heider balance is not necessarily present. In the second part of this work we demonstrate the results of our formalism, when applied to reference examples: the Southern women and the Zachary club.

  14. The relevance of clinical balance assessment tools to differentiate balance deficits

    OpenAIRE

    Mancini, Martina; Horak, Fay B.

    2010-01-01

    Control of balance is complex and involves maintaining postures, facilitating movement, and recovering equilibrium. Balance control consists of controlling the body center of mass over its limits of stability. Clinical balance assessment can help assess fall risk and/or determine the underlying reasons for balance disorders. Most functional balance assessment scales assess fall risk and the need for balance rehabilitation but do not differentiate types of balance deficits. A system approach t...

  15. Delivering Training Strategies: The Balanced Scorecard at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraldi, Stefano; Cifalinò, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Aligning the value of training to organizational goals is an emerging need in human resource management. This study, aiming at expanding the research on training evaluation from a strategic management perspective, examines whether the use of the Balanced Scorecard approach can enable an effective delivery of training strategies, thus strengthening…

  16. Mindful Learning in Geography: Cultivating Balanced Attitudes toward Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-min; Ryu, Jaemyong

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the potential of mindful learning in geography education. A hypothesis was developed to form the research topic, and three experiments were performed to analyze it. The experiments supported the hypothesis. In other words, mindful learning was found to be helpful for cultivating balanced attitudes toward regions. In conclusion,…

  17. Performance Management in Schools: Could the Balanced Scorecard Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Anne

    2002-01-01

    Describes and examines the nature of the Balanced Scorecard as a conceptual framework and as a management information tool. Identifies and discusses the potential and the limitations of the approach in a school context. Outlines a research agenda. (Contains 3 figures and 33 references.) (AUTHOR/WFA)

  18. Ratify, Reject or Revise: Balanced Scorecard and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Naqi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) in universities. Initially directed toward profit-oriented businesses, the BSC has since been adopted by many non-profit organisations with seemingly diverse objectives. A number of primarily publicly-funded universities and institutions, which are part of…

  19. An Improved Hadoop Data Load Balancing Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Data load balancing is one of the key problems of big data technology. As a big data application, Hadoop has had many successful applications. HDFS is Hadoop Distributed File System and has the load balancing procedure which can balance the storage load on each machine. However, this method cannot balance the overload rack preferentially, and so it is likely to cause the breakdown of overload machines. In this paper, we focus on the overload machines and propose an improved algorithm for balancing the overload racks preferentially. The improved method constructs Prior Balance List list which includes overload machines, For Balance List list and NextForBalanceList list by many factors and balances among the racks selected from these lists firstly. Experiments show that the improved method can balance the overload racks in time and reduce the possibility of breakdown of these racks

  20. Chemical use

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of research and activities related to chemical use on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1992 and 2009. The chemicals used on the Refuge...

  1. Active video gaming to improve balance in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoth, Claudine J C; Caljouw, Simone R; Postema, Klaas

    2011-01-01

    The combination of active video gaming and exercise (exergaming) is suggested to improve elderly people's balance, thereby decreasing fall risk. Exergaming has been shown to increase motivation during exercise therapy, due to the enjoyable and challenging nature, which could support long-term adherence for exercising balance. However, scarce evidence is available of the direct effects of exergaming on postural control. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the effect of a six-week videogame-based exercise program aimed at improving balance in elderly people. Task performance and postural control were examined using an interrupted time series design. Results of multilevel analyses showed that performance on the dot task improved within the first two weeks of training. Postural control improved during the intervention. After the intervention period task performance and balance were better than before the intervention. Results of this study show that healthy elderly can benefit from a videogame-based exercise program to improve balance and that all subjects were highly motivated to exercise balance because they found gaming challenging and enjoyable. PMID:21685660

  2. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining licensees and applicants for reactor operator and senior reactor operator licenses at power reactor facilities pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). The Examiner Standards are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to better understand the initial and requalification examination processes and to ensure the equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator licensing policy changes. Revision 7 was published in January 1993 and became effective in August 1993. Supplement 1 is being issued primarily to implement administrative changes to the requalification examination program resulting from the amendment to 10 CFR 55 that eliminated the requirement for every licensed operator to pass an NRC-conducted requalification examination as a condition for license renewal. The supplement does not substantially alter either the initial or requalification examination processes and will become effective 30 days after its publication is noticed in the Federal Register. The corporate notification letters issued after the effective date will provide facility licensees with at least 90 days notice that the examinations will be administered in accordance with the revised procedures

  3. Competitive Balance Measures in Sports Leagues: The Effects of Variation in Season Length

    OpenAIRE

    P. Dorian Owen; Nicholas King

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate measurement of competitive balance is a cornerstone of the economic analysis of professional sports leagues. We examine the distributional properties of the ratio of standard deviations (RSD) of points percentages, the most widely used measure of competitive balance in the sports economics literature, in comparison with other standard-deviation-based measures. Simulation methods are used to evaluate the effects of changes in season length on the distributions of competitive balanc...

  4. Are NBA Policies that Promote Long-Term Competitive Balance Effective? What is the Price?

    OpenAIRE

    Corral Cuervo, Julio Florentino del; García Unanue, Jorge Fernando; Herencia Quintanar, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines competitive balance in the most prominent basketball league in the world: the NBA. Two types of graphs are used. First, long-term competitive balance is studied based on actual positions achieved by the teams on the Regu-lar Season. On the other hand, the competitive balance levels for each season are analyzed using sport betting odds data and through the use of two alternative strategies. In the first approach, density functions for the number of victories for al...

  5. A company application of the Balanced scorecard method to improve performance and gain competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Qamar, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Balanced Scorecard was introduced in the year 1992 by Robert Kaplan and David Norton. Previously emphasis was laid on the financial perspective. But with the introduction of balanced scorecard, non-financial measures were also given due importance. In addition to balanced scorecard there are many other performance measurement techniques. This study critically examines, that financial measures alone are not adequate for a firm. Looking at the future, financial measures play a very limited role...

  6. EFFECTS OF BALLATES, STEP AEROBICS, AND WALKING ON BALANCE IN WOMEN AGED 50-75 YEARS

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Clary; Cathleen Barnes; Debra Bemben; Allen Knehans; Michael Bemben

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of Ballates training (strengthening of the central core musculature by the inception of balance techniques) compared to more traditional exercise programs, such as step aerobics and walking, on balance in women aged 50- 75 years. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three supervised training groups (1 hour/day, 3 days/week, 13 weeks), Ballates (n = 12), step aerobics (n = 17), or walking (n =15). Balance was measured by four different methods (mo...

  7. Balancing Covariates via Propensity Score Weighting

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Fan; Morgan, Kari Lock; Zaslavsky, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    Covariate balance is crucial for an unconfounded descriptive or causal comparison. However, lack of balance is common in observational studies. This article considers weighting strategies for balancing covariates. We define a general class of weights-the balancing weights-that balance the weighted distributions of the covariates between treatment groups. These weights incorporate the propensity score to weight each group to an analyst-selected target population. This class unifies existing we...

  8. Balance Systems and the Variational Bicomplex

    OpenAIRE

    Serge Preston

    2011-01-01

    In this work we show that the systems of balance equations (balance systems) of continuum thermodynamics occupy a natural place in the variational bicomplex formalism. We apply the vertical homotopy decomposition to get a local splitting (in a convenient domain) of a general balance system as the sum of a Lagrangian part and a complemental ''pure non-Lagrangian'' balance system. In the case when derivatives of the dynamical fields do not enter the constitutive relations of the balance system,...

  9. Chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, R. David (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A sensor for detecting a chemical substance includes an insertion element having a structure which enables insertion of the chemical substance with a resulting change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element under conditions sufficient to permit effective insertion; the change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element is detected as an indication of the presence of the chemical substance.

  10. Chemical transport modeling of potential atmospheric CO2 sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration via engineered chemical sinks is investigated using a three dimensional chemical transport model (CTM). Meteorological and chemical constraints for flat or vertical systems that would absorb CO2 from the atmosphere, as well as an example chemical system of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) proposed by Elliott et al. [Compensation of atmospheric CO2 buildup through engineered chemical sinkage, Geophys. Res. Lett. 28 (2001) 1235] are reviewed. The CTM examines land based deposition sinks, with 4ox5o latitude/longitude resolution at various locations, and deposition velocities (v). A maximum uptake of ∼20 Gton (1015 g) C yr-1 is attainable with v>5 cm s -1 at a mid-latitude site. The atmospheric increase of CO2 (3 Gton yr-1) can be balanced by an engineered sink with an area of no more than 75,000 km2 at v of 1 cm s-1. By building the sink upwards or splitting this area into narrow elements can reduce the active area by more than an order of magnitude as discussed in Dubey at el. [31]. (author)

  11. Costs of Defense and a Test of the Carbon-Nutrient Balance and Growth-Differentiation Balance Hypotheses for Two Co-Occurring Classes of Plant Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Massad, Tara Joy; Dyer, Lee A.; Vega C., Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    One of the goals of chemical ecology is to assess costs of plant defenses. Intraspecific trade-offs between growth and defense are traditionally viewed in the context of the carbon-nutrient balance hypothesis (CNBH) and the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis (GDBH). Broadly, these hypotheses suggest that growth is limited by deficiencies in carbon or nitrogen while rates of photosynthesis remain unchanged, and the subsequent reduced growth results in the more abundant resource being in...

  12. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Melvin

    1965-06-01

    How did life come to be on the surface of the earth? Darwin himself recognized that his basic idea of evolution by variation and natural selection must be a continuous process extending backward in time through that period in which the first living things arose and into the period of 'Chemical Evolution' which preceded it. We are approaching the examination of these events by two routes. One is to seek for evidence in the ancient rocks of the earth which were laid down prior to that time in which organisms capable of leaving their skeletons in the rocks to be fossilized were in existence. This period is sometime prior to approximately 600 million years ago. The earth is believed to have taken its present form approximately 4700 million years ago. We have found in rocks whose age is about 1000 million years certain organic molecules which are closely related to the green pigment of plants, chlorophyll. This seems to establish that green plants were already fluorishing prior to that time. We have now found in rocks of still greater age, namely, 2500 million years, the same kinds of molecules mentioned above which can be attributed to the presence of living organisms. If these molecules are as old as the rocks, we have thus shortened the time available for the generation of the complex biosynthetic sequences which give rise to these specific hydrocarbons (polyisoprenoids) to less than 2000 million years.

  13. A Balanced Higher Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This article explores what is meant by "a balanced higher education system". It argues that the Clarkian "triangle of coordination" (Clark, 1983) and the more recent model of Martinez and Richardson (2003) should be replaced by one that distinguishes between "self" and "collective" interests in both the academy and the wider society. Such a scheme…

  14. Balance Scorecard in Hospital Units

    OpenAIRE

    Pu?an Alina; Ivan Oana Raluca

    2014-01-01

    Balance Scorecard (BSC) is a tool for measuring the performance, used mainly in the private sector. Social and economic changes of recent years have given rise to a number of objective needs, particularly in the management of “public money”.

  15. Finding Balance in the Winds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describes the author's experience of and reflections concerning a group workshop facilitated by Michael Tlanusta Garrett of the Eastern Band of Cherokee. Provides information about the Native American teachings and traditions of the four winds, balance, and harmony, and discusses the use of self by group leaders as a powerful therapeutic and…

  16. [Assessment of perioperative fluid balance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindelić, R; Vlajković, G; Marković, D; Bumbasirević, V

    2009-01-01

    Careful assessment of the fluid balance is required in the perioperative period since appropriate fluid therapy is essential for successful patient's outcome. Haemodynamic monitoring allows understanding the physiology of the circulation and changes of fluid balance in the perioperative period. This is diagnostic aid and guide for fluid replacement therapy. Patient's volume status is frequently assessed by different haemodynamic variables that could be targeted as the endpoints for fluid therapy and resuscitation. Fluid balance is the crucial factor in the maintenance of haemodynamic stability, tissue oxygenation and organ function. When the haemodynamic monitoring is applied in a rigorous and consistent manner, it reduces mortality and length of stay as well as costs incurred. There are a number of tests which describe the effectiveness of the invasive haemodynamic monitoring procedures usage. Since the pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) had been introduced into clinical practice it was considered as a golden standard for cardiac output measurements, haemodynamic and fluid balance assessment. Nevertheless, in previous 10 years new minimally invasive and noninvasive simple techniques for haemodynamic monitoring and patient's hydroelectricity status evaluation have been developed. They can replace PAC under different clinical circumstances and some of these techniques PMID:19504992

  17. Chemical durability of zircon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocellier, Patrick; Delmas, Robert

    2001-07-01

    Zircon (ZrSiO 4) exhibits a strong structural affinity for uranium and thorium together with a very high chemical durability. This makes it a potential crystalline host matrix to immobilize actinides issued from separation of nuclear wastes. Irradiation induces amorphization of the crystalline structure (the metamictization process) and thus may decrease the chemical durability of the material. Leaching tests have been conducted on natural zircons from Brazil and Madagascar at 96°C for a period of 1 month, using deionized water. Leachates have been analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and UV-visible spectrophotometry. Zircon solid surfaces have been investigated by coupling scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EDX) with nuclear microprobe analysis ( μPIXE, μRBS and μERDA). From the mass balance between leachates and hydrated surfaces, the probable mechanisms of zircon aqueous alteration are presented and discussed.

