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Sample records for balanced turbo field

  1. The diagnostic value of magnetic resonance urography using a balanced turbo field echo sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cifci, Egemen; Coban, Goekcen [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Konya (Turkey); Cicek, Tufan; Goenuelalan, Umut [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Urology, Konya (Turkey)

    2016-12-15

    The aim of the study was to compare the inter-observer variability and the accuracy of magnetic resonance urography (MRU) using a thin sectional balanced-turbo field echo (B-TFE) sequence for detecting ureteral calculi and to determine the effect of additional factors (size, density and location of the calculus) on the sensitivity and specificity of the MRU. MRU and CT images were evaluated independently by two radiologists according to presence, density and localization of calculi. The degrees of inter-rater agreement for categorical items were evaluated by the Kappa coefficient. According to the 1st and 2nd observers, the sensitivity of MRU was 65.9 %, 71.8 % and the specificity of MRU was 95.9 %, 100 %, respectively. Inter-observer agreement was 84.6 % for stone detection. The larger size had a better effect on detectability (p < 0.05). Also, the higher density had a better impact on detectability (p < 0.05). Our study has shown that B-TFE MRU was useful to detect ureteral calculi. However, B-TFE MRU has low sensitivity and high specificity in comparison with CT images. MRU is a reasonable alternative imaging technique for follow-up periods of selective groups like patients with large urinary stones, children or pregnant patients when ionizing radiation is undesirable. (orig.)

  2. Feasibility and Diagnostic Accuracy of Whole Heart Coronary MR Angiography Using Free-Breathing 3D Balanced Turbo-Field-Echo with SENSE and the Half-Fourier Acquisition Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Jin; Seo, Jae Seung; Choi, Byoung Wook; Choe, Kyu Ok; Jang, Yang Soo; Ko, Young Guk

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to assess the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of whole heart coronary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with using 3D balanced turbo-field-echo (b-TFE) with SENSE and the half-Fourier acquisition technique for identifying stenoses of the coronary artery. Twenty-one patients who underwent both whole heart coronary MRA examinations and conventional catheter coronary angiography examinations were enrolled in the study. The whole heart coronary MRA images were acquired using a navigator gated 3D b-TFE sequence with SENSE and the half-Fourier acquisition technique to reduce the acquisition time. The imaging slab covered the whole heart (80 contiguous slices with a reconstructed slice thickness of 1.5 mm) along the transverse axis. The quality of the images was evaluated by using a 5-point scale (0 - uninterpretable, 1 - poor, 2 - fair, 3 - good, 4 - excellent). Ten coronary segments of the heart were evaluated in each case; the left main coronary artery (LM), and the proximal, middle and distal segments of the left anterior descending (LAD), the left circumflex (LCX) and the right coronary artery (RCA). The diagnostic accuracy of whole heart coronary MRA for detecting significant coronary artery stenosis was determined on the segment-bysegment basis, and it was compared with the results obtained by conventional catheter angiography, which is the gold standard. The mean image quality was 3.7 in the LM, 3.2 in the LAD, 2.5 in the LCX, and 3.3 in the RCA, respectively (the overall image quality was 3.0 ± 0.1). 168 (84%) of the 201 segments had an acceptable image quality (≥ grade 2). The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, negative predictive value and positive predictive value of the whole heart coronary MRA images for detecting significant stenosis were 81.3%, 92.1%, 91.1%, 97.9%, and 52.0%, respectively. The mean coronary MRA acquisition time was 9 min 22 sec (± 125 sec). Whole heart coronary MRA is a feasible technique, and it has good potential to

  3. High technology at 'General Turbo', DH 12/13 balance-over speed testing stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuta, Florian Nicolae; Vasiliu, Dinu; Mauna, Traian

    2005-01-01

    'General Turbo' activity started in 1970 including building the balancing and over speed stand. DH 12/13 is the latest up-to-date facility of this type, the best one of the five in Europe, and was commissioned in 2004. The facility was especially built to be used for Romanian Nuclear Power Plant rotor testing and also for thermal very big rotors. The paper underlines the main attributes and the components of the facility DH 12/13 based on the Schenck technology. (authors)

  4. Microscopic Displacement Imaging with Pulsed Field Gradient Turbo Spin-Echo NMR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenen, T.W.J.; Dusschoten, van D.; Jager, de P.A.; As, van H.

    2000-01-01

    We present a pulse sequence that enables the accurate and spatially resolved measurements of the displacements of spins in a variety of (biological) systems. The pulse sequence combines pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR with turbo spin–echo (TSE) imaging. It is shown here that by ensuring that the

  5. Evaluation of diffusivity in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland: 3D turbo field echo with diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwatashi, A; Yoshiura, T; Togao, O; Yamashita, K; Kikuchi, K; Kobayashi, K; Ohga, M; Sonoda, S; Honda, H; Obara, M

    2014-01-01

    3D turbo field echo with diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium preparation is a non-echo-planar technique for DWI, which enables high-resolution DWI without field inhomogeneity-related image distortion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium turbo field echo in evaluating diffusivity in the normal pituitary gland. First, validation of diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium turbo field echo was attempted by comparing it with echo-planar DWI. Five healthy volunteers were imaged by using diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium turbo field echo and echo-planar DWI. The imaging voxel size was 1.5 × 1.5 × 1.5 mm(3) for diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium turbo field echo and 1.5 × 1.9 × 3.0 mm(3) for echo-planar DWI. ADCs measured by the 2 methods in 15 regions of interests (6 in gray matter and 9 in white matter) were compared by using the Pearson correlation coefficient. The ADC in the pituitary anterior lobe was then measured in 10 volunteers by using diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium turbo field echo, and the results were compared with those in the pons and vermis by using a paired t test. The ADCs from the 2 methods showed a strong correlation (r = 0.79; P equilibrium sequence. The ADCs in the normal pituitary gland were 1.37 ± 0.13 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s, which were significantly higher than those in the pons (1.01 ± 0.24 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s) and the vermis (0.89 ± 0.25 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s, P equilibrium turbo field echo is feasible in assessing ADC in the pituitary gland.

  6. Turbo Multiuser Detection Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, Gerben

    2003-01-01

    The discovery of Turbo Codes in 1996 by Berrou et. al. proved to be a huge boost for the research of channel coding. The Turbo Principle behind turbo codes was found to be applicable in other areas. One of these areas is Multiuser Detection. In this thesis, Turbo Multiuser Detection is investigated

  7. Turbo Multiuser Detection Architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Heinen, Gerben

    2003-01-01

    The discovery of Turbo Codes in 1996 by Berrou et. al. proved to be a huge boost for the research of channel coding. The Turbo Principle behind turbo codes was found to be applicable in other areas. One of these areas is Multiuser Detection. In this thesis, Turbo Multiuser Detection is investigated in order to answer two main questions. The questions concern the performance gain that is obtained when turbo multiuser detection is used instead of non-turbo multiuser detection and the convergenc...

  8. A Turbo Tutorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1999-01-01

    A basic introduction to the turbo coding scheme and the APP decoding algorithm. Includes performance examples and implementation tricks.......A basic introduction to the turbo coding scheme and the APP decoding algorithm. Includes performance examples and implementation tricks....

  9. Failure analysis to the weights of balance of a 350 MW turbo-generator; Analisis de falla a los pesos de balanceo de un turbogenerador de 350 MW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vital Flores, Francisco; Gamero Arroyo, Jose Manuel [LAPEM, Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    The selection of materials and the quality control in the supply of the components, as well as the involved operative variables in the process of work to which an equipment, device or a system of a power station of electrical generation are subjected, impact in the same in their useful life in a decisive way. In this document it is presented an analysis of a failure occurred in a 350 MW turbo-generator by the loosening of the balance weights, in which it is mentioned the flaws occurred by this cause and a metallographic analysis that indicates the main fault for the happening. [Spanish] La seleccion de material y el control de calidad en los suministros de los componentes, asi como las variables operativas involucradas en el proceso de trabajo al cual es sometido un equipo, dispositivo o un sistema de una central de generacion electrica, impactan en los mismos de manera decisiva en su vida util. En este documento se presenta un analisis de falla ocurrido en un turbogenerador de 350 MW, por el desprendimiento de los pesos de balanceo, el cual se menciona de los desperfectos ocurridos por esta causa y un analisis metalografico que indica la falla principal por lo ocurrido.

  10. Balance of Plant System Analysis and Component Design of Turbo-Machinery for High Temperature Gas Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, Ronald G. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Wang, Chun Yun [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Kadak, Andrew [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Todreas, Neil [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Mirick, Bradley [Concepts, Northern Engineering and Research, Woburn, MA (United States); Demetri, Eli [Concepts, Northern Engineering and Research, Woburn, MA (United States); Koronowski, Martin [Concepts, Northern Engineering and Research, Woburn, MA (United States)

    2004-08-30

    power conversion system have been verified with an industry-standard general thermal-fluid code Flownet. With respect to the dynamic model, bypass valve control and inventory control have been used as the primary control methods for the power conversion system. By performing simulation using the dynamic model with the designed control scheme, the combination of bypass and inventory control was optimized to assure system stability within design temperature and pressure limits. Bypass control allows for rapid control system response while inventory control allows for ultimate steady state operation at part power very near the optimum operating point for the system. Load transients simulations show that the indirect, three-shaft arrangement gas turbine power conversion system is stable and controllable. For the indirect cycle the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) is the interface between the reactor and the turbomachinery systems. As a part of the design effort the IHX was identified as the key component in the system. Two technologies, printed circuit and compact plate-fin, were investigated that have the promise of meeting the design requirements for the system. The reference design incorporates the possibility of using either technology although the compact plate-fin design was chosen for subsequent analysis. The thermal design and parametric analysis with an IHX and recuperator using the plate-fin configuration have been performed. As a three-shaft arrangement, the turbo-shaft sets consist of a pair of turbine/compressor sets (high pressure and low pressure turbines with same-shaft compressor) and a power turbine coupled with a synchronous generator. The turbines and compressors are all axial type and the shaft configuration is horizontal. The core outlet/inlet temperatures are 900/520 C, and the optimum pressure ratio in the power conversion cycle is 2.9. The design achieves a plant net efficiency of approximately 48%.

  11. Balance of Plant System Analysis and Component Design of Turbo-Machinery for High Temperature Gas Reactor Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballinger, Ronald G.; Chunyun Wang; Kadak, Andrew; Todreas, Neil

    2004-01-01

    power conversion system have been verified with an industry-standard general thermal-fluid code Flownet. With respect to the dynamic model, bypass valve control and inventory control have been used as the primary control methods for the power conversion system. By performing simulation using the dynamic model with the designed control scheme, the combination of bypass and inventory control was optimized to assure system stability within design temperature and pressure limits. Bypass control allows for rapid control system response while inventory control allows for ultimate steady state operation at part power very near the optimum operating point for the system. Load transients simulations show that the indirect, three-shaft arrangement gas turbine power conversion system is stable and controllable. For the indirect cycle the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) is the interface between the reactor and the turbomachinery systems. As a part of the design effort the IHX was identified as the key component in the system. Two technologies, printed circuit and compact plate-fin, were investigated that have the promise of meeting the design requirements for the system. The reference design incorporates the possibility of using either technology although the compact plate-fin design was chosen for subsequent analysis. The thermal design and parametric analysis with an IHX and recuperator using the plate-fin configuration have been performed. As a three-shaft arrangement, the turbo-shaft sets consist of a pair of turbine/compressor sets (high pressure and low pressure turbines with same-shaft compressor) and a power turbine coupled with a synchronous generator. The turbines and compressors are all axial type and the shaft configuration is horizontal. The core outlet/inlet temperatures are 900/520 C, and the optimum pressure ratio in the power conversion cycle is 2.9. The design achieves a plant net efficiency of approximately 48%

  12. Separate Turbo Code and Single Turbo Code Adaptive OFDM Transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burr Alister

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper discusses the application of adaptive modulation and adaptive rate turbo coding to orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM, to increase throughput on the time and frequency selective channel. The adaptive turbo code scheme is based on a subband adaptive method, and compares two adaptive systems: a conventional approach where a separate turbo code is used for each subband, and a single turbo code adaptive system which uses a single turbo code over all subbands. Five modulation schemes (BPSK, QPSK, 8AMPM, 16QAM, and 64QAM are employed and turbo code rates considered are and . The performances of both systems with high ( and low ( BER targets are compared. Simulation results for throughput and BER show that the single turbo code adaptive system provides a significant improvement.

  13. Separate Turbo Code and Single Turbo Code Adaptive OFDM Transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ye

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of adaptive modulation and adaptive rate turbo coding to orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM, to increase throughput on the time and frequency selective channel. The adaptive turbo code scheme is based on a subband adaptive method, and compares two adaptive systems: a conventional approach where a separate turbo code is used for each subband, and a single turbo code adaptive system which uses a single turbo code over all subbands. Five modulation schemes (BPSK, QPSK, 8AMPM, 16QAM, and 64QAM are employed and turbo code rates considered are 1/2 and 1/3. The performances of both systems with high (10−2 and low (10−4 BER targets are compared. Simulation results for throughput and BER show that the single turbo code adaptive system provides a significant improvement.

  14. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of extraocular muscles in patients with Grave's ophthalmopathy using turbo field echo with diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwatashi, A; Togao, O; Yamashita, K; Kikuchi, K; Momosaka, D; Honda, H

    2018-03-20

    The purpose of this study was to correlate diffusivity of extraocular muscles, measured by three-dimensional turbo field echo (3DTFE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium preparation, with their size and activity in patients with Grave's ophthalmopathy. Twenty-three patients with Grave's ophthalmopathy were included. There were 17 women and 6 men with a mean age of 55.8±12.6 (SD) years (range: 26-83 years). 3DTFE with diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium MR images were obtained with b-values of 0 and 500s/mm 2 . The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of extraocular muscles was measured on coronal reformatted MR images. Signal intensities of extraocular muscles on conventional MR images were compared to those of normal-appearing white matter, and cross-sectional areas of the muscles were also measured. The clinical activity score was also evaluated. Statistical analyses were performed with Pearson correlation and Mann-Whitney U tests. On 3DTFE with diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium preparation, the mean ADC of the extraocular muscles was 2.23±0.37 (SD)×10 -3 mm2/s (range: 1.70×10 -3 -3.11×10 -3 mm 2 /s). There was a statistically significant moderate correlation between ADC and the size of the muscles (r=0.61). There were no statistically significant correlations between ADC and signal intensity on conventional MR and the clinical activity score. 3DTFE with diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium preparation technique allows quantifying diffusivity of extraocular muscles in patients with Grave's ophthalmopathy. The diffusivity of the extraocular muscles on 3DTFE with diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium preparation MR images moderately correlates with their size. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Turbo FRMAC 2018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-11-30

    The Turbo FRMAC (TF) software program is the software implementation of the science and methodologies utilized in the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). The software automates the calculations described in volumes 1 of "The Federal Manual for Assessing Environmental Data during a Radiological Emergency" (2015 version). In the event of the intentional or accidental release of radioactive material, the software is used to guide and govern the response of the Federal, State, Local, and Tribal governments. The manual, upon which the software is based, is unclassified and freely available on the Internet.

  16. Evaluation of MR cisternography of the cerebellopontine angle using a balanced fast-field-echo sequence: preliminary findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro; Aoki, Chinatsu; Hachiya, Junichi [Department of Radiology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 6-20-2 Shinkawa, Mitaka, 181-8611, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-02-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of MR cisternography by the balanced fast-field-echo (bFFE) sequence, comparing with that by a turbo-spin-echo (TSE) sequence, for cerebellopontine angle lesions on a 1.5-T imager (Gyroscan Intera, Philips, Best, The Netherlands). The bFFE MR cisternograms depicted target cranial nerves with less cerebrospinal fluid pulsation artifacts than TSE cisternograms and visualized an acoustic schwannoma in 6 of 44 patients with suspicion and a causative vessel of hemifacial spasm in all of 3 patients in a short scanning time (1 min 53 s). The bFFE sequence can be promising for MR cisternography in the diagnosis of cerebellopontine angle lesions. (orig.)

  17. The LHCb Turbo stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puig, A., E-mail: albert.puig@cern.ch

    2016-07-11

    The LHCb experiment will record an unprecedented dataset of beauty and charm hadron decays during Run II of the LHC, set to take place between 2015 and 2018. A key computing challenge is to store and process this data, which limits the maximum output rate of the LHCb trigger. So far, LHCb has written out a few kHz of events containing the full raw sub-detector data, which are passed through a full offline event reconstruction before being considered for physics analysis. Charm physics in particular is limited by trigger output rate constraints. A new streaming strategy includes the possibility to perform the physics analysis with candidates reconstructed in the trigger, thus bypassing the offline reconstruction. In the Turbo stream the trigger will write out a compact summary of physics objects containing all information necessary for analyses. This will allow an increased output rate and thus higher average efficiencies and smaller selection biases. This idea will be commissioned and developed during 2015 with a selection of physics analyses. It is anticipated that the turbo stream will be adopted by an increasing number of analyses during the remainder of LHC Run II (2015–2018) and ultimately in Run III (starting in 2020) with the upgraded LHCb detector.

  18. Electric Turbo Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    NASA is working in junction with another company on the Electric Turbo Pump. Analysis of the impeller, including the blades, volute housing, and associated components, will take place in ANSYS. Contours of the deformed and stress were recorded to assess the parts. Campbell diagrams will be considered as mentioned to find the operating regions of the impeller and volute housing, more specifically what speed is ideal to ensure that the impeller does not begin to vibrate at a frequency that will break it. More than one material will be examined as per request by the designer to determine which material is more cost efficient, easy to machine, and can withstand the stress values that will be placed on it.

  19. Stochastic Decoding of Turbo Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Dong , Q. T.; ARZEL , Matthieu; Jego , Christophe; Gross , W. J.

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Stochastic computation is a technique in which operations on probabilities are performed on random bit streams. Stochastic decoding of forward error-correction (FEC) codes is inspired by this technique. This paper extends the application of the stochastic decoding approach to the families of convolutional codes and turbo codes. It demonstrates that stochastic computation is a promising solution to improve the data throughput of turbo decoders with very simple implement...

  20. Interleaver Design for Turbo Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl; Zyablov, Viktor

    1997-01-01

    By a combination of construction and random search based on a careful analysis of the low weight words and the distance properties of the component codes, it is possible to find interleavers for turbo coding with a high minimum distance. We have designed a block interleaver with permutations...... of each row, and found a combination of permutations where a tight upper bound to the minimum distance of the complete turbo scheme is 108....

  1. Field-scale water balance closure in seasonally frozen conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Pan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological water balance closure is a simple concept, yet in practice it is uncommon to measure every significant term independently in the field. Here we demonstrate the degree to which the field-scale water balance can be closed using only routine field observations in a seasonally frozen prairie pasture field site in Saskatchewan, Canada. Arrays of snow and soil moisture measurements were combined with a precipitation gauge and flux tower evapotranspiration estimates. We consider three hydrologically distinct periods: the snow accumulation period over the winter, the snowmelt period in spring, and the summer growing season. In each period, we attempt to quantify the residual between net precipitation (precipitation minus evaporation and the change in field-scale storage (snow and soil moisture, while accounting for measurement uncertainties. When the residual is negligible, a simple 1-D water balance with no net drainage is adequate. When the residual is non-negligible, we must find additional processes to explain the result. We identify the hydrological fluxes which confound the 1-D water balance assumptions during different periods of the year, notably blowing snow and frozen soil moisture redistribution during the snow accumulation period, and snowmelt runoff and soil drainage during the melt period. Challenges associated with quantifying these processes, as well as uncertainties in the measurable quantities, caution against the common use of water balance residuals to estimate fluxes and constrain models in such a complex environment.

  2. Type Inference of Turbo Pascal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Ole Ildsgaard; Schwartzbach, Michael I; Askari, Hosein

    1995-01-01

    Type inference is generally thought of as being an exclusive property of the functional programming paradigm. We argue that such a feature may be of significant benefit for also standard imperative languages. We present a working tool (available by WWW) providing these benefits for a full version...... of Turbo Pascal. It has the form of a preprocessor that analyzes programs in which the type annotations are only partial or even absent. The resulting program has full type annotations, will be accepted by the standard Turbo Pascal compiler, and has polymorphic use of procedures resolved by means of code...

  3. Deep Space Network turbo decoder implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Jeff B.; Andrews, Kenneth S.; Bryant, Scott H.

    2001-01-01

    A new decoder is being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Deep Space Network. This unit will decode the new turbo codes, which have recently been approved by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS). Turbo codes provide up to 0.8 dB improvement in Eb/No over the current best codes used by deep space missions.

  4. Flow balancing orifice for ITER toroidal field coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinovich, A. V.; Y Rodin, I.; Kovalchuk, O. A.; Safonov, A. V.; Stepanov, D. B.; Guryeva, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    Flow balancing orifices (FBOs) are used in in International thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) Toroidal Field coil to uniform flow rate of cooling gas in the side double pancakes which have a different conductor length: 99 m and 305 m, respectively. FBOs consist of straight parts, elbows produced from a 316L stainless steel tube 21.34 x 2.11 mm and orifices made from a 316L stainless steel rod. Each of right and left FBOs contains 6 orifices, straight FBOs contain 4 and 6 orifices. Before manufacturing of qualification samples D.V. Efremov Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (JSC NIIEFA) proposed to ITER a new approach to provide the seamless connection between a tube and a plate therefore the most critical weld between the orifice with 1 mm thickness and the tube removed from the FBOs final design. The proposed orifice diameter is three times less than the minimum requirement of the ISO 5167, therefore it was tasked to define accuracy of calculation flow characteristics at room temperature and compare with the experimental data. In 2015 the qualification samples of flow balancing orifices were produced and tested. The results of experimental data showed that the deviation of calculated data is less than 7%. Based on this result and other tests ITER approved the design of FBOs, which made it possible to start the serial production. In 2016 JSC NIIEFA delivered 50 FBOs to ITER, i.e. 24 left side, 24 right side and 2 straight FBOs. In order to define the quality of FBOs the test facility in JSC NIIEFA was prepared. The helium tightness test at 10-9 m3·Pa/s the pressure up to 3 MPa, flow rate measuring at the various pressure drops, the non-destructive tests of orifices and weld seams (ISO 5817, class B) were conducted. Other tests such as check dimensions and thermo cycling 300 - 80 - 300 K also were carried out for each FBO.

  5. Turbo-like codes design for high speed decoding

    CERN Document Server

    Abbasfar, Aliazam

    2007-01-01

    Turbo code concepts are explained in simple languageTurbo codes and LDPC codes are viewed in a unified manner as turbo-like codesImplementation and hardware complexity is a major focus Presents a novel class of powerful and practical turbo-like codes Includes advanced theoretical framework for professionals.

  6. TurboSP and the Topological Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Belavin, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    TurboSP was originally proposed as an alternative to Full stream in LHCb data flow. TurboSP is a data flow strategy which not only selects events that should be preserved, like in Full stream, but also provides selective persistence. This is achieved by saving candidates and subset of the reconstruction. During this summer project we investigated the physics viability of using TurboSP with the topological lines and found out a possibility to reduce the number of kept tracks per event by two times while keeping a ratio of fully picked up interesting decay modes on $\\sim 97 \\%$ level.

  7. BALANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, H.

    1953-01-01

    A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.

  8. Turbo Equalization Using Partial Gaussian Approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chuanzong; Wang, Zhongyong; Manchón, Carles Navarro

    2016-01-01

    This letter deals with turbo equalization for coded data transmission over intersymbol interference (ISI) channels. We propose a message-passing algorithm that uses the expectation propagation rule to convert messages passed from the demodulator and decoder to the equalizer and computes messages...... implementation. Results from Monte Carlo simulations show that the proposed approach leads to a significant performance improvement compared to state-of-the-art turbo equalizers and allows for trading performance with complexity....

  9. LHCb : The LHCb Turbo stream

    CERN Multimedia

    Puig Navarro, Albert

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb experiment will record an unprecedented dataset of beauty and charm hadron decays during Run II of the LHC, set to take place between 2015 and 2018. A key computing challenge is to store and process this data, which limits the maximum output rate of the LHCb trigger. So far, LHCb has written out a few kHz of events containing the full raw sub-detector data, which are passed through a full offline event reconstruction before being considered for physics analysis. Charm physics in particular is limited by trigger output rate constraints. A new streaming strategy includes the possibility to perform the physics analysis with candidates reconstructed in the trigger, thus bypassing the offline reconstruction. In the "turbo stream" the trigger will write out a compact summary of "physics" objects containing all information necessary for analyses, and this will allow an increased output rate and thus higher average efficiencies and smaller selection biases. This idea will be commissioned and developed during...

  10. Field Balancing of Magnetically Levitated Rotors without Trial Weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Fang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Unbalance in magnetically levitated rotor (MLR can cause undesirable synchronous vibrations and lead to the saturation of the magnetic actuator. Dynamic balancing is an important way to solve these problems. However, the traditional balancing methods, using rotor displacement to estimate a rotor’s unbalance, requiring several trial-runs, are neither precise nor efficient. This paper presents a new balancing method for an MLR without trial weights. In this method, the rotor is forced to rotate around its geometric axis. The coil currents of magnetic bearing, rather than rotor displacement, are employed to calculate the correction masses. This method provides two benefits when the MLR’s rotation axis coincides with the geometric axis: one is that unbalanced centrifugal force/torque equals the synchronous magnetic force/torque, and the other is that the magnetic force is proportional to the control current. These make calculation of the correction masses by measuring coil current with only a single start-up precise. An unbalance compensation control (UCC method, using a general band-pass filter (GPF to make the MLR spin around its geometric axis is also discussed. Experimental results show that the novel balancing method can remove more than 92.7% of the rotor unbalance and a balancing accuracy of 0.024 g mm kg−1 is achieved.

  11. Inversion recovery single-shot TurboFLASH for assessment of myocardial infarction at 3 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauner, Kerstin U; Muehling, Olaf; Wintersperger, Bernd J; Winnik, Eva; Reiser, Maximilian F; Huber, Armin

    2007-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of imaging myocardial infarction with a single-shot inversion recovery turbofast low-angle shot (SS IR turboFLASH) sequence at 3.0 Tesla in comparison with an established segmented inversion recovery turboFLASH sequence at 1.5 Tesla. Fifteen patients with myocardial infarction were examined at a 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance (MR) System (Avanto, Siemens, Medical Solutions) and at a 3.0 Tesla MR system (TIM Trio, Siemens, Medical Solutions). Imaging delayed enhancement was started 15 minutes after application of contrast material. A SS IR turboFLASH was performed at 3.0 Tesla and compared with a segmented IR turboFLASH sequence at 1.5 and at 3.0 Tesla. The IR turboFLASH sequence at 1.5 Tesla served as reference method. Infarct volumes, contrast/noise ratio (CNR) of infarcted and normal myocardium were compared with the reference method. The Single-Shot IR turboFLASH technique allows imaging 9 slices during a single breath-hold. The CNR between infarction and normal myocardium of the reference method was 6.4 at 1.5 Tesla. The mean value of CNR of the IR turboFLASH sequence was 7.3 at 3.0 Tesla for the single-shot technique and 14.1 at 3.0 Tesla for the segmented technique. No significant difference was found for the CNR values of the reference technique at 1.5 Tesla and the single-shot technique at 3.0 Tesla, however for the comparison of the segmented technique at 1.5 and at 3 Tesla (P = 0.0001). The correlation coefficients of the infarct volumes, determined with the Single-Shot IR turboFLASH and the segmented IR turboFLASH technique at 3.0 compared with the reference method, were r = 0.95 (P < 0.0001) and r = 0.95 (P < 0.0001). The loss of CNR, which is caused by replacement of the segmented technique by the single-shot technique, is completely compensated by the approximately 2-fold CNR increase at the higher field strength. The IR turboFLASH technique at 3.0 Tesla IR can be used as a single-shot technique

  12. 'Turbo' coding for deep space applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1995-01-01

    The performance of the `turbo' coding scheme is measured and an error floor is discovered. These residual errors are corrected with an outer BCH code. The complexity of the system is discussed, and for low data rates a realizable system operating at Eb/N0 below 0.2 dB is presented......The performance of the `turbo' coding scheme is measured and an error floor is discovered. These residual errors are corrected with an outer BCH code. The complexity of the system is discussed, and for low data rates a realizable system operating at Eb/N0 below 0.2 dB is presented...

  13. Structural dynamics of turbo-machines

    CERN Document Server

    Rangwala, AS

    2009-01-01

    The book presents a detailed and comprehensive treatment of structural vibration evaluation of turbo-machines. Starting with the fundamentals of the theory of vibration as related to various aspects of rotating machines, the dynamic analysis procedures of a broad spectrum of turbo-machines is covered. An in-depth procedure for analyzing the torsional and flexural oscillations of the components and of the rotor-bearing system is presented. The latest trends in design and analysis are presented, chief among them: Blade and coupled disk-blade mod

  14. Turbo coding, turbo equalisation and space-time coding for transmission over fading channels

    CERN Document Server

    Hanzo, L; Yeap, B

    2002-01-01

    Against the backdrop of the emerging 3G wireless personal communications standards and broadband access network standard proposals, this volume covers a range of coding and transmission aspects for transmission over fading wireless channels. It presents the most important classic channel coding issues and also the exciting advances of the last decade, such as turbo coding, turbo equalisation and space-time coding. It endeavours to be the first book with explicit emphasis on channel coding for transmission over wireless channels. Divided into 4 parts: Part 1 - explains the necessary background for novices. It aims to be both an easy reading text book and a deep research monograph. Part 2 - provides detailed coverage of turbo conventional and turbo block coding considering the known decoding algorithms and their performance over Gaussian as well as narrowband and wideband fading channels. Part 3 - comprehensively discusses both space-time block and space-time trellis coding for the first time in literature. Par...

  15. Aerodynamic seal assemblies for turbo-machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidkar, Rahul Anil; Wolfe, Christopher; Fang, Biao

    2015-09-29

    The present application provides an aerodynamic seal assembly for use with a turbo-machine. The aerodynamic seal assembly may include a number of springs, a shoe connected to the springs, and a secondary seal positioned about the springs and the shoe.

  16. Turbo Equalization for Digital Coherent Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlunno, Valeria; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Borkowski, Robert

    2014-01-01

    . In this paper, it is demonstrated that Turbo Equalization routines can be used to mitigate performance degradations stemming from optical fiber propagation effects both in optical fiber dispersion managed and unmanaged coherent detection links. The effectiveness of this solution is analyzed both numerically...

  17. Turbo Codes Extended with Outer BCH Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1996-01-01

    The "error floor" observed in several simulations with the turbo codes is verified by calculation of an upper bound to the bit error rate for the ensemble of all interleavers. Also an easy way to calculate the weight enumerator used in this bound is presented. An extended coding scheme is proposed...

  18. Optimal control design of turbo spin-echo sequences with applications to parallel-transmit systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sbrizzi, Alessandro; Hoogduin, Hans; Hajnal, Joseph V; van den Berg, CAT; Luijten, Peter R; Malik, Shaihan J

    PURPOSE: The design of turbo spin-echo sequences is modeled as a dynamic optimization problem which includes the case of inhomogeneous transmit radiofrequency fields. This problem is efficiently solved by optimal control techniques making it possible to design patient-specific sequences online.

  19. Balancing the playing field: collaborative gaming for physical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Michael; Kinany, Nawal; Rinne, Paul; Rayner, Anthony; Bentley, Paul; Burdet, Etienne

    2017-11-20

    Multiplayer video games promoting exercise-based rehabilitation may facilitate motor learning, by increasing motivation through social interaction. However, a major design challenge is to enable meaningful inter-subject interaction, whilst allowing for significant skill differences between players. We present a novel motor-training paradigm that allows real-time collaboration and performance enhancement, across a wide range of inter-subject skill mismatches, including disabled vs. able-bodied partnerships. A virtual task consisting of a dynamic ball on a beam, is controlled at each end using independent digital force-sensing handgrips. Interaction is mediated through simulated physical coupling and locally-redundant control. Game performance was measured in 16 healthy-healthy and 16 patient-expert dyads, where patients were hemiparetic stroke survivors using their impaired arm. Dual-player was compared to single-player performance, in terms of score, target tracking, stability, effort and smoothness; and questionnaires probing user-experience and engagement. Performance of less-able subjects (as ranked from single-player ability) was enhanced by dual-player mode, by an amount proportionate to the partnership's mismatch. The more abled partners' performances decreased by a similar amount. Such zero-sum interactions were observed for both healthy-healthy and patient-expert interactions. Dual-player was preferred by the majority of players independent of baseline ability and subject group; healthy subjects also felt more challenged, and patients more skilled. This is the first demonstration of implicit skill balancing in a truly collaborative virtual training task leading to heightened engagement, across both healthy subjects and stroke patients.

  20. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF TURBO CODED OFDM SYSTEMS AND APPLICATION OF TURBO DECODING FOR IMPULSIVE CHANNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitha H. M.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of the performance of hard and soft-decision turbo coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing systems with Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK and 16-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (16-QAM is considered in the first section of this paper. The results show that the soft-decision method greatly outperforms the hard-decision method. The complexity of the demapper is reduced with the use of simplified algorithm for 16-QAM demapping. In the later part of the paper, we consider the transmission of data over additive white class A noise (AWAN channel, using turbo coded QPSK and 16-QAM systems. We propose a novel turbo decoding scheme for AWAN channel. Also we compare the performance of turbo coded systems with QPSK and 16-QAM on AWAN channel with two different channel values- one computed as per additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN channel conditions and the other as per AWAN channel conditions. The results show that the use of appropriate channel value in turbo decoding helps to combat the impulsive noise more effectively. The proposed model for AWAN channel exhibits comparable Bit error rate (BER performance as compared to AWGN channel.

  1. Turbo-FLASH based arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI at 7 T.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhentao Zuo

    Full Text Available Motivations of arterial spin labeling (ASL at ultrahigh magnetic fields include prolonged blood T1 and greater signal-to-noise ratio (SNR. However, increased B0 and B1 inhomogeneities and increased specific absorption ratio (SAR challenge practical ASL implementations. In this study, Turbo-FLASH (Fast Low Angle Shot based pulsed and pseudo-continuous ASL sequences were performed at 7T, by taking advantage of the relatively low SAR and short TE of Turbo-FLASH that minimizes susceptibility artifacts. Consistent with theoretical predictions, the experimental data showed that Turbo-FLASH based ASL yielded approximately 4 times SNR gain at 7T compared to 3T. High quality perfusion images were obtained with an in-plane spatial resolution of 0.85×1.7 mm(2. A further functional MRI study of motor cortex activation precisely located the primary motor cortex to the precentral gyrus, with the same high spatial resolution. Finally, functional connectivity between left and right motor cortices as well as supplemental motor area were demonstrated using resting state perfusion images. Turbo-FLASH based ASL is a promising approach for perfusion imaging at 7T, which could provide novel approaches to high spatiotemporal resolution fMRI and to investigate the functional connectivity of brain networks at ultrahigh field.

  2. TurboTech Technical Evaluation Automated System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffany, Dorothy J.

    2009-01-01

    TurboTech software is a Web-based process that simplifies and semiautomates technical evaluation of NASA proposals for Contracting Officer's Technical Representatives (COTRs). At the time of this reporting, there have been no set standards or systems for training new COTRs in technical evaluations. This new process provides boilerplate text in response to interview style questions. This text is collected into a Microsoft Word document that can then be further edited to conform to specific cases. By providing technical language and a structured format, TurboTech allows the COTRs to concentrate more on the actual evaluation, and less on deciding what language would be most appropriate. Since the actual word choice is one of the more time-consuming parts of a COTRs job, this process should allow for an increase in quantity of proposals evaluated. TurboTech is applicable to composing technical evaluations of contractor proposals, task and delivery orders, change order modifications, requests for proposals, new work modifications, task assignments, as well as any changes to existing contracts.

  3. A review of scale factors, fixed-point precision, soft decisions, and hard decisions on the performance of the UMTS (3GPP) turbo codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, John

    2007-04-01

    Since their introduction in 1993, turbo codes have received a significant amount of attention in the communications theory field due to their Shannon-capacity approaching performance. In recent years, the cellular systems market has embraced turbo code technology and made it part of the latest standards. This paper will review the effects of scale factors, fixed-point precision, soft decisions and hard decisions on the performance of the turbo codes defined in the UMTS third-generation cellular system. In addition, a new scale factor estimation technique which provides improved performance at low signal to noise ratios will be presented.

  4. Turbo decoder core design for system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyi; Yao, Qingdong; Liu, Peng

    2003-04-01

    Due to their near Shannon-capacity performance, turbo codes have received a considerable amount of attention since their introduction. They are particularly attractive for cellular communication systems and have been included in the specifications for both the WCDMA(UMTS) and cdma2000 third-generation cellular standards. The log-MAP decoding algorithm and some technologies used to reduce the complexity have discussed in the past days. But we can see that if we apply the Turbo code to wireless communications,the decoding process rate is the bottleneck. The software implement is not realistic in today"s DSP process rate. So the hardware design is supposed to realize the decoding. The purpose of this paper is to present a full ASIC design way of Turbo decoding. Many technologies are added to the basic Log-MAP algorithm to simple the design and improve the performance. With the log-MAP algorithm, the Jacobi logarithm is computed exactly using max*()=ln(exp(x)+exp(y))=max()+fc(|y-x|),The correction function fc(|y-x|) is important because there will be 0.5dB SNR loss without it. The linear approximation can be used and the linear parameters was selected carefully to suit hardware realize in our design. In order to save the power consumption and also to assure the performance, the quantization is important in ASIC design, we adopt a compromise scheme to save the power and also there is good BER behaves. Many noisy frames can be corrected with a few iterations while some of the more noisy frames need to experience a full number of iterations (NOI). Thus, if the decoder could stop the iteration as soon as the frame becomes correct, the average NOI would be reduced. There are many ways to stop the iteration such as CRC, compare and so on, we adopt a significantly less computation and much less storage stop criteria. For long frames the memory for storing the entire frame of the forward probability α or the backward probability β can be very large. Available products all

  5. Noise suppressor for turbo fan jet engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, D. Y. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A noise suppressor is disclosed for installation on the discharge or aft end of a turbo fan engine. Within the suppressor are fixed annular airfoils which are positioned to reduce the relative velocity between the high temperature fast moving jet exhaust and the low temperature slow moving air surrounding it. Within the suppressor nacelle is an exhaust jet nozzle which constrains the shape of the jet exhaust to a substantially uniform elongate shape irrespective of the power setting of the engine. Fixed ring airfoils within the suppressor nacelle therefore have the same salutary effects irrespective of the power setting at which the engine is operated.

  6. Balanced growth path solutions of a Boltzmann mean field game model for knowledge growth

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin

    2016-11-18

    In this paper we study balanced growth path solutions of a Boltzmann mean field game model proposed by Lucas and Moll [15] to model knowledge growth in an economy. Agents can either increase their knowledge level by exchanging ideas in learning events or by producing goods with the knowledge they already have. The existence of balanced growth path solutions implies exponential growth of the overall production in time. We prove existence of balanced growth path solutions if the initial distribution of individuals with respect to their knowledge level satisfies a Pareto-tail condition. Furthermore we give first insights into the existence of such solutions if in addition to production and knowledge exchange the knowledge level evolves by geometric Brownian motion.

  7. The impact of previous knee injury on force plate and field-based measures of balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltich, Jennifer; Whittaker, Jackie; Von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Nigg, Benno M; Emery, Carolyn

    2015-10-01

    Individuals with post-traumatic osteoarthritis demonstrate increased sway during quiet stance. The prospective association between balance and disease onset is unknown. Improved understanding of balance in the period between joint injury and disease onset could inform secondary prevention strategies to prevent or delay the disease. This study examines the association between youth sport-related knee injury and balance, 3-10years post-injury. Participants included 50 individuals (ages 15-26years) with a sport-related intra-articular knee injury sustained 3-10years previously and 50 uninjured age-, sex- and sport-matched controls. Force-plate measures during single-limb stance (center-of-pressure 95% ellipse-area, path length, excursion, entropic half-life) and field-based balance scores (triple single-leg hop, star-excursion, unipedal dynamic balance) were collected. Descriptive statistics (mean within-pair difference; 95% confidence intervals) were used to compare groups. Linear regression (adjusted for injury history) was used to assess the relationship between ellipse-area and field-based scores. Injured participants on average demonstrated greater medio-lateral excursion [mean within-pair difference (95% confidence interval); 2.8mm (1.0, 4.5)], more regular medio-lateral position [10ms (2, 18)], and shorter triple single-leg hop distances [-30.9% (-8.1, -53.7)] than controls, while no between group differences existed for the remaining outcomes. After taking into consideration injury history, triple single leg hop scores demonstrated a linear association with ellipse area (β=0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.01, 1.01). On average the injured participants adjusted their position less frequently and demonstrated a larger magnitude of movement during single-limb stance compared to controls. These findings support the evaluation of balance outcomes in the period between knee injury and post-traumatic osteoarthritis onset. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  8. Turbo-machine deployment of HTR-10 GT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shutang; Wang Jie; Zhang Zhengming; Yu Suyuan

    2005-01-01

    As a testing project of gas turbine modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR), HTR-10GT has been studied and developed by Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET) of Tsinghua University after the success of HTR-10 with steam turbine cycle. The main purposes of this project are to demonstrate the gas turbine modular HTGR, to optimize the deployment of Power Conversion Unit (PCU) and to verify the techniques of turbo-machine, operating modes and controlling measures. HTR-10GT is concentrated on the PCU design and the turbo-machine deployment. Possible turbo-machine deployments have been investigated and two of them are introduced in this paper. The preliminary design for the turbo-machine of HTR-10GT is single-shaft of vertical layout, arranged by the side of the reactor and the turbo-compressor rotary speed was selected to be 250 s -1 (15000 r/min) by considering the efficiency of turbo-compressor blade systems, the strength conditions and the mass and size characteristics of the turbo-compressor. The rotor system will be supported by electromagnetic bearings (EMBs) to curb the possible pollutions of the primary loop. Of all the components in this design, the high speed turbo-generator seems to be a world-wide technical nut. As an alternative design, a gearbox complex is used to reduce the rotary speed from the turbo-compressor 250 s -1 to 50 s -1 so that the ordinary generator can be used. (authors)

  9. Aquatic Exposure Predictions of Insecticide Field Concentrations Using a Multimedia Mass-Balance Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knäbel, Anja; Scheringer, Martin; Stehle, Sebastian; Schulz, Ralf

    2016-04-05

    Highly complex process-driven mechanistic fate and transport models and multimedia mass balance models can be used for the exposure prediction of pesticides in different environmental compartments. Generally, both types of models differ in spatial and temporal resolution. Process-driven mechanistic fate models are very complex, and calculations are time-intensive. This type of model is currently used within the European regulatory pesticide registration (FOCUS). Multimedia mass-balance models require fewer input parameters to calculate concentration ranges and the partitioning between different environmental media. In this study, we used the fugacity-based small-region model (SRM) to calculate predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) for 466 cases of insecticide field concentrations measured in European surface waters. We were able to show that the PECs of the multimedia model are more protective in comparison to FOCUS. In addition, our results show that the multimedia model results have a higher predictive power to simulate varying field concentrations at a higher level of field relevance. The adaptation of the model scenario to actual field conditions suggests that the performance of the SRM increases when worst-case conditions are replaced by real field data. Therefore, this study shows that a less complex modeling approach than that used in the regulatory risk assessment exhibits a higher level of protectiveness and predictiveness and that there is a need to develop and evaluate new ecologically relevant scenarios in the context of pesticide exposure modeling.

  10. Turbo-generator control with variable valve actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuk, Carl T [Denver, IA

    2011-02-22

    An internal combustion engine incorporating a turbo-generator and one or more variably activated exhaust valves. The exhaust valves are adapted to variably release exhaust gases from a combustion cylinder during a combustion cycle to an exhaust system. The turbo-generator is adapted to receive exhaust gases from the exhaust system and rotationally harness energy therefrom to produce electrical power. A controller is adapted to command the exhaust valve to variably open in response to a desired output for the turbo-generator.

  11. Optimization of field homogeneity of Helmholtz-like coils for measuring the balance of planar gradiometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordahn, M.A.; Holst, T.; Shen, Y.Q.

    1999-01-01

    Measuring the balance of planar SQUID gradiometers using a relatively small Helmholtz-like coil system requires a careful design of the coils in order to have a high degree of field uniformity along the radial direction. The level to which planar gradiometers can be balanced will be affected by any misalignment of the gradiometer relative to the ideal central position. Therefore, the maximum degree of balancing possible is calculated numerically for the Helmholtz geometry under various perturbations, including misalignment of the gradiometer along the cylindrical and the radial axis, and angular tilting relative to the normal plane. Furthermore, if the ratio between the coil separation and coil radius is chosen to be less than unity, calculations show that the expected radial uniformity of the field can be improved considerably compared to the traditional Helmholtz geometry. The optimized coil geometry is compared to the Helmholtz geometry and is found to yield up to an order of magnitude improvement of the worst case error signal within a volume spanned by the uncertainty in the alignment. (author)

  12. Effect of crop rotation on soil nutrient balance and weediness in soddy podzolic organic farming fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarina, Livija; Zarina, Liga

    2017-04-01

    The nutrient balance in different crop rotations under organic cropping system has been investigated in Latvia at the Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics since 2006. Latvia is located in a humid and moderate climatic region where the rainfall exceeds evaporation (soil moisture coefficient > 1) and the soil moisture regime is characteristic with percolation. The average annual precipitation is 670-850 mm. The average temperature varies from -6.7° C in January to 16.5 °C in July. The growing season is 175 - 185 days. The most widespread are podzolic soils and mainly they are present in agricultural fields in all regions of Latvia. In a wider sense the goal of the soil management in organic farming is a creation of the biologically active flora and fauna in the soil by maintaining a high level of soil organic matter which is good for crops nutrient balance. Crop rotation is a central component of organic farming systems and has many benefits, including growth of soil microbial activity, which may increase nutrient availability. The aim of the present study was to calculate nutrient balance for each crop in the rotations and average in each rotation. Taking into account that crop rotations can limit build-up of weeds, additionally within the ERA-net CORE Organic Plus transnational programs supported project PRODIVA the information required for a better utilization of crop diversification for weed management in North European organic arable cropping systems was summarized. It was found that the nutrient balance was influenced by nutrients uptake by biomass of growing crops in crop rotation. The number of weeds in the organic farming fields with crop rotation is dependent on the cultivated crops and the succession of crops in the crop rotation.

  13. Radiation Hardened Turbo Coded OFDM Modulator, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Micro Inc. proposes to develop an innovative Turbo-Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Modulation (TC-OFDM) ASIC device. The proposed device provides data...

  14. A Turbo-Brayton Cryocooler for Aircraft Superconducting Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid turbo-electric aircraft with gas turbines driving electric generators connected to electric propulsion motors have the potential to transform the aircraft...

  15. Efficient Decoding of Turbo Codes with Nonbinary Belief Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Lestable

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to decode turbo codes using a nonbinary belief propagation decoder. The proposed approach can be decomposed into two main steps. First, a nonbinary Tanner graph representation of the turbo code is derived by clustering the binary parity-check matrix of the turbo code. Then, a group belief propagation decoder runs several iterations on the obtained nonbinary Tanner graph. We show in particular that it is necessary to add a preprocessing step on the parity-check matrix of the turbo code in order to ensure good topological properties of the Tanner graph and then good iterative decoding performance. Finally, by capitalizing on the diversity which comes from the existence of distinct efficient preprocessings, we propose a new decoding strategy, called decoder diversity, that intends to take benefits from the diversity through collaborative decoding schemes.

  16. Mean field theory for a balanced hypercolumn model of orientation selectivity in primary visual cortex

    CERN Document Server

    Lerchner, A; Hertz, J; Ahmadi, M

    2004-01-01

    We present a complete mean field theory for a balanced state of a simple model of an orientation hypercolumn. The theory is complemented by a description of a numerical procedure for solving the mean-field equations quantitatively. With our treatment, we can determine self-consistently both the firing rates and the firing correlations, without being restricted to specific neuron models. Here, we solve the analytically derived mean-field equations numerically for integrate-and-fire neurons. Several known key properties of orientation selective cortical neurons emerge naturally from the description: Irregular firing with statistics close to -- but not restricted to -- Poisson statistics; an almost linear gain function (firing frequency as a function of stimulus contrast) of the neurons within the network; and a contrast-invariant tuning width of the neuronal firing. We find that the irregularity in firing depends sensitively on synaptic strengths. If Fano factors are bigger than 1, then they are so for all stim...

  17. Mean field theory for a balanced hypercolumn model of orientation selectivity in primary visual cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerchner, Alexander; Sterner, G.; Hertz, J.

    2006-01-01

    We present a complete mean field theory for a balanced state of a simple model of an orientation hypercolumn, with a numerical procedure for solving the mean-field equations quantitatively. With our treatment, one can determine self-consistently both the firing rates and the firing correlations......, without being restricted to specific neuron models. Here, we solve the mean-field equations numerically for integrate-and-fire neurons. Several known key properties of orientation selective cortical neurons emerge naturally from the description: Irregular firing with statistics close...... to - but not restricted to Poisson statistics; an almost linear gain function (firing frequency as a function of stimulus contrast) of the neurons within the network; and a contrast-invariant tuning width of the neuronal firing. We find that the irregularity in firing depends sensitively on synaptic strengths...

  18. EXIT Chart Aided Design of Periodically Punctured Turbo Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Babich, F.; Crismani, A.; Maunder, R. G.

    2010-01-01

    EXtrinsic Information Transfer (EXIT) charts have proved to be an effective tool for studying the convergence behaviour of iterative decoders. However, classical EXIT chart analysis fails to assess the performance of turbo codes in which the systematic bits are punctured periodically. In this letter, a novel 3-Dimensional (3D) EXIT chart technique is proposed for accurately modeling the convergence behaviour of turbo codes that are punctured following a periodic pattern. Finally, the novel 3D...

  19. Selection of Code and Interleaver for Turbo Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1998-01-01

    The selection of component codes for turbo coding has often been based on the performance at high SNR's. However, we will argue that the selection mainly should be based on the performance at low SNR's, i.e. the convergence properties. Further, we will present a way to construct interleavers...... that significantly improve the performance of the turbo coding scheme at high SNR's, i.e. lowers the error floor...

  20. Botswana water and surface energy balance research program. Part 1: Integrated approach and field campaign results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegriend, A. A.; Owe, M.; Vugts, H. F.; Ramothwa, G. K.

    1992-01-01

    The Botswana water and surface energy balance research program was developed to study and evaluate the integrated use of multispectral satellite remote sensing for monitoring the hydrological status of the Earth's surface. Results of the first part of the program (Botswana 1) which ran from 1 Jan. 1988 - 31 Dec. 1990 are summarized. Botswana 1 consisted of two major, mutually related components: a surface energy balance modeling component, built around an extensive field campaign; and a passive microwave research component which consisted of a retrospective study of large scale moisture conditions and Nimbus scanning multichannel microwave radiometer microwave signatures. The integrated approach of both components in general are described and activities performed during the surface energy modeling component including the extensive field campaign are summarized. The results of the passive microwave component are summarized. The key of the field campaign was a multilevel approach, whereby measurements by various similar sensors were made at several altitudes and resolution. Data collection was performed at two adjacent sites of contrasting surface character. The following measurements were made: micrometeorological measurements, surface temperatures, soil temperatures, soil moisture, vegetation (leaf area index and biomass), satellite data, aircraft data, atmospheric soundings, stomatal resistance, and surface emissivity.

  1. Energy balance of a corn residue-covered field during snowmelt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, T.J.; Hatfield, J.L.; Prueger, J.H.; Logsdon, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    Transport of agricultural chemicals in runoff and recharge waters from snowmelt and soil thawing may represent a significant event in terms of annual contaminant loadings in temperate regions. Improved understanding of the melt dynamics of shallow snowpacks is necessary to fully assess the implications for water quality. The objective of this study was to measure the energy balance components of a corn (Zea mays L.) stubble field during the melting of its snowcover. Net radiation (Rn), soil (G), sensible (H), and latent (Q) best fluxes were measured in a field near Ames, Iowa, during the winter of 1994-1995. Energy consumed by melting including change in energy storage of the snowpack was determined as the residual of the measured energy balance. There was continuous snowcover at the field site for 71 days (maximum depth = 222 m) followed by an open period of 11 days before additional snowfall and a second melt period. The net radiation and snowmelt/energy storage change (S) terms dominated the energy balance during both measurement intervals. Peak daily sensible and latent best fluxes were below 100 W m(-2) on all days except the last day of the second melt period. There was good agreement between predicted and measured values of H and Q during the melting of an aged snow layer but poorer agreement during the melt of fresh snow. Both snowpacks melted rapidly and coincident changes in soil moisture storage were observed. Improved estimates of Q and H, especially for partially open surfaces, will require better characterization of the surface aerodynamic properties and spatially-representative surface temperature measurements

  2. Impact of electromagnetic fields on human vestibular system and standing balance: pilot results and future developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, A.; Villard, S.; Corbacio, M.; Goulet, D.; Plante, M.; Souques, M.; Deschamps, F.; Ostiguy, G.; Lambrozo, J.; Thomas, A. W.; Legros, A.

    2016-03-01

    Although studies have found that extremely low-frequency (ELF, balance, the acute effects of electromagnetic fields on standing balance have not been systematically investigated. This work aims to establish the threshold for acute standing balance modulation during ELFMF exposure. One hundred volunteers will be exposed to transcranial electric stimulations (Direct Current - DC and Alternating Current - AC, 1 mA) and ELFMF (0 to 160 Hz, 0 to 100 mT). The displacement of their center of pressure will be collected and analyzed as an indicator of vestibular performance. During pilot testing (n=6), we found increased lateral sway with DC, and to a lesser extent, AC exposure. The ELFMF exposure system still needs to be adapted to allow meaningful results. Future protocol design will test for possible effects due to exposures in the radiofrequency range (i.e. above 3 kHz). These results will contribute to the literature documenting exposure guidelines aiming to protect workers and the general public.

  3. Morphometric Controls on Glacier Mass Balance of the Puruogangri Ice Field, Central Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the impacts of climatic changes and morphometric features on glacier mass balance is crucial to providing insight into glacier changes and their effects on regional water resources and ecosystems. Here, we presented an evaluation of morphometric effects on the glacier mass balances of the Puruogangri ice field (PIF on the Tibetan Plateau. A clear spatial variability of glacier mass balances, ranging from −0.035 to +0.019 m·w.e.·year−1, was estimated by comparing the TanDEM-X DEM (2012 with the SRTM-X DEM (2000. In general, the observed glacier mass changes were consistent with our fieldwork investigations. Furthermore, by applying the method of linear regression analysis, we found that the mass changes of individual glaciers on the PIF were mainly dominated by the mean altitude (R = 0.84, p < 0.001, however, they were statistically independent of glacier size, aspect, and surface velocity. At a local scale (grid size of 10 × 10 pixels, apart from the factor of altitude, surface velocity was correlated with glacier mass change.

  4. Balancing ballistic protection against physiological strain: evidence from laboratory and field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Burdon, Catriona A; van den Heuvel, Anne M J; Fogarty, Alison L; Notley, Sean R; Hunt, Andrew P; Billing, Daniel C; Drain, Jace R; Silk, Aaron J; Patterson, Mark J; Peoples, Gregory E

    2016-02-01

    This project was based on the premise that decisions concerning the ballistic protection provided to defence personnel should derive from an evaluation of the balance between protection level and its impact on physiological function, mobility, and operational capability. Civilians and soldiers participated in laboratory- and field-based studies in which ensembles providing five levels of ballistic protection were evaluated, each with progressive increases in protection, mass (3.4-11.0 kg), and surface-area coverage (0.25-0.52 m(2)). Physiological trials were conducted on volunteers (N = 8) in a laboratory, under hot-dry conditions simulating an urban patrol: walking at 4 km·h(-1) (90 min) and 6 km·h(-1) (30 min or to fatigue). Field-based trials were used to evaluate tactical battlefield movements (mobility) of soldiers (N = 31) under tropical conditions, and across functional tests of power, speed, agility, endurance, and balance. Finally, trials were conducted at a jungle training centre, with soldiers (N = 32) patrolling under tropical conditions (averaging 5 h). In the laboratory, work tolerance was reduced as protection increased, with deep-body temperature climbing relentlessly. However, the protective ensembles could be grouped into two equally stressful categories, each providing a different level of ballistic protection. This outcome was supported during the mobility trials, with the greatest performance decrement evident during fire and movement simulations, as the ensemble mass was increased (-2.12%·kg(-1)). The jungle patrol trials similarly supported this outcome. Therefore, although ballistic protection does increase physiological strain, this research has provided a basis on which to determine how that strain can be balanced against the mission-specific level of required personal protection.

  5. Thermodynamic Analysis on of Skid-Mounted Coal-bed Methane Liquefaction Device using Cryogenic Turbo-Expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuangtao; Niu, Lu; Zeng, Qiang; Li, Xiaojiang; Lou, Fang; Chen, Liang; Hou, Yu

    2017-12-01

    Coal-bed methane (CBM) reserves are rich in Sinkiang of China, and liquefaction is a critical step for the CBM exploration and utilization. Different from other CBM gas fields in China, CBM distribution in Sinkiang is widespread but scattered, and the pressure, flow-rate and nitrogen content of CBM feed vary significantly. The skid-mounted liquefaction device is suggested as an efficient and economical way to recover methane. Turbo-expander is one of the most important parts which generates the cooling capacity for the cryogenic liquefaction system. Using turbo-expander, more cooling capacity and higher liquefied fraction can be achieved. In this study, skid-mounted CBM liquefaction processes based on Claude cycle are established. Cryogenic turbo-expander with high expansion ratio is employed to improve the efficiency of CBM liquefaction process. The unit power consumption per liquefaction mole flow-rate for CBM feed gas is used as the object function for process optimization, compressor discharge pressure, flow ratio of feed gas to turbo-expander and nitrogen friction are analyzed, and optimum operation range of the liquefaction processes are obtained.

  6. Energy balance of hydro-aggregate with Pelton water turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obretenov, V.

    2005-01-01

    One of the major tasks in the field of hydraulic power engineering refers to machines and equipment modernization in the hydropower plants and pumped storage power plants commissioned more than 20 years ago. The increase of hydraulic units operation efficiency will allow in a number of cases to substantially reduce the specific water consumption and to drive the output of electric energy up. In these cases it is crucial to find out the operational efficiency of individual system elements and to precisely focus the modernization endeavours on such elements where the energy losses go beyond all admissible limits. Besides, the determination of the energy losses in the hydro energy turbo system will allow valid defining of hydraulic units operational scope. This work treats the methods of balance study of a hydraulic unit with Peiton water turbine. The experimental results of the balance study of Belmeken pumped storage power plant hydraulic unit No 5 under turbine operational mode are presented

  7. Balancing Near-Field Enhancement, Absorption, and Scattering for Effective Antenna-Reactor Plasmonic Photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Hogan, Nathaniel J; Kale, Matthew J; Halas, Naomi J; Nordlander, Peter; Christopher, Phillip

    2017-06-14

    Efficient photocatalysis requires multifunctional materials that absorb photons and generate energetic charge carriers at catalytic active sites to facilitate a desired chemical reaction. Antenna-reactor complexes are an emerging multifunctional photocatalytic structure where the strong, localized near field of the plasmonic metal nanoparticle (e.g., Ag) is coupled to the catalytic properties of the nonplasmonic metal nanoparticle (e.g., Pt) to enable chemical transformations. With an eye toward sustainable solar driven photocatalysis, we investigate how the structure of antenna-reactor complexes governs their photocatalytic activity in the light-limited regime, where all photons need to be effectively utilized. By synthesizing core@shell/satellite (Ag@SiO 2 /Pt) antenna-reactor complexes with varying Ag nanoparticle diameters and performing photocatalytic CO oxidation, we observed plasmon-enhanced photocatalysis only for antenna-reactor complexes with antenna components of intermediate sizes (25 and 50 nm). Optimal photocatalytic performance was shown to be determined by a balance between maximized local field enhancements at the catalytically active Pt surface, minimized collective scattering of photons out of the catalyst bed by the complexes, and minimal light absorption in the Ag nanoparticle antenna. These results elucidate the critical aspects of local field enhancement, light scattering, and absorption in plasmonic photocatalyst design, especially under light-limited illumination conditions.

  8. High-resolution three-dimensional diffusion-weighted imaging of middle ear cholesteatoma at 3.0 T MRI: Usefulness of 3D turbo field-echo with diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium preparation (TFE–DSDE) compared to single-shot echo-planar imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Koji; Yoshiura, Takashi; Hiwatashi, Akio; Obara, Makoto; Togao, Osamu; Matsumoto, Nozomu; Kikuchi, Kazufumi; Honda, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively evaluate the usefulness of a newly developed high-resolution three-dimensional diffusion-weighted imaging method, turbo field-echo with diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium (TFE–DSDE) in diagnosing middle-ear cholesteatoma by comparing it to conventional single-shot echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging (SS-EP DWI). Materials and methods: Institutional review board approval and informed consent from all participants were obtained. We studied 30 patients with preoperatively suspected acquired cholesteatoma. Each patient underwent an MR examination including both SS-EP DWI and DSDE-TFE using a 3.0 T MR scanner. Images of the 30 patients (60 temporal bones including 30 with and 30 without cholesteatoma) were reviewed by two independent neuroradiologists. The confidence level for the presence of cholesteatoma was graded on a scale of 0–2 (0 = definite absence, 1 = equivocal, 2 = definite presence). Interobserver agreement as well as sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for detection were assessed for the two reviewers. Results: Excellent interobserver agreement was shown for TFE–DSDE (κ = 0.821) whereas fair agreement was obtained for SS-EP DWI (κ = 0.416). TFE–DSDE was associated with significantly higher sensitivity (83.3%) and accuracy (90.0%) compared to SS-EP DWI (sensitivity = 35.0%, accuracy = 66.7%; p < 0.05). No significant difference was found in specificity (96.7% for TFE–DSDE, 98.3% for SS-EP DWI) Conclusion: With increased spatial resolution and reduced susceptibility artifacts, TFE–DSDE improves the accuracy in diagnosing acquired middle ear cholesteatomas compared to SS-EP DWI

  9. Biogeochemical mass balances in a turbid tropical reservoir. Field data and modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong Doan, Thuy Kim; Némery, Julien; Gratiot, Nicolas; Schmid, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The turbid tropical Cointzio reservoir, located in the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB), behaves as a warm monomictic water body (area = 6 km2, capacity 66 Mm3, residence time ~ 1 year). It is strategic for the drinking water supply of the city of Morelia, capital of the state of Michoacán, and for downstream irrigation during the dry season. This reservoir is a perfect example of a human-impacted system since its watershed is mainly composed of degraded volcanic soils and is subjected to high erosion processes and agricultural loss. The reservoir is threatened by sediment accumulation and nutrients originating from untreated waters in the upstream watershed. The high content of very fine clay particles and the lack of water treatment plants lead to serious episodes of eutrophication (up to 70 μg chl. a L-1), high levels of turbidity (Secchi depth water vertical profiles, reservoir inflow and outflow) we determined suspended sediment (SS), carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) mass balances. Watershed SS yields were estimated at 35 t km2 y-1 of which 89-92 % were trapped in the Cointzio reservoir. As a consequence the reservoir has already lost 25 % of its initial storage capacity since its construction in 1940. Nutrient mass balances showed that 50 % and 46 % of incoming P and N were retained by sedimentation, and mainly eliminated through denitrification respectively. Removal of C by 30 % was also observed both by sedimentation and through gas emission. To complete field data analyses we examined the ability of vertical one dimensional (1DV) numerical models (Aquasim biogeochemical model coupled with k-ɛ mixing model) to reproduce the main biogeochemical cycles in the Cointzio reservoir. The model can describe all the mineralization processes both in the water column and in the sediment. The values of the entire mass balance of nutrients and of the mineralization rates (denitrification and aerobic benthic mineralization) calculated from the model

  10. Leak detection in turbo group condensers using helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Cores, C.; Lloret, J.

    1997-01-01

    This method allows a rapid location of leaks (small or not) in the pipelines of a turbo group condenser, before opening the condenser boxes and no need of stooping the turbo group operation. This operation can last two hours maximum depending on the volume of the box or semi box. The technique consists of injecting helium into the water side and detecting it in the steam side, in the outlet of not condensable gases of the ejector. In the same way, probable air inlet to the condenser can be proved (auxiliary systems, turbo group joints to the condenser, etc.) in order to improve the vacuum and/or reduce the quantity of oxygen dissolved in the water of the steam side. (author) [es

  11. Urbanization dramatically altered the water balances of a paddy field dominated basin in Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, L.; Sun, G.; Liu, Y.; Wan, J.; Qin, M.; Qian, H.; Liu, C.; John, R.; Fan, P.; Chen, J.

    2015-02-01

    Rice paddy fields provide important ecosystem services (e.g., food production, water retention, carbon sequestration) to a large population globally. However, these benefits are declining as a result of rapid environmental and socioeconomic transformations characterized by population growth, urbanization, and climate change in many Asian countries. This case study examined the responses of streamflow and watershed water balances to the decline of rice paddy fields due to urbanization in the Qinhuai River Basin in southern China where massive industrialization has occurred in the region during the past three decades. We found that streamflow increased by 58% and evapotranspiration (ET) decreased by 23% during 1986-2013 as a result of an increase in urban areas of three folds and reduction of rice paddy field by 27%. Both highflows and lowflows increased significantly by about 28% from 2002 to 2013. The increases in streamflow were consistent with the decreases in ET and leaf area index monitored by independent remote sensing MODIS data. The reduction in ET and increase in streamflow was attributed to the large cropland conversion that overwhelmed the effects of regional climate warming and climate variability. Converting traditional rice paddy fields to urban use dramatically altered land surface conditions from a water-dominated to a human-dominated landscape, and thus was considered as one of the extreme types of contemporary hydrologic disturbances. The ongoing large-scale urbanization in the rice paddy-dominated regions in the humid southern China, and East Asia, will likely elevate stormflow volume, aggravate flood risks, and intensify urban heat island effects. Understanding the linkage between land use change and changes in hydrological processes is essential for better management of urbanizing watersheds.

  12. New Turbo Compound Systems in Automotive Industry for Internal Combustion Engine to Recover Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriac, R.; Chiru, A.; Condrea, O.

    2017-10-01

    The large amount of heat is scattered in the internal combustion engine through exhaust gas, coolant, convective and radiant heat transfer. Of all these residual heat sources, exhaust gases have the potential to recover using various modern heat recovery techniques. Waste heat recovery from an engine could directly reduce fuel consumption, increase available electrical power and improve overall system efficiency and if it would be used a turbochargers that can also produce energy. This solution is called turbo aggregation and has other ways to develop it in other areas of research like the electrical field. [1-3

  13. Turbo decoder architecture for beyond-4G applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Cheng-Chi

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the most recent techniques for turbo decoder implementation, especially for 4G and beyond 4G applications. The authors reveal techniques for the design of high-throughput decoders for future telecommunication systems, enabling designers to reduce hardware cost and shorten processing time. Coverage includes an explanation of VLSI implementation of the turbo decoder, from basic functional units to advanced parallel architecture. The authors discuss both hardware architecture techniques and experimental results, showing the variations in area/throughput/performance with respec

  14. Study of electromagnetic phenomena in the end region of large turbo-generators - Testing tools for the 125 MW turbo-generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to improve the knowledge of electromagnetic phenomena that occur in the end region of large turbo-generators. The goal of this work is to evaluate the axial magnetic flux density with regard to the operating conditions (such as active or reactive power) in order to prevent potential deterioration of the stator. Indeed, the axial magnetic field is known to induce hot points or voltages between laminations that may cause insulation breakdown and thus stator faults. An experimental apparatus in real scale has been designed and built. Its purpose is to study precisely the following phenomena: losses, axial magnetic flux density penetration, voltage across adjacent voltages. Finite element simulations (FEM) are also used: their advantages and drawbacks are discussed, and the results are compared with the experimental measures. The whole end-region of a turbo-generator is also simulated. Finally, a simple model of the axial magnetic flux is proposed. Its parameters are based on the results of the FEM model, but it may be used in real time to evaluate the axial magnetic flux density of any operating point. (author)

  15. Measurement and control system for cryogenic helium gas bearing turbo-expander experimental platform based on Siemens PLC S7-300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.; Xiong, L. Y.; Peng, N.; Dong, B.; Liu, L. Q. [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); Wang, P. [Beijing Sciample Technology Co., Ltd., Beijing, 100190 (China)

    2014-01-29

    An experimental platform for cryogenic Helium gas bearing turbo-expanders is established at the Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. This turbo-expander experimental platform is designed for performance testing and experimental research on Helium turbo-expanders with different sizes from the liquid hydrogen temperature to the room temperature region. A measurement and control system based on Siemens PLC S7-300 for this turbo-expander experimental platform is developed. Proper sensors are selected to measure such parameters as temperature, pressure, rotation speed and air flow rate. All the collected data to be processed are transformed and transmitted to S7-300 CPU. Siemens S7-300 series PLC CPU315-2PN/DP is as master station and two sets of ET200M DP remote expand I/O is as slave station. Profibus-DP field communication is established between master station and slave stations. The upper computer Human Machine Interface (HMI) is compiled using Siemens configuration software WinCC V6.2. The upper computer communicates with PLC by means of industrial Ethernet. Centralized monitoring and distributed control is achieved. Experimental results show that this measurement and control system has fulfilled the test requirement for the turbo-expander experimental platform.

  16. Measurement and control system for cryogenic helium gas bearing turbo-expander experimental platform based on Siemens PLC S7-300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Xiong, L. Y.; Peng, N.; Dong, B.; Wang, P.; Liu, L. Q.

    2014-01-01

    An experimental platform for cryogenic Helium gas bearing turbo-expanders is established at the Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. This turbo-expander experimental platform is designed for performance testing and experimental research on Helium turbo-expanders with different sizes from the liquid hydrogen temperature to the room temperature region. A measurement and control system based on Siemens PLC S7-300 for this turbo-expander experimental platform is developed. Proper sensors are selected to measure such parameters as temperature, pressure, rotation speed and air flow rate. All the collected data to be processed are transformed and transmitted to S7-300 CPU. Siemens S7-300 series PLC CPU315-2PN/DP is as master station and two sets of ET200M DP remote expand I/O is as slave station. Profibus-DP field communication is established between master station and slave stations. The upper computer Human Machine Interface (HMI) is compiled using Siemens configuration software WinCC V6.2. The upper computer communicates with PLC by means of industrial Ethernet. Centralized monitoring and distributed control is achieved. Experimental results show that this measurement and control system has fulfilled the test requirement for the turbo-expander experimental platform.

  17. A self-consistent model of a thermally balanced quiescent prominence in magnetostatic equilibrium in a uniform gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, I.; Low, B.C.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical model of quiescent prominences in the form of an infinite vertical sheet is presented. Self-consistent solutions are obtained by integrating simultaneously the set of nonlinear equations of magnetostatic equilibrium and thermal balance. The basic features of the models are: (1) The prominence matter is confined to a sheet and supported against gravity by a bowed magnetic field. (2) The thermal flux is channelled along magnetic field lines. (3) The thermal flux is everywhere balanced by Low's (1975) hypothetical heat sink which is proportional to the local density. (4) A constant component of the magnetic field along the length of the prominence shields the cool plasma from the hot surrounding. It is assumed that the prominence plasma emits more radiation than it absorbes from the radiation fields of the photosphere, chromosphere and corona, and the above hypothetical heat sink is interpreted to represent the amount of radiative loss that must be balanced by a nonradiative energy input. Using a central density and temperature of 10 11 particles cm -3 and 5000 K respectively, a magnetic field strength between 2 to 10 gauss and a thermal conductivity that varies linearly with temperature, the physical properties implied by the model are discussed. The analytic treatment can also be carried out for a class of more complex thermal conductivities. These models provide a useful starting point for investigating the combined requirements of magnetostatic equilibrium and thermal balance in the quiescent prominence. (Auth.)

  18. Aeroderivative Gas Turbo engine in CHP Plant. Compatibility Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorinel-Gicu TALIF

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the possibilities to develop Combined Cycle Units based onaeroderivative Gas Turbo engines and on existing Steam Turbines. The specific compatibilityproblems of these components and the thermodynamic performances of the analyzed Combined CycleUnits are also presented.

  19. Turbo-Gallager Codes: The Emergence of an Intelligent Coding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    over noisy channels. However it is only in 1993 (about half a century later) that Berrou,. Glavieux and Thitimajshima developed turbo codes and demonstrated performance ... However, computational power at that time could not demon- ... wireless communication standards as well as the IEEE 802.3 (10GBASE-T Ethernet).

  20. Intertidal population structure of the edible mollusc Turbo sarmaticus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intertidal population structure of the large edible gastropod Turbo sarmaticus was examined at four sites along the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. One site was free from exploitation, two were subjected to low levels of exploitation and one was heavily exploited. Within the intertidal zone at all sites there was a ...

  1. The reproductive cycle of the intertidal gastropod Turbo coronatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological methods were used to determine the reproductive cycle of Turbo coronatus. Ovarian development was assessed from the relative proportions of mature and immature oocytes in sectioned material. Testicular tissues ware subjectively given a maturity index based on the relative proportions of the various ...

  2. The reproductive cycle of the intertidal gastropod Turbo coronatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological methods were used to determine the reproductive cycle of Turbo coronatus. Ovarian development was assessed from the relative proportions of mature and immature oocytes in sectioned material. Testicular tissues were subjectively given a maturity index based on the relative proportions of the various ...

  3. Turbo-Gallager Codes: The Emergence of an Intelligent Coding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1948, C. Shannon developed fundamental limits on the efficiency of communication over noisy channels. However it is only in 1993 (about half a century later) that Berrou, Glavieux and Thitimajshima developed turbo codes and demonstrated performance close to that limit. Overnight, much of the algebraic coding ...

  4. Urbanization dramatically altered the water balances of a paddy field-dominated basin in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, L.; Sun, G.; Liu, Y.; Wan, J.; Qin, M.; Qian, H.; Liu, C.; Zheng, J.; John, R.; Fan, P.; Chen, J.

    2015-07-01

    Rice paddy fields provide important ecosystem services (e.g., food production, water retention, carbon sequestration) to a large population globally. However, these benefits are diminishing as a result of rapid environmental and socioeconomic transformations, characterized by population growth, urbanization, and climate change in many Asian countries. This case study examined the responses of stream flow and watershed water balances to the decline of rice paddy fields due to urbanization in the Qinhuai River basin in southern China, where massive industrialization has occurred during the past 3 decades. We found that stream flow increased by 58 % and evapotranspiration (ET) decreased by 23 % during 1986-2013 as a result of a three-fold increase in urban areas and a reduction of rice paddy fields by 27 %. Both high flows and low flows increased significantly by about 28 % from 2002 to 2013. The increases in stream flow were consistent with the decreases in ET and leaf area index monitored by independent remote sensing MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. Attribution analysis, based on two empirical models, indicated that land-use/land-cover change contributed about 82-108 % of the observed increase in stream flow from 353 ± 287 mm yr-1 during 1986-2002 to 556 ± 145 during 2003-2013. We concluded that the reduction in ET was largely attributed to the conversion of cropland to urban use. The effects of land-use change overwhelmed the effects of regional climate warming and climate variability. Converting traditional rice paddy fields to urban use dramatically altered land surface conditions from an artificial wetland-dominated landscape to an urban land-use- dominated one, and thus was considered an extreme type of contemporary hydrologic disturbance. The ongoing large-scale urbanization of the rice paddy-dominated regions, in humid southern China and East Asia, will likely elevate storm-flow volume, aggravate flood risks, and intensify urban

  5. Enhancing MQMAS of low-gamma nuclei by using a high B(1) field balanced probe circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhehong; Gor'kov, Peter L; Brey, William W; Sideris, Paul J; Grey, Clare P

    2009-09-01

    A balanced probe circuit is used to generate high B(1) magnetic field for sensitivity enhancement of multiple-quantum magic-angle spinning (MQMAS) experiment applied to low-gamma quadrupolar nuclei. Electrical balancing of the sample coil can cut the peak voltage by a half, therefore improving the power handling when generating a two-fold higher B(1) field. Experimental results, illustrated here with (25)Mg data for two layered double hydroxides, show that the MQMAS efficiency increases more than linearly with the B(1) field strength. The multiplicative enhancements from high B(0) and B(1) fields and an optimized MQMAS pulse sequence provide the critically needed sensitivity for acquiring MQMAS spectra of low-gamma quadrupolar nuclei such as (25)Mg at natural abundance.

  6. Enhancing MQMAS of low-γ nuclei by using a high B1 field balanced probe circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhehong; Gor'kov, Peter L.; Brey, William W.; Sideris, Paul J.; Grey, Clare P.

    2009-09-01

    A balanced probe circuit is used to generate high B1 magnetic field for sensitivity enhancement of multiple-quantum magic-angle spinning (MQMAS) experiment applied to low-γ quadrupolar nuclei. Electrical balancing of the sample coil can cut the peak voltage by a half, therefore improving the power handling when generating a two-fold higher B1 field. Experimental results, illustrated here with 25Mg data for two layered double hydroxides, show that the MQMAS efficiency increases more than linearly with the B1 field strength. The multiplicative enhancements from high B0 and B1 fields and an optimized MQMAS pulse sequence provide the critically needed sensitivity for acquiring MQMAS spectra of low-γ quadrupolar nuclei such as 25Mg at natural abundance.

  7. Modelling the water balance of irrigated fields in tropical floodplain soils using Hydrus-1D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Abebech; Frankl, Amaury; Verhoest, Niko E. C.; Tilahun, Seifu; Alamirew, Tena; Adgo, Enyew; Nyssen, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Accurate estimation of evaporation, transpiration and deep percolation is crucial in irrigated agriculture and the sustainable management of water resources. Here, the Hydrus-1D process-based numerical model was used to estimate the actual transpiration, soil evaporation and deep percolation from irrigated fields of floodplain soils. Field experiments were conducted from Dec 2015 to May 2016 in a small irrigation scheme (50 ha) called 'Shina' located in the Lake Tana floodplains of Ethiopia. Six experimental plots (three for onion and three for maize) were selected along a topographic transect to account for soil and groundwater variability. Irrigation amount (400 to 550 mm during the growing period) was measured using V-notches installed at each plot boundary and daily groundwater levels were measured manually from piezometers. There was no surface runoff observed in the growing period and rainfall was measured using a manual rain gauge. All daily weather data required for the evapotranspiration calculation using Pen Man Monteith equation were collected from a nearby metrological station. The soil profiles were described for each field to include the vertical soil heterogeneity in the soil water balance simulations. The soil texture, organic matter, bulk density, field capacity, wilting point and saturated moisture content were measured for all the soil horizons. Soil moisture monitoring at 30 and 60 cm depths was performed. The soil hydraulic parameters for each horizon was estimated using KNN pedotransfer functions for tropical soils and were effectively fitted using the RETC program (R2= 0.98±0.011) for initial prediction. A local sensitivity analysis was performed to select and optimize the most important hydraulic parameters for soil water flow in the unsaturated zone. The most sensitive parameters were saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), saturated moisture content (θs) and pore size distribution (n). Inverse modelling using Hydrus-1D further optimized

  8. Field assessment of balance in 10 to 14 year old children, reproducibility and validity of the Nintendo Wii board

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runge, Lisbeth; Jørgensen, Martin Grønbech; Junge, Tina

    2014-01-01

    and adults. When assessing static balance, it is essential to use objective, sensitive tools, and these types of measurement have previously been performed in laboratory settings. However, the emergence of technologies like the Nintendo Wii Board (NWB) might allow balance assessment in field settings......: bilateral stance with eyes open (1), unilateral stance on dominant (2) and non-dominant leg (3) with eyes open, and bilateral stance with eyes closed (4). Three rounds of the four tests were completed with the NWB and with a force platform (AMTI). To assess reproducibility, an intra-day test-retest design...

  9. Turbo-per-Tone Equalization for ADSL Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhaute, Hilde; Moonen, Marc

    2005-12-01

    We study the equalization procedure in discrete multitone (DMT)-based systems, in particular, in DMT-based ADSL systems. Traditionally, equalization is performed in the time domain by means of a channel shortening filter. Shifting the equalization operations to the frequency domain, as is done in per-tone equalization, increases the achieved bitrate by 5-10%. We show that the application of the turbo principle to per-tone equalization can provide significant additional gains. In the proposed receiver structure, referred to as a "turbo-per-tone equalization" structure, equalization and decoding are performed in an iterative fashion. Equalization is done by means of a linear minimum mean squared error (MMSE) equalizer, using a priori information. We give a description of an efficient implementation of such an equalizer in the per-tone structure. Simulations show that we obtain a bitrate increase of 12-16% compared to the original per-tone equalization-based receiver structure.

  10. A Theoretical Framework for Soft-Information-Based Synchronization in Iterative (Turbo Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lottici Vincenzo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution considers turbo synchronization, that is to say, the use of soft data information to estimate parameters like carrier phase, frequency, or timing offsets of a modulated signal within an iterative data demodulator. In turbo synchronization, the receiver exploits the soft decisions computed at each turbo decoding iteration to provide a reliable estimate of some signal parameters. The aim of our paper is to show that such "turbo-estimation" approach can be regarded as a special case of the expectation-maximization (EM algorithm. This leads to a general theoretical framework for turbo synchronization that allows to derive parameter estimation procedures for carrier phase and frequency offset, as well as for timing offset and signal amplitude. The proposed mathematical framework is illustrated by simulation results reported for the particular case of carrier phase and frequency offsets estimation of a turbo-coded 16-QAM signal.

  11. Performance of Turbo Interference Cancellation Receivers in Space-Time Block Coded DS-CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Oluremi Bejide

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the performance of turbo interference cancellation receivers in the space time block coded (STBC direct-sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA system. Depending on the concatenation scheme used, we divide these receivers into the partitioned approach (PA and the iterative approach (IA receivers. The performance of both the PA and IA receivers is evaluated in Rayleigh fading channels for the uplink scenario. Numerical results show that the MMSE front-end turbo space-time iterative approach receiver (IA effectively combats the mixture of MAI and intersymbol interference (ISI. To further investigate the possible achievable data rates in the turbo interference cancellation receivers, we introduce the puncturing of the turbo code through the use of rate compatible punctured turbo codes (RCPTCs. Simulation results suggest that combining interference cancellation, turbo decoding, STBC, and RCPTC can significantly improve the achievable data rates for a synchronous DS-CDMA system for the uplink in Rayleigh flat fading channels.

  12. Eddy Covariance Measurements Over a Maize Field: The Contribution of Minor Flux Terms to the Energy Balance Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smidt, J.; Ingwersen, J.; Streck, T.

    2015-12-01

    The lack of energy balance closure is a long-standing problem in eddy covariance (EC) measurements. The energy balance equation is defined as Rn - G = H + λE, where Rn is net radiation, G is the ground heat flux, H is the sensible heat flux and λE is the latent heat flux. In most cases of energy imbalance, either Rn is overestimated or the ground heat and turbulent fluxes are underestimated. Multiple studies have shown that calculations, incorrect instrument installation/calibration and measurement errors alone do not entirely account for this imbalance. Rather, research is now focused on previously neglected sources of heat storage in the soil, biomass and air beneath the EC station. This project examined the potential of five "minor flux terms" - soil heat storage, biomass heat storage, energy consumption by photosynthesis, air heat storage and atmospheric moisture change, to further close the energy balance gap. Eddy covariance measurements were conducted at a maize (Zea mays) field in southwest Germany during summer 2014. Soil heat storage was measured for six weeks at 11 sites around the field footprint. Biomass and air heat storage were measured for six subsequent weeks at seven sites around the field footprint. Energy consumption by photosynthesis was calculated using the CO2 flux data. Evapotranspiration was calculated using the water balance method and then compared to the flux data processed with three post-closure methods: the sensible heat flux, the latent heat flux and the Bowen ratio post-closure methods. An energy balance closure of 66% was achieved by the EC station measurements over the entire investigation period. During the soil heat flux campaign, EC station closure was 74.1%, and the field footprint soil heat storage contributed 3.3% additional closure. During the second minor flux term measurement period, closure with the EC station data was 91%. Biomass heat storage resulted in 1.1% additional closure, the photosynthesis flux closed the gap

  13. Field test and sensitivity analysis of a sensible heat balance method to determine ice contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil ice content impacts winter vadose zone hydrology. It may be possible to estimate changes in soil ice content with a sensible heat balance (SHB) method, using measurements from heat pulse (HP) sensors. Feasibility of the SHB method is unknown because of difficulties in measuring soil thermal pro...

  14. Highly balanced single-layer high-temperature superconductor SQUID gradiometer freely movable within the Earth's magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultze, Volkmar; IJsselsteijn, Rob; May, Torsten; Meyer, Hans-Georg

    2003-01-01

    We developed a gradiometer system based on a single-layer high-temperature superconductor dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), which can be freely moved within the Earth's magnetic field during measurement. The problem of circumferential shielding currents in the parallel gradiometer pick-up loop is solved by the use of an appropriately designed magnetometer SQUID integrated on the gradiometer chip. The magnetometer's feedback coil of the flux-locked loop is laid out as a small Helmholtz coil pair, thus keeping the homogeneous magnetic field constant for both the magnetometer and the gradiometer. Therefore, the balance of the directly coupled gradiometer SQUID is enhanced from 100 up to 3800. The noise limited magnetic field gradient resolution of 45 pT m -1 Hz -1/2 is preserved down to frequencies of several Hz even after strong motion in the Earth's magnetic field

  15. Converting Paddy Rice Field to Urban Use Dramatically Altered the Water and Energy Balances in Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, L.; Sun, G.; Liu, Y.; Qin, M.; Huang, X.; Fang, D.

    2017-12-01

    Paddy rice wetlands are the main land use type across southern China, which impact the regional environments by affecting evapotranspiration (ET) and other water and energy related processes. Our study focuses on the effects of land-cover change on water and energy processes in the Qinhuai River Basin, a typical subtropical humid region that is under rapid ecological and economical transformations. This study integrates multiple methods and techniques including remote sensing, water and energy balance model (i.e., Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land, SEBAL), ecohydrological model (i.e., Soil and Water Assessment Tool, SWAT), and ground observation (Eddy Covariance measurement, etc.). We found that conversion of paddy rice field to urban use led to rise in vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and reduction in ET, and thus resulted in changes in local and regional water and heat balance. The effects of the land-use change on ET and VPD overwhelmed the effects of regional climate warming and climate variability. We conclude that the ongoing large-scale urbanization of the rice paddy-dominated regions in humid southern China and East Asia will likely exacerbate environmental consequences (e.g., elevated storm-flow volume, aggravated flood risks, and intensified urban heat island and urban dry island effects). The potential role of vegetated land cover in moderating water and energy balances and maintaining a stable climate should be considered in massive urban planning and global change impact assessment in southern China.

  16. Harmonic balancing approach to nonlinear oscillations of a punctual charge in the electric field of charged ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belendez, A.; Fernandez, E.; Rodes, J.J.; Fuentes, R.; Pascual, I.

    2009-01-01

    The harmonic balance method is used to construct approximate frequency-amplitude relations and periodic solutions to an oscillating charge in the electric field of a ring. By combining linearization of the governing equation with the harmonic balance method, we construct analytical approximations to the oscillation frequencies and periodic solutions for the oscillator. To solve the nonlinear differential equation, firstly we make a change of variable and secondly the differential equation is rewritten in a form that does not contain the square-root expression. The approximate frequencies obtained are valid for the complete range of oscillation amplitudes and excellent agreement of the approximate frequencies and periodic solutions with the exact ones are demonstrated and discussed

  17. Signal-processing theory for the TurboRogue receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J. B.

    1995-01-01

    Signal-processing theory for the TurboRogue receiver is presented. The signal form is traced from its formation at the GPS satellite, to the receiver antenna, and then through the various stages of the receiver, including extraction of phase and delay. The analysis treats the effects of ionosphere, troposphere, signal quantization, receiver components, and system noise, covering processing in both the 'code mode' when the P code is not encrypted and in the 'P-codeless mode' when the P code is encrypted. As a possible future improvement to the current analog front end, an example of a highly digital front end is analyzed.

  18. Robust image transmission performed by SPIHT and turbo-codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhdar Moulay Abdelmounaim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the method for providing robustness to errors from a binary symmetric channel for the SPIHT image compression. The source rate and channel rate are jointly optimized by a stream of fixed-size channel packets. Punctured turbo codes are used for the channel coding, providing stronger error protection than previously available codes. We use the most appropriate set of puncturing patterns that ensure the best source rate. The presented rate allocation scheme obtains all necessary information from the SPIHT encoder, without requiring image decompression.

  19. Balancing Control and Complexity in Field Studies of Neonicotinoids and Honey Bee Health

    OpenAIRE

    Suryanarayanan, Sainath

    2013-01-01

    Amidst ongoing declines in honey bee health, the contributory role of the newer systemic insecticides continues to be intensely debated. Scores of toxicological field experiments, which bee scientists and regulators in the United States have looked to for definitive causal evidence, indicate a lack of support. This paper analyzes the methodological norms that shape the design and interpretation of field toxicological studies. I argue that contemporary field studies of honey bees and pesticide...

  20. Thrust load determination for the high pressure turbo unit of the pebble bed micro model / Jacobus Janse van Rensburg

    OpenAIRE

    Janse van Rensburg, Jacobus

    2006-01-01

    Commercial turbochargers used on earth-moving equipment, were used as the turbo machinery for the Pebble Bed Micro Model (PBMM) instead of custom-built turbo units. A premature thrust bearing failure occurred on the High Pressure Turbo Unit (HPTU) of the PBMM during a test. Due to the closed Brayton cycle operation of the PBMM, it might have been possible to exert larger thrust loads on the thrust bearing of the HPTU than normally present in the turbo diesel engine application. ...

  1. Warfighter Physiological Status Monitoring (WPSM): Energy Balance and Thermal Status During a 10-Day Cold Weather U.S. Marine Corps Infantry Officer Course Field Exercise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoyt, Reed

    2001-01-01

    ...) during a 10-day field exercise (FEX) at Quantico, VA. Question: Does intense physical activity, limited sleep, and restricted rations, combined with cold/damp weather, result in excessively negative energy balance and hypothermia? Methods...

  2. Carbon balance of a plastic mulch and drip irrigated cotton field in an arid oasis of Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, G.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon balance of a plastic mulch and drip irrigated cotton field in an arid oasis of Northwest ChinaGuanghui Ming1, Fuqiang Tian1*, Hongchang Hu11State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China,Abstracts: Agricultural ecosystems have the potential to offset rising CO2 concentration in the atmosphere but the potential is often altered by agricultural management. Plastic film mulching and drip irrigation (PMDI) have been widespread for saving water and improving crop yield worldwide. To comprehensively assess the carbon balance and to detect the controlling factors of the carbon flux in a PMDI cotton field, experiments combining eddy covariance (EC) system, chamber method and crop sampling were implemented in an arid oasis of Xinjiang from the year 2012 to 2016. The annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was -250.18 ± 80.41 g C m-2 in the five years, which indicated that the filed was a much stronger carbon sink. After removal of the harvest of cotton as seed oil (Ch) of 108.81±7.57 g C m-2, the field was still a moderate carbon sink with net biome productivity (NBP) of 141.37±73.7 g C m-2. Soil temperature can explain 82% of seasonal variation of nighttime NEE while PAR can explain 36-81% of daytime NEE varying with crop development and photosynthetic activity. NEE was separated into total ecosystem respiration (Reco, 1214.20±144.42 g C m-2) and gross primary productivity (GPP, 1464.38±122.78 g C m-2). Interannual Reco changed more drastically than GPP and respiration may be the main determinant of carbon balance in the PMDI field. Seasonal NPP measured by cop sampling method (NPPCS) agreed well with NPP calculated with EC (NPPEC), with the annual NPP of 708.86 ± 52.26 g C m-2, which indicated that our carbon flux measurements and separating methods reasonable. The PMDI cotton field induced more GPP and Reco than other croplands with larger light use efficiency (LUE) but relatively

  3. A sealed turbo-alternator using any working-fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chollet, Maurice.

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates to a sealed turbo-alternator operating with a working fluid other than water. The turbo-alternator and the feed and lubricating pumps thereof are housed in a sealed casing. The latter constitutes, with the heat pump and the heat sink, a sealed enclosure containing the working and lubricating fluid. The alternator, which comprises neither collector nor brushes, is dipped in the working fluid vapor. Electric energy leaves the sealed enclosure through insulating sealed passager. In view of the absence of leakage it is possible to select (e.g. among freons) a working fluid well suited to the temperature differential between the heat source and the heat sink, and, accordingly to use temperature drops which could be too small in the case of steam. The various applications are as follows: recovery of calories at the exhaust of diesels and of gas turbines or in the cooling water of diesels; equipment of isotopic generators; recovery of calories from factory waste thrown into rivers (anti-pollution effect in view of the lowering of water temperature); non-polluting engine for special electrical vehicles [fr

  4. Turbo-per-Tone Equalization for ADSL Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanhaute Hilde

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the equalization procedure in discrete multitone (DMT-based systems, in particular, in DMT-based ADSL systems. Traditionally, equalization is performed in the time domain by means of a channel shortening filter. Shifting the equalization operations to the frequency domain, as is done in per-tone equalization, increases the achieved bitrate by 5–10%. We show that the application of the turbo principle to per-tone equalization can provide significant additional gains. In the proposed receiver structure, referred to as a "turbo-per-tone equalization" structure, equalization and decoding are performed in an iterative fashion. Equalization is done by means of a linear minimum mean squared error (MMSE equalizer, using a priori information. We give a description of an efficient implementation of such an equalizer in the per-tone structure. Simulations show that we obtain a bitrate increase of 12–16% compared to the original per-tone equalization-based receiver structure.

  5. Field assessment of balance in 10 to 14 year old children, reproducibility and validity of the Nintendo Wii board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Lisbeth Runge; Jørgensen, Martin Grønbech; Junge, Tina; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2014-06-10

    Because body proportions in childhood are different to those in adulthood, children have a relatively higher centre of mass location. This biomechanical difference and the fact that children's movements have not yet fully matured result in different sway performances in children and adults. When assessing static balance, it is essential to use objective, sensitive tools, and these types of measurement have previously been performed in laboratory settings. However, the emergence of technologies like the Nintendo Wii Board (NWB) might allow balance assessment in field settings. As the NWB has only been validated and tested for reproducibility in adults, the purpose of this study was to examine reproducibility and validity of the NWB in a field setting, in a population of children. Fifty-four 10-14 year-olds from the CHAMPS-Study DK performed four different balance tests: bilateral stance with eyes open (1), unilateral stance on dominant (2) and non-dominant leg (3) with eyes open, and bilateral stance with eyes closed (4). Three rounds of the four tests were completed with the NWB and with a force platform (AMTI). To assess reproducibility, an intra-day test-retest design was applied with a two-hour break between sessions. Bland-Altman plots supplemented by Minimum Detectable Change (MDC) and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) demonstrated satisfactory reproducibility for the NWB and the AMTI (MDC: 26.3-28.2%, CCC: 0.76-0.86) using Centre Of Pressure path Length as measurement parameter. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated satisfactory concurrent validity between the NWB and the AMTI, supplemented by satisfactory CCC in all tests (CCC: 0.74-0.87). The ranges of the limits of agreement in the validity study were comparable to the limits of agreement of the reproducibility study. Both NWB and AMTI have satisfactory reproducibility for testing static balance in a population of children. Concurrent validity of NWB compared with AMTI was satisfactory. Furthermore, the

  6. Accurate and balanced anisotropic Gaussian type orbital basis sets for atoms in strong magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wuming; Trickey, S. B.

    2017-12-01

    In high magnetic field calculations, anisotropic Gaussian type orbital (AGTO) basis functions are capable of reconciling the competing demands of the spherically symmetric Coulombic interaction and cylindrical magnetic (B field) confinement. However, the best available a priori procedure for composing highly accurate AGTO sets for atoms in a strong B field [W. Zhu et al., Phys. Rev. A 90, 022504 (2014)] yields very large basis sets. Their size is problematical for use in any calculation with unfavorable computational cost scaling. Here we provide an alternative constructive procedure. It is based upon analysis of the underlying physics of atoms in B fields that allow identification of several principles for the construction of AGTO basis sets. Aided by numerical optimization and parameter fitting, followed by fine tuning of fitting parameters, we devise formulae for generating accurate AGTO basis sets in an arbitrary B field. For the hydrogen iso-electronic sequence, a set depends on B field strength, nuclear charge, and orbital quantum numbers. For multi-electron systems, the basis set formulae also include adjustment to account for orbital occupations. Tests of the new basis sets for atoms H through C (1 ≤ Z ≤ 6) and ions Li+, Be+, and B+, in a wide B field range (0 ≤ B ≤ 2000 a.u.), show an accuracy better than a few μhartree for single-electron systems and a few hundredths to a few mHs for multi-electron atoms. The relative errors are similar for different atoms and ions in a large B field range, from a few to a couple of tens of millionths, thereby confirming rather uniform accuracy across the nuclear charge Z and B field strength values. Residual basis set errors are two to three orders of magnitude smaller than the electronic correlation energies in multi-electron atoms, a signal of the usefulness of the new AGTO basis sets in correlated wavefunction or density functional calculations for atomic and molecular systems in an external strong B field.

  7. Accurate and balanced anisotropic Gaussian type orbital basis sets for atoms in strong magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wuming; Trickey, S B

    2017-12-28

    In high magnetic field calculations, anisotropic Gaussian type orbital (AGTO) basis functions are capable of reconciling the competing demands of the spherically symmetric Coulombic interaction and cylindrical magnetic (B field) confinement. However, the best available a priori procedure for composing highly accurate AGTO sets for atoms in a strong B field [W. Zhu et al., Phys. Rev. A 90, 022504 (2014)] yields very large basis sets. Their size is problematical for use in any calculation with unfavorable computational cost scaling. Here we provide an alternative constructive procedure. It is based upon analysis of the underlying physics of atoms in B fields that allow identification of several principles for the construction of AGTO basis sets. Aided by numerical optimization and parameter fitting, followed by fine tuning of fitting parameters, we devise formulae for generating accurate AGTO basis sets in an arbitrary B field. For the hydrogen iso-electronic sequence, a set depends on B field strength, nuclear charge, and orbital quantum numbers. For multi-electron systems, the basis set formulae also include adjustment to account for orbital occupations. Tests of the new basis sets for atoms H through C (1 ≤ Z ≤ 6) and ions Li + , Be + , and B + , in a wide B field range (0 ≤ B ≤ 2000 a.u.), show an accuracy better than a few μhartree for single-electron systems and a few hundredths to a few mHs for multi-electron atoms. The relative errors are similar for different atoms and ions in a large B field range, from a few to a couple of tens of millionths, thereby confirming rather uniform accuracy across the nuclear charge Z and B field strength values. Residual basis set errors are two to three orders of magnitude smaller than the electronic correlation energies in multi-electron atoms, a signal of the usefulness of the new AGTO basis sets in correlated wavefunction or density functional calculations for atomic and molecular systems in an external strong B

  8. Life Balance - a mindfulness-based mental health promotion program: conceptualization, implementation, compliance and user satisfaction in a field setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyssenko, Lisa; Müller, Gerhard; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Schmahl, Christian; Berger, Mathias; Eifert, Georg; Kölle, Alexander; Nesch, Siegmar; Ommer-Hohl, Jutta; Wenner, Michael; Bohus, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Mental health disorders account for a large percentage of the total burden of illness and constitute a major economic challenge in industrialized countries. Several prevention programs targeted at high-risk or sub-clinical populations have been shown to decrease risk, to increase quality of life, and to be cost-efficient. However, there is a paucity of primary preventive programs aimed at the general adult population. "Life Balance" is a program that employs strategies borrowed from well-established psychotherapeutic approaches, and has been made available to the public in one federal German state by a large health care insurance company. The data presented here are the preliminary findings of an ongoing field trial examining the outcomes of the Life Balance program with regard to emotional distress, life satisfaction, resilience, and public health costs, using a matched control group design. Life Balance courses are held at local health-care centers, in groups of 12 to 15 which are led by laypeople who have been trained on the course materials. Participants receive instruction on mindfulness and metacognitive awareness, and are assigned exercises to practice at home. Over an 8-month period in 2013-2014, all individuals who signed up for the program were invited at the time of enrollment to take part in a study involving the provision of psychometric data and of feedback on the course. A control group of subjects was invited to complete the questionnaires on psychometric data but did not receive any intervention. Of 4,898 adults who attended Life Balance courses over the specified period, 1,813 (37.0 %) provided evaluable study data. The average age of study participants was 49.5 years, and 83 % were female. At baseline, participants' self-reported symptoms of depression and anxiety, life satisfaction, and resilience were significantly higher than those seen in the general German population. Overall, evaluations of the course were positive, and 83 % of participants

  9. Urbanization dramatically altered the water balances of a paddy field dominated basin in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. Hao; G. Sun; Y. Liu; J. Wan; M. Qin; H. Qian; C. Liu; R. John; P. Fan; J. Chen

    2015-01-01

    Rice paddy fields provide important ecosystem services (e.g., food production, water retention, carbon sequestration) to a large population globally. However, these benefits are declining as a result of rapid environmental and socioeconomic transformations characterized by population growth, urbanization, and climate change in many Asian countries. This case study...

  10. A Two-Mode Mean-Field Optimal Switching Problem for the Full Balance Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boualem Djehiche

    2014-01-01

    a two-mode optimal switching problem of mean-field type, which can be described by a system of Snell envelopes where the obstacles are interconnected and nonlinear. The main result of the paper is a proof of a continuous minimal solution to the system of Snell envelopes, as well as the full characterization of the optimal switching strategy.

  11. Balanced and optimal bianisotropic particles: maximizing power extracted from electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ra'di, Younes; Tretyakov, Sergei A

    2013-01-01

    Here we introduce the concept of ‘optimal particles’ for strong interactions with electromagnetic fields. We assume that a particle occupies a given electrically small volume in space and study the required optimal relations between the particle polarizabilities. In these optimal particles, the inclusion shape and material are chosen so that the particles extract the maximum possible power from given incident fields. It appears that for different excitation scenarios the optimal particles are bianisotropic chiral, omega, moving and Tellegen particles. The optimal dimensions of resonant canonical chiral and omega particles are found analytically. Such optimal particles have extreme properties in scattering (e.g., zero backscattering or invisibility). Planar arrays of optimal particles possess extreme properties in reflection and transmission (e.g. total absorption or magnetic-wall response), and volumetric composites of optimal particles realize, for example, such extreme materials as the chiral nihility medium. (paper)

  12. Proposal of a Model for Balancing Resources between Projects in the Electromagnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindvall, G.; Wiss, A.

    2002-02-01

    The authors propose a model for allocation of funds between existing and proposed projects within the research field named 'Electromagnetic weapons and protection.' Central parts in the model are zero-base budgeting connected to a so called 'research ladder,' identification of influence factors and matrices used in statistics and decision theory. The model is to be verified during the spring of 2002, after which a revised version of this report will be published.

  13. Heat production and energy balance in nanoscale engines driven by time-dependent fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrachea, Liliana; Moskalets, Michael; Martin-Moreno, Luis

    2007-06-01

    We present a formalism to study the heat transport and the power developed by the local driving fields on a quantum system coupled to macroscopic reservoirs. We show that, quite generally, two important mechanisms can take place: (i) directed heat transport between reservoirs induced by the ac potentials, and (ii) at slow driving, two oscillating out of phase forces perform work against each other, while the energy dissipated into the reservoirs is negligible.

  14. Balancing Control and Complexity in Field Studies of Neonicotinoids and Honey Bee Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sainath Suryanarayanan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Amidst ongoing declines in honey bee health, the contributory role of the newer systemic insecticides continues to be intensely debated. Scores of toxicological field experiments, which bee scientists and regulators in the United States have looked to for definitive causal evidence, indicate a lack of support. This paper analyzes the methodological norms that shape the design and interpretation of field toxicological studies. I argue that contemporary field studies of honey bees and pesticides are underpinned by a “control-oriented” approach, which precludes a serious investigation of the indirect and multifactorial ways in which pesticides could drive declines in honey bee health. I trace the historical rise to prominence of this approach in honey bee toxicology to the development of entomology as a science of insecticide development in the United States. Drawing on “complexity-oriented” knowledge practices in ecology, epidemiology, beekeeping and sociology, I suggest an alternative socio-ecological systems approach, which would entail in situ studies that are less concerned with isolating individual factors and more attentive to the interactive and place-based mix of factors affecting honey bee health.

  15. Balancing Control and Complexity in Field Studies of Neonicotinoids and Honey Bee Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanarayanan, Sainath

    2013-03-05

    Amidst ongoing declines in honey bee health, the contributory role of the newer systemic insecticides continues to be intensely debated. Scores of toxicological field experiments, which bee scientists and regulators in the United States have looked to for definitive causal evidence, indicate a lack of support. This paper analyzes the methodological norms that shape the design and interpretation of field toxicological studies. I argue that contemporary field studies of honey bees and pesticides are underpinned by a "control-oriented" approach, which precludes a serious investigation of the indirect and multifactorial ways in which pesticides could drive declines in honey bee health. I trace the historical rise to prominence of this approach in honey bee toxicology to the development of entomology as a science of insecticide development in the United States. Drawing on "complexity-oriented" knowledge practices in ecology, epidemiology, beekeeping and sociology, I suggest an alternative socio-ecological systems approach, which would entail in situ studies that are less concerned with isolating individual factors and more attentive to the interactive and place-based mix of factors affecting honey bee health.

  16. Carbon dioxide emissions and energy balance closure before, during, and after biomass burning in mid-South rice fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, B.; Adviento-Borbe, A.; Reba, M. L.; Runkle, B.; Suvocarev, K.

    2017-12-01

    Biomass burning or field burning is a crop management practice that removes rice straw, reduces tillage, controls pests and releases nutrients for the next cropping season. Current field burning emissions are not included in agricultural field annual emissions largely because of the lack of studies, especially on the field scale. Field burning measurements are important for greenhouse gas emission inventories and quantifying the annual carbon footprint of rice. Paired eddy covariance systems were used to measure energy balance, CO2 fluxes, and H2O fluxes in mid-South US rice fields (total area of 25 ha) before, during and after biomass burning for 20 days after harvest. During the biomass burning, air temperatures increased 29°C, while ambient CO2 concentration increased from 402 to 16,567 ppm and H2O concentrations increased from 18.73 to 25.62 ppt. For the burning period, 67-86 kg CO2 ha-1 period-1 was emitted calculated by integrating fluxes over the biomass burning event. However, the estimated emission using aboveground biomass and combustion factors was calculated as 11,733 kg CO2 ha-1 period-1. Part of the difference could be attributed to sensor sensitivity decreasing 80% during burning for two minutes due to smoke. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) increased by a factor of two, 1.14 before burning to 2.44 μmol m-2 s-1 possibly due to greater reduction of plant material and photosynthesis following burning. This study highlights the contribution of rice straw burning to total CO2 emissions from rice production.

  17. Analyses on the Performance and Interaction Between the Impeller and Casing in a Small-Size Turbo-Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youn-Jea; Kim, Dong-Won

    The effects of casing shapes on the performance and the interaction between an impeller and a casing in a small-size turbo-compressor are investigated. Numerical analysis is conducted for the turbo-compressor with circular and single volute casings from the inlet to a discharge nozzle. The optimum design for each element is important to develop the small-size turbo-compressor using alternative refrigerant as a working fluid. Typically, the rotating speed of the compressor is in the range of 40000-45000rpm because of the small size of an impeller diameter. A blade of an impeller has backswept two-dimensional shape due to tip clearance and a vane diffuser has wedge type. In order to predict the flow pattern inside the entire impeller, the vaneless diffuser and the casing, calculations with multiple frames of reference method between the rotating and stationery parts of the domain are carried out. For compressible turbulent flow fields, the continuity and time-averaged three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are employed. To evaluate the performance of two types of casings, the static pressure recovery and loss coefficients are obtained with various flow rates. Also, static pressure distributions around casings are studied for different casing shapes, which are very important to predict the distribution of radial load. To prove the accuracy of numerical results, measurements of static pressure around the casing and pressure difference between the inlet and the outlet of the compressor are performed for the circular casing. The comparison of experimental and numerical results is conducted, and reasonable agreement is obtained.

  18. SYMBOL LEVEL DECODING FOR DUO-BINARY TURBO CODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Beeharry

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the performance of three different symbol level decoding algorithms for Duo-Binary Turbo codes. Explicit details of the computations involved in the three decoding techniques, and a computational complexity analysis are given. Simulation results with different couple lengths, code-rates, and QPSK modulation reveal that the symbol level decoding with bit-level information outperforms the symbol level decoding by 0.1 dB on average in the error floor region. Moreover, a complexity analysis reveals that symbol level decoding with bit-level information reduces the decoding complexity by 19.6 % in terms of the total number of computations required for each half-iteration as compared to symbol level decoding.

  19. Multiobjective Design of Turbo Injection Mode for Axial Flux Motor in Plastic Injection Molding Machine by Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Long Kuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a turbo injection mode (TIM for an axial flux motor to apply onto injection molding machine. Since the injection molding machine requires different speed and force parameters setting when finishing a complete injection process. The interleaved winding structure in the motor provides two different injection levels to provide enough injection forces. Two wye-wye windings are designed to switch two control modes conveniently. Wye-wye configuration is used to switch two force levels for the motor. When only one set of wye-winding is energized, field weakening function is achieved. Both of the torque and speed increase under field weakening operation. To achieve two control objectives for torque and speed of the motor, fuzzy based multiple performance characteristics index (MPCI with particle swarm optimization (PSO is used to find out the multiobjective optimal design solution. Both of the torque and speed are expected to be maximal at the same time. Three control factors are selected as studied factors: winding diameter, winding type, and air-gap. Experimental results show that both of the torque and speed increase under the optimal condition. This will provide enough large torque and speed to perform the turbo injection mode in injection process for the injection molding machine.

  20. Design and Development of a 200-kW Turbo-Electric Distributed Propulsion Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathakis, Kurt V.

    2017-01-01

    There a few NASA funded electric and hybrid electric projects from different NASA Centers, including the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) (Edwards, California). Each project identifies a specific technology gap that is currently inhibiting the growth and proliferation of relevant technologies in commercial aviation. This paper describes the design and development of a turbo-electric distributed propulsion (TeDP) hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation bench, which is a test bed for discovering turbo-electric control, distributed electric control, power management control, and integration competencies while providing risk mitigation for future turbo-electric flying demonstrators.

  1. Rate-adaptive Constellation Shaping for Near-capacity Achieving Turbo Coded BICM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Forchhammer, Søren; Larsen, Knud J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the problem of constellation shaping is considered. Mapping functions are designed for a many- to-one signal shaping strategy, combined with a turbo coded Bit-interleaved Coded Modulation (BICM), based on symmetric Huffman codes with binary reflected Gray-like properties. An algorithm...... quality estimation. Gains of more than 1dB are observed for high SNR compared to conventional turbo coded BICM, and it is shown that the mapping functions designed here significantly outperform current state of the art Turbo- Trellis Coded Modulation and other existing constellation shaping methods...

  2. The Turbo-Fuel-Cell 1.0 - family concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, H. P.; Himmelberg, A.; Lehmann, M.; Dückershoff, R.; Neumann, M.

    2018-01-01

    The “Turbo-Fuel-Cell-Technology” has been described as a MGT-SOFC hybrid system consisting of a recuperated micro gas turbine (MGT) process with an embedded solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) subsystem. SOFC stacks are connected to “SOFC stack grapes” and are equipped with the so called HEXAR-Module. This module is composed of a high-temperature heat exchanger (HEX), an afterburner (A) and a steam reformer (R). The MGT-concept is based on a generator driven directly by the turbomachine and a recuperator, which returns the exhaust heat to the pressurized compressor outlet air. This provides the necessary base for a highly effective, pure MGT process and the “MGT-SOFC-high-efficiency process”. This paper describes the concept and the thermodynamic background of a highly effective and compact design of the “Turbo-Fuel-Cell 1.0-Family” in the electrical performance class from 100 to 500 kW. The technological state of the system is shown and a rating of the system with comparative parameters is discussed. It becomes visible that all necessary basic technologies should be available and that the technology (for stationary applications) can have the “entry into services (E.I.S.)” in the next 10 years. The MGT-SOFC performance map under different operation conditions is discussed. This article also provides an overview of the research on MGT-SOFC-Systems and the scenario of an energy supply network and a mobile energy conversion of the future introduction.

  3. Considerations on 'Harmonic balancing approach to nonlinear oscillations of a punctual charge in the electric field of charged ring'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belendez, A.; Fernandez, E.; Rodes, J.J.; Fuentes, R.; Pascual, I.

    2009-01-01

    In a previous short communication [A. Belendez, E. Fernandez, J.J. Rodes, R. Fuentes, I. Pascual, Phys. Lett. A 373 (2009) 735] the nonlinear oscillations of a punctual charge in the electric field of a charged ring were analyzed. Approximate frequency-amplitude relations and periodic solutions were obtained using the harmonic balance method. Now we clarify an important aspect about of this oscillation charge. Taking into account Earnshaw's theorem, this punctual charge cannot be a free charge and so it must be confined, for example, on a finite conducting wire placed along the axis of the ring. Then, the oscillatory system may consist of a punctual charge on a conducting wire placed along the axis of the uniformly charged ring.

  4. Numerical analysis of the static performance of an annular aerostatic gas thrust bearing applied in the cryogenic turbo-expander of the EAST subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Tianwei; Fu, Bao; Chen, Shuangtao; Zhang, Qiyong; Hou, Yu

    2017-02-01

    The EAST superconducting tokamak, an advanced steady-state plasma physics experimental device, has been built at the Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All the toroidal field magnets and poloidal field magnets, made of NbTi/Cu cable-in-conduit conductor, are cooled with forced flow supercritical helium at 3.8 K. The cryogenic system of EAST consists of a 2 kW/4 K helium refrigerator and a helium distribution system for the cooling of coils, structures, thermal shields, bus-lines, etc. The high-speed turbo-expander is an important refrigerating component of the EAST cryogenic system. In the turbo-expander, the axial supporting technology is critical for the smooth operation of the rotor bearing system. In this paper, hydrostatic thrust bearings are designed based on the axial load of the turbo-expander. Thereafter, a computational fluid dynamics-based numerical model of the aerostatic thrust bearing is set up to evaluate the bearing performance. Tilting effect on the pressure distribution and bearing load is analyzed for the thrust bearing. Bearing load and stiffness are compared with different static supply pressures. The net force from the thrust bearings can be calculated for different combinations of bearing clearance and supply pressure.

  5. [Soil respiration and carbon balance in wheat field under conservation tillage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sai; Wang, Long-Chang; Huang, Zhao-Cun; Jia, Hui-Juan; Ran, Chun-Yan

    2014-06-01

    In order to study the characteristics of carbon sources and sinks in the winter wheat farmland ecosystem in southwest hilly region of China, the LI6400-09 respiratory chamber was adopted in the experiment conducted in the experimental field in Southwest University in Chongqing. The soil respiration and plant growth dynamics were analyzed during the growth period of wheat in the triple intercropping system of wheat-maize-soybean. Four treatments including T (traditional tillage), R (ridge tillage), TS (traditional tillage + straw mulching), and RS (ridge tillage + straw mulching) were designed. Root biomass regression (RR) and root exclusion (RE) were used to compare the contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration. The results showed that the average soil respiration rate was 1.71 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1) with a variation of 0.62-2.91 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1). Significant differences in soil respiration rate were detected among different treatments. The average soil respiration rate of T, R, TS and RS were 1.29, 1.59, 1.99 and 1.96 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1), respectively. R treatment did not increase the soil respiration rate significantly until the jointing stage. Straw mulching treatment significantly increased soil respiration, with a steadily high rate during the whole growth period. During the 169 days of growth, the total soil respiration was 2 266.82, 2799.52, 3 483.73 and 3 443.89 kg x hm(-2) while the cumulative aboveground biomasses were 51 800.84, 59 563.20, 66 015.37 and 7 1331.63 kg x hm(-2). Compared with the control, the yield of R, TS and RS increased by 14.99%, 27.44% and 37.70%, respectively. The contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration was 47.05% by RBR, while it was 53.97% by RE. In the early growth period, the carbon source was weak. The capacity of carbon sink started to increase at the jointing stage and reached the maximum during the filling stage. The carbon budget of wheat field was 5 924.512, 6743.807, 8350

  6. Soil nitrogen balance under wastewater management: Field measurements and simulation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocleous, M.; Townsend, M.A.; Vocasek, F.; Ma, Liwang; KC, A.

    2009-01-01

    The use of treated wastewater for irrigation of crops could result in high nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) concentrations in the vadose zone and ground water. The goal of this 2-yr field-monitoring study in the deep silty clay loam soils south of Dodge City, Kansas, was to assess how and under what circumstances N from the secondary-treated, wastewater-irrigated corn reached the deep (20-45 m) water table of the underlying High Plains aquifer and what could be done to minimize this problem. We collected 15.2-m-deep soil cores for characterization of physical and chemical properties; installed neutron probe access tubes to measure soil-water content and suction lysimeters to sample soil water periodically; sampled monitoring, irrigation, and domestic wells in the area; and obtained climatic, crop, irrigation, and N application rate records for two wastewater-irrigated study sites. These data and additional information were used to run the Root Zone Water Quality Model to identify key parameters and processes that influence N losses in the study area. We demonstrated that NO3-N transport processes result in significant accumulations of N in the vadose zone and that NO3-N in the underlying ground water is increasing with time. Root Zone Water Quality Model simulations for two wastewater-irrigated study sites indicated that reducing levels of corn N fertilization by more than half to 170 kg ha-1 substantially increases N-use efficiency and achieves near-maximum crop yield. Combining such measures with a crop rotation that includes alfalfa should further reduce the accumulation and downward movement of NO3-N in the soil profile. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  7. The research of atmospheric 2D optical PPM CDMA system with turbo coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiuli; Li, Zaoxia

    2007-11-01

    The atmospheric two-dimensional optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems using pulse-position modulation (PPM) and Turbo-coded were presented. We analyzed the bit-error rate (BER) of the proposed system using pulse-position modulation (PPM) with considering the effects of the scintillation, avalanche photodiode noise, thermal noise, and multi-user interference. We showed that the atmospheric two dimensional (2D) optical PPM CDMA systems can realize high-speed communications when the logarithm variance of the scintillation is less than 0.1, and the turbo-coded atmospheric optical CDMA system has better bit error rate(BER) performance than the atmospheric optical PPM CDMA systems without turbo-coded. We also showed that the turbo-coded system has better performance than the multi-user detection system.

  8. Genotypic variation in grain P loading across diverse rice growing environments and implications for field P balances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Vandamme

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available More than 60% of phosphorus (P taken up by rice (Oryza spp is accumulated in the grains at harvest and hence exported from fields, leading to a continuous removal of P. If P removed from fields is not replaced by P inputs then soil P stocks decline, with consequences for subsequent crops. Breeding rice genotypes with a low concentration of P in the grains could be a strategy to reduce maintenance fertilizer needs and slow soil P depletion in low input systems. This study aimed to assess variation in grain P concentrations among rice genotypes across diverse environments and evaluate the implications for field P balances at various grain yield levels. Multi-location screening experiments were conducted at different sites across Africa and Asia and yield components and grain P concentrations were determined at harvest. Genotypic variation in grain P concentration was evaluated while considering differences in P supply and grain yield using cluster analysis to group environments and boundary line analysis to determine minimum grain P concentrations at various yield levels. Average grain P concentrations across genotypes varied almost 3-fold among environments, from 1.4 to 3.9 mg g-1. Minimum grain P concentrations associated with grain yields of 150, 300 and 500 g m-2 varied between 1.2 and 1.7, 1.3 and 1.8 and 1.7 and 2.2 mg g-1 among genotypes respectively. Two genotypes, Santhi Sufaid and DJ123, were identified as potential donors for low grain P concentration. Improvements in P balances that could be achieved by exploiting this genotypic variation are in the range of less than 0.10 g P m-2 (1 kg P ha-1 in low yielding systems, and 0.15 to 0.50 g P m-2 (1.5-5.0 kg P ha-1 in higher yielding systems. Improved crop management and alternative breeding approaches may be required to achieve larger reductions in grain P concentrations in rice.