  18. Chemical durability of zircon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zircon (ZrSiO4) exhibits a strong structural affinity for uranium and thorium together with a very high chemical durability. This makes it a potential crystalline host matrix to immobilize actinides issued from separation of nuclear wastes. Irradiation induces amorphization of the crystalline structure (the metamictization process) and thus may decrease the chemical durability of the material. Leaching tests have been conducted on natural zircons from Brazil and Madagascar at 96 deg. C for a period of 1 month, using deionized water. Leachates have been analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and UV-visible spectrophotometry. Zircon solid surfaces have been investigated by coupling scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EDX) with nuclear microprobe analysis (μPIXE, μRBS and μERDA). From the mass balance between leachates and hydrated surfaces, the probable mechanisms of zircon aqueous alteration are presented and discussed

  19. Chemical Leukoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Vestita, Michelangelo; Romita, Paolo; Filoni, Angela; Foti, Caterina; Angelini, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    Chemical leukoderma, often clinically mimicking idiopathic vitiligo and other congenital and acquired hypopigmentation, is an acquired form of cutaneous pigment loss caused by exposure to a variety of chemicals that act through selective melanocytotoxicity. Most of these chemicals are phenols and aromatic or aliphatic catechols derivatives. These chemicals, however, are harmful for melanocytes in individuals with an individual susceptibility. Nowadays, chemical leukoderma is fairly common, caused by common domestic products. The presence of numerous acquired confetti- or pea-sized macules is clinically characteristic of chemical leukoderma, albeit not diagnostic. Other relevant diagnostic elements are a history of repeated exposure to a known or suspected depigmenting agent at the sites of onset and a macules distribution corresponding to sites of chemical exposure. Spontaneous repigmentation has been reported when the causative agent is avoided; the repigmentation process is perifollicular and gradual, taking place for a variable period of weeks to months. PMID:27172302

  20. Explaining MRI examinations DVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When conducting MRI examinations, there are various things to be careful of. There is often stress related to the MRI examinations, so in order to perform an examination safely and smoothly, sufficient explanation must be given. An explanation of what to do and what not to do during an examination should be outlined in a brochure given to patients before the examination. There may be many patients who have misgivings about their MRI examinations, so to reduce their anxiousness and deepen their understanding of MRI examinations and to improve the safety and effiency of MRI examinations,; we created a DVD about MRI examinations. We gathered MRI-related safety information and instructions, and assessed the effect that the information might have on patients. We started a workgroup for a project to plan and record a video according to the Storyboard. When editing, we reviewed the length of each segment, the amount of information on screen, and the overall length of the DVD. We discussed the issue within the workgroup and had hospital approval. It was possible for us to complete it without depending on the supplier and the cost was kept to a minimum. Finally, we decided on a viewing location. We asked a hospital volunteers to see a complete DVD and we evaluated their responses by questionnaires. As the result, their understanding and anxieties related to MRI examinations were alleviated, as expected. Their anxiety seemed to be eased. Patients also seemed to have a deeper understanding of MRI examinations having seen an examination being conducted. (author)

  1. Assessing ultrasonic examination results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amongst nondestructive examination methods, the ultrasonic examination plays an important role. The reason why its scope of application is so wide is because the sound conducting capacity is the only property the material of a test specimen has to have. As the fields are so manifold, only main aspects can be described briefly. The list of references, however, is very extensive and gives plenty of information of all the problems concerning the assessment of ultrasonic examination results. (orig./RW)

  2. Balance and saving of GHG emissions in thermochemical biorefineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A simplified methodology for the balance and saving of GHG emissions is provided. • The GHG balance has a physical meaning and does not depend on the fossil reference. • The GHG saving depends on regulation of energy carriers. • The impact of Bio-CCS incorporation and multiproduction is analyzed. • The co-production of chemicals needs to be included in future regulation. - Abstract: In this study, a simplified methodology for the calculation of the balance of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and corresponding saving compared with the fossil reference is presented. The proposed methodology allows the estimation of the anthropogenic GHG emissions of thermochemical biorefineries (net emitted to the atmosphere). In the calculation of the GHG balance, all relevant factors have been identified and analyzed including multiproduction, emissions from biogenic carbon capture and storage (Bio-CCS), co-feeding of fossil fuels (secondary feedstock) and possible carbon storage in biomass-derived products (chemicals). Therefore, it is possible to calculate the balance of GHG emissions of a hypothetical thermochemical biorefinery considering different alternatives of land-use, biomass feedstock, co-feeding of fossil fuels, Bio-CCS incorporation and final use of the products. The comparison of the estimated GHG balance with the corresponding fossil reference for each product is of special relevance in the methodology since it is the parameter used in European regulation for the fulfillment of sustainability criteria in biomass-derived fuels and liquids. The proposed methodology is tested using a previously assessed set of different process concepts of thermochemical biorefineries (techno-economic analysis). The resulting GHG balance and saving are analyzed to identify uncertainties and provide recommendations for future regulation. In all process concepts, the GHG savings are above the minimum requirement of GHG emissions for 2018. In the case of incorporating

  3. Use of mass and toxicity balances in risk-based corrective action decisions at contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contaminated groundwater at a sour gas plant facility was studied to identify the chemicals of environmental concern. Simple mass balance principles were used to determine the proportion of organic carbon, organic nitrogen and MicrotoxR toxicity that can be attributed to two process chemicals that have contaminated several sour gas plants in western Canada. The two process chemicals are sulfolane and diisopropanolamine (DIPA). The organic carbon balance was calculated by determining the molar contribution of sulfolane and DIPA relative to the mass of carboxylic acid-corrected dissolved organic carbon. Organic carbon balances ranged from 44 to 96 per cent. The organic nitrogen balance was calculated by determining the molar contribution of DIPA relative to the mass of ammonium ion-corrected dissolved Kjeldahl nitrogen. The nitrogen balances were highly variable between 8 to 48 per cent for samples with organic nitrogen concentrations between 10 and 32 mg/L. The MicrotoxR toxicity balance was calculated by determining the proportions of toxicity that could be accounted for by pure phase sulfolane and DIPA. The MicrotoxR toxicity balance for samples that showed significant toxicity ranged from 71 to 122 per cent

  4. A Preliminary Analysis of Roh Moo-hyun's "Balancer Diplomacy"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ As an important state of Northeast Asia, the influence of ROK's diplomatic conception and policies on regional security situation should never be underestimated. In 2005, President Roh Moo-hyun stressed that "ROK should be a balancing power in Northeast Asia"and claimed that "the map of influence in Northeast Asia will be changing with ROK's strategic selection." All these have aroused high attention in international society. This article tries to examine and analyze the main contents of the ROK's "balancer diplomacy,"the causes of the formulation of the policy and its influence as well.

  5. Is work–family balance more than conflict and enrichment?

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Dawn S.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Zivnuska, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    This study deepens our theoretical and practical understanding of work–family balance, defined as the ‘accomplishment of role-related expectations that are negotiated and shared between an individual and his/her role-related partners in the work and family domains’ (Grzywacz & Carlson, 2007: 458). We develop a new measure of work–family balance and establish discriminant validity between it, work–family conflict, and work–family enrichment. Further, we examine the relationship of work–family ...

  6. Impact of the jobs-housing balance on urban commuting in Beijing in the transformation era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Pengjun; Lue, Bin; de Roo, Gert

    2011-01-01

    This empirical study examines the impact of the jobs-housing balance on individual commuting time in Beijing in the period of transformation of the Chinese economy and society. The results of the analysis show that the jobs-housing balance has a statistically significant association with a worker's

  7. Using motor imagery to study the neural substrates of dynamic balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferraye, M.U.; Debû, B.H.G.; Heil, L.; Carpenter, M.; Bloem, B.R.; Toni, I.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the cerebral structures involved in dynamic balance using a motor imagery (MI) protocol. We recorded cerebral activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging while subjects imagined swaying on a balance board along the sagittal plane to point a laser at target pairs of differ

  8. Adaptive Strategies, Gender Ideology, and Work-Family Balance among Dutch Dual Earners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierda-Boer, Hilde H.; Gerris, Jan R. M.; Vermulst, Ad A.

    2008-01-01

    Using questionnaire data on 149 Dutch dual-earner couples with young children participating in the European Famwork study, we examine how adaptive strategies and gender ideology relate to parents' perceived success in balancing work and family. Path analysis indicates that some adaptive strategies may harm individuals' work-family balance,…

  9. Role Balance and Depression among College Students: The Moderating Influence of Adult Attachment Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Frederick G.; Fons-Scheyd, Alia

    2008-01-01

    This study examined interrelationships among role balance perceptions, adult attachment orientations, and depression within an ethnically diverse, mixed-gender sample of college students. Adult attachment orientations--and particularly attachment avoidance--significantly interacted with students' role balance levels to predict their depression…

  10. Are Balance Problems Connected to Reading Speed or the Familial Risk of Dyslexia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viholainen, Helena; Aro, Mikko; Ahonen, Timo; Crawford, Susan; Cantell, Marja; Kooistra, Libbe

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the connection between balance problems and reading speed in children with and without a familial risk of dyslexia by controlling for the effects of attention, hyperactivity, and cognitive and motor functioning. Method: The prevalence of balance problems was studied in 94 children (48 females, 46 males)…

  11. Chemical examination of the Red alga Acanthophora spicifera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Analyses of petroleum ether and chloroform extracts of the marine alga Acanthophora spicifera exhibiting antifertility activity led to the isolation of sterols and fatty acids as well as the rare dipeptides aurantiamides. All the compounds were...

  12. Inquiry-Based Examination of Chemical Disruption of Bacterial Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelman, Carly V.; Hawkins, Misty A. W.; Drumwright, Franklin R.; Ransdell, Beverly; Marrs, Kathleen; Anderson, Gregory G.

    2012-01-01

    Inquiry-based instruction in the sciences has been demonstrated as a successful educational strategy to use for both high school and college science classrooms. As participants in the NSF Graduate STEM Fellows in K-12 Education (GK-12) Program, we were tasked with creating novel inquiry-based activities for high school classrooms. As a way to…

  13. Dose from radiological examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relatively high gonad doses, several hundred to one thousand mR, have been observed in case of pelvis, hip-joint, coccyx, lower abdomen and lumber examination. Dose to the ovary is especially high in barium enema and I.V.P. examinations. About 12 per cent of the 4-ray examination are high-dose. The gonad dose is relatively high in examination of abdomen and lower extremities, in infants. The dose to the eyes is especially high, 1.0 to 2.5R per exposure, in temporal bone and nasal sinuses tomography. X-ray doses have been compared with dose limits recommended by ICRP and with the gonad dose from natural radiations. The gonad dose in lumbar examination, barium enema, I.V.P. etc. is as high as the maximum permissible dose per year recommended by ICRP. Several devices have been made for dose reduction in the daily examinations: (1) separating the radiation field from the gonad by one centimeter decreases the gonad dose about one-half. (2) using sensitive screens and films. In pelvimetry and in infant hip-joint examination, the most sensitive screen and film are used. In the I.V.P. examination of adult, use of MS screen in place of FS screen decreases the dose to one-third, in combination with careful setting of radiation field, (3) use of grid increases the dose about 50 percent and the lead rubber protection (0.1mm lead equivalent) decreases the gonad dose to one-thirtieth in the spinal column examination of infant, (4) A lead protector, 1mm thickness and 2.5cm in diameter, on the eyes decreases the dose to about one-eighth in the face and nead examinations. These simple and effective methods for dose reduction. Should be carried out in as many examinations as possible in addition to observing dose limits recommended by ICRP. (Evans, J.)

  14. 26 CFR 1.167(b)-2 - Declining balance method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... balance Jan. 1 Acquisitions Current retirements Asset balance Dec. 31 Average balance Avg. reserve before... Acquisition Asset balance Dec. 31 Avg. balance Reserve Dec. 31, before depreciation Net depreciable...

  15. Examining blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent specification relates to an invention concerned with improvements in or relating to the examination of blood vessels of interest. Particles of dimensions not greater than 8 microns capable of providing detectable signals, are introduced into the blood for examination of a blood vessel. The particles may be sources of radiation, e.g. Ga68. (author)

  16. Fuel bundle examination techniques for the Phebus fission product test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper develops the non-destructive examinations, with a special emphasis on transmission tomography, performed in the Phebus facility, using a linear accelerator associated with a line scan camera based on PCD components. This particular technique enabled the high level of penetration to be obtained, necessary for this high density application. Spatial resolution is not far from the theoretical limit and the density resolution is often adequate. This technique permitted: 1) to define beforehand the cuts on a precise basis, avoiding a long step-by-step choice as in previous in-pile tests; 2) to determine, at an early stage, mass balance, material relocations (in association with axial gamma spectrometry), and FP distribution, as an input into re-calculations of the bundle events. However, classical cuttings, periscopic visual examinations, macrographies, micrographies and EPMA analyses remain essential to give oxidation levels (in the less degraded zones), phase aspect and composition, to distinguish between materials of identical density, and, if possible, to estimate temperatures. Oxidation resistance of sensors (thermocouples or ultrasonic thermometers) is also traced. The EPMA gives access to the molten material chemical analyses, especially in the molten fuel blockage area. The first results show that an important part of the fuel bundle melted (which was one of the objectives of this test) and that the degradation level is close to TIMI-2 with a molten plug under a cavity surrounded by an uranium-rich crust. In lower and upper areas fuel rods are less damaged. Complementaries between these examination techniques and between international teams involved will be major advantages in the Phebus FPT0 test comprehension. 3 refs, 9 figs

  17. LOAD BALANCING WITH NEURAL NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada M. Al Sallami

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a proposed load balance technique based on artificial neural network. It distributes workload equally across all the nodes by using back propagation learning algorithm to train feed forward Artificial Neural Network (ANN. The proposed technique is simple and it can work efficiently when effective training sets are used. ANN predicts the demand and thus allocates resources according to that demand. Thus, it always maintains the active servers according to current demand, which results in low energy consumption than the conservative approach of over-provisioning. Furthermore, high utilization of server results in more power consumption, server running at higher utilization can process more workload with similar power usage. Finally the existing load balancing techniques in cloud computing are discussed and compared with the proposed technique based on various parameters like performance, scalability, associated overhead... etc. In addition energy consumption and carbon emission perspective are also considered to satisfy green computing.

  18. Universally Balanced Combinatorial Optimization Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotie Deng

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article surveys studies on universally balanced properties of cooperative games defined in a succinct form. In particular, we focus on combinatorial optimization games in which the values to coalitions are defined through linear optimization programs, possibly combinatorial, that is subject to integer constraints. In economic settings, the integer requirement reflects some forms of indivisibility. We are interested in the classes of games that guarantee a non-empty core no matter what are the admissible values assigned to the parameters defining these programs. We call such classes universally balanced. We present characterization and complexity results on the universally balancedness property for some classes of interesting combinatorial optimization games. In particular, we focus on the algorithmic properties for identifying universally balancedness for the games under discussion.

  19. Double-yoke balanced compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A double-yoke balanced compressor for a cryogenic cooler that has only linear motion imparted to balanced piston and cylinder masses. A piston yoke is driven in the linear stroke direction by a piston axially offset crankshaft cam and a cylinder yoke is driven linearly by a cylinder axially offset crankshaft cam that is exactly offset 1800 from the other cam. A large circular bushing in the compressor housing covers the entire outer cylinder head during linear operation to prevent blow by and to guide the cylinder linearly. The lower portion of the piston and cylinder connecting rods fit into linear guides that are further comprised of low molecular weight gas filled cavities to provide additional air bearing smoothness to the linear motion of the piston and cylinder

  20. Balancing energy flexibilities through aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2014-01-01

    in both energy production and consumption, is the key to solving these problems. Flexibilities can be expressed as flex-offers, which due to their high number need to be aggregated to reduce the complexity of energy scheduling. In this paper, we discuss balance aggregation techniques that already......One of the main goals of recent developments in the Smart Grid area is to increase the use of renewable energy sources. These sources are characterized by energy fluctuations that might lead to energy imbalances and congestions in the electricity grid. Exploiting inherent flexibilities, which exist...... during aggregation aim at balancing flexibilities in production and consumption to reduce the probability of congestions and reduce the complexity of scheduling. We present results of our extensive experiments....

  1. Initial experience gained with the balance-group system of the Swiss power supply legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article takes a look at the initial experience gained with the Swiss balance-group system. This system was introduced within the framework of Swiss power supply legislation (StromVG - Stromversorgungsgesetz). The balance-group system was considered to be an essential precondition for the implementation of an energy trading business in a liberalised power market. The associated rights and responsibilities and the economic risks involved are discussed in detail. The partners and structures involved in such a balance-group are looked at and basic models for the associated contracts are examined. The relationship between balance-groups and the national power grid Swissgrid are discussed

  2. Balanced Unemployment in Polish Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kamila Szymańska

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the problem of balanced unemployment in relation to the Polish economy. This issue with its variety considerations and economic, social and political implications is today one of the most important matter. Author analyses this problem together with its reasons and refer it to the Polish economy. In first and second part of the text there are presented basic assumptions of natural unemployment theory and Non-Accelerating Inflation Rate of Unemployment. Third part is an a...

  3. Balance of International Payments Matters!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ For decades, China's export-oriented economic growth pattern has been constantly criticized as the culprit that destroys the world economic balance. Especially,at a time when the most serious economic crisis ever since the Great Depression is about to end, outcries from economically developed countries that China should do more to rebalance global economy have frequently made the headlines of various media coverage.