  9. Effect of elastically inertial properties of turbo-unit stator parts on foundation vibrational characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shul'zhenko, N.G.; Biletchenko, V.P.

    1994-01-01

    Numerical solution of the problem on vibrations of the system including low pressure cylinder casing and frame foundation of high-power turbo-unit is discussed. The foundation is casing is taking into account by coefficients of dynamic rigidities. The results of the system calculation obtained using experimental characteristics of turbo-unit cylinder casing are given. The characteristics effect on foundation vibrational displacements is shown

  10. Improving 3D-Turbo Code's BER Performance with a BICM System over Rayleigh Fading Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Classical Turbo code suffers from high error floor due to its small Minimum Hamming Distance (MHD. Newly-proposed 3D-Turbo code can effectively increase the MHD and achieve a lower error floor by adding a rate-1 post encoder. In 3D-Turbo codes, part of the parity bits from the classical Turbo encoder are further encoded through the post encoder. In this paper, a novel Bit-Interleaved Coded Modulation (BICM system is proposed by combining rotated mapping Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM and 3D-Turbo code to improve the Bit Error Rate (BER performance of 3D-Turbo code over Raleigh fading channel. A key-bit protection scheme and a Two-Dimension (2D iterative soft demodulating-decoding algorithm are developed for the proposed BICM system. Simulation results show that the proposed system can obtain about 0.8-1.0 dB gain at BER of 10^{-6}, compared with the existing BICM system with Gray mapping QAM.

  11. Weight Distributions for Turbo Codes Using Random and Nonrandom Permutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinar, S.; Divsalar, D.

    1995-04-01

    This article takes a preliminary look at the weight distributions achievable for turbo codes using random, nonrandom, and semirandom permutations. Due to the recursiveness of the encoders, it is important to distinguish between self-terminating and non-self-terminating input sequences. The non-self-terminating sequences have little effect on decoder performance, because they accumulate high encoded weight until they are artificially terminated at the end of the block. From probabilistic arguments based on selecting the permutations randomly, it is concluded that the self-terminating weight-2 data sequences are the most important consideration in the design of the constituent codes; higher-weight self-terminating sequences have successively decreasing importance. Also, increasing the number of codes and, correspondingly, the number of permutations makes it more and more likely that the bad input sequences will be broken up by one or more of the permuters. It is possible to design nonrandom permutations that ensure that the minimum distance due to weight-2 input sequences grows roughly as p 2N, where N is the block length. However, these nonrandom permutations amplify the bad effects of higher-weight inputs, and as a result they are inferior in performance to randomly selected permutations. But there are "semirandom" permutations that perform nearly as well as the designed nonrandom permutations with respect to weight-2 input sequences and are not as susceptible to being foiled by higher-weight inputs.

  12. The Habitat of Yellow Mouth Turban Turbo Chrysostomus, Linnaeus, 1758

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soekendarsi, E.

    2018-03-01

    In general, yellow mouth turban snail Turbo chrysostomus L. 1758 was found in intertidal and coral reef area. This animal is active at night (nocturnal) and settles the coral reef-flats area to do its activity as substrate. In doing its activity, yellow mouth turban snail can be found in the depth of 50 cm until 4 m of tidal area. The adult yellow mouth turban snails are found in great number at intertidal area’s border and at coastal area of coral reef-flats. Methodology that was used in this study is visual analysis (descriptive method), and divided into two parameters which were observed, i.e. abiotic and biotic. Abiotic components that were measured are; Oxygen (ppm), pH, Water Temperature (°C), Salinity (ppm), Ammonia (mg/L), Nitrate (mg/L), Nitrite (mg/L), and Calsium Carbonat (mg/L).Whereas, biotic components that were measured are; substrates, seaweeds, other organisms, and epilithon. The observation’s result of yellow mouth turban snail’s environmental condition showed: abiotic condition of the waters consists of oxygen 3-5 ppm, seawater pH 7-8, seawater temperature 23-26°C, and the salinity of 32-33 ppm. The Habitat of yellow mouth turban snail settled the reef-flats area that is overgrown covered by seaweed Sargassum sp. as the place to do its activity.

  13. Signatures of the midnight open-closed magnetic field line boundary during balanced dayside and nightside reconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson

    Full Text Available The geomagnetic conditions were moderately disturbed (Kp = 2 during magnetic midnight on 10 December 1999, when the Tasman International Geospace Environment Radar (TIGER, a Southern Hemisphere HF SuperDARN radar, observed a persistent, sharp latitudinal decrease (~ 90 km in spectral width near - 69°L. The line-of-sight Doppler velocity also rapidly declined across this spectral width boundary (SWB. The region poleward of the SWB was characterized by high spectral widths (>200 m/s, and the start of bursty equatorward and eastward flows (>500 m/s, which rapidly expanded equatorward. The relationships between familiar ionospheric and magnetospheric regions were inferred by comparing TIGER data with spectrograms calculated from precipitating particles measured on board the Defence Meteorology Satellite Program (DMSP F14 satellite. The high spectral width scatter is often observed, and on this evening it was associated with irregularities forming on the open (but soon to be reconnected field lines threading the polar cap ionosphere to the southern tail lobe. The region equatorward of the SWB was characterized by very low spectral widths (<50 m/s and generally slower, more zonal flows (<300 m/s. This kind of scatter is more transient, and was associated with irregularities residing on the closed field lines threading the discrete and diffuse auroral oval to the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL and central plasma sheet (CPS. Hence, the SWB was a reasonable proxy for the open-closed field line boundary, and the equatorward limit of the region, with low spectral width, was probably aligned with the poleward wall of the main ionospheric trough. The SWB was observed to contract poleward and expand equatorward on time scales of ~10 min, much as would be expected during balanced dayside and nightside reconnection. Total electron content (TEC measurements made at Macquarie Island (- 65°

  14. Signatures of the midnight open-closed magnetic field line boundary during balanced dayside and nightside reconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The geomagnetic conditions were moderately disturbed (Kp = 2 during magnetic midnight on 10 December 1999, when the Tasman International Geospace Environment Radar (TIGER, a Southern Hemisphere HF SuperDARN radar, observed a persistent, sharp latitudinal decrease (~ 90 km in spectral width near - 69°L. The line-of-sight Doppler velocity also rapidly declined across this spectral width boundary (SWB. The region poleward of the SWB was characterized by high spectral widths (>200 m/s, and the start of bursty equatorward and eastward flows (>500 m/s, which rapidly expanded equatorward. The relationships between familiar ionospheric and magnetospheric regions were inferred by comparing TIGER data with spectrograms calculated from precipitating particles measured on board the Defence Meteorology Satellite Program (DMSP F14 satellite. The high spectral width scatter is often observed, and on this evening it was associated with irregularities forming on the open (but soon to be reconnected field lines threading the polar cap ionosphere to the southern tail lobe. The region equatorward of the SWB was characterized by very low spectral widths (<50 m/s and generally slower, more zonal flows (<300 m/s. This kind of scatter is more transient, and was associated with irregularities residing on the closed field lines threading the discrete and diffuse auroral oval to the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL and central plasma sheet (CPS. Hence, the SWB was a reasonable proxy for the open-closed field line boundary, and the equatorward limit of the region, with low spectral width, was probably aligned with the poleward wall of the main ionospheric trough. The SWB was observed to contract poleward and expand equatorward on time scales of ~10 min, much as would be expected during balanced dayside and nightside reconnection. Total electron content (TEC measurements made at Macquarie Island (- 65°L and Hobart (- 54°L, and the ionograms recorded at the same stations

  15. A Proposed Chaotic-Switched Turbo Coding Design and Its Application for Half-Duplex Relay Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer H. M. Soliman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Both reliability and security are two important subjects in modern digital communications, each with a variety of subdisciplines. In this paper we introduce a new proposed secure turbo coding system which combines chaotic dynamics and turbo coding reliability together. As we utilize the chaotic maps as a tool for hiding and securing the coding design in turbo coding system, this proposed system model can provide both data secrecy and data reliability in one process to combat problems in an insecure and unreliable data channel link. To support our research, we provide different schemes to design a chaotic secure reliable turbo coding system which we call chaotic-switched turbo coding schemes. In these schemes the design of turbo codes chaotically changed depending on one or more chaotic maps. Extensions of these chaotic-switched turbo coding schemes to half-duplex relay systems are also described. Results of simulations of these new secure turbo coding schemes are compared to classical turbo codes with the same coding parameters and the proposed system is able to achieve secured reasonable bit error rate performance when it is made to switch between different puncturing and design configuration parameters especially with low switching rates.

  16. Turbo-SMT: Parallel Coupled Sparse Matrix-Tensor Factorizations and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexakis, Evangelos E.; Faloutsos, Christos; Mitchell, Tom M.; Talukdar, Partha Pratim; Sidiropoulos, Nicholas D.; Murphy, Brian

    2016-01-01

    How can we correlate the neural activity in the human brain as it responds to typed words, with properties of these terms (like ’edible’, ’fits in hand’)? In short, we want to find latent variables, that jointly explain both the brain activity, as well as the behavioral responses. This is one of many settings of the Coupled Matrix-Tensor Factorization (CMTF) problem. Can we enhance any CMTF solver, so that it can operate on potentially very large datasets that may not fit in main memory? We introduce Turbo-SMT, a meta-method capable of doing exactly that: it boosts the performance of any CMTF algorithm, produces sparse and interpretable solutions, and parallelizes any CMTF algorithm, producing sparse and interpretable solutions (up to 65 fold). Additionally, we improve upon ALS, the work-horse algorithm for CMTF, with respect to efficiency and robustness to missing values. We apply Turbo-SMT to BrainQ, a dataset consisting of a (nouns, brain voxels, human subjects) tensor and a (nouns, properties) matrix, with coupling along the nouns dimension. Turbo-SMT is able to find meaningful latent variables, as well as to predict brain activity with competitive accuracy. Finally, we demonstrate the generality of Turbo-SMT, by applying it on a Facebook dataset (users, ’friends’, wall-postings); there, Turbo-SMT spots spammer-like anomalies. PMID:27672406

  17. Turbo-SMT: Parallel Coupled Sparse Matrix-Tensor Factorizations and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexakis, Evangelos E; Faloutsos, Christos; Mitchell, Tom M; Talukdar, Partha Pratim; Sidiropoulos, Nicholas D; Murphy, Brian

    2016-08-01

    How can we correlate the neural activity in the human brain as it responds to typed words, with properties of these terms (like 'edible', 'fits in hand')? In short, we want to find latent variables, that jointly explain both the brain activity, as well as the behavioral responses. This is one of many settings of the Coupled Matrix-Tensor Factorization (CMTF) problem. Can we enhance any CMTF solver, so that it can operate on potentially very large datasets that may not fit in main memory? We introduce Turbo-SMT, a meta-method capable of doing exactly that: it boosts the performance of any CMTF algorithm, produces sparse and interpretable solutions, and parallelizes any CMTF algorithm, producing sparse and interpretable solutions (up to 65 fold ). Additionally, we improve upon ALS, the work-horse algorithm for CMTF, with respect to efficiency and robustness to missing values. We apply Turbo-SMT to BrainQ, a dataset consisting of a (nouns, brain voxels, human subjects) tensor and a (nouns, properties) matrix, with coupling along the nouns dimension. Turbo-SMT is able to find meaningful latent variables, as well as to predict brain activity with competitive accuracy. Finally, we demonstrate the generality of Turbo-SMT, by applying it on a Facebook dataset (users, 'friends', wall-postings); there, Turbo-SMT spots spammer-like anomalies.

  18. Robust wireless video transmission employing byte-aligned variable-length turbo code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, ChangWoo; Kim, JongWon

    2002-01-01

    Video transmission over the multi-path fading wireless channel has to overcome the inherent vulnerability of compressed video to the channel errors. To effectively prevent the corruption of video stream and its propagation in spatial and temporal domain, proactive error controls are widely being deployed. Among possible candidates, turbo code is known to exhibit superior error correction performance over fading channel. Ordinary turbo codes, however, are not suitable to support the variable-size segment of the video stream. A version of turbo code, byte-aligned variable-length turbo code, is thus proposed and applied for the robust video transmission system. Protection performance of the proposed turbo code is evaluated by applying it to GOB-based variable-size ITU-T H.263+ video packets, where the protection level is controlled based on the joint source-channel criteria. The resulting performance comparison with the conventional RCPC code clearly demonstrates the possibility of the proposed approach for the time-varying correlated Rayleigh-fading channel.

  19. Simulation of nitrogen balance of maize field under different drainage strategies using the DRAINMOD-N model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sadek, A.; Feyen, J.; Ragab, R.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' Denitrification is the process by which nitrate-nitrogen is converted to nitrogen gas by soil microorganisms when soil oxygen is low or absent. The process of denitrification is important in preventing high agriculture-source nitrate loads from entering and polluting rivers. The aim of the research was to examine if the NO3-N concentration in drain water of agricultural fields can be kept below the EU limit of 11.3 mg l -1 by controlling the denitrification process through management of the water table level. As such the research focused on the determination of the exact denitrification amount to achieve both, limitation of the NO3-N leaching and optimisation of the nitrogen-nitrate uptake by the crop. The method used in this study is based on the nitrogen version of DRAINMOD model. This model was used to simulate the performance of the drainage system using two drainage strategies (conventional and controlled) at the Hooibeekhoeve experiment, situated in the sandy region of the Kempen (Belgium), and this for a 14-year (1985-1998) period. In the analysis a continuous cropping with maize was assumed. Daily NO3-N losses were predicted for a range of drain spacings. The study illustrated that the denitrification process has a very strong impact on the amount of nitrate that can be leached to ground and surface waters. The results have also shown that if the water table elevation is properly controlled, one should be able to strike the delicate balance between our need for maximum yield production and a minimum hazard to our environment. (author)

  20. Condition monitoring of steam turbo generators of captive power plant at HWP (Manuguru) through vibration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnareddy, G.; Chandramouli, M.; Gupta, R.V.

    2002-01-01

    Turbo Generator is a critical equipment in steam based power plant circuit. Any failure causes loss of production and hence as applicable to Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru, it results in loss of heavy water production as the captive power plant at Manuguru is solely designed to supply steam and power to Main Plant, which is meant for production of heavy water. Thereby condition monitoring is very much essential and required as part of predictive maintenance program for the turbo generators which are in continuous operation. This paper focuses on identification of the turbo generator system through vibration spectrum, characterising and differentiating the fault mechanisms, trending the faults through changes in vibration spectrums and orbit plots and subsequently planning for corrective actions/measures after evaluating the changes in machine conditions

  1. The experimental study on efficiency improvement of turbo machinery supported with magnetic bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, In Hwang; Park, Young Ho; Han, Dong Chul

    2007-01-01

    To implement a conventional electromagnetic bearing in small turbo machinery, it has problems such as load capacity and size. Therefore, in this paper, these problems are resolved by using a permanent magnet biased electromagnetic bearing as a thrust bearing of small turbo machinery. Because the flux path of the bearing is designed by reluctance path modulation using an electromagnet and a permanent magnet, the bearing improves upon non-linearity, power consumption, size and load capacity of a conventional electromagnetic bearing. Test rotating the shaft over 500,000DN were carried out to verify the performance of the proposed small turbo machinery. In addition, the relationships between mass flow rate and pressure rise were measured as changing the tip clearance to verify the feasibility of efficiency improvement and active surge control and these results were compared with theoretical results

  2. TurboFold: Iterative probabilistic estimation of secondary structures for multiple RNA sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Gaurav

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prediction of secondary structure, i.e. the set of canonical base pairs between nucleotides, is a first step in developing an understanding of the function of an RNA sequence. The most accurate computational methods predict conserved structures for a set of homologous RNA sequences. These methods usually suffer from high computational complexity. In this paper, TurboFold, a novel and efficient method for secondary structure prediction for multiple RNA sequences, is presented. Results TurboFold takes, as input, a set of homologous RNA sequences and outputs estimates of the base pairing probabilities for each sequence. The base pairing probabilities for a sequence are estimated by combining intrinsic information, derived from the sequence itself via the nearest neighbor thermodynamic model, with extrinsic information, derived from the other sequences in the input set. For a given sequence, the extrinsic information is computed by using pairwise-sequence-alignment-based probabilities for co-incidence with each of the other sequences, along with estimated base pairing probabilities, from the previous iteration, for the other sequences. The extrinsic information is introduced as free energy modifications for base pairing in a partition function computation based on the nearest neighbor thermodynamic model. This process yields updated estimates of base pairing probability. The updated base pairing probabilities in turn are used to recompute extrinsic information, resulting in the overall iterative estimation procedure that defines TurboFold. TurboFold is benchmarked on a number of ncRNA datasets and compared against alternative secondary structure prediction methods. The iterative procedure in TurboFold is shown to improve estimates of base pairing probability with each iteration, though only small gains are obtained beyond three iterations. Secondary structures composed of base pairs with estimated probabilities higher than a

  3. ABB Turbo advanced fuel for application in System 80 family of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karoutas, Z.E.; Dixon, D.J.; Shapiro, N.L.

    1998-01-01

    ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Operations (ABB CE) has developed an Advanced Fuel Design, tailored to the Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) environment. This Advanced Fuel Design called Turbo features a full complement of innovative components, including GUARDIAN debris-resistant spacer grids, Turbo Zircaloy mixing grids to increase thermal margin and grid-to-rod fretting resistance, value-added fuel pellets to increase fuel loading, advanced cladding to increase achievable burnup, and axial blankets and Erbium integral burnable absorbers for improving fuel cycle economics. This paper summarizes the Turbo Fuel Design and its application to a System 80 family type plant. Benefits in fuel reliability, thermal margin, improved fuel cycle economics and burn up capability are compared relative to the current ABB CE standard fuel design. The fuel management design and the associated thermal margin are also evaluated. (author)

  4. System Performance of Concatenated STBC and Block Turbo Codes in Dispersive Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam Tai Chan

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available A new scheme of concatenating the block turbo code (BTC with the space-time block code (STBC for an OFDM system in dispersive fading channels is investigated in this paper. The good error correcting capability of BTC and the large diversity gain characteristics of STBC can be achieved simultaneously. The resulting receiver outperforms the iterative convolutional Turbo receiver with maximum- a-posteriori-probability expectation maximization (MAP-EM algorithm. Because of its ability to perform the encoding and decoding processes in parallel, the proposed system is easy to implement in real time.

  5. Performance of an Error Control System with Turbo Codes in Powerline Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbuena-Campuzano Carlos Alberto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the performance of turbo codes as an error control technique in PLC (Powerline Communications data transmissions. For this system, computer simulations are used for modeling data networks based on the model classified in technical literature as indoor, and uses OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing as a modulation technique. Taking into account the channel, modulation and turbo codes, we propose a methodology to minimize the bit error rate (BER, as a function of the average received signal noise ratio (SNR.

  6. VLSI Architectures for Sliding-Window-Based Space-Time Turbo Trellis Code Decoders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Passas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The VLSI implementation of SISO-MAP decoders used for traditional iterative turbo coding has been investigated in the literature. In this paper, a complete architectural model of a space-time turbo code receiver that includes elementary decoders is presented. These architectures are based on newly proposed building blocks such as a recursive add-compare-select-offset (ACSO unit, A-, B-, Γ-, and LLR output calculation modules. Measurements of complexity and decoding delay of several sliding-window-technique-based MAP decoder architectures and a proposed parameter set lead to defining equations and comparison between those architectures.

  7. High Performance Ambipolar Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Thieno[3,2-b]thiophene Copolymer Field-Effect Transistors with Balanced Hole and Electron Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhuoying; Lee, Mi Jung; Ashraf, Raja Shahid

    2012-01-01

    Ambipolar OFETs with balanced hole and electron field-effect mobilities both exceeding 1 cm2 V−1 s−1 are achieved based on a single-solution-processed conjugated polymer, DPPT-TT, upon careful optimization of the device architecture, charge injection, and polymer processing. Such high-performance......Ambipolar OFETs with balanced hole and electron field-effect mobilities both exceeding 1 cm2 V−1 s−1 are achieved based on a single-solution-processed conjugated polymer, DPPT-TT, upon careful optimization of the device architecture, charge injection, and polymer processing. Such high......-performance OFETs are promising for applications in ambipolar devices and integrated circuits, as well as model systems for fundamental studies....

  8. Balancing gas supply and demand with a sustainable gas supply chain : A study based on field data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ir. J. Bekkering; prof. dr. Wim van Gemert; Drs. E.J. Hengeveld; A.A. Broekhuis

    2013-01-01

    The possibilities of balancing gas supply and demand with a green gas supply chain were analyzed. The considered supply chain is based on co-digestion of cow manure and maize, the produced biogas is upgraded to (Dutch) natural gas standards. The applicability of modeling yearly gas demand data in a

  9. A Turbo Pascal 7.0 program to fit a polynomial of any order to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An anomaly separation program for gravity (or magnetic) data in prospecting domain is presented. It can be applied to the gravity or magnetic anomaly separation of degree up to three and allows the management of up to 1200 data. Its implementation requires a Turbo Pascal surrounding through a TP7 list on the main root ...

  10. Space-Time Turbo Trellis Coded Modulation for Wireless Data Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welly Firmanto

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of space-time turbo trellis coded modulation (ST turbo TCM for improving the bandwidth efficiency and the reliability of future wireless data networks. We present new recursive space-time trellis coded modulation (STTC which outperform feedforward STTC proposed in by Tarokh et al. (1998 and Baro et al. (2000 on slow and fast fading channels. A substantial improvement in performance can be obtained by constructing ST turbo TCM which consists of concatenated recursive STTC, decoded by iterative decoding algorithm. The proposed recursive STTC are used as constituent codes in this scheme. They have been designed to satisfy the design criteria for STTC on slow and fast fading channels, derived for systems with the product of transmit and receive antennas larger than 3. The proposed ST turbo TCM significantly outperforms the best known STTC on both slow and fast fading channels. The capacity of this scheme on fast fading channels is less than 3 dB away from the theoretical capacity bound for multi-input multi-output (MIMO channels.

  11. 14 CFR 121.643 - Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbo-propeller-powered airplanes: Supplemental operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... operating nontransport category airplanes type certificated after December 31, 1964, to fly for 30 minutes...-powered airplanes: Supplemental operations. 121.643 Section 121.643 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Flight Release Rules § 121.643 Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbo-propeller-powered airplanes...

  12. MR colonography with fecal tagging: comparison between 2D turbo FLASH and 3D FLASH sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanikolaou, Nickolas; Grammatikakis, John; Maris, Thomas; Prassopoulos, Panos; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas; Lauenstein, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare inversion recovery turbo 2D fast low-angle shot (FLASH) and 3D FLASH sequences for fecal-tagged MR colonography studies. Fifteen consecutive patients with indications for colonoscopy underwent MR colonography with fecal tagging. An inversion recovery turbo-FLASH sequence was applied and compared in terms of artifacts presence, efficiency for masking residual stool, and colonic wall conspicuity with a fat-saturated 3D FLASH sequence. Both sequences were acquired following administration of paramagnetic contrast agent. Contrast-to-noise ratio and relative contrast between colonic wall and lumen were calculated and compared for both sequences. Turbo 2D FLASH provided fewer artifacts, higher efficiency for masking the residual stool, and colonic wall conspicuity equivalent to 3D FLASH. An inversion time of 10 ms provided homogeneously low signal intensity of the colonic lumen. Contrast to noise between colonic wall and lumen was significantly higher in the 3D FLASH images, whereas differences in relative contrast were not statistically significant. An optimized inversion-recovery 2D turbo-FLASH sequence provides better fecal tagging results and should be added to the 3D FLASH sequence when designing dark-lumen MR colonography examination protocols. (orig.)

  13. Convergence Analysis of Turbo Decoding of Serially Concatenated Block Codes and Product Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krause Amir

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The geometric interpretation of turbo decoding has founded a framework, and provided tools for the analysis of parallel-concatenated codes decoding. In this paper, we extend this analytical basis for the decoding of serially concatenated codes, and focus on serially concatenated product codes (SCPC (i.e., product codes with checks on checks. For this case, at least one of the component (i.e., rows/columns decoders should calculate the extrinsic information not only for the information bits, but also for the check bits. We refer to such a component decoder as a serial decoding module (SDM. We extend the framework accordingly, derive the update equations for a general turbo decoder of SCPC, and the expressions for the main analysis tools: the Jacobian and stability matrices. We explore the stability of the SDM. Specifically, for high SNR, we prove that the maximal eigenvalue of the SDM's stability matrix approaches , where is the minimum Hamming distance of the component code. Hence, for practical codes, the SDM is unstable. Further, we analyze the two turbo decoding schemes, proposed by Benedetto and Pyndiah, by deriving the corresponding update equations and by demonstrating the structure of their stability matrices for the repetition code and an SCPC code with information bits. Simulation results for the Hamming and Golay codes are presented, analyzed, and compared to the theoretical results and to simulations of turbo decoding of parallel concatenation of the same codes.

  14. Assessment of Low-Rate Turbo Encoding to Extend Coverage in WCDMA/HSDPA Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez Riverola, Ignasi; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard; Kolding, T.E.

    2005-01-01

    a spectral efficiency loss compared to the use of dedicated low data rate encoding. In this paper we consider an alternative scheme with rate 1/5 turbo encoding and rate matching to achieve increased performance at the cell edge. We find a 1.2 dB link-gain in the coverage region, which in a data...

  15. Using Exit Charts to Develop an Early Stopping Criterion for Turbo Decoding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potman, J.; Hoeksema, F.W.; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2004-01-01

    Early stopping criteria are used to determine when additional decoder iterations result in little or no improvement in the bit- error-rate (BER) at the output of a Turbo decoder. This paper proposes a stopping criterion based on Extrinsic Information Transfer (EXIT) charts. The generation and

  16. Low-Complexity Block Turbo Equalization for OFDM Systems in Time-Varying Channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, K.; Rugini, L.; Leus, G.

    2008-01-01

    We propose low-complexity block turbo equalizers for orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems in time-varying channels. The presented work is based on a soft minimum mean-squared error (MMSE) block linear equalizer (BLE) that exploits the banded structure of the frequency-domain

  17. Thermal characteristics of high-temperature R718 heat pumps with turbo compressor thermal vapor recompression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šarevski, Milan N.; Šarevski, Vasko N.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • High pressure ratio, high speed, transonic R718 centrifugal compressors. • High efficient industrial evaporators/concentrators with turbo thermal vapor recompression. • Utilization of waste heat from industrial thermal and processing systems. • R718 is an ideal refrigerant for the novel high-temperature industrial heat pumps. • Application of single-stage R718 centrifugal compressors. - Abstract: Characteristics of R718 centrifugal compressors are analyzed and range of their applications in industrial high-temperature heat pumps, district heating systems and geothermal green house heating systems are estimated. Implementation of turbo compressor thermal vapor recompression in industrial evaporating/concentrating plants for waste heat utilization results in a high energy efficiency and in other technical, economical and environmental benefits. A novel concept of turbo compression R718 heat pumps is proposed and an assessment of their thermal characteristics is presented for utilization of waste heat from industrial thermal plants and systems (boilers, furnaces, various technological and metallurgical cooling processes, etc.), and for applications in district heating and geothermal green house heating systems. R718 is an ideal refrigerant for the novel high-temperature turbo compression industrial heat pumps. Direct evaporation and condensation are advantages of the proposed system which lead to higher COP, and to simplification of the plant and lower cost.

  18. Scaling Study of Wave Rotor Turbo-normalization of a Small Internal Combustion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    placement ................................................................................ 37 Figure 23: Data acquisition chassis ...38 Figure 24: Data acquisition chassis with modules...This process is much like the use of a turbo or supercharger on an automobile to increase the sea level ambient air pressure to a greater pressure

  19. Introduction to littoral erosion problem in Uraba (Arboletes-Turbo area) Colombian Caribbean Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa; Ivan D; Vernette, Georges

    2004-01-01

    Shoreline retreat has been the net dominant historical trend along the 145 km-length littoral between Arboletes and Turbo (southern Caribbean of Colombia). For the last four decades, there were identified in this littoral shoreline retreat of about 50-100 m in several places (Uveros, Damaquiel, Zapata, Turbo) and a maximum of 1.6 km in the Punta Rey-Arboletes area, where land losses were of 4.5 km 2 , at exceptional rates of 40 rn/year. The synthesis of the available information suggest that the general susceptibility to erosion between Arboletes and turbo could be related primarily to relative sea level rise, associated to tectonic movements as well as to the effects of mud diapirism and hydroisostacy. In the more critical areas (Arboletes, Turbo), the natural erosive trends were accelerated by anthropic actions, including river diversion (Turbo), beach mining and inadequate (or total absence) practices for controlling residual and natural waters. Up to august 2000, there were invested about $ Col 10.000 billions in 155 engineering defenses (groins, sea walls and rip-rap which totalize 6.2 km of total length and a volume of materials of 37.000 m 3 ). With few exceptions, groins have not been successful and are now part of the problem, accelerating shore erosion along the adjacent sectors. In the short term, the littoral erosion between Arboletes and turbo is caused both by marine and by sub aerial factors. it is facilitated by the poor lithological strengths of cliffs and marine terraces, mainly composed of highly fractured and weathered claystones and mudstones (with stratification and weakness planes dipping toward sea) and non-consolidated, easily liquefacted, fine sediments; both conditions facilitate the occurrence of rocks falls, slides and mud flows that result in high figures of cliff retreat (3 to 4 m), specially during the first 15 days of the summer-winter transition (April) and in high waves periods. The case of the littoral erosion between Arboletes

  20. Development and tests of large nuclear turbo-generator welded rotors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombie, H.; Thiery, M.; Rotzinger, R.; Pelissou, C.; Tabacco, C.; Fernagut, V.

    2015-01-01

    Turbo-generators require large forgings for the rotor and it is a worldwide practice to manufacture turbo-generator rotor bodies as single piece forgings. Rotors for nuclear applications (4-pole rotors design, 1500/1800 rpm) require forgings of up to 2.0 m diameter and ultra large ingots with weight more than 500 tons. Nowadays only few forge masters can deliver such forgings in the world. Based on the large welding experience Alstom has gained over decades on steam and gas turbines and Alstom's multi piece shrunk turbo-generator rotors, it was suggested to manufacture 4-pole turbo-generator rotors by welding the shaft from aligned cylindrical forgings. Compared to turbine welded rotors, the shaft of a turbo-generator rotor presents differences linked to dimensions/weight, weld depth and electrical application. The manufacture of a 2 disc model allowed to prove through electrical and mechanical analysis the reliability of the concept as well as the reliability of the manufacturing processes through material tests, micro sections, electrical component tests, weld geometry, welding processes (TIG,SAW,...), weld inspection (Ultrasonic testing, radiographic inspection,...) weld heat treatments and machining. Then a full rotor able to replace a single forging rotor was manufactured in order to validate and prove to potential customers the validity of the welded rotor technology. During the first order from EDF of a welded 900 MW spare rotor, the procedure for the Non Destructive Test on a slotted rotor was developed upon EDF request in order to compare future Non Destructive Testing with the finger print of the new rotor. This complete rotor was delivered to EDF in January 2013. This rotor is in operation in a nuclear unit since November 2013. (authors)

  1. Turbo-extraction of glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana using a fractional factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula M. Martins

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni Bertoni, Asteraceae, leaf extract has recently called the attention of food industry as a proposal for natural sweetener. The sweet flavor is attributed to the glycosides, in especial stevioside and rebaudioside A, which are the plant main chemical markers. The aim of the work reported here was to optimize the turbo-extraction of stevia leaves using water, ethanol 70% and 90% (w/w as green solvents. A 25-2 factorial design was applied to study the linear effects of the drug size, solvent to drug ratio, temperature, time and also the turbolysis speed on the extraction of glycosides. The glycosides exhaustive extraction showed that ethanol 70% gave better results and was used for turbo-extraction. The stevioside and rebaudioside A contents were quantified by a validated method by high performance liquid chromatographic with photodiode array detector. The contents of stevioside and rebaudioside A in fluid extract increased with the drug size, but decreased at high shearing speeds and solvent to drug ratio, while their yields decreased at higher temperature and were not affected by turbo speed. An increase in solvent to drug ratio reduced significantly the glycosides percent in dried extract. Optimal solution for S. rebaudiana leaves turbo-extraction was determined by desirability functions. The optimal extraction condition corresponded to drug size of 780 µm, solvent to drug ratio of 10, extraction time of 18 min; temperature of 23 ºC and turbo speed of 20,000 rpm, resulting in yields of 4.98% and 2.70%, for stevioside and rebaudioside A, respectively. These yields are comparable to the ones recently published for dynamic maceration, but with the advantage of shorter extraction times. This work demonstrates that turbolysis is promising for S. rebaudiana glycosides extraction and stimulate new research on the purification of these extracts, which may become an interesting source of income for developing

  2. A Study the Axial and Radial Rotor Stability of the Turbo Machinery with Allowance the Geometry of the Surface and Properties of the Lubricating Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Zadorozhnaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An ensuring of the axial and radial rotor stability is one of the main objectives in the design and operation of the small-sized turbo-machinery. Hydrodynamic thrust bearings must securely restrain unbalanced axial forces, arising during any possible operating modes. Using of the different types of intermediate elements provides a stable position of the rotor in the radial bearings. Recently flexible rotors have been widely used in small-sized turbo-machines. The complexity of the implementation of methods for calculating the dynamics of these rotors is to solve a system of motion equations. The system of motion equations, which is presented in this work, contains the motion equation for the each bearing element, including the floating rings and elements of the rotor (wheels of the turbine and compressor, the central mass. The load acting on the bearings includes the masses of elements, the reaction of lubricating layers and the rotor imbalance, potential impact loads and forces torques, acting on the rotor from the other elements of the rotor. To calculate the reactions of lubricating layers for two-layer bearings the hydrodynamic pressure field and the friction losses were considered for a real bearing design, on the surface of which the sources of the lubrication is always located. The thrust bearings with segments of various designs have been considered, including laser texturing surface. The trajectories of the rotor elements of the turbo-machinery for various rotation velocities, as well as the elastic line of the rotor at different time points are represented as the results of the calculation.

  3. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady. You may ... related injuries, such as a hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  4. Area balance and strain in an extensional fault system: Strategies for improved oil recovery in fractured chalk, Gilbertown Field, southwestern Alabama. Annual report, March 1996--March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashin, J.C.; Raymond, D.E.; Rindsberg, A.K.; Alabi, G.G.; Groshong, R.H.

    1997-08-01

    Gilbertown Field is the oldest oil field in Alabama and produces oil from chalk of the Upper Cretaceous Selma Group and from sandstone of the Eutaw Formation along the southern margin of the Gilbertown fault system. Most of the field has been in primary recovery since establishment, but production has declined to marginally economic levels. This investigation applies advanced geologic concepts designed to aid implementation of improved recovery programs. The Gilbertown fault system is detached at the base of Jurassic salt. The fault system began forming as a half graben and evolved in to a full graben by the Late Cretaceous. Conventional trapping mechanisms are effective in Eutaw sandstone, whereas oil in Selma chalk is trapped in faults and fault-related fractures. Burial modeling establishes that the subsidence history of the Gilbertown area is typical of extensional basins and includes a major component of sediment loading and compaction. Surface mapping and fracture analysis indicate that faults offset strata as young as Miocene and that joints may be related to regional uplift postdating fault movement. Preliminary balanced structural models of the Gilbertown fault system indicate that synsedimentary growth factors need to be incorporated into the basic equations of area balance to model strain and predict fractures in Selma and Eutaw reservoirs.

  5. MR Imaging of the Internal Auditory Canal and Inner Ear at 3T: Comparison between 3D Driven Equilibrium and 3D Balanced Fast Field Echo Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Byun, Jun Soo; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Yim, Yoo Jeong; Kim, Sung Tae; Jeon, Pyoung; Kim, Keon Ha; Kim, Sam Soo; Jeon, Yong Hwan; Lee, Jiwon

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare the use of 3D driven equilibrium (DRIVE) imaging with 3D balanced fast field echo (bFFE) imaging in the assessment of the anatomic structures of the internal auditory canal (IAC) and inner ear at 3 Tesla (T). Materials and Methods Thirty ears of 15 subjects (7 men and 8 women; age range, 22-71 years; average age, 50 years) without evidence of ear problems were examined on a whole-body 3T MR scanner with both 3D DRIVE and 3D bFFE sequences by using an 8-channel sensitivity...

  6. The new 1.6 l turbo spark-ignition engine by GM Powertrain Europe; Der neue 1,6-l-Turbo-Ottomotor von GM Powertrain Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frensch, M.; Heusler, H.; Mohr, J.; Loehnert, T.; Steffens, K. [GM Powertrain Germany GmbH, Ruesselsheim (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    With this new turbo charged 1.6 l engine, GM Powertrain Europe presents another application from the mid-size gasoline engine family, internally called the Family 1 engine, which was first introduced in 2003. This third variant of the Family 1 Generation 3 architecture will be offered for the first time in the spring of 2006. It is combined with the M32 6-speed transmission in an Opel Meriva OPC as its top-of-the-line engine offering. Using an integrated exhaust manifold turbocharger, the engine reaches a maximum performance of 132 kW and a torque of 230 Nm. (orig.)

  7. Near Shannon Limit Low Peak Mean To Envelope Power Ratio (PMEPR) Turbo Block Coded OFDM for Space Communications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is proposed to study and develop an innovative Turbo-block coded modulation scheme suitable for Orthogonal Frequency Division Modulation (OFDM) system. The new...

  8. Isotope-dilution TurboFlow-LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantification of ten steroid metabolites in serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søeborg, Tue; Frederiksen, Hanne; Johannsen, Trine Holm

    2017-01-01

    An isotope-dilution TurboFlow-LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantification of the ten steroid metabolites dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), progesterone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), Δ4-androstenedione (Adione), corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, cortisol, cortisone, testosterone (T...

  9. Pico-coulomb charge measured at BELLA to percent-level precision using a Turbo-ICT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, K; Mittelberger, D E; Gonsalves, A J; Daniels, J; Mao, H-S; Leemans, W P; Stulle, F; Bergoz, J

    2016-01-01

    Precise diagnostics of picocoulomb level particle bunches produced by laser plasma accelerators (LPAs) can be a significant challenge. Without proper care, the small signals associated with such bunches can be dominated by a background generated by laser, target, laser–plasma interaction and particle induced radiation. In this paper, we report on first charge measurements using the newly developed Turbo-ICT for LPAs. We outline the Turbo-ICT working principle, which allows precise sub-picocoulomb measurements even in the presence of significant background signals. A comparison of the Turbo-ICT, a conventional integrating current transformer (ICT) and a scintillating screen (Lanex) was carried out at the Berkeley Lab Laser Accelerator. Results show that the Turbo-ICT can measure sub-picocoulomb charge accurately and has significantly improved noise immunity compared to the ICT. (paper)

  10. Maintaining balance when looking at a virtual reality three dimensional display of a field of moving dots or at a virtual reality scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie eChiarovano

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental objective. To provide a safe, simple, relatively inexpensive, fast, accurate way of quantifying balance performance either in isolation, or in the face of challenges provided by 3D high definition moving visual stimuli as well as by the proprioceptive challenge from standing on a foam pad. This method uses the new technology of the Wii balance board to measure postural stability during powerful, realistic visual challenges from immersive virtual reality. Limitations of current techniques. Present computerized methods for measuring postural stability are large, complex, slow and expensive, and do not allow for testing the response to realistic visual challenges.Protocol. Subjects stand on a 6cm thick, firm, foam pad on a Wii balance board. They wear a fast, high resolution, low persistence, virtual reality head set (Oculus Rift DK2. This allows displays of varying speed, direction, depth and complexity to be delivered. The subject experiences a visual illusion of real objects fixed relative to the world, and any of these displays can be perturbed in an unpredictable fashion. A special app (Balance Rite used the same procedures for analysing postural analysis as used by the Equitest.Power of the technique. Four simple proof of concept experiments demonstrate that this technique matches the gold standard Equitest in terms of the measurement of postural stability but goes beyond the Equitest by measuring stability in the face of visual challenges, which are so powerful that even healthy subjects fall. The response to these challenges presents an opportunity for predicting falls and for rehabilitation of seniors and patients with poor postural stability.Significance for the field. This new method provides a simpler, quicker, cheaper method of measurement than the Equitest. It may provide a new mode of training to prevent falls, by maintaining postural stability in the face of visual and proprioceptive challenges similar to those

  11. Field assessment of balance in 10 to 14 year old children, reproducibility and validity of the Nintendo Wii board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Because body proportions in childhood are different to those in adulthood, children have a relatively higher centre of mass location. This biomechanical difference and the fact that children’s movements have not yet fully matured result in different sway performances in children and adults. When assessing static balance, it is essential to use objective, sensitive tools, and these types of measurement have previously been performed in laboratory settings. However, the emergence of technologies like the Nintendo Wii Board (NWB) might allow balance assessment in field settings. As the NWB has only been validated and tested for reproducibility in adults, the purpose of this study was to examine reproducibility and validity of the NWB in a field setting, in a population of children. Methods Fifty-four 10–14 year-olds from the CHAMPS-Study DK performed four different balance tests: bilateral stance with eyes open (1), unilateral stance on dominant (2) and non-dominant leg (3) with eyes open, and bilateral stance with eyes closed (4). Three rounds of the four tests were completed with the NWB and with a force platform (AMTI). To assess reproducibility, an intra-day test-retest design was applied with a two-hour break between sessions. Results Bland-Altman plots supplemented by Minimum Detectable Change (MDC) and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) demonstrated satisfactory reproducibility for the NWB and the AMTI (MDC: 26.3-28.2%, CCC: 0.76-0.86) using Centre Of Pressure path Length as measurement parameter. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated satisfactory concurrent validity between the NWB and the AMTI, supplemented by satisfactory CCC in all tests (CCC: 0.74-0.87). The ranges of the limits of agreement in the validity study were comparable to the limits of agreement of the reproducibility study. Conclusion Both NWB and AMTI have satisfactory reproducibility for testing static balance in a population of children. Concurrent validity of NWB compared

  12. Implementation factors of soft EU legislation in the field of gender equality. An example of the balanced representation of women and men in decision-making processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Topolinjak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines various implementation factors of the European Union’s soft policy in the field of gender equality in Slovenia. We focus on implementation of the principle of the balanced representation of women and men in decision-making processes in the fields of politics, science and the economy, where the proportion of women in top positions remains low. Based on an analysis of EU and Slovenian legislation and interviews with relevant governmental and non-governmental actors at the EU and national levels, it was found that because of the adopted soft law in this area it is the national government, which can select public policy instruments and adapt them to its own aspirations, that is the most important player when it comes to implementation. Pressure from the EU was stronger in the accession negotiations when Slovenia was joining the EU and also when interest groups work together.

  13. Block Transmissions over Doubly Selective Channels: Iterative Channel Estimation and Turbo Equalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rugini Luca

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern wireless communication systems require high transmission rates, giving rise to frequency selectivity due to multipath propagation. In addition, high-mobility terminals and scatterers induce Doppler shifts that introduce time selectivity. Therefore, advanced techniques are needed to accurately model the time- and frequency-selective (i.e., doubly selective channels and to counteract the related performance degradation. In this paper, we develop new receivers for orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM systems and single-carrier (SC systems in doubly selective channels by embedding the channel estimation task within low-complexity block turbo equalizers. Linear minimum mean-squared error (MMSE pilot-assisted channel estimators are presented, and the soft data estimates from the turbo equalizers are used to improve the quality of the channel estimates.

  14. Assessment of the controlling factors in TurboFlotation by statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ofori, P.K.; Firth, B.A.; Howes, T. [CSIRO Division of Energy Technology, Qld. (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    TurboFlotation is a new flotation system that has the advantage of large throughput per unit volume and low fluid inventory. The influence of process and design parameters on the performance of the TurboFlotation system as applied to coal flotation has been studied and statistical models developed to predict the performance of the system under various operating conditions. The study was done in two stages. The first part of the study involved the use of the Plackett-Burman screening experimental design to identify the important factors affecting the process performance, followed by a central composite design to optimize the system. Frother concentration, collector dosage, feed percent solids and feed flowrate were identified as the factors with significant effect on process performance. 12 refs., 20 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Triple-frequency TurboEdit Cycle-slip Processing Method of Weakening Ionospheric Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Lingyong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The existing triple-frequency cycle-slip detection method usually can not detect and repair the cycle-slip correctly in the ionospheric activity phase or when the magnetic storm happening. To solve the problem, the triple-frequency TurboEdit method for weakening the ionospheric error is advanced based on the dual-frequency TurboEdit method. Both the triple-frequency geometry-free and ionospheric-free combination and second-order time-difference phase geometry-free combination in this algorithm can whittle the influence of ionospheric error effectively. And then, the triple-frequency data is used to validate this algorithm, the experiment results show that this method can weaken the ionospheric error and realize the no-difference dynamicreal-time cycle-slip detection and correction under ionospheric activity phase.

  16. Counteracting 16-QAM Optical Fiber Transmission Impairments With Iterative Turbo Equalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlunno, Valeria; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Borkowski, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A turbo equalization (TE) scheme based on convolutional code and normalized least mean square equalizer for coherent optical communication links is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The proposed iterative TE technique is proved effective for counteracting polarization-division-multiplexin......A turbo equalization (TE) scheme based on convolutional code and normalized least mean square equalizer for coherent optical communication links is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The proposed iterative TE technique is proved effective for counteracting polarization......-division-multiplexing 16 quadrature amplitude modulation impairments in dispersion uncompensated coherent transmission links. Gains exceeding one order of magnitude in terms of bit error rate are obtained in experimental validation up to 497 km-standard single mode fiber link transmission....

  17. Torsional vibration analysis in turbo-generator shaft due to mal-synchronization fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangunde, Abhishek; Kumar, Tarun; Kumar, Rajeev; Jain, S. C.

    2018-03-01

    A rotor of turbo-generator shafting is many times subjected to torsional vibrations during its lifespan. The reasons behind these vibrations are three-Phase fault, two-phase fault, line to ground fault, faulty-mal synchronization etc. Sometimes these vibrations can cause complete failure of turbo-generator shafting system. To calculate moment variation during these faults on the shafting system vibration analysis is done using Finite Elements Methods to calculate mass and stiffness matrix. The electrical disturbance caused during Mal-synchronization is put on generator section, and corresponding second order equations are solved by using “Duhamel Integral”. From the moment variation plots at four sections critically loaded sections are identified.

  18. STUDIES AND RESEARCHES CONCERNING THE POSSIBILITY OF USING HYDROGEN IN TURBO ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius BIBU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to study the main aspects related to using Hydrogen as fuel in thermal engines, the advantages and disadvantages of using it as fuel and the technical posibilities of adjusting it, Hydrogen used as supplement at the main fuel and Hydrogen used as working fluid. As a perspective, it can be considered using Hydrogen as thermical agent in a closed energetic flux with thermo- chemical compression of Hydrogen in a hybrid heat changer, based on the heat of burning products of thermical engines. The experiments made showed that using such a way of using the heat of burning products of turbo engines can assure the increase of power and efficiency of the whole instalation with 20 %, which make us consider Hydrogen as a viable and advantageous alternative of fuel to be used in turbo engines and other engines.

  19. Validation of DIVA: an expert system for the diagnostic of turbo-generator vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, R.; Ricard, B.; Tiarri, J.P.; Bonnet, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The project presented in this paper concerns the development of an expert system dealing with the diagnosis of turbo-generator vibrations. DIVA - Diagnosis of Shaft Line Vibrations - is a joint project which is carried out by ALSTHOM, Electricite de France and Laboratoire de Marcoussis, research centre of CGE. This article first presents the organisation of the system and then the goals and results of the tests already achieved [fr

  20. Trellis and turbo coding iterative and graph-based error control coding

    CERN Document Server

    Schlegel, Christian B

    2015-01-01

    This new edition has been extensively revised to reflect the progress in error control coding over the past few years. Over 60% of the material has been completely reworked, and 30% of the material is original. Convolutional, turbo, and low density parity-check (LDPC) coding and polar codes in a unified framework. Advanced research-related developments such as spatial coupling. A focus on algorithmic and implementation aspects of error control coding.

  1. Turbo Equalization Techniques Toward Robust PDM 16-QAM Optical Fiber Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlunno, Valeria; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Borkowski, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we show numerically and experimentally that turbo equalization (TE) is an efficient technique to mitigate performance degradations stemming from optical fiber propagation effects in both optical fiber dispersion managed and unmanaged coherent detection links. The effectiveness....... As TE can be included in the current coherent detection transceiver technologies and complement other equalization techniques, it has prospects for application in next-generation high-capacity and long-reach optical transmission links....

  2. Modelling of the heat load in the piston of turbo diesel engine - continuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr GUSTOF

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the mathematical description of characteristic surfaces of the heat exchange of the piston and temperature distribution of the turbo diesel engine at the beginning phase its work was presented. The computations were performed by means of the two-zone combustion model, the boundary conditions of III kind and the finite elements method (MES by using of COSMOS/M program.

  3. A Turbo-Coded Burst-by-Burst Adaptive Wide-Band Speech Transceiver

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, T.; Münster, M.; Hanzo, L.

    2000-01-01

    Turbo-coded burst-by-burst adaptive orthogonal frequency division multiplex (AOFDM) wide-band speech transceivers are proposed. A constant throughput adaptive OFDM transceiver was designed and benchmarked against a time-variant rate scheme. The proposed joint adaptation of source-codec, channel-codec, and modulation regime results in attractive, robust, high-quality audio systems, capable of conveying near-unimpaired wide-band audio signals over fading dispersive channels for signal-to-noise ...

  4. Determination of Permissible Short-Time Emergency Overloading of Turbo-Generators and Synchronous Compensators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Anischenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that failure to take into account variable ratio of short-time emergency overloading of turbo-generators (synchronous compensators that can lead to underestimation of overloading capacity or impermissible insulation over-heating.A method has been developed for determination of permissible duration of short-time emergency over-loading that takes into account changes of over-loading ratio in case of a failure.

  5. A regional field-based assessment of organic C sequestration and GHG balances in irrigated agriculture in Mediterranean semi-arid land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virto, Inigo; Antón, Rodrigo; Arias, Nerea; Orcaray, Luis; Enrique, Alberto; Bescansa, Paloma

    2016-04-01

    In a context of global change and increasing food demand, agriculture faces the challenge of ensuring food security making a sustainable use of resources, especially arable land and water. This implies in many areas a transition towards agricultural systems with increased and stable productivity and a more efficient use of inputs. The introduction of irrigation is, within this framework, a widespread strategy. However, the C cycle and the net GHG emissions can be significantly affected by irrigation. The net effect of this change needs to be quantified at a regional scale. In the region of Navarra (NE Spain) more than 22,300 ha of rainfed agricultural land have been converted to irrigation in the last years, adding to the previous existing irrigated area of 70,000 ha. In this framework the project Life+ Regadiox (LIFE12 ENV/ES/000426, http://life-regadiox.es/) has the objective of evaluating the net GHG balances and atmospheric CO2 fixation rates of different management strategies in irrigated agriculture in the region. The project involved the identification of areas representative of the different pedocllimatic conditions in the region. This required soil and climate characterizations, and the design of a network of agricultural fields representative of the most common dryland and irrigation managements in these areas. This was done from available public datasets on climate and soil, and from soil pits especially sampled for this study. Two areas were then delimited, mostly based on their degree of aridity. Within each of those areas, fields were selected to allow for comparisons at three levels: (i) dryland vs irrigation, (ii) soil and crop management systems for non-permanent crops, and (iii) soil management strategies for permanent crops (namely olive orchards and vineyards). In a second step, the objective of this work was to quantify net SOC variations and GHG balances corresponding to the different managements identified in the previous step. These

  6. Turbo-folk and ethnicity in the mirror of the perception of the youtube users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Gordana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Popular music played in the second half of the 20th century on the territory of former Yugoslavia became known as the newly composed music. During the 1990s wars, music genre known as turbo folk was especially popular in Serbia. Research has shown that this music contains Oriental, most of all Ottoman, influences. Even though it is very popular, this kind of music has been subjected to severe criticism, which may be divided into two main groups. According to some, turbo-folk has been criticized because it was associated with war, nationalism and crime. In the second group are those who are nationalistically terrified of foreign influences in the music, feeling that this music leads to the "tehranization" of Serbia. In addition, critics think that it is kitsch, which favors immorality. The focus of this research is on the perception of turbo folk by You Tube users. The material from this Internet page for video exchange is available in the whole world. Many users from the territory of Former Yugoslavia leave their often nationalistic and political comments about songs. This work deals with the way listeners view their own connection with Ottoman past. What they experience as Turkish and as their own in those songs and what the value system is like. Apart from this, social influence of Internet culture is viewed, in this case on You Tube example. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177027: Multiethnicity, Multiculturalism, migrations - contemporary process

  7. The Case for Distributed Engine Control in Turbo-Shaft Engine Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Dennis E.; Paluszewski, Paul J.; Storey, William; Smith, Bert J.

    2009-01-01

    The turbo-shaft engine is an important propulsion system used to power vehicles on land, sea, and in the air. As the power plant for many high performance helicopters, the characteristics of the engine and control are critical to proper vehicle operation as well as being the main determinant to overall vehicle performance. When applied to vertical flight, important distinctions exist in the turbo-shaft engine control system due to the high degree of dynamic coupling between the engine and airframe and the affect on vehicle handling characteristics. In this study, the impact of engine control system architecture is explored relative to engine performance, weight, reliability, safety, and overall cost. Comparison of the impact of architecture on these metrics is investigated as the control system is modified from a legacy centralized structure to a more distributed configuration. A composite strawman system which is typical of turbo-shaft engines in the 1000 to 2000 hp class is described and used for comparison. The overall benefits of these changes to control system architecture are assessed. The availability of supporting technologies to achieve this evolution is also discussed.

  8. Validation of Heat Transfer and Film Cooling Capabilities of the 3-D RANS Code TURBO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam, Vikram; Ameri, Ali; Chen, Jen-Ping

    2010-01-01

    The capabilities of the 3-D unsteady RANS code TURBO have been extended to include heat transfer and film cooling applications. The results of simulations performed with the modified code are compared to experiment and to theory, where applicable. Wilcox s k-turbulence model has been implemented to close the RANS equations. Two simulations are conducted: (1) flow over a flat plate and (2) flow over an adiabatic flat plate cooled by one hole inclined at 35 to the free stream. For (1) agreement with theory is found to be excellent for heat transfer, represented by local Nusselt number, and quite good for momentum, as represented by the local skin friction coefficient. This report compares the local skin friction coefficients and Nusselt numbers on a flat plate obtained using Wilcox's k-model with the theory of Blasius. The study looks at laminar and turbulent flows over an adiabatic flat plate and over an isothermal flat plate for two different wall temperatures. It is shown that TURBO is able to accurately predict heat transfer on a flat plate. For (2) TURBO shows good qualitative agreement with film cooling experiments performed on a flat plate with one cooling hole. Quantitatively, film effectiveness is under predicted downstream of the hole.

  9. [Probable outbreak of oral transmission of Chagas disease in Turbo, Antioquia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Juan Fernando; Arboleda, Margarita; Montoya, Alba Nelly; Alarcón, Erika Patricia

    2011-06-01

    Chagas' disease is endemic in 21 countries of South and Central America, including Colombia, where 700,000 to 1.2 million persons are infected and eight millions are at risk. In endemic areas, chronic cases are predominant. However, in recent years, increasing reports of acute oral transmission have appeared. Objective. An outbreak of acute Chagas' disease was verified in the municipality of Turbo (Antioquia), and the most probable cause of transmission was determined in order to establish prevention and control measures. A descriptive study was done. A search for information from local health authorities was conducted to uncover all case reports. Laboratory tests, risk factor analysis and search for vectors and reservoirs were undertaken in Turbo. Of the 156 people evaluated, 11 cases of acute Chagas' disease were identified. Ten had significant titers of IgM and IgG antibodies against the Trypanosoma cruzi parasite by IFAT and Elisa tests; one fatal case was linked epidemiologically. In 3 cases, PCR was positive for T. cruzi, two of which displayed Chagas cardiomyopathy, and one with acute fever. Four cases required specialized health care for acute cardiomyopathy. All positive cases had a common source of food. One specimen of the triatomid vector species, Panstrongylus geniculatus, and one reservoir, the woolly opossum Caluromys lanatus, were collected; both were negative to T. cruzi. An outbreak of acute Chagas' disease occurred in Turbo, Antioquia. The mode of transmission may have occurred by the ingestion of T. cruzi-contaminated food by infected triatomines or opossum feces.

  10. Super-Orthogonal Space-Time Turbo Transmit Diversity for CDMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter G. W. van Rooyen

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that transmit and receive diversity employing a combination of multiple transmit-receive antennas (given ideal channel state information (CSI and independent fading between antenna pairs will potentially yield maximum achievable system capacity. In this paper, the concept of a layered super-orthogonal turbo transmit diversity (SOTTD for downlink direct-sequence code-division multiple-access (CDMA systems is explored. This open-loop transmit diversity technique improves the downlink performance by using a small number of antenna elements at the base station and a single antenna at the handset. In the proposed technique, low-rate super-orthogonal code-spread CDMA is married with code-division transmit diversity (CDTD. At the mobile receiver, space-time (ST RAKE CDTD processing is combined with iterative turbo code-spread decoding to yield large ST gains. The performance of the SOTTD system is compared with single- and multiantenna turbo-coded (TC CDTD systems evaluated over a frequency-selective Rayleigh fading channel. The evaluation is done both by means of analysis and computer simulations. The performance results illustrate the superior performance of SOTTD compared to TC CDTD systems over practically the complete useful capacity range of CDMA. It is shown that the performance degradation characteristic of TC CDTD at low system loads (due to the inherent TC error floor is alleviated by the SOTTD system.

  11. Selection of Component Codes for Turbo Coding Based on Convergence properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1999-01-01

    The turbo decoding is a sub-optimal decoding, i.e. it is not a maximum likelihood decoding. It is important to be aware of this fact when the parameters for the scheme are chosen. This goes especially for the selection of component codes, where the selection often has been based solely on the per......The turbo decoding is a sub-optimal decoding, i.e. it is not a maximum likelihood decoding. It is important to be aware of this fact when the parameters for the scheme are chosen. This goes especially for the selection of component codes, where the selection often has been based solely...... on the performance at high SNR's. We will show that it is important to base the choice on the performance at low SNR's, i.e. the convergence properties, as well. Further, the study of the performance with different component codes may lead to an understanding of the convergence process in the turbo codes....