  4. Universally Balanced Combinatorial Optimization Games

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaotie Deng; Gabrielle Demange

    2010-01-01

    This article surveys studies on universally balanced properties of cooperative games defined in a succinct form. In particular, we focus on combinatorial optimization games in which the values to coalitions are defined through linear optimization programs, possibly combinatorial, that is subject to integer constraints. In economic settings, the integer requirement reflects some forms of indivisibility. We are interested in the classes of games that guarantee a non-empty core no matter what ar...

  5. Carbon balance in Mediterranean ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Alexandra Cristina Pires

    2013-01-01

    Forests play an important role in climate change mitigation as they sequester and store carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. The aim of this thesis was to investigate forest carbon balance in its main compartments: tress, understory and soils. We present methods to estimate carbon stock in biomass of stone pine stands in south Portugal. Allometric models, as well as conversion and expansion factors were presented allowing the quantification of stand carbon stocks irrespect...

  6. Chemical networks*

    OpenAIRE

    Thi Wing-Fai

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses the fundamental ideas of how chemical networks are build, their strengths and limitations. The chemical reactions that occur in disks combine the cold phase reactions used to model cold molecular clouds with the hot chemistry applied to planetary atmosphere models. With a general understanding of the different types of reactions that can occur, one can proceed in building a network of chemical reactions and use it to explain the abundance of species seen in disks. One o...

  7. Momentum balance in wall jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, T. Gunnar; Mehdi, Faraz; Naughton, Jonathan W.

    2012-11-01

    A plane wall jet experiment has been done to study its momentum balance. Two component laser Doppler anemometry was used to simultaneously measure the axial and wall-normal velocity components in 6 axial positions (x/H= 25, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150) spanning from the wall all the way well into the ambient stagnant area. In this way not only the mean velocity components and Reynolds normal and shear stresses but also all their spatial derivatives were determined. In addition the wall shear stress was measured in all six axial positions using oil film interferometry. From these data all terms in the x-momentum equation, except the pressure term, could be evaluated. Later also the pressure was measured in the same profiles, and thereby also the pressure term was included in the balance. Contrary to common belief it was found that the pressure was not constant in the wall jet. The complete momentum balance is discussed and used to evaluate the roles played by the different contributing terms in different regions of the flow field in an effort to improve on our understanding of the mechanics of wall jets.

  8. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C.

    2016-01-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an “ensemble averaging” procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325

  9. Asymmetric cointegration between exchange rate and trade balance in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhaji Jibrilla Aliyu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the long-run pass through of the official exchange rates into trade balance in Nigeria by means of threshold cointegration and asymmetric error correction modeling. The study provides evidence for non-linear cointegration between our variables of interest. The estimated asymmetric error correction models provide new evidence for slower transmission of exchange rate depreciations into the country’s trade balance, which in turn appears to offer partial support for the Dutch disease hypothesis. This finding suggests that policy-makers cannot hope to use currency devaluation to improve the trade balance. It is recommended that policy-makers focus attention on diversification of the economy away from dependence on crude oil exports into productive manufacturing and non-oil exports, which will be vital in making the economy more competitive.

  10. Efficacy of virtual reality-based balance training versus the Biodex balance system training on the body balance of adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Manal S.; Mattar, Ayman G.; Elhafez, Salam M.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated efficacy of virtual reality (VR)-based balance training on enhancing balance and postural reactions of adults as a low-cost new modality compared to the established Biodex Balance System (BBS). [Subjects] Thirty normal adults of both genders were divided randomly into two equal-sized experimental groups of 15: BBS balance training and VR balance training. [Methods] The training programmes were conducted in 12 sessions, three 15-min sessions per week. The Nintendo® Wii Fit Plus (NWFP) and its balance board were used to train of the VR group. Each participant answered a questionnaire concerning usability, enjoyment, balance improvement, and fatigue at the end of the training programs. [Results] The study found a significant increase the measure of mean overall balance (OLB) in both groups. No significant difference was found between the groups, but a significant decrease in the mean balance-test time was found for both groups, with no significant difference between the two training methods. The VR programme was rated highly enjoyable by 81.8% of the group. [Conclusion] The Wii Fit Plus system with the balance board as a new VR balance-training technique, can be considered an effective and enjoyable tool for the training of adults’ body balance. PMID:26957722

  11. Efficacy of virtual reality-based balance training versus the Biodex balance system training on the body balance of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Manal S; Mattar, Ayman G; Elhafez, Salam M

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated efficacy of virtual reality (VR)-based balance training on enhancing balance and postural reactions of adults as a low-cost new modality compared to the established Biodex Balance System (BBS). [Subjects] Thirty normal adults of both genders were divided randomly into two equal-sized experimental groups of 15: BBS balance training and VR balance training. [Methods] The training programmes were conducted in 12 sessions, three 15-min sessions per week. The Nintendo(®) Wii Fit Plus (NWFP) and its balance board were used to train of the VR group. Each participant answered a questionnaire concerning usability, enjoyment, balance improvement, and fatigue at the end of the training programs. [Results] The study found a significant increase the measure of mean overall balance (OLB) in both groups. No significant difference was found between the groups, but a significant decrease in the mean balance-test time was found for both groups, with no significant difference between the two training methods. The VR programme was rated highly enjoyable by 81.8% of the group. [Conclusion] The Wii Fit Plus system with the balance board as a new VR balance-training technique, can be considered an effective and enjoyable tool for the training of adults' body balance. PMID:26957722

  12. Biasable, Balanced, Fundamental Submillimeter Monolithic Membrane Mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Peter; Schlecht, Erich; Mehdi, Imran; Gill, John; Velebir, James; Tsang, Raymond; Dengler, Robert; Lin, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This device is a biasable, submillimeter-wave, balanced mixer fabricated using JPL s monolithic membrane process a simplified version of planar membrane technology. The primary target application is instrumentation used for analysis of atmospheric constituents, pressure, temperature, winds, and other physical and chemical properties of the atmospheres of planets and comets. Other applications include high-sensitivity gas detection and analysis. This innovation uses a balanced configuration of two diodes allowing the radio frequency (RF) signal and local oscillator (LO) inputs to be separated. This removes the need for external diplexers that are inherently narrowband, bulky, and require mechanical tuning to change frequency. Additionally, this mixer uses DC bias-ability to improve its performance and versatility. In order to solve problems relating to circuit size, the GaAs membrane process was created. As much of the circuitry as possible is fabricated on-chip, making the circuit monolithic. The remainder of the circuitry is precision-machined into a waveguide block that holds the GaAs circuit. The most critical alignments are performed using micron-scale semiconductor technology, enabling wide bandwidth and high operating frequencies. The balanced mixer gets superior performance with less than 2 mW of LO power. This can be provided by a simple two-stage multiplier chain following an amplifier at around 90 GHz. Further, the diodes are arranged so that they can be biased. Biasing pushes the diodes closer to their switching voltage, so that less LO power is required to switch the diodes on and off. In the photo, the diodes are at the right end of the circuit. The LO comes from the waveguide at the right into a reduced-height section containing the diodes. Because the diodes are in series to the LO signal, they are both turned on and off simultaneously once per LO cycle. Conversely, the RF signal is picked up from the RF waveguide by the probe at the left, and flows

  13. Balancing the dual responsibilities of business unit controllers: field and survey evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.S. Maas; M. Matejka

    2009-01-01

    We examine how business unit (BU) controllers balance their dual roles of providing information for both local decision-making (local responsibility) and corporate control (functional responsibility). The existing literature suggests that organizations can improve the quality of financial reporting

  14. Terror of Examinations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔园玲

    2013-01-01

    Parents send their sons and daughters to schools and col eges to get education. Teachers work year in and year out to fulfil the task which society entrusts to them. Many ways of reforming the examination system have been suggested.

  15. Pitfalls in Using the Balanced Scorecard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørreklit, Hanne; Jakobsen, Morten; Mitchell, Falconer

    2008-01-01

    The balanced scorecard has quickly become a leading management tool. But business performance measurement is notoriously difficult, so any system, including the balanced scorecard, is likely to have unanticipated and often dysfunctional consequences. This article briefly reviews the main attracti...

  16. On Water Balance of the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the problems concerning the water balance of the Black Sea. According to the new data river discharge is determined on the basis of which component elements of water balance are adjusted. (authors)

  17. Breast Self- Examination Contradiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla Akkas Gursoy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is very important health problem among women in the World and Turkey. Although treatment chance is very rising and survival is getting longer thanks to early diagnosis in breast cancer. Some discussion is making related to breast self examination which is one of the early detection methods in recent years. This article consider the discussions about breast self examination under the historical development light. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(3.000: 257-260

  18. The Sexual Assault Examination

    OpenAIRE

    Hargot, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    The sexual assault examination poses many problems for physicians. They must deal not only with the patient's physical and emotional trauma, but also collect forensic evidence, and provide proper treatment and follow-up. Patient management has been simplified and improved in Ontario by a standardized sexual assault examination kit. It has been used at McMaster University's Regional Sexual Assault Centre since its establishment in 1979. The first step in managing victims is ensuring their well...

  19. A single-stage optical load-balanced switch for data centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qirui; Yeo, Yong-Kee; Zhou, Luying

    2012-10-22

    Load balancing is an attractive technique to achieve maximum throughput and optimal resource utilization in large-scale switching systems. However current electronic load-balanced switches suffer from severe problems in implementation cost, power consumption and scaling. To overcome these problems, in this paper we propose a single-stage optical load-balanced switch architecture based on an arrayed waveguide grating router (AWGR) in conjunction with fast tunable lasers. By reuse of the fast tunable lasers, the switch achieves both functions of load balancing and switching through the AWGR. With this architecture, proof-of-concept experiments have been conducted to investigate the feasibility of the optical load-balanced switch and to examine its physical performance. Compared to three-stage load-balanced switches, the reported switch needs only half of optical devices such as tunable lasers and AWGRs, which can provide a cost-effective solution for future data centers. PMID:23187266

  20. Modeling boundary conditions for balanced proliferation in metastatic latency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Donald P; Wells, Jakob Z; Savol, Andrej; Chennubhotla, Chakra; Wells, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Nearly half of cancer metastases become clinically evident five or more years after primary tumor treatment; thus metastatic cells survived without emerging for extended periods. This dormancy has been explained by at least two countervailing scenarios: cellular quiescence and balanced proliferation; these entail dichotomous mechanistic etiologies. To examine the boundary parameters for balanced proliferation, we performed in silico modeling. Experimental Design To illuminate the balanced proliferation hypothesis, we explored the specific boundary probabilities under which proliferating micrometastases would remain dormant. A two-state Markov chain Monte Carlo model simulated micrometastatic proliferation and death according to stochastic survival probabilities. We varied these probabilities across 100 simulated patients each with 1,000 metastatic deposits and documented whether the micrometastases exceeded one million cells, died out, or remained dormant (survived 1,218 generations). Results The simulations revealed a narrow survival probability window (49.7 – 50.8 percent) that allowed for dormancy across a range of starting cell numbers, and even then for only a small fraction of micrometastases. The majority of micrometastases died out quickly even at survival probabilities that led to rapid emergence of a subset of micrometastases. Within dormant metastases, cell populations depended sensitively on small survival probability increments. Conclusions Metastatic dormancy as explained solely by balanced proliferation is bounded by very tight survival probabilities. Considering the far larger survival variability thought to attend fluxing microenvironments, it is more probable that these micrometastatic nodules undergo at least periods of quiescence rather than exclusively being controlled by balanced proliferation. PMID:23329811

  1. Examining the surfaces in used platinum catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Trumić B.; Stanković D.; Trujić V.

    2009-01-01

    For the purpose of finding more advanced platinum catalyst manufacturing technologies and achieving a higher degree of ammonia oxidation, metallographic characterization has been done on the surface of catalyst gauzes and catalyst gripper gauzes made from platinum and palladium alloys. For the examined samples of gauzes as well as the cross section of the wires, a chemical analysis was provided. The purpose of this paper is the metallographic characterization of examined alloys carried out by...

  2. Characterization of the 309 fuel examination facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.; Cornwell, B.C.

    1997-07-09

    This document identifies radiological, chemical and physical conditions inside the Fuel Examination Facility. It is located inside the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor containment structure (309 Building.) The facility was a hot cell used for examination of PRTR fuel and equipment during the 1960`s. Located inside the cell is a PRTR shim rod assembly, reported are radiological conditions of the sample. The conditions were assessed as part of overall 309 Building transition.

  3. Characterization of the 309 fuel examination facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document identifies radiological, chemical and physical conditions inside the Fuel Examination Facility. It is located inside the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor containment structure (309 Building.) The facility was a hot cell used for examination of PRTR fuel and equipment during the 1960's. Located inside the cell is a PRTR shim rod assembly, reported are radiological conditions of the sample. The conditions were assessed as part of overall 309 Building transition

  4. Risks and Chemical Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Avrom A.

    1994-01-01

    Examines exposure to chemicals within the home and three important ways in which hazardous substances can be identified and evaluated. Suggests a rational picture of human health risks and contains an introductory discussion of reasons for exposure, epidemiology, cancer causes and patterns, animal testing, toxins, and risk. (LZ)

  5. Fast balanced sampling for highly stratified population

    OpenAIRE

    Hasler, Caren; Tillé, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Balanced sampling is a very efficient sampling design when the variable of interest is correlated to the auxiliary variables on which the sample is balanced. A procedure to select balanced samples in a stratified population has previously been proposed. Unfortunately, this procedure becomes very slow as the number of strata increases and it even fails to select samples for some large numbers of strata. A new algorithm to select balanced samples in a stratified population is proposed. This new...

  6. IMPLEMENTASI BALANCED SCORECARD PADA ORGANISASI PUBLIK

    OpenAIRE

    Imelda R. H. N Imelda R. H. N

    2004-01-01

    At first introduced, balance scorecard is used by bussiness organization to measure performance of their activities, now balance scorecard is also used by public organization. A Public Organization is an organization intends to provide services to public, not for seeking profits. In order to used by public organization, a balance scorecard need to be modified. This essay discusses how to build a balance scorecard, which includes strategic goals, measures, targets, initiatives, and implementin...

  7. The Balanced Cube: A Concurrent Data Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Dally, William J.; Seitz, Charles L.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describee the balanced cube, a new data structure for implementing ordered seta. Conventional dats structures such as heaps, balanced trees and B-trees have root bottlenecks which limit their potential concurrency and make them unable to take advantage of the computing potential of concurrent machines. The balanced cube achieves greater concurrency by eliminating the root bottleneck; an operation in the balanced cube can be initiated from any node. The throughput of ...

  8. Chemical machining

    OpenAIRE

    A. Yardimeden; T. Ozben; O. Cakir

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Nontraditional machining processes are widely used to manufacture geometrically complex and precision parts for aerospace, electronics and automotive industries. There are different geometrically designed parts, such as deep internal cavities, miniaturized microelectronics and fine quality components may only be produced by nontraditional machining processes. This paper is aiming to give details of chemical machining process, industrial applications, applied chemical etchants and mac...

  9. CORRELATION OF ANKLE DORSIFLEXION RANGE OF MOTION WITH DYNAMIC BALANCE IN YOUNG NORMAL INDIVIDUALS

    OpenAIRE

    Pranali Suryavanshi; Ajay kumar; Parag Kulkarni; Prakash Patel

    2015-01-01

    This study was to examine correlation of ankle dorsiflexion range of motion with dynamic balance in young normal individuals. A cross sectional study has been done on 60 females by convenient sampling. The study was to examine dorsiflexion ROM by using star excursion balance test. It was performed in all directions for three trials. Distance was recorded with measure tape. Ankle ROM was performed by weight bearing lunge. Individuals who demonstrate impairments in dorsiflexion ROM may also de...

  10. Chemical Radioprotectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Upadhyay

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Protection of biological systems against radiation damage is of paramount importance during accidental and unavoidable exposure to radiation. Several physico-chemical and biological factors collectively contribute to the damage caused by radiation and are, therefore, targets for developing radioprotectors. Work on the development of chemicals capable of protecting biological systemsfrom radiation damage was initiated nearly six decades ago with cysteine being the first molecule to be reported. Chemicals capable of scavenging free radicals, inducing oxygen depletion,antioxidants and modulators of immune response have been some of the radioprotectors extensively investigated with limited success. Mechanism of action of some chemical radioprotectors and their combinations have been elucidated, while further understanding is required in many instances. The present review elaborates on structure-activity relationship of some of the chemical radioprotectors, their evaluation, and assessment, limitation, and future prospects.

  11. Monte Carlo methods beyond detailed balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, Raoul D.; Barkema, Gerard T.

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo algorithms are nearly always based on the concept of detailed balance and ergodicity. In this paper we focus on algorithms that do not satisfy detailed balance. We introduce a general method for designing non-detailed balance algorithms, starting from a conventional algorithm satisfying

  12. Balancing of Lossless and Passive Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, Arjan van der

    2008-01-01

    Different balancing techniques are applied to lossless nonlinear systems, with open-loop balancing applied to their scattering representation. It is shown that they all lead to the same result: the pair of to-be-balanced functions is given by two copies of the physical energy function, yielding thus

  13. Nervous system examination on YouTube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azer Samy A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Web 2.0 sites such as YouTube have become a useful resource for knowledge and are used by medical students as a learning resource. This study aimed at assessing videos covering the nervous system examination on YouTube. Methods A research of YouTube was conducted from 2 November to 2 December 2011 using the following key words “nervous system examination”, “nervous system clinical examination”, “cranial nerves examination”, “CNS examination”, “examination of cerebellum”, “balance and coordination examination”. Only relevant videos in the English language were identified and related URL recorded. For each video, the following information was collected: title, author/s, duration, number of viewers, number of posted comments, and total number of days on YouTube. Using criteria comprising content, technical authority and pedagogy parameters, videos were rated independently by three assessors and grouped into educationally useful and non-educationally useful. Results A total of 2240 videos were screened; 129 were found to have relevant information to nervous system examination. Analysis revealed that 61 (47% of the videos provided useful information on the nervous system examination. These videos scored (mean ± SD, 14.9 ± 0.2 and mainly covered examination of the whole nervous system (8 videos, 13%, cranial nerves (42 videos, 69%, upper limbs (6 videos, 10%, lower limbs (3 videos, 5%, balance and co-ordination (2 videos, 3%. The other 68 (53% videos were not useful educationally; scoring (mean ± SD, 11.1 ± 3.0. The total viewers of all videos was 2,189,434. Useful videos were viewed by 1,050,445 viewers (48% of total viewers. The total viewership per day for useful videos was 1,794.5 and for non-useful videos 1,132.0. The differences between the three assessors were insignificant (less than 0.5 for the mean and 0.3 for the SD. Conclusions Currently, YouTube provides an adequate resource

  14. CORRELATION OF ANKLE DORSIFLEXION RANGE OF MOTION WITH DYNAMIC BALANCE IN YOUNG NORMAL INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranali Suryavanshi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was to examine correlation of ankle dorsiflexion range of motion with dynamic balance in young normal individuals. A cross sectional study has been done on 60 females by convenient sampling. The study was to examine dorsiflexion ROM by using star excursion balance test. It was performed in all directions for three trials. Distance was recorded with measure tape. Ankle ROM was performed by weight bearing lunge. Individuals who demonstrate impairments in dorsiflexion ROM may also demonstrate difficulty with portions of the SEBT. There is significant positive correlation in between dorsiflexion range of motion and star excursion balance test in anterior and postero lateral direction.

  15. Energy balances for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important aspect of a power plant is its energy balance, i.e. the electrical energy produced by the plant over its overall operation period, compared to the amount of non-renewable energy used to create and build the plant. Tense discussions took place in the past between criticizers and promotors of a given technology, some technologies even being accused of having a negative energy balance. Mostly based on built examples the present study aims at giving objective data for the represented technologies, as follows: a 64 MW hydro power plant in the Alps, with seasonal water storage in a lake; a 60 MW run-of-river high-head hydro power plant in the Alps; two run-of-river low-head hydro power plants in the Swiss Midlands (14 MW and 25 MW respectively); a small 30 kW wind power generator located near the Simplon Pass at 2000 m over sea level, in the Alps; a 3 kW photovoltaic generator in the roof of a single-family house; a 500 kW photovoltaic power plant in the Jura, at 1000 m over sea level; a 0.9 MWel/8.8 MWtherm fossil-fuel co-generation plant near Zuerich; a 200 MW natural-gas-fired gas/vapour turbine power plant; a 300 MW heavy-fuel-fired power plant; a 500 MW coal-fired power plant; and the Leibstadt 990 MW nuclear power plant. The best energy balances are obtained for the hydro power plants, the worst for the Leibstadt nuclear power plant. In between the photovoltaic plants and the fossil-fuel-fired plants are found. The figures differ by more than two orders of magnitude

  16. Electronic Elections: A Balancing Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Pedro A. D.

    This article aims to share some major lessons learned from the pioneering experience in Brazil with the world's first full national implementation of universal electronic voting. Differing notions of security, and their "collateral entanglements", appear to play a key role and are contrasted in Brazil's pioneering electronic voting saga. After an introduction, we puzzle through what election security may mean. We elaborate on how technological innovations may affect the underlying risks, their nature, corrections and balance. Then we describe some ways in which innovations have been deployed and validated, and how the results are being perceived, before some closing remarks.

  17. The Balance Idea of Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Changes in the content of European balance constitute the biggest difference between the economic integration model and its predecessors. Armament, territory and resources were considered as key factors for enhanced strength and sustained power parity with other nations. Transition to economic integration has however entailed decoupling of the two. Enhanced national strength now aims instead at power parity and shared power based on common European interests and inter-dependency rather than at weakening other nations. As a result, state relations there are moving toward fusion and convergence.

  18. Equilibria in Load Balancing Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Chen

    2009-01-01

    A Nash equilibrium (NE) in a multi-agent game is a strategy profile that is resilient to unilateral deviations.A strong Nash equilibrium (SE) is one that is stable against coordinated deviations of any coalition.We show that,in the load balancing games,NEs approximate SEs in the sense that the benefit of each member of any coalition from coordinated deviations is well limited.Furthermore,we show that an easily recognizable special subset of NEs exhibit even better approximation of SEs.

  19. Energy balances of OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contains a compilation of data on the supply and consumption of coal, oil, gas, electricity, heat, combustible renewable and waste presented in energy balances. The figures are expressed in million tonnes of oil equivalent. Historical tables summarize key energy and economic indicators as well as production, trade and final consumption data. Each issue includes definitions of products and flows and explanatory notes on the individual country data as well as conversion factors from original units to tonnes of oil equivalent. In the 1997 edition, key indicators have been provided back to 1960 instead of 1971 as in the previous editions. (author)

  20. Internal examination of CAGR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During selected reactor maintenance periods it will be necessary to conduct examinations of reactor internal components to gain assurance of their continuing integrity throughout the design life. Equipment for remote examination is being developed that will measure the distortions of the graphite moderator bricks and extract samples from them for analysis. Other remotely operated equipment will allow closed circuit TV viewing inside the reactors: the equipment provides both wide field and detailed inspection facilities within a single compact unit. Manipulators are being developed to ring the viewing units to the best vantage points. Reeling and handling gear will be operated from outside the vessels and these provide full containment at all times. (author)

  1. Using chemical benchmarking to determine the persistence of chemicals in a Swedish lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hongyan; Radke, Michael; Kierkegaard, Amelie; MacLeod, Matthew; McLachlan, Michael S

    2015-02-01

    It is challenging to measure the persistence of chemicals under field conditions. In this work, two approaches for measuring persistence in the field were compared: the chemical mass balance approach, and a novel chemical benchmarking approach. Ten pharmaceuticals, an X-ray contrast agent, and an artificial sweetener were studied in a Swedish lake. Acesulfame K was selected as a benchmark to quantify persistence using the chemical benchmarking approach. The 95% confidence intervals of the half-life for transformation in the lake system ranged from 780-5700 days for carbamazepine to <1-2 days for ketoprofen. The persistence estimates obtained using the benchmarking approach agreed well with those from the mass balance approach (1-21% difference), indicating that chemical benchmarking can be a valid and useful method to measure the persistence of chemicals under field conditions. Compared to the mass balance approach, the benchmarking approach partially or completely eliminates the need to quantify mass flow of chemicals, so it is particularly advantageous when the quantification of mass flow of chemicals is difficult. Furthermore, the benchmarking approach allows for ready comparison and ranking of the persistence of different chemicals. PMID:25565241

  2. Engine balance apparatus and accessory drive device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogdon, James William (Inventor); Gill, David Keith (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A balancing mechanism for an engine that has a rotating crankshaft and reciprocating pistons such as those engines used in automobiles, aircrafts, boats, piston-driven compressors, piston-driven slider crank mechanisms, etc. The present balancing mechanism may comprise a first balance mass non-rotatably affixed to the crankshaft and a second balance mass rotatably supported on the crankshaft. A driver assembly is affixed to crankshaft to cause the second balance mass to rotate in a direction that is opposite to the direction in which the crank shaft is rotating. The driver assembly may include auxiliary gears configured to transport rotary power to auxiliary components.

  3. The balanced tensor product of module categories

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Christopher L.; Schommer-Pries, Christopher; Snyder, Noah

    2014-01-01

    The balanced tensor product M (x)_A N of two modules over an algebra A is the vector space corepresenting A-balanced bilinear maps out of the product M x N. The balanced tensor product M [x]_C N of two module categories over a monoidal linear category C is the linear category corepresenting C-balanced right-exact bilinear functors out of the product category M x N. We show that the balanced tensor product can be realized as a category of bimodule objects in C, provided the monoidal linear cat...

  4. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  5. Microprocessors in automatic chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of microprocessors to programming and computing of solutions chemical analysis by a sequential technique is examined. Safety, performances reliability are compared to other methods. An example is given on uranium titration by spectrophotometry

  6. IMPLEMENTASI BALANCED SCORECARD PADA ORGANISASI PUBLIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imelda R. H. N Imelda R. H. N

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available At first introduced, balance scorecard is used by bussiness organization to measure performance of their activities, now balance scorecard is also used by public organization. A Public Organization is an organization intends to provide services to public, not for seeking profits. In order to used by public organization, a balance scorecard need to be modified. This essay discusses how to build a balance scorecard, which includes strategic goals, measures, targets, initiatives, and implementing balance scorecard to public organization. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Saat pertama kali diperkenalkan, balanced scorecard digunakan oleh organisasi bisnis untuk pengukuran kinerja. Dewasa ini, balanced scorecard tidak saja digunakan oleh organisasi bisnis tetapi juga organisasi publik. Organisasi publik adalah organisasi yang menyediakan jasa pada masyarakat dengan tujuan bukan untuk mencari profit. Untuk dapat digunakan oleh organisasi publik, balanced scorecard tersebut harus dimodifikasi. Tulisan ini membahas bagaimana membangun balanced scorecard, meliputi menentukan tujuan strategis, ukuran yang digunakan, target yang ingin dicapai serta inisiatif, dan mengimplementasikan balanced scorecard pada organisasi publik. Kata kunci: balanced scorecard, organisasi publik.

  7. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Skin Watch the video below and in only two minutes, you can learn to examine your skin. A special thanks to Dr. Martin Weinstock, MD, PhD, Professor of Dermatology, Brown University, for permission to use this video. UPDATED: February ...

  8. Mini mental state examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørner, Ejnar Alex; Lauritzen, Lise; Wang, August;

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used in Denmark, but often in non-validated versions. In 2000 a cross-sectional workgroup decided on a new common version of the MMSE with a corresponding manual, which is validated for the first time in the present study. MATERIALS...

  9. Students friendly medical examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Chandra Chaurasia

    2014-04-01

    always a burden. The professional exams of universities are the matter of their norms and regulation, but we have day-to-day assessment through-out duration; this is enough to moralize them and prepare before final professional examination. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 412-412

  10. Ecological, biological balances and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific work within the activity ''ecological/biological balances and conservation'' is summarised in this report. The aims of the activity during its existence between 1992 and 1994 have been to: (i) arrange a workshop and publish the presentations on the environmental aspects of energy forest cultivations, (ii) perform joint scientific work together with the activity group on ''biological disposal of wastewaters and sludges'', that is closely related to environmental problems, and (iii) produce ecological guidelines concerning energy forestry, suitable for advisers and farmers dealing with bioenergy problems. The most important results from the workshop were the environmental benefits from energy forestry when compared with intensive agriculture and forestry. Energy forestry has positive influence on the carbon balances, nutrient recycling, and soil sustainability. The effects are also positive on the natural flora and fauna, which in most cases are enriched when compared with agricultural crops. From the joint efforts of the two activities the main result was a study tour, conference and workshop, concentrating on biological purification systems. The most promising system seems to be the vegetation filters of short rotation coppice. The report on ecological guidelines contains a number of ideas and recommendations for establishment, management, and harvesting of energy forests in an environmentally acceptable way. It also gives advice on how to locate the stands to minimise the risk of nutrient leakage from arable land. (Author)

  11. Differential force balances during levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Paul

    The simplest arithmetic of inertial, buoyant, magnetic and electrokinetic levitation is explored in the context of a model living system with “acceleration-sensitive structures” in which motion, if allowed, produces a biological effect. The simple model is a finite-sized object enclosed within another finite-sized object suspended in an outer fluid (liquid or vapor) medium. The inner object has density and electrical and magnetic properties quantitatively different from those of the outer object and the medium. In inertial levitation (“weightlessness”) inertial accelerations are balanced, and the forces due to them are canceled in accordance with Newton’s third law. In the presence of inertial acceleration (gravity, centrifugal) motionlessness depends on a balance between the levitating force and the inertial force. If the inner and outer objects differ in density one or the other will be subjected to an unbalanced force when one object is levitated by any other force (buoyant, magnetic, electrokinetic). The requirements for motionlessness of the internal object in the presence of a levitating force are equality of density in the case of buoyant levitation, equality of magnetic susceptibility in the case of magnetic levitation, and equality of zeta potential and dielectric constant in the case of electrokinetic levitation. Examples of internal “acceleration-sensitive structures” are cellular organelles and the organs of advanced plants and animals. For these structures fundamental physical data are important in the interpretation of the effects of forces used for levitation.