  12. Underwater sound due to a subsea high speed turbo compressor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binnerts, B.; Benda-Beckmann, A.M. von; Beek, P.J.G. van

    2014-01-01

    In the oil & gas industry there is a trend towards more subsea activities. To improve gas recovery from existing and new fields at greater depths, the produced gas will be compressed, processed and transported via subsea templates and underwater networks (pipelines, flexible risers, etc.). Besides

  13. EFFECTS OF PULSED ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THERAPY VERSUS EXTRA CORPOREAL SHOCK WAVE THERAPY ON PERIPHERAL CIRCULATION AND FUNCTIONAL BALANCE IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETIC PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY: RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Abdelaal Mohamed Abdelaal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic peripheral polyneuropathy (DPN is an arousing problem that negatively affects body systems. Pulsed low frequency electromagnetic field (PLFEM and Extracorporeal shock waves (ESW are therapeutic modalities frequently used to treat varieties of pathological conditions. Objective of the study was to evaluate and compare effects of PLFEM and ESW on feet blood flow (maximum skin blood perfusion (SBP-max, minimum skin blood perfusion (SBP-min, and basal mean perfusion changes (BMCP (by Laser Doppler and functional balance (by Berg balance scale "BBS" in patients with DPN. Methods: Seventy patients with DPN were randomly assigned into PLFEM, ESW and control groups. PLFEMgroup received treatment twice weekly while ESW received treatment once weekly, for 12 weeks. Variables were evaluated prestudy (evaluation-1, post-study (evaluation-2 and 4-weeks post-treatment cessation (evaluation-3. Results: At evaluation-2 and 3; SBP-max, SBP-min, BMCP and BBS showed significant increase in both PLFEM and ESWgroups (P 0.5. At evaluation-2; SBPmax, SBP-min, BMCP and BBS mean values and percentages of change were [27.21±4.27(23.27 %, 10.51±2.32(50.004%, 16.15±2.22(24.45 %, 43.18±2.95(33.01 %], [24.74±3.33(10.62 %, 8.69±2.58(21.15 %, 14.48±2.35(11.66 %, 40.13±3.52(23.12 %] and [22.12(-0.05 %, 7.196(-0.1 %, 13.06±2.38(-0.09, 32.76(-0.1 %] for LFPEM, ESW and control groups respectively (P<0.05. Conclusion: While both PLFEM and ESW have significant long-term effects in improving lower extremity blood flow and functional balance in patients with DPN, but still PLFEM is more effective than ESW.

  14. Effects of agricultural tillage practise on green house gas balance of an arable soil in a long term field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munch, Jean Charles; Schilling, Rolf; Ruth, Bernhard; Fuss, Roland

    2010-05-01

    Soils are an important part of the global carbon cycle. A large proportion of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is released from soils, though carbon sequestration occurs. Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions of soils are also believed to contribute significantly to the green house effect as well as the stratospheric ozone depletion. An important source of N2O emissions is denitrification of nitrate from nitrogen fertilized soils. Although it is desirable to minimize these emissions while maintaining high crop yields it is still poorly understood how green house gas emissions may be steered by agricultural management practise, i.e. tillage and fertilization systems . In an ongoing long term field experiment at the research farm Scheyern, Bavaria, a arable field with one homogenous soil formation was transformed into plots in a randomized design 14 years ago. Since then, they are managed using conventional tillage (CT) and no tillage (NT) as well as low and high fertilization. A conventional crop rotation is maintained on the field. Starting 2007, CO2 and N2O emissions were monitored continuously for 2.5 years. Furthermore water content, temperature and redox potential were measured in-situ as they are major factors on microbial activity and denitrification. Soil was sampled from the Ap horizons of the plots about twice a month and extracts from these soil samples were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ammonium, nitrate/nitrite, and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). According to the results soil density and hydrology are clearly affected by tillage practise. DOC is more affected by tillage while concentration of nitrogen species is controlled mainly by fertilization. There are distinct differences in redox potential between CT and NT plots with CT plots having more anaerobic periods. CO2 and N2O emissions exhibit a clear seasonal pattern and are affected by both tillage system and fertilization

  15. Balancing Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Balancing Acts Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... scientific research on hearing, balance, smell, taste, voice, speech, and language—common elements in how we perceive ...

  16. Area balance and strain in an extensional fault system: Strategies for improved oil recovery in fractured chalk, Gilbertown Field, southwestern Alabama. Final report, March 1996--September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashin, J.C.; Raymond, D.E.; Rindsberg, A.K.; Alabi, G.G.; Carroll, R.E.; Groshong, R.H.; Jin, G.

    1998-12-01

    This project was designed to analyze the structure of Mesozoic and Tertiary strata in Gilbertown Field and adjacent areas to suggest ways in which oil recovery can be improved. The Eutaw Formation comprises 7 major flow units and is dominated by low-resistivity, low-contrast play that is difficult to characterize quantitatively. Selma chalk produces strictly from fault-related fractures that were mineralized as warm fluid migrated from deep sources. Resistivity, dipmeter, and fracture identification logs corroborate that deformation is concentrated in the hanging-wall drag zones. New area balancing techniques were developed to characterize growth strata and confirm that strain is concentrated in hanging-wall drag zones. Curvature analysis indicates that the faults contain numerous fault bends that influence fracture distribution. Eutaw oil is produced strictly from footwall uplifts, whereas Selma oil is produced from fault-related fractures. Clay smear and mineralization may be significant trapping mechanisms in the Eutaw Formation. The critical seal for Selma reservoirs, by contrast, is where Tertiary clay in the hanging wall is juxtaposed with poorly fractured Selma chalk in the footwall. Gilbertown Field can be revitalized by infill drilling and recompletion of existing wells. Directional drilling may be a viable technique for recovering untapped oil from Selma chalk. Revitalization is now underway, and the first new production wells since 1985 are being drilled in the western part of the field.

  17. Thermoregulation and heat balance in the dik-dik antelope (Rhynchotragus kirki): a field and laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamau, J M; Maloiy, G M

    1985-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in the field to study the physiological responses of dik-dik antelope to direct solar radiation and shade. The results were compared to those obtained in the laboratory. The rates of metabolic heat production when the animals were exposed either to the sun or the shade were identical. Dik-dik antelopes lost about 50% more heat evaporatively when exposed to the sun compared to the shade at an ambient temperature (Ta) of 28 degrees C or a Ta of 40 degrees C in a climatic chamber. Heat storage in the laboratory at Ta 40 degrees C or at Ta 28 degrees C in the shade accounted for between 30 and 35% of the total heat production. The corresponding value in the sun was 55%. The net rate of heat gain under the sun was four times greater than under shade at 28 degrees C or in the laboratory at 40 degrees C. Behavioural mechanisms for avoidance of high insolation must constitute important adaptations that the dik-dik uses to avoid dehydration and dependence on drinking water in their natural environment.

  18. An Off-Grid Turbo Channel Estimation Algorithm for Millimeter Wave Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lingyi; Peng, Yuexing; Wang, Peng; Li, Yonghui

    2016-09-22

    The bandwidth shortage has motivated the exploration of the millimeter wave (mmWave) frequency spectrum for future communication networks. To compensate for the severe propagation attenuation in the mmWave band, massive antenna arrays can be adopted at both the transmitter and receiver to provide large array gains via directional beamforming. To achieve such array gains, channel estimation (CE) with high resolution and low latency is of great importance for mmWave communications. However, classic super-resolution subspace CE methods such as multiple signal classification (MUSIC) and estimation of signal parameters via rotation invariant technique (ESPRIT) cannot be applied here due to RF chain constraints. In this paper, an enhanced CE algorithm is developed for the off-grid problem when quantizing the angles of mmWave channel in the spatial domain where off-grid problem refers to the scenario that angles do not lie on the quantization grids with high probability, and it results in power leakage and severe reduction of the CE performance. A new model is first proposed to formulate the off-grid problem. The new model divides the continuously-distributed angle into a quantized discrete grid part, referred to as the integral grid angle, and an offset part, termed fractional off-grid angle. Accordingly, an iterative off-grid turbo CE (IOTCE) algorithm is proposed to renew and upgrade the CE between the integral grid part and the fractional off-grid part under the Turbo principle. By fully exploiting the sparse structure of mmWave channels, the integral grid part is estimated by a soft-decoding based compressed sensing (CS) method called improved turbo compressed channel sensing (ITCCS). It iteratively updates the soft information between the linear minimum mean square error (LMMSE) estimator and the sparsity combiner. Monte Carlo simulations are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, and the results show that it enhances the angle detection

  19. An Off-Grid Turbo Channel Estimation Algorithm for Millimeter Wave Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyi Han

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The bandwidth shortage has motivated the exploration of the millimeter wave (mmWave frequency spectrum for future communication networks. To compensate for the severe propagation attenuation in the mmWave band, massive antenna arrays can be adopted at both the transmitter and receiver to provide large array gains via directional beamforming. To achieve such array gains, channel estimation (CE with high resolution and low latency is of great importance for mmWave communications. However, classic super-resolution subspace CE methods such as multiple signal classification (MUSIC and estimation of signal parameters via rotation invariant technique (ESPRIT cannot be applied here due to RF chain constraints. In this paper, an enhanced CE algorithm is developed for the off-grid problem when quantizing the angles of mmWave channel in the spatial domain where off-grid problem refers to the scenario that angles do not lie on the quantization grids with high probability, and it results in power leakage and severe reduction of the CE performance. A new model is first proposed to formulate the off-grid problem. The new model divides the continuously-distributed angle into a quantized discrete grid part, referred to as the integral grid angle, and an offset part, termed fractional off-grid angle. Accordingly, an iterative off-grid turbo CE (IOTCE algorithm is proposed to renew and upgrade the CE between the integral grid part and the fractional off-grid part under the Turbo principle. By fully exploiting the sparse structure of mmWave channels, the integral grid part is estimated by a soft-decoding based compressed sensing (CS method called improved turbo compressed channel sensing (ITCCS. It iteratively updates the soft information between the linear minimum mean square error (LMMSE estimator and the sparsity combiner. Monte Carlo simulations are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, and the results show that it enhances the angle

  20. T2-weighted MR imaging of liver lesions: a prospective evaluation comparing turbo spin-echo, breath-hold turbo spin-echo and half-Fourier turbo spin-echo (HASTE) sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.; Villajos, M.; Oses, M. J.; Veintemillas, M.; Rue, M.; Puig, J.; Sentis, M.

    2000-01-01

    To compare turbo spin-echo (TSE), breath-hold TSE and half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) sequences quantitatively and qualitatively in T2-weighted images of liver lesions. The authors evaluated prospectively 89 liver lesions in 73 patients using a 1.0-T magnetic resonance system to compare TSE, breath-hold TSE and HASTE sequences. The quantitative parameters were: lesion-to-liver contrast and lesion-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio. The qualitative analysis was performed by two observers in consensus who examined four parameters: respiratory artifacts, lesion edge definition, intrahepatic vessel definition and image quality. Repeated measures analysis of variance was utilized to compare the quantitative variables and Friedman's nonparametric test for the qualitative parameters. In quantitative terms, the lesion-to-liver contrast was similar in TSE and breath-hold TSE sequences (2.45±1.44 versus 2.60±1.66), both of which were significantly better than the HASTE sequence (1.12±0.72; p<0.001). The lesion-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio was significantly higher in the TSE sequence (62.60±46.40 versus 40.22±25.35 versus 50.90±32.10 for TSE, breath-hold TSE and HASTE sequences, respectively; p<0.001). In the qualitative comparisons, the HASTE sequence was significantly better than the TSE and breath-hold TSE sequences (p<0.001) in terms of artifacts and definition of lesion edge and intrahepatic vessels. Image quality was also significantly greater in the HASTE sequence (p<0.001). In quantitative terms, the TSE sequence is better than the breath-hold TSE and HASTE sequences, but there are no movement artifacts in the HASTE sequence, which is also significantly superior to TSE and breath-hold TSE sequences in qualitative terms and, thus, can be employed for T2-weighted images in liver studies. (Author) 17 refs

  1. An ALMA survey of submillimetre galaxies in the COSMOS field: Physical properties derived from energy balance spectral energy distribution modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, O.; Delvecchio, I.; Smolčić, V.; Aravena, M.; Brisbin, D.; Karim, A.; Magnelli, B.; Novak, M.; Schinnerer, E.; Albrecht, M.; Aussel, H.; Bertoldi, F.; Capak, P. L.; Casey, C. M.; Hayward, C. C.; Ilbert, O.; Intema, H. T.; Jiang, C.; Le Fèvre, O.; McCracken, H. J.; Muñoz Arancibia, A. M.; Navarrete, F.; Padilla, N. D.; Riechers, D. A.; Salvato, M.; Scott, K. S.; Sheth, K.; Tasca, L. A. M.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) represent an important source population in the origin and cosmic evolution of the most massive galaxies. Hence, it is imperative to place firm constraints on the fundamental physical properties of large samples of SMGs. Aims: We determine the physical properties of a sample of SMGs in the COSMOS field that were pre-selected at the observed-frame wavelength of λobs = 1.1 mm, and followed up at λobs = 1.3 mm with the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array (ALMA). Methods: We used the MAGPHYS model package to fit the panchromatic (ultraviolet to radio) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 124 of the target SMGs, which lie at a median redshift of z = 2.30 (19.4% are spectroscopically confirmed). The SED analysis was complemented by estimating the gas masses of the SMGs by using the λobs = 1.3 mm dust emission as a tracer of the molecular gas component. Results: The sample median and 16th-84th percentile ranges of the stellar masses, obscured star formation rates, dust temperatures, and dust and gas masses were derived to be log(M⋆/M⊙) = 11.09+0.41-0.53, SFR = 402+661-233 M⊙ yr-1, Tdust = 39.7+9.7-7.4 K, log(Mdust/M⊙) = 9.01+0.20-0.31, and log(Mgas/M⊙ = 11.34+0.20-0.23, respectively. The Mdust/M⋆ ratio was found to decrease as a function of redshift, while the Mgas/Mdust ratio shows the opposite, positive correlation with redshift. The derived median gas-to-dust ratio of 120+73-30 agrees well with the canonical expectation. The gas fraction (Mgas/ (Mgas + M⋆)) was found to range from 0.10 to 0.98 with a median of 0.62+0.27-0.23. We found that 57.3% of our SMGs populate the main sequence (MS) of star-forming galaxies, while 41.9% of the sources lie above the MS by a factor of greater than three (one source lies below the MS). These super-MS objects, or starbursts, are preferentially found at z ≳ 3, which likely reflects the sensitivity limit of our source selection. We estimated that the median gas

  2. Training Sequence Length Optimization for a Turbo-Detector Using Decision-Directed Channel Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imed Hadj Kacem

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of optimization of the training sequence length when a turbo-detector composed of a maximum a posteriori (MAP equalizer and a MAP decoder is used. At each iteration of the receiver, the channel is estimated using the hard decisions on the transmitted symbols at the output of the decoder. The optimal length of the training sequence is found by maximizing an effective signal-to-noise ratio (SNR taking into account the data throughput loss due to the use of pilot symbols.

  3. Plan de marketing para el posicionamiento de mercado del Taller Automotriz "Los Turbos".

    OpenAIRE

    Lomas Lomas, Shirley Karina; Riera Cevallos, Jenny Belén

    2015-01-01

    Propuesta de un plan de marketing para mejorar el posicionamiento del taller automotriz “Los Turbos”, a través de la evaluación del comportamiento del cliente y el diseño de estrategias, que permitan al negocio obtener una ventaja competitiva, incrementando la cuota de mercado y las ventas crezcan. Proposal for a marketing plan to improve the positioning of the business "Turbos", through the evaluation of customer behavior and designing strategies that allow the business to obtain a ...

  4. Dynamic configuration management of a multi-standard and multi-mode reconfigurable multi-ASIP architecture for turbo decoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapotre, Vianney; Gogniat, Guy; Baghdadi, Amer; Diguet, Jean-Philippe

    2017-12-01

    The multiplication of connected devices goes along with a large variety of applications and traffic types needing diverse requirements. Accompanying this connectivity evolution, the last years have seen considerable evolutions of wireless communication standards in the domain of mobile telephone networks, local/wide wireless area networks, and Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB). In this context, intensive research has been conducted to provide flexible turbo decoder targeting high throughput, multi-mode, multi-standard, and power consumption efficiency. However, flexible turbo decoder implementations have not often considered dynamic reconfiguration issues in this context that requires high speed configuration switching. Starting from this assessment, this paper proposes the first solution that allows frame-by-frame run-time configuration management of a multi-processor turbo decoder without compromising the decoding performances.

  5. 160 Gb/s all-optical AND gate using bulk SOA turbo-switched Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón-Salgado, I.; Gutiérrez-Castrejón, R.

    2017-09-01

    A novel architecture to implement an all-optical AND gate that relies on the use of a bulk semiconductor optical amplifier-based active Mach-Zehnder interferometer and the turbo-switch effect is presented. Its performance is analyzed in terms of relevant physical parameters and its power consumption calculated. Error-free operation at 160 Gb/s is numerically demonstrated, thus becoming the fastest AND gate of its kind. Accurate simulations using a well-tested design suite predict a 2.7 dB improvement in terms of quality factor when compared to a conventional scheme. The performance advantages of the proposed architecture remain when combined with a turbo-switched XOR gate: the resulting all-optical half-adder also operates error-free at 160 Gb/s. Our research work boosts the potential of interferometric turbo-switched photonic structures as ultra-fast all-optical processing elements.

  6. Pulsed electromagnetic fields protect the balance between adipogenesis and osteogenesis on steroid-induced osteonecrosis of femoral head at the pre-collapse stage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Ping; Chen, Sen; Peng, Hao; Zhou, Jian-Lin; Fang, Hong-Song

    2014-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on the balance of adipogenesis and osteogenesis on steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (OFH) in rats. Forty-two rats were divided into three groups: Steroid group (S, n = 16); Steroid + PEMF group (S + P, n = 16); and Control group (C, n = 10). For groups S and S + P, all rats were first intravenously given 10 µg/kg lipopolysaccharide on day 1, and then intramuscularly injected with 20 mg/kg methylprednisolone acetate on days 2, 3, and 4, with an interval of 24 h. After 4 weeks, the S + P group was treated with PEMF (4.5-ms square pulse, repeated at 15 Hz, with a peak of 1.2 mT) for 4 h a day for the next 8 weeks. Group S was not exposed to PEMF. Group C was chosen as the control group, without steroid use and exposure to PEMF. After 8 weeks of treatment, the histological changes, and mRNA and protein expressions of PPAR-γ2 and Runx2 were measured and analyzed. Compared with the S group, lower incidence of osteonecrosis (31% vs. 69%, P PEMF suppressed the expressions of PPAR-γ2 and improved the expressions of Runx2 in the femoral head (P PEMF is an effective physiotherapy in the treatment of steroid-induced ONFH, and the possible underlying mechanisms include protecting the balance between adipogenesis and osteogenesis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Balancing Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of balance in music production and examines the role of conceptual metaphors in reasoning about audio editing. Balance may be the most central concept in record production, however, the way we cognitively understand and respond meaningfully to a mix requiring balance...... is not thoroughly understood. In this paper I treat balance as a metaphor that we use to reason about several different actions in music production, such as adjusting levels, editing the frequency spectrum or the spatiality of the recording. This study is based on an exploration of a linguistic corpus of sound...

  8. T2-weighted MR imaging of liver lesions: a prospective evaluation comparing turbo spin-echo, breath-hold turbo spin-echo and half-Fourier turbo spin-echo (HASTE) sequences; Estudio de lesiones hepaticas con imagenes de resonancia magnetica potenciadas en T2: evaluacion prospectiva comparando secuencias turbo eco del espin, turbo eco del espin con respiracion sostenida y half-Fourier turbo eco del espin (HASTE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.; Villajos, M.; Oses, M. J.; Veintemillas, M.; Rue, M.; Puig, J.; Sentis, M. [Fundacion Parc Tauli. Sabadell (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    To compare turbo spin-echo (TSE), breath-hold TSE and half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) sequences quantitatively and qualitatively in T2-weighted images of liver lesions. The authors evaluated prospectively 89 liver lesions in 73 patients using a 1.0-T magnetic resonance system to compare TSE, breath-hold TSE and HASTE sequences. The quantitative parameters were: lesion-to-liver contrast and lesion-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio. The qualitative analysis was performed by two observers in consensus who examined four parameters: respiratory artifacts, lesion edge definition, intrahepatic vessel definition and image quality. Repeated measures analysis of variance was utilized to compare the quantitative variables and Friedman's nonparametric test for the qualitative parameters. In quantitative terms, the lesion-to-liver contrast was similar in TSE and breath-hold TSE sequences (2.45{+-}1.44 versus 2.60{+-}1.66), both of which were significantly better than the HASTE sequence (1.12{+-}0.72; p<0.001). The lesion-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio was significantly higher in the TSE sequence (62.60{+-}46.40 versus 40.22{+-}25.35 versus 50.90{+-}32.10 for TSE, breath-hold TSE and HASTE sequences, respectively; p<0.001). In the qualitative comparisons, the HASTE sequence was significantly better than the TSE and breath-hold TSE sequences (p<0.001) in terms of artifacts and definition of lesion edge and intrahepatic vessels. Image quality was also significantly greater in the HASTE sequence (p<0.001). In quantitative terms, the TSE sequence is better than the breath-hold TSE and HASTE sequences, but there are no movement artifacts in the HASTE sequence, which is also significantly superior to TSE and breath-hold TSE sequences in qualitative terms and, thus, can be employed for T2-weighted images in liver studies. (Author) 17 refs.

  9. Evaluation of myelination and myelination disorders with turbo inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daldrup, H.E.; Schuierer, G.; Link, T.M.; Moeller, H.; Bick, U.; Peters, P.E. [Institute of Clinical Radiology, Westfaelische Wilhelms Universitaet, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Kurlemann, G. [Department of Pediatrics, Westfaelische Wilhelms Universitaet, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    The aim of our work was to determine the efficacy of turbo inversion recovery spin echo (TIRSE) pulse sequences in differentiating patients with normal and abnormal myelination. Twenty neurological normal children (aged 5 months to 12 years) as well as 65 children presenting clinically with neurologic developmental deficits (aged 2 months to 10 years) were examined using TIRSE, T1-weighted SE, and T2-weighted turbo SE pulse sequences. Contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR) between myelinated white and gray matter was compared for the different pulse sequences. In addition, two readers analyzed all images qualitatively by consensus. The CNR values were significantly higher on TIRSE images as compared with conventional images (p < 0.05). Forty-two neurologically abnormal patients displayed a normal myelination on all sequences, whereas 23 showed an abnormal myelination. The TIRSE sequence provided a sensitive and specific depiction of an abnormal myelination in all of these patients. The TIRSE sequence provided additional information to conventional pulse sequences in determining myelination disorders in children, especially in children older than 2 years. (orig.) With 9 figs., 25 refs.

  10. Research on unequal error protection with punctured turbo codes in jpeg image transmission system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhdar Moulay A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of Unequal Error Protection (UEP methods applied to JPEG image transmission using turbo codes is presented. The JPEG image is partitioned into two groups, i.e., DC components and AC components according to their respective sensitivity to channel noise. The highly sensitive DC components are better protected with a lower coding rate, while the less sensitive AC components use a higher coding rate. While we use the s-random interleaver and s-random odd-even interleaver combined with odd-even puncturing, we can fix easily the local rate of turbo-code. We propose to modify the design of s-random interleaver to fix the number of parity bits. A new UEP scheme for the Soft Output Viterbi Algorithm (SOVA is also proposed to improve the performances in terms of Bit Error Rate (BER and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR. Simulation results are given to demonstrate how the UEP schemes outperforms the equal error protection (EEP scheme in terms of BER and PSNR.

  11. Impact of Turbocharger Non-Adiabatic Operation on Engine Volumetric Efficiency and Turbo Lag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shaaban

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Turbocharger performance significantly affects the thermodynamic properties of the working fluid at engine boundaries and hence engine performance. Heat transfer takes place under all circumstances during turbocharger operation. This heat transfer affects the power produced by the turbine, the power consumed by the compressor, and the engine volumetric efficiency. Therefore, non-adiabatic turbocharger performance can restrict the engine charging process and hence engine performance. The present research work investigates the effect of turbocharger non-adiabatic performance on the engine charging process and turbo lag. Two passenger car turbochargers are experimentally and theoretically investigated. The effect of turbine casing insulation is also explored. The present investigation shows that thermal energy is transferred to the compressor under all circumstances. At high rotational speeds, thermal energy is first transferred to the compressor and latter from the compressor to the ambient. Therefore, the compressor appears to be “adiabatic” at high rotational speeds despite the complex heat transfer processes inside the compressor. A tangible effect of turbocharger non-adiabatic performance on the charging process is identified at turbocharger part load operation. The turbine power is the most affected operating parameter, followed by the engine volumetric efficiency. Insulating the turbine is recommended for reducing the turbine size and the turbo lag.

  12. Design and Development of a 200-kW Turbo-Electric Distributed Propulsion Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathakis, Kurt V.; Kloesel, Kurt J.; Lin, Yohan; Clarke, Sean; Ediger, Jacob J.; Ginn, Starr

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) (Edwards, California) is developing a Hybrid-Electric Integrated Systems Testbed (HEIST) Testbed as part of the HEIST Project, to study power management and transition complexities, modular architectures, and flight control laws for turbo-electric distributed propulsion technologies using representative hardware and piloted simulations. Capabilities are being developed to assess the flight readiness of hybrid electric and distributed electric vehicle architectures. Additionally, NASA will leverage experience gained and assets developed from HEIST to assist in flight-test proposal development, flight-test vehicle design, and evaluation of hybrid electric and distributed electric concept vehicles for flight safety. The HEIST test equipment will include three trailers supporting a distributed electric propulsion wing, a battery system and turbogenerator, dynamometers, and supporting power and communication infrastructure, all connected to the AFRC Core simulation. Plans call for 18 high performance electric motors that will be powered by batteries and the turbogenerator, and commanded by a piloted simulation. Flight control algorithms will be developed on the turbo-electric distributed propulsion system.

  13. Balancing Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part of being an Active, More Powerful You means finding balance in your daily life: taking on the Must-dos and finding time for some Should Dos and Want-to-Dos. Sometimes, emotions and commitments can come into play and upset the balance.

  14. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  15. Quantitative analysis of the breath-holding half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo technique in abdominal MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Kyung-Rae; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Lee, Jae-Seung; Chung, Woon-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    A consecutive series of 50 patients (28 males and 22 females) who underwent hepatic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from August to December 2011 were enrolled in this study. The appropriate parameters for abdominal MRI scans were determined by comparing the images (TE = 90 and 128 msec) produced using the half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) technique at different signal acquisition times. The patients consisted of 15 normal patients, 25 patients with a hepatoma and 10 patients with a hemangioma. The TE in a single patient was set to either 90 msec or 128 msec. This was followed by measurements using the four normal rendering methods of the biliary tract system and the background signal intensity using the maximal signal intensity techniques in the liver, spleen, pancreas, gallbladder, fat, muscles and hemangioma. The signal-to-noise and the contrast-to-noise ratios were obtained. The image quality was assessed subjectively, and the results were compared. The signal-to-noise and the contrast-to-noise ratios were significantly higher at TE = 128 msec than at TE = 90 when diseases of the liver, spleen, pancreas, gallbladder, and fat and muscles, hepatocellular carcinomas and hemangiomas, and rendering the hepatobiliary tract system based on the maximum signal intensity technique were involved (p breath-hold half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) was found to be effective in illustrating the abdominal organs for TE = 128 msec. Overall, the image quality at TE = 128 msec was better than that at TE = 90 msec due to the improved signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) ratios. Overall, the HASTE technique for abdominal MRI based on a high-magnetic field (3.0 T) at a TE of 128 msec can provide useful data.

  16. EFFECTS OF HEAT STRESS ON BLOOD ACID-BASE BALANCE AND MINERAL CONTENT IN GUINEA FOWLS WHEN DRINKING WATER TREATED WITH MAGNETIC FIELD WAS USED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata GŁOWIŃSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of 24-hour heat stress on blood acid-base balance parameters and mineral content in guinea fowls when drinking water treated with magnetic field was used. The maximum environmental temperature at the end of the present experiment was 32oC. The relative humidity was maintained at 55% (±2. Blood samples were collected from birds three times: in the 1st, 12th and 24th hour of stress. Exposure to heat stress significantly increased blood bicarbonate ion concentration (HCO3 -, content of buffer alkali (BB and decreased shortage of alkali (BE but only in the 12th hour of stress. In the level of oxygen pressure (pO2 and percentage of oxygen content (O2sat in the 12th and 24th hour of the experiment statistically high significant decrease occurred. In consequence of high environmental temperature the statistically significant decrease of sodium was found. No changes in the level of potassium and chlorine ions in guinea fowls watered magnetized water occurred.

  17. MR Imaging of the Internal Auditory Canal and Inner Ear at 3T: Comparison between 3D Driven Equilibrium and 3D Balanced Fast Field Echo Sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Jun Soo; Kim, Hyung Jin; Yim, Yoo Jeong; Kim, Sung Tae; Jeon, Pyoung; Kim, Keon Ha [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sam Soo; Jeon, Yong Hwan; Lee, Ji Won [Kangwon National University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    To compare the use of 3D driven equilibrium (DRIVE) imaging with 3D balanced fast field echo (bFFE) imaging in the assessment of the anatomic structures of the internal auditory canal (IAC) and inner ear at 3 Tesla (T). Thirty ears of 15 subjects (7 men and 8 women; age range, 22 71 years; average age, 50 years) without evidence of ear problems were examined on a whole-body 3T MR scanner with both 3D DRIVE and 3D bFFE sequences by using an 8-channel sensitivity encoding (SENSE) head coil. Two neuroradiologists reviewed both MR images with particular attention to the visibility of the anatomic structures, including four branches of the cranial nerves within the IAC, anatomic structures of the cochlea, vestibule, and three semicircular canals. Although both techniques provided images of relatively good quality, the 3D DRIVE sequence was somewhat superior to the 3D bFFE sequence. The discrepancies were more prominent for the basal turn of the cochlea, vestibule, and all semicircular canals, and were thought to be attributed to the presence of greater magnetic susceptibility artifacts inherent to gradient-echo techniques such as bFFE. Because of higher image quality and less susceptibility artifacts, we highly recommend the employment of 3D DRIVE imaging as the MR imaging choice for the IAC and inner ear

  18. Applying an energy balance model of a debris covered glacier through the Himalayan seasons - insights from the field and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Jakob; Pellicciotti, Francesca; Buri, Pascal; Brock, Ben

    2016-04-01

    Although some recent studies have attempted to model melt below debris cover in the Himalaya as well as the European Alps, field measurements remain rare and uncertainties of a number of parameters are difficult to constrain. The difficulty of accurately measuring sub-debris melt at one location over a longer period of time with stakes adds to the challenge of calibrating models adequately, as moving debris tends to tilt stakes. Based on measurements of sub-debris melt with stakes as well as air and surface temperature at the same location during three years from 2012 to 2014 at Lirung Glacier in the Nepalese Himalaya, we investigate results with the help of an earlier developed energy balance model. We compare stake readings to cumulative melt as well as observed to modelled surface temperatures. With timeseries stretching through the pre-Monsoon, Monsoon and post-Monsoon of different years we can show the difference of sensitive parameters during these seasons. Using radiation measurements from the AWS we can use a temporarily variable time series of albedo. A thorough analysis of thermistor data showing the stratigraphy of the temperature through the debris layer allows a detailed discussion of the variability as well as the uncertainty range of thermal conductivity. Distributed wind data as well as results from a distributed surface roughness assessment allows to constrain variability of turbulent fluxes between the different locations of the stakes. We show that model results are especially sensitive to thermal conductivity, a value that changes substantially between the seasons. Values obtained from the field are compared to earlier studies, which shows large differences within locations in the Himalaya. We also show that wind varies with more than a factor two between depressions and on debris mounds which has a significant influence on turbulent fluxes. Albedo decreases from the dry to the wet season and likely has some spatial variability that is

  19. Clinical application of Half Fourier Acquisition Single Shot Turbo Spin Echo (HASTE) imaging accelerated by simultaneous multi-slice acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Jenni; P Marques, José; Ter Telgte, Annemieke; van Dorst, Anouk; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik; Meijer, Frederick J A; Norris, David G

    2018-01-01

    As a single-shot sequence with a long train of refocusing pulses, Half-Fourier Acquisition Single-Shot Turbo-Spin-Echo (HASTE) suffers from high power deposition limiting use at high resolutions and high field strengths, particularly if combined with acceleration techniques such as simultaneous multi-slice (SMS) imaging. Using a combination of multiband (MB)-excitation and PINS-refocusing pulses will effectively accelerate the acquisition time while staying within the SAR limitations. In particular, uncooperative and young patients will profit from the speed of the MB-PINS HASTE sequence, as clinical diagnosis can be possible without sedation. Materials and MethodsMB-excitation and PINS-refocusing pulses were incorporated into a HASTE-sequence with blipped CAIPIRINHA and TRAPS including an internal FLASH reference scan for online reconstruction. Whole brain MB-PINS HASTE data were acquired on a Siemens 3T-Prisma system from 10 individuals and compared to a clinical HASTE protocol. ResultsThe proposed MB-PINS HASTE protocol accelerates the acquisition by about a factor 2 compared to the clinical HASTE. The diagnostic image quality proved to be comparable for both sequences for the evaluation of the overall aspect of the brain, the detection of white matter changes and areas of tissue loss, and for the evaluation of the CSF spaces although artifacts were more frequently encountered with MB-PINS HASTE. ConclusionsMB-PINS HASTE enables acquisition of slice accelerated highly T2-weighted images and provides good diagnostic image quality while reducing acquisition time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A turbo engine with automatic transmission? How to many chemicomotion to the subtleties and robustness of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, S.; Otten, M.F.; Købmann, Brian Jensen

    2002-01-01

    benefits of the turbo-charging of catabolic pathways, of loose coupling, low-gear catabolism, automatic transmission in energy coupling, and of homeostasis. Mechanisms for such phenomena may reside at the level of individual proton pumps, or consist of rerouting of electrons over parallel pathways...

  1. Balance velocities of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joughin, I.; Fahnestock, M.; Ekholm, Simon

    1997-01-01

    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetery data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail......, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning....

  2. Balance Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorder can profoundly affect daily activities and cause psychological and emotional hardship. What are the symptoms of ... that help with balance but are destroyed by aging, medications, infections, or trauma can someday be regrown ...

  3. High-Speed Turbo-TCM-Coded Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing Ultra-Wideband Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yanxia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the UWB proposals in the IEEE P802.15 WPAN project is to use a multiband orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM system and punctured convolutional codes for UWB channels supporting a data rate up to 480 Mbps. In this paper, we improve the proposed system using turbo TCM with QAM constellation for higher data rate transmission. We construct a punctured parity-concatenated trellis codes, in which a TCM code is used as the inner code and a simple parity-check code is employed as the outer code. The result shows that the system can offer a much higher spectral efficiency, for example, 1.2 Gbps, which is 2.5 times higher than the proposed system. We identify several essential requirements to achieve the high rate transmission, for example, frequency and time diversity and multilevel error protection. Results are confirmed by density evolution.

  4. BER performance comparison of optical CDMA systems with/without turbo codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Muralidhar; Chauhan, Vijender S.; Dutta, Yashpal; Sinha, Ravindra K.

    2002-08-01

    In this paper, we have analyzed and simulated the BER performance of a turbo coded optical code-division multiple-access (TC-OCDMA) system. A performance comparison has been made between uncoded OCDMA and TC-OCDMA systems employing various OCDMA address codes (optical orthogonal codes (OOCs), Generalized Multiwavelength Prime codes (GMWPC's), and Generalized Multiwavelength Reed Solomon code (GMWRSC's)). The BER performance of TC-OCDMA systems has been analyzed and simulated by varying the code weight of address code employed by the system. From the simulation results, it is observed that lower weight address codes can be employed for TC-OCDMA systems that can have the equivalent BER performance of uncoded systems employing higher weight address codes for a fixed number of active users.

  5. Microsimulation approach for BRT system: The case study of urban turbo roundabout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Tiziana; Tesoriere, Giovanni; Canale, Antonino

    2017-11-01

    The development of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems is relatively recent in the Europe and is very fresh on Italy; however, several systems are operating and many more are being planned. A more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between land uses and BRT systems is needed, particularly in comparison to other fixed-guideway modes such as heavy and light rail. While recognizing that existing land uses have an important and complex influence on the development costs and benefits of fixed-guideway projects, this research is focused on the impacts that BRT projects have on surrounding property values. This research seeks the impact of BRT system on urban area where is a road intersection at grade such as turbo roundabout. The results are linked to before and after application of BRT in terms of microsimulation comparison results.

  6. A Low-Complexity UEP Methodology Demonstrated on a Turbo-Encoded Wavelet Image Satellite Downlink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salemi Eric

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Realizing high-quality digital image transmission via a satellite link, while optimizing resource distribution and minimizing battery consumption, is a challenging task. This paper describes a methodology to optimize a turbo-encoded wavelet-based satellite downlink progressive image transmission system with unequal error protection (UEP techniques. To achieve that goal, we instantiate a generic UEP methodology onto the system, and demonstrate that the proposed solution has little impact on the average performance, while greatly reducing the run-time complexity. Based on a simple design-time distortion model and a low-complexity run-time algorithm, the provided solution can dynamically tune the system's configuration to any bitrate constraint or channel condition. The resulting system outperforms in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR, a state-of-the-art, fine-tuned equal error protection (EEP solution by as much as 2 dB.

  7. A Low-Complexity UEP Methodology Demonstrated on a Turbo-Encoded Wavelet Image Satellite Downlink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Salemi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Realizing high-quality digital image transmission via a satellite link, while optimizing resource distribution and minimizing battery consumption, is a challenging task. This paper describes a methodology to optimize a turbo-encoded wavelet-based satellite downlink progressive image transmission system with unequal error protection (UEP techniques. To achieve that goal, we instantiate a generic UEP methodology onto the system, and demonstrate that the proposed solution has little impact on the average performance, while greatly reducing the run-time complexity. Based on a simple design-time distortion model and a low-complexity run-time algorithm, the provided solution can dynamically tune the system's configuration to any bitrate constraint or channel condition. The resulting system outperforms in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR, a state-of-the-art, fine-tuned equal error protection (EEP solution by as much as 2 dB.

  8. The Evidence of Imposex in Turbo sp. from Ujungpiring Waters of Jepara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuraini, RAT; Hartati, R.; Endrawati, H.; Widianingsih; Rachma, MJ; Mahendrajaya, RT

    2018-02-01

    Imposex is an endocrine disruption syndrome, in which females of marine gastropods develop sexual characteristics of males (penis and/or vas deferens). This syndrome is caused by tributyltin (TBT) or triphenyltin (TPT), toxic organotin compounds found in naval paints used as antifouling system in boats and artificial structures. The main objective of this study was to assess the incidence and severity of imposex in Turbosp.A hundred individus of Turbo sp was collected from Ujung Piring waters of Jepara, and observed for their sex and imposex. The results showed that the ratio male and female was 1.13 : 1, and the frequency of imposex females was 64.58%. The relative penis size were longer in imposex female than in male. The possibility of pollution was clearly shown from high evidence of imposex female.

  9. An Iterative Multiuser Detector for Turbo-Coded DS-CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takawira Fambirai

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an iterative multiuser detector for turbo-coded synchronous and asynchronous direct-sequence CDMA (DS-CDMA systems. The receiver is derived from the maximum a posteriori (MAP estimation of the single user's transmitted data, conditioned on information about the estimate of the multiple-access interference (MAI and the received signal from the channel. This multiple-access interference is reconstructed by making hard decisions on the users' detected bits at the preceding iteration. The complexity of the proposed receiver increases linearly with the number of users. The proposed detection scheme is compared with a previously developed one. The multiuser detector proposed in this paper has a better performance when the transmitted powers of all active users are equal in the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN channel. Also, the detector is found to be resilient against the near-far effect.

  10. Milcom 04 Paper ID# 1158: A New Class of Turbo-like Codes with Efficient and Practical High-speed Decoders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    Turbo codes not only achieve near Shannon-capacity performance, but also have decoders with modest complexity, which is crucial for implementation. So far efficient architectures for decoding of turbo codes have been proposed that is suitable for serial processing. In this paper a novel architecture for very high-speed turbo decoder is presented. The performance of this decoder is illustrated and the tradeoff between speed and efficiency is discussed. It is shown that some decoders can run faster by some order of magnitude while maintaining almost the same processing load.

  11. Usefulness of turbo-fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (tFLAIR) sequence in diagnosing meningioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Teruhiko; Miki, Hitoshi; Takeguchi, Takashi; Kikuchi, Keiichi; Mochizuki, Teruhito; Ikezoe, Junpei

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively the usefulness of turbo-fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (tFLAIR) in diagnosing meningioma in comparison with the T2-weighted turbo spin echo (T2W-TSE) sequence. Forty-eight patients diagnosed with meningioma were studied. In the qualitative study, we evaluated tumor delineation, contrast (Co) of tumor-to-CSF (cerebrospinal fluid), Co of tumor-to-brain parenchyma, Co of peripheral edema-to-brain parenchyma, and detectability of tumor margin. In quantitative study-1, using signal intensity (SI), we measured SI and calculated Co-SI of tumor-to-gray matter, Co-SI of tumor-to-white matter, Co-SI of peripheral edema-to-white matter, and Co-SI of tumor-to-CSF. In quantitative study-2, using film density, we measured density (De) on hard-copy film images and calculated Co-De for the same items as in quantitative study-1. In the qualitative study, tFLAIR was superior to T2W-TSE in tumor delineation, Co of tumor-to-CSF, Co of tumor-to-brain parenchyma, and Co of peripheral edema-to-brain parenchyma. In quantitative study-1, tFLAIR was superior to T2W-TSE in Co-SI of tumor-to-CSF, however, T2W-TSE was superior to tFLAIR in Co-SI of tumor-to-white matter. In quantitative study-2, tFLAIR was superior to T2W-TSE in all Co-De. tFLAIR was superior to T2W-TSE in the depiction of meningioma. (author)

  12. Usefulness of turbo-fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (tFLAIR) sequence in diagnosing meningioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Teruhiko; Miki, Hitoshi; Takeguchi, Takashi; Kikuchi, Keiichi; Mochizuki, Teruhito; Ikezoe, Junpei [Ehime Univ., Shigenobu (Japan). School of Medicine

    2003-04-01

    We evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively the usefulness of turbo-fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (tFLAIR) in diagnosing meningioma in comparison with the T2-weighted turbo spin echo (T2W-TSE) sequence. Forty-eight patients diagnosed with meningioma were studied. In the qualitative study, we evaluated tumor delineation, contrast (Co) of tumor-to-CSF (cerebrospinal fluid), Co of tumor-to-brain parenchyma, Co of peripheral edema-to-brain parenchyma, and detectability of tumor margin. In quantitative study-1, using signal intensity (SI), we measured SI and calculated Co-SI of tumor-to-gray matter, Co-SI of tumor-to-white matter, Co-SI of peripheral edema-to-white matter, and Co-SI of tumor-to-CSF. In quantitative study-2, using film density, we measured density (De) on hard-copy film images and calculated Co-De for the same items as in quantitative study-1. In the qualitative study, tFLAIR was superior to T2W-TSE in tumor delineation, Co of tumor-to-CSF, Co of tumor-to-brain parenchyma, and Co of peripheral edema-to-brain parenchyma. In quantitative study-1, tFLAIR was superior to T2W-TSE in Co-SI of tumor-to-CSF, however, T2W-TSE was superior to tFLAIR in Co-SI of tumor-to-white matter. In quantitative study-2, tFLAIR was superior to T2W-TSE in all Co-De. tFLAIR was superior to T2W-TSE in the depiction of meningioma. (author)

  13. Construction of Conveniently Screening pLKO.1-TRC Vector Tagged with TurboGFP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Zhu, Wenhua; Guo, Yuanxu; Jiang, Congshan; Hussain, Nazim; Meng, Liesu; Lu, Shemin

    2017-02-01

    The pLKO.1-TRC plasmid has been a popular and widely used vector due to its simple handling and stability. The huge RNAi database, a TRC library, has been established based on this vector. However, this plasmid only has a puromycin-resisted gene for selecting, which limits its application in microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). In the present work, PCR, restriction endonuclease digestion and molecular cloning techniques were used to insert the gene decoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) without changing the structure of original plasmid to extend its application. To demonstrate the function of new plasmid, we constructed shNC and shGAPDH plasmids based on newly constructed pLKO-TurboGFP-TRC (pLKOG) and original pLKO plasmids, and then packaged lentivirus particles by 293T cells. The supernatant containing lentiviral particles was collected and then incubated with RAW264.7 cells for infection. After selection for 7 days by using puromycin, the cells were harvested. RT-qPCR and Western blotting were used to detect the target gene expression. FACS was used to detect the green fluorescent of cells. Our results showed that the newly constructed pLKOG plasmid, as a lentiviral vector carrying shRNA, could knock down the target gene expression efficiently and express TurboGFP protein efficiently in the host cells. We conclude that the new plasmid is a convenient vector for selecting positive cells with shRNA by using fluorescent microscope and FACS.

  14. Comparison of GRASE and turbo spin echo sequences in brain MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Youk; Lee, Young Joon; Eun, Choong Ki; Jeon, Young Seup; Kim, Ig Dae; Cha, Seong Sook [Inje Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of GRASE images of the brain, which combine gradient echo-EPI and turbo spin echo, and to compare the results with those of the turbo spin echo (TSE) technique. We analyzed and compared brain MR images obtained in 25 patients between October, 1996 and January, 1997, both TSE and GRASE techniques. Diagnosis was normal (n=5), infarct or ischemia (n=10), intracerebral hemorrhage (n=6), and neoplasm (n=4). TSE and GRASE MR images were obtained using a 1.5 T Gyroscan ACS-NT (Philips, Netherlands). For qualitative assessment, overall image quality, discrimination between cortical gray-white matter and basal ganglia-white matter, lesion conspicuity, and MR artifact were evaluated using a subjective grading system ranging from 1 to 5 (1=TSE better than GRASE, 5=GRASE better than TSE). For quantitative assessment, signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were calculated for cortical gray matter, white matter, basal ganglia, and lesions, and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) were calculated for cortical gray-white matter, basal ganglia-white matter and lesions-white matter. We measured image acquisition time and RF specific absorption rate (SAR) on TSE and GRASE. With regard to MR artifact, GRASE is more sensitive than TSE, but as regards image quality and lesion distinction, the two modalities show no distinct difference. Since GRASE is superior to TSE for the detection of hemosiderin, and image acquisition time is three times shorter using GRASE, GRASE might usefully be applied during the evaluation by MR imaging of certain brain conditions. (author). 17 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  15. Dynamic-energetic balance of agricultural tractors: active systems for the measurement of the power requirements in static tests and under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Pochi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern tractors are characterized by the introduction of devices designed to increase the operative performances of the machines, such as systems for monitoring and controlling various functions (through a massive use of electronics and hydraulics, or deputed to improve the comfort of the driver (paying more attention to ergonomics, air-conditioning, noise and vibration. Such devices need energy to be operated, affecting the energetic balance of the tractor. In this context, the availability of suitable methodologies and instrumental systems could be useful to provide objective, accurate and reliable measurements of the performances of the tractors under different conditions, also considering the power requirements from ancillary services and/or simulating the coupling with operating machines. The tests on the performances of tractors are now made using different methods, including the trial codes issued by the OECD Codes. Beyond their undoubted validity, they fix standard test conditions that often do not adequately represent the operative reality, so that, much remains to investigate on the actual performances provided by the tractors. From this point of view and with reference to fixed point tests, a test bench was developed for the measurement of the power required by various devices, such as transmission and air conditioning. It was used in experimental tests on a tracked tractor and on a wheeled tractor, aimed at validating the test device, measuring the power absorption related to the rotational speed of the organs of propulsion and to the characteristics curves, in order to quantify the power drawn by the transmission and by the air conditioning and assess the residual power for other tractor functions. As to field conditions, a study is being conducted at CRA-ING, within the project PTO (Mi.P.A.A.F., to develop a mobile test bench aimed at evaluating the power required by different operations, such as self displacement, traction, use of

  16. Application of the satellite system of the earth's gravity field measurement (GRACE) for the evaluation of water balance in large Russian river catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, Natalia; Zotov, Leonid; Grigoriev, Vadim; Sazonov, Alexey; Kireeva, Maria; Krylenko, Inna

    2017-04-01

    Space-based Earth observing systems provided a substantially large amount of information to the scientific community in recent decades. Cumulative effects of redistribution of masses in the Earth system can be seen in the changes of the gravity field of the Earth. Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, launched 17.03.2002 from Plesetsk, provide a set of monthly Earth's gravity field observations. GRACE data is very useful for hydrological and climatological studies, especially over large territory, not completely covered by the meteorological and hydrological networks, like Russia. Possible application of the satellite gravity survey data obtained under the GRACE for solving various hydrological problems is discussed. The GRACE-based monthly gravity field data are transformed into the maps of water level equivalent and averaged for the catchments of the largest rivers of Russia. The temporal variability of the parameter is analyzed. Possible application of the GRACE data for the evaluation of particular components of water balance within the largest river basins of the European part of Russia is discussed. After averaging over 15 large Russian rivers basins annual component shows amplitude increase since 2009. Trend component grows until 2009 and then reaches a plateau. It is mostly dominated by Siberian rivers. Map for the trend show gravity field increase in Siberia, at Back Sea and decrease over Caspian Sea since 2003. GRACE satellite gravimetry data can be used for estimating terrestrial water storage (TWS) in a river basin scale. Terrestrial water storage (TWS) is the integrated sum of all basin storages (surface water bodies, soil and ground aquifer, snowpack and glaciers) and the ability to estimate TWS dynamics is useful for understanding the basin's water cycle, its interconnection with the local climate, physics of predictability of extreme hydrological events. Despite the importance of the TWS estimates, reliable ground

  17. Cavendish Balance Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Bryan

    2000-01-01

    This is the final report for a project carried out to modify a manual commercial Cavendish Balance for automated use in cryostat. The scope of this project was to modify an off-the-shelf manually operated Cavendish Balance to allow for automated operation for periods of hours or days in cryostat. The purpose of this modification was to allow the balance to be used in the study of effects of superconducting materials on the local gravitational field strength to determine if the strength of gravitational fields can be reduced. A Cavendish Balance was chosen because it is a fairly simple piece of equipment for measuring gravity, one the least accurately known and least understood physical constants. The principle activities that occurred under this purchase order were: (1) All the components necessary to hold and automate the Cavendish Balance in a cryostat were designed. Engineering drawings were made of custom parts to be fabricated, other off-the-shelf parts were procured; (2) Software was written in LabView to control the automation process via a stepper motor controller and stepper motor, and to collect data from the balance during testing; (3)Software was written to take the data collected from the Cavendish Balance and reduce it to give a value for the gravitational constant; (4) The components of the system were assembled and fitted to a cryostat. Also the LabView hardware including the control computer, stepper motor driver, data collection boards, and necessary cabling were assembled; and (5) The system was operated for a number of periods, data collected, and reduced to give an average value for the gravitational constant.

  18. Application of a hybrid method for downscaling of the global climate model fields for evaluation of future surface mass balance of mountain glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Polina; Rybak, Oleg; Kaminskaia, Mariia

    2017-04-01

    Mountain glaciers in the Caucasus have been degrading during the last century. During this time period they lost approximately one-third in area and half of their volume. Prediction of their evolution in changing climate is crucial for the local economy because hydrological regime in the territory north to the Main Caucasus Chain is mainly driven by glacier run-off. For future projections of glaciers' surface mass balance (SMB) we apply a hybrid method of downscaling of GCM-generated meteorological fields from the global scale to the characteristic spatial resolution normally used for modeling of a single mountain glacier SMB. A method consists of two stages. On the first, dynamical stage, we use the results of calculations of regional climate model (RCM) HadRM3P for the Black Sea-Caspian region with a spatial resolution of approximately 25 km. Initial and boundary conditions for HadRM3P are provided by an AO GCM INMCM developed in the Institute of Numerical Mathematics (Moscow, Russia). Calculations were carried out for two time slices: the present (reference) climate (1971-2000 years) and climate in the late 21st century (2071-2100 years) according to scenario of greenhouse gas emissions RCP 8.5. On the second stage of downscaling, further regionalization is achieved by projecting of RCM-generated data to the high-resolution (25 m) digital elevation models in a domain enclosing target glaciers (Marukh in the Western Caucasus and Djankuat in the Central Caucasus, both being typical valley glaciers). Elevation gradient of surface air temperature and precipitation were derived from the model data. Further, results were corrected using data of observations. The incoming shortwave radiation is calculated separately, taking into account slopes, aspects and shade effect. In the end of the current century expected air temperature growth in the Central and Western Caucasus is about 5-6 °C (summer), and 2-3 °C (winter). Reduction in annual precipitation is not

  19. Use of new turbo spin-echo pulse sequences with and without fat suppression in diagnosis and staging of prostate carcinoma; Anwendung neuer Turbo-Spin-Echo-Pulssequenzen mit und ohne Fettunterdrueckung bei der Diagnostik und Stadieneinteilung des Prostatakarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhard, K. [Krankenhaus Martha-Maria, Nuernberg (Germany). Roentgenabteilung; Hollenbach, H.P. [Siemens Erlangen (Germany). Unternehmungsbereich Medizinische Technik; Rieger, J. [Medizinische Klinik Waldkrankenhaus St. Marien, Erlangen (Germany); Kiefer, B. [Siemens Erlangen (Germany). Unternehmungsbereich Medizinische Technik; Riedl, C. [Erlangen-Nuenberg Univ. (Germany). Urologische Klinik; Kreckel, M. [Erlangen-Nuenberg Univ. (Germany). Urologische Klinik; Schrott, K.M. [Erlangen-Nuenberg Univ. (Germany). Urologische Klinik

    1994-01-01

    MR studies using turbo-spin-echo pulse sequences (TSE) were performed on 27 patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer. A prospective study was conducted in 15 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy. Turbo SE pulse sequences generate strongly T{sub 2}-weighted images of excellent quality with reduction of measurement time by a factor of 4-6. A comparison with standard T{sub 2}-weighted spin-echo pulse sequences indicated on objective improvement in the contrast of pathological structures (p<0.001). With respect to differentiation of stages T{sub 2} and T{sub 3} (TNM) during pathohistological correlation, sensitivity of 80%, specificity of 40% and an accuracy rate of 67% were obtained. Sensitivity of 71% and specificity of 75% were obtained when decuding cases of infiltration into the seminal vesicles, with an accuracy rate of 73%. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei 27 Patienten mit histologisch gesichertem Prostatakarzinom wurden MRT-Untersuchungen mit Turbo-Spin-Echo-Pulssequencen (TSE) durchgefuehrt. In 15 Faellen erfolgte eine radikale Prostatektomie. TurboSE-Pulssequenzen erzeugen stark T{sub 2}-gewichtete Bilder mit ausgezeichneter Bildqualitaet bei einer Messzeitverkuerzung in einem Bereich von 4-6. Der Vergleich mit einer Standard-T{sub 2}-gewichteten Spin-Echo-Pulssequenz erbrachte eine objektive Kontrastverbesserung (p<0,001). Bei der pathohistologischen Korrelation konnten bei der Differenzierung zwischen Stadium T{sub 2} und T{sub 3} (TNM) eine Sensitivitaet von 80%, eine Spezifitaet von 40% und eine Treffsicherheit von 67% erreicht werden. Eine Sensitivitaet von 71% und eine Spezifitaet von 75% wurden bei der Beurteilung eines Samenblasenbefalls ermittelt, bei einer Treffsicherheit von 73%. (orig.)

  20. Preprocessor that Enables the Use of GridProTM Grids for Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Code TURBO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam, Vikram

    2010-01-01

    A preprocessor for the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code TURBO has been developed and tested. The preprocessor converts grids produced by GridPro (Program Development Company (PDC)) into a format readable by TURBO and generates the necessary input files associated with the grid. The preprocessor also generates information that enables the user to decide how to allocate the computational load in a multiple block per processor scenario.

  1. Technical Note: Diffusion-weighted MRI with minimal distortion in head-and-neck radiotherapy using a turbo spin echo acquisition method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schakel, Tim; Hoogduin, Johannes M; Terhaard, Chris H J; Philippens, Marielle E P

    2017-08-01

    Diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI, showing high contrast between tumor and background tissue, is a promising technique in radiotherapy for tumor delineation. However, its use for head-and-neck patients is hampered by poor geometric accuracy in conventional echo planar imaging (EPI) DW-MRI. An alternative turbo spin echo sequence, DW-SPLICE, is implemented and demonstrated in patients. The DW-SPLICE sequence was implemented on a 3.0 T system and evaluated in 10 patients. The patients were scanned in treatment position, using a customized head support and immobilization mask. Image distortions were quantified at the gross tumor volume (GTV) using field map analysis. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was evaluated using an ice water phantom. The DW images acquired by DW-SPLICE showed no image distortions. Field map analysis at the gross tumor volumes resulted in a median distortion of 0.2 mm for DW-SPLICE, whereas for the conventional method this was 7.2 mm. ADC values, measured using an ice water phantom were in accordance with literature values. The implementation of DW-SPLICE allows for diffusion-weighted imaging of patients in treatment position with excellent geometrical accuracy. The images can be used to facilitate target volume delineation in RT treatment planning. © 2017 The Authors. Medical Physics published by Wiley periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  2. Intravenous fluids: balancing solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorn, Ewout J

    2017-08-01

    The topic of intravenous (IV) fluids may be regarded as "reverse nephrology", because nephrologists usually treat to remove fluids rather than to infuse them. However, because nephrology is deeply rooted in fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance, IV fluids belong in the realm of our specialty. The field of IV fluid therapy is in motion due to the increasing use of balanced crystalloids, partly fueled by the advent of new solutions. This review aims to capture these recent developments by critically evaluating the current evidence base. It will review both indications and complications of IV fluid therapy, including the characteristics of the currently available solutions. It will also cover the use of IV fluids in specific settings such as kidney transplantation and pediatrics. Finally, this review will address the pathogenesis of saline-induced hyperchloremic acidosis, its potential effect on outcomes, and the question if this should lead to a definitive switch to balanced solutions.

  3. Operational Safety Assessment of Turbo Generators with Wavelet Rényi Entropy from Sensor-Dependent Vibration Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Wang, Baojian; Chen, Xuefeng

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of sensor technology, various professional sensors are installed on modern machinery to monitor operational processes and assure operational safety, which play an important role in industry and society. In this work a new operational safety assessment approach with wavelet Rényi entropy utilizing sensor-dependent vibration signals is proposed. On the basis of a professional sensor and the corresponding system, sensor-dependent vibration signals are acquired and analyzed by a second generation wavelet package, which reflects time-varying operational characteristic of individual machinery. Derived from the sensor-dependent signals’ wavelet energy distribution over the observed signal frequency range, wavelet Rényi entropy is defined to compute the operational uncertainty of a turbo generator, which is then associated with its operational safety degree. The proposed method is applied in a 50 MW turbo generator, whereupon it is proved to be reasonable and effective for operation and maintenance. PMID:25894934

  4. Turbo-FSK, a physical layer for low-power wide-area networks: Analysis and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Yoann; Doré, Jean-Baptiste; Ros, Laurent; Berg, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    As the Internet-of-Things is becoming a reality, the need for a new Low-Power Wide-Area (LPWA) network emerged in the last few years. Numerous low-cost devices will be connected, and this requires an optimization of the link budget: the physical layer needs to be designed highly energy efficient. The combination of M-ary orthogonal Frequency-Shift-Keying (M-FSK) modulation and coding in the same process has been shown to be a promising candidate when associated with an iterative receiver (turbo principle). In this work, we study this new digital transmission scheme, called Turbo-FSK. An EXtrinsic Information Transfer (EXIT) chart analysis is realized. The influence of the packet length is investigated, and the scheme is shown to stay energy efficiency even with short packet sizes. Comparison with LPWA current technologies is performed, showing the potential of this technology. xml:lang="fr"

  5. Development of elements of the condition monitoring system of turbo generators of thermal power stations and nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumenko, A. I.; Kostyukov, V. N.; Kuz'minykh, N. Yu.; Boichenko, S. N.; Timin, A. V.