  12. Mass balance assessment using GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbe, Christina L.

    1993-01-01

    Mass balance is an integral part of any comprehensive glaciological investigation. Unfortunately, it is hard to determine at remote locations where there is no fixed reference. The Global Positioning System (GPS) offers a solution. Simultaneous GPS observations at a known location and the remote field site, processed differentially, will accurately position the camp site. From there, a monument planted in the firn atop the ice can also be accurately positioned. Change in the monument's vertical position is a direct indicator of ice thickness change. Because the monument is not connected to the ice, its motion is due to both mass balance change and to the settling of firn as it densifies into ice. Observations of relative position change between the monument and anchors at various depths within the firn are used to remove the settling effect. An experiment to test this method has begun at Byrd Station on the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and the first epoch of observations was made. Analysis indicates that positioning errors will be very small. It appears likely that the largest errors involved with this technique will arise from ancillary data needed to determine firn settling.

  13. Exercise, energy balance and the shift worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Greg; Fullick, Sarah; Grindey, Charlotte; Maclaren, Don

    2008-01-01

    Shift work is now common in society and is not restricted to heavy industry or emergency services, but is increasingly found amongst 'white collar' occupations and the growing number of service industries. Participation in shift work is associated with increased body mass index, prevalence of obesity and other health problems. We review the behavioural and biological disturbances that occur during shift work and discuss their impact on leisure-time physical activity and energy balance. Shift work generally decreases opportunities for physical activity and participation in sports. For those shift workers who are able to exercise, subjective and biological responses can be altered if the exercise is taken at unusual times of day and/or if the shift worker is sleep deprived. These altered responses may in turn impact on the longer-term adherence to an exercise programme. The favourable effects of exercise on body mass control and sleep quality in shift workers have not been confirmed. Similarly, recent reports of relationships between sleep duration and obesity have not been examined in a shift work context. There is no evidence that exercise can mediate certain circadian rhythm characteristics (e.g. amplitude or timing) for improved tolerance to shift work. Total energy intake and meal composition do not seem to be affected by participation in shift work. Meal frequency is generally reduced but snacking is increased on the night shift. Unavailability of preferred foods in the workplace, a lack of time, and a reduced desire to eat at night explain these findings. 'Normal' eating habits with the family are also disrupted. The metabolic responses to food are also altered by shift work-mediated disruptions to sleep and circadian rhythms. Whether any interactions on human metabolism exist between timing or content of food intake and physical activity during shift work is not known at present. There are very few randomized controlled studies on the efficacy of physical

  14. Chemical Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pills, who subsequently become pregnant or have a history of brownish facial discoloration. Scarring Reactivation of cold sores What can I expect after having a chemical peel? All peels require some follow-up care: ...

  15. Unnecessary Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anita

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the health hazards resulting from chemical additions of many common products such as cough syrups, food dyes, and cosmetics. Steps being taken to protect consumers from these health hazards are included. (MDR)

  16. Chemical kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book gives descriptions of chemical kinetics. It starts summary of chemical kinetics and reaction mechanism, and explains basic velocity law, experiment method for determination of reaction velocity, temperature dependence of reaction velocity, theory of reaction velocity, theory on reaction of unimolecular, process of atom and free radical, reaction in solution, catalysis, photochemical reaction, such as experiment and photochemical law and rapid reaction like flame, beam of molecule and shock tube.

  17. THERMAL COMFORT ZONES FORSTEADY-STATE ENERGY BALANCE MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    KAYNAKLI, Ömer; Ümit ÜNVER; Muhsin KILIÇ; Recep YAMANKARADENİZ

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the various thermal comfort parameters including temperature, relative humidity, air velocity, metabolic activity and clothing resistance and their effect to each other are examined. The heat transfer equations given for steady state energy balance between body and environment and the empirical equations which give thermal comfort and physiological control mechanisms of body are used. According to the ASHRAE Standard 55-1992, an environment can be assumed comfortable while Pred...

  18. Posture and Texting: Effect on Balance in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Nurwulan, Nurul Retno; Bernard C. Jiang; Iridiastadi, Hardianto

    2015-01-01

    Using a mobile phone while doing another activity is a common dual-task activity in our daily lives. This study examined the effect of texting on the postural stability of young adults. Twenty college students were asked to perform static and dynamic postural stability tasks. Traditional COP and multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE) were used to assess the static postural stability and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) was used to assess the dynamic postural stability. Results showed th...

  19. Corporate balance sheets in developed economies: Implications for investment

    OpenAIRE

    Côté, Denise; Graham, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine the aggregate national balance-sheets of non-financial corporations in Australia and the G7 countries with a view to assessing both their financial structure and their financial position. More importantly, the authors investigate whether the financial position of non-financial corporations (i.e., debt-to-equity ratio) is material to the economy's investment prospects and whether the importance of this channel differs depending on the structure of corporate f...

  20. ENHANCING EFL EXAMINATION SKILLS

    OpenAIRE

    Gladio, Svetlana; Chugu, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the idea of incorporating special techniques into the preparation of Ukrainian students for internationally recognized exams such as FCE, CAE, IELTS and TOEFL in higher education environment as part of EFL teaching. The authors emphasize the necessity to use a range of content-based tasks and activities relevant for training a fluent/good user of English in the EFL instruction. The issues that are examined in the article support the arguments in favour of including compo...

  1. Cell phone based balance trainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Beom-Chan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In their current laboratory-based form, existing vibrotactile sensory augmentation technologies that provide cues of body motion are impractical for home-based rehabilitation use due to their size, weight, complexity, calibration procedures, cost, and fragility. Methods We have designed and developed a cell phone based vibrotactile feedback system for potential use in balance rehabilitation training in clinical and home environments. It comprises an iPhone with an embedded tri-axial linear accelerometer, custom software to estimate body tilt, a "tactor bud" accessory that plugs into the headphone jack to provide vibrotactile cues of body tilt, and a battery. Five young healthy subjects (24 ± 2.8 yrs, 3 females and 2 males and four subjects with vestibular deficits (42.25 ± 13.5 yrs, 2 females and 2 males participated in a proof-of-concept study to evaluate the effectiveness of the system. Healthy subjects used the system with eyes closed during Romberg, semi-tandem Romberg, and tandem Romberg stances. Subjects with vestibular deficits used the system with both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions during semi-tandem Romberg stance. Vibrotactile feedback was provided when the subject exceeded either an anterior-posterior (A/P or a medial-lateral (M/L body tilt threshold. Subjects were instructed to move away from the vibration. Results The system was capable of providing real-time vibrotactile cues that informed corrective postural responses. When feedback was available, both healthy subjects and those with vestibular deficits significantly reduced their A/P or M/L RMS sway (depending on the direction of feedback, had significantly smaller elliptical area fits to their sway trajectory, spent a significantly greater mean percentage time within the no feedback zone, and showed a significantly greater A/P or M/L mean power frequency. Conclusion The results suggest that the real-time feedback provided by this system can be used

  2. Stochastic thermodynamics of chemical reaction networks

    OpenAIRE

    Schmiedl, Tim; Seifert, Udo

    2006-01-01

    For chemical reaction networks described by a master equation, we define energy and entropy on a stochastic trajectory and develop a consistent nonequilibrium thermodynamic description along a single stochastic trajectory of reaction events. A first-law like energy balance relates internal energy, applied (chemical) work and dissipated heat for every single reaction. Entropy production along a single trajectory involves a sum over changes in the entropy of the network itself and the entropy o...

  3. Diagnostic Value of Halitosis Examination Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Murat; Bollen, Curd M L; Özen, Murat Eren

    2016-03-01

    There are many methods and varied protocols for examining halitosis. Chemical and enzymatic tests determine the presence of bacterial species and their metabolic products or enzymes in the mouth, while halitometers precisely quantify gases but not halitosis itself. Examinations by the human nose (ie, self assessment, feedback from others, or organoleptic test by an examiner) directly target halitosis, however organoleptic examination alone is insufficient for a definitive diagnosis when the individual has no complaints about halitosis. The underlying reasons why patients seek consultation concerning halitosis are usually based on their own assessment and the opinion of others, even if those assessments are not correlated with oral odorous gas measurements. This article seeks to summarize findings and review methods of examining halitosis to determine their usefulness. PMID:26977897

  4. Staying in dynamic balance on a prosthetic limb: A leg to stand on?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtze, Carolin; Hof, At L; Postema, Klaas; Otten, Bert

    2016-06-01

    With the loss of a lower limb, amputees lack the active muscle empowered control of the ankle that is important for balance control. We examined single-leg stance on prosthesis vs. sound limb balancing on narrow ridges in transtibial amputees. When balancing on the prosthetic limb, the lateral displacement of the center of pressure was reduced and was compensated by an increase in counter-rotation. We show that single-leg stance on a prosthetic limb can be compared to balancing on a narrow ridge. Standing on a prosthetic limb involves the same balance mechanisms as balancing on narrow ridges of 40-mm to 20-mm width. Yet, the ability to balance on a narrow ridge with the sound limb was only a weak predictor for an amputee's ability to stand on the prosthetic limb. Balancing in single-leg stance on a prosthetic limb is not a common activity. The ability to compensate with the sound limb may therefore be functionally more important than the ability to stay in dynamic balance on the prosthetic limb. PMID:27052518

  5. Single Switched Capacitor Battery Balancing System Enhancements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeri van Mierlo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Battery management systems (BMS are a key element in electric vehicle energy storage systems. The BMS performs several functions concerning to the battery system, its key task being balancing the battery cells. Battery cell unbalancing hampers electric vehicles’ performance, with differing individual cell voltages decreasing the battery pack capacity and cell lifetime, leading to the eventual failure of the total battery system. Quite a lot of cell balancing topologies have been proposed, such as shunt resistor, shuttling capacitor, inductor/transformer based and DC energy converters. The shuttling capacitor balancing systems in particular have not been subject to much research efforts however, due to their perceived low balancing speed and high cost. This paper tries to fill this gap by briefly discussing the shuttling capacitor cell balancing topologies, focusing on the single switched capacitor (SSC cell balancing and proposing a novel procedure to improve the SSC balancing system performance. This leads to a new control strategy for the SSC system that can decrease the balancing system size, cost, balancing time and that can improve the SSC balancing system efficiency.

  6. Balance and injury in elite Australian footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrysomallis, C; McLaughlin, P; Goodman, C

    2007-10-01

    This project measured pre-season balance ability and determined its relationship to knee and ankle ligament injuries during the season for professional Australian footballers. The balance test involved the players stepping onto a foam balance mat on top of a force plate and maintaining single limb balance. Throughout the playing season, injuries were monitored. The results from two hundred and ten players participating in this project were analysed. During the 2003 season, 8 % (17 out of 210) sustained a knee ligament injury and 10 % (21 out of 210) sustained an ankle ligament injury. Multivariate analysis revealed that pre-season balance ability was a significant independent predictor of ankle ligament injury. Players with low balance ability had at least twice as many ankle ligaments injuries as those with average or good balance ability. Balance ability was not a significant predictor of knee ligament injuries. The height of the players was the only significant independent predictor of knee ligament injuries. Low pre-season balance ability was associated with an increased risk of ankle ligament injury. A modifiable injury risk factor has been identified. Research is now required to determine the optimal training regime to enhance balance ability and whether this translates to a reduction in the incidence of ankle injuries. PMID:17373597

  7. A Generalized Detailed Balance Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruelle, David

    2016-08-01

    Given a system M in a thermal bath we obtain a generalized detailed balance relation for the ratio r=π _τ (K→ J)/π _τ (J→ K) of the transition probabilities M:J→ K and M:K→ J in time τ . We assume an active bath, containing solute molecules in metastable states. These molecules may react with M and the transition J→ K occurs through different channels α involving different reactions with the bath. We find that r=sum p^α r^α , where p^α is the probability that channel α occurs, and r^α depends on the amount of heat (more precisely enthalpy) released to the bath in channel α.

  8. Wii Balance Board: Reliability and Clinical Use in Assessment of Balance in Healthy Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro-Junior, Renato Sobral; Ferreira, Arthur Sá; Puell, Vivian Neiva; Lattari, Eduardo; Machado, Sérgio; Otero Vaghetti, César Augusto; da Silva, Elirez Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    Force plate is considered gold standard tool to assess body balance. However the Wii Balance Board (WBB) platform is a trustworthy equipment to assess stabilometric components in young people. Thus, we aim to examine the reliability of measures of center of pressure with WBB in healthy elderly women. Twenty one healthy and physically active women were enrolled in the study (age: 64 ± 7 years; body mass index: 29 ± 5 kg/m2. The WBB was used to assess the center of pressure measures in the individuals. Pressure was linearly applied to different points to test the platform precision. Three assessments were performed, with two of them being held on the same day at a 5- to 10-minute interval, and the third one was performed 48 h later. A linear regression analysis was used to find out linearity, while the intraclass correlation coefficient was used to assess reliability. The platform precision was adequate (R2 = 0.997, P = 0.01). Center of pressure measures showed an excellent reliability (all intraclass correlation coefficient values were > 0.90; p < 0.01). The WBB is a precise and reliable tool of body stability quantitative measure in healthy active elderly women and its use should be encouraged in clinical settings. PMID:26556091

  9. Relevance of balance measurement tools and balance training for fall prevention in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majumi M. Noohu, MPTh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Approximately one in three older people fall each year owing to gait/balance disorder/weakness, the second leading cause of falls in older adults. This review evaluates the capability of different balance measurement tools to predict falls in the elderly, which are used routinely for assessing balance impairment. Balance measurement tools reviewed are the Timed Up and Go test, Berg Balance Scale, Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment, Functional Reach Test, Clinical Test of Sensory Integration for Balance, and the postural sway measurements or center of pressure. The effect of balance training on the postural control mechanism and its efficacy in fall prevention in older adults were also reviewed. The current evidence is not conclusive enough to favor existing balance measurement tools and balance training implemented for fall prevention in older adults.

  10. Orbital radionuclide examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbital abnormalities can be evaluated by dynamic scintigraphy (radionuclide angiography) and static scintigraphy (radionuclide ''scanning''). The use of en face positioning improves the visualization of orbital details. Lesions can be detected and localized most accurately if multiple tracers are used for these studies. Abnormalities can be characterized by the recognition of various angiographic flow patterns, of distinct static distribution patterns, and of differences in the accumulation of multiple radiopharmaceuticals. The results of scintigraphic examination using technetium 99m sodium pertechnetate, mercury 197 chlormerodrin, and gallium 67 citrate in a series of 57 patients are reported. (U.S.)

  11. Microprobe to closely examine minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The University of South Australia will develop synchrotron-based technology that can determine the structure and chemical composition of mineral samples at microscopic levels. The planned multi-analysis synchrotron X-ray facility Beam-line 11 is for implementing on the Australian Synchrotron. UniSA's Applied Centre for Structural and Synchrotron Studies (ACeSSS) will use Beamline 11 to shed new light on factors that constrain recoveries of copper and gold from typical copper ores. ACeSSS director Professor Andrea Gerson is working with an international team and the Australian Synchrotron on the design of Beamline 11. According to Gerson, there is scope to improve processing and/or increase recoveries in copper, gold and valueless pyrite either through separation, smelting, leaching or electro-processing. Using synchrotron technology, researchers will determine the structure and chemical composition of mineral samples to understand the fundamental behaviour of these materials in order to identify process and : environmental benefits. Three different strategies will be employed: tracing the movement of gold through the mineral processing chain to optimise and increase gold recovery; examining the surface layers formed when copper is leached from the mineral, chalcopyrite, to enhance the understanding of this surface layer formation and ultimately maximise cop-per recovery; and improving environmental remediation by understanding the mineralisation process during acid-rock drainage. ACeSSS will work with the minerals and environmental remediation sectors, building on the I establishment of the Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, and cementing close collaboration with UniSA's Ian Wark Research Institute. Contributions from the SA Premier's Science and Research Fund, BHP Billiton and Rio Tinto, synchrotron partners Advanced Light Source (USA) and the Canadian Light Source Funding totalling $1.38m are available for

  12. Examining How Superintendents Understand, Leverage, and Balance Social Justice and Accountability: Case Studies in Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Kelley, Laura Kay

    2016-01-01

    By almost every measure, American schools have not educated poor, minority, and disadvantaged children to the same level as their White, some Asian, non-poor and non-disabled counterparts (American Institutes for Research, 2013; Gándara, 2010; NCES, 2014; Rojas-Lebouef & Slate, 2011; Thurlow, Bremer, & Albus, 2011) despite increased accountability expectations for all student subgroup performance outcomes (DeNisco, 2013; Payne, 2008). Students who do not achieve academically are potentially f...

  13. Chemical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi, Wing-Fai

    2015-09-01

    This chapter discusses the fundamental ideas of how chemical networks are build, their strengths and limitations. The chemical reactions that occur in disks combine the cold phase reactions used to model cold molecular clouds with the hot chemistry applied to planetary atmosphere models. With a general understanding of the different types of reactions that can occur, one can proceed in building a network of chemical reactions and use it to explain the abundance of species seen in disks. One on-going research subject is finding new paths to synthesize species either in the gas-phase or on grain surfaces. Specific formation routes for water or carbon monoxide are discussed in more details. 13th Lecture of the Summer School "Protoplanetary Disks: Theory and Modelling Meet Observations"

  14. Using chemical organization theory for model checking

    OpenAIRE

    Kaleta, Christoph; Richter, Stephan; Dittrich, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: The increasing number and complexity of biomodels makes automatic procedures for checking the models' properties and quality necessary. Approaches like elementary mode analysis, flux balance analysis, deficiency analysis and chemical organization theory (OT) require only the stoichiometric structure of the reaction network for derivation of valuable information. In formalisms like Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML), however, information about the stoichiometric coefficients re...

  15. Milestones in gait, balance, and falling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, John G; Horak, Fay B; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2011-05-01

    Gait, balance, and falls have become increasingly common topics of published articles in the Movement Disorders journal since its launch in 1986. This growth represents an increasing awareness of the importance of mobility to patients' quality of life. New methods have become available that allow for accurate measurement of many aspects for gait and balance. This has led to new concepts of understanding gait and balance disorders. Neuroimaging has begun to reveal the neural circuitry underlying gait and balance. The physiology and pathophysiology of balance and gait are beginning to tease out the many processes involved in mobility and how they may be disrupted by disease processes. With these advances, the old therapeutic nihilism that characterized the clinician's approach to falls and gait disorders is disappearing, as innovative physiotherapy, exercise, drugs, and deep brain stimulation are being employed for gait and balance disorders. PMID:21626560

  16. Balance Systems and the Variational Bicomplex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Serge

    2011-07-01

    In this work we show that the systems of balance equations (balance systems) of continuum thermodynamics occupy a natural place in the variational bicomplex formalism. We apply the vertical homotopy decomposition to get a local splitting (in a convenient domain) of a general balance system as the sum of a Lagrangian part and a complemental ''pure non-Lagrangian'' balance system. In the case when derivatives of the dynamical fields do not enter the constitutive relations of the balance system, the ''pure non-Lagrangian'' systems coincide with the systems introduced by S. Godunov [Soviet Math. Dokl. 2 (1961), 947-948] and, later, asserted as the canonical hyperbolic form of balance systems in [Müller I., Ruggeri T., Rational extended thermodynamics, 2nd ed., Springer Tracts in Natural Philosophy, Vol. 37, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1998].

  17. Balance Systems and the Variational Bicomplex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Preston

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we show that the systems of balance equations (balance systems of continuum thermodynamics occupy a natural place in the variational bicomplex formalism. We apply the vertical homotopy decomposition to get a local splitting (in a convenient domain of a general balance system as the sum of a Lagrangian part and a complemental ''pure non-Lagrangian'' balance system. In the case when derivatives of the dynamical fields do not enter the constitutive relations of the balance system, the ''pure non-Lagrangian'' systems coincide with the systems introduced by S. Godunov [Soviet Math. Dokl. 2 (1961, 947-948] and, later, asserted as the canonical hyperbolic form of balance systems in [Müller I., Ruggeri T., Rational extended thermodynamics, 2nd ed., Springer Tracts in Natural Philosophy, Vol. 37, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1998].

  18. Internal strain gage balances for cryogenic windtunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufnagel, K.; Ewald, B.; Graewe, E.

    The five cryogenic wind-tunnel balances which were built and calibrated as part of the cryogenic balance program initiated in 1979 by the German Ministry of Research and Technology are described. Particular attention is given to factors affecting the calibration of cryogenic balances, such as the changes in the temperature and temperature gradients in the balance body caused by changes in the tunnel temperature. It is shown that it is possible to have a cryogenic wind-tunnel balance with the same accuracy and repeatability as a conventional balance. The effect of temperature gradients can be minimized by a new design of the axial-force element and an advanced calibration, and the zero shift can be reduced by matching procedures and calibration.

  19. Mountain Pine Beetle Impact on Stand-level Water Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, J. A.; Woods, S.

    2012-12-01

    The recent mountain pine beetle (MPB) epidemic has disturbed millions of hectares throughout the Rocky Mountain West. The most persistent effects of MPB infestation on the stand-level water balance are likely concomitant with the grey stage of the disturbance cycle. The grey stage occurs within 3 to 5 years of the initial infestation after the needles of an infected tree have turned red and fallen off due to tree death. Large numbers of grey-stage trees in a stand may remain on the landscape for up to 20 years, until windthrow or another disturbance sends them to the forest floor. The greater temporal persistence of the grey stage over antecedent stages suggested that an examination of the grey stage would best capture long-term effects of MPB disturbance on the forest water balance. In this study we hypothesized that changes to the forest canopy associated with MPB disturbance may affect the stand-level water balance. The needle loss and windthrow that follows MPB disturbance is expected to increase the amount of precipitation reaching the forest floor. Additionally, overstory evapotranspiration (ET) demand is expected to decrease as MPB-induced tree mortality increases within disturbed stands. The expected cumulative effect of MPB disturbance on the stand-level water balance is an increase in soil moisture due to increased precipitation inputs and reduced overstory ET. This study was conducted in Lubrecht Experimental Forest and adjacent Bureau of Land Management areas near Missoula, Montana. Sub-canopy measurements of soil moisture, precipitation (rain and snow water equivalent), overstory transpiration and micro-meteorological data (net radiation, temperature, wind speed, etc.) were collected in three 50 x 50 meter plots. The plots consisted of a uniform stand of grey-stage lodgepole pine, a uniform stand of non-infested lodgepole pine, and a recent clear-cut stand, which served as a control unit. Water balances for each stand were constructed using a mass-balance

  20. Examining hydrogen transitions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S. E.; Energy Systems

    2007-03-01

    This report describes the results of an effort to identify key analytic issues associated with modeling a transition to hydrogen as a fuel for light duty vehicles, and using insights gained from this effort to suggest ways to improve ongoing modeling efforts. The study reported on here examined multiple hydrogen scenarios reported in the literature, identified modeling issues associated with those scenario analyses, and examined three DOE-sponsored hydrogen transition models in the context of those modeling issues. The three hydrogen transition models are HyTrans (contractor: Oak Ridge National Laboratory), MARKAL/DOE* (Brookhaven National Laboratory), and NEMS-H2 (OnLocation, Inc). The goals of these models are (1) to help DOE improve its R&D effort by identifying key technology and other roadblocks to a transition and testing its technical program goals to determine whether they are likely to lead to the market success of hydrogen technologies, (2) to evaluate alternative policies to promote a transition, and (3) to estimate the costs and benefits of alternative pathways to hydrogen development.

  1. Microstructural examination of

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, C.; Yoshizawa, H.; Nakagawa, Y. G.; Lapides, M. E.

    1993-10-01

    Fatigue tests were performed to examine how microstructural conditioning influences crack initiation and propagation in SA508 class 3 low-carbon steel. A 3-mm-long crack was introduced in compact tension (CT) fatigue test specimens under four different loads in order to obtain crack tip plastic zones at different stress intensity factor ranges, ΔK = 18, 36, 54, and 72 MPa√m. The microstructure of the plastic zones around the crack tip were examined by trans- mission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAD). Micro- orientation of the dislocation cells in the plastic zones of all of the CT samples increased to 4 deg from the level of an as-received sample. Four-point bending fatigue tests were performed for plate shape samples with a large cyclic strain range. The SAD value of the bending samples was also 4 deg in the damaged area where cracks already initiated at an early stage of the fatigue process. These test results indicate that the microstructural conditioning is a prerequisite for the fatigue crack initiation and propagation in SA508. These observations may lead to better under- standing of how fatigue initiation processes transit to cracks.

  2. Fundamentals of chemical reaction engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Mark E

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate for a one-semester undergraduate or first-year graduate course, this text introduces the quantitative treatment of chemical reaction engineering. It covers both homogeneous and heterogeneous reacting systems and examines chemical reaction engineering as well as chemical reactor engineering. The authors take a chemical approach, helping students develop an intuitive feeling for concepts, rather than an engineering approach, which tends to overlook the inner workings of systems and objects.Each chapter contains numerous worked-out problems and real-world vignettes involving commercia

  3. The Balanced Scorecard: translating strategy into results

    OpenAIRE

    POPA A. Simona

    2009-01-01

    In the paper it is shown that the Balanced Business Scorecard (BSC) allows a balance between financial and non financial objectives and performs a quantification of the dimensions of strategy in four areas - financial, customers, processes and potential. Moreover, the BSC provides feedback on internal processes and external outcomes in order to improve further the performance and results in terms of strategy. When the Balanced Scorecard is implemented effectively, can transform strategic plan...

  4. ANALYSIS FINANCIAL BALANCE AS BASE MANAGEMENT COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    Dragan Mihajlovic, Svetislav Stankovic, Milos Nikolic

    2015-01-01

    The financial position is determined by the state of financial balance, indebtedness, solvency, maintaining the real value of the capital and reproductive capacity. The company has a good financial position if financial balance ensures the safety of the maintenance of liquidity, if the debt provides full independence the company and good safety of its creditors. The financial balance assumes that the assets, which cannot be paid, by volume and time correspond to the scope and time to availabi...

  5. Water balance model for Kings Creek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric F.

    1990-01-01

    Particular attention is given to the spatial variability that affects the representation of water balance at the catchment scale in the context of macroscale water-balance modeling. Remotely sensed data are employed for parameterization, and the resulting model is developed so that subgrid spatial variability is preserved and therefore influences the grid-scale fluxes of the model. The model permits the quantitative evaluation of the surface-atmospheric interactions related to the large-scale hydrologic water balance.

  6. The psychology of the nuclear balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The balance of military forces is meant to prevent war. But it is a very precarious balance, which becomes all the more dubious when the deterrent is no longer psychologically effective: when the country attacked is deterred from striking back with nuclear weapons. A unilateral disarmament above the overkill level would be possible without endangering the balance. It would improve the climate for mutual disarmament. (orig.)

  7. Flux-balance modelling of plant metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Lee James Sweetlove; R. George eRatcliffe

    2011-01-01

    Flux-balance modelling of plant metabolic networks provides an important complement to 13C-based metabolic flux analysis. Flux-balance modelling is a constraints-based approach in which steady-state fluxes in a metabolic network are predicted by using optimisation algorithms within an experimentally bounded solution space. In the last two years several flux-balance models of plant metabolism have been published including genome-scale models of Arabidopsis metabolism. In this review we conside...

  8. Controlling balance in an ensemble Kalman filter

    OpenAIRE

    G. A. Gottwald

    2014-01-01

    We present a method to control unbalanced fast dynamics in an ensemble Kalman filter by introducing a weak constraint on the imbalance in a spatially sparse observational network. We show that the balance constraint produces significantly more balanced analyses than ensemble Kalman filters without balance constraints and than filters implementing incremental analysis updates (IAU). Furthermore, our filter with the weak constraint on imbalance produces good rms error statisti...

  9. Improving fluid balance monitoring on the wards

    OpenAIRE

    Jeyapala, Sobanakumari; Gerth, Alice; Patel, Aarti; Syed, Nazia

    2015-01-01

    Clinical experience and nursing metrics have consistently identified poor documentation of fluid balance monitoring at Milton Keynes University Hospital, compromising patient safety and quality of care. This project aimed to increase the percentage of fluid balance charts correctly completed on the wards. Three areas for improvement were identified: understanding the importance of good fluid balance monitoring, correct identification of patients requiring monitoring, and ease of completion of...

  10. Reanalysing glacier mass balance measurement series

    OpenAIRE

    Zemp, M.; E. Thibert; Huss, M.; Stumm, D.; Rolstad Denby, C.; Nuth, C.; S. U. Nussbaumer; G. Moholdt; A. Mercer; Mayer, C.; Joerg, P. C.; P. Jansson; B. Hynek; Fischer, A.; Escher-Vetter, H.

    2013-01-01

    Glacier-wide mass balance has been measured for more than sixty years and is widely used as an indicator of climate change and to assess the glacier contribution to runoff and sea level rise. Until recently, comprehensive uncertainty assessments have rarely been carried out and mass balance data have often been applied using rough error estimation or without consideration of errors. In this study, we propose a framework for reanalysing glacier mass balance series that includes conceptual and ...

  11. Reframing Our Pursuit of Life Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes, David G.; Ogden, Rachel R.; Ryan-Haddad, Ann; Strang, Aimee F.

    2015-01-01

    During our time in the 2013 Academic Leadership Fellows Program, we explored what it takes to achieve life balance through a framework presented in a Harvard Business Review article. In this Statement, we describe 5 different areas from the article that provide infrastructure for reflecting on how we have learned to approach life balance in academia. We also provide brief messages based on this reading and others to help academics’ pursuit of life balance.

  12. Reframing our pursuit of life balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, David G; Ogden, Rachel R; Ryan-Haddad, Ann; Strang, Aimee F

    2015-04-25

    During our time in the 2013 Academic Leadership Fellows Program, we explored what it takes to achieve life balance through a framework presented in a Harvard Business Review article. In this Statement, we describe 5 different areas from the article that provide infrastructure for reflecting on how we have learned to approach life balance in academia. We also provide brief messages based on this reading and others to help academics' pursuit of life balance. PMID:25995509

  13. Endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen

    BACKGROUND: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may contribute to reproductive changes in boys in the Western world, however, less is known about influence of EDCs in women. The incidence of precocious breast development is increasing in USA and Europe and mammary gland development has been...... examination showed changes in epithelial morphology in male (hypertrophic epithelium) and female (lobuloalveolar morphology) mammary glands in adult rats exposed to phytoestrogens. Anti-androgenic chemicals showed signs of feminisation of adult male mammary glands. No effects of anti-androgens were observed...... in female mammary glands. The histological changes observed in adult female and male mammary glands were not present consistently in the groups of estrogenic or anti-androgenic chemicals and may be due to other modes of action of thechemicals. Female genital malformations were affected by the potent...