    2017-08-01

    The rationale is given for the improvement of the regulatory framework for the use of shaft sensors for the in-service condition monitoring of turbo generators and the development of control systems of shaft surfacing and misalignments of supports. A modern concept and a set of methods are proposed for the condition monitoring of the "shaft line-thrust bearing oil film-turbo generator supports" system elements based on the domestic COMPACS® technology. The system raw data are design, technology, installation, and operating parameters of the turbo generator as well as measured parameters of the absolute vibration of supports and mechanical quantities, relative displacements and relative vibration of the rotor teeth in accordance with GOST R 55263-2012. The precalculated shaft line assembly line in the cold state, the nominal parameters of rotor teeth positions on the dynamic equilibrium curve, the static and dynamic characteristics of the oil film of thrust bearings, and the shaft line stiffness matrix of unit support displacements have been introduced into the system. Using the COMPACS-T system, it is planned to measure positions and oscillations of rotor teeth, to count corresponding static and dynamic characteristics of the oil film, and the static and dynamic loads in the supports in real time. Using the obtained data, the system must determine the misalignments of supports and corrective alignments of rotors of coupling halves, voltages in rotor teeth, welds, and bolts of the coupling halves, and provide automatic conclusion if condition monitoring parameters correspond to standard values. A part of the methodological support for the proposed system is presented, including methods for determining static reactions of supports under load, the method for determining shaft line stiffness matrices, and the method for solving the inverse problem, i.e., the determination of the misalignments of the supports by measurements of rotor teeth relative positions in bearing

  6. The energy balance experiment EBEX-2000. Part II: Intercomparison of eddy-covariance sensors and post-field data processing methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauder, M.; Oncley, S.P.; Vogt, R.; Weidinger, T.; Ribeiro, L.; Bernhofer, C.; Foken, T.; Kohsiek, W.; Bruin, de H.A.R.; Liu, H.

    2007-01-01

    The eddy-covariance method is the primary way of measuring turbulent fluxes directly. Many investigators have found that these flux measurements often do not satisfy a fundamental criterion¿closure of the surface energy balance. This study investigates to what extent the eddy-covariance measurement

  7. Area balance and strain in an extensional fault system: Strategies for improved oil recovery in fractured chalk, Gilbertown Field, southwestern Alabama -- Year 2. Annual report, March 1997--March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashin, J.C.; Raymond, D.E.; Rindsberg, A.K.; Alabi, G.G.; Carroll, R.E.

    1998-09-01

    Gilbertown Field is the oldest oil field in Alabama and has produced oil from fractured chalk of the Cretaceous Selma Group and glauconitic sandstone of the Eutaw Formation. Nearly all of Gilbertown Field is still in primary recovery, although waterflooding has been attempted locally. The objective of this project is to analyze the geologic structure and burial history of Mesozoic and Tertiary strata in Gilbertown Field and adjacent areas in order to suggest ways in which oil recovery can be improved. Indeed, the decline of oil production to marginally economic levels in recent years has made this type of analysis timely and practical. Key technical advancements being sought include understanding the relationship of requisite strain to production in Gilbertown reservoirs, incorporation of synsedimentary growth factors into models of area balance, quantification of the relationship between requisite strain and bed curvature, determination of the timing of hydrocarbon generation, and identification of the avenues and mechanisms of fluid transport.

  8. Geochemical and Crystallographic Study of Turbo Torquatus (Mollusca: Gastropoda) From Southwestern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, L. M.; George, A. D.; Shaw, J.; Hart, R. D.; Roberts, M. P.; Becker, T.; Evans, N. J.; McDonald, B. J.

    2018-01-01

    Shells of the marine gastropod Turbo torquatus were sampled from three different locations along the Western Australian coastline, namely Marmion Lagoon (31°S), Rottnest Island (32°S), and Hamelin Bay (34°S). Marmion Lagoon and Rottnest Island have similar sea surface temperature ranges that are ˜1°C warmer than Hamelin Bay, with all sites influenced by the warm southward flowing Leeuwin Current. The shells were characterized using crystallographic, spectroscopic, and geochemical analyses. Shell mineral composition varies between the three sites suggesting the influence of sea surface temperature, oxygen consumption, and/or bedrock composition on shell mineralogy and preferential incorporation and/or elemental discrimination of Mg, P, and S. Furthermore, T. torquatus was found to exert control over the incorporation of most, if not all, the elements measured here, suggesting strong biological regulation. At all levels of testing, the concentrations of Li varied significantly, which indicates that this trace element may not be a suitable environmental proxy. Variation in Sr concentration between sites and between specimens reflects combined environmental and biological controls suggesting that Sr/Ca ratios in T. torquatus cannot be used to estimate sea surface temperature without experimentally accounting for metabolic and growth effects. The mineral composition and microstructure of T. torquatus shells may help identify sea surface temperature variations on geological time scales. These findings support the previously hypothesized involvement of an active selective pathway across the calcifying mantle of T. torquatus for most, if not all, the elements measured here.

  9. On-Board Real-Time Optimization Control for Turbo-Fan Engine Life Extending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qiangang; Zhang, Haibo; Miao, Lizhen; Sun, Fengyong

    2017-11-01

    A real-time optimization control method is proposed to extend turbo-fan engine service life. This real-time optimization control is based on an on-board engine mode, which is devised by a MRR-LSSVR (multi-input multi-output recursive reduced least squares support vector regression method). To solve the optimization problem, a FSQP (feasible sequential quadratic programming) algorithm is utilized. The thermal mechanical fatigue is taken into account during the optimization process. Furthermore, to describe the engine life decaying, a thermal mechanical fatigue model of engine acceleration process is established. The optimization objective function not only contains the sub-item which can get fast response of the engine, but also concludes the sub-item of the total mechanical strain range which has positive relationship to engine fatigue life. Finally, the simulations of the conventional optimization control which just consider engine acceleration performance or the proposed optimization method have been conducted. The simulations demonstrate that the time of the two control methods from idle to 99.5 % of the maximum power are equal. However, the engine life using the proposed optimization method could be surprisingly increased by 36.17 % compared with that using conventional optimization control.

  10. [The lack of water and its implications regarding feeding practice in Turbo, Antioquia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Villamil, Natalia; Restrepo-Mesa, Sandra; Zambrano-Bejarano, Ingri

    2013-01-01

    Describing water-related perceptions and practice and how slum dwellers lacking public service coverage in the town of Turbo in the Antioquia Department, Colombia, approach this. This study involved qualitative research from an ethnographic approach. Data was collected by means of interviews with slum dwellers and observing water-related activities. The information was encoded; empirical categories were initially constructed, followed by analytical ones. The families had established daily dynamics for facing life without water, investing time, money and effort and, according to their perceptions and possibilities, defining practice and uses for the water which they had access to. The available water sources consisted of a piped water supply which had to be paid for or was collected from other neighborhoods (considered unsuitable for drinking), rain water (appreciated for its taste and alleged quality) and bought bottled water (considered suitable for drinking and cooking, but more expensive than the piped water). Less suitable water sources were resorted to at critical moments during shortage. Regarding such deficiency, feeding practice became modified by replacing preparations requiring more water and making adjustments, thereby limiting what could be considered as suitable feeding. The lack of water affected the target families' food security, quality of life and welfare. Water-related practice corresponded to living conditions, meaning that biological and social aspects must be reconciled and recognized. The importance of the right to water and taking those suffering such deficiency in to consideration when making public health policy was thus highlighted.

  11. Using Abductive Machine Learning for Online Vibration Monitoring of Turbo Molecular Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.E. Abdel-Aal

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Turbo molecular vacuum pumps constitute a critical component in many accelerator installations, where failures can be costly in terms of both money and lost beam time. Catastrophic failures can be averted if prior warning is given through a continuous online monitoring scheme. This paper describes the use of modern machine learning techniques for online monitoring of the pump condition through the measurement and analysis of pump vibrations. Abductive machine learning is used for modeling the pump status as ‘good’ or ‘bad’ using both radial and axial vibration signals measured close to the pump bearing. Compared to other statistical methods and neural network techniques, this approach offers faster and highly automated model synthesis, requiring little or no user intervention. Normalized 50-channel spectra derived from the low frequency region (0–10 kHz of the pump vibration spectra provided data inputs for model development. Models derived by training on only 10 observations predict the correct value of the logical pump status output with 100% accuracy for an evaluation population as large as 500 cases. Radial vibration signals lead to simpler models and smaller errors in the computed value of the status output. Performance is comparable with literature data on a similar diagnosis scheme for compressor valves using neural networks.

  12. Mangroves on the Edge: Anthrome-Dependent Fragmentation Influences Ecological Condition (Turbo, Colombia, Southern Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Felipe Blanco-Libreros

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas are commonly seen as the most effective strategy for protecting mangroves from external human pressures but little is known about the role of public land-tenure contexts (dense settlements, agricultural or range lands and wild anthromes on clearing rates, patch properties, and ecological condition. We addressed the following questions using a peri-urban to wild gradient along the anthropogenic coastal-scape in Turbo Municipality (Colombia, Southern Caribbean: Do the different deforestation rates observed under peri-urban, rural, military-protected and wild land-use-and-tenure contexts, promote distinctive fragmentation patterns? Do these patterns influence loggers’ access and ultimately ecosystem ecological condition? Loss rate (1938–2009 was the greatest peri-urban mangroves and positively correlated with urban edge and patch density. Pasture edge was highest in rural mangroves while mean patch area was higher in protected and wild mangroves. An Anthropogenic Disturbance Index (ADI was strongly correlated with reduced mean patch area and increased patch density, due to increased trampling and logging, that ultimately promoted high densities of thin (diameter: <5 cm Laguncularia racemosa trees but had no significant effect on the presence of a dominant benthic gastropod. In conclusion, both protection and remoteness were effective in reducing anthropogenic edges and fragmentation, and thus contributed to a high ecological condition in mangroves at a major deforestation hotspot.

  13. Watt and joule balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ian A.

    2014-04-01

    time of the weighing and at the centre of gravity of the mass. The paper by Liard and his co-authors at NRC describes how they have made this essential measurement. The accuracy of the watt balance may also depend on the alignment of the apparatus. Two papers deal with this important issue. The first, by Sanchez and his co-authors at NRC, shows that their balance is insensitive to a range of alignments and concentrates on the essential alignments that contribute directly to the overall uncertainty of the apparatus. Thomas and his co-authors at LNE describe their technique for reducing uncertainties in their watt balance by aligning its coil in the field of the magnet to minimize both horizontal forces and torques about horizontal axes. The search for discrepancies between the results from watt balances has encouraged researchers to consider possible error mechanisms arising from the secondary electrical interactions between the coil of a watt balance and other parts of the apparatus. Researchers from INRIM have two such papers: one considering magnetic interactions and the other considering electrostatic interactions. It is essential that such investigations are carried out: both to prove that the problems are understood and for the guidance of those building the next generation of watt and joule balances. The next four papers describe aspects of the construction of watt balances. The BIPM watt balance group describe the principles behind their simultaneous measurement scheme for a watt balance. The balance that they are constructing can also be used in the conventional two-phase mode and their paper describes the relative advantages and disadvantages of the two modes of operation. In a watt balance there are some advantages to precise vertical movement of the coil. The METAS group describe the two mechanisms that they have tested to achieve such motion and give the reasons for the choice of mechanism for use in the balance that they are constructing. The KRISS watt

  14. Balancing Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Lene; Rossen, Camilla Blach; Buus, Niels

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how eight pregnant women diagnosed with depression managed the decision whether or not to take antidepressants during pregnancy. In total, 11 interviews were conducted and analysed by means of constructivist grounded theory. The major category constructed was Balancing risk......, with two minor categories: Assessing depression and antidepressants and Evaluating the impact of significant others. The participants tried to make the safest decision, taking all aspects of their life into consideration. They described successful decision-making in the context of managing social norms...

  15. Maintaining Balance when Looking at a Virtual Reality Three-Dimensional Display of a Field of Moving Dots or at a Virtual Reality Scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarovano, Elodie; de Waele, Catherine; MacDougall, Hamish G; Rogers, Stephen J; Burgess, Ann M; Curthoys, Ian S

    2015-01-01

    To provide a safe, simple, relatively inexpensive, fast, accurate way of quantifying balance performance either in isolation, or in the face of challenges provided by 3D high definition moving visual stimuli as well as by the proprioceptive challenge from standing on a foam pad. This method uses the new technology of the Wii balance board to measure postural stability during powerful, realistic visual challenges from immersive virtual reality. Present computerized methods for measuring postural stability are large, complex, slow, and expensive, and do not allow for testing the response to realistic visual challenges. Subjects stand on a 6 cm thick, firm, foam pad on a Wii balance board. They wear a fast, high resolution, low persistence, virtual reality head set (Oculus Rift DK2). This allows displays of varying speed, direction, depth, and complexity to be delivered. The subject experiences a visual illusion of real objects fixed relative to the world, and any of these displays can be perturbed in an unpredictable fashion. A special app (BalanceRite) used the same procedures for analyzing postural analysis as used by the Equitest. Four simple "proof of concept" experiments demonstrate that this technique matches the gold standard Equitest in terms of the measurement of postural stability but goes beyond the Equitest by measuring stability in the face of visual challenges, which are so powerful that even healthy subjects fall. The response to these challenges presents an opportunity for predicting falls and for rehabilitation of seniors and patients with poor postural stability. This new method provides a simpler, quicker, cheaper method of measurement than the Equitest. It may provide a new mode of training to prevent falls, by maintaining postural stability in the face of visual and proprioceptive challenges similar to those encountered in life.

  16. Keeping Your Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exercise/Safe Movement › Keeping Your Balance Keeping Your Balance Balance is very important for people with osteoporosis. Your ... all play an important role in maintaining your balance and preventing broken bones. Medical conditions and medicines ...

  17. Synthesis of Remote Sensing and Field Observations to Model and Understand Disturbance and Climate Effects on the Carbon Balance of Oregon & Northern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beverly Law; David Turner; Warren Cohen; Mathias Goeckede

    2008-05-22

    The goal is to quantify and explain the carbon (C) budget for Oregon and N. California. The research compares "bottom -up" and "top-down" methods, and develops prototype analytical systems for regional analysis of the carbon balance that are potentially applicable to other continental regions, and that can be used to explore climate, disturbance and land-use effects on the carbon cycle. Objectives are: 1) Improve, test and apply a bottom up approach that synthesizes a spatially nested hierarchy of observations (multispectral remote sensing, inventories, flux and extensive sites), and the Biome-BGC model to quantify the C balance across the region; 2) Improve, test and apply a top down approach for regional and global C flux modeling that uses a model-data fusion scheme (MODIS products, AmeriFlux, atmospheric CO2 concentration network), and a boundary layer model to estimate net ecosystem production (NEP) across the region and partition it among GPP, R(a) and R(h). 3) Provide critical understanding of the controls on regional C balance (how NEP and carbon stocks are influenced by disturbance from fire and management, land use, and interannual climate variation). The key science questions are, "What are the magnitudes and distributions of C sources and sinks on seasonal to decadal time scales, and what processes are controlling their dynamics? What are regional spatial and temporal variations of C sources and sinks? What are the errors and uncertainties in the data products and results (i.e., in situ observations, remote sensing, models)?

  18. Inter-comparison of four remote sensing based surface energy balance methods to retrieve surface evapotranspiration and water stress of irrigated fields in semi-arid climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirouze, J.; Boulet, G.; Jarlan, L.; Fieuzal, R.; Rodriguez, J. C.; Ezzahar, J.; Er-Raki, S.; Bigeard, G.; Merlin, O.; Garatuza-Payan, J.; Watts, C.; Chehbouni, G.

    2013-01-01

    Remotely sensed surface temperature can provide a good proxy for water stress level and is therefore particularly useful to estimate spatially distributed evapotranspiration. Instantaneous stress levels or instantaneous latent heat flux are deduced from the surface energy balance equation constrained by this equilibrium temperature. Pixel average surface temperature depends on two main factors: stress and vegetation fraction cover. Methods estimating stress vary according to the way they treat each factor. Two families of methods can be defined: the contextual methods, where stress levels are scaled on a given image between hot/dry and cool/wet pixels for a particular vegetation cover, and single-pixel methods which evaluate latent heat as the residual of the surface energy balance for one pixel independently from the others. Four models, two contextual (S-SEBI and a triangle method, inspired by Moran et al., 1994) and two single-pixel (TSEB, SEBS) are applied at seasonal scale over a four by four km irrigated agricultural area in semi-arid northern Mexico. Their performances, both at local and spatial standpoints, are compared relatively to energy balance data acquired at seven locations within the area, as well as a more complex soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer model forced with true irrigation and rainfall data. Stress levels are not always well retrieved by most models, but S-SEBI as well as TSEB, although slightly biased, show good performances. Drop in model performances is observed when vegetation is senescent, mostly due to a poor partitioning both between turbulent fluxes and between the soil/plant components of the latent heat flux and the available energy. As expected, contextual methods perform well when extreme hydric and vegetation conditions are encountered in the same image (therefore, esp. in spring and early summer) while they tend to exaggerate the spread in water status in more homogeneous conditions (esp. in winter).

  19. Intercomparison of four remote-sensing-based energy balance methods to retrieve surface evapotranspiration and water stress of irrigated fields in semi-arid climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirouze, J.; Boulet, G.; Jarlan, L.; Fieuzal, R.; Rodriguez, J. C.; Ezzahar, J.; Er-Raki, S.; Bigeard, G.; Merlin, O.; Garatuza-Payan, J.; Watts, C.; Chehbouni, G.

    2014-03-01

    Instantaneous evapotranspiration rates and surface water stress levels can be deduced from remotely sensed surface temperature data through the surface energy budget. Two families of methods can be defined: the contextual methods, where stress levels are scaled on a given image between hot/dry and cool/wet pixels for a particular vegetation cover, and single-pixel methods, which evaluate latent heat as the residual of the surface energy balance for one pixel independently from the others. Four models, two contextual (S-SEBI and a modified triangle method, named VIT) and two single-pixel (TSEB, SEBS) are applied over one growing season (December-May) for a 4 km × 4 km irrigated agricultural area in the semi-arid northern Mexico. Their performance, both at local and spatial standpoints, are compared relatively to energy balance data acquired at seven locations within the area, as well as an uncalibrated soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model forced with local in situ data including observed irrigation and rainfall amounts. Stress levels are not always well retrieved by most models, but S-SEBI as well as TSEB, although slightly biased, show good performance. The drop in model performance is observed for all models when vegetation is senescent, mostly due to a poor partitioning both between turbulent fluxes and between the soil/plant components of the latent heat flux and the available energy. As expected, contextual methods perform well when contrasted soil moisture and vegetation conditions are encountered in the same image (therefore, especially in spring and early summer) while they tend to exaggerate the spread in water status in more homogeneous conditions (especially in winter). Surface energy balance models run with available remotely sensed products prove to be nearly as accurate as the uncalibrated SVAT model forced with in situ data.

  20. CFD Study of Turbo-Ramjet Interactions in Hypersonic Airbreathing Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ing; Hunter, Louis G.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced airbreathing propulsion systems used in Mach 4-6 mission scenarios, usually involve turbo-ramjet configurations. As the engines transition from turbojet to ramjet, there is an operational envelope where both engines operate simultaneously. In the first phase of our study, an over/under nozzle configuration was analyzed. The two plumes from the turbojet and ramjet interact at the end of a common 2-D cowl, where they both reach an approximate Mach 3.0 condition and then jointly expand to Mach 3.6 at the common nozzle exit plane. For the problem analyzed, the turbojet engine operates at a higher nozzle pressure ratio than the ramjet, causes the turbojet plume overpowers the ramjet plume, deflecting it approximately 12 degrees downward and in turn the turbojet plume is deflected 6 degrees upward. In the process, shocks were formed at the deflections and a shear layer formed at the confluence of the two jets. This particular case was experimentally tested and the data were used to compare with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study using the PARC2D code. The CFD results were in good agreement with both static pressure distributions on the cowl separator and on nozzle walls. The thrust coefficients were also in reasonable agreement. In addition, inviscid relationships were developed around the confluence point, where the two exhaust jets meet, and these results compared favorably with the CFD results. In the second phase of our study, a 3-D CFD solution was generated to compare with the 2-D solution. The major difference between the 2-D and 3-D solutions was the interaction of the shock waves, generated by the plume interactions, on the sidewall. When a shock wave interacts with a sidewall and sidewall boundary layer, it is called a glancing shock sidewall interaction. These interactions entrain boundary layer flow down the shockline into a vortical flow pattern. The 3-D plots show the streamlines being entrained down the shockline. The pressure of the flow

  1. The Effect of Crude Extract of Turbo coronatus from the Persian Gulf on Serum Biochemical Parameters and Hematiological Parameters of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Vazirizadeh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available : Turbotoxins are marine secondary metabolites that produce in Turbinidae family and were isolated from Japanese Turbo marmorata for the first time. A few research has been done on these metabolites so far. Another species, Turbo coronatus exists in Iran. The main aim of the current project was to investigate some biological effects of the crude extract of Turbo coronatus from the Persian Gulf . Materials and methods: In this study, 18 rats were selected in three groups including the control group. The experimental groups received ½ and 1/3 lethal doses intravenously and serum levels of liver and muscle enzymes, electrolytes and complete blood counts (CBC were measured after 24 hours. : The levels of liver and muscle enzymes, amylase, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, ferrous, haptoglobin, albumin and creatinine were significantly increased in experimental group compared with the control group by injection of crude extract of Turbo coronatus; however, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, red blood cell count, magnesium, and glucose levels were significantly decreased in the experimental group compared with the control group. : Intravenous injection of ½ and 1/3 lethal doses of the crude extract of Turbo coronatus to rats produced rhabdomyolysis and hepatocytes injury. In addition, the crude extract injection acted as a haematoxin and decreased hemoglobin and MCV.

  2. Computer simulation of the heavy-duty turbo-compounded diesel cycle for studies of engine efficiency and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assanis, D. N.; Ekchian, J. A.; Heywood, J. B.; Replogle, K. K.

    1984-01-01

    Reductions in heat loss at appropriate points in the diesel engine which result in substantially increased exhaust enthalpy were shown. The concepts for this increased enthalpy are the turbocharged, turbocompounded diesel engine cycle. A computer simulation of the heavy duty turbocharged turbo-compounded diesel engine system was undertaken. This allows the definition of the tradeoffs which are associated with the introduction of ceramic materials in various parts of the total engine system, and the study of system optimization. The basic assumptions and the mathematical relationships used in the simulation of the model engine are described.

  3. AG Turbo, Turbotech 2. Subproject 1.422: Endwall effects in a multistage low pressure turbine rig. Final report; AG Turbo, Turbotech 2. Teilvorhaben 1.422: Seitenwandeffekte im mehrstufigen Niederdruck-Turbinenrig. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eymann, S.

    2001-07-01

    Reducing the secondary losses in the bladed annulus of compressors and turbines is one approach to enhance the efficiency of turbo components of modern gas turbines. The aim of this project is to analyse the influence of endwall contouring and 3D airfoil design in the endwall region on the generation of secondary flows in a multistage low pressure turbine. Therefore experimental studies were carried out in a three stage cold flow test rig. First in a reference blading the flow fields in the axial gapes between the rows were conducted with pneumatic probes and with a 3D-L2F system (DLR Koeln) and with 3D hot wire probes (RWTH Aachen) by the project partners. Pressure distributions on several stram line positions and endwall pressure measuring points are employed to assess the vane flow. In a second phase the inlet guide vanes and the blades of the first rotor were replaced with a blading with endwall contouring and modified airfoilds in the endwall region, which was designed by the project partner MTU. The investigations were carried out in the same manner as before. In comparison to the results of the reference blading the secondary losses in the plane downstream the optimised inlet guide van could be reduced about 20% in the outer region. A reduction in the secondary flow phenomen, the passage vortex, can be traced back to reduced cross channel pressure gradients at the endwall. The secondary losses in the tip region could be moved closer to the casing. After the following rows downstream the optimised first turbine stage there was no positive influence on the development of secondary flows detectable. A data base was generated to validate and to improve current numerical methods. The physical understanding of secondary flows in multistage turbines was deepened. (orig.) [German] Ein Ansatz zur weiteren Steigerung des Wirkungsgrades in den Turbokomponenten moderner Gasturbinen ist die Reduzierung der durch Sekundaerstroemungen verursachten Verluste im beschaufelten

  4. Low-field MR imaging of the spine. A comparative study of a traditional and a new, completely balanced gradient-echo sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drejer, J. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Herlev Hospital, Univ. Copenhagen (Denmark); Thomsen, H.S. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Herlev Hospital, Univ. Copenhagen (Denmark); Tanttu, J. [Picker Nordstar, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-09-01

    49 patients underwent 53 examinations with both a traditional T1-weighted gradient-echo (PS) sequence and a new completely balanced steady-state 3-D (CBASS3D) sequence; 20 examinations included the cervical spine, 8 the thoracic spine and 25 the lumbar spine. All 106 examinations were reviewed twice regarding visibility of selected structures in the spinal region and diagnostic usefulness. The CBASS3D sequence delineated the medulla, nerve roots, CSF, the intervertebral discs and the posterior longitudinal ligament significantly better than the PS sequence. Disc hernia was also better visualised (p<0.01). There were significantly more artefacts on images obtained with the CBASS3D sequence, but they were usually outside the region of interest and occurred less frequently over time due to increased experience of the staff. Both reviewers found the diagnostic usefulness of CBASS3D to be superior compared to that of PS and excellent for diagnostic purposes. (orig./MG).

  5. Low-field MR imaging of the spine. A comparative study of a traditional and a new, completely balanced gradient-echo sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drejer, J.; Thomsen, H.S.; Tanttu, J.

    1995-01-01

    49 patients underwent 53 examinations with both a traditional T1-weighted gradient-echo (PS) sequence and a new completely balanced steady-state 3-D (CBASS3D) sequence; 20 examinations included the cervical spine, 8 the thoracic spine and 25 the lumbar spine. All 106 examinations were reviewed twice regarding visibility of selected structures in the spinal region and diagnostic usefulness. The CBASS3D sequence delineated the medulla, nerve roots, CSF, the intervertebral discs and the posterior longitudinal ligament significantly better than the PS sequence. Disc hernia was also better visualised (p<0.01). There were significantly more artefacts on images obtained with the CBASS3D sequence, but they were usually outside the region of interest and occurred less frequently over time due to increased experience of the staff. Both reviewers found the diagnostic usefulness of CBASS3D to be superior compared to that of PS and excellent for diagnostic purposes. (orig./MG)

  6. Integrating Remote Sensing, Field Observations, and Models to Understand Disturbance and Climate Effects on the Carbon Balance of the West Coast U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.E. Law; D. Turner; M. Goeckede

    2010-06-01

    GOAL: To develop and apply an approach to quantify and understand the regional carbon balance of the west coast states for the North American Carbon Program. OBJECTIVE: As an element of NACP research, the proposed investigation is a two pronged approach that derives and evaluates a regional carbon (C) budget for Oregon, Washington, and California. Objectives are (1) Use multiple data sources, including AmeriFlux data, inventories, and multispectral remote sensing data to investigate trends in carbon storage and exchanges of CO2 and water with variation in climate and disturbance history; (2) Develop and apply regional modeling that relies on these multiple data sources to reduce uncertainty in spatial estimates of carbon storage and NEP, and relative contributions of terrestrial ecosystems and anthropogenic emissions to atmospheric CO2 in the region; (3) Model terrestrial carbon processes across the region, using the Biome-BGC terrestrial ecosystem model, and an atmospheric inverse modeling approach to estimate variation in rate and timing of terrestrial uptake and feedbacks to the atmosphere in response to climate and disturbance. APPROACH: In performing the regional analysis, the research plan for the bottom-up approach uses a nested hierarchy of observations that include AmeriFlux data (i.e., net ecosystem exchange (NEE) from eddy covariance and associated biometric data), intermediate intensity inventories from an extended plot array partially developed from the PI's previous research, Forest Service FIA and CVS inventory data, time since disturbance, disturbance type, and cover type from Landsat developed in this study, and productivity estimates from MODIS algorithms. The BIOME-BGC model is used to integrate information from these sources and quantify C balance across the region. The inverse modeling approach assimilates flux data from AmeriFlux sites, high precision CO2 concentration data from AmeriFlux towers and four new calibrated CO2 sites

  7. Comparison of conventional spin-echo, turbo spin-echo and respiratory-triggering turbo spin-echo pulse sequences for T2-weighted MR imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Date, Shuji; Kimura, Fumiko; Ito, Katsuhide.

    1996-01-01

    T 2 -weighted conventional spin-echo (CSE), turbo spin-echo (TSE) and respiratory-triggering turbo spin-echo (RT-TSE) images were compared to determine there efficacy in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A total of 32 patients with 40 HCCs was examined in this study. Both CSE and RT-TSE images were obtained in all the patients, and in addition conventional TSE images were obtained in 10 patients with 17 HCCs. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that RT-TSE had the highest lesion-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (7.8) and that CSE had the lowest ratio (5.6) (p<0.001). Since qualitative analysis (tissue contrast and conspicuousness of lesions) showed that TSE was inferior to the other sequences, TSE might be less suitable for the depiction of HCC. RT-TSE, however, had the highest assessment in qualitative analysis probably due to reduced respiratory motion artifacts especially at the subphrenic region and at the area adjacent to the gall bladder. It is concluded from the results of the present study that RT-TSE has a potential value as a routine sequence for the detection of HCC. (author)

  8. Deficiencia de glucosa 6-fostato deshidrogenasa en hombres sanos y en pacientes maláricos; Turbo (Antioquia, Colombia Deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in healthy men and malaria patients; Turbo (Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Carmona-Fonseca

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: En América Latina la deficiencia de glucosa 6-fosfato deshidrogenasa (d-G6PD ha sido poco estudiada y en Colombia solo conocemos tres publicaciones antiguas. Urge conocer más la prevalencia de d-G6PD, sobre todo ahora que el tratamiento de la malaria vivax plantea aumentar la dosis diaria o total de primaquina. OBJETIVO: Medir la prevalencia de d-G6PD en poblaciones masculina sana y de enfermos con malaria por Plasmodium vivax, en Turbo (Urabá, departamento de Antioquia, Colombia. METODOLOGÍA: Encuestas de prevalencia, para evaluar la G6PD en dos poblaciones de Turbo (Antioquia: hombres sanos; hombres y mujeres con malaria vivax. Se trabajó con muestras diseñadas con criterios estadístico-epidemiológicos. La actividad enzimática se midió con el método normalizado de Beutler para valorar la G6PD en hemolizados. RESULTADOS: Entre los hombres sanos (n = 508, el intervalo de confianza 95% para el promedio (IC95% estuvo entre 4,15 y 4,51 UI/g hemoglobina y 14,8% presentaron valores por debajo del "límite normal" de INTRODUCTION: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency in Latin America has not been fully studied and in Colombia only three outdated publications are known. Recent information on the prevalence of G6PD deficiency is required now, because the recommended treatment of vivax malaria requires higher daily or total doses of primaquine. OBJECTIVE: To measure the prevalence of G6PD in a healthy male population and in a Plasmodium vivax infected population in Turbo (Urabá, Antioquia Department, Colombia. METHOD: Prevalence survey to evaluate G6PD in two populations of Turbo (Antioquia: healthy male; male and female with vivax malaria. The work was carried out on population samples selected using statistical and epidemiological criteria. Enzyme activity was measured using Beutler's normalized method to evaluate G6PD after hemolysis. RESULTS: For the healthy male group (n = 508, and with a 95% confidence

  9. Quantification of gadolinium-DTPA concentrations for different inversion times using an IR-turbo flash pulse sequence: a study on optimizing multislice perfusion imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritz-Hansen, T; Rostrup, Egill; Ring, P B

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to optimize an inversion-recovery (IR) turbo fast low-angle shot (FLASH) for multislice imaging by evaluating the accuracy of calculated the relaxation-rate (R1) for different inversion times (TI). This is important for tracer kinetic modeling because it requires...... a system responding linearly to input. R1 are linearly related to changes in the concentration of gadolinium (Gd)-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and R1 is a parameter that can be derived from the magnetic resonance (MR) signal. The accuracy of calculated R1 using an IR turbo fast low-angle shot...

  10. Estado nutricional de niños palúdicos residentes en El Bagre y Turbo, Antioquia, Colombia, 2004-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Magdalena Uscátegui

    2007-12-01

    Resultados. La prevalencia de niños con desnutrición crónica moderada o grave fue de 22,6%; la de desnutrición global moderada o grave de 10,8% y la aguda de 2,3%. Las prevalencias fueron mayores entre varones y residentes en Turbo. Conclusiones. Las prevalencias de desnutrición fueron superiores a las reportadas en la última Encuesta Nacional de Demografía y Salud (2005, y en los residentes en Turbo fueron mayores a las encontradas en el Urabá antioqueño.

  11. Serum concentrations of DHEA, DHEAS, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, Δ4-androstenedione and testosterone in children determined by TurboFlow-LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søeborg, T; Frederiksen, H; Fruekilde, Palle

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis and management of infants and children with sex steroid disorders require fast and simultaneous assessment of several sex steroid metabolites in serum at low concentrations and on small sample volumes. Therefore, we developed a sensitive and selective TurboFlow-LC-MS/MS method for quant......Diagnosis and management of infants and children with sex steroid disorders require fast and simultaneous assessment of several sex steroid metabolites in serum at low concentrations and on small sample volumes. Therefore, we developed a sensitive and selective TurboFlow-LC-MS/MS method...

  12. Influence of Extrinsic Information Scaling Coefficient on Double-Iterative Decoding Algorithm for Space-Time Turbo Codes with Large Number of Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRIFINA, L.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the extrinsic information scaling coefficient influence on double-iterative decoding algorithm for space-time turbo codes with large number of antennas. The max-log-APP algorithm is used, scaling both the extrinsic information in the turbo decoder and the one used at the input of the interference-canceling block. Scaling coefficients of 0.7 or 0.75 lead to a 0.5 dB coding gain compared to the no-scaling case, for one or more iterations to cancel the spatial interferences.

  13. Preliminary Design and Simulation of a Turbo Expander for Small Rated Power Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Capata

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC system, which operates with organic fluids, is one of the leading technologies for “waste energy recovery”. It works as a conventional Rankine Cycle but, as mentioned, instead of steam/water, an organic fluid is used. This change allows it to convert low temperature heat into electric energy where required. Large numbers of studies have been carried out to identify the most suitable fluids, system parameters and the various configurations. In the present market, most ORC systems are designed and manufactured for the recovery of thermal energy from various sources operating at “large power rating” (exhaust gas turbines, internal combustion engines, geothermal sources, large melting furnaces, biomass, solar, etc.; from which it is possible to produce a large amount of electric energy (30 kW ÷ 300 kW. Such applications for small nominal power sources, as well as the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines (car sedan or town, ships, etc. or small heat exchangers, are very limited. The few systems that have been designed and built for small scale applications, have, on the other hand, different types of expander (screw, scroll, etc.. These devices are not adapted for placement in small and restricted places like the interior of a conventional car. The aim of this work is to perform the preliminary design of a turbo-expander that meets diverse system requirements such as low pressure, small size and low mass flow rates. The expander must be adaptable to a small ORC system utilizing gas of a diesel engine or small gas turbine as thermal source to produce 2–10 kW of electricity. The temperature and pressure of the exhaust gases, in this case study (400–600 °C and a pressure of 2 bar, imposes a limit on the use of an organic fluid and on the net power that can be produced. In addition to water, fluids such as CO2, R134a and R245fa have been considered. Once the operating fluids has been chosen

  14. Balancing priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønsted, Troels; Johansen, Andreas Kaas; Lauridsen, Frederik Vahr Bjarnø

    2016-01-01

    Within elder care, an increased distribution of care poses strong requirements on the ability of health providers, to coordinate their activities across organizational boundaries. However, existing care administration systems do not offer sufficient support for collaboration and coordination among...... a heterogeneous ensemble of care providers. In this paper, we present findings from a field study of coordinative work in distributed elder care in Denmark. The purpose of this study is to further our understanding of the coordinative challenges of distributed elder care, and to inform design of new care...

  15. An Investigation of the Mass Balance of Oil and Gas Produced Versus Estimated Reserves Remaining within the A.W.P. Field, McMullen County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Scott Murphy

    The A.W.P. Field is located in McMullen County, approximately 4 to 6 miles southeast of the town of Tilden in the Rio Grande Embayment. The study area was believed to be near depletion of all hydrocarbons; however, a recent well drilled (fall 2014) just to the west of the study area has produced significant hydrocarbons. This prompted Milagro Exploration to launch an effort to reevaluate the potential within the field in order to investigate whether the field is, in fact, entirely depleted. My approach to solving this problem began with researching the area to develop an understanding of the geological setting, depositional systems, and productive intervals, then acquiring the proper data, as this data was the foundation of the project. I completed a detailed correlation framework of key formations with the acquired well logs. I interpreted an extensive 3D seismic data set to map my areas of interest and faults. With all relevant information, I completed structure maps, isopach maps, production maps, and calculated volumetrics, concluding with my recommendation, and determined whether the field is ultimately depleted or not. I concluded that there are two relevant intervals within the study area. First, the Wilcox-Wales Formation (Wales; Early Tertiary) was a random stratigraphic accumulation that had sporadic hydrocarbon production, and would be essentially high risk to drill. Second, the Olmos Formation (Olmos; Late Cretaceous) had significant potential for 2 horizontal wells on the western side of the lease area.

  16. 40 years of Porsche turbo engines. The basis for future innovations; 40 Jahre Porsche Turbomotoren. Basis fuer zukuenftige Innovationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neusser, Heinz-Jakob; Kerkau, Martin; Schwarzenthal, Dietmar; Hemmerlein, Norbert [Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG, Weissach (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Porsche has been developing turbocharged gasoline engines for road and race vehicles for more than 40 years. Many significant innovations in turbocharging technology have been realised in the development history of the 911 Turbo in particular. With its downsizing concept, this engine remains synonymous with high performance in combination with incomparable fuel efficiency among high performance cars. The basis for future engine concepts with reduced fuel consumption lies in a combination of turbocharging with a reduction in engine displacement and number of cylinders. All necessary and innovative technologies such as Variable Turbine Geometry (VTG), Direct Fuel Injection (DFI) and the variable valve timing system VarioCam Plus {sup registered} are already realised in Porsche production engines and impressively demonstrate the potential of modern turbo engines. The light TiAl turbine wheel that will be implemented in the Porsche Panamera represents the latest innovation for further improvement in the throttle response. This set of technologies makes it possible to solve the conflict of goals between high performance and low fuel consumption. (orig.)

  17. Design and Prototyping Flow of Flexible and Efficient NISC-Based Architectures for MIMO Turbo Equalization and Demapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Rizk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the domain of digital wireless communication, flexible design implementations are increasingly explored for different applications in order to cope with diverse system configurations imposed by the emerging wireless communication standards. In fact, shrinking the design time to meet market pressure, on the one hand, and adding the emerging flexibility requirement and, hence, increasing system complexity, on the other hand, require a productive design approach that also ensures final design quality. The no instruction set computer (NISC approach fulfills these design requirements by eliminating the instruction set overhead. The approach offers static scheduling of the datapath, automated register transfer language (RTLsynthesis and allows the designer to have direct control of hardware resources. This paper presents a complete NISC-based design and prototype flow, from architecture specification till FPGA implementation. The proposed design and prototype flow is illustrated through two case studies of flexible implementations, which are dedicated to low-complexity MIMO turbo-equalizer and a universal turbo-demapper. Moreover, the flexibility of the proposed prototypes allows supporting all communication modes defined in the emerging wireless communication standards, such LTE, LTE-Advanced, WiMAX, WiFi and DVB-RCS. For each prototype, its functionality is evaluated, and the resultant performance is verified for all system configurations.

  18. SVD-Aided Beamforming and Power Allocation Algorithm for Multiuser Turbo-BLAST System Uplink with Imperfect CSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The SVD-aided joint transmitter and receiver design for the uplink of CDMA-based synchronous multiuser Turbo-BLAST systems is proposed in the presence of channel state information (CSI imperfection. At the transmitter, the beamforming and power allocation schemes are developed to maximize the capacity of the desired user. At the receiver, a suboptimal decorrelating scheme is first proposed to mitigate the multiuser interference (MUI and decouple the detection of different users with imperfect CSI, and then the iterative detecting algorithm that takes the channel estimation error into account is designed to cancel the coantenna interference (CAI and enhance the bit error rate (BER results further. Simulation results show that the proposed uplink CDMA-based multiuser Turbo-BLAST model is effective, the detection from every user is completely independent to each other after decorrelating, and the system performance can be enhanced by the proposed beamforming and power allocation schemes. Furthermore, BER performance can be enhanced by the modified iterative detection. The effect of CSI imperfection is evaluated, which is proved to be a useful tool to assess the system performance with imperfect CSI.

  19. Performance enhancement of MC-CDMA system through novel sensitive bit algorithm aided turbo multi user detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaravel, Rasadurai; Narayanaswamy, Kumaratharan

    2015-01-01

    Multi carrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) system is a promising multi carrier modulation (MCM) technique for high data rate wireless communication over frequency selective fading channels. MC-CDMA system is a combination of code division multiple access (CDMA) and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). The OFDM parts reduce multipath fading and inter symbol interference (ISI) and the CDMA part increases spectrum utilization. Advantages of this technique are its robustness in case of multipath propagation and improve security with the minimize ISI. Nevertheless, due to the loss of orthogonality at the receiver in a mobile environment, the multiple access interference (MAI) appears. The MAI is one of the factors that degrade the bit error rate (BER) performance of MC-CDMA system. The multiuser detection (MUD) and turbo coding are the two dominant techniques for enhancing the performance of the MC-CDMA systems in terms of BER as a solution of overcome to MAI effects. In this paper a low complexity iterative soft sensitive bits algorithm (SBA) aided logarithmic-Maximum a-Posteriori algorithm (Log MAP) based turbo MUD is proposed. Simulation results show that the proposed method provides better BER performance with low complexity decoding, by mitigating the detrimental effects of MAI.

  20. Performance enhancement of MC-CDMA system through novel sensitive bit algorithm aided turbo multi user detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasadurai Kumaravel

    Full Text Available Multi carrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA system is a promising multi carrier modulation (MCM technique for high data rate wireless communication over frequency selective fading channels. MC-CDMA system is a combination of code division multiple access (CDMA and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM. The OFDM parts reduce multipath fading and inter symbol interference (ISI and the CDMA part increases spectrum utilization. Advantages of this technique are its robustness in case of multipath propagation and improve security with the minimize ISI. Nevertheless, due to the loss of orthogonality at the receiver in a mobile environment, the multiple access interference (MAI appears. The MAI is one of the factors that degrade the bit error rate (BER performance of MC-CDMA system. The multiuser detection (MUD and turbo coding are the two dominant techniques for enhancing the performance of the MC-CDMA systems in terms of BER as a solution of overcome to MAI effects. In this paper a low complexity iterative soft sensitive bits algorithm (SBA aided logarithmic-Maximum a-Posteriori algorithm (Log MAP based turbo MUD is proposed. Simulation results show that the proposed method provides better BER performance with low complexity decoding, by mitigating the detrimental effects of MAI.

  1. Cyano-substituted oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) single-crystal with balanced hole and electron injection and transport for ambipolar field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jian; Tang, Jia; Xu, Yuanxiang; Liu, Liqun; Wang, Yan; Xie, Zengqi; Ma, Yuguang

    2015-02-07

    High and balanced hole and electron mobilities were achieved in OFETs based on the high photoluminescence of a 1,4-bis(2-cyano-2-phenylethenyl)benzene single-crystal with symmetric electrodes. For electron and hole, the operation voltage in the OFETs based on symmetric gold electrodes was 30 and -20 V, respectively. The accumulation threshold voltage is low enough for the OFETs to operate in an ambipolar model with the source/drain voltage (Vds) around 50 V despite the high injection barrier. The highest electron and hole mobility was 0.745 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and 0.239 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), and the current density reached 90.7 and 27.4 A cm(-2), respectively with an assumed 10 nm accumulation layer. The high mobility comes from the strong π-π interactions. In addition, the highly ordered hydrogen bonding matrix may create an efficient route to pump the charge to the inner layer which can improve the injection ability.

  2. Study of the absorbed dose in small fields with absence of lateral electronic balance in stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy with modulated intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas V, M. X.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we develop and experimental and theoretical study, using semi analytical techniques of the physical dosimetry for small and nonstandard fields for stereotactic radiosurgery (Srs) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), with high energy photon beams from a BrainLAB system with cones at Instituto del Cancer SOLCA (Ecuador) and a Tomo Therapy Hi-Art system at Centro Oncologico de Chihuahua (Mexico). (Author)

  3. Modification of Musil-Marecki costs division method applied to cogeneration of heat power (CHP) systems with extraction-condensing turbo-sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szafran, R.

    1992-01-01

    The method of costs division in cogeneration of heat and power is presented. This is a modification of the ''economic costs division''called Musil-Marecki method applied to heat and power plants with extraction-condensing turbo-sets. Calculated examples show the place of this method on the background of other costs division methods. (author) 5 refs, 4 figs

  4. Multispectral 3D phase-encoded turbo spin-echo for imaging near metal : Limitations and possibilities demonstrated by simulations and phantom experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gorp, Jetse S.; Nizak, Razmara; Bouwman, Job G.; Saris, Daniël B.F.; Seevinck, Peter R.

    2017-01-01

    To see improvements in the imaging performance near biomaterial implants we assessed a multispectral fully phase-encoded turbo spin-echo (ms3D-PE-TSE) sequence for artifact reduction capabilities and scan time efficiency in simulation and phantom experiments. For this purpose, ms3D-PE-TSE and

  5. Improved focal liver lesion detection: comparison of single-shot diffusion-weighted echoplanar and single-shot T-2 weighted turbo spin echo techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenegrachts, K.; Delanote, J.; ter Beek, L.; Haspeslagh, M.; Bipat, S.; Stoker, J.; van Kerkhove, F.; Steyaert, L.; Rigauts, H.; Casselman, J. W.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare diffusion-weighted respiratory-triggered single-shot spin echo echoplanar imaging (SS SE-EPI) sequence using four b-values (b=0, b=20, b=300, b=800 s mm(-2)) and single-shot T-2 weighted turbo spin echo (T2W SS TSE) in patients with focal liver lesions, with

  6. Cholesterol Transport Revisited: A New Turbo Mechanism to Drive Cholesterol Excretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Jan Freark; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2018-01-01

    A fine-tuned balance between cholesterol uptake and excretion by the body is pivotal to maintain health and to remain free from the deleterious consequences of cholesterol accumulation such as cardiovascular disease. The pathways involved in intracellular and extracellular cholesterol transport are

  7. Cholesterol Transport Revisited : A New Turbo Mechanism to Drive Cholesterol Excretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Jan Freark; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    A fine-tuned balance between cholesterol uptake and excretion by the body is pivotal to maintain health and to remain free from the deleterious consequences of cholesterol accumulation such as cardiovascular disease. The pathways involved in intracellular and extracellular cholesterol transport are

  8. Joint Source-Channel Coding for Wavelet-Based Scalable Video Transmission Using an Adaptive Turbo Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzan Naeem

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient approach for joint source and channel coding is presented. The proposed approach exploits the joint optimization of a wavelet-based scalable video coding framework and a forward error correction method based on turbo codes. The scheme minimizes the reconstructed video distortion at the decoder subject to a constraint on the overall transmission bitrate budget. The minimization is achieved by exploiting the source rate distortion characteristics and the statistics of the available codes. Here, the critical problem of estimating the bit error rate probability in error-prone applications is discussed. Aiming at improving the overall performance of the underlying joint source-channel coding, the combination of the packet size, interleaver, and channel coding rate is optimized using Lagrangian optimization. Experimental results show that the proposed approach outperforms conventional forward error correction techniques at all bit error rates. It also significantly improves the performance of end-to-end scalable video transmission at all channel bit rates.

  9. Joint Source-Channel Coding for Wavelet-Based Scalable Video Transmission Using an Adaptive Turbo Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Ramzan

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient approach for joint source and channel coding is presented. The proposed approach exploits the joint optimization of a wavelet-based scalable video coding framework and a forward error correction method based on turbo codes. The scheme minimizes the reconstructed video distortion at the decoder subject to a constraint on the overall transmission bitrate budget. The minimization is achieved by exploiting the source rate distortion characteristics and the statistics of the available codes. Here, the critical problem of estimating the bit error rate probability in error-prone applications is discussed. Aiming at improving the overall performance of the underlying joint source-channel coding, the combination of the packet size, interleaver, and channel coding rate is optimized using Lagrangian optimization. Experimental results show that the proposed approach outperforms conventional forward error correction techniques at all bit error rates. It also significantly improves the performance of end-to-end scalable video transmission at all channel bit rates.

  10. Resistencia de Plasmodium falciparum a tres fármacos antimaláricos en Turbo (Antioquia, Colombia, 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blair Silvia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available En 1998, se determinó in vivo e in vitro la frecuencia y el grado de resistencia de Plasmodium falciparum a los tres fármacos antimaláricos (cloroquina, amodiaquina y sulfadoxina/ pirimetamina más utilizados en el municipio de Turbo (zona de Urabá, Antioquia, Colombia en una muestra representativa de la población con malaria. Se realizaron análisis clínicos y parasitológicos durante 14 días según la prueba estándar recomendada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. In vivo, P. falciparum mostró resistencia a la cloroquina, amodiaquina y sulfadoxina/pirimetamina con una frecuencia de 97, 7 y 13%, respectivamente; in vitro, las cifras correspondientes fueron de 21, 23 y 9%, respectivamente. La concordancia entre los resultados in vivo e in vitro fue de 23% para la cloroquina.

  11. UV filters analyzed by isotope diluted TurboFlow-LC-MS/MS in urine from Danish children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Nielsen, Ole; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2017-01-01

    between first morning and 24h urine levels of BP-3, BP-1 and 4-HBP from the same day was observed. CONCLUSION: Our project on UV filters analyzed by a new robust and sensitive LC-MS/MS method in Danish children and adolescents showed that almost all individuals were exposed to UV filters. Sun protection...... and adolescents (6-21 yrs). All 387 samples were collected during the autumn (Nov. 2007) and were analyzed by a new on-line TurboFlow-LC-MS/MS method developed for simultaneous biomonitoring of these nine UV filters in urine. RESULTS: BP-3 and BP-1 were detected in more than 80% of the 24h samples and were...

  12. Unsteady rotor flow analysis using a diagonally implicit harmonic balance method and an overset mesh topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Dong-Kyun; Choi, Seongim; Hyuck Kwon, Jang

    2015-01-01

    The diagonally implicit harmonic balance method is developed in an overset mesh topology and applied to unsteady rotor flows analysis. Its efficiency is by reducing the complexity of a fully implicit harmonic balance method which becomes more flexible in handling the higher harmonics of the flow solutions. Applied to the overset mesh topology, the efficiency of the method becomes greater by reducing the number of solution interpolations required during the entire solution procedure as the method reduces the unsteady computation into periodic steady state. To verify the accuracy and efficiency of the method, both hovering and unsteady forward flight of Caradonna and Tung and AH-1G rotors are solved. Compared with wind-tunnel experiments, the numerical results demonstrate good agreements at computational cost an order of magnitude more efficient than the conventional time-accurate computation method. The proposed method has great potential in other engineering applications, including flapping wing vehicles, turbo-machinery, wind-turbines, etc.

  13. Balance Velocities of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joughin, Ian; Fahnestock, Mark; Ekholm, Simon; Kwok, Ron

    1997-01-01

    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetry data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail the location of an ice stream in northeastern Greenland, which was only recently discovered using satellite imagery. Enhanced flow associated with all of the major outlets is clearly visible, although small errors in the source data result in less accurate estimates of the absolute flow speeds. Nevertheless, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning.

  14. Balancing Family and Career

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andam, Aba Bentil; Dawson, Silvina Ponce; Horton, K. Renee; Sandow, Barbara

    2005-10-01

    In essentially all countries, responsibilities for child care, cooking, cleaning, and other homemaking tasks fall predominantly on the wife and mother. In addition, the childbearing years come during the period when a physicist must study hard, work long hours on research, and take temporary positions, often abroad. Thus, balancing family and career has long been one of the major barriers to women's participation in science and engineering fields, including physics. While many young women believe that they must choose between having children and having a science career, the fact is that the majority of women physicists in both developing and developed countries have successfully done both. This paper summarizes some ideas and recommendations raised in discussions, especially focused on easing the challenges of having children while in temporary jobs, returning to physics after a career break, the need for "family-friendly" working conditions, and the dual-career problem facing couples where both are scientists.

  15. Energy balance climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, G. R.; Cahalan, R. F.; Coakley, J. A., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An introductory survey of the global energy balance climate models is presented with an emphasis on analytical results. A sequence of increasingly complicated models involving ice cap and radiative feedback processes are solved, and the solutions and parameter sensitivities are studied. The model parameterizations are examined critically in light of many current uncertainties. A simple seasonal model is used to study the effects of changes in orbital elements on the temperature field. A linear stability theorem and a complete nonlinear stability analysis for the models are developed. Analytical solutions are also obtained for the linearized models driven by stochastic forcing elements. In this context the relation between natural fluctuation statistics and climate sensitivity is stressed.

  16. Quantification of glomerular filtration rate by measurement of gadobutrol clearance from the extracellular fluid volume: comparison of a TurboFLASH and a TrueFISP approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Andreas; Martirosian, Petros; Artunc, Ferruh; Risler, Teut; Claussen, Claus D.; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Schick, Fritz

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: As the MR contrast-medium gadobutrol is completely eliminated via glomerular filtration, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) can be quantified after bolus-injection of gadobutrol and complete mixing in the extracellular fluid volume (ECFV) by measuring the signal decrease within the liver parenchyma. Two different navigator-gated single-shot saturation-recovery sequences have been tested for suitability of GFR quantification: a TurboFLASH and a TrueFISP readout technique. Materials and Methods: Ten healthy volunteers (mean age 26.1+/-3.6) were equally devided in two subgroups. After bolus-injection of 0.05 mmol/kg gadobutrol, coronal single-slice images of the liver were recorded every 4-5 seconds during free breathing using either the TurboFLASH or the TrueFISP technique. Time-intensity curves were determined from manually drawn regions-of-interest over the liver parenchyma. Both sequences were subsequently evaluated regarding signal to noise ratio (SNR) and the behaviour of signal intensity curves. The calculated GFR values were compared to an iopromide clearance gold standard. Results: The TrueFISP sequence exhibited a 3.4-fold higher SNR as compared to the TurboFLASH sequence and markedly lower variability of the recorded time-intensity curves. The calculated mean GFR values were 107.0+/-16.1 ml/min/1.73m2 (iopromide: 92.1+/-14.5 ml/min/1.73m2) for the TrueFISP technique and 125.6+/-24.1 ml/min/1.73m2 (iopromide: 97.7+/-6.3 ml/min/1.73m2) for the TurboFLASH approach. The mean paired differences with TrueFISP was lower (15.0 ml/min/1.73m2) than in the TurboFLASH method (27.9 ml/min/1.73m2). Conclusion: The global GFR can be quantified via measurement of gadobutrol clearance from the ECFV. A saturation-recovery TrueFISP sequence allows for more reliable GFR quantification as a saturation recovery TurboFLASH technique.

  17. Balanced Scorecard voor inkoop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Honing, R.; Schotanus, Fredo

    2003-01-01

    Een Balanced Scorecard kan ontwikkeld worden voor de hele organisatie, maar ook voor onderdelen daarvan. In dit artikel wordt ingegaan op de ontwikkeling van een Balanced Scorecard voor de inkoopafdeling

  18. Get the Balance Right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Rebecca Jaurigue

    Today work goes on 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and is about acceleration and access. Workers need balance more than ever. In fact, recent college graduates value work/life balance as their key factor in selecting employers. This paper, written for career counselors, defines balance as encompassing emotional, spiritual, physical, and…

  19. Nutrient balances in Field vegetable production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeteson, J.J.; Langeveld, J.W.A.; Smit, A.L.; Haan, de J.J.

    2003-01-01

    In this review paper an overview of the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycles in agricultural systems is presented. The information summarized provides general information on the important processes involved as they relate to losses from agricultural systems. Such background information is a

  20. Turbo-alternator-compressor design for supercritical high density working fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Steven A.; Fuller, Robert L.

    2013-03-19

    Techniques for generating power are provided. Such techniques involve a thermodynamic system including a housing, a turbine positioned in a turbine cavity of the housing, a compressor positioned in a compressor cavity of the housing, and an alternator positioned in a rotor cavity between the turbine and compressor cavities. The compressor has a high-pressure face facing an inlet of the compressor cavity and a low-pressure face on an opposite side thereof. The alternator has a rotor shaft operatively connected to the turbine and compressor, and is supported in the housing by bearings. Ridges extending from the low-pressure face of the compressor may be provided for balancing thrust across the compressor. Seals may be positioned about the alternator for selectively leaking fluid into the rotor cavity to reduce the temperature therein.

  1. Influence of engine speed and the course of the fuel injection characteristics on forming the average combustion temperature in the cylinder of turbo diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr GUSTOF

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Average combustion temperatures inside a turbo diesel engine for the same load and the same total doze of fuel for two rotational speeds: 2004 [rpm] and 4250 [rpm] are presented in this paper. The aim of this work is also the evaluation of the influence of the temporary course of the fuel injection characteristics on forming temperature in theengine cylinder space for these temperatures. The calculations were carried out by means of two zone combustion model.

  2. Energy and exergy analysis of the turbo-generators and steam turbine for the main feed water pump drive on LNG carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrzljak, Vedran; Poljak, Igor; Mrakovčić, Tomislav

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Two low-power steam turbines in the LNG carrier propulsion plant were investigated. • Energy and exergy efficiencies of both steam turbines vary between 46% and 62%. • The ambient temperature has a low impact on exergy efficiency of analyzed turbines. • The maximum efficiencies area of both turbines was investigated. • A method for increasing the turbo-generator efficiencies by 1–3% is presented. - Abstract: Nowadays, marine propulsion systems are mainly based on internal combustion diesel engines. Despite this fact, a number of LNG carriers have steam propulsion plants. In such plants, steam turbines are used not only for ship propulsion, but also for electrical power generation and main feed water pump drive. Marine turbo-generators and steam turbine for the main feed water pump drive were investigated on the analyzed LNG carrier with steam propulsion plant. The measurements of various operating parameters were performed and obtained data were used for energy and exergy analysis. All the measurements and calculations were performed during the ship acceleration. The analysis shows that the energy and exergy efficiencies of both analyzed low-power turbines vary between 46% and 62% what is significantly lower in comparison with the high-power steam turbines. The ambient temperature has a low impact on exergy efficiency of analyzed turbines (change in ambient temperature for 10 °C causes less than 1% change in exergy efficiency). The highest exergy efficiencies were achieved at the lowest observed ambient temperature. Also, the highest efficiencies were achieved at 71.5% of maximum developed turbo-generator power while the highest efficiencies of steam turbine for the main feed water pump drive were achieved at maximum turbine developed power. Replacing the existing steam turbine for the main feed water pump drive with an electric motor would increase the turbo-generator energy and exergy efficiencies for at least 1–3% in all analyzed

  3. Multispectral 3D phase-encoded turbo spin-echo for imaging near metal: Limitations and possibilities demonstrated by simulations and phantom experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gorp, Jetse S; Nizak, Razmara; Bouwman, Job G; Saris, Daniël B F; Seevinck, Peter R

    2017-06-01

    To see improvements in the imaging performance near biomaterial implants we assessed a multispectral fully phase-encoded turbo spin-echo (ms3D-PE-TSE) sequence for artifact reduction capabilities and scan time efficiency in simulation and phantom experiments. For this purpose, ms3D-PE-TSE and ms3D-TSE sequences were implemented to obtain multispectral images (±20kHz) of a cobalt-chromium (CoCr) knee implant embedded in agarose. In addition, a knee implant computer model and the acquired ms3D-PE-TSE images were used to investigate the possibilities for scan time acceleration using field-of-view (FOV) reduction for off-resonance frequency bins and compressed sensing reconstructions of undersampled data. Both acceleration methods were combined to acquire a +10kHz frequency bin in a second experiment. The obtained ms3D-PE-TSE images showed no susceptibility related artifacts, while ms3D-TSE images suffered from hyper-intensity artifacts. The limitations of ms3D-TSE were apparent in the far off-resonance regions (±[10-20]kHz) located close to the implant. The scan time calculations showed that ms3D-PE-TSE can be applied in a clinically relevant timeframe (~12min), when omitting the three central frequency bins. The feasibility of CS acceleration for ms3D-PE-TSE was demonstrated using retrospective reconstructions before combining CS and rFOV imaging to decrease the scan time for the +10kHz frequency bin from ~10.9min to ~3.5min, while also increasing the spatial resolution fourfold. The temporally resolved signal of ms3D-PE-TSE proved to be useful to decrease the intensity ripples after sum-of-squares reconstructions and increase the signal-to-noise ratio. The presented results suggest that the scan time limitations of ms3D-PE-TSE can be sufficiently addressed when focusing on signal acquisitions in the direct vicinity of metal implants. Because these regions cannot be measured with existing multispectral methods, the presented ms3D-PE-TSE method may enable the

  4. Factores de riesgo sociales y ambientales relacionados con casos de leptospirosis de manejo ambulatorio y hospitalario, Turbo, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionisia Yusti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La leptospirosis es un problema de salud pública en el Urabá colombiano y poco se sabe sobre las condiciones ambientales y sociales de esta enfermedad en la región. Objetivo. Explorar algunos factores de riesgo relacionados con leptospirosis de manejo hospitalario y ambulatorio, en pacientes del municipio de Turbo durante los años 2010 y 2011. Materiales y métodos. Mediante un estudio descriptivo se exploraron factores relacionados conla exposición a Leptospira spp. (aspectos socio-demográficos, hábitos, condiciones físicas y de saneamiento de la vivienda, hacinamiento, fuentes de agua potable, presencia de roedores sinantrópicos y convivencia con animales en pacientes con leptospirosis que requirieron manejo hospitalario en el municipio de Turbo durante los años 2010 y 2011. Se utilizaron medidas estadísticas estandarizadas para estudios descriptivos. Resultados. Se encontró que el hábito de caminar descalzo en ambientes domésticos representó 4,27 (1,32-13,82 veces el riesgo para presentar leptospirosis de manejo hospitalario (p=0,012. El análisis multivariado exploratorio mostró que la presencia de fauna silvestre en las viviendas puede estar relacionada también con casos de manejo hospitalario. Este hallazgo representó 4,22 (1,13-15,72 veces el riesgo comparado con los casos ambulatorios que manifestaron no tener este tipo deanimales dentro de la vivienda (p=0,032. Conclusión. Este estudio plantea bases para diseñar e implementar intervenciones efectivas, orientadas desde el perfil de riesgos al que se exponen sus habitantes, en un área geográfica queexhibe una epidemiología dinámica de contexto complejo para leptospirosis.   doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v33i0.1457

  5. DYMAC digital electronic balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, M.M.

    1980-06-01

    The Dynamic Materials Accountability (DYMAC) System at LASL integrates nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments with interactive data-processing equipment to provide near-real-time accountability of the nuclear material in the LASL Plutonium Processing Facility. The most widely used NDA instrument in the system is the DYMAC digital electronic balance. The DYMAC balance is a commercial instrument that has been modified at LASL for weighing material in gloveboxes and for transmitting the weight data directly to a central computer. This manual describes the balance components, details the LASL modifications, reviews a DYMAC measurement control program that monitors balance performance, and provides instructions for balance operation and maintenance

  6. Reduction of B1 sensitivity in selective single-slab 3D turbo spin echo imaging with very long echo trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaeseok; Mugler, John P; Hughes, Timothy

    2009-10-01

    Single-slab 3D turbo/fast spin echo (SE) imaging with very long echo trains was recently introduced with slab selection using a highly selective excitation pulse and short, nonselective refocusing pulses with variable flip angles for high imaging efficiency. This technique, however, is vulnerable to image degradation in the presence of spatially varying B(1) amplitudes. In this work we develop a B(1) inhomogeneity-reduced version of single-slab 3D turbo/fast SE imaging based on the hypothesis that it is critical to achieve spatially uniform excitation. Slab selection was performed using composite adiabatic selective excitation wherein magnetization is tipped into the transverse plane by a nonselective adiabatic-half-passage pulse and then slab is selected by a pair of selective adiabatic-full-passage pulses. Simulations and experiments were performed to evaluate the proposed technique and demonstrated that this approach is a simple and efficient way to reduce B(1) sensitivity in single-slab 3D turbo/fast SE imaging with very long echo trains. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. MACROINVERTEBRADOS ASOCIADOS A LAS RAÍCES SUMERGIDAS DEL MANGLE ROJO (Rhizophora mangle EN LAS BAHÍAS TURBO Y EL UNO, GOLFO DE URABÁ (CARIBE COLOMBIANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GARCÍA PADILLA JESÚS MARÍA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de establecer el comportamiento de la salinidad y las características de la fauna de macroinvertebrados asociados a las raíces de Rhizophora mangle en las Bahías de Turbo y El Uno, se realizaron cuatro muestreos entre septiembre del 2004 y febrero del 2005, en tres sectores de las Bahías. Los valores de salinidad experimentaron cambios muy importantes en el tiempo y fluctuaron entre 2 y 32 unidades. En total, se cuantificaron 26 especies en Bahía Turbo y 28 en Bahía El Uno. Mientras la diversidad en la Bahía Turbo varió entre 0,77 en septiembre y 2,22 noviembre, en Bahía El Uno, los valores fluctuaron entre 1,14 en noviembre y 1,95 en septiembre. La mayoría de las especies son frecuentes en las raíces de mangle de la región caribe y poseen un carácter eurihalino.

  8. Development of cooling system for 66/6.9kV-20MVA REBCO superconducting transformers with Ne turbo-Brayton refrigerator and subcooled liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakuma, M.; Adachi, K.; Yun, K.; Yoshida, K.; Sato, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Umeno, T.; Konno, M.; Hayashi, H.; Eguchi, T.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    2015-12-01

    We developed a turbo-Brayton refrigerator with Ne gas as a working fluid for a 3 ϕ- 66/6.9kV-2MVA superconducting transformer with coated conductors which was bath-cooled with subcooled LN2. The two-stage compressor and expansion turbine had non-contact magnetic bearings for a long maintenance interval. In the future, we intend to directly install a heat exchanger into the Glass-Fiber-Reinforced-Plastics cryostat of a transformer and make a heat exchange between the working fluid gas and subcooled LN2. In this paper we investigate the behaviour of subcooled LN2 in a test cryostat, in which heater coils were arranged side by side with a flat plate finned-tube heat exchanger. Here a He turbo-Brayton refrigerator was used as a substitute for a Ne turbo-Brayton one. The pressure at the surface of LN2 in the cryostat was one atmosphere. Just under the LN2 surface, a stationary layer of LN2 was created over the depth of 20 cm and temperature dropped from 77 K to 65 K with depth while, in the lower level than that, a natural convection flow of LN2 was formed and temperature was almost uniform over 1 m depth. The boundary plane between the stationary layer and the natural convection region was visible.

  9. Geometry Analysis and Effect of Turbulence Model on the Radial Rotor Turbo-Expander Design for Small Organic Rankine Cycle System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulana Arifin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC is one of the most promising technology for small electric power generations. The geometry analysis and the effect of turbulence model on the radial turbo-expanders design for small ORC power generation systems were discussed in this paper. The rotor blades and performance were calculated using several working fluids such as R134a, R143a, R245fa, n-Pentane, and R123. Subsequently, a numerical study was carried out in the fluid flow area with R134a and R123 as the working fluids. Analyses were performed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD ANSYS Multiphysics on two real gas models, with the k-epsilon and SST (shear stress transport turbulence models. The result shows the distribution of Mach number, pressure, velocity and temperature along the rotor blade of the radial turbo-expanders and estimation of performance at various operating conditions. The operating conditions are as follow: 250,000 grid mesh flow area, real gas model SST at steady state condition, 0.4 kg/s of mass flow rate, 15,000 rpm rotor speed, 5 bar inlet pressure, and 373K inlet temperature. By using those conditions, CFD analysis shows that the turbo-expander able to produce 6.7 kW and 5.5 kW of power when using R134a and R123, respectively.

  10. Carrier and Clock Recovery in (Turbo-Coded Systems: Cramér-Rao Bound and Synchronizer Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moeneclaey

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we derive the Cramér-Rao bound (CRB for joint carrier phase, carrier frequency, and timing estimation from a noisy linearly modulated signal with encoded data symbols. We obtain a closed-form expression for the CRB in terms of the marginal a posteriori probabilities of the coded symbols, allowing efficient numerical evaluation of the CRB for a wide range of coded systems by means of the BCJR algorithm. Simulation results are presented for a rate 1/2 turbo code combined with QPSK mapping. We point out that the synchronization parameters for the coded system are essentially decoupled. We find that, at the normal (i.e., low operating SNR of the turbo-coded system, the true CRB for coded transmission is (i essentially the same as the modified CRB and (ii considerably smaller than the true CRB for uncoded transmission. Comparison of actual synchronizer performance with the CRB for turbo-coded QPSK reveals that a “code-aware” soft-decision-directed synchronizer can perform very closely to this CRB, whereas “code-unaware” estimators such as the conventional non-data-aided algorithm are substantially worse; when operating on coded signals, the performance of the latter synchronizers is still limited by the CRB for uncoded transmission.

  11. Improved visualization of collateral ligaments of the ankle: multiplanar reconstructions based on standard 2D turbo spin-echo MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duc, Sylvain R.; Mengiardi, Bernard; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Hodler, Juerg; Zanetti, Marco

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the visualization of the collateral ankle ligaments on multiplanar reconstructions (MPR) based on standard 2D turbo spin-echo images. Coronal and axial T2-weighted turbo spin-echo and MPR angled parallel to the course of the ligaments of 15 asymptomatic and 15 symptomatic ankles were separately analyzed by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Image quality was assessed in the asymptomatic ankles qualitatively. In the symptomatic ankles interobserver agreement and reader confidence was determined for each ligament. On MPR the tibionavicular and calcaneofibular ligaments were more commonly demonstrated on a single image than on standard MR images (reader 1: 13 versus 0, P=0.002; reader 2: 14 versus 1, P=0.001 and reader 1: 13 versus 2, P=0.001; reader 2: 14 versus 0, P<0.001). The tibionavicular ligament was considered to be better delineated on MPR by reader 1 (12 versus 3, P=0.031). In the symptomatic ankles, reader confidence was greater with MPR for all ligaments except for the tibiocalcanear ligament (both readers) and the anterior and posterior talofibular ligaments (for reader 2). Interobserver agreement was increased with MPR for the tibionavicular ligament. Multiplanar reconstructions of 2D turbo spin-echo images improve the visualization of the tibionavicular and calcaneofibular ligaments and strengthen diagnostic confidence for these ligaments. (orig.)

  12. Turbo for the production of methane. High-voltage fields facilitate the access of bacteria to ingredients of the cell; Turbo fuer die Methanproduktion. Hochspannungsfelder erleichtern Bakterien den Zugang zu Zellinhaltsstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenner, Carsten [Hugo Vogelsang Maschinenbau GmbH, Essen Oldb. (Germany). Bereich Marketing Biogas

    2011-01-15

    Digestion tanks in purification plants and fermenters in biogas plants: They have more common than it seems at the first glance. In both, similar processes run off. It is a matter of degradation of organic pollutants and power generation - in biogas plants as much as possible, in wastewater treatment plants with the most possible degradation of organic substances. Both processes can be optimized by means of a new procedure and designed cost-efficiently: the electrokinetic disintegration.

  13. Mapping the SISO module of the Turbo Decoder to a FPFA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Heysters, P.M.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, L.T.; Dilessen, John; Huisken, Jos

    2000-01-01

    In the CHAMELEON project a reconfigurable systems-architecture, the Field Programmable Function Array (FPFA) is introduced. FPFAs are reminiscent to FPGAs, but have a matrix of ALUs and lookup tables instead of Configurable Logic Blocks (CLBs). The FPFA can be regarded as a low power reconfigurable

  14. On the Influence of the Extrinsic Information Scaling Coefficient on the Performance of Single and Double Binary Turbo Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BALTA, H.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the influence of the extrinsic information scaling coefficient value (eic on the bit and frame error rate (BER/FER, for single and double binary turbo codes (S/DBTC decoded with maximum a posteriori (MAP and maximum logarithmic MAP (MaxLogMAP component algorithms. Firstly, we estimate the distance spectrum of the code with the so-called error impulse method (EIM, and we analyze its dependence as well as the dependence of the asymptotic FER on eic. Secondly, we estimate the actual FER using Monte Carlo simulations with eic as a parameter. The comparison of the FER(eic curves obtained by the two methods allows us, on the one hand, to assess the quality of the decoding algorithms, and on the other hand, to estimate the very low BER/FER performance of TCs, where the Monte Carlo method is practically unusable. The results presented also provide a practical guide for the appreciation of the optimal value of the scaling factor, eic. We may notice that also the MAP algorithm performance could be improved using eic<1.

  15. Bone marrow lesions: evaluation with fat-suppression turbo spin echo MR imaging at 0.5T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrysikopoulos, H.; Papazoglou, A.; Roussakis, A.; Andreou, J.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was the assessment of the diagnostic value of fat-suppression T2-weighted images for a variety of bone marrow lesions. We performed 40 studies of the axial or appendicular skeleton in 33 patients (age range 4-80 years) with neoplastic, inflammatory or traumatic lesions with a 0.5 T system (Gyroscan T5, Philips Medical Systems, Best, The Netherlands). Fat-suppression T2-weighted images [turbo spin echo (TSE) with spectral presaturation with inversion recovery (SPIR)] were obtained in addition to the routine T1-weighted SE and T2-weighted TSE sequences. Fat-suppression TSE T2-weighted images were better than standard TSE T2-weighted images in 25 studies. In 11 of them demonstration and characterization of the lesions (known from T1-weighted images) was possible only after fat suppression. In the other 14 patients demonstration of the full extent of the lesion especially to the nearby soft tissues was possible only after fat suppression. In 13 studies no advantage was conferred by SPIR, whereas in two instances T2-weighted images were better. Fat-suppression T2-weighted images are diagnostically useful in a variety of lesions of the musculoskeletal system, but their limitations should be known. (orig.)

  16. Functional balance tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Raji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: All activities of daily living need to balance control in static and dynamic movements. In recent years, a numerous increase can be seen in the functional balance assessment tools. Functional balance tests emphasize on static and dynamic balance, balance in weight transfer, the equilibrium response to the imbalances, and functional mobility. These standardized and available tests assess performance and require minimal or no equipment and short time to run. Functional balance is prerequisite for the most static and dynamic activities in daily life and needs sufficient interaction between sensory and motor systems. According to the critical role of balance in everyday life, and wide application of functional balance tests in the diagnosis and assessment of patients, a review of the functional balance tests was performed.Methods: The Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Magiran, Iran Medex, and IranDoc databases were reviewed and the reliable and valid tests which were mostly used by Iranian researchers were assessed.Conclusion: It seems that Berg balance scale (BBS have been studied by Iranian and foreign researches more than the other tests. This test has high reliability and validity in elderly and in the most neurological disorders.

  17. Two-stage turbo-compressor for heat pumps. Stage 1: Feasibility study; Compresseur radial pour pompe a chaleur bietagee. Phase 1: etude de faisabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiffmann, J.; Molyneaux, A. [Ofttech SA, Parc Scientifique de l' EPFL-C, Lausanne (Switzerland); Favrat, D.; Marechal, F.; Zehnder, M.; Godat, J. [Swiss Federal Institue of Technology (EPFL), Laboratoire d' energetique industrielle, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the work performed by Ofttech SA, in collaboration with the Industrial Energy Laboratory (LENI) of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne, investigating the feasibility of designing an oil-free turbo-compressor for domestic retrofit heat pump applications. The primary objective for a retrofit heat pump is that it produces heating water at 60 {sup o}C (with at least 10 {sup o}C temperature rise) with an external air temperature of -12 {sup o}C and can supply at least 10 kW. This would enable the air-water heat pump to directly replace oil or gas boilers. To enable a heat pump to produce the required hot water with a sufficient Coefficient of Performance (COP) a two-stage compressor is the most sensible technical solution currently available. This report shows how a turbo-compressor consisting of a single rotor with two centrifugal compressor wheels, running at variable speeds up to 240,000 rpm, can provide a unique solution with better predicted performance than existing solutions. This is possible by the use of bearings lubricated with gaseous refrigerant - excluding completely the need for oil in the system with its associated heat transfer, system, environmental and cost disadvantages. These bearings need radial clearances between 5 and 10 micrometers, leading to manufacturing tolerances in the order of magnitude of one micrometer. Various possible refrigerants are discussed with R134a being chosen for this study. Investigations performed by the company Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) are reported showing the possible design of the two small turbo-compressors resulting in wheels of less than 20 mm. The electric motor for this directly driven compressor together with the wheels and gas bearings will result in a complete rotor of less than 100 mm long - making it smaller, lighter and cheaper than existing compressors. The main conclusion is that the overall performance of this novel turbo-compressor when compared with the

  18. Balanced microwave filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Jiasheng; Medina, Francisco; Martiacuten, Ferran

    2018-01-01

    This book presents and discusses strategies for the design and implementation of common-mode suppressed balanced microwave filters, including, narrowband, wideband, and ultra-wideband filters This book examines differential-mode, or balanced, microwave filters by discussing several implementations of practical realizations of these passive components. Topics covered include selective mode suppression, designs based on distributed and semi-lumped approaches, multilayer technologies, defect ground structures, coupled resonators, metamaterials, interference techniques, and substrate integrated waveguides, among others. Divided into five parts, Balanced Microwave Filters begins with an introduction that presents the fundamentals of balanced lines, circuits, and networks. Part 2 covers balanced transmission lines with common-mode noise suppression, including several types of common-mode filters and the application of such filters to enhance common-mode suppression in balanced bandpass filters. Next, Part 3 exa...

  19. Work-Life Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Kvasničková, Katarína

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is Work-Life Balance - the reconciliation of professional and personal lives. The primary objective of this work is to analyze employee satisfaction in achieving a balance between the professional and personal life and to develop recommendations for employer on that basis. The theoretical portion of this work defines the issues surrounding Work-Life Balance and tools that employees can use to harmonize the two with an analysis of applications in the Czech Republic a...

  20. Radiation balances and the solar constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crommelynck, D.

    1981-01-01

    The radiometric concepts are defined in order to consider various types of radiation balances and relate them to the diabetic form of the energy balance. Variability in space and time of the components of the radiation field are presented. A specific concept for sweeping which is tailored to the requirements is proposed. Finally, after establishing the truncated character of the present knowledge of the radiation balance. The results of the last observations of the solar constant are given. Ground and satellite measurement techniques are discussed.

  1. Clinical presentation of severe malaria due plasmodiun falciparum. casecontrol study in Tumaco and Turbo (Colombia. Clínica de la malaria complicada debida a P. falciparum Estudio de casos y controles en Tumaco y Turbo (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Carmona Fonseca

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Latin American studies on severe falciparum malaria are scarce, therefore, the pattern of complications of the region is uknown. Objectives. To identify characterize severe malaria in patients from Tumaco (Nariño and Turbo (Antioquia in Colombia. Methods. The 2000 World Health Organization criteria for complicated malaria were applied in a cases and controls study. Results. 64 cases (P falciparum complicated malaria and 135 controls (P falciparum uncomplicated malaria were included. The time of evolution of the disease (mean 5.6 days in cases and 5.9 in the controls and the frequency of most symptoms were similar in both groups (p>0.05. However, respiratory distress and jaundice was more frequent in the cases (p<0.05. The mean glycemia and creatinina values were similar in both groups; hemoglobin and platelet count were lower in the cases (p<0.05 when compared to controls. On the other hand, blood ureic nitrogen, aspartatoaminotransferase, and total and direct bilirrubin were lower in controls (p<0.05. The frequency of complications in the cases was as follows: hyperparasitaemia 48%, liver dysfunction 44%, acute respiratory distress syndrome 9%, kidney failure 6%, severe thrombocytopenia 5%, severe anemia 3%, cerebral malaria 3% and severe hipoglycemia 2%. The WHO criteria for severe malaria were compared with others and the implications are discussed. Antecedentes y problema: son muy pocos los estudios latinoamericanos sobre malaria por Plasmodium falciparum (P falciparum complicada y se requiere estudiarla para identificar un patrón propio. OBJETIVOS. Identificar las complicaciones presentes en pacientes de Tumaco (Nariño y Turbo (Antioquia en Colombia, con malaria por P falciparum. MÉTODOS. Diseño de casos y controles. Se aplicaron los criterios diagnósticos de complicación OMS-2000 (Organización Mundial de la Salud. RESULTADOS. Se captaron 64 casos (con malaria por P. falciparum complicada y 135 controles (con malaria por

  2. Epidemiologia de la malaria falciparum complicada: estudio de casos y controles en Tumaco y Turbo, Colombia, 2003 The epidemiology of complicated falciparum malaria: case and controls study in Tumaco and Turbo, Colombia, 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Tobón C.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Identificar aspectos del hospedero, del parásito y del ambiente asociados con ocurrencia de malaria por Plasmodium falciparum complicada. MÉTODOS: Estudio de casos y controles en pacientes de Tumaco y Turbo (Colombia aplicando los criterios de complicación de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. RESULTADOS: Entre noviembre 2002 y julio 2003 se captaron 64 casos (malaria complicada y 135 controles (malaria no complicada. Las complicaciones fueron: hiperparasitemia (40%, falla hepática (36%, síndrome dificultad respiratoria aguda (7%, falla renal (4%, trombocitopenia grave (3%, anemia grave (2%, malaria cerebral (2% e hipoglicemia grave (1%. Se encontraron como factores de riesgo para malaria falciparum complicada: a Los antecedentes de malaria falciparum durante el último año fueron menores en los casos (OR= 7.0 (1.2-43.6 P=0.019; b Mayor uso previo de antimaláricos en los casos (OR=2.2 (1.1-4.4 P=0.031 y c mayor uso de cloroquina en los casos (OR=7.4 (1.1-7.8 P=0.017. Se hallaron los alelos MAD-20 y K1 del gen msp1 y FC-27 e IC-1 del gen msp2, cuya distribución de frecuencias fue similar entre casos y controles, aunque el alelo K1 mostró una variación importante entre grupos (casos: 9.4%, controles: 3.5%. La frecuencia de "signos de peligro" fue significativamente mayor en los casos (OR= 3.3, (1.5-7.4 P=0.001. Los criterios de complicación malárica de la Organización Mundial de la Salud se comparan con otros y se discuten algunas implicaciones. CONCLUSIÓN: Se identificaron como factores de riesgo para malaria falciparum complicada, la ausencia de antecedentes de malaria falciparum en el último año y el uso de antimaláricos antes de llegar al hospital.OBJECTIVES: Aimed at identifying host and parasite aspects associated to the presence of Plasmodium falciparum complicated malaria. METHODS: Case and controls study in patients from Tumaco and Turbo (Colombia. We used the World Health Organization criteria to assess the

  3. Patterns of treatment for childhood malaria among caregivers and health care providers in Turbo, Colombia = Pautas de tratamiento para la malaria infantil entre los cuidadores y profesionales de la salud en Turbo, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López de Mesa, Ysabel Polanco

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaria represents a major cause of death among children in many areas of the world, especially in tropical countries. Colombia constitutes a malaria endemic country in 90% of its territory. This study, undertaken in Turbo (Antioquia, examined care-seeking patterns and barriers to appropriate treatment for Colombian children with fever and /or convulsions, two key symptoms of malaria. The study focused on community perceptions of and responses to febrile illness, using illness narratives as the primary data collection vehicle. The researcher used semi-structured interviews for health narratives with caregivers and health providers. Analyses of 67 illness narratives collected in the course of the study indicated that caregivers, the majority of which are mothers, recognize fever and treat it promptly. They identified fever, chills, headache, vomiting, and weakness as the most frequent symptoms of malaria. Synchronic and diachronic analyses showed that most treatments begin at home. Common home treatments include baths with herbs and use of anti-pyretic drugs. Neither caregivers nor traditional healers conceptualized malaria as a disease that La malaria representa una causa importante de muerte infantil en muchas áreas del mundo, especialmente en países tropicales. Colombia es considerado como un país endémico para malaria en el 90% de su territorio. Este estudio, llevado a cabo en la localidad de Turbo (Antioquia, exploró los patrones de cuidados y las barreras para el tratamiento apropiado en niños colombianos con fiebre y/o convulsiones, dos síntomas claves de la malaria. El estudio se concentró en las percepciones y respuestas de la comunidad ante la enfermedad febril, utilizando narrativas de la enfermedad como vehículo principal de la recolección de datos. El investigador usó entrevistas semi-estructuradas para las narrativas de enfermedad con los cuidadores de los niños y con los proveedores la salud. El análisis de 67

  4. Optimal MR pulse sequences for hepatic hemangiomas : comparison of T2-weighted turbo-spin-echo, T2-weighted breath-hold turbo-spin-echo, and T1-weighted FLASH dynamic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wen Chao; Choi, Byung Ihn; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Cho, Soon Gu

    1997-01-01

    To optimize MR imaging pulse sequences in the imaging of hepatic hemangioma and to evaluate on dynamic MR imaging the enhancing characteristics of the lesions. Twenty patients with 35 hemangiomas were studied by using Turbo-spin-echo (TSE) sequence (T2-weighted, T2- and heavily T2-weighted breath-hold) and T1-weighted FLASH imaging acquired before, immediately on, and 1, 3 and 5 minutes after injection of a bolus of Gd-DTPA (0.1mmol/kg). Phased-array multicoil was employed. Images were quantitatively analyzed for lesion-to-liver signal difference to noise ratios (SD/Ns), and lesion-to-liver signal ratios (H/Ls), and qualitatively analyzed for lesion conspicuity. The enhancing characteristics of the hemangiomas were described by measuring the change of signal intensity as a curve in T1-weighted FLASH dynamic imaging. For T2-weighted images, breath-hold T2-weighted TSE had a slightly higher SD/N than other pulse sequences, but there was no statistical difference in three fast pulse sequences (p=0.211). For lesion conspicuity, heavily T2-weighted breath-hold TSE images was superior to T2-weighted breath-hold or non-breath-hold TSE (H/L, 5.75, 3.81, 2.87, respectively, p<0.05). T2-weighted breath-hold TSE imaging was more effective than T2-weighted TSE imaging in removing lesion blurring or lack of sharpness, and there was a 12-fold decrease in acquisition time (20sec versus 245 sec). T1-weighted FLASH dynamic images of normal liver showed peak enhancement at less than 1 minute, and of hemangioma at more than 3 minutes;the degree of enhancement for hemangioma decreased after a 3 minute delay. T2-weighed breath-hold TSE imaging and Gd-DTPA enhanced FLASH dynamic imaging with 5 minutes delay are sufficient for imaging hepatic hemangiomas

  5. Identifying Balance in a Balanced Scorecard System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravamudhan, Suhanya; Kamalanabhan, T. J.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, strategic management concepts seem to be gaining greater attention from the academicians and the practitioner's alike. Balanced Scorecard (BSC) concept is one such management concepts that has spread in worldwide business and consulting communities. The BSC translates mission and vision statements into a comprehensive set of…

  6. A Smartphone Inertial Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Garrido, Azael

    2017-01-01

    In order to measure the mass of an object in the absence of gravity, one useful tool for many decades has been the inertial balance. One of the simplest forms of inertial balance is made by two mass holders or pans joined together with two stiff metal plates, which act as springs.

  7. Lust-Balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Cas

    2007-01-01

    The concept of the lust-balance refers to the social organization and accompanying social codes (ideals and practices) regarding the relationship between the longing for sexual gratification and the longing for enduring relational intimacy. It thus draws attention to the balance between emotive

  8. Conclusion: The balanced company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm; Jensen, Inger

    2013-01-01

    This concluding chapter brings together the various research findings of the book "The balanced company - organizing for the 21st Century" and develops a general overview of their implications for our understanding of the balancing processes unfolding in companies and organizations....

  9. Balance og stofskifte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Udstilling på Medicinsk Museion. Baseret på bevilling fra Assens Fond. Se mere på http://www.museion.ku.dk/whats-on/exhibitions/balance-and-metabolism/......Udstilling på Medicinsk Museion. Baseret på bevilling fra Assens Fond. Se mere på http://www.museion.ku.dk/whats-on/exhibitions/balance-and-metabolism/...

  10. Frecuencia de infección del tracto urinario en lactantes con fiebre, sin foco infeccioso evidente, que consultan a la Unidad Vida Infantil de la Universidad de Antioquia del Hospital Francisco Valderrama, Turbo (Antioquia Frequency of urinary tract infections in febrile infants without evidence of an infectious source. from the clinic of the Unidad Vida Infantil of the University of Antioquia, Hospital Francisco Valderrama, Turbo, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Durango Galván

    2006-01-01

    , erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, urine dipstick tests for leukocyte esterase and nitrites, urinalysis (UA (urine white blood cell count/mm3, gram stain in a drop of uncentrifuged urine, microscopic UA (white blood cells and bacteria per high-powered field, and quantitative urine culture (positive urine results were defined as ³104 colony-forming units of an urinary tract pathogen per mL. All urine specimens were obtained by urethral catheterization. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy likelihood ratios were determined for each one of the screening tests. RESULTS: overall prevalence of UTI (growth of >104 CFU of an urinary tract pathogen per mL was 10%. Average age was 7 months. Most children with UTI had anorexia, irritability, general malaise, and vomiting. The most specific laboratory parameters were urine positive gram stain (any bacteria, and pyuria (>10 WBC/high-powered field. All urinary tract infections were caused by Escherichia coli. Isolates of this urinary pathogen showed decreased susceptibility to trimetoprimsulfametoxasole, as well as resistance to ampicillin. CONCLUSIONS: UTI is a frequent cause of the acute febrile syndrome without apparent source for the fever in infants of Turbo, Antioquia. In such cases, particularly when there are not specific clinical signs or symptoms, physicians should take this disease into consideration, and order an UA (white blood cells and bacteria per high-powered field, and gram stain. If results of these tests are positive, an urine culture becomes necessary. In our study, E. coli isolates showed significant resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics.

  11. WiiFit™ Plus balance test scores for the assessment of balance and mobility in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed-Jones, Rebecca J; Dorgo, Sandor; Hitchings, Maija K; Bader, Julia O.

    2012-01-01

    The Nintendo Wii™ is becoming an increasingly popular technology for the training and assessment of balance in older adults. Recent studies have shown promising results for its use in fall prevention. However, it is not clear how scores on the WiiFit™ balance games relate to current standardized tests of balance and mobility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between WiiFit™ Plus balance tests, and standardized tests of older adult fitness, balance, mobility, self-reported balance confidence, and visual attention and processing. Results from 34 older adult participants indicate that WiiFit™ balance tests do not correlate well with standardized functional balance, mobility and fitness tests. However, the Wii balance score, as measured by the Basic Balance Test of the WiiFit™, does correlate with visual processing speed as measured by the Useful Field of View (UFOV) test. These results indicate that WiiFit™ balance tests may provide advantageous information supplementary to information obtained through standard functional mobility and balance tests; however, caution should be used when using the WiiFit™ balance tests in isolation. Further research is necessary as these technologies become widely used in clinical and home settings for balance training and assessment. PMID:22534562

  12. Sistemas de transmisión del conocimiento etnobotánico de plantas silvestres comestibles en Turbo, Antioquia, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Antonio Mosquera Mena

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Los diferentes estudios etnobotánicos y etnoecológicos, muestran no solo la gran riqueza de recursos naturales que muchas comunidades han aprovechado de manera sostenible en el tiempo, si no también, la preocupación por la falta de sistematización del conocimiento debido a diferentes situaciones que lo dificultan. Esta investigación tiene como propósito mostrar los diferentes sistemas de transmisión del conocimiento que los habitantes del municipio de Turbo, Antioquia, Colombia, han utilizado para que las generaciones presentes y futuras reconozcan las plantas silvestres comestibles, lo cual es útil para tomar decisiones frente a la necesidad de sistematización del conocimiento de la biodiversidad local. Se utiliza una metodología que comprende las etapas de diseño de la encuesta etnobotánica, la aplicación de la misma teniendo en cuenta el tamaño de la población lo que arroja un total de 360 encuestas aplicadas en los 18 corregimientos del municipio, agrupados en cuatro sectores fisiográficos: Serranía, Litoral, Abanico Aluvial y Planicie Inundable. Los resultados muestran las formas de transmisión de conocimiento en cada uno de los corregimientos que componen la geografía del territorio, evidenciando que continúan primando sistemas de transmisión oral con muy baja sistematización y con un desinterés de la población joven por reconocer dichos recursos orientados a la preservación como fuentede alimento.

  13. Effect of turbo charging and steam injection methods on the performance of a Miller cycle diesel engine (MCDE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonca, Guven; Sahin, Bahri

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance of a diesel engine is simulated by finite time thermodynamics. • Effect of steam injection on performance of a Miller cycle engine is examined. • Model results are verified with the experimental data with less than 7% error. - Abstract: In this study, application of the steam injection method (SIM), Miller cycle (MC) and turbo charging (TC) techniques into a four stroke, direct-injection diesel engine has been numerically and empirically conducted. NOx emissions have detrimental influences on the environment and living beings. They are formed at the high temperatures, thus the Diesel engines are serious NOx generation sources since they have higher compression ratios and higher combustion temperatures. The international regulations have decreased the emission limits due to environmental reasons. The Miller cycle (MC) application and steam injection method (SIM) have been popular to abate NOx produced from the internal combustion engines (ICEs), in the recent years. However, the MC application can cause a reduction in power output. The most known technique which maximizes the engine power and abates exhaust emissions is TC. Therefore, if these three techniques are combined, the power loss can be tolerated and pollutant emissions can be minimized. While the application of the MC and SIM causes to diminish in the brake power and brake thermal efficiency of the engine up to 6.5% and 10%, the TC increases the brake power and brake thermal efficiency of the engine up to 18% and 12%. The experimental and theoretical results have been compared in terms of the torque, the specific fuel consumption (SFC), the brake power and the brake thermal efficiency. The results acquired from theoretical modeling have been validated with empirical data with less than 7% maximum error. The results showed that developed combination can increase the engine performance and the method can be easily applied to the Diesel engines.

  14. Unenhanced 3D turbo spin echo MR angiography of lower extremity arteries: comparison with 128-MDCT angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirtaş, Hakan; Parpar, Tuna; Değirmenci, Bumin; Kara, Mustafa; Çelik, Ahmet Orhan; Umul, Ayşe; Kayan, Mustafa; Yılmaz, Ömer

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the feasibility and diagnostic power of unenhanced 3D turbo spin echo MR angiography sequence (a technique based on subtraction of corresponding images acquired in diastole and systole, Syngo Native Space-Siemens healthcare) to identify peripheral artery disease (PAD). Thirty patients (619 arterial segments in total) suspected with PAD and who were assessed with lower extremity MDCT angiography were examined starting from the level of aortic bifurcation for both lower extremities by 3D native space MR angiography. Two readers assessed the image quality of native space MR angiography and number of lesions, their degrees of stenosis and localizations. The differences and compliance between the readers in the parameters assessed were investigated. Out of 619 segments; Reader 1 considered 187 segments (30.2 %) and Reader 2 considered 177 segments (28.6 %) to have poor and inadequate MR image quality. When compared to CTA, sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of native space MR angiography were calculated as 81.0, 83.1, 82.6 %, respectively, by Reader 1, while the same parameters were calculated as 69.9, 92.6, 84.9 %, respectively, by Reader 2. When the two readers were examined together, sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy were found to be 76.3, 88.1, 83.7 %, respectively, and the positive predictive value and negative predictive value was 70.3 and 89.9 %, respectively. A significantly better image quality was acquired with the age group below 50 years (p = 0.002). Native space MR angiography technique can be used as the first-step imaging technique before contrast-enhanced examinations in young and middle age patients with suspected PAD and for patients with the risk of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in chronic renal failure.

  15. Contrast-enhanced turbo spin-echo(TSE) T1-weighted imaging: improved contrast of enhancing lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sung Wook; Lee, Ghi Jai; Shim, Jae Chan; Lee, Young Ju; Jeong, Se Hyung; Kim, Ho kyun

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of contrast improvement of enhancing brain lesions by inherent magnetization transfer effect in turbo spin-echo(TSE)T1-weighted MR imaging. Twenty-six enhancing lesions of 19 patients were included in this study. Using a 1.0T superconductive MR unit, contrast-enhanced SE T1-weighted images(TR=3D600 msec, TE=3D12 msec, NEX=3D2, acquistition time=3D4min 27sec) and contrast-enhanced TSE T1-weighted images(TR=3D600 msec, TE=3D12, acquistition time=3D1min 44sec) were obtained. Signal intensities at enhancing lesions and adjacent white matter were measured in the same regions of both images. Signal-to-noise ratio(SNR) of enhancing lesions and adjacent white matter, and con-trast-to-noise ratio(CNR) and lesion-to-background contrast (LBC) of enhancing lesions were calculated and statistically analysed using the paired t-test. On contrast-enhanced TSE T1-weighted images, SNR of enhancing lesions and adjacent white matter decreased by 18%(p<0.01) and 32%(p<0.01), respectively, compared to contrast-enhanced SE T1-weighted images. CNR and LBC of enhancing lesions increased by 16%(p<0.05) and 66%(p<0.01), respectively. Due to the proposed inherent magnetization transfer effects in TSE imaging, con-trast-enhanced T1-weighted TSE images demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in CNR and LBC, compared to conventional contrast-enhanced T1-weighted SE images, and scan time was much shorter

  16. Hatha yoga on body balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Erick Tadeu; Raso, Vagner; Scharlach, Renata Coelho; Kasse, Cristiane Akemi

    2014-01-01

    Background: A good body balance requires a proper function of vestibular, visual, and somatosensory systems which can be reach with exercise practice and/or yoga. Aim: To determine the effects of a 5-month hatha yoga training program on body balance in young adults. Materials and Methods: This study used a controlled, nonrandomized design, where the experimental group underwent a 5-month training program and were then compared with the control group that had a sedentary lifestyle. A convenience sample of 34 out of 40 men aged 25-55 years old (34.0 ± 0.9) were deemed eligible for this study. They were randomly divided into two groups: Experimental and control groups. Subjects in the experimental group were engaged in 60 min sessions of hatha yoga three times a week for 5 months. We evaluated postural control by measuring the limit of stability and velocity of oscillation (VOS) in three conditions of the balance rehabilitation unit (BRU) and through field procedures (four position, plane, flamingo, hopscotch, and dynamic test). Results: We observed differences (P < 0.05) in postintervention scores between the groups regardless of BRU parameters and field procedures (except for flamingo) even after adjusting for preintervention scores, suggesting that these changes were induced by hatha yoga training. The partial eta squared on BRU parameters ranged from 0.78 (VOS1)-0.97 (COP2), and from 0.00 (flamingo)-0.94 (four position) for the field procedures. Conclusions: Our results provide substantial evidence that postural control in healthy young adults can be improved through practicing hatha yoga. PMID:25035623

  17. Numerical investigations on axial and radial blade rubs in turbo-machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrhman, Ahmed M.; Tang, Eric Sang Sung; Salman Leong, M.; Al-Qrimli, Haidar F.; Rajamohan, G.

    2017-07-01

    In the recent years, the clearance between the rotor blades and stator/casing had been getting smaller and smaller prior improving the aerodynamic efficiency of the turbomachines as demand in the engineering field. Due to the clearance reduction between the blade tip and the rotor casing and between rotor blades and stator blades, axial and radial blade rubbing could be occurred, especially at high speed resulting into complex nonlinear vibrations. The primary aim of this study is to address the blade axial rubbing phenomenon using numerical analysis of rotor system. A comparison between rubbing caused impacts of axial and radial blade rubbing and rubbing forces are also aims of this study. Tow rotor models (rotor-stator and rotor casing models) has been designed and sketched using SOILDSWORKS software. ANSYS software has been used for the simulation and the numerical analysis. The rubbing conditions were simulated at speed range of 1000rpm, 1500rpm and 2000rpm. Analysis results for axial blade rubbing showed the appearance of blade passing frequency and its multiple frequencies (lx, 2x 3x etc.) and these frequencies will more excited with increasing the rotational speed. Also, it has been observed that when the rotating speed increased, the rubbing force and the harmonics frequencies in x, y and z-direction become higher and severe. The comparison study showed that axial blade rub is more dangerous and would generate a higher vibration impacts and higher blade rubbing force than radial blade rub.

  18. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  19. Modeling of turbulent flows in cooling channels of turbo-machineries; Modelisation des ecoulements turbulents dans des canaux de refroidissement de turbomachines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidart, A.; Caltagirone, J.P.; Parneix, S. [Laboratoire MASTER-ENSCPB, 33 - Talence (France)

    1997-12-31

    The MASTER laboratory has been involved since several years in the creation and utilization of modeling tools for the prediction of 3-D turbulent flows and heat transfers in turbine blades in order to optimize the cooling systems of turbo-machineries. This paper describes one of the test-cases that has been used for the validation of the `Aquilon` calculation code developed in this aim. Then, the modeling performed with the `Fluent` industrial code in order to evaluate the possible improvements of the Aquilon code, is presented. (J.S.) 5 refs.

  20. Errors in potassium balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, G.B.; Lantigua, R.; Amatruda, J.M.; Lockwood, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Six overweight adult subjects given a low calorie diet containing adequate amounts of nitrogen but subnormal amounts of potassium (K) were observed on the Clinical Research Center for periods of 29 to 40 days. Metabolic balance of potassium was measured together with frequent assays of total body K by 40 K counting. Metabolic K balance underestimated body K losses by 11 to 87% (average 43%): the intersubject variability is such as to preclude the use of a single correction value for unmeasured losses in K balance studies

  1. Energy balance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhurandhar, N V; Schoeller, D; Brown, A W

    2015-01-01

    Energy intake (EI) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) are key modifiable determinants of energy balance, traditionally assessed by self-report despite its repeated demonstration of considerable inaccuracies. We argue here that it is time to move from the common view that self......-reports of EI and PAEE are imperfect, but nevertheless deserving of use, to a view commensurate with the evidence that self-reports of EI and PAEE are so poor that they are wholly unacceptable for scientific research on EI and PAEE. While new strategies for objectively determining energy balance...... of energy balance....

  2. Enhanced Design of Turbo-jet LPT by Separation Control Using Phased Plasma Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashpis, David (Technical Monitor); Corke, Thomas C.; Thomas, Flint O.

    2003-01-01

    This work deals with the documentation and control of flow separation that occurs over turbine blades in the low-pressure turbine stage at low Reynolds numbers that exist at high altitude cruise. We utilize a specially constructed linear cascade that is designed to study the flow field over a generic LPT cascade consisting of Pratt & Whitney 'Pak B' shaped blades. This facility was constructed under a previous one-year NASA Glenn RC initiative. The center blade in the cascade is instrumented to measure the surface pressure coefficient distribution. Optical access allows two-component LDV measurement for boundary layer profiles. Experimental conditions have been chosen to give a range of chord Reynolds numbers from 10 to 100K, and a range of free-stream turbulence levels from u'/U(sub infinity)= 0.08 to 3 percent. The surface pressure measurements were used to define a region of separation and reattachment that depend on the free-stream conditions. The location of separation was found to be relatively insensitive to the experimental conditions. However, reattachment location was very sensitive to the turbulence level and Reynolds number. Excellent agreement was found between the measured pressure distributions and predictions from Euler and RANS simulations. Two-component LDV measurements are presently underway to document the mean and fluctuating velocity components in the boundary layer over the center blade for the range of experimental conditions. The fabrication of the plasma actuator is underway. These are designed to produce either streamwise vortices, or a downstream-directed wall jet. A precursor experiment for the former approach was performed with an array of vortex generators placed just upstream of the separation line. These led to reattachment except for the lowest Reynolds number. Progress has also been made on the proposed concept for a laterally moving wake. This involved constructing a smaller wind tunnel and molding an array of symmetric airfoils

  3. The Balanced Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in their environments. Communication specialists need to make balanced decisions which take the different value systems and assumptions of stakeholders into consideration. Change specialists need to balance the need for continuity and change. Managers need to make balanced decisions about whether to achieve goals...... that a company is respected in wider society and behaves according to ethical standards. Strategists and Leaders need to make balanced choices about long-term goals and the allocation of resources. They need to analyse, understand and adjust strategies to market, political, value and technology related changes...... is to be achieved and what should be avoided? • Through what types of processes are the criteria, conditions and values that are to be realised or taken into consideration constructed and decided upon? • What characterises the content, differences and complexity of the different types of values and criteria...

  4. National Energy Balance - 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The National Energy Balance - 1985 shows energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the production to the final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1974 to 1984 (E.G.) [pt

  5. In Balance With

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Kessel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 'In Balance With' (2012 is a live performance with Courtney Kessel and her daughter, Chloé, sitting at opposite ends of a seesaw. During the 30-minute performance, Kessel adds items representative of their lives to Chloé's side of the seesaw. After each group of items is added, she returns to her side to check the balance. Toys, violin, research books, food, pots, tools, and laundry are strapped on to the seesaw. The audience witnesses the struggle to create a balance between work, home, research, and play as a single mother and artist. As equilibrium is achieved, Kessel stills labors to maintain the balance until Chloé is ready to get down, thus signaling that her work can only happen when her daughter is cared for and occupied.

  6. The Balanced Literacy Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willows, Dale

    2002-01-01

    Describes professional development program in Ontario school district to improve student reading and writing skills. Program used food-pyramid concepts to help teacher learn to provide a balanced and flexible approach to literacy instruction based on student needs. (PKP)

  7. National Energy Balance - 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The National Energy Balance - 1984 shows energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the productions to final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1973 to 1983. (E.G.) [pt

  8. National Energy Balance-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The National Energy Balance - 1987 showns energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the production to final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1971 to 1986. (E.G.) [pt

  9. Energy balances 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The energy balances of the Danish Statistical Office are the designation of the goods balances, which are tabulated for each energy article in both physical entities (quantities) and in base rates (values). The balance concept is connected to the definition supply = use, which is the basis for the construction of the system. The supply is determined as the sum of two items: import and production while the total use is the sum of 138 items: export, waste and transmission loss, stock increase, input in lack of the 130 industries, and private consumption divided into 5 consumption groups. The statistical analysis is performed yearly in both quantities and values for 35 energy articles. Values are computed for base rates, profits, taxes, VAT and market prices (buyer's price), respectively. The energy balances from 1975 to 2000 are presented for comparison. (EHS)

  10. Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeh, N.

    1984-01-01

    Mass balance equation for glaciers; areal distribution and ice volumes; estimates of actual mass balance; loss by calving of icebergs; hydrological budget for Greenland; and temporal variations of Greenland mass balance are examined.

  11. Balances instruments, manufacturers, history

    CERN Document Server

    Robens, Erich; Kiefer, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The book deals mainly with direct mass determination by means of a conventional balances. It covers the history of the balance from the beginnings in Egypt earlier than 3000 BC to recent developments. All balance types are described with emphasis on scientific balances. Methods of indirect mass determination, which are applied to very light objects like molecules and the basic particles of matter and celestial bodies, are included.  As additional guidance, today’s manufacturers are listed and the profile of important companies is reviewed. Several hundred photographs, reproductions and drawings show instruments and their uses. This book includes commercial weighing instruments for merchandise and raw materials in workshops as well as symbolic weighing in the ancient Egyptian’s ceremony of ‘Weighing of the Heart’, the Greek fate balance, the Roman  Justitia, Juno Moneta and Middle Ages scenes of the Last Judgement with Jesus or St. Michael and of modern balances. The photographs are selected from the...

  12. UV filters analyzed by isotope diluted TurboFlow-LC-MS/MS in urine from Danish children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Nielsen, Ole; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Juul, Anders; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2017-03-01

    Experimental studies indicate that some chemicals with UV blocking properties (known as UV filters) can act as endocrine disruptors. UV filters are used in sunscreens and other cosmetic- and personal care products, as well as in other consumer products such as food packaging, clothing and furniture textiles to protect the products against UV radiation. Here we present the urinary excretion of suspected endocrine active UV filters in Danish children and adolescents recruited from the general population. The content of benzophenone (BP), benzophenone-1 (BP-1), benzophenone-2 (BP-2), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), 5-chloro-2- hydroxybenzophenone (BP-7), 4-hydroxybenzophenone (4-HBP), 4-methyl-benzophenone (4-MBP), 3-(4- methylbenzylidene)-camphor (4-MBC) and 3-benzylidene camphor (3-BC) were monitored in 24h urine and two consecutive first morning samples from 129 healthy Danish children and adolescents (6-21 yrs). All 387 samples were collected during the autumn (Nov. 2007) and were analyzed by a new on-line TurboFlow-LC-MS/MS method developed for simultaneous biomonitoring of these nine UV filters in urine. BP-3 and BP-1 were detected in more than 80% of the 24h samples and were significantly correlated (R 2 =0.815). BP, 4-HBP and BP-2 were found in 43, 15 and 5% of the samples, respectively. The median (range) concentrations of the UV-filters in 24-h urine were as follows: BP-3, 0.92 (LOD-115); BP-1, 0.54 (LOD-44.6); BP,UV filters; BP-7, 4-MBP, 4-MBC or 3-BC were detected in urine. A highly significant correlation between first morning and 24h urine levels of BP-3, BP-1 and 4-HBP from the same day was observed. Our project on UV filters analyzed by a new robust and sensitive LC-MS/MS method in Danish children and adolescents showed that almost all individuals were exposed to UV filters. Sun protection products have been claimed to be a major source of exposure to sunscreens. However since all children in the present study were exposed during autumn where sunscreens are not

  13. MENINGKATKAN HASIL BELAJAR KIDS ATLETIK LEMPAR TURBO MELALUI MODIFIKASI PERMAINAN BOLA BEREKOR BAGI SISWA KELAS 5 SDN 1 SUKOREJO TAHUN AJARAN 2013/2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Khoerudin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the improvement of learning outcomes athletic kids throwing turbo through modification of the game ball tailed for the Grade 5 Elementary School 1 Sukorejo academic year 2013/2014 . This study uses action research. In the implementation consists of two cycles. The instrument used in this study is the test performance of students, student observation sheet, and a written test. Based on the results, the percentage of mastery learning in the first cycle, psychomotor aspects of 32.4 %, 76.5 % affective aspects, cognitive aspects of 94.2 %, and mastery learning students classically 64.7 % of the total number of students. In the second cycle psychomotor aspects of 76.5 %, 88.2 % affective aspects, cognitive aspects of 97.1 %, and mastery learning students classically 85.3 % of the total number of students. In the present study showed an increase in student learning in classical completeness by 20.6 %, from 64.7 % to the first cycle to 85.3 % in the second cycle. Based on the above results, it was concluded that the modification of the game ball tailed in teaching athletic kids throwing turbo can improve student learning outcomes the Grade 5 Elementary School 1 Sukorejo academic year 2013/2014.

  14. Vapour condensation of R22 retrofit substitutes R417A, R422A and R422D on CuNi turbo C tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Seara, Jose; Uhia, Francisco J.; Diz, Ruben; Dopazo, J. Alberto [Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, University of Vigo, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende No 9, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Heat transfer coefficients (HTCs) for outer condensation of R22 and vapours of its retrofit substitutes R417A, R422A and R422D on 90/10 CuNi Turbo C tubes were experimentally measured. The tubes have 19.05 mm nominal outside diameter, 40 fins per inch (1575 fpm) on the outer surface and a smooth inner surface. The effective condensing length per tube was 1895 mm. Experimental data are reported at vapour saturation temperature of 40 C and wall subcoolings from around 1.5 to 8 C. A rapid increase of the HTCs for low wall subcoolings attributable to the presence of the hydrocarbon in the mixtures was found. For wall subcoolings greater than around 3 C, the condensation HTCs slightly increase with raising the wall subcooling and they are for vapours of R417A, R422A and R422D lower by 65-76%, 24-31% and 60-67% than the HTCs for R22, respectively. Comparisons of the condensation performance amongst the different refrigerants and experimental enhancement factors for the condensation of R22 on 90/10 CuNi Turbo C tubes are reported in the paper. (author)

  15. Balanced Integrated Regulatory Oversight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchardt, R.W.

    2010-01-01

    Reactor safety, protecting the public health and safety, and protecting the environment must always be the nuclear regulator's top priorities. Enabling the use of nuclear power for the benefit of society, while protecting the public and the environment requires the regulator to balance many factors. In addition, the regulator is only one part of the overall government that must consider many factors as it carries out its societal responsibilities. Some of the factors that must be balanced and the practical impacts on how the regulator carries out its responsibilities will be addressed. The first International Conference on Effective Regulatory Systems, held in Moscow, Russian Federation, in 2006, focused on safety and security challenges with a goal of improving regulatory effectiveness through cooperation and sharing of information and best practices. The challenge of meeting both safety and security objectives is one example of potentially competing programmes that must be balanced. Other balances that must be evaluated include the benefits of safety improvements compared to the cost of implementation, the use of deterministic and probabilistic approaches, communication openness balanced with the protection of information that could be used for detrimental purposes, and timeliness of regulatory decision making balanced with the need to perform quality work in support of oversight responsibilities. A balanced and integrated approach to regulatory oversight is vital to ensuring that the regulatory body remains effective in its mission to enable the use of nuclear power while protecting the public and the environment. This concept is applicable to nations beginning a nuclear programme as well as established and experienced regulatory bodies. (author)

  16. Constructivism: a matter of adaptation and balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Prado Morales

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article the educational trend of Constructivism is presented as a process which should take into account the assimilation, accommodation and balance raised per the Geneva scientist Jean Piaget. Furthermore, it is thought-provoking about the real meaning of the term as used today in the field of education.

  17. Energy Balance in an Electrostatic Accelerator

    OpenAIRE

    Zolotorev, Max S.; McDonald, Kirk T.

    2000-01-01

    The principle of an electrostatic accelerator is that when a charge e escapes from a conducting plane that supports a uniform electric field of strength E_0, then the charge gains energy e E_0 d as it moves distance d from the plane. Where does this energy come from? We that the mechanical energy gain of the electron is balanced by the decrease in the electrostatic field energy of the system.

  18. Rotordynamics of Automotive Turbochargers Linear and Nonlinear Rotordynamics – Bearing Design – Rotor Balancing

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen-Schäfer, Hung

    2012-01-01

    This book deals with rotordynamics of automotive turbochargers while encompassing the analysis of the dynamics of rotating machines at very high rotor speeds of 300,000 rpm and above. This interdisciplinary field involves 1. thermodynamics and turbo-matching knowledge to compute working conditions of turbochargers, 2. fluid and bearing dynamics to calculate various operating thrust loads and to design the rotating floating ring bearings (two-oil-film bearings), and 3. tribology to improve the rotor stability and to reduce the bearing friction. Mathematical background in modeling and simulation methods is necessary; however, the prerequisites have been kept to a minimum. The book addresses both practitioners working in the field of rotordynamics of automotive turbochargers and graduate students in mechanical engineering.

  19. Interchangeability of the Wii Balance Board for Bipedal Balance Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnech?re, Bruno; Jansen, Bart; Omelina, Lubos; Rooze, Marcel; Van Sint Jan, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Background Since 2010, an increasing interest in more portable and flexible hardware for balance and posture assessment led to previously published studies determining whether or not the Wii Balance Board could be used to assess balance and posture, both scientifically and clinically. However, no previous studies aimed at comparing results from different Wii Balance Boards for clinical balance evaluation exist. Objective The objective of this crossover study is to assess the interchangeabilit...

  20. Energy balance of Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demur Chomakhidze

    2016-09-01

    It is shown that, traditionally, the energy balance of Georgia is in deep deficit. The suggestions for its improvement are provided in the Article. The country imports almost all amount of oil and natural gas. Electricity balance is relatively stable. In the recent years, some amount of electricity is exported to the neighboring countries. Generally, the country satisfies only 30–35% of own energy consumption by local generation, and the rest amount of resources are imported from abroad. The reason of deficit to some extent is irrational and wasteful consumption of energy resources. The article examines the organizational difficulties in drawing up energy balance of Georgia and statistical problems of recording of energy production and consumption at the initial stage of market economy.

  1. Sport-specific balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemková, Erika

    2014-05-01

    This review includes the latest findings based on experimental studies addressing sport-specific balance, an area of research that has grown dramatically in recent years. The main objectives of this work were to investigate the postural sway response to different forms of exercise under laboratory and sport-specific conditions, to examine how this effect can vary with expertise, and to provide examples of the association of impaired balance with sport performance and/or increasing risk of injury. In doing so, sports where body balance is one of the limiting factors of performance were analyzed. While there are no significant differences in postural stability between athletes of different specializations and physically active individuals during standing in a standard upright position (e.g., bipedal stance), they have a better ability to maintain balance in specific conditions (e.g., while standing on a narrow area of support). Differences in magnitude of balance impairment after specific exercises (rebound jumps, repeated rotations, etc.) and mainly in speed of its readjustment to baseline are also observed. Besides some evidence on an association of greater postural sway with the increasing risk of injuries, there are many myths related to the negative influence of impaired balance on sport performance. Though this may be true for shooting or archery, findings have shown that in many other sports, highly skilled athletes are able to perform successfully in spite of increased postural sway. These findings may contribute to better understanding of the postural control system under various performance requirements. It may provide useful knowledge for designing training programs for specific sports.

  2. A balanced team generating model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Water, Tara; van de Water, Henny; Bukman, Cock

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a general team balancing model. It first summarizes existing balancing methods. It is shown that for these methods it is difficult to meet all the conditions posed by Belbin on balanced teams. This mainly is caused by the complexity of the balancing problem. A mathematical

  3. Rotary and Magnus balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, G. N.

    1981-01-01

    Two wind tunnel techniques for determining part of the aerodynamic information required to describe the dynamic bahavior of various types of vehicles in flight are described. Force and moment measurements are determined with a rotary-balance apparatus in a coning motion and with a Magnus balance in a high-speed spinning motion. Coning motion is pertinent to both aircraft and missiles, and spinning is important for spin stabilized missiles. Basic principles of both techniques are described, and specific examples of each type of apparatus are presented. Typical experimental results are also discussed.

  4. Finding Your Balance

    CERN Document Server

    (CCL), Center for Creative Leadership; Patterson, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Balance isn't an issue of time, but an issue of choice. It's about living your values by aligning your behavior with what you believe is really important. Aligning your behavior with your values is much like any other developmental experience; the basic process involves assessment, challenge, and support. You need to determine where you are, define where you want to go, and then put into place the tools you need to get there.Balance is about more than how you spend your time. It's about how you live your life. It's about recognizing that you have control over the choices you make and aligning

  5. Application of Balanced Scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    Langpaulová, Irena

    2011-01-01

    The concept of the Balanced Scorecard taking a part in the strategic management of a company, is a main focus of this thesis. There are the theoretical and methodological parts of the Balanced Scorecard characterized individually, as well as the development and the history of this concept. This thesis is dealing with a draft of the practical implementation of the mentioned methods. The practical part of the thesis is following the theoretical introduction where the practical part is focused o...

  6. Yin-Yang Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    The potential contribution of the Eastern frame of Yin-Yang Balancing lies in the mindset of "either/and", in contrast to Aristotle's either/or logic and Hegel's "both/or". Implications of this either/and thinking for science and management will be explored.......The potential contribution of the Eastern frame of Yin-Yang Balancing lies in the mindset of "either/and", in contrast to Aristotle's either/or logic and Hegel's "both/or". Implications of this either/and thinking for science and management will be explored....

  7. Getting the balance right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This 8 page leaflet is published by the Nuclear Electricity Information Group (NEIG) which is made up of eight different bodies working within the nuclear industry. It aims to present a balanced outline of the facts needed to form an opinion about energy policy in the UK. It looks at the price of electricity, other sources of electricity, (oil and coal, solar power, wind power, water power), safety in the nuclear industry, nuclear waste disposal and risks from radiation. The NEIG is in favour of a balanced energy programme with nuclear energy being only a part of the overall scheme. (U.K.)