  14. Competing values in healthcare: balancing the (un)balanced scorecard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Angela M; St Clair, Lynda

    2007-01-01

    Facing a complex environment driven by two decades of dramatic change, healthcare organizations are adopting new strategic frameworks such as the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) to evaluate performance (Kaplan and Norton 1992). The BSC was not originally developed as a performance management tool, however. Rather, it was designed as a tool to communicate strategy and, as such, provides little guidance when actual outcomes fall short of desired outcomes. In addition, although the BSC is an improvement over exclusively financial measures, it has three conceptual limitations that are especially problematic for evaluating healthcare organizations: (1) it underemphasizes the employee perspective, (2) it is founded on a control-based management philosophy, and (3) it emphasizes making trade-offs. To address these limitations, we propose using the Competing Values Framework (CVF), a theoretically grounded, comprehensive approach to understanding and improving organizational and managerial performance by focusing on four action imperatives: competing, controlling, collaborating, and creating. The CVF pays particular attention to the employee perspective, is consistent with a commitment-based management philosophy, and emphasizes transcending apparent paradoxes to identify win-win solutions. Rather than focusing on customer satisfaction or employee satisfaction, the CVF looks for ways to satisfy customers and employees while still addressing financial constraints and growth opportunities. The CVF also can be used to assess both the culture of the organization and the competencies of individual managers, thereby providing a clear link between strategy and implementation. PMID:17933187

  15. Balancing energy strategies in electricity portfolio management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional management of electricity portfolios is focused on the day-ahead market and futures of longer maturity. Within limits, market participants can however also resort to the balancing energy market to close their positions. In this paper, we determine strategic positions in the balancing energy market and identify corresponding economic incentives in an analysis of the German balancing energy demand. We find that those strategies allow an economically optimal starting point for real-time balancing and create a marketplace for flexible capacity that is more open than alternative marketplaces. The strategies we proffer in this paper we believe will contribute to an effective functioning of the electricity market. (author)

  16. Energy balance in the transformation centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon balance is an important instrument to identify the emission sources of greenhouse effect gases. Since energy use and transformation are fundamental for increasing these gases in the atmosphere, the carbon balance survey can be used to identify sectors and fuels to which priority should be given regarding emissions mitigation. In the case of transformation centers (installations where primary or secondary sources are converted into sub-products or other energy form) the balance indicated some problems regarding the Brazilian inventory calculation. Problems concerning the National Energy Balance data used here were also identified. (author)

  17. A Load Balancing Technique for Wireless LANs

    OpenAIRE

    K.Vaitheki; S.BalaBaskar

    2011-01-01

    Throughput maximization in a network is one of the major key challenges in wireless LANs (WLANs) and it could be achieved when the load of access points (APs) is balanced. The AP load in WLANs is very often found to be uneven. To overcome such imbalance of load, a load balancing technique have been proposed. The load balancing techniques commonly require proprietary software or hardware at the user side for controlling the user-AP association. A new load balancing technique by controlling the...

  18. Balancing guava nutrition with liming and fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Hernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Guava response to liming and fertilization can be monitored by tissue testing. Tissue nutrient signature is often diagnosed against nutrient concentration standards. However, this approach has been criticized for not considering nutrient interactions and to generate numerical biases as a result of data redundancy, scale dependency and non-normal distribution. Techniques of compositional data analysis can control those biases by balancing groups of nutrients, such as those involved in liming and fertilization. The sequentially arranged and orthonormal isometric log ratios (ilr or balances avoid numerical bias inherent to compositional data. The objectives were to relate tissue nutrient balances with the production of "Paluma" guava orchards differentially limed and fertilized, and to adjust the current patterns of nutrient balance with the range of more productive guava trees. It was conducted one experiment of 7-yr of liming and three experiments of 3-yr with N, P and K trials in 'Paluma' orchards on an Oxisol. Plant N, P, K, Ca and Mg were monitored yearly. It was selected the [N, P, K | Ca, Mg], [N, P | K], [N | P] and [Ca | Mg] balances to set apart the effects of liming (Ca-Mg and fertilizers (N-K on macronutrient balances. Liming largely influenced nutrient balances of guava in the Oxisol while fertilization was less influential. The large range of guava yields and nutrient balances allowed defining balance ranges and comparing them with the critical ranges of nutrient concentration values currently used in Brazil and combined into ilr coordinates.

  19. Rare earths and the balance problem

    OpenAIRE

    Binnemans, Koen; Jones , Peter Tom

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining the balance between the demand by the economic markets and the natural abundance of the rare-earth elements (REEs) in ores constitutes a major challenge for manufacturers of these elements. This is the so-called balance problem (or balancing problem). The ideal situation is a perfect match between the demand and (production) supply of REEs, so that there are no surpluses of any of the REEs. The balance problem implicates that the rare-earth industry has to either find new applicat...

  20. Mass balance gradients and climatic change

    OpenAIRE

    Oerlemans, J.; Hoogendoorn, N.C.

    1989-01-01

    It is generally assumed that the mass-balance gradient on glaciers is more or less conserved under climatic change. In studies of the dynamic response of glaciers to climatic change, one of the following assumptions is normally made: (i) the mass-balance perturbation is independent of altitude or (ii) the mass-balance profile does not change - it simply shifts up and down. Observational evidence for such an approach is not convincing; on some glaciers the inter-annual changes in mass balance ...

  1. Effect of Wii-based balance training on corticomotor excitability post stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omiyale, Oluwabunmi; Crowell, Charles R; Madhavan, Sangeetha

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to examine the effectiveness of a 3-week balance training program using the Nintendo Wii Fit gaming system (Nintendo Wii Sports, Nintendo, Redmond, WA) on lower limb corticomotor excitability and other clinical measures in chronic stroke survivors. Ten individuals diagnosed with ischemic stroke with residual hemiparesis received balance training using the Wii Fit for 60 min/day, three times/week, for three weeks. At the end of training, an increase in interhemispheric symmetry of corticomotor excitability of the tibialis anterior muscle representations was noted (n = 9). Participants also showed improvements in reaction time, time to perform the Dual Timed-Up-and-Go test, and balance confidence. The training-induced balance in corticomotor excitability suggests that this Wii-based balance training paradigm has the potential to influence neural plasticity and thereby functional recovery. PMID:25425118

  2. Lack of Effect for Decisional Balance as a Brief Motivational Intervention for At-Risk College Drinkers

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Susan E.; Carey, Kate B.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effects of written and in-person decisional balance exercises on measures of risky drinking. College students determined to be at-risk for alcohol-related problems (N = 131) were randomly assigned to an in-person decisional balance (IDB), a written decisional balance (WDB), or an assessment-only control (C) group. IDB participants met with an interventionist for individual 30-minute discussions of the pros and cons of maintaining versus changing their drinking behavior...

  3. Efficacy of the Star Excursion Balance Tests in Detecting Reach Deficits in Subjects With Chronic Ankle Instability

    OpenAIRE

    Olmsted, Lauren C.; Carcia, Christopher R; Hertel, Jay; Shultz, Sandra J

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Chronic instability after lateral ankle sprain has been shown to cause balance deficits during quiet standing. Although static balance assessment in those with ankle instability has been thoroughly examined in the literature, few researchers have studied performance on more dynamic tasks. Our purpose was to determine if the Star Excursion Balance Tests (SEBTs), lower extremity reach tests, can detect deficits in subjects with chronic ankle instability.

  4. Multi-Scale Entropy Analysis of Body Sway for Investigating Balance Ability During Exergame Play Under Different Parameter Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Hsuan Lee; Tien-Lung Sun

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the parameters affecting exergame performance using multi-scale entropy analysis, with the aim of informing the design of exergames for personalized balance training. Test subjects’ center of pressure (COP) displacement data were recorded during exergame play to examine their balance ability at varying difficulty levels of a balance-based exergame; the results of a multi-scale entropy-based analysis were then compared to traditional COP indicators. F...

  5. Cheeting in Mathematics Examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Mejía Pérez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The exam is the most widely used assessment instrument in the history of education, primarily in mathematics. One of the main problems that happens in this resource, and make it an unreliable source to gather information, is plagiarism, copying or cheating. This issue occurs for many reasons, but has several consistencies in behavior of students when attending a test, as we could find in the experimental ethnographic exercises we did. We also noticed that although there is a direct relationship between the teacher's role as a supervisor of an examination and the level of plagiarism that occurs in it, the problem definitely has a greater connotation. Inside the classroom it can clearly see a culture of plagiarism which obstructs the educational process regarding ethical and educational justice is concerned.

  6. Chemical pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Hauser, Andreas; Amstutz, Nahid; Delahaye, Sandra; Sadki, Asmaâ; Schenker, Sabine; Sieber, Regula; Zerara, Mohamed

    2002-01-01

    The physical and photophysical properties of three classic transition metal complexes, namely [Fe(bpy)3]2+, [Ru(bpy)3]2+, and [Co(bpy)3]2+, can be tuned by doping them into a variety of inert crystalline host lattices. The underlying guest-host interactions are discussed in terms of a chemical pressure.

  7. Chemical Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ... Chemical peels public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ...

  8. Chemical Mahjong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossairt, Travis J.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2011-01-01

    An open-access, Web-based mnemonic game is described whereby introductory chemistry knowledge is tested using mahjong solitaire game play. Several tile sets and board layouts are included that are themed upon different chemical topics. Introductory tile sets can be selected that prompt the player to match element names to symbols and metric…

  9. Chemical dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil biodeg

  10. Balancing the balance: Self-control mechanisms and compulsive buying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horváth, C.; Büttner, O.B.; Belei, N.V.T.; Adigüzel, F.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has mainly focused on identifying why compulsive buyers engage in excessive buying, while their attempts to control problematic buying behavior have largely been ignored. The present research examines the self-control attempts of compulsive buyers. Study 1 uses qualitative in-depth

  11. Climate change, fire and the carbon balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On average, forest fires have burned 2 to 3 million hectares annually in Canada over the last twenty years. Over the last 40 years, this amounts to 20 per cent of the amount of carbon released through fossil fuel emissions in Canada. This paper analyses the extent to which climate change may contribute to a disturbance in the carbon balance due to increased fire activity. In addition, data from FLUXNET-Canada was examined, indicating that carbon fluxes from younger forests show dramatic changes in diurnal carbon flux patterns, caused by reduced photosynthetic uptake during the day and less root respiration at night. Increases in fire are expected throughout much of the boreal forest towards the end of this century, with a lengthening of the fire season and increases in severity and intensity. It was concluded that there is the possibility of a positive feedback, where climate change could cause more fires, resulting in a greater release of carbon and thereby increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. Evidence that smoke promoted positive lightning strikes while reducing precipitation was also presented. It was suggested that certain self-limiting factors may prevent a run-away scenario. Changes to human and lightning ignition patterns, for example, may have an impact. It was also suggested that research efforts should focus on refining climate change estimates that account for landscape change and other aspects that control fire in Canada. 9 refs., 2 figs

  12. Chemical simulation of greywater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, Suhail Najem; Scholz, Miklas

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable water resources management attracts considerable attention in today's world. Recycling and reuse of both wastewater and greywater are becoming more attractive. The strategy is to protect ecosystem services by balancing the withdrawal of water and the disposal of wastewater. In the present study, a timely and novel synthetic greywater composition has been proposed with respect to the composition of heavy metals, nutrients and organic matter. The change in water quality of the synthetic greywater due to increasing storage time was monitored to evaluate the stability of the proposed chemical formula. The new greywater is prepared artificially using analytical-grade chemicals to simulate either low (LC) or high (HC) pollutant concentrations. The characteristics of the synthetic greywater were tested (just before starting the experiment, after two days and a week of storage under real weather conditions) and compared to those reported for real greywater. Test results for both synthetic greywater types showed great similarities with the physiochemical properties of published findings concerning real greywater. Furthermore, the synthetic greywater is relatively stable in terms of its characteristics for different storage periods. However, there was a significant (p change was also noted for the reduction (70%) of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) concerning HC greywater after seven days of storage. PMID:26745659

  13. Characterization of floating element balance for field panel testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsucker, J. Travis; Gardner, Harrison; Swain, Geoffrey

    2015-11-01

    Multiple experiments were performed to investigate and characterize the uncertainty and bias of a through-hull flush mounted floating element balance designed to measure the hydrodynamic drag forces of biofouling and marine coatings on 25 x 30 cm test panels. The instrument is located in a wet well on the aft portion of a 27' Chris Craft Commander. Testing occurs over a series of speeds ranging from a Froude number of 0.50-2.20 on calm days (force 3 or less) in waters along the central east coast of Florida. Recent modifications have been made to the instrumentation in an effort to improve the overall accuracy of the system. This study compares frictional drag measurements of the floating element balance to those obtained using the Clauser chart and Preston tube methods for a smooth surface. Boundary layer velocity profiles are examined to understand the nature of the flow over the testing section. Roughness function values for 60 and 220 grit sandpaper were calculated from data obtained using the floating element balance. These values were compared with previous work to examine the overall bias of the methodology. Repeat measurements for a smooth panel were analyzed to characterize the overall uncertainty in the system. This research was supported by the Office of Naval Research under grants N00014-10-1-0919 and N00014-11-1-0915.

  14. Application of Chybeshev Polynomials in Factorizations of Balancing and Lucas-Balancing Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanta Kumar Ray

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, with the help of orthogonal polynomial especially Chybeshev polynomials of first and second kind, number theory and linear algebra intertwined to yield factorization of the balancing and Lucas-balancing numbers.

  15. Application of Chybeshev Polynomials in Factorizations of Balancing and Lucas-Balancing Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanta Kumar Ray

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, with the help of orthogonal polynomial especially Chybeshev polynomials of first and second kind, number theory and linear algebra intertwined to yield factorization of the balancing and Lucas-balancing numbers.

  16. Examining the surfaces in used platinum catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trumić B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of finding more advanced platinum catalyst manufacturing technologies and achieving a higher degree of ammonia oxidation, metallographic characterization has been done on the surface of catalyst gauzes and catalyst gripper gauzes made from platinum and palladium alloys. For the examined samples of gauzes as well as the cross section of the wires, a chemical analysis was provided. The purpose of this paper is the metallographic characterization of examined alloys carried out by way of electronic microscopic scanning, X-rays as well as chemical assays which contributed greatly to a better understanding of the surface deactivation, in other words a better consideration of structural changes occurring on the wire surface.

  17. Energy Balance and Physical Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing in most parts of theworld and becoming one of the major global public health problems. Although the components of energy balance have not been adequately estimated over time, available evidence suggests that the increase in obesity is the result of reduced physical activity. Increases in physical activity have been shown to be strongly associated with improving physical fitness and body composition, with probably a positive effect on resting metabolic rate. The Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health advocates that 30 min of regular, moderate-intensity physical activity is associated with decreases in the risk of chronic diseases and may contribute to quality of life. However, the small changes that contribute 10 min for 3 times a day for aerobic training, or one set instead of three sets of repetitions on resistance training will provide individuals with health benefits. Indeed, nutrition and physical activity should be considered an integral part of fitness and good health, and should be encouraged in all age groups, particularly early in life. The question is no longer centered around the health benefit of increasing physical activity, but rather creating self awareness and behavior changes in individuals. Hence, effective intervention programs are needed that foster long term changes in physical activity. Among various interventions, the Nutrifit program was recently conducted in Thailand and found to improve health related fitness in children. The development of more effective interventions and approaches is a major challenge in this field today.