  8. In the balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich; Pilegaard, Jess

    The present paper seeks to make sense of recent EU naval capability changes by applying neo-realist theory on the EU as an international actor in the global balance of power. The paper compares three different strands of Neo-realist theory by deducting key predictions about the expected defense...... posture of the Union and the expected changes in naval capabilities. The predictions are subsequently held up against recent data on naval military build-up in the EU. The paper argues that the observed patterns are best explained not as bandwagoning with the United States, but as a long-term balancing...

  9. 3-D Force-balanced Magnetospheric Configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorin Zaharia; Cheng, C.Z.; Maezawa, K.

    2003-01-01

    The knowledge of plasma pressure is essential for many physics applications in the magnetosphere, such as computing magnetospheric currents and deriving magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. A thorough knowledge of the 3-D pressure distribution has however eluded the community, as most in-situ pressure observations are either in the ionosphere or the equatorial region of the magnetosphere. With the assumption of pressure isotropy there have been attempts to obtain the pressure at different locations by either (a) mapping observed data (e.g., in the ionosphere) along the field lines of an empirical magnetospheric field model or (b) computing a pressure profile in the equatorial plane (in 2-D) or along the Sun-Earth axis (in 1-D) that is in force balance with the magnetic stresses of an empirical model. However, the pressure distributions obtained through these methods are not in force balance with the empirical magnetic field at all locations. In order to find a global 3-D plasma pressure distribution in force balance with the magnetospheric magnetic field, we have developed the MAG-3D code, that solves the 3-D force balance equation J x B = (upside-down delta) P computationally. Our calculation is performed in a flux coordinate system in which the magnetic field is expressed in terms of Euler potentials as B = (upside-down delta) psi x (upside-down delta) alpha. The pressure distribution, P = P(psi,alpha), is prescribed in the equatorial plane and is based on satellite measurements. In addition, computational boundary conditions for y surfaces are imposed using empirical field models. Our results provide 3-D distributions of magnetic field and plasma pressure as well as parallel and transverse currents for both quiet-time and disturbed magnetospheric conditions

  10. Balancing of linkages and robot manipulators advanced methods with illustrative examples

    CERN Document Server

    Arakelian, Vigen

    2015-01-01

    In this book advanced balancing methods for planar and spatial linkages, hand operated and automatic robot manipulators are presented. It is organized into three main parts and eight chapters. The main parts are the introduction to balancing, the balancing of linkages and the balancing of robot manipulators. The review of state-of-the-art literature including more than 500 references discloses particularities of shaking force/moment balancing and gravity compensation methods. Then new methods for balancing of linkages are considered. Methods provided in the second part of the book deal with the partial and complete shaking force/moment balancing of various linkages. A new field for balancing methods applications is the design of mechanical systems for fast manipulation. Special attention is given to the shaking force/moment balancing of robot manipulators. Gravity balancing methods are also discussed. The suggested balancing methods are illustrated by numerous examples.

  11. Diffusion-prepared stimulated-echo turbo spin echo (DPsti-TSE): An eddy current-insensitive sequence for three-dimensional high-resolution and undistorted diffusion-weighted imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Qinwei; Coolen, Bram F.; Versluis, Maarten J.; Strijkers, Gustav J.; Nederveen, Aart J.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we present a new three-dimensional (3D), diffusion-prepared turbo spin echo sequence based on a stimulated-echo read-out (DPsti-TSE) enabling high-resolution and undistorted diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). A dephasing gradient in the diffusion preparation module and rephasing

  12. National energy balance - 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The national energy balance of the 1976 shows several modifications in relation to the last year. The historical serie is based in more confiable information, from several energy companies. The most greater modifications are on energy source of hard control, such as lignite and charcoal for non-siderurgic uses. (E.G.) [pt

  13. National energy balance - 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The national energy balance of 1978 shows some modifications in relation to the last year. New tables were included aiming to show the brazilian energy situation, such as the hydraulic potential and the non-renewable energy resources. (E.G.) [pt

  14. Frihed, anerkendelse og balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Thomas Boysen

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen argumenterer for, at selv ikke den absolut mest familievenlige arbejdsplads vil kunne løse det psykologiske problem med at skabe balance mellem familie og arbejdsliv, fordi ubalancen grundlæggende handler om en anerkendelseskonflikt, som individet ikke altid selv er interesseret i at komme...

  15. Load Balancing in Hypergraphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgosha, Payam; Anantharam, Venkat

    2018-03-01

    Consider a simple locally finite hypergraph on a countable vertex set, where each edge represents one unit of load which should be distributed among the vertices defining the edge. An allocation of load is called balanced if load cannot be moved from a vertex to another that is carrying less load. We analyze the properties of balanced allocations of load. We extend the concept of balancedness from finite hypergraphs to their local weak limits in the sense of Benjamini and Schramm (Electron J Probab 6(23):13, 2001) and Aldous and Steele (in: Probability on discrete structures. Springer, Berlin, pp 1-72, 2004). To do this, we define a notion of unimodularity for hypergraphs which could be considered an extension of unimodularity in graphs. We give a variational formula for the balanced load distribution and, in particular, we characterize it in the special case of unimodular hypergraph Galton-Watson processes. Moreover, we prove the convergence of the maximum load under some conditions. Our work is an extension to hypergraphs of Anantharam and Salez (Ann Appl Probab 26(1):305-327, 2016), which considered load balancing in graphs, and is aimed at more comprehensively resolving conjectures of Hajek (IEEE Trans Inf Theory 36(6):1398-1414, 1990).

  16. Maintaining an Environmental Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1976

    1976-01-01

    A recent conference of the National Environmental Development Association focused on the concepts of environment, energy and economy and underscored the necessity for balancing the critical needs embodied in these issues. Topics discussed included: nuclear energy and wastes, water pollution control, federal regulations, environmental technology…

  17. National Energy Balance - 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The National Energy Balance - 1986 shows energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the production to the final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1970 to 1985. The incorporation of a new brazilian information is done. (E.G.) [pt

  18. Balance of Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper argues that the efficiency distribution of players in a game determines how aggressively these players interact.We formalize the idea of balance of power: players fight very inefficient players but play softly versus equally (or more) efficient players.This theory of conduct predicts that

  19. Yin-Yang Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    The potential contribution of the Eastern frame of Yin-Yang Balancing lies in the mindset of "either/and", in contrast to Aristotle's either/or logic and Hegel's "both/or". Implications of this either/and thinking for science and management will be explored....

  20. National Energy Balance - 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The National Energy Balance - 1981, shows a new metodology and information in level of several economic sectors, as well as a separation of primary and secondary energy sources, its energy fluxes, i.e. production, imports, exports, consumption, etc...(E.G.) [pt

  1. Balance Treatment Ameliorates Anxiety and Increases Self-Esteem in Children with Comorbid Anxiety and Balance Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Orit; Bar-Haim, Yair; Weizman, Einat; Levin, Moran; Sadeh, Avi; Mintz, Matti

    2009-01-01

    Comorbidity between balance and anxiety disorders in adult population is a well-studied clinical entity. Children might be particularly prone to develop balance-anxiety comorbidity, but surprisingly they are practically neglected in this field of research. The consequence is that children are treated for what seems to be the primary disorder…

  2. Interchangeability of the Wii Balance Board for Bipedal Balance Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Bart; Omelina, Lubos; Rooze, Marcel; Van Sint Jan, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Background Since 2010, an increasing interest in more portable and flexible hardware for balance and posture assessment led to previously published studies determining whether or not the Wii Balance Board could be used to assess balance and posture, both scientifically and clinically. However, no previous studies aimed at comparing results from different Wii Balance Boards for clinical balance evaluation exist. Objective The objective of this crossover study is to assess the interchangeability of the Wii Balance Board. Methods A total of 6 subjects participated in the study and their balance was assessed using 4 different Wii Balance Boards. Trials were recorded simultaneously with Wii Balance Boards and with a laboratory force plate. Nine relevant clinical parameters were derived from center of pressure displacement data obtained from Wii Balance Board and force plate systems. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), F tests, and Friedman tests were computed to assess the agreement between trials and to compare the Wii Balance Board and force plate results. Results Excellent correlations were found between the Wii Balance Board and force plate (mean ρ =.83). With the exception of 2 parameters, strong to excellent agreements were found for the 7 remaining parameters (ICC=.96). No significant differences were found between trials recorded with different Wii Balance Boards. Conclusions Our results indicate that for most of the parameters analyzed, balance and posture assessed with one Wii Balance Board were statistically similar to results obtained from another. Furthermore, the good correlation between the Wii Balance Board and force plate results shows that Wii Balance Boards can be reliably used for scientific assessment using most of the parameters analyzed in this study. These results also suggest that the Wii Balance Board could be used in multicenter studies and therefore, would allow for the creation of larger populations for clinical studies. Trial

  3. Three Dimensional Imaging of Helicon Wave Fields Via Magnetic Induction Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-13

    field Gauss bz radial magnetic field Gauss B0 magnetic field strength Tesla or Gauss c speed of light m/s cs acoustic velocity...eV ΦB magnetic flux Tesla -m2 λ0 mean free path or beam width m or cm λD Debye length m or cm λHelicon helicon wavelength m or cm...locations Turbo Pump Chamber Convectron vent valve Latched door Latched door Roughing Pump 0.5 meter 1.0 meter Cold Cathode Foreline Convectron

  4. Energy-balance climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, G. R.; Cahalan, R. F.; Coakley, J. A., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    An introductory survey of the global energy balance climate models is presented with an emphasis on analytical results. A sequence of increasingly complicated models involving ice cap and radiative feedback processes are solved and the solutions and parameter sensitivities are studied. The model parameterizations are examined critically in light of many current uncertainties. A simple seasonal model is used to study the effects of changes in orbital elements on the temperature field. A linear stability theorem and a complete nonlinear stability analysis for the models are developed. Analytical solutions are also obtained for the linearized models driven by stochastic forcing elements. In this context the relation between natural fluctuation statistics and climate sensitivity is stressed.

  5. Community participation in the Gulf of Uraba: The Case of Bocas del Atrato township and the village of El Roto, municipality of Turbo, Antioquia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taborda M, Alexander; Maldonado L, Carolina; Palacio, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    The text sets out from the study of socio cultural aspects and particularly addressing on community participation, the results of a pilot aquaculture project to breed snook (C. undecimalis ) and tarpon (Megalops atlanticus) in The Corregimiento Bocas del Atrato and The Vereda El Roto, Municipality of Turbo, Antioquia. Interdisciplinary work that seeks to generate scientific knowledge tools to assist in mitigating the decline of fish resource in which is based the livelihood of these people, through Participatory Action Research methods. We analyze some socioeconomic and cultural aspects of these communities that influenced the development of the project, along with reflections on the experiences, by way of recommendations for future work such as a call to self critical review of what is the practice interdisciplinary projects of intervention within the framework of sustainable development. The research was conducted between January 2007 and June 2008.

  6. Real-Time Observation of Platinum Redispersion on Ceria-Based Oxide by In-situ Turbo-XAS in Fluorescence Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Yasutaka; Dohmae, Kazuhiko; Tanabe, Toshitaka; Shinjoh, Hirofumi; Takagi, Nobuyuki; Ikeda, Yasuo; Guilera, Gemma; Pascarelli, Sakura; Newton, Mark; Matsumoto, Shin'ichi

    2007-01-01

    A real-time observation of the redispersion behavior of sintered Pt on ceria-based oxide was made possible by in-situ time-resolved Turbo-XAS in fluorescence mode. 2 wt% Pt/Ce-Zr-Y mixed oxide samples were prepared, and then treated under an aging condition. The average Pt particle size measured by CO absorption method after aging was 7 nm. Redispersion treatments of the previously aged catalyst were carried out at 600 deg. C within an in-situ XAS cell in a cyclical flow of reducing/oxidizing gases. Pt L3-edge XANES spectra were collected every 1.1 second under in-situ conditions. From a change in the XANES spectra, we observed that the Pt particle size of the aged catalyst decreased from 7 to 5 nm after 60 seconds and then to 3 nm after 1000 seconds

  7. Overview on 1st and 2nd generation coal-fired membrane power plants (with and without turbo machinery in the membrane environment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Blum; E. Riensche; J. Nazarko; R. Menzer; D. Stolten [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH Institute of Energy Research - Fuel Cells (IEF-3), Juelich (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    A systematic classification of the capture concepts with conventional separation as well as membrane separation is discussed in a 2-dimensional matrix: The 4 capture principles (post-combustion, oxyfuel, pre-combustion-capture of CO{sub 2} and pre-combustion-capture of H{sub 2}), characterized by the 4 separation tasks CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}, have to be applied to the 3 different coal power plant (PP) routes: SPP (steam PP), IGCC/standard and IGCC/CO-shift/H{sub 2}-turbine. In case of membrane separation a further dimension of PP concepts is created by the fact, that different measures exist for realization of positive driving forces for permeation. For example the O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} separating membranes in oxyfuel SPPs can be operated with feed gas compression, permeate vacuum, application of a sweep gas at the permeate side or combinations of these 3 measures. An overview is given on the actually developed membrane PP concepts (post-combustion and oxyfuel in SPPs, pre-combustion in IGCC). In all cases energy consuming turbo machinery is required for membrane operation or for CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2} recompression in case of pre-combustion (1st generation of membrane coal PPs). Calculated efficiency losses are not significantly below 10 %-points. An outlook is given to a new IGCC concept, where a suitable sweep gas (N{sub 2} with low O{sub 2} content) of sufficient high flow rate is produced (related to the permeated H{sub 2}). Now the swept H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} membrane operates without turbo machinery (2nd generation of membrane coal PPs). Lower efficiency losses (between 5 and 10 %-points) seem to be possible now. 10 refs., 18 figs.

  8. Balancing trust and power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm-Jørgensen, Marie; Guassora, Ann Dorrit; Reventlow, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about how strategies of retaining patients are acted out by general practitioners (GPs) in the clinical encounter. With this study, we apply Grimens’ (2009) analytical connection between trust and power to explore how trust and power appear in preventive health checks...... from the GPs’ perspectives, and in what way trust and power affect and/or challenge strategies towards retaining patients without formal education. Design: Data in this study were obtained through semi-structured interviews with GPs participating in an intervention project, as well as observations...... of power in the encounter. The GPs articulated that a balance was needed in preventive health checks in order to establish trust and thus retain the patient in the clinic. One way this balance of respect was carried out was with the use of humour. Conclusions: To retain patients without formal education...

  9. Lunar Balance and Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloski, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Balance control and locomotor patterns were altered in Apollo crewmembers on the lunar surface, owing, presumably, to a combination of sensory-motor adaptation during transit and lunar surface operations, decreased environmental affordances associated with the reduced gravity, and restricted joint mobility as well as altered center-of-gravity caused by the EVA pressure suits. Dr. Paloski will discuss these factors, as well as the potential human and mission impacts of falls and malcoordination during planned lunar sortie and outpost missions. Learning objectives: What are the potential impacts of postural instabilities on the lunar surface? CME question: What factors affect balance control and gait stability on the moon? Answer: Sensory-motor adaptation to the lunar environment, reduced mechanical and visual affordances, and altered biomechanics caused by the EVA suit.

  10. Life Balancing -- A Better Way to Balance Large Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R. Dyche; Zane, Regan; Plett, Gregory; Maksimovic, Dragan; Smith, Kandler; Trimboli, M. Scott

    2017-03-28

    A new cell balancing technology was developed under a Department of Energy contract which merges the DC/DC converter function into cell balancing. Instead of conventional passive cell balancing technology which bypasses current through a resistor, or active cell balancing which moves current from one cell to another, with significant cost and additional inefficiencies, this concept takes variable amount of current from each cell or small group of cells and converts it to current for the low voltage system.

  11. National energy balance - 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Based on available data from IBGE, CNP/Petrobras, Eletrobras, Nuclebras and other governmental enterprises the National Energy Balance was done. This publication covers since 1965 to 1975. In conformity to the international rules, the energy resources used for non-energy purposes were excluded. The energy production and consumption for the next ten years were forecasted, considering the actual brazilian energy policy. (E.G.) [pt

  12. Implementace metody Balanced Scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    Neuwirth, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Diplomová práce je zaměřena na hodnocení výkonnosti společnosti pomocí metody Balanced Scorecard. Teoretická část práce popisuje východiska měření výkonnosti, metody Balanced Scorecard a postup při její implementaci. Analytická část vychází z teoretických poznatků z první části a hodnotí situaci společnosti finanční analýzou poměrových ukazatelů, strategickou analýzou a následným sestavením návrhu implementace metody Balanced Scorecard v konkrétní společnosti. Thesis is focused on evaluati...

  13. Simple Cell Balance Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven D.; Byers, Jerry W.; Martin, James A.

    2012-01-01

    A method has been developed for continuous cell voltage balancing for rechargeable batteries (e.g. lithium ion batteries). A resistor divider chain is provided that generates a set of voltages representing the ideal cell voltage (the voltage of each cell should be as if the cells were perfectly balanced). An operational amplifier circuit with an added current buffer stage generates the ideal voltage with a very high degree of accuracy, using the concept of negative feedback. The ideal voltages are each connected to the corresponding cell through a current- limiting resistance. Over time, having the cell connected to the ideal voltage provides a balancing current that moves the cell voltage very close to that ideal level. In effect, it adjusts the current of each cell during charging, discharging, and standby periods to force the cell voltages to be equal to the ideal voltages generated by the resistor divider. The device also includes solid-state switches that disconnect the circuit from the battery so that it will not discharge the battery during storage. This solution requires relatively few parts and is, therefore, of lower cost and of increased reliability due to the fewer failure modes. Additionally, this design uses very little power. A preliminary model predicts a power usage of 0.18 W for an 8-cell battery. This approach is applicable to a wide range of battery capacities and voltages.

  14. Study of the operational parameters of crops turbine sprayer (turbo liner on spray quality and diameter of droplets, using image processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Behzadi Pour

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Today, attention to safety and environmental issues in all sectors in agriculture, industry and services is very important. Chemical poisons play an important role in rapid progress of agricultural products. Every year about 25 to 35 percent of the world's crops are affected by insects, weeds and plant pathogens disappear and this figure would be raised to 80% if no control was applied. Drift problem and its devastating effects are the most important issue which related to users and sprayers manufacturers. Spray drift reduction and improvements in the efficiency of pesticide application processes are global goals. Where ever spraying is applied, drift will be produced and it must be controlled by controlled of the droplet size. The application of these sprayers is the high in the farms (the number of 2303 in Iran. So, this research was carried out to improve the quality of work in these sprayers by studying the droplets diameter and the spray quality index. Materials and Methods The research was conducted at the University of Khouzestan Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources. Tests were done with 20 m of water sensitive papers at a distance of 2 meters from each other. To evaluate the technical items affecting on drift, an experiment was conducted using a turbo liner sprayer (TURBINA S.A. 800 and the John Deer (JD 3140 tractor. A completely randomized factorial design was applied. By using 3 replications and the factors were spraying pressure applying three levels (10, 25 and 35 bar, the fan speed with two levels (1998 and 2430 rpm and forward speed with two levels (9 and 13.5 km hr-1. The sprayer started the application, spraying a solution of water and tracer (yellow Tartrazine E 102, 15m before the water sensitive papers and then moved over the water sensitive papers. The spraying was continued 15 m after the end of the sampling area. After spraying, sensitive papers were photographed and then volume diameter of 50% (DV50 and

  15. Lesson "Balance in Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapanova, V.

    2012-04-01

    Lesson "Balance in Nature" This simulation game-lesson (Balance in Nature) gives an opportunity for the students to show creativity, work independently, and to create models and ideas. It creates future-oriented thought connected to their experience, allowing them to propose solutions for global problems and personal responsibility for their activities. The class is divided in two teams. Each team chooses questions. 1. Question: Pollution in the environment. 2. Question: Care for nature and climate. The teams work on the chosen tasks. They make drafts, notes and formulate their solutions on small pieces of paper, explaining the impact on nature and society. They express their points of view using many different opinions. This generates alternative thoughts and results in creative solutions. With the new knowledge and positive behaviour defined, everybody realizes that they can do something positive towards nature and climate problems and the importance of individuals for solving global problems is evident. Our main goal is to recover the ecological balance, and everybody explains his or her own well-grounded opinions. In this work process the students obtain knowledge, skills and more responsible behaviour. This process, based on his or her own experience, dialogue and teamwork, helps the participant's self-development. Making the model "human↔ nature" expresses how human activities impact the natural Earth and how these impacts in turn affect society. Taking personal responsibility, we can reduce global warming and help the Earth. By helping nature we help ourselves. Teacher: Veselina Boycheva-Chapanova " Saint Patriarch Evtimii" Scholl Str. "Ivan Vazov"-19 Plovdiv Bulgaria

  16. Strategic Balanced Scorecard Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Nielsen, Erland Hejn

    2012-01-01

    of financial and non-financial measures. The overall idea of BSC is to make the strategy operational, as proposed by Kaplan and Norton (1992; 1996; 2007) and to use the strategy for simulation. Our results indicate that a company may gain great learning insight from such simulation studies. The whole article......The purpose of this article is to show how a System Dynamics Modelling approach can be integrated into the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) for a case company with special focus on the handling of causality in a dynamic perspective. The case company’s BSC model includes five perspectives and a number...

  17. Balancing Trust and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    This paper focuses on the leadership challenge of balancing trust and control. The relation between trust and control has for a long time been a puzzling issue for management researchers. In the paper I first show that there has been a dramatic change in the way the relation between trust....... The paper concludes by illustrating how this more fine grained understanding of the intertwining of trust and control is helpful for the understanding of the interplay of trust, control and self-control in new forms of organizations....

  18. Energy balances 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    Denmark's energy consumption was 800 PJ in 2005 when corrected for the fuel consumption used for producing electricity for export. The consumption is 0,5 % higher than in 2004. Since 1975, the energy consumption has been on the same level with minor fluctuations which are mainly due to the climate. The energy balances is an account of production, import and export, and consumption of energy. The consumption is accounted as physical amounts as well as gross consumption. Also, accounts are presented of the costs of energy in basis prices and in market prices, including excises on energy, CO 2 , and SO 2 . (LN)

  19. Ballet Balance Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Camilla; Erleben, Kenny; Sporring, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Animating physically realistic human characters is challenging, since human observers are highly tuned to recognize human cues such as emotion and gender from motion patterns. The main contribution of this paper is a new model firmly based on biomechanics, which is used to animate balance and basic...... movements of a ballet dancers. It is supported by computer simulated experiments and it is in good agreement with biomechanical measurements of real-life dancers. Our results questions the previous approaches in dynamic animation, which only uses the center of gravity strategy, and instead demonstrate...

  20. Balancing beyond the horizon?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich; Pilegaard, Jess

    2011-01-01

    The present article seeks to make sense of recent European Union (EU) naval capability changes by applying neo-realist theory to the EU as a collective actor in the global balance of power. The paper compares two different strands of neorealist theory by deducing key predictions about the expected...... naval posture of the Union and the corresponding expected changes in capabilities. These predictions are subsequently held up against post-cold war data on naval acquisitions in the EU. The paper concludes that the observed patterns are best explained not as bandwagoning with the USA, but as a long...

  1. Balancing through episodic learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm

    2013-01-01

    Peter Jarvis’s theory about learning suggests that human beings learn and change as a result of hearing, seeing, smelling, tasting, touching, and feeling. They change and learn by interacting with other humans, things, and events in certain time-space contexts and by reflecting upon these, as well...... as upon wished-for future states or past experiences, knowledge, and history, and upon what these experiences mean to one’s own self and identity. This chapter explores how female top managers have to reflect and find a balance in their work-family lives on the basis of interaction with, and inputs from...

  2. Observed and modeled multi-year evaporation from three field-scale experiments using water balance and Penman-Monteith methods: Profound effect of material type and wind exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, H. E.; Fretz, N.; Bay, D.; Mayer, K. U.; Smith, L.; Beckie, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    Three instrumented experimental waste-rock piles at the Cu-Zn-Mo Antamina Mine in Peru are composed of distinct types of waste rock but are otherwise almost identical in size and geometry and experience the same atmospheric conditions with the exception of wind exposure. Evaporation from the piles was calculated using the water balance method over three- and four-year periods to determine the effect of material type and meteorological variability on evaporation. Annual changes in water storage were low or negligible except as a result of unusually high annual precipitation. Observed evaporation was high (44% - 75% of precipitation) and was extremely variable annually in the coarsest-grained waste-rock pile 1, most likely as a result of greater wind exposure and air circulation in that pile. Observed evaporation was moderate (36% - 48% of precipitation) with moderate annual variability in the finer-grained, relatively homogeneous waste-rock pile 2. Observed evaporation was low (24% - 32% of precipitation) with low annual variability in the finer-grained, relatively heterogeneous waste-rock pile 3, most likely as a result of low air circulation coupled with complex flow regimes that include high-velocity preferential flow paths. Slightly higher evaporation was observed on the slopes than on the crowns of Pile 2, while much lower evaporation was observed on the slopes than on the crowns of Piles 1 and 3. Evidence suggests that Piles 1 and 3 slope water-balance evaporation estimates are skewed by non-vertical flow and that, in general, evaporation is higher on the slopes than on the crowns of the piles. Evaporation was also estimated using the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations modified Penman-Monteith method (FAO-PM; Allen et al., 1998) using base-case laboratory- and software- derived parameters. The base-case method underestimated observed evaporation calculated by the water balance method for Pile 1, overestimated observed evaporation for Pile

  3. Effects of dynamic posturographic balance training versus conventional balance training on mobility and balance in elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saddiqi, F.A.; Masood, T.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the effects of dynamic posturographic balance training versus conventional balance training in improving mobility and balance in elderly. Methodology: Forty subjects between 50 to 80 years of age were selected via non-probability convenience sampling technique, for this randomized controlled trial. Both females and males with no major co-morbid conditions and cognitive impairments were recruited and randomized via coin toss method into two equal groups: Dynamic Posturographic balance training (DPG) group and Conventional balance training (CBT) group. The DPG training was provided via Biodex Balance System (Static and Dynamic). Both groups received interventions 3 times (35 to 45min each day) a week for 8 weeks, after which terminal assessment was done. Data were collected on demographic profile, balance via berg balance score and mobility by using Timed Up and Go Test. Independent samples t test was used to check difference between CBT group and DPG Group and repeated measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used for within-group analysis. Results: Baseline analysis of Berg balance scale and timed up and go test between two groups showed no significant difference with (p 0.805 and 0.251, respectively). After 8 weeks of intervention, there was significant difference between the groups in both variables (p 0.019 and 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Dynamic posturographic balance training was more effective in improving dynamic balance and mobility in elderly population in comparison to conventional balance training. (author)

  4. Interchangeability of the Wii Balance Board for Bipedal Balance Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnechère, Bruno; Jansen, Bart; Omelina, Lubos; Rooze, Marcel; Van Sint Jan, Serge

    2015-08-27

    Since 2010, an increasing interest in more portable and flexible hardware for balance and posture assessment led to previously published studies determining whether or not the Wii Balance Board could be used to assess balance and posture, both scientifically and clinically. However, no previous studies aimed at comparing results from different Wii Balance Boards for clinical balance evaluation exist. The objective of this crossover study is to assess the interchangeability of the Wii Balance Board. A total of 6 subjects participated in the study and their balance was assessed using 4 different Wii Balance Boards. Trials were recorded simultaneously with Wii Balance Boards and with a laboratory force plate. Nine relevant clinical parameters were derived from center of pressure displacement data obtained from Wii Balance Board and force plate systems. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), F tests, and Friedman tests were computed to assess the agreement between trials and to compare the Wii Balance Board and force plate results. Excellent correlations were found between the Wii Balance Board and force plate (mean ρ =.83). With the exception of 2 parameters, strong to excellent agreements were found for the 7 remaining parameters (ICC=.96). No significant differences were found between trials recorded with different Wii Balance Boards. Our results indicate that for most of the parameters analyzed, balance and posture assessed with one Wii Balance Board were statistically similar to results obtained from another. Furthermore, the good correlation between the Wii Balance Board and force plate results shows that Wii Balance Boards can be reliably used for scientific assessment using most of the parameters analyzed in this study. These results also suggest that the Wii Balance Board could be used in multicenter studies and therefore, would allow for the creation of larger populations for clinical studies. Ethical Committee of the Erasme Hospital (CCB B406201215142

  5. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  6. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  7. Balance ability and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between balance ability and sport injury risk has been established in many cases, but the relationship between balance ability and athletic performance is less clear. This review compares the balance ability of athletes from different sports, determines if there is a difference in balance ability of athletes at different levels of competition within the same sport, determines the relationship of balance ability with performance measures and examines the influence of balance training on sport performance or motor skills. Based on the available data from cross-sectional studies, gymnasts tended to have the best balance ability, followed by soccer players, swimmers, active control subjects and then basketball players. Surprisingly, no studies were found that compared the balance ability of rifle shooters with other athletes. There were some sports, such as rifle shooting, soccer and golf, where elite athletes were found to have superior balance ability compared with their less proficient counterparts, but this was not found to be the case for alpine skiing, surfing and judo. Balance ability was shown to be significantly related to rifle shooting accuracy, archery shooting accuracy, ice hockey maximum skating speed and simulated luge start speed, but not for baseball pitching accuracy or snowboarding ranking points. Prospective studies have shown that the addition of a balance training component to the activities of recreationally active subjects or physical education students has resulted in improvements in vertical jump, agility, shuttle run and downhill slalom skiing. A proposed mechanism for the enhancement in motor skills from balance training is an increase in the rate of force development. There are limited data on the influence of balance training on motor skills of elite athletes. When the effectiveness of balance training was compared with resistance training, it was found that resistance training produced superior performance results for

  8. Reply to Comments on "the Cenozoic Fold-and-Thrust Belt of Eastern Sardinia: Evidences from the Integration of Field Data With Numerically Balanced Geological Cross Section" by Arragoni et al. (2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvini, F.; Arragoni, S.; Cianfarra, P.; Maggi, M.

    2017-10-01

    The comment by Berra et al. (2017) on the evidence of Alpine tectonics in Eastern Sardinia proposed by Arragoni et al. (2016) is based on the sedimentological interpretations of few local outcrops in a marginal portion of the study area. The Cenozoic Alpine fold-and-thrust setting, which characterizes this region, presents flat-over-flat shear planes acting along originally stratigraphic contacts, where stratigraphic continuity is obviously maintained. The ramp sectors present steeply dipping bedding attitudes, and there is no need to invoke and to force prograding clinoforms with unrealistic angles to justify them. The balanced geological cross section proposed by Arragoni et al. (2016) is fully supported by robust newly collected structural data and is compatible with the overall tectonic setting, while the interpretation proposed by Berra et al. (2017) lacks a detailed structural investigation. We believe that the partial application of the techniques available to modern geology may lead to incorrect interpretations, thus representing an obstacle for the progress of knowledge in the Earth sciences.

  9. Effect of the Power Balance® hologram on balance, flexibility, strength and speed-coordination among university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Merino Marban, Daniel Mayorga Vega, Emilio Fernández Rodríguez, Francisco José Santana Pérez, Oscar Romero Ramos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the body’s energy field, the inventors of Power Balance® have created a hologram that theoretically runs through frequencies that are in our natural environment. Its creators say that people may experience improve balance, strength, flexibility, endurance, concentration, coordination and recovery time, among others. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the effect of Power Balance® hologram on balance, flexibility, strength and speed-coordination in university students. A sample of 105 young volunteers’ physical education students (age 20.91 ± 3.36 years, mass 69.69 ± 11.35 kg, height 171.70 ± 8.07 cm was used. A between-group experimental design with double-blind control group was used to evaluate the possible effects of the Power Balance ® on the dynamic balance, flexibility, abdominal strength, endurance and speed-coordination measured with the Dynamic Balance Test, Sit and Reach, Sit-ups in 30 seconds and Race 10 x 5 m, respectively. A t of Student for independent and dependent samples was used to assess the potential effects between-group and intra-group, respectively. Power Balance®’s hologram produces no significant effects on the balance, flexibility, strength and speed-coordination among university students

  10. 3-D force-balanced magnetospheric configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zaharia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of plasma pressure is essential for many physics applications in the magnetosphere, such as computing magnetospheric currents and deriving mag-netosphere-ionosphere coupling. A thorough knowledge of the 3-D pressure distribution has, however, eluded the community, as most in situ pressure observations are either in the ionosphere or the equatorial region of the magnetosphere. With the assumption of pressure isotropy there have been attempts to obtain the pressure at different locations,by either (a mapping observed data (e.g. in the ionosphere along the field lines of an empirical magnetospheric field model, or (b computing a pressure profile in the equatorial plane (in 2-D or along the Sun-Earth axis (in 1-D that is in force balance with the magnetic stresses of an empirical model. However, the pressure distributions obtained through these methods are not in force balance with the empirical magnetic field at all locations. In order to find a global 3-D plasma pressure distribution in force balance with the magnetospheric magnetic field, we have developed the MAG-3-D code that solves the 3-D force balance equation ${vec J} times {vec B} = nabla P$ computationally. Our calculation is performed in a flux coordinate system in which the magnetic field is expressed in terms of Euler potentials as ${vec B} = nabla psi times nabla alpha$. The pressure distribution, $P = P(psi, alpha$, is prescribed in the equatorial plane and is based on satellite measurements. In addition, computational boundary conditions for ψ surfaces are imposed using empirical field models

  11. Balancing Trust and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that conceptualizing trust and control as interactively related processes, as opposed to more static conceptualizations of the two concepts and the relations between them, adds importantly towards understanding the challenges involved in balancing of trust...... and control in organizations. The paper examines recent literature on the conceptualization of the relation between trust and control in and between organizations. The literature review shows that trust and control has been conceptualized as either substituting or complementing each other. Further......, it is found that the complementary/substitution debate calls for an explicit conceptualization of the relation between trust and control as an interactive process, in contrast to earlier conceptualizations of trust and control as two relatively static and isolated concepts. While the static perspective...

  12. [Balanced scorecard in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyton-Pavez, Carolina Elena; Huerta-Riveros, Patricia Carolina; Paúl-Espinoza, Iván Renato

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the installation of strategies in the higher complexity hospitals (HMC, in Spanish) of public health in Chile starting from the results of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC), during the years 2011-2012. The implementation of the BSC is described, the strategies and indicators identified, and the results of the 57 HMC compared and analyzed. Starting from the comparison of the results it is discovered that the BSC allows to evaluate the installation of the strategies. Differences are identified in the installation of the strategies by geographical area, with North presenting a higher score (20.21), followed by Center (10.41) and South (19.50), which can be explained by the size and complexity of this establishments, variables that should be incorporated in the evaluation of the results of the BSC.

  13. Work-life balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, Pat

    2011-03-15

    Gay Renouf has opted for a work/life balance; with a chemistry degree she joined the Saskatchewan Research Council out of graduate school in 1986. She first worked on understanding surfactants in emulsions and then dealt more with petroleum engineering issues like pipeline specifications. She is looking at waterfloods in heavy and medium gravity pools and has discovered factors helping to produce heavy oil waterfloods. But all Renouf's life is not devoted to her work: she has been working part-time, spending her free time being a parent, training for marathons and being a running coach. Renouf believes that her passion for running is consistent with her work as a scientist.

  14. Balance Toward Language Mastery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia R. Heslinga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems in attaining language mastery with students from diverse language backgrounds and levels of ability confront educators around the world. Experiments, research, and experience see positive effects of adding sign language in communication methods to pre-school and K-12 education. Augmentative, alternative, interactive, accommodating, and enriching strategies using sign language aid learners in balancing the skills needed to mastery of one language or multiple languages. Theories of learning that embrace play, drama, motion, repetition, socializing, and self-efficacy connect to the options for using sign language with learners in inclusive and mainstream classes. The methodical use of sign language by this researcher-educator over two and a half decades showed signing does build thinking skills, add enjoyment, stimulate communication, expand comprehension, increase vocabulary acquisition, encourage collaboration, and helps build appreciation for cultural diversity.

  15. Height, surface firmness, and visual reference effects on balance control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonov, P; Hsiao, H

    2001-09-01

    To investigate the effects of height, surface firmness, and visual reference on standing balance in construction workers. Controlled laboratory study with balanced repeated measures. Twenty four construction workers. Test subjects performed standing tasks at ground level as well as at 3 m and 9 m high balconies on firm or deformable surfaces with close visual references included or excluded from their visual field. Standing balance was determined from center of pressure as measured by a force platform. Dependent variables were root mean square of sway in medial-lateral and anterior-posterior directions, area of sway, and velocity of sway. Heights without close visual references significantly increased all sway parameters. The effect of height in conditions without close visual references increased dramatically on deformable surfaces. Elevated work environments and deformable work surfaces negatively affect balance and may be associated with increased risk of fall incidents. Appropriate close visual references increase the ability to maintain balance.

  16. Radar channel balancing with commutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-02-01

    When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.

  17. Aposematism: balancing salience and camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, James B; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E; Cuthill, Innes C

    2016-08-01

    Aposematic signals are often characterized by high conspicuousness. Larger and brighter signals reinforce avoidance learning, distinguish defended from palatable prey and are more easily memorized by predators. Conspicuous signalling, however, has costs: encounter rates with naive, specialized or nutritionally stressed predators are likely to increase. It has been suggested that intermediate levels of aposematic conspicuousness can evolve to balance deterrence and detectability, especially for moderately defended species. The effectiveness of such signals, however, has not yet been experimentally tested under field conditions. We used dough caterpillar-like baits to test whether reduced levels of aposematic conspicuousness can have survival benefits when predated by wild birds in natural conditions. Our results suggest that, when controlling for the number and intensity of internal contrast boundaries (stripes), a reduced-conspicuousness aposematic pattern can have a survival advantage over more conspicuous signals, as well as cryptic colours. Furthermore, we find a survival benefit from the addition of internal contrast for both high and low levels of conspicuousness. This adds ecological validity to evolutionary models of aposematic saliency and the evolution of honest signalling. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. When Do States Balance Power?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Wivel, Anders

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the logic of balancing in structural realist theory. Arguably, the durability of the unipolar moment is a challenge to the logic of balancing. The paper uses the tools of microeconomics to build a mathematical model of structural realism. The simple model reiterates...... the structural realist prediction that the weaker states should balance the unipole. Under a slight model extension, it is shown that efforts to balance in separate capabilities always tends to offset each other. Under this extension, the durability of the unipolar moment is in fact consistent...

  19. Balancing the Demands of Education and Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Sørensen, Jan Kahr

    value of a good set of academic qualifications does not entirely measure up to this, the insistence from the outside world on the importance of completing one’s education is manifest and associated with significant personal concerns, lower examinations results, stress, drop-out and mental breakdown......Balancing the Demands of Education and Training – A Qualitative Study on Young Male Football Talents’ Dual Careers. M. K. Christensena and J. K. Sørensenb a Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark b Department of Public Health – Sport Science, Aarhus...... University Workshop: Negotiating Athlete Identity in Career Transitions Abstract: Today’s young semi-professional football players are expected to continue their education while honing their talents as footballers. This means they must balance the contradictory demands that come from coming from the fields...

  20. Comparative study of image quality between axial T2-weighted BLADE and turbo spin-echo MRI of the upper abdomen on 3.0 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Tian, ChunMei; Wang, PeiYuan; Chen, Liang; Mao, XiJin; Wang, ShanShan; Wang, Xu; Dong, JingMin; Wang, Bin

    2015-09-01

    To compare image quality of turbo spin-echo (TSE) with BLADE [which is also named periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER)] on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for upper abdomen. This study involved the retrospective evaluation of 103 patients (63 males, 40 females; age range 19-76 years; median age 53.8 years) who underwent 3.0 T MRI with both conventional TSE T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and BLADE TSE T2WI. Two radiologists assessed respiratory motion, gastrointestinal peristalsis, and vascular pulsation artifacts, as well as the sharpness of the liver and pancreas edges. Scores for all magnetic resonance (MR) images were recorded. Wilcoxon's rank test was used to compare hierarchical data. Cohen's kappa coefficient was adopted to analyze interobserver consistency. Compared to TSE T2WI, BLADE TSE T2WI reduced all of the examined motion artifacts and increased the sharpness of the liver and pancreas edges (all P image quality.

  1. Significados del consumo de frutas y hortalizas en dos comunidades de zona rural del municipio de Turbo, Urabá Antioqueño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Marina Arboleda Montoya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo: interpretar el significado atribuido al consumo de frutas y hortalizas en un grupo de familias de Turbo. El enfoque metodológico fue cualitativo, el cual permitió comprender las realidades alimentarias de los sujetos que vivencian la situación y en los escenarios y contextos donde ocurrieron los hechos. El método utilizado fue la etnografía; las técnicas para recabar la información fueron la entrevista cualitativa, el grupo de discusión y la observación. Hallazgos: en las familias participantes quienes más consumen frutas y hortalizas son las madres y los niños menores de nueve años, éstas son también quienes enseñan a los menores a consumir dichos alimentos. A las frutas y hortalizas les atribuyen propiedades en la prevención y curación de enfermedades, principalmente respiratorias y del tracto gastrointestinal.

  2. Deforestation and sedimentation in Uraba Gulf mangroves; a synthesis of the impacts on macrobenthos and fishes in the Turbo River Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Libreros, Juan Felipe; Taborda Marin, Alexander; Amortegui Torres, Viviana; Arroyave Rincon, Andrea; Sandoval, Alejandro; Estrada, Edgar Andres; Leal Florez, Jenny; Vasquez Arango, Jairo Guillermo; Vivas Narvaez, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This synthesis relates deforestation and land use change in coastal plain of the Turbo River watershed and impacts upon estuarine fauna in its delta. This watershed is shown within the context of hidroclimatological (rainfall and discharge) variability across the eastern margin of Uraba Gulf. Coastal-plain forest conversion rate to crops were quantified, as a possible explanation of increased sediment transport to the river and the near shore. Despite of the expansion of the delta, mangrove area was reduced as a consequence of conversion to crops and pastures. The dominant mangrove snail Neritina virginea was reduced in density in anthropogenic forest gaps and edges, as well as in pastures, due to altered microhabitats, and can be therefore used as a bio-indicator. The high sedimentation rates seem to be responsible for the faunistic poverty of the benthos, but do not seem responsible of deleterious effects on the dominant species. The diversity and abundance of fishes was greatly altered by high sedimentation near the river mouth. Finally, social features of the human communities were related to landscape changes. Herewith, we reported on the current ecosystem status, as the baseline for proposing management and conservation guidelines in order to prevent and restore impacts on mangroves and the coastal zone in this region.

  3. PARTICIPACIÓN COMUNITARIA EN EL GOLFO DE URABÁ: EL CASO DEL CORREGIMIENTO BOCAS DEL ATRATO Y LA VEREDA EL ROTO, MUNICIPIO DE TURBO, ANTIOQUIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TABORDA MARÍN ALEXANDER

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available El texto expone, desde el estudio de los aspectos socioculturales y el abordaje particular de la participación comunitaria, los resultados de un proyecto experimental de acuicultura de róbalo (Centropomus undecimalis y sábalo (Megalops atlanticus en el Corregimiento de Bocas del Atrato y la vereda El Roto, del Municipio de Turbo, Antioquia. Trabajo interdisciplinario que busca generar herramientas de conocimiento científico para contribuir en la mitigación de la disminución del recurso íctico en el que se basa el sustento de estas poblaciones mediante una metodología de Investigación Acción Participativa. Se analizan algunos aspectos culturales y socioeconómicos de estas comunidades que influyeron en el desarrollo del proyecto, junto con reflexiones sobre las experiencias vividas, a manera de recomendaciones para futuros trabajos de este tipo y como un llamado a la revisión autocrítica de lo que es la práctica de la interdisciplinariedad en proyectos de intervención en el marco del desarrollo sostenible. La investigación se desarrolló entre enero de 2007 y junio de 2008.

  4. Employing numerical fluid mechanics in the development of hydraulic turbo-engines; Einsatz der numerischen Stroemungsmechanik in der Entwicklung hydraulischer Stroemungsmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruprecht, A.; Bauer, C.; Chihab, W.; Gentner, C.; Ginter, F.; Maihoefer, M.; Welzel, B.

    1994-12-31

    Numerical fluid mechanics as a method for the dimensioning and optimization of components of hydraulic turbo-engines is coming into prominence. In hydraulic systems, flows are almost exclusively turbulent with very high Reynolds` numbers. This is why Reynolds`-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved. Direct numerical solutions or coarse structure simulations are not possible as yet. In order to describe the turbulence, a turbulence model needs to be used. An optimum compromise between accuracy, general validity and computation effort for complex three-dimensional flows exists in the form of the k-{epsilon} model. To be sure, this model has some weak points (for instance, in the case of a strong streamline curvature), but on the whole it does provide satisfactory results. (orig./AKF) [Deutsch] Der Einsatz der numerischen Stroemungsmechanik zur Auslegung und Optimierung von Bauteilen hydraulischer Stroemungsmaschinen gewinnt stark an Bedeutung. In hydraulischen Anlagen liegen fast ausschliesslich turbulente Stroemungen bei sehr hohen Reynoldszahlen vor. Deshalb werden die Reynolds-gemittelte Navier-Stokesbleichungen geloest. Direkte numerische Loesungen oder Grobstruktursimulationen sind heute noch nicht moeglich. Zur Beschreibung der Turbulenz muss ein Turbulenzmodell verwendet werden. Einen optimalen Kompromiss zwischen Genauigkeit, Allgemeingueltigkeit und Rechenaufwand bei komplexen dreidimensionalen Stroemungen stellt das k-{epsilon} Modell dar. Zwar besitzt dieses Modell einige Schwachpunkte (z.B. bei starker Stromlinienkruemmung) es liefert aber i.a. doch befriedigende Ergebnisse. (orig./AKF)

  5. The value of single-shot turbo spin-echo diffusion-weighted MR imaging in the detection of middle ear cholesteatoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Foer, Bert; Bernaerts, Anja; Maes, Joachim; Deckers, Filip; Pouillon, Marc; Vercruysse, Jean-Philippe; Somers, Thomas; Offeciers, Erwin; Michiels, Johan; Casselman, Jan W.

    2007-01-01

    Single-shot (SS) turbo spin-echo (TSE) diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non echo-planar imaging (EPI) technique recently reported for the evaluation of middle ear cholesteatoma. We prospectively evaluated a SS TSE DW sequence in detecting congenital or acquired middle ear cholesteatoma and evaluated the size of middle ear cholesteatoma detectable with this sequence. The aim of this study was not to differentiate between inflammatory tissue and cholesteatoma using SS TSE DW imaging. A group of 21 patients strongly suspected clinically and/or otoscopically of having a middle ear cholesteatoma without any history of prior surgery were evaluated with late post-gadolinium MRI including this SS TSE DW sequence. A total of 21 middle ear cholesteatomas (5 congenital and 16 acquired) were found at surgery with a size varying between 2 and 19 mm. Hyperintense signal on SS TSE DW imaging compatible with cholesteatoma was found in 19 patients. One patient showed no hyperintensity due to autoevacuation of the cholesteatoma sac into the external auditory canal. Another patient showed no hyperintensity because of motion artifacts. This study shows the high sensitivity of this SS TSE DW sequence in detecting small middle ear cholesteatomas, with a size limit as small as 2 mm. (orig.)

  6. Comparison of Turbo Spin Echo and Echo Planar Imaging for intravoxel incoherent motion and diffusion tensor imaging of the kidney at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilbert, Fabian; Wech, Tobias; Neubauer, Henning; Veldhoen, Simon; Bley, Thorsten Alexander; Koestler, Herbert [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2017-10-01

    Echo Planar Imaging (EPI) is most commonly applied to acquire diffusion-weighted MR-images. EPI is able to capture an entire image in very short time, but is prone to distortions and artifacts. In diffusion-weighted EPI of the kidney severe distortions may occur due to intestinal gas. Turbo Spin Echo (TSE) is robust against distortions and artifacts, but needs more time to acquire an entire image compared to EPI. Therefore, TSE is more sensitive to motion during the readout. In this study we compare diffusion-weighted TSE and EPI of the human kidney with regard to intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Images were acquired with b-values between 0 and 750 s/mm{sup 2} with TSE and EPI. Distortions were observed with the EPI readout in all volunteers, while the TSE images were virtually distortion-free. Fractional anisotropy of the diffusion tensor was significantly lower for TSE than for EPI. All other parameters of DTI and IVIM were comparable for TSE and EPI. Especially the main diffusion directions yielded by TSE and EPI were similar. The results demonstrate that TSE is a worthwhile distortion-free alternative to EPI for diffusion-weighted imaging of the kidney at 3 Tesla.

  7. Intracranial cerebrospinal fluid spaces imaging using a pulse-triggered three-dimensional turbo spin echo MR sequence with variable flip-angle distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodel, Jerome [Unite Analyse et Restauration du Mouvement, UMR-CNRS, 8005 LBM ParisTech Ensam, Paris (France); University Paris Est Creteil (UPEC), Creteil (France); Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Henri Mondor, Department of Neuroradiology, Creteil (France); Hopital Henri Mondor, Creteil (France); Silvera, Jonathan [University Paris Est Creteil (UPEC), Creteil (France); Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Henri Mondor, Department of Neuroradiology, Creteil (France); Bekaert, Olivier; Decq, Philippe [Unite Analyse et Restauration du Mouvement, UMR-CNRS, 8005 LBM ParisTech Ensam, Paris (France); University Paris Est Creteil (UPEC), Creteil (France); Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Henri Mondor, Department of Neurosurgery, Creteil (France); Rahmouni, Alain [University Paris Est Creteil (UPEC), Creteil (France); Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Henri Mondor, Department of Radiology, Creteil (France); Bastuji-Garin, Sylvie [University Paris Est Creteil (UPEC), Creteil (France); Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Henri Mondor, Department of Public Health, Creteil (France); Vignaud, Alexandre [Siemens Healthcare, Saint Denis (France); Petit, Eric; Durning, Bruno [Laboratoire Images Signaux et Systemes Intelligents, UPEC, Creteil (France)

    2011-02-15

    To assess the three-dimensional turbo spin echo with variable flip-angle distribution magnetic resonance sequence (SPACE: Sampling Perfection with Application optimised Contrast using different flip-angle Evolution) for the imaging of intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces. We prospectively investigated 18 healthy volunteers and 25 patients, 20 with communicating hydrocephalus (CH), five with non-communicating hydrocephalus (NCH), using the SPACE sequence at 1.5T. Volume rendering views of both intracranial and ventricular CSF were obtained for all patients and volunteers. The subarachnoid CSF distribution was qualitatively evaluated on volume rendering views using a four-point scale. The CSF volumes within total, ventricular and subarachnoid spaces were calculated as well as the ratio between ventricular and subarachnoid CSF volumes. Three different patterns of subarachnoid CSF distribution were observed. In healthy volunteers we found narrowed CSF spaces within the occipital aera. A diffuse narrowing of the subarachnoid CSF spaces was observed in patients with NCH whereas patients with CH exhibited narrowed CSF spaces within the high midline convexity. The ratios between ventricular and subarachnoid CSF volumes were significantly different among the volunteers, patients with CH and patients with NCH. The assessment of CSF spaces volume and distribution may help to characterise hydrocephalus. (orig.)

  8. Reducing contrast contamination in radial turbo-spin-echo acquisitions by combining a narrow-band KWIC filter with parallel imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Daniel; Breuer, Felix A; Völker, Michael; Brandt, Tobias; Griswold, Mark A; Jakob, Peter M; Blaimer, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Cartesian turbo spin-echo (TSE) and radial TSE images are usually reconstructed by assembling data containing different contrast information into a single k-space. This approach results in mixed contrast contributions in the images, which may reduce their diagnostic value. The goal of this work is to improve the image contrast from radial TSE acquisitions by reducing the contribution of signals with undesired contrast information. Radial TSE acquisitions allow the reconstruction of multiple images with different T2 contrasts using the k-space weighted image contrast (KWIC) filter. In this work, the image contrast is improved by reducing the band-width of the KWIC filter. Data for the reconstruction of a single image are selected from within a small temporal range around the desired echo time. The resulting dataset is undersampled and, therefore, an iterative parallel imaging algorithm is applied to remove aliasing artifacts. Radial TSE images of the human brain reconstructed with the proposed method show an improved contrast when compared with Cartesian TSE images or radial TSE images with conventional KWIC reconstructions. The proposed method provides multi-contrast images from radial TSE data with contrasts similar to multi spin-echo images. Contaminations from unwanted contrast weightings are strongly reduced. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Reduction of respiratory ghosting motion artifacts in conventional two-dimensional multi-slice Cartesian turbo spin-echo: which k-space filling order is the best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuuji; Yoneyama, Masami; Nakamura, Masanobu; Takemura, Atsushi

    2018-03-07

    The two-dimensional Cartesian turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequence is widely used in routine clinical studies, but it is sensitive to respiratory motion. We investigated the k-space orders in Cartesian TSE that can effectively reduce motion artifacts. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the relationship between k-space order and degree of motion artifacts using a moving phantom. We compared the degree of motion artifacts between linear and asymmetric k-space orders. The actual spacing of ghost artifacts in the asymmetric order was doubled compared with that in the linear order in the free-breathing situation. The asymmetric order clearly showed less sensitivity to incomplete breath-hold at the latter half of the imaging period. Because of the actual number of partitions of the k-space and the temporal filling order, the asymmetric k-space order of Cartesian TSE was superior to the linear k-space order for reduction of ghosting motion artifacts.

  10. MR imaging of the knee: Improvement of signal and contrast efficiency of T1-weighted turbo spin echo sequences by applying a driven equilibrium (DRIVE) pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radlbauer, Rudolf, E-mail: rudolf.radlbauer@stpoelten.lknoe.a [MR Physics Group, Department of Radiology, Landesklinikum St. Poelten, Propst Fuehrer Strasse 4, 3100 St. Poelten (Austria); Lomoschitz, Friedrich, E-mail: friedrich.lomoschitz@stpoelten.lknoe.a [MR Physics Group, Department of Radiology, Landesklinikum St. Poelten, Propst Fuehrer Strasse 4, 3100 St. Poelten (Austria); Salomonowitz, Erich, E-mail: erich.salomonowitz@stpoelten.lknoe.a [MR Physics Group, Department of Radiology, Landesklinikum St. Poelten, Propst Fuehrer Strasse 4, 3100 St. Poelten (Austria); Eberhardt, Knut E., E-mail: info@mrt-kompetenzzentrum.d [MRT Competence Center Schloss Werneck, Balthasar-Neumann-Platz 2, 97440 Werneck (Germany); Stadlbauer, Andreas, E-mail: andi@nmr.a [MR Physics Group, Department of Radiology, Landesklinikum St. Poelten, Propst Fuehrer Strasse 4, 3100 St. Poelten (Austria); Department of Neurosurgery, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a driven equilibrium (DRIVE) pulse incorporated in a standard T1-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE) sequence as used in our routine MRI protocol for examination of pathologies of the knee. Sixteen consecutive patients with knee disorders were examined using the routine MRI protocol, including T1-weighted TSE-sequences with and without a DRIVE pulse. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of anatomical structures and pathologies were calculated and compared for both sequences. The differences in diagnostic value of the T1-weighted images with and without DRIVE pulse were assessed. SNR was significantly higher on images acquired with DRIVE pulse for fluid, effusion, cartilage and bone. Differences in the SNR of meniscus and muscle between the two sequences were not statistically significant. CNR was significantly increased between muscle and effusion, fluid and cartilage, fluid and meniscus, cartilage and meniscus, bone and cartilage on images acquired using the DRIVE pulse. Diagnostic value of the T1-weighted images was found to be improved for delineation of anatomic structures and for diagnosing a variety of pathologies when a DRIVE pulse is incorporated in the sequence. Incorporation of a DRIVE pulse into a standard T1-weighted TSE-sequence leads to significant increase of SNR and CNR of both, anatomical structures and pathologies, and consequently to an increase in diagnostic value within the same acquisition time.

  11. MR imaging of the knee: Improvement of signal and contrast efficiency of T1-weighted turbo spin echo sequences by applying a driven equilibrium (DRIVE) pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radlbauer, Rudolf; Lomoschitz, Friedrich; Salomonowitz, Erich; Eberhardt, Knut E.; Stadlbauer, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a driven equilibrium (DRIVE) pulse incorporated in a standard T1-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE) sequence as used in our routine MRI protocol for examination of pathologies of the knee. Sixteen consecutive patients with knee disorders were examined using the routine MRI protocol, including T1-weighted TSE-sequences with and without a DRIVE pulse. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of anatomical structures and pathologies were calculated and compared for both sequences. The differences in diagnostic value of the T1-weighted images with and without DRIVE pulse were assessed. SNR was significantly higher on images acquired with DRIVE pulse for fluid, effusion, cartilage and bone. Differences in the SNR of meniscus and muscle between the two sequences were not statistically significant. CNR was significantly increased between muscle and effusion, fluid and cartilage, fluid and meniscus, cartilage and meniscus, bone and cartilage on images acquired using the DRIVE pulse. Diagnostic value of the T1-weighted images was found to be improved for delineation of anatomic structures and for diagnosing a variety of pathologies when a DRIVE pulse is incorporated in the sequence. Incorporation of a DRIVE pulse into a standard T1-weighted TSE-sequence leads to significant increase of SNR and CNR of both, anatomical structures and pathologies, and consequently to an increase in diagnostic value within the same acquisition time.

  12. Comparison of intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging between turbo spin-echo and echo-planar imaging of the head and neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikayama, Ryoji; Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Nagatomo, Kazuya; Kimura, Mitsuhiro; Kumazawa, Seiji [Kyushu University, Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Sonoda, Shinjiro; Kobayashi, Koji [Kyushu University Hospital, Division of Radiology, Department of Medical Technology, Fukuoka (Japan); Kawanami, Satoshi; Kamitani, Takeshi; Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2018-01-15

    To compare image quality, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM)-derived parameters between turbo spin-echo (TSE)-diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and echo-planar imaging (EPI)-DWI of the head and neck. Fourteen volunteers underwent head and neck imaging using TSE-DWI and EPI-DWI. Distortion ratio (DR), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), ADC and IVIM-derived parameters were compared between the two techniques. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to analyse reproducibility between the quantitative parameters of TSE-DWI and EPI-DWI. DR of TSE-DWI was significantly smaller than that of EPI-DWI. SNR and CNR of TSE-DWI were significantly higher than those of EPI-DWI. ADC and IVIM-derived parameters of TSE-DWI showed higher values than those of EPI-DWI, although the difference was not significant. Bland-Altman analysis showed wide limits of agreement between the two sequences. TSE-DWI can produce better image quality than EPI-DWI, while TSE-DWI possibly exhibits different values of quantitative parameters. Therefore, TSE-DWI could be a good alternative to EPI-DWI for patients sensitive to distortion. However, it is not recommended to use both TSE-DWI and EPI-DWI on follow-up. (orig.)

  13. European balancing act

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackermann, T.; Abbad, J.R.; Dudurych, I.M.

    2007-01-01

    Due to increasing wind power penetration, the need for and usage of wind power prediction systems have increased. At the same time, much research has been done in this field, which has led to a significant increase in the prediction accuracy recently. With many ongoing research programs in the fi...

  14. Energy Balance of Rural Ecosystems In India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, A.; Madhava Rao, V.; Hermon, R. R.; Garg, A.; Nag, T.; Bhaskara Rao, N.; Sharma, A.; Parihar, J. S.