  18. Vulnerability of pension fund balances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ólafur Ísleifsson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the Icelandic general labour market pension funds are built on the proviso that pension schemes are fully funded these funds are still grappling with the devastating financial effects of the 2008 economic collapse that rendered most of them in a significant actuarial deficit. The public sector pension funds are based on an employer guarantee that makes up for any lack of funding that historically has been quite significant. We identify the relatively high actuarial discount rate and increasing longevity as two factors that add to the vulnerability of the Icelandic pension system. We present a stochastic model in order to obtain reasonably sound estimates of the effect of revising such key parameters of the actuarial assessments of the pension funds and thus obtain a view of the viability of the Icelandic pension system when confronted with the potential necessity of such parameter shifts. We present results of stochastic simulations of this models made to assess effects of changes in these major financial and demographic assumptions in actuarial evaluations of pension fund balances. Our results suggest that the Icelandic pension funds may be significantly less well funded than is generally perceived.

  19. Aposematism: balancing salience and camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, James B; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E; Cuthill, Innes C

    2016-08-01

    Aposematic signals are often characterized by high conspicuousness. Larger and brighter signals reinforce avoidance learning, distinguish defended from palatable prey and are more easily memorized by predators. Conspicuous signalling, however, has costs: encounter rates with naive, specialized or nutritionally stressed predators are likely to increase. It has been suggested that intermediate levels of aposematic conspicuousness can evolve to balance deterrence and detectability, especially for moderately defended species. The effectiveness of such signals, however, has not yet been experimentally tested under field conditions. We used dough caterpillar-like baits to test whether reduced levels of aposematic conspicuousness can have survival benefits when predated by wild birds in natural conditions. Our results suggest that, when controlling for the number and intensity of internal contrast boundaries (stripes), a reduced-conspicuousness aposematic pattern can have a survival advantage over more conspicuous signals, as well as cryptic colours. Furthermore, we find a survival benefit from the addition of internal contrast for both high and low levels of conspicuousness. This adds ecological validity to evolutionary models of aposematic saliency and the evolution of honest signalling. PMID:27484645

  20. Integral torque balance in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study is aimed at clarifying the balance between the sinks and sources in the problem of intrinsic plasma rotation in tokamaks reviewed recently by deGrassie (2009 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 51 124047). The integral torque on the toroidal plasma is calculated analytically using the most general magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma model taking account of plasma anisotropy and viscosity. The contributions due to several mechanisms are separated and compared. It is shown that some of them, though, possibly, important in establishing the rotation velocity profile in the plasma, may give small input into the integral torque, but an important contribution can come from the magnetic field breaking the axial symmetry of the configuration. In tokamaks, this can be the error field, the toroidal field ripple or the magnetic perturbation created by the correction coils in the dedicated experiments. The estimates for the error-field-induced electromagnetic torque show that the amplitude of this torque is comparable to the typical values of torques introduced into the plasma by neutral beam injection. The obtained relations allow us to quantify the effect that can be produced by the existing correction coils in tokamaks on the plasma rotation, which can be used in experiments to study the origin and physics of intrinsic rotation in tokamaks. Several problems are proposed for theoretical studies and experimental tests.

  1. Pilates vs. Balance Training in Health Community-Dwelling Seniors: a 3-arm, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, L; Roth, R; Hürlimann, C; Zahner, L; Faude, O

    2016-03-01

    The study examined effects of traditional balance vs. mat-based Pilates training on balance and trunk strength in healthy community dwellers. Forty-eight seniors were either stratified to a balance training group (BAL, n=16, 69.1 (SD 5.8) y), Pilates training group (PIL, n=17, 70.8 (6.5) y) or control group (CON, n=15, 69.2 (6.1) y). BAL performed traditional balance training, while PIL conducted mat-based Pilates-exercises (8 weeks, 2 sessions/week 66 min each). Balance performance (single limb stance and perturbed kneeling, Y-Balance test), dynamic and isometric trunk flexion and extension were assessed during pre- and post-testing. According to the magnitude-based inference approach, substantial positive effects in favor of BAL compared to CON were found for the Y-balance score (right leg, effect size (d)=0.68; left leg, d=0.56), trunk extension (d=0.68) and single leg stance (right leg, d=0.61; left leg, d=0.38). Dynamic (d=0.32) and isometric (d=0.15) trunk flexion revealed unclear effects. For the Y-balance score (right leg, d=0.48, left leg, d=0.75) and single leg stance (right leg, +d=0.61%; left leg, d=0.67), interestingly, BAL substantially exceeded PIL. PIL vs. CON revealed unclear effects for most parameters (0.05Pilates training did not cause relevant adaptations in trunk strength and balance performance, whereas balance training substantially improved balance and trunk strength. PMID:26630547

  2. Comparison of Dynamic Balance in Collegiate Field Hockey and Football Players Using Star Excursion Balance Test

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat, Rashi; Moiz, Jamal Ali

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The preliminary study aimed to compare dynamic balance between collegiate athletes competing or training in football and hockey using star excursion balance test. Methods A total thirty university level players, football (n = 15) and field hockey (n = 15) were participated in the study. Dynamic balance was assessed by using star excursion balance test. The testing grid consists of 8 lines each 120 cm in length extending from a common point at 45° increments. The subjects were instruct...

  3. LOWER EXTREMITY HYPERMOBILITY, BUT NOT CORE MUSCLE ENDURANCE INFLUENCES BALANCE IN FEMALE COLLEGIATE DANCERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Nelson; Caswell, Shane V.; Ambegaonkar, Gautam P.; Wyon, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Background Dance is a physically demanding activity, with almost 70% of all injuries in dancers occurring in the lower extremity (LE). Prior researchers report that muscle function (e.g. muscle endurance) and anatomical factors (e.g. hypermobility) affect physical performance (e.g. balance) and can subsequently influence LE injury risk. Specifically, lesser core muscle endurance, balance deficits, and greater hypermobility are related to increased LE injury risk. However, the potentials interrelationships among these factors in dancers remain unclear. Purpose The purposes of this study were to examine the relationships among core muscle endurance, balance, and LE hypermobility, and determine the relative contributions of core muscle endurance and LE hypermobility as predictors of balance in female collegiate dancers. Study Design Cross-sectional Methods Core muscle endurance was evaluated using the combined average anterior, left, and right lateral plank test time scores(s). LE hypermobility was measured using the LE-specific Beighton hypermobility measure, defining hypermobility if both legs had greater than 10 ° knee hyperextension. Balance was measured via the composite anterior, posterolateral, and posteromedial Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) reach distances (normalized to leg length) in 15 female healthy collegiate dancers (18.3 + 0.5yrs, 165.5 + 6.9cm, 63.7 + 12.1kg). Point-biserial-correlation-coefficients examined relationships and a linear regression examined whether core endurance and hypermobility predicted balance (p<.05). Results LE hypermobility (Yes; n = 3, No; n = 12) and balance (87.2 + 8.3% leg length) were positively correlated r(14)=.67, (p=.01). However, core endurance (103.9 + 50.6 s) and balance were not correlated r(14)=.32, (p=.26). LE hypermobility status predicted 36.9% of the variance in balance scores (p=.01). Conclusion LE hypermobility, but not core muscle endurance may be related to balance in female

  4. Gait balance disorder by thalamic infarction with the disorder of interstitial nucleus of cajal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosu, A; Hayashi, Y; Wada, K; Nagaoka, M

    2011-01-01

    The interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC) is thought to play an important role in torsional/vertical eye position and head posture, and disorders of the INC induce abnormal ocular movements and head tilt. Our patients with ocular tilt reactions simultaneously also had disturbances in ambulatory balance, yet no reports address the loss of balance control induced by disorders of the INC. We examined the ambulatory disturbances induced by INC lesion. We experienced three patients with ocular movement disorders and abnormal head tilt due to thalamic infarction. We performed ophthalmic examinations on and checked the balance of them. With funduscopy, abnormal cycloduction was seen in the unaffected side and normal cycloduction was observed in the affected side. Nevertheless, Hess charts showed distortions in the visual image of both eyes. They all had disorders of balance control. We tried to treat them using the Bobath approach for improving their ambulatory balance. With subsequent improvements in balance control it was possible for them to take short walks, but it was difficult to make any improvements in their ocular movement. The INC is related to balance control of ambulation and disorders of the INC induce ambulatory disturbances. Cycloduction was only observed in the unaffected side, but Hess charts showed distortions of the visual image in both eyes. Ambulation was briefly improved, but diplopia persisted in these patients. PMID:21769260

  5. Balance velocities of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joughin, I.; Fahnestock, M.; Ekholm, Simon; Kwok, R.

    1997-01-01

    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetery data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail the...

  6. Newton's Third Law on a Scale Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nopparatjamjomras, Suchai; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Huntula, Jiradawan

    2009-01-01

    We propose a series of experiments involving balance readings of an object naturally floating or forced to be partially or fully immersed in water contained in a beaker sitting on an electronic scale balance. Students were asked to predict, observe and explain each case. The teacher facilitated the learning by asking probing questions, giving…

  7. Balancing energy in the German market design

    OpenAIRE

    Möller, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Among electricity marketplaces balancing energy takes a central role in mediating the supply and demand equilibrium. This thesis analyzes strategies employed in the balancing energy market, as well as their implications for other marketplaces in the setting of the German electricity market.

  8. Energy balance in solid state fermentation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, L.J.A.; Torres, A.; Echevarria, J.; Saura, G. (Instituto Cubano de Investigaciones de los Derivados de la Cana de Azucar (ICIDCA), La Habana (Cuba))

    1991-01-01

    It was applied a macroscopic energy balance to a solid state fermentation process and an electron balance in order to estimate the temperature and the heat evolved in the process. There were employed several equations that describe the development of the system and offer the possibility to design or control such fermentations. (orig.).

  9. On the Mass Balance of Asphaltene Precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Ivar; Lira-Galeana, C.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2001-01-01

    In the evaluation of experimental data as well as in calculation of phase equilibria the necessity of the application of mass balances is obvious. In the case of asphaltenes the colloidal nature of these compounds may highly affect the mass balance. In the present paper several experiments are pe...

  10. The Global Challenge: A Matter of Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulford, Bill

    2002-01-01

    Argues that global challenge created by the pressure for change requires educators to understand the balance between continuity and constant change dependence and independence, individualism and community, homogeneity and heterogeneity. To achieve balanced learning and development, education should place greater emphasis on continuity,…

  11. 14 CFR 29.659 - Mass balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mass balance. 29.659 Section 29.659... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.659 Mass balance. (a) The rotor... flutter at any speed up to the maximum forward speed. (b) The structural integrity of the mass...

  12. 14 CFR 27.659 - Mass balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mass balance. 27.659 Section 27.659... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.659 Mass balance. (a) The rotors... flutter at any speed up to the maximum forward speed. (b) The structural integrity of the mass...

  13. 14 CFR 23.659 - Mass balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mass balance. 23.659 Section 23.659 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Surfaces § 23.659 Mass balance. The supporting structure and the attachment of concentrated mass...

  14. Driving Improvement with a Balanced Scorecard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowart, Scott K.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how a school district's use of a transparent tool coalesced support for systemic improvement. The author was looking for a way to push improvement in his 4,000-student school system when he discovered the balanced scorecard, a strategic tool for performance management. The author details how the balanced scorecard helped him…

  15. Balancing with the Brain in Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Smith, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author states that it's important for physical educators to understand the connection between balancing and learning. Since, balancing activities provide a link between physical education and the classroom that can enhance both academic learning and physical skill development. They need to be aware of the tremendous impact…

  16. Balanced Scorecard as Part of Performance Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Petru Balogh

    2009-01-01

    The Balanced Scorecard has become one of the most popular and successful instrument for managing the organizations’ performance. This article sets the place of the balanced scorecard within the performance measurement system within the organizatin and presents, as an example, a way of implementing this method and establishing a composite index of performance.

  17. Balanced Scheduling of Independent File-Sharing Tasks in Heterogenous Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Ponsy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: To examine the strategies for scheduling of independent file-sharing tasks in a heterogeneous environment and the concept of load balancing. Approach: We propose hypergraph partitioning based strategy for the scheduling of non-critical jobs. This is done by scheduling the tasks that share tasks among them to the same processor. The tasks thus scheduled are employed to a load balancing scheme for balancing the load on the processors by considering the average load on all processors. Results: This strategy reduces the input output overheads among the tasks thus reducing the end-point contention. Conclusion: Thus the batch execution time on the processors is reduced.

  18. The Balanced Budget Act of 1997: its impact on U.S. teaching hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickler, R; Shaw, G

    2000-05-16

    The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 had a profound impact on the financing and organization of many health care services. The Act disproportionately affected U.S. teaching hospitals, leading to substantial budget reductions in many institutions and the threat of cuts in major programs and services that teaching hospitals provide to communities. This paper examines the overall financial and organizational impact of the Balanced Budget Act on teaching hospitals and considers its effect on residency education. It also discusses to what degree the Balanced Budget Refinement Act of 1999 will mitigate these effects and posits other solutions to the serious financial issues facing teaching hospitals in the United States. PMID:10819706

  19. Using motor imagery to study the neural substrates of dynamic balance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murielle Ursulla Ferraye

    Full Text Available This study examines the cerebral structures involved in dynamic balance using a motor imagery (MI protocol. We recorded cerebral activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging while subjects imagined swaying on a balance board along the sagittal plane to point a laser at target pairs of different sizes (small, large. We used a matched visual imagery (VI control task and recorded imagery durations during scanning. MI and VI durations were differentially influenced by the sway accuracy requirement, indicating that MI of balance is sensitive to the increased motor control necessary to point at a smaller target. Compared to VI, MI of dynamic balance recruited additional cortical and subcortical portions of the motor system, including frontal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and mesencephalic locomotor region, the latter showing increased effective connectivity with the supplementary motor area. The regions involved in MI of dynamic balance were spatially distinct but contiguous to those involved in MI of gait (Bakker et al., 2008; Snijders et al., 2011; Crémers et al., 2012, in a pattern consistent with existing somatotopic maps of the trunk (for balance and legs (for gait. These findings validate a novel, quantitative approach for studying the neural control of balance in humans. This approach extends previous reports on MI of static stance (Jahn et al., 2004, 2008, and opens the way for studying gait and balance impairments in patients with neurodegenerative disorders.

  20. Resonance-like QGP signals displayed in general charge balance functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiment and lattice simulation show that the quark–gluon plasma (QGP) system displays strong interaction between constituents at temperature a few times the critical temperature Tc. This QGP picture can be explained by assuming that the QGP matter above Tc is rich in different kinds of bound states, namely resonance-like QGP (RQGP). The chemical composition of the QGP system produced in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions can be investigated through a general charge balance function which describes two-wave quark production during expansion afterward. In this paper, we investigate the signals of this RQGP through general charge balance functions. We find that the quasiparticles in QGP contribute a little to the balance functions because of their heavy masses. The balance functions reduce to the situation discussed before where only one-wave charge production is involved if only the quasiparticles in QGP are considered. However, the baryonic bound states in QGP have a significant effect on the balance function Bpp¯(Δy), causing a dip in the pp¯ balance function at small Δy. The existence of the binary and baryonic bound states amplify the negative dip of the balance function BpK-(Δy) at Δy ∽ 1. (author)