    2014-11-01

    India is predominantly an agricultural and rural country. Across the country, the villages vary in geographical location, area, human and livestock population, availability of resources, agricultural practices, livelihood patterns etc. This study presents an estimation of net energy balance resulting from primary production vis-a-vis energy consumption through various components in a "Rural Ecosystem". Seven sites located in different agroclimatic regions of India were studied. An end use energy accounting "Rural Energy Balance Model" is developed for input-output analysis of various energy flows of production, consumption, import and export through various components of crop, trees outside forest plantations, livestock, rural households, industry or trade within the village system boundary. An integrated approach using field, ancillary, GIS and high resolution IRS-P6 Resourcesat-2 LISS IV data is adopted for generation of various model inputs. The primary and secondary field data collection of various energy uses at household and village level were carried out using structured schedules and questionnaires. High resolution multi-temporal Resourcesat-2 LISS IV data (2013-14) was used for generating landuse/landcover maps and estimation of above-ground Trees Outside Forests phytomass. The model inputs were converted to energy equivalents using country-specific energy conversion factors. A comprehensive geotagged database of sampled households and available resources at each study site was also developed in ArcGIS framework. Across the study sites, the estimated net energy balance ranged from -18.8 Terra Joules (TJ) in a high energy consuming Hodka village, Gujarat to 224.7 TJ in an agriculture, aquaculture and plantation intensive Kollaparru village, Andhra Pradesh. The results indicate that the net energy balance of a Rural Ecosystem is largely driven by primary production through crops and natural vegetation. This study provides a significant insight to policy

  15. Interim balance: Ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogon, E.; Jungk, R.

    1981-01-01

    Subjects: The ecology problem - world wide. Sectoral balances: The examples of energy, transportation, chemistry, agriculture and food industry, water supply. Destruction of nature and human discord. Conservatives in our political parties and their views on environmental protection. Alliance between reds and 'greens', integration between reds and greens. The Rhine initiative. Lead respects no borders, experiences of citizens' action groups in Lothringia and the Saar district. International airport Munich-II/comments by a protestant. 'Give priority to life'/A hearing on environmental protection. 4:96 - 'greens' in the Bremen Senate. Policy in a hard-hearing world/psychology of citizens' action groups. Critical ecological research and scientific establishment. Full productivity and ecology. The deluge to follow/Hints on how to build an ark. Symbiosis is more than coexistence/Ecologists' social theory. Throwing in two hundred elementary particles/on the way to an ecological concept of science. Scientific journals. Alternative literature. Teaching model for a teaching subject 'ecology'. (orig.) [de

  16. Par Pond water balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Dixon, K.L.

    1996-06-01

    A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs

  17. Balancing "we" and "me".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, Christine; Flynn, Donna; Redman, Melanie

    2014-10-01

    The open office is the dominant form of workspace design for good reason: It fosters collaboration, promotes learning, and nurtures strong culture. But what most companies fail to realize is that collaboration has a natural rhythm that requires both interaction and private contemplation. Companies have been trying for decades to find the balance between public and private workspace that best supports collaboration. In 1980 52% of U.S. employees lacked workspaces where they could concentrate without distraction. In response, high-walled cubicles took over the corporate landscape. By the late 1990s, the tide had turned, and only 23% of employees wanted more privacy, and 50% wanted more access to other people. Ever since, firms have been beefing up spaces that support collaboration and shrinking areas for individual work. But the pendulum seems to have swung too far: Once again, people feel a pressing need for privacy, not only to do heads-down work but to cope with the intensity of work today. To address these needs, according to the authors, we have to rethink our assumptions about privacy. Traditionally defined in physical terms, privacy is now about the individual's ability to control information and stimulation. In this article, the authors examine workspace design through the new lens of privacy and offer insights on how to foster teamwork and solitude.

  18. The right balance

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Over the course of her career as a physicist, Felicitas Pauss, currently responsible for CERN's External Relations, has often been the sole woman in an environment dominated by men. While she freely admits that being a woman physicist can have as many advantages as disadvantages, she thinks the best strategy is to maintain the right balance.   From a very early age, Felicitas Pauss always wanted to be involved in projects that interested and fascinated her. That's how she came to study physics. When she was a first-year university student in Austria in 1970, it was still fairly uncommon for women to go into physics research. "I grew up in Salzburg with a background in music. At that time, it was certainly considered more ‘normal’ for a woman to study music than to do research in physics. But already in high school I was interested in physics and technical instruments and wanted to know how things work and what they are made of”. At the beginning of her care...

  19. Balancing atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goreau, T.J. (Discovery Bay Marine Laboratory, Univ. of the West Indies (JM))

    1990-01-01

    Rising carbon dioxide and global temperatures are causing increasing worldwide concern, and pressure towards an international law of the atmosphere is rapidly escalating, yet widespread misconceptions about the greenhouse effect's inevitability, time scale, and causes have inhibited effective consensus and action. Observations from Antarctic ice cores, Amazonian rain forests, and Carribean coral reefs suggest that the biological effects of climate change may be more severe than climate models predict. Efforts to limit emissions from fossil-fuel combustion alone are incapable of stabilizing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Stabilizing atmospheric carbon dioxide requires coupled measures to balance sources and sinks of the gas, and will only be viable with large-scale investments in increased sustainable productivity on degraded tropical soils, and in long-term research on renewable energy and biomass product development in the developing countries. A mechanism is outlined which directly links fossil-fuel combustion sources of carbon dioxide to removal via increasing biotic productivity and storage. A preliminary cost-benefit analysis suggests that such measures are very affordable, costing far less than inaction. (With 88 refs.).

  20. Paul Collier : Balancing beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    As former head of AB Operations, Paul Collier and his group were in the ‘cockpit’ for the LHC’s maiden voyage - piloting the first beam around the ring. But now, as Head of the Beams Department, he will need his feet firmly on the ground in order to balance all the beam activities at CERN. "As Department Head, I’ll have less direct contact with the machines," Collier says with a hint of regret. "I’ll still obviously be very involved, but they won’t actually let me loose in front of the keyboard anymore!" As the new Head of the BE Department, Collier will be in charge of nearly 400 people, and will oversee all the beam activities, including the preparations for the longest period of beam operation in the history of CERN. In the new organization, the BE, TE and EN Departments have been grouped together in the Accelerator and Technology Sector. "‘Partnership’ is a key word for the three departments," says Collier. "The n...

  1. Balancing safety and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, W.; Fischer, P.U.

    2000-01-01

    The safety requirements of NPPs have always aimed at limiting societal risks. This risk approach initially resulted in deterministic design criteria and concepts. In the 1980s the paradigm 'safety at all costs' arose and often led to questionable backfitting measures. Conflicts between new requirements, classical design concepts and operational demands were often ignored. The design requirements for advanced reactors ensure enhanced protection against severe accidents. Still, it is questionable whether the 'no-damage-outside-the-fence' criteria can be achieved deterministically and at competitive costs. Market deregulation and utility privatisation call for a balance between safety and costs, without jeopardising basic safety concepts. An ideal approach must be risk-based and imply modern PSAs and new methods for cost-benefit and ALARA analyses, embed nuclear risks in a wider risk spectrum, but also make benefits transparent within the context of a broader life experience. Governments should define basic requirements, minimum standards and consistent comparison criteria, and strengthen operator responsibility. Internationally sufficient and binding safety requirements must be established and nuclear technology transfer handled in a responsible way, while existing plants, with their continuous backfitting investments, should receive particular attention. (orig.)

  2. Towards exoskeletons with balance capacities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooij, Herman; van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; Vlutters, Mark; González-Vargas, José; Ibáñez, Jaime; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L.; van der Kooij, Herman; Pons, José Luis

    2017-01-01

    Current exoskeletons replay pre-programmed trajectories at the actuated joints. Towards the employment of exoskeletons with more flexible and adaptive behavior, we investigate human balance control during gait. We study human balance control by applying brief force pulses at the pelvis in different

  3. Balance control in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dieën, Jaap H.; Pijnappels, Mirjam

    2017-01-01

    To avoid falls during everyday movements, we need to maintain balance, i.e., control the position of our body's center of mass relative to our base of support. The balance control system comprises sensory subsystems, their afferent nerves, an extensive brain network, and the motor system.

  4. Force balance near an X line in a collisionless plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, L. R.; Pridmore-Brown, D. C.

    1990-01-01

    The suggestion by Dungey (1988) that the gyroviscosity associated with gradients of the off-diagonal elements of the electron pressure tensor can balance a reconnection electric field along a magnetic X line in a collisionless plasma is investigated. The detailed balance of forces in the vicinity of an X line is evaluated using a two-dimensional magnetic field model and a simple model for particle motion. The results show that the gyroviscosity can indeed provide the force required to balance a reconnection electric field in that region, so that neither collisions nor wave turbulence are necessary for reconnection. The results also show that there should not be a significant increase in current from electron acceleration very near an X line. Reasonable numerical estimates are obtained for conditions expected in the vicinity of the distant X line in the geomagnetic tail.

  5. Tax balance in agribusiness as a type of special balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The tendency of continuous compounding of business processes inevitably leads to application of increasingly complex instruments for the purposes of financial reporting in agribusiness. In this system the existential place and role of individual elements that alter the existing and acquire new functions comes into question. Balancing implies a regulated and consistent system in which every change leads to the creation of new relations and changing already established relationships. In this regard, in this paper we will focus on the place and role of tax balance in the group of special balances in agribusiness, as a very significant group of accounting instruments. Displaying information for users and situations in which they are used, balances gain their place in this classification. For the purposes of applying financial instruments, referring primarily to balances in agribusiness, it is necessary to know the way of their classification according to their functions. From this aspect, tax balance in agribusiness is a specific report, both in terms of its formal and material structure, which gives it the basis to belong to ordinary as well as special types of balances in agribusiness.

  6. Work-life balance: history, costs, and budgeting for balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Siva; Stein, Sharon L

    2014-06-01

    The concept and difficulties of work-life balance are not unique to surgeons, but professional responsibilities make maintaining a work-life balance difficult. Consequences of being exclusively career focused include burn out, physical, and mental ailments. In addition, physician burn out may hinder optimal patient care and incur significant costs on health care in general. Assessing current uses of time, allocating goals catered to an individual surgeon, and continual self-assessment may help balance time, and ideally will help prevent burn out.

  7. AHP IN IMPLEMENTATION OF BALANCED SCORECARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Jovanovic

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BSC as a matrix of balanced indicators gives a review of organization activities within four or more perspectives (fields (finance, users, business processes, learning and development where by necessary conditions for development and continual improvement are created. As BSC is essentially a frame for realization of defined strategy in the organization, its implementation asks for an adequate choice of measures-indicators and therefore this paper is oriented towards importance and methodology of the choice of indicators. This paper particularly emphasizes a possibility of implementation of AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process and ANP (Analytic Network Process as methods of multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM inmplementation of BSC.

  8. Modern rotor balancing - Emerging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, E. S.; Von Pragenau, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    Modern balancing methods for flexible and rigid rotors are explored. Rigid rotor balancing is performed at several hundred rpm, well below the first bending mode of the shaft. High speed balancing is necessary when the nominal rotational speed is higher than the first bending mode. Both methods introduce weights which will produce rotor responses at given speeds that will be exactly out of phase with the responses of an unbalanced rotor. Modal balancing seeks to add weights which will leave other rotor modes unaffected. Also, influence coefficients can be determined by trial and error addition of weights and recording of their effects on vibration at speeds of interest. The latter method is useful for balancing rotors at other than critical speeds and for performing unified balancing beginning with the first critical speed. Finally, low-speed flexible balancing permits low-speed tests and adjustments of rotor assemblies which will not be accessible when operating in their high-speed functional configuration. The method was developed for the high pressure liquid oxygen turbopumps for the Shuttle.

  9. Work-life balance: Does age matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richert-Kaźmierska, Anita; Stankiewicz, Katarzyna

    2016-11-22

    Work-life balance is a priority of EU policies but at the same time demographic change affects the labour market. Employers have to deal with the ageing of their employees and adjust human resource management to maintain their competitiveness. The purpose of the article is to answer research questions: whether the age of workers determines their assessment of the work-life balance, and whether there is a relationship between the worker's age and their assessment of the activities undertaken by their employer to provide them with work-life balance. The article is based on the results of surveys conducted among 500 employees of the SME sector from Finland, Lithuania and Sweden. The results identified a statistically significant difference: employees representing older age groups are more likely to indicate the maintenance of WLB; older workers more frequently do not agree that all workers have equal opportunities to benefit from flexible solutions aimed at ensuring the maintenance of WLB. The results can be the inspiration for the decisions and actions of employers in the field of personnel management and for creating workplace conditions encouraging senior workers to continue working, even upon becoming entitled to old-age pension.

  10. Serotonin and the regulation of mammalian energy balance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Donovan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of energy balance requires regulation of the amount and timing of food intake. Decades of experiments utilizing pharmacological and later genetic manipulations have demonstrated the importance of serotonin signaling in this regulation. Much progress has been made in recent years in understanding how central nervous system serotonin systems acting through a diverse array of serotonin receptors impact feeding behavior and metabolism. Particular attention has been paid to mechanisms through which serotonin impacts energy balance pathways within the hypothalamus. How upstream factors relevant to energy balance regulate the release of hypothalamic serotonin is less clear, but work addressing this issue is underway. Generally, investigation into the central serotonergic regulation of energy balance has had a predominantly hypothalamocentric focus, yet nonhypothalamic structures that have been implicated in energy balance regulation also receive serotonergic innervation and express multiple subtypes of serotonin receptors. Moreover, there is a growing appreciation of the diverse mechanisms through which peripheral serotonin impacts energy balance regulation. Clearly, the serotonergic regulation of energy balance is a field characterized by both rapid advances and by an extensive and diverse set of central and peripheral mechanisms yet to be delineated.

  11. Fat-suppressed volume isotropic turbo spin echo acquisition (VISTA) MR imaging in evaluating radial and root tears of the meniscus: Focusing on reader-defined axial reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Daekeon; Lee, Young Han; Kim, Sungjun; Song, Ho-Taek; Suh, Jin-Suck

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the diagnostic value of fat-suppressed (FS) three-dimensional (3D) volume isotropic turbo spin echo acquisition (VISTA) imaging in detecting radial and root tears of the meniscus, including the reader-defined reformatted axial (RDA) plane. Materials and methods: Twenty-three patients with arthroscopically confirmed radial or root tears of the meniscus underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with 2D and FS 3D VISTA sequences. MRIs were reviewed independently by two musculoskeletal radiologists blinded to the arthroscopic findings. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and interobserver agreement were calculated for radial and root tears. Both radiologists reported confidence scale for the presence of meniscal tears in 2D axial imaging, 3D axial imaging, and RDA imaging, based on a five-point scale. Wilcoxon's signed rank test was used to compare confidence scale. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of FS 3D VISTA MR imaging versus 2D MR imaging were as follows: 96%, 96%, and 96% versus 91%, 91%, and 91%, respectively in reader 1, and 96%, 96%, and 96% versus 83%, 91%, and 87%, respectively, in reader 2. Interobserver agreement for detecting meniscal tears was excellent (κ = 1) with FS 3D VISTA. The confidence scale was significantly higher for 3D axial images than 2D imaging (p = 0.03) and significantly higher in RDA images than 3D axial image in detecting radial and root tears. Conclusions: FS 3D VISTA had a better diagnostic performance in evaluating radial and root tears of the meniscus. The reader-defined reformatted axial plane obtained from FS 3D VISTA MR imaging is useful in detecting radial and root tears of the meniscus

  12. An experimental study on the effects of different opening ranges of waste-gate on the exhaust soot emission of a turbo-charged DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazikhani, M.; Davarpanah, M.; Shaegh, S.A. Mousavi

    2008-01-01

    This experimental study was conducted to investigate the effects of different opening ranges of waste-gate of a turbo-charged DI diesel engine on improving the exhaust soot emission. Different opening ranges of waste-gate were supplied using an adjustable spring to load the actuating rod of the waste-gate in which, increasing the opening range of the waste-gate decreases the inlet manifold pressure. In this study, the maximum inlet manifold pressures which were supplied by changing the opening range of waste-gate were 0.1 bar, 0.23 bar, 0.26 bar and 0.52 bar over atmosphere and experiments were conducted under the ECE-R49, 13 mode standard test. At each mode of the test, soot emission was recorded and then brake specific soot emission was calculated. Results indicate that, soot emission decreases with increasing the maximum inlet manifold pressure from 0.1 bar to 0.23 bar. This reduction may be due to increasing the intake-air temperature which results in reduction of ignition delay that prolongs the late combustion phase. This improves the soot burnout process because enough time and sufficient in-cylinder temperature are available at the late combustion phase prior to exhaust valve opening. While for the higher maximum inlet manifold pressures from 0.23 bar to 0.52 bar, although there are enough time at the late combustion phase, but the soot emission increases which could be due to more reduction of the in-cylinder gas temperature at the end of combustion before EVO

  13. Sensory neuronopathy involves the spinal cord and brachial plexus: a quantitative study employing multiple-echo data image combination (MEDIC) and turbo inversion recovery magnitude (TIRM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Yi-Fang; Tang, Wei-Jun; Li, Yu-Xin; Geng, Dao-Ying [Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Zhu, Dong-Qing; Chen, Xiang-Jun [Fudan University, Department of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Zee, Chi-Shing [University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Sensory neuronopathy (SNN) is a distinctive subtype of peripheral neuropathies, specifically targeting dorsal root ganglion (DRG). We utilized MRI to demonstrate the imaging characteristics of DRG, spinal cord (SC), and brachial plexus at C7 level in SNN. We attempted multiple-echo data image combination (MEDIC) and turbo inversion recovery magnitude (TIRM) methods in nine patients with sensory neuronopathy and compared with those in 16 disease controls and 20 healthy volunteers. All participants underwent MRI for the measurement of DRG, posterior column (PC), lateral column, and spinal cord area (SCA) at C7 level. DRG diameters were obtained through its largest cross section, standardized by dividing sagittal diameter of mid-C7 vertebral canal. We also made comparisons of standardized anteroposterior diameter (APD) and left-right diameters of SC and PC in these groups. Signal intensity and diameter of C7 spinal nerve were assessed on TIRM. Compared to control groups, signal intensities of DRG and PC were higher in SNN patients when using MEDIC, but the standardized diameters were shorter in either DRG or PC. Abnormal PC signal intensities were identified in eight out of nine SNN patients (89 %) with MEDIC and five out of nine (56 %) with T2-weighted images. SCA, assessed with MEDIC, was smaller in SNN patients than in the other groups, with significant reduction of its standardized APD. C7 nerve root diameters, assessed with TIRM, were decreased in SNN patients. MEDIC and TIRM sequences demonstrate increased signal intensities and decreased area of DRG and PC, and decreased diameter of nerve roots in patients with SNN, which can play a significant role in early diagnosis. (orig.)

  14. Value of Fat-Suppressed Proton-Density-Weighted Turbo Spin-Echo Sequences in Detecting Meniscal Lesions: Comparison with Arthroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, F.K.W.; Schaefer, P.J.; Brossmann, J.; Frahm, C.; Hilgert, R.E.; Heller, M.; Jahnke, T.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate fat-suppressed (FS) proton-density-weighted (PDw) turbo spin-echo (TSE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compared to arthroscopy in the detection of meniscal lesions. Material and Methods: In a prospective study, 31 knee joints were imaged on a 1.5T MR scanner before arthroscopy using the following sequences: (a) coronal and sagittal FS-PDw TSE (TR/TE: 4009/15 ms); (b) coronal T1w SE (TR/TE: 722/20 ms), and sagittal PDw TSE (TR/TE: 3800/15 ms). Other imaging parameters were: slice thickness 3 mm, FOV 160 mm, matrix 256x256. A total of 186 meniscal regions (62 menisci; anterior horn, body, posterior horn) were evaluated. Standard of reference was arthroscopy. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (npv), positive predictive value (ppv), and accuracy were calculated. Results: Arthroscopically, meniscal lesions were detected in 55/186 segments (35 medial and 20 lateral meniscal lesions). Sensitivity, specificity, npv, ppv, and accuracy for combination of coronal and sagittal FS PDw TSE were 91.4%, 98.3%, 95%, 97%, and 93.5% for the medial meniscus, and 90%, 98.6%, 97.3%, 94.7%, and 96.8% for the lateral. The results were comparable to the combination of coronal T1w SE and sagittal PDw TSE for the medial (88.6%, 98.3%, 93.4%, 96.9%, 91.4%) and the lateral (90%, 95.9%, 97.2%, 85.7%, 92.5%) meniscus. Conclusion: FS PDw TSE-MR sequences are an excellent alternative for the detection of meniscal lesions in comparison with diagnostic arthroscopy

  15. Vibration analysis and online thermodynamic assessment of a turbo-blower turbine; Analisis de vibraciones y evaluacion termodinamica en linea de la turbina de un turbosoplador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Q, Rodolfo; Marino L, Carlos; Ramirez S, Jose A.; Rivera G, Juan J. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    In this paper are presented the results of the analysis of dynamic and thermodynamic behavior analysis of a turbo-blower integrated by one 13,080 KW steam turbine and a blower with a flow of 131,520 ft{sup 3}/m, to determine the cause of the excessive wearing of the axial trust bearing of the steam turbine. The main cause of failure is the wearing and severe dirtiness of the turbine stages that contributes with an increment of the turbine axial load. The consequences of the turbine deterioration are: greater axial load due to the additional heating rotor (requires greater steam to generate the same power that in design conditions); turbine motive power reduction and the reduction of isentropic efficiency of the same, for similar average steam consumption between reference and test. Due to the former the turbine power represents a deviation of the 34.74% in Steam Specific Consumption (SSC). [Spanish] Se presenta los resultados del analisis del comportamiento dinamico y termodinamico de un turbosoplador integrado por una turbina de vapor de 13,080 KW y un soplador con un caudal de 131,520 pies{sup 3}/m, para determinar la causa del desgaste excesivo de la chumacera de empuje axial de la turbina de vapor. La causa principal de la falla es el desgaste y ensuciamiento severo de las etapas de la turbina que contribuye con un incremento de la carga axial de la turbina. Las consecuencias del deterioro de la turbina son: mayor carga axial debida al calentamiento adicional del rotor (requiere mayor vapor para generar la misma potencia que en condiciones de diseno); reduccion de la potencia motriz de la turbina y de la eficiencia isoentropica de las mismas, para un consumo de vapor promedio similar entre referencia y prueba. Debido a lo anterior la potencia de la turbina representa una desviacion del 34.74% en el Consumo Especifico de Vapor (CVE).

  16. Comprehensive Assessment of Ankle Syndesmosis Injury Using 3D Isotropic Turbo Spin-Echo Sequences: Diagnostic Performance Compared With That of Conventional and Oblique 3-T MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minchul; Choi, Yun Sun; Jeong, Min Sun; Park, Mira; Chun, Tong Jin; Kim, Jin Su; Young, Ki Won

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic performance of 3D sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts using different flip angle evolution (SPACE) sequences in the evaluation of ankle syndesmosis injuries, compared with that of conventional orthogonal MRI and oblique proton density-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequences performed with 3-T MRI. This retrospective study included 98 patients with suspected ankle syndesmosis injuries who underwent both MRI and surgery. Fifty patients (mean [± SD] age, 34.5 ± 15.3 years) had acute injuries, and 48 patients (mean age, 28.5 ± 9.6 years) had chronic injuries. For both groups, the diagnostic performance of each MRI sequence with regard to syndesmosis injuries was evaluated. Arthroscopy findings were used as a reference standard to confirm diagnosis. No statistically significant differences in the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and AUC values were noted between images of the syndesmosis obtained using proton density-weighted TSE sequences and images of the syndesmosis obtained using 3D SPACE sequences (p > 0.05). Interobserver agreement regarding the diagnosis of both acute and chronic syndesmosis injuries was almost perfect for proton density-weighted TSE images (κ > 0.80) and was substantial for 3D SPACE images (κ > 0.75). Both methods of obtaining images of the syndesmosis had a diagnostic performance superior to that of conventional orthogonal MRI. The performance of 3D SPACE sequences is comparable to that of 2D proton density-weighted MR images for the diagnosis of acute and chronic syndesmosis injuries.

  17. Image quality assessment of single-shot turbo spin echo diffusion-weighted imaging with parallel imaging technique: a phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tsukasa; Urikura, Atsushi; Shirata, Kensei; Nakaya, Yoshihiro; Terashima, Shingo; Hosokawa, Yoichiro

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the image quality and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of single-shot turbo spin echo (TSE) diffusion-weighted (DW) images obtained using a parallel imaging (PI) technique. All measurements were performed on a 3.0-T whole-body MRI system and 32-channel phased-array coil. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and ADC values were measured with a DW imaging (DWI) phantom comprising granulated sugar and agar. The SNRs were calculated using a subtraction method and compared among TSE-DW images at acceleration factors (AFs) of 1-4. Image blur was visually assessed on TSE-DW images of a pin phantom at AFs of 1-4. The ADC values were calculated using DW images with b = 0 and 1000 s mm(-2). The ADC values of TSE-DW images and echo-planar imaging EPI-DW images were compared. The SNRs decreased as AFs increased, despite selecting the shortest echo time. A lower AF caused increased image blur in the phase-encoding direction. The ADC values of TSE-DWI tended to be lower than those of EPI-DWI, and AFs of 3 and 4 yielded variable ADC values on TSE-DW images. TSE-DWI with an AF of 3 or 4 yielded reduced SNRs; in addition, the image noise and artefacts associated with PI technique may have affected ADC measurements, despite improving image blur in the phase-encoding direction. Optimizing the imaging parameters of TSE-DWI is useful for providing good image quality and accurate ADC measurements.

  18. Energy balances 1997 and 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The energy balances of the Danish Statistical Office are the designation of the goods balances, which are tabulated for each energy article in both physical entities (quantities) and in base rates (values). The balance concept is connected to the definition supply = use, which is the basis for the construction of the system. The supply is determined as the sum of two items: import and production while the total use is the sum of 138 items: export, waste and transmission loss, stock increase, input in lack of the 130 industries, and private consumption divided into 5 consumption groups. The statistical analysis is performed yearly in both quantities and values for 35 energy articles. Values are computed for base rates, profits, taxes, VAT and market prices (buyer's price), respectively. The energy balances from 1975 to 1998 are presented for comparison. (EHS)

  19. Energy balances 1998 and 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The energy balances of the Danish Statistical Office are the designation of the goods balances, which are tabulated for each energy article in both physical entities (quantities) and in base rates (values). The balance concept is connected to the definition supply = use, which is the basis for the construction of the system. The supply is determined as the sum of two items: import and production while the total use is the sum of 138 items: export, waste and transmission loss, stock increase, input in lack of the 130 industries, and private consumption divided into 5 consumption groups. The statistical analysis is performed yearly in both quantities and values for 35 energy articles. Values are computed for base rates, profits, taxes, VAT and market prices (buyer's price), respectively. The energy balances from 1975 to 1998 are presented for comparison. (EHS)

  20. Risk, Balanced Skills and Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsieh, Chihmao; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes that risk aversionencourages individuals to invest in balanced skillprofiles, making them more likely to become entrepreneurs.By not taking this possible linkage intoaccount, previous research has underestimated theimpacts of both risk aversion and balanced skills onthe likeli...... likelihood individuals choose entrepreneurship.Data on Dutch university graduates provide an illustrationsupporting our contention. We raise thepossibility that even risk-averse people might besuited to entrepreneurship; and it may also help...

  1. Electric power balance sheet 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2012: strong seasonal contrast of power consumption, rise of the renewable energies contribution in meeting the electricity demand, slight decay of the nuclear and thermal power generation, decrease of the export balance and change in trades structure, adaptation of RTE's network to the evolutions of the energy system

  2. Form 6 - gas balancing agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    In 1988, a special Committee of the Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Foundation undertook a project to draft a model from gas balancing agreement. This project was initiated at the request of a number of Foundation members who felt that a model form gas balancing agreement would facilitate the negotiation of operating agreement, since gas balancing issues had become sticking points in the process. The Committee was composed of attorneys representing a wide cross-section of the oil and gas industry including both major and independent oil companies, production companies with interstate pipeline affiliates, and private practitioners. The Committee attempted to address the more controversial issues in gas balancing with optional provisions in the Form. To facilitate the negotiation process, the number of optional provisions was minimized. This form may be used as an Appendix to the new A.A.P.L. Form 610-1989 Model Form Operating Agreement. This book includes provision of this Form which are: Ownership of gas production; Balancing of production accounts; Cash balancing upon depletion; Deliverability tests; Nominations; Statements; Payment of taxes; Operating expenses; Overproducing allowable; Payment of leasehold burdens; Operator's liability; Successors and assigns; Audits; Arbitration; and Operator's fees

  3. Carbon balances during land conversion in early bioenergy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenone, T.; Chen, J.; Gelfand, I.; Robertson, G. P.; Hamilton, S. K.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we established a field experiment and deployed seven eddy-covariance towers to quantify the roles of land use change and the subsequent carbon (C) balances of three different bioenergy systems (corn, switchgrass, and mixed prairie species) that were developed from two historical land use types: monocultural grasslands dominated by smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss) and lands in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Three CRP fields and three cropland fields were converted to soybean in 2009 (conversion year) before establishing the cellulosic biofuel cropping systems in 2010 (establishment year). A CRP perennial grassland site was kept undisturbed as a reference. Conversion of CRP to soybean induced net C emissions during the conversion year (134 -262 g C m-2 yr-1), while in the same year the net C balance at the CRP grassland reference was -35 g C m-2 yr-1 (i.e., net C sequestration). The establishment of switchgrass and mixed prairie induced a cumulative C balance of -113 g C m-2 (switchgrass from CRP), 250 g C m-2 (switchgrass from cropland), 706 g C m-2 (mixed prairie from CRP), and 59 g C m-2 (mixed prairie from cropland) over the three-year study period. The cumulative three-year C balance of corn converted from CRP and from cropland was -151 g C m-2 and -183 g C m-2, respectively. Eddy flux measurements during cellulosic biofuel crop establishment reveal annual changes in C balance that cannot be detected using conventional mass balance approaches. When end-use of harvested biomass was considered, the C balances for all studied systems, except the reference site, exhibited large C emissions ranging from 150 to 990 g C m-2 over the three-year conversion phase.

  4. Efecto de la conversión del manglar a potrero sobre la densidad y tallas de dos gasterópodos en el delta del río Turbo (golfo de Urabá, Caribe colombiano Effects mangrove conversion to pasture on density and shell size of two gastropods in the Turbo River Delta (Urabá Gulf, Caribbean coast of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Blanco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El delta del río Turbo es una de las áreas del golfo de Urabá, Colombia donde la tala de manglar es más extensa y activa, por lo tanto, se evaluó el impacto de la conversión de manglar a potrero, comparando la densidad y talla promedio de dos gasterópodos (Neritina virginea y Melampus coffeus, variables dasonómicas, físico-químicas intersticiales y granulométricas del suelo entre varios parches de: 1 manglar de franja, 2 manglar de cuenca, 3 manglar de cuenca mixto y 4 manglar de cuenca convertido a potrero, en el delta del río Turbo de este golfo, entre enero y diciembre 2009. Las densidades y tallas de los gasterópodos fueron mayores en el manglar de franja. N. virginea fue muy abundante pero disminuyó hacia el manglar de cuenca (debido a sus hábitos diádromos, y desapareció casi completamente en los potreros, donde los individuos estuvieron agregados en las pocas áreas anegadas. En los potreros, los individuos de M. coffeus estuvieron agrupados en los árboles remanentes debido a su hábito arborícola y su condición de pulmonado. Se sugiere que la escasez de los gasterópodos está relacionada con la degradación del microhábitat físico, y la alteración de propiedades del suelo. Finalmente, también planteamos que la extinción local de N. virginea debida a la tala puede ejercer fuertes efectos negativos sobre la función ecosistémica debido a que es un omnívoro dominante.Mangrove deforestation is widespread in the Greater Caribbean but its impact on macrobenthos has not been evaluated to date. In order to assess the impact of mangrove conversion to pasture, densities and shell sizes of two dominant gastropods (Neritina virginea and Melampus coffeus were compared among four mangrove types: 1 Rhizophora mangle-dominated fringing mangroves, 2 Avicennia germinans-dominated basin mangroves, 3 Mixed-species basin mangroves, and 4 A. germinansbasin mangroves converted to pastures, in the Turbo River Delta (Urabá Gulf

  5. Estado nutricional y condiciones de vida de los niños menores de cinco años del área urbana del municipio de Turbo, Antioquia, Colombia, 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria Alcaraz; Carlos Bernal; William Cornejo; Natalia Figueroa; Margarita Múnera

    2008-01-01

    Introducción. La desnutrición es un problema para quienes la padecen y para el futuro de las sociedades a las que pertenecen. Es importante conocer su magnitud para plantear soluciones. Objetivo. Evaluar el estado nutricional de los niños en el área urbana de Turbo por indicadores antropométricos y alimentarios, e identificar los factores sociodemográficos, ambientales, alimentarios y de salud asociados con el riesgo de desnutrición. Materiales y métodos. Estudio descriptivo de corte ...

  6. Nonlinear Distortion Mechanisms and Efficiency of Balanced-Armature Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Joe

    are inherently nonlinear devices, since any displacement of the loudspeaker diaphragm in- evitably changes the magnetic and electrical characteristics of the loudspeaker. Additionally, for the balanced-armature loudspeaker the signal has to be transmitted through the magnetic domain (as a magnetic B -field...

  7. The Art of Educational Leadership: Balancing Performance and Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Fenwick W.

    2007-01-01

    "The Art of Educational Leadership: Balancing Performance and Accountability" stresses the human side of leadership. No other text on this topic demonstrates so ably the importance of artistry in leadership in a field that has been lopsidedly dominated by concepts informed by science. Presenting the idea that leadership is an art, this book…

  8. Strategic Reporting Tool: Balanced Scorecards in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyddon, Jan W.; McComb, Bruce E.

    2008-01-01

    In this toolbox article, the authors describe the recommended steps for creating a community college balanced scorecard that measures and reports on key performance indicators based on targets and signal values to end-users, college constituents and external stakeholders. Based on extensive experience in the field, the authors provide a…

  9. Balancing of a rigid rotor using artificial neural network to predict the correction masses - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v31i2.3912

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Lúcio Santos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an analytical model of a rigid rotor supported by hydrodynamic journal bearings where the plane separation technique together with the Artificial Neural Network (ANN is used to predict the location and magnitude of the correction masses for balancing the rotor bearing system. The rotating system is modeled by applying the rigid shaft Stodola-Green model, in which the shaft gyroscopic moments and rotatory inertia are accounted for, in conjunction with the hydrodynamic cylindrical journal bearing model based on the classical Reynolds equation. A linearized perturbation procedure is employed to render the lubrication equations from the Reynolds equation, which allows predicting the eight linear force coefficients associated with the bearing direct and cross-coupled stiffness and damping coefficients. The results show that the methodology presented is efficient for balancing rotor systems. This paper gives a step further in the monitoring process, since Artificial Neural Network is normally used to predict, not to correct the mass unbalance. The procedure presented can be used in turbo machinery industry to balance rotating machinery that require continuous inspections. Some simulated results will be used in order to clarify the methodology presented.

  10. The Automated Assessment of Postural Stability: Balance Detection Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Alessandro; Glass, Stephen M; Tucker, Carole; Obeid, Iyad

    2017-12-01

    Impaired balance is a common indicator of mild traumatic brain injury, concussion and musculoskeletal injury. Given the clinical relevance of such injuries, especially in military settings, it is paramount to develop more accurate and reliable on-field evaluation tools. This work presents the design and implementation of the automated assessment of postural stability (AAPS) system, for on-field evaluations following concussion. The AAPS is a computer system, based on inexpensive off-the-shelf components and custom software, that aims to automatically and reliably evaluate balance deficits, by replicating a known on-field clinical test, namely, the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). The AAPS main innovation is its balance error detection algorithm that has been designed to acquire data from a Microsoft Kinect ® sensor and convert them into clinically-relevant BESS scores, using the same detection criteria defined by the original BESS test. In order to assess the AAPS balance evaluation capability, a total of 15 healthy subjects (7 male, 8 female) were required to perform the BESS test, while simultaneously being tracked by a Kinect 2.0 sensor and a professional-grade motion capture system (Qualisys AB, Gothenburg, Sweden). High definition videos with BESS trials were scored off-line by three experienced observers for reference scores. AAPS performance was assessed by comparing the AAPS automated scores to those derived by three experienced observers. Our results show that the AAPS error detection algorithm presented here can accurately and precisely detect balance deficits with performance levels that are comparable to those of experienced medical personnel. Specifically, agreement levels between the AAPS algorithm and the human average BESS scores ranging between 87.9% (single-leg on foam) and 99.8% (double-leg on firm ground) were detected. Moreover, statistically significant differences in balance scores were not detected by an ANOVA test with alpha equal to 0

  11. Electrostatic field in superconductors II: balance of forces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lipavský, P.; Koláček, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 23, 20-21 (2009), 4488-4495 ISSN 0217-9792 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : superconductivity * London theory of diamagnetic currents Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.408, year: 2009

  12. Information Technology Investment Strategy Planning: Balance Scorecard Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hendarti, Henny; Kurniawan, Iwan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of this research are to prepare the IT investment strategy using Balanced Scorecard approach in the company where the appropriate planning of this IT investment strategy can maximize the competitive benefit in the company, and it also to recommended a strategy of IT investment that can be implemented and measure the rate of return from the IT investment in the company. Research Method used book studies, field studies, and analysis system. Book studies from the books and journal. Field...

  13. Balance disorders in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturnieks, D L; St George, R; Lord, S R

    2008-12-01

    Good balance is an imperative skill for daily life that requires the complex integration of sensory information regarding the position of the body relative to the surroundings and the ability to generate appropriate motor responses to control body movement. Balance calls upon contributions from vision, vestibular sense, proprioception, muscle strength and reaction time. With increased age, there is a progressive loss of functioning of these systems which can contribute to balance deficits. Balance disorders represent a growing public health concern due to the association with falls and fall-related injuries, particularly in regions of the world in which high proportions of the population are elderly. Falls present one of the most serious and costly problems associated with older adulthood. Falls can mark the beginning of a decline in function and independence and are the leading cause of injury-related hospitalisation in older people. One in three people over the age of 65 years who are living in the community experience at least one fall each year and 10-15% of these falls are associated with serious injury. In economic terms, the direct and indirect costs associated with falls are large and will grow as the proportion of older people increases. Consequently, understanding age-related changes in the physiological systems imperative to balance is of utmost importance to prevent falls in older people and reduce the injury-related burden on individuals and society.

  14. Low cost balancing unit design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golembiovsky, Matej; Dedek, Jan; Slanina, Zdenek

    2017-06-01

    This article deals with the design of a low-cost balancing system which consist of battery balancing units, accumulator pack units and coordinator unit with interface for higher level of battery management system. This solution allows decentralized mode of operation and the aim of this work is implementation of controlling and diagnostic mechanism into an electric scooter project realized at Technical university of Ostrava. In todays world which now fully enjoys the prime of electromobility, off-grid battery systems and other, it is important to seek the optimal balance between functionality and the economy side of BMS that being electronics which deals with secondary cells of batery packs. There were numerous sophisticated, but not too practical BMS models in the past, such as centralized system or standalone balance modules of individual cells. This article aims at development of standalone balance modules which are able to communicate with the coordinator, adjust their parameters and ensure their cells safety in case of a communication failure. With the current worldwide cutting cost trend in mind, the emphasis was put on the lowest price possible for individual component. The article is divided into two major categories, the first one being desing of power electronics with emphasis on quality, safety (cooling) and also cost. The second part describes development of a communication interface with reliability and cost in mind. The article contains numerous graphs from practical measurements. The outcome of the work and its possible future is defined in the conclusion.

  15. Anemia y anemia por déficit de hierro en niños menores de cinco años y su relación con el consumo de hierro en la alimentación. Turbo, Antioquia, Colombia Anemia and iron deficit anemia in children under five years of age and their relation with iron consumption in alimentation, Turbo, Antioquia, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria Margarita Alcaraz López; Carlos Bernal Parra; María Adelaida Aristizábal Gil; María Beatriz Ruiz Villa; Javier Enrique Fox Quintana

    2006-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de anemia y de anemia por deficiencia de hierro y su relación con el contenido de hierro en la alimentación en niños de 6 meses a 5 años. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en el que se estudiaron 113 niños que asistieron a la consulta de crecimiento y desarrollo y al programa de vacunación de la ESE Hospital Francisco Valderrama de Turbo entre el mes de septiembre de 2001 y el mes de junio de 2002. Las pruebas de laboratorio empl...

  16. Balance in scientific impact assessment: the EGU Awards Committe experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Evaluation of scientific impact is becoming an essential step all over the world for assigning academic positions, funding and recognition. Impact is generally assessed by means of objective bibliometric indicators which are frequently integrated with a subjective evaluation by one or more individuals. An essential requirement of impact assessment is to ensure balance across several potential discriminating factors, including gender, ethnics, culture, scientific field and many others. Scientific associations need to ensure balance in any step of their activity and in particular when electing their representatives, evaluating scientific contributions, reviewing papers and assigning awards. While ensuring balance is a strict necessity, how to get to target is still a matter of vivid debates. In fact, the context of science is very different with respect to the general context of society and the need for scientific associations to maintain confidentiality in their evaluation procedures makes the application of transparent procedures more complicated. This talk aims to present the experience and the efforts of the European Geosciences Union to ensure balance, with a particular focus on gender balance. Data and statistics will be presented in the attempt to provide constructive indications to get to the target of giving equal opportunities to researchers across gender, continents and ethnic groups. Science is a unifying discipline and balance will be vital to ensure that humans and our planet co-evolve sustainably.

  17. Professional Balance and it’s Psychological Valences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana ZUBENSCHI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The harmony in the workplace of psycho-emotional stability, presents a revolutionary assurance of balance theory, launched in 1958, by the notorious scholar in cognitive psychology Fritz Heider, who studied at the Institute of Psychology in Berlin, with Kohler, Wertheimer and Lewin. Heider researched the environmental factors and their perception by different objects. The balance theory demonstrates a broad applicability in socio-psychology as it addresses either classical research, or attribution, or exploration of new attributive ideas and extensions: such as implicit causality of the verb in communication. Also, the balance theory provides apprehensions about the mechanism of causal reasoning that underlies at the retrospective base of prejudice, also about the justification of personal actions by attributing relational models, and the attribution of errors and successes in the contexts of organizational psychology. The balance theory in professional field, assumes the phrase of an adequate mental state in carrying out the professional activity. Therefore, an increasing number of employed people, became concerned about the ability to achieve the balance between the professional and the personal sphere, which was called "the Graal of the job" by Buckner and Sandholz in 2003. This article, comes with the novelty, in disscussing the relations of psychosocial components on professional balance.

  18. Balanced Reed-Solomon codes for all parameters

    KAUST Repository

    Halbawi, Wael

    2016-10-27

    We construct balanced and sparsest generator matrices for cyclic Reed-Solomon codes with any length n and dimension k. By sparsest, we mean that each row has the least possible number of nonzeros, while balanced means that the number of nonzeros in any two columns differs by at most one. Codes allowing such encoding schemes are useful in distributed settings where computational load-balancing is critical. The problem was first studied by Dau et al. who showed, using probabilistic arguments, that there always exists an MDS code over a sufficiently large field such that its generator matrix is both sparsest and balanced. Motivated by the need for an explicit construction with efficient decoding, the authors of the current paper showed that the generator matrix of a cyclic Reed-Solomon code of length n and dimension k can always be transformed to one that is both sparsest and balanced, when n and k are such that k/n (n-k+1) is an integer. In this paper, we lift this condition and construct balanced and sparsest generator matrices for cyclic Reed-Solomon codes for any set of parameters.

  19. Balancing on tightropes and slacklines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, P; Mahadevan, L

    2012-09-07

    Balancing on a tightrope or a slackline is an example of a neuromechanical task where the whole body both drives and responds to the dynamics of the external environment, often on multiple timescales. Motivated by a range of neurophysiological observations, here we formulate a minimal model for this system and use optimal control theory to design a strategy for maintaining an upright position. Our analysis of the open and closed-loop dynamics shows the existence of an optimal rope sag where balancing requires minimal effort, consistent with qualitative observations and suggestive of strategies for optimizing balancing performance while standing and walking. Our consideration of the effects of nonlinearities, potential parameter coupling and delays on the overall performance shows that although these factors change the results quantitatively, the existence of an optimal strategy persists.

  20. Dairy Proteins and Energy Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Line Quist

    High protein diets affect energy balance beneficially through decreased hunger, enhanced satiety and increased energy expenditure. Dairy products are a major source of protein. Dairy proteins are comprised of two classes, casein (80%) and whey proteins (20%), which are both of high quality......, but casein is absorbed slowly and whey is absorbed rapidly. The present PhD study investigated the effects of total dairy proteins, whey, and casein, on energy balance and the mechanisms behind any differences in the effects of the specific proteins. The results do not support the hypothesis that dairy...... proteins, whey or casein are more beneficial than other protein sources in the regulation of energy balance, and suggest that dairy proteins, whey or casein seem to play only a minor role, if any, in the prevention and treatment of obesity....

  1. Lithuania’s Balancing Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šlekys Deividas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since regaining independence in 1990 and creating its regular armed forces, Lithuania has had to do a balancing act. It has had to balance between different approaches of state defence, military structure, collective and national defence. Due to events in Ukraine Lithuania had to reconfigure this balance. The Russian threat forced to emphasize strategy of territorial defence, which altogether required tying up forces and enlarging its numbers by bringing back conscription, substantially increased defence budget, followed by higher tempo and scale in procurement and training. However, Lithuania has managed to maintain its activity and participation in international military operations and political initiatives. Its recent contributions have led to an assumption that its participation in various military missions in the future will not diminish, quite the opposite. Increasing the framework of cooperation in terms of defence and security initiatives will involve Lithuania more deeply and will require further contributions.

  2. BALANCER: A Computer Program for Balancing Chemical Equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. David; Schwab, A. Paul

    1989-01-01

    Describes the theory and operation of a computer program which was written to balance chemical equations. Software consists of a compiled file of 46K for use under MS-DOS 2.0 or later on IBM PC or compatible computers. Additional specifications of courseware and availability information are included. (Author/RT)

  3. Nuclear blackmail and nuclear balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betts, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book raises pointed questions about nuclear saber rattling. More than a dozen cases since the bombing of Hiroshima and Magasaki in which some sort of nuclear threat was used as a sparring technique in tense confrontations are cited. Each incident is described and analyzed. Two theories offered to explain America's use of nuclear threats, the balance of interest theory and the balance of power theory, are contrasted throughout the book. This book helps to fill the gap in the understanding of nuclear weapons and their uses, while pointing out that nuclear bravado could lead to an unintended unleashing of these weapons

  4. BARLEY BALANCE SHEET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoş Mihai MEDELETE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley is one of the most important cereal grown in Romania, after corn and wheat. This is based, at least on considerations of cultivated area (413.4 thousand ha - average 2007-2009, but also because of the multiple uses it may have (Food, feed, industrial raw materials, etc.. Presentation of food balance we consider interesting in terms of supply and demand components: production, imports, stocks, exports, seeds, feed consumption, industrial raw materials, food and other useslosses. On the basis of total volume of supply and demand we could determine the balance sheet at nationa level for the product.

  5. The relevance of clinical balance assessment tools to differentiate balance deficits

    OpenAIRE

    Mancini, Martina; Horak, Fay B

    2010-01-01

    Control of balance is complex and involves maintaining postures, facilitating movement, and recovering equilibrium. Balance control consists of controlling the body center of mass over its limits of stability. Clinical balance assessment can help assess fall risk and/or determine the underlying reasons for balance disorders. Most functional balance assessment scales assess fall risk and the need for balance rehabilitation but do not differentiate types of balance deficits. A system approach t...

  6. Comparison of 3D turbo spin-echo SPACE sequences with conventional 2D MRI sequences to assess the shoulder joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloth, Jost Karsten, E-mail: jost.kloth@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Winterstein, Marianne, E-mail: marianne.winterstein@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Akbar, Michael, E-mail: michael.akbar@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, University Hospital Heidelberg, Schlierbacher Landstraße 200a, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Meyer, Esther, E-mail: esther.meyer@siemens.com [Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen (Germany); Paul, Dominik, E-mail: dominik.paul@siemens.com [Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen (Germany); Kauczor, Haus-Ulrich, E-mail: hans-ulrich.kauczor@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Weber, Marc-André, E-mail: marcandre.weber@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • 3D SPACE and conventional 2D TSE MRI for assessment of the shoulder joint were compared. • Concordance for most pathologys was substantial to almost perfect. • Examination time could be reduced up to 8 min (27%). • Regarding rotator cuff injuries an additional sagittal T2w TSE sequence in 3D protocol is recommended. - Abstract: Purpose: To determine the accuracy and reliability of three-dimensional (3D) T1- and proton density (PD)-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts using different flip-angle evolution (SPACE) compared with conventional 2D sequences in assessment of the shoulder-joint. Materials and methods: Ninety-three subjects were examined on a 3-T MRI system with both conventional 2D-TSE sequences in T1-, T2- and PD-weighting and 3D SPACE sequences in T1- and PD-weighting. All examinations were assessed independently by two reviewers for common pathologies of the shoulder-joint. Agreement between 2D- and 3D-sequences and inter-observer-agreement was evaluated using kappa-statistics. Results: Using conventional 2D TSE sequences as standard of reference, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy values of 3D SPACE were 81.8%, 95.1%, and 93.5% for injuries of the supraspinatus-tendon (SSP), 81.3%, 93.5%, and 91.4% for the cartilage layer and 82.4%, 98.5%, and 97.5% for the long biceps tendon. Concordance between 2D and 3D was almost perfect for tendinopathies of the SSP (κ = 0.85), osteoarthritis (κ = 1), luxation of the biceps tendon (κ = 1) and adjacent bone marrow (κ = 0.92). Inter-observer-agreement was generally higher for conventional 2D TSE sequences (κ, 0.23–1.0), when compared to 3D SPACE sequences (κ, −0.33 to 1.0) except for disorders of the long biceps tendon and supraspinatus tendon rupture. Conclusion: Because of substantial and almost perfect concordance with conventional 2D TSE sequences for common shoulder pathologies, MRI examination-time can be reduced by nearly 40

  7. Evaluation of aqueductal patency in patients with hydrocephalus: Three-dimensional high-sampling efficiency technique(SPACE) versus two-dimensional turbo spin echo at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ucar, Murat; Guryildirim, Melike; Tokgoz, Nil; Kilic, Koray; Borcek, Alp; Oner, Yusuf; Akkan, Koray; Tali, Turgut [School of Medicine, Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-12-15

    To compare the accuracy of diagnosing aqueductal patency and image quality between high spatial resolution three-dimensional (3D) high-sampling-efficiency technique (sampling perfection with application optimized contrast using different flip angle evolutions [SPACE]) and T2-weighted (T2W) two-dimensional (2D) turbo spin echo (TSE) at 3-T in patients with hydrocephalus. This retrospective study included 99 patients diagnosed with hydrocephalus. T2W 3D-SPACE was added to the routine sequences which consisted of T2W 2D-TSE, 3D-constructive interference steady state (CISS), and cine phase-contrast MRI (PC-MRI). Two radiologists evaluated independently the patency of cerebral aqueduct and image quality on the T2W 2D-TSE and T2W 3D-SPACE. PC-MRI and 3D-CISS were used as the reference for aqueductal patency and image quality, respectively. Inter-observer agreement was calculated using kappa statistics. The evaluation of the aqueductal patency by T2W 3D-SPACE and T2W 2D-TSE were in agreement with PC-MRI in 100% (99/99; sensitivity, 100% [83/83]; specificity, 100% [16/16]) and 83.8% (83/99; sensitivity, 100% [67/83]; specificity, 100% [16/16]), respectively (p < 0.001). No significant difference in image quality between T2W 2D-TSE and T2W 3D-SPACE (p = 0.056) occurred. The kappa values for inter-observer agreement were 0.714 for T2W 2D-TSE and 0.899 for T2W 3D-SPACE. Three-dimensional-SPACE is superior to 2D-TSE for the evaluation of aqueductal patency in hydrocephalus. T2W 3D-SPACE may hold promise as a highly accurate alternative treatment to PC-MRI for the physiological and morphological evaluation of aqueductal patency.

  8. Isotropic resolution diffusion tensor imaging of lumbosacral and sciatic nerves using a phase-corrected diffusion-prepared 3D turbo spin echo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Barbara; Van, Anh T; Weidlich, Dominik; Kooijman, Hendrick; Hock, Andreas; Rummeny, Ernst J; Gersing, Alexandra; Kirschke, Jan S; Karampinos, Dimitrios C

    2018-08-01

    To perform in vivo isotropic-resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of lumbosacral and sciatic nerves with a phase-navigated diffusion-prepared (DP) 3D turbo spin echo (TSE) acquisition and modified reconstruction incorporating intershot phase-error correction and to investigate the improvement on image quality and diffusion quantification with the proposed phase correction. Phase-navigated DP 3D TSE included magnitude stabilizers to minimize motion and eddy-current effects on the signal magnitude. Phase navigation of motion-induced phase errors was introduced before readout in 3D TSE. DTI of lower back nerves was performed in vivo using 3D TSE and single-shot echo planar imaging (ss-EPI) in 13 subjects. Diffusion data were phase-corrected per k z plane with respect to T 2 -weighted data. The effects of motion-induced phase errors on DTI quantification was assessed for 3D TSE and compared with ss-EPI. Non-phase-corrected 3D TSE resulted in artifacts in diffusion-weighted images and overestimated DTI parameters in the sciatic nerve (mean diffusivity [MD] = 2.06 ± 0.45). Phase correction of 3D TSE DTI data resulted in reductions in all DTI parameters (MD = 1.73 ± 0.26) of statistical significance (P ≤ 0.001) and in closer agreement with ss-EPI DTI parameters (MD = 1.62 ± 0.21). DP 3D TSE with phase correction allows distortion-free isotropic diffusion imaging of lower back nerves with robustness to motion-induced artifacts and DTI quantification errors. Magn Reson Med 80:609-618, 2018. © 2018 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes. © 2018 The Authors Magnetic Resonance

  9. Going International: The Balanced Scorecard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Alicia M.

    2001-01-01

    Explains the balanced scorecard as a management system that provides a framework for strategic measurement which translates the vision and strategy of the organization in operational terms by four indicators: financial, process, employee and client satisfaction, and results. Also considers the importance of cultural differences in performance…

  10. Flexible-Rotor Balancing Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, J.; Zorzi, E.

    1986-01-01

    Report describes method for balancing high-speed rotors at relatively low speeds and discusses demonstration of method on laboratory test rig. Method ensures rotor brought up to speeds well over 20,000 r/min smoothly, without excessive vibration amplitude at critical speeds or at operating speed.

  11. Off-Balance Sheet Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew C.

    1998-01-01

    Examines off-balance sheet financing, the facilities use of outsourcing for selected needs, as a means of saving operational costs and using facility assets efficiently. Examples of using outside sources for energy supply and food services, as well as partnering with business for facility expansion are provided. Concluding comments address tax…

  12. Learning from Balance Sheet Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanlamai, Uthai; Soongswang, Oranuj

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examines alternative visuals and their effect on the level of learning of balance sheet users. Executive and regular classes of graduate students majoring in information technology in business were asked to evaluate the extent of acceptance and enhanced capability of these alternative visuals toward their learning…

  13. Balancing Author and Publisher Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Suber, Peter

    2008-01-01

    As open access gains momentum, more and more scholarly authors are trying to retain the rights they need to authorize open access. At the same time, many publishers continue to demand transfer of copyright and resist author demands to retain key rights. This article explores the possibility of a balance which gives each side the rights it needs.

  14. Danish Balance of Payments Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Kragh, Mads Váczy

    This study is an analysis of Danish Balance for Payments Support (BOP) covering the period 1988-94. This aid instrument has not so far been used as an active tool to further Danish policy conditionalities vis-à-vis the reform process in developing countries. On the contrary, BOP has mainly been...

  15. The Revenue vs. Service Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savarese, John

    2006-01-01

    Ten years ago, students at the University of Vermont (UVM) had to carry separate ID cards, meal cards, and athletic cards. Today, the single CATcard combines all of these functions, plus library privileges, an optional declining balance program called CAT$cratch, access to computer labs, use of vending machines without quarters, and even a ride on…

  16. Power balance in a Helias reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beidler, C.D.; Harmeyer, E.; Kisslinger, J.; Rau, F.; Wobig, H.; Karulin, N.

    1993-01-01

    Stellarator reactor studies have been undertaken since the beginning of stellarator research. The first studies of modular stellarator reactors mainly concentrated on technical issues neglecting the limitations set by confinement and stability. In contrast to these early studies, the Helias configuration offers the chance to develop a self-consistent reactor concept where the plasma losses, MHD stability limits and α-particle losses are not prohibitive to ignition. The dimensions of the Helias reactor are mainly determined by the technical limits of the coil system and the necessary space for blanket and shield. The main parameters are: Major radius 20 m, average plasma radius 1.6 m, magnetic field on axis 5 T, rotational transform on axis 0.84, transform on the boundary ∼ 1.0. The MHD-stability limit in a 5-period Helias configuration is expected to be β = 4-5 % and the neoclassical transport losses can be characterised by an effective helical ripple of 1-2%. This immediately poses the question of whether ignition is possible and, if so, if the fusion power is in the desired regime of P = 2.5 - 3.0 GW. Since a local power balance needs too many assumptions about transport coefficients and boundary conditions we follow the standard approach with fixed plasma profiles and empirical scaling laws for the confinement time. The plasma profiles are modelled analytically and the power balance is evaluated numerically. (author) 7 refs., 1 tab

  17. A comparative experiment in distributed load balancing

    KAUST Repository

    Randles, Martin

    2009-12-01

    The anticipated uptake of Cloud computing, built on the well-established research fields of web services, networks, utility computing, distributed computing and virtualisation, will bring many advantages in cost, flexibility and availability for service users. These benefits are expected to further drive the demand for cloud services, increasing both the cloud customer base and the scale of cloud installations. This has implications for many technical issues in such Service Oriented Architectures and Internet of Services (IoS) type applications; fault tolerance, high availability and scalability for examples. Central to these issues is the establishment of effective load balancing techniques. It is clear that the scale and complexity of these systems makes centralized individual assignment of jobs to specific servers infeasible; leading to the need for an effective distributed solution. This paper investigates three possible distributed solutions, which have been proposed for load balancing: An approach inspired by the foraging behaviour of the Honeybee, Biased Random Sampling and Active Clustering. © 2009 IEEE.

  18. Yearly energy balance sheets 1998-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the presented statistics is to give a total picture of the Swedish energy supply and consumption 1998-1999. Compared to the regularly published energy balance sheets based on short periodic statistics, this publication is more disaggregated in the field of final energy consumption. The data are mainly based on yearly statistics on energy consumption in different sectors. The broad statistical base has made it possible to compile data for consumer categories on a fairly detailed level. In cases where direct statistical information is lacking or is insufficient, indirect calculation methods have been used for estimations or recalculations of basic statistics. Revisions and improvements of statistical sources as well as calculation methods will be performed successively. As a consequence of this, the statistics presented here could be revised in future publications

  19. Yearly energy balance sheets 1996-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the presented statistics is to give a total picture of the Swedish energy supply and consumption 1996-1998. Compared to the regularly published energy balance sheets based on short periodic statistics, this publication is more disaggregated in the field of final energy consumption. The data are mainly based on yearly statistics on energy consumption in different sectors. The broad statistical base has made it possible to compile data for consumer categories on a fairly detailed level. In cases where direct statistical information is lacking or is insufficient, indirect calculation methods have been used for estimations or recalculations of basic statistics. Revisions and improvements of statistical sources as well as calculation methods will be performed successively. As a consequence of this, the statistics presented here could be revised in future publications

  20. Response variability in balanced cortical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerchner, Alexander; Ursta, C.; Hertz, J.

    2006-01-01

    We study the spike statistics of neurons in a network with dynamically balanced excitation and inhibition. Our model, intended to represent a generic cortical column, comprises randomly connected excitatory and inhibitory leaky integrate-and-fire neurons, driven by excitatory input from an external...... population. The high connectivity permits a mean field description in which synaptic currents can be treated as gaussian noise, the mean and autocorrelation function of which are calculated self-consistently from the firing statistics of single model neurons. Within this description, a wide range of Fano...... factors is possible. We find that the irregularity of spike trains is controlled mainly by the strength of the synapses relative to the difference between the firing threshold and the postfiring reset level of the membrane potential. For moderately strong synapses, we find spike statistics very similar